Sample records for current address obituary

  1. Arne Zettersten: obituary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock, Charles


    Obituary of Arne Zettersten, Professor of English Language at the University of Copenhagen (1934-2015)......Obituary of Arne Zettersten, Professor of English Language at the University of Copenhagen (1934-2015)...

  2. Addressing Circuitous Currents MVDC Power Systems Protection (United States)


    Addressing Circuitous Currents MVDC Power Systems Protection 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-16-1-3113 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR($) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER...efficiency. A challenge with DC distribution is electrical protection . Z-source DC breakers alt! an pti n b&i g cvr.sidcrcd and this w rk ~xplores...zonal distribution, electric ship 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT u u u uu 18. NUMBER

  3. An analysis of obituaries in staff magazines. (United States)

    Heynderickx, Priscilla C; Dieltjens, Sylvain M


    In the literature, extensive attention is given to the content, structure, and style of obituaries in newspapers. Analyses of the demise of colleagues in internal business communications are however nonexistent. This article discusses a bottom-up analysis of 150 obituaries published in Flemish staff magazines--obituaries that mostly focus on the deceased's career and professional qualities. Following analysis, the data were divided in obituaries that are continuous texts and obituaries with a letter format. The differences between the two types lie at different levels: format, content, structure, and language use. Obituaries with a letter format are characterized and determined by three paradoxes: the sender-receiver paradox, life-death paradox, and happiness-sadness paradox.

  4. Addressing unwarranted clinical variation: A rapid review of current evidence. (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; Manias, Elizabeth; Mears, Stephen; Heslop, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Hay, Liz


    Unwarranted clinical variation (UCV) can be described as variation that can only be explained by differences in health system performance. There is a lack of clarity regarding how to define and identify UCV and, once identified, to determine whether it is sufficiently problematic to warrant action. As such, the implementation of systemic approaches to reducing UCV is challenging. A review of approaches to understand, identify, and address UCV was undertaken to determine how conceptual and theoretical frameworks currently attempt to define UCV, the approaches used to identify UCV, and the evidence of their effectiveness. Rapid evidence assessment (REA) methodology was used. A range of text words, synonyms, and subject headings were developed for the major concepts of unwarranted clinical variation, standards (and deviation from these standards), and health care environment. Two electronic databases (Medline and Pubmed) were searched from January 2006 to April 2017, in addition to hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Results were merged using reference-management software (Endnote) and duplicates removed. Inclusion criteria were independently applied to potentially relevant articles by 3 reviewers. Findings were presented in a narrative synthesis to highlight key concepts addressed in the published literature. A total of 48 relevant publications were included in the review; 21 articles were identified as eligible from the database search, 4 from hand searching published work and 23 from the grey literature. The search process highlighted the voluminous literature reporting clinical variation internationally; yet, there is a dearth of evidence regarding systematic approaches to identifying or addressing UCV. Wennberg's classification framework is commonly cited in relation to classifying variation, but no single approach is agreed upon to systematically explore and address UCV. The instances of UCV that warrant investigation and

  5. The Special Education Story: Obituary, Accident Report, Conversion Experience, Reincarnation, or None of the Above? (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.


    The current status of special education and possible futures are examined through a true news story of current "reform" efforts in Washington, D.C. schools and in imaginary future news stories reporting on special education as an obituary, an accident, a conversion experience, and a reincarnation. The author urges special educators to reject…

  6. Addresses (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  7. Obituary for Moshe Shapiro (United States)

    Grant, Edward R.


    induced symmetry breaking to form chiral products from achiral precursors, and showed how to use phase-coherent laser excitation to launch directional currents in semiconductors, in the absence of bias voltage. He has also contributed to important advances in laser catalysis, quantum computing and decoherence, transition state spectroscopy, potential inversion and wavefunction imaging, the theory of strong field phenomena in atoms and molecules, quantum theory of elementary exchange reactions and foundations of quantum mechanics. His most recent research focused on the control of molecular, atomic, and photonic processes with coherent light, quantum pattern recognition, coherent chiral separation and the coherent suppression of spontaneous emission, decoherence and other decay processes. At UBC, Moshe is remembered for his perceptiveness, broad vision and collegiality. 'One day he came to a group meeting with the idea of a solar-pumped living laser,' said physics colleague, Valery Milner. 'After thinking about this for two months, we designed an experiment using a random laser cavity that produced gain with milliwatts of pumping power applied to a fluorescent protein. We have now only to get lasing with the bacterium we engineered to express this protein.' Moshe studied for his PhD guided by Professor Raphael D Levine, in theoretical chemistry at the Hebrew University, focusing on photodissociation and molecular collisions. In 1970, he moved to Harvard University as a postdoctoral fellow, where he worked in reaction dynamics with Martin Karplus, a 2013 Nobel laureate in chemistry. In 1972, Moshe joined the faculty of the Department of Chemical Physics at the Weizmann Institute. There, he served as a department chair and was named the Jacques Mimran Professor of Chemical Physics. In 2002, he was appointed to a Canada Research Chair in Quantum Control in the Department of Chemistry at UBC. He won the Willis E Lamb Medal for achievements in the Physics of Quantum Electronics


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Professor Hu Houxuan, who died at age 84, was one of the most outstanding historians and educationalists of China. He also greatly contributed to the study of the Chinese scapulimancy and the history of the Chinese Shang Dynasty.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is with great sadness that I report the death of my friend and colleague, Richard Anthony Venniker, on 27 October. 2017. Richard, the son of Tony Venniker, a well-known radio doctor and Durban-based family practitioner, was born in. London on 2 July 1948. He was educated at the Convent. School in Barkly East, De La ...

  10. Obituary (United States)



    Sheila Willmott, (1921-1998)CAB International and the Editor, Assistant Editor and Editorial Board of the Journal of Helminthology wish to express their deepest sympathy to the family and friends of Sheila Willmott who died on 8 May 1998 after a very short illness. Sheila served as Editor of the Journal of Helminthology from 1980 to 1986.Dr Lotfi Khalil, formerly Deputy Director of the International Institute of Parasitology at St Albans, worked closely with Sheila and has written the following tribute.John W. Lewis, EditorSheila Willmott was a leading contributor to the dissemination of parasitic information before the development of computerization and information technology. She was born on 8 June, 1921, in London, and was educated at Tollington High School for Girls, Chelsea Polytechnic and University College, London. She did her PhD at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine under the supervision of Professor John Buckley, the subject of her thesis being the study of amphistome digeneans. Her studies were interrupted as a result of the Second World War when she was 'drafted' as a Rodent Instructor at the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. After completing her PhD, she was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Zoology at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff. In 1951, Professor R.T. Leiper, the Director of the Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology (Helminthology) recruited her as a Scientific Information Officer. She was appointed Assistant Director of the Bureau in 1954, and Director in 1961, where she stayed until her retirement in 1980.During her period as Director of the Bureau, which was sited in the White House in the centre of St Albans, she maintained and improved the high quality of Helminthological Abstracts and, in 1976, accepted the extra burden of starting and producing Protozoological Abstracts. In 1979, she initiated and edited a primary journal, Systematic Parasitology, devoted to papers on the taxonomy and systematics of parasites, published by Junk. The activities of the Bureau were greatly expanded and she initiated the taxonomic laboratories to provide a worldwide service for the identification of animal helminths and plant-parasitic nematodes and to undertake taxonomic research. A vast helminth reference collection was started, and the Bureau became a recognized centre for the deposition of type specimens. The library of the Bureau accumulated an enormous number of reference books, journals and reprints, and provided a photocopying service supplying, at short notice, copies of papers and publications. A number of books and other publications, including the CIH Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates, were produced and edited by her and others. She also persuaded the Natural Environment Research Council to finance the Fisheries Helminthology Unit which she established at the Bureau in 1960, where it remained until it was transferred to Plymouth as part of the Institute for Marine Environmental Research. The Bureau's name and status were changed to the Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology, Commonwealth Institute of Parasitology and, finally, the International Institute of Parasitology.As Director, she travelled extensively and visited Commonwealth and other countries, where she gave a number of seminars on information services and the work of the Institute and the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) as a whole. She encouraged contact with Eastern Europe and visited Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and the USSR. She initiated the system of exchange publications with these countries, and this resulted in the exposure of the literature from these countries to other research workers when abstracts of these papers appeared in Helminthological Abstracts in English. Her links with Eastern Europe resulted in her editing three volumes of taxonomic monographs produced in English by Czech and Russian scientists. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  11. Obituary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.S.K. Marthandam


    Full Text Available Dr. S.S.K.Marthandam was an eminent orthopedic surgeon who served as the former Vice Chancellor of Sri Ramachandra University, a prominent university in India and Chairman and Director of Orthopedic Care Centre at Ramachandra Medical centre.Dr. Marthandam began his career at a small public health centre in Tirunelveli district in south India and served in the Government General Hospital and Royapettah Government Hospital in Chennai before joining Sri Ramachandra University. He was the orthopedic consultant to several Chief Ministers and other prominent politicians in Tamilnadu during his flourishing careerHe is remembered for his outstanding contributions to the Field of Orthopedics in India. He was the man behind several pioneering techniques and therapies for treating orthopedic diseases and disorders.He was one among the few physicians who had the vision to translate research from bench side to bed side. He was a rare person in his field with the passion to involve in orthopedic research amidst his busy Clinical schedule. A pioneer in Cell based therapeutics for Arthritis, he was the person behind the work on Culture of human chondrocytes in a Novel TGP scaffold which is the first of its kind in India. This work in future will lead to successful transplantation of viable and stable cartilage tissues in thousands of patients battling with arthritis.His life and work will continue to touch arthritic patients near and far by helping to overcome the pain and morbidities of this chronic crippling disease. Though this great soul has departed us, his passion towards science and compassion towards fellow human beings will continue to remain in our memories for time immortal.

  12. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Becerra-Fajardo

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with

  13. EPA Leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges. (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D; Ferster, Aaron; Summers, Kevin


    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequent landmark environmental legislations which in turn significantly reduced threats to the Nation's environment and public health. A key element of historic legislation is research aimed at dealing with current and future problems. Today we face national and global challenges that go beyond classic media-specific (air, land, water) environmental legislation and require an integrated paradigm of action and engagement based on (1) innovation based on science and technology, (2) stakeholder engagement and collaboration, and (3) public education and support. This three-pronged approach recognizes that current environmental problems, include social as well as physical and environmental factors, are best addressed through collaborative problem solving, the application of innovation in science and technology, and multiple stakeholder engagement. To achieve that goal, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is working directly with states and local communities to develop and apply a suite of accessible decision support tools (DST) that aim to improve environmental conditions, protect human health, enhance economic opportunity, and advance a resilient and sustainability society. This paper showcases joint EPA and state actions to develop tools and approaches that not only meet current environmental and public health challenges, but do so in a way that advances sustainable, healthy, and resilient communities well into the future. EPA's future plans should build on current work but aim to effectively respond to growing external pressures. Growing pressures from megatrends are a major challenge for the new Administration and for cities and states across the country. The recent hurricanes hitting

  14. Obituary Dr A. W. Kloos (1880—1952)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.


    At the end of the previous number of “Blumea” could just be inserted the death notice of one of the honorary collaborators of the Rijksherbarium, Dr Ir A. W. Kloos, who passed away in his home at Dordrecht on June 3rd, 1952. A more detailed obituary may follow here. Abraham Willem Kloos was born at

  15. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek


    Full Text Available Abstract Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets; a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid, and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with

  16. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis. (United States)

    Yach, Derek


    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  17. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses. (United States)

    Becerra-Fajardo, Laura; Ivorra, Antoni


    Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz) auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with safety standards both in terms of tissue heating and unwanted electro-stimulation. We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

  18. Obituary: Alexander Dalgarno (1928 - 2015) (United States)

    Hartquist, Tom; Babb, James F. Babb; Loeb, Avi

    collisions and calculated charge transfer cross sections. Some of these proved later to be important for forming the spectra of diffuse astronomical matter surrounding high mass stars and 100 million solar mass black holes at the centers of active galaxies. In the early 1950s David Bates stimulated Alex's interest in the study of quantum processes occurring in the upper terrestrial atmosphere. Together they considered the sources of the nightglow and dayglow features and concluded that the altitudes previously inferred for them from observations were up to several hundred kilometers too large. Experiments carried on V2 rockets, like those seen by Alex in wartime London, proved him and David to be right. Alex felt that though many theorists believe that "physics is embodied in its equations," it is instead "to be found in the solutions to the equations." He was a master at developing and applying methods that simplified calculations leading to reliable solutions. Exploiting the contemporary advances in electronic computation, by the 1960s Alex and his colleagues were able to address atomic and molecular processes of increasing complexity. Their development and early applications of the S-matrix theory of molecular rotational excitation by particle impact triggered major advances in molecular physics and theoretical chemistry and in the understanding of processes important in many environments, including a wide variety of astrophysical sources. In 1967 Alex became a professor in the Harvard Department of Astronomy and a member of the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He was a team member for several Atmosphere Explorer satellite missions, which elucidated the roles of atoms and ions in the upper atmosphere and paved the way for further applications to the other planets. By 1969 Alex was publishing papers on molecular hydrogen (H2) radiative processes, including photodissociation, in which the foundations of molecular astrophysics began to emerge. H2 is the

  19. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015) (United States)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    water on Mars from infrared absorption at 2.85 microns. The analysis that "this bound water comprises about one percent by weight of the surface material" was confirmed forty years later when the Mars Rover Curiosity determined water content by vaporizing Martian soil. Jim was a crucial participant in NASA's first major infrared space mission, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), especially because of his detector expertise which solved a major focal plane problem for the mission. His archive contains a napkin from a British pub on which he sketched a wiring diagram to show his colleagues how to save the 25 micron detector array. Once the results began from IRAS, Jim's scientific interests moved to extragalactic astronomy. He was a major participant in two of the most significant discoveries from IRAS, announced in 1984: an extended population of optically faint, infrared bright galaxies, and the presence of galaxies with exceptional infrared luminosities (now known as the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies, ULIRGs). After the great success of IRAS, NASA begin planning a major infrared mission, first labeled "Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility" but soon becoming the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), and now operating as the Spitzer Space Telescope. Although hundreds contributed, Jim was among the few individuals who contributed most to the success of Spitzer. His colleagues acknowledged this by awarding him both the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 2005 and the American Astronomical Society's 2008 Joseph Weber Award for Astronomical Instrumentation, with the citation stating, "It is no exaggeration to say that without Dr. Houck's contributions, modern IR astronomy would never have reached its current level of maturity." Jim was the Principal Investigator for the infrared spectrograph on Spitzer (IRS), initially chosen for the original SIRTF mission. Jim became the vital infrared representative on the review panel setting astronomy

  20. Reading between the lines: a comparison of 480 German and Dutch obituaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, Susanne; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Beldad, Ardion Daroca


    Obituaries do not only announce the death of a significant other but also provide insights into how a society deals with death according to the norms governing the rituals of individuals within that society. This study aimed at investigating possible differences between German and Dutch obituaries,

  1. Obituary: E. Dorrit Hoffleit, 1907-2007 (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia


    next year as a research assistant (later research associate) at Harvard College Observatory, then directed by Harlow Shapley, about whom her opinion was much warmer than that expressed by Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin. Dorrit's immediate supervisor at Harvard was Henrietta Swope, daughter of the President of General Electric, and eventually best known for work at Mount Wilson Observatory with Walter Baade on variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds, published in papers that continued to appear long after Baade's death. Hoffleit's first ten papers were also on variable stars and appeared in Harvard Observatory publications. But the MA she completed in 1932 was on the light curves of meteors and was published in the Proceedings of the United States National Academy of Sciences. By this time, Dorrit had established a work pattern that was to persist right up to retirement - at least 40 hours per week on whatever the current boss thought she should be doing, and another 20 or so on other astronomical research that interested her. Hffleit had supposed that an MA would be her highest degree, but Shapley urged her to go on for a PhD, with, it would seem, a bit of urging on both sides from Bart Bok, who informed her that "if God recommends that you do something, it is your duty to do it." The thesis (PhD 1938) was on yet a third topic, spectroscopic parallaxes. This means determining the luminosities of stars, hence their distances, from line width and ratio diagnostics in their spectra. The pioneer was Antonia Maury, whose insights were not appreciated by Shapley's predecessor, E. C. Pickering. Another valuable Hoffleit mentor was Ernst Öpik, on a three-month visit to Harvard in 1934, from whom Dorrit learned stellar statistics and half a dozen other things. The thesis also provided her "break out" paper into the Astrophysical Journal (on CN as a giant/dwarf discriminator). Hoffleit began to branch out into astrometry, comets, and other parts of astronomy and, starting in 1941

  2. 78 FR 45910 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email Address... (United States)


    ... Population Survey (CPS) Email Address Collection Test Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION... request clearance for the collection of data concerning the November 2013 Email Address Collection Test... tool to help increase response rates. We foresee that in the future, we could collect email addresses...

  3. Addressing current and future challenges for the NHS: the role of good leadership. (United States)

    Elton, Lotte


    Purpose This paper aims to describe and analyse some of the ways in which good leadership can enable those working within the National Health Service (NHS) to weather the changes and difficulties likely to arise in the coming years, and takes the format of an essay written by the prize-winner of the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management's Student Prize. The Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management ran its inaugural Student Prize in 2015-2016, which aimed at medical students with an interest in medical leadership. In running the Prize, the Faculty hoped to foster an enthusiasm for and understanding of the importance of leadership in medicine. Design/methodology/approach The Faculty asked entrants to discuss the role of good leadership in addressing the current and future challenges faced by the NHS, making reference to the Leadership and Management Standards for Medical Professionals published by the Faculty in 2015. These standards were intended to help guide current and future leaders and were grouped into three categories, namely, self, team and corporate responsibility. Findings This paper highlights the political nature of health care in the UK and the increasing impetus on medical professionals to navigate debates on austerity measures and health-care costs, particularly given the projected deficit in NHS funding. It stresses the importance of building organisational cultures prizing transparency to prevent future breaches in standards of care and the value of patient-centred approaches in improving satisfaction for both patients and staff. Identification of opportunities for collaboration and partnership is emphasised as crucial to assuage the burden that lack of appropriate social care places on clinical services. Originality/value This paper offers a novel perspective - that of a medical student - on the complex issues faced by the NHS over the coming years and utilises a well-regarded set of standards in conceptualising the role that health

  4. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906-2004 (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith


    origin outside the solar system. To fill the daytime gap when meteors could not be photographed, Fred organized a program for the radio detection of these objects. With the launch of Sputnik in October 1957, Whipple's visual network of amateur astronomers (Moon watch) was already in place to follow its progress and later on he developed an optical tracking system for meteors and artificial satellites using wide field, Baker-Nunn cameras. This latter system proved so successful that the precision tracking of these satellites could be used to model the Earth's shape and density variations from the observed gravitational effects upon these satellite orbits. He once noted that the highlight of his career was having his family and parents present at the White House while he received the President's Award for Distinguished Public Service from John F. Kennedy for this work. His seminal works in 1950-51 on the icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus prompted a complete paradigm switch. Until then, the current consensus model for a comet was a flying cloud of particles; it had been so since the second half of the nineteenth century when comets were identified with meteor showers. He envisaged the cometary nucleus as a conglomerate of ices (mostly water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide ices) embedded within, and covered over with, a nonvolatile matrix of meteoric material. Part of his rationale for developing this "dirty snowball" model for the cometary nucleus was to provide an explanation of the so-called nongravitational forces acting upon comets. The rocket-like thrusting of a comet when the ices vaporize near the sun introduced a small, but noticeable, thrust on the comet itself and when this effect was properly modeled, the motions of active comets could be predicted far more accurately. Subsequent spacecraft ultraviolet observations showing enormous cometary hydrogen atmospheres confirmed that the major cometary ice was likely to be water. The

  5. OBITUARY Chris Beling, 1955-2010 (United States)

    Coleman, P. G.


    This short tribute to Chris Beling, who died in July 2010 at the age of 54, is written on behalf of all members of the positron research community, by whom he was much loved and admired. Obituary Picture 1 Chris Beling, a much respected and admired member of the positron research community who was a familiar face at SLOPOS and other positron conferences over the past three decades, suffered heart failure as he swam out to rescue his younger brother Jeremy while holidaying in his home town of Paignton, in the southwest of England, on June 18 2010. Chris gained a first-class honours degree in physics at Keble College, Oxford, in 1977, and his PhD in Radiation Physics from the University of London in 1981. His postdoctoral research, performed with Alan Smith at St Bart's Medical College in London, focussed on positron studies of liquids [1]. His appointment as a lecturer at University College London in 1983 marked the beginning of his research involving positron beams [2] which was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1987 he moved to the University of Hong Kong (HKU), where he became professor of physics in 2007, working with Professor Steve Fung (with whom he studied at Oxford) and later with Francis Ling. During his 23 years in Hong Kong Chris developed his research interests, concentrating principally on positron beam studies of semiconductors [3]. His brother Jeremy commented that 'moving to Hong Kong was the making of Chris; he found love and happiness'. Chris's research interests reflected the deep intellectual interest he had in his work. He maintained a strong interest in developing the capabilities of positron beam systems - initially by proposing models for field-assisted moderators to increase slow positron yields [4] and later by constructing a hybrid magnetic/electrostatic beam [5] and scanning annihilation spectroscopy [6], among other imaginative advances. His interests in semiconductor physics led him to develop a positron technique analogous to

  6. EPA leadership on Science, Innovation, and Decision Support Tools for Addressing Current and Future Challenges (United States)

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequen...

  7. Obituary: Martha Locke Hazen, 1931-2006 (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne


    role in the field for several years, helping to organize the first Space for Women conference in 1975. Martha's long term support for the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) was a natural consequence of her earlier work as an observational astronomer as well as curator of the plate stacks. She joined AAVSO in 1975, and was first elected to the Council in 1984, became a vice president, and eventually became president in 1992. When long-term AAVSO secretary Clinton Banker Ford (obituary, BAAS, 26, p. 1602-1603, 1994) passed away in February 1993, Martha was elected secretary to replace Ford, and served in that capacity for over ten years. Her services to AAVSO went well beyond those years in elective offices, however, and cannot be fully understood only in those terms. Martha also served a vital role as a friend and mentor for Janet Akyüz Mattei ((obituary, BAAS, 36, p. 1681-1682, 2004) throughout the latter's tenure as the director of AAVSO. The proximity of the plate stacks and AAVSO offices made it convenient for them to spend frequent lunch hours together, almost invariably discussing problems in administering the AAVSO. Both the authors of this obituary can testify, as former AAVSO presidents, to the importance of Martha's support and advice for Janet, and to the importance of her role behind the scenes in AAVSO activities for many years. AAVSO honored Martha for this service by presenting her their 37th Merit Award. After her first marriage ended in divorce in 1982, Martha married Bruce McHenry, a retired career professional from the National Park Service, in 1991. That their relationship was a happy and fulfilling one is attested by the many friends Bruce made among Martha's astronomical associates. Their extensive travel together frequently involved Bruce's continuing professional interest in natural-history interpretation, but also touched many astronomical bases. Their travels also took the happy couple to the sites of many old canals, an

  8. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.


    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  9. Addressing Prediabetes in Childhood Obesity Treatment Programs: Support from Research and Current Practice (United States)

    Grow, H. Mollie; Fernandez, Cristina; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Shaffer, Laura A.; Sweeney, Brooke; Woolford, Susan J.; Estrada, Elizabeth


    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes have increased in prevalence among overweight and obese children, with significant implications for long-term health. There is little published evidence on the best approaches to care of prediabetes among overweight youth or the current practices used across pediatric weight management programs. Methods: This article reviews the literature and summarizes current practices for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of prediabetes at childhood obesity treatment centers. Findings regarding current practice were based on responses to an online survey from 28 pediatric weight management programs at 25 children's hospitals in 2012. Based on the literature reviewed, and empiric data, consensus support statements on prediabetes care and T2DM prevention were developed among representatives of these 25 children's hospitals' obesity clinics. Results: The evidence reviewed demonstrates that current T2DM and prediabetes diagnostic parameters are derived from adult-based studies with little understanding of clinical outcomes among youth. Very limited evidence exists on preventing progression of prediabetes. Some evidence suggests that a significant proportion of obese youth with prediabetes will revert to normoglycemia without pharmacological management. Evidence supports lifestyle modification for children with prediabetes, but further study of specific lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatments is needed. Conclusion: Evidence to guide management of prediabetes in children is limited. Current practice patterns of pediatric weight management programs show areas of variability in practice, reflecting the limited evidence base. More research is needed to guide clinical care for overweight youth with prediabetes. PMID:25055134

  10. Obituary: William L. Kraushaar, 1920-2008 (United States)

    Clark, George W.


    rays with interstellar matter are most abundant. It also demonstrated the existence of extra-galactic gamma-ray sources that have since been identified as giant black holes at the centers of distant galaxies. The OSO 3 experiment opened the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, which has become one of the most active areas of space research. Upon his move to Wisconsin, Kraushaar established a research group in the new area of X-ray astronomy. Using instruments flown on "sounding" rockets, he and his colleagues produced the first all-sky map of low-energy X rays that revealed the spatial distribution of million-degree interstellar gas. They extended these results in several satellite experiments. Kraushaar was appointed the Max Mason Professor of Physics in 1980. Kraushaar was a fellow of the American Physical Society, and a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received Fulbright and Guggenheim fellowships and the Senior Scientist Award of the Humboldt Foundation. He served on numerous advisory committees of the National Academy of Sciences and NASA. Kraushaar co-authored with Professor Uno Ingard a college text, Introduction to Mechanics, Matter, and Waves. After his retirement, Kraushaar moved to Maine where he resided in Scarborough with summers at his cabin in Denmark, Maine. He is survived by his wife, the former Elizabeth Rodgers, and by three children from his first marriage. This obituary is based on an article that appeared in the 2 April 2008 edition of MIT Tech Talk.

  11. [Current recommendations for basic/advanced life support : Addressing unanswered questions and future prospects]. (United States)

    Fink, K; Schmid, B; Busch, H-J


    The revised guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation were implemented by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in October 2015. There were few changes concerning basic and advanced life support; however, some issues were clarified compared to the ERC recommendations from 2010. The present paper summarizes the procedures of basic and advanced life support according to the current guidelines and highlights the updates of 2015. Furthermore, the article depicts future prospects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that may improve outcome of patients after cardiac arrest in the future.

  12. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources. (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F


    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  13. Addressing Therapeutic Options for Ebola Virus Infection in Current and Future Outbreaks. (United States)

    Haque, Azizul; Hober, Didier; Blondiaux, Joel


    Ebola virus can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality rates. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent or vaccine has been approved for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus infection of humans. Although the number of Ebola cases has fallen in the last few weeks, multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus infection and the likelihood of future exposure highlight the need for development and rapid evaluation of pre- and postexposure treatments. Here, we briefly review the existing and future options for anti-Ebola therapy, based on the data coming from rare clinical reports, studies on animals, and results from in vitro models. We also project the mechanistic hypotheses of several potential drugs against Ebola virus, including small-molecule-based drugs, which are under development and being tested in animal models or in vitro using various cell types. Our paper discusses strategies toward identifying and testing anti-Ebola virus properties of known and medically approved drugs, especially those that can limit the pathological inflammatory response in Ebola patients and thereby provide protection from mortality. We underline the importance of developing combinational therapy for better treatment outcomes for Ebola patients. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Obituary: Robert Mowbray Walker, 1929-2004 (United States)

    Schoenherr, Neil T.


    spectacular results. Chief among these was the identification and characterization of stellar condensates in meteorites, which opened a window into stellar evolution and the creation of the heavier elements. Always in pursuit of more powerful ways to analyze small amounts of material, Walker devoted the last years of his life to the implementation of nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) promoting the development, acquisition and application of the most advanced instrument of its kind. This effort was rewarded with the discovery, which he had forecast years earlier, of presolar silicate grains in interplanetary dust particles. The Robert M. Walker Symposium at the University in March 2003 honored his contributions and achievements. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973. Among his other honors are the E.O. Lawrence Memorial Award of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the J. Lawrence Smith medal of the National Academy of Sciences, the Leonard medal of the Meteoritical Society and the Antarctic Service Medal. He received honorary doctorates from Union College (1967), the French University of Clermont-Ferrand (1975) and Washington University (2004). He was also one of the founders, and first president, of VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance), an organization that provides technological expertise to third world countries. Walker and his wife maintained a residence in St. Louis County but in 2001, Bob became a part time visiting professor at the University of Brussels. It was in Brussels that his fatal illness was correctly diagnosed. In addition to his wife, Walker is survived by his sons, Eric and Mark Walker; and three grandchildren. His most important legacy will remain the sizable number of students, postdocs, and colleagues within the meteoritic and cosmochemist communities that he mentored and inspired. Portions of this obituary are based upon one given in the on-line Record of Washington University and another published by Floss

  15. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008 (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain


    papers that are still standard references in the field today. In the last 15 years, Andrew became an avid proponent of two of NASA's Great Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Since 1985, he was NASA Interdisciplinary Scientist and member of the Science Working Group for the Chandra X-ray Observatory. He was also an adjunct astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore since 1994. Taking advantage of this leap in technology, Andrew used these facilities to examine the environment of black holes in unprecedented detail and led a research group that was second to none in this area of research. Over the years, Andrew trained and supervised twelve Ph.D. students and more than fifteen postdoctoral research scientists, all of whom are active members of the astronomical community today. This group's work on nearby radio galaxies (e.g., Cygnus A, M87, and Pictor A) and Seyfert galaxies (e.g., the Circinus galaxy, NGC 1068, NGC 4151, and NGC 4258) is simply outstanding, a monument to Andrew's passion and perseverance to seek a complete physical understanding of the AGN phenomenon. Andrew was at his best in one-on-one discussions. He did not beat around the bush. He was always direct, frank, and honest, all for the sake of better science. He also never did anything halfway. Andrew was fully devoted to his science and held himself and others to the highest intellectual standards. He inspired many by his example, his discipline, and a sense of humor that was equally charming and disarming. The twinkle in his eyes and mischievous smile were sure signs that he was about to say something provocative and witty. Andrew will be dearly missed by the entire astronomical community. I thank Andrew's wife and brother, Kaija and Martin Wilson, for their assistance in writing this obituary.

  16. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988 (United States)

    Milone, E. F.


    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  17. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004 (United States)

    Danielson, G. Edward


    Agoura Hills, California and Susan Stroll of Eagle Rock, California; and an uncle, Eddy Westphal of Indiana. A portion of this obituary was taken from a tribute by Robert Tindol published September 14, 2004 in an electronic Caltech Newsletter.

  18. Obituary: Bohdan Paczynski, 1940-2007 (United States)

    Spergel, David


    would like to thank Bruce Draine and Jeremiah Ostriker for their assistance in writing this obituary. The photograph is by Robert P. Matthews, Princeton University (1989).

  19. Obituary: John Allen Eddy (1931-2009) (United States)

    Gingerich, Owen


    and eventual impacts of environmental changes of all kinds. In 2004 they moved to Tucson, where Eddy worked for NASA at the National Solar Observatory until the time of his death. Author's Note: A principal source of information is the interview with John A. Eddy by Spencer Weart on 21 April 1999, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA, See also the obituary by Peter Foukal in Physics Today, January 2010, pp. 60-61.

  20. Current Australian speech-language pathology practice in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke. (United States)

    Sekhon, Jasvinder K; Douglas, Jacinta; Rose, Miranda L


    Psychological well-being is essential to overall health; however, there is a paucity of research on how to address psychological well-being in stroke survivors with aphasia. This study describes the current beliefs, attitudes and practices of Australian speech-language pathologists in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke. A 26-item web-based survey consisting of open and closed questions was distributed to Australian speech-language pathologists through four electronic databases. Australian speech-language pathologists (n = 111) utilized counselling and clinical approaches to address psychological well-being in people with post-stroke aphasia. The majority of speech-language pathologists did not feel comfortable with addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia and sought support from other health professionals in this practice. Self-perception of being under-skilled was the main barrier identified to adequate practice in this domain, followed by inadequate time, inadequate staffing and people with aphasia declining referral to counselling. The main facilitators reported by speech-language pathologists to address psychological well-being included personal interest, personal and professional experience and availability of counselling health professionals for people with aphasia. There were small-to-medium statistically significant correlations between speech-language pathologists reporting additional training in counselling and perceived knowledge of, confidence in and satisfaction with managing psychological well-being in people with aphasia. This study identifies factors requiring attention in order to enable speech-language pathologists to facilitate improved psychological well-being in people with aphasia.

  1. Obituary: Allan R. Sandage (1926-2010) (United States)

    Devorkin, David


    , - Homepage News - Tribute to a Pioneering Cosmologist.mht] Sandage deeply believed that true "knowledge . . . came directly from the sky rather than by dialectic discussion or revelation." [Allan Sandage, "Edwin Hubble 1889-1953" JRASC 83 #6 (December 1989)] With convictions like these it is not surprising that cross-over physicists who engaged him, such as Edwin Salpeter, expressed amazement that Sandage could command resources available to no other astronomer, or that he could sit on invaluable catalogue data for years before releasing it as a whole argument. [Interview of Edwin Salpeter by Spencer Weart, 30 March 1978, AIP.] Colleagues, writers and historians who encountered him during his mature years consistently remarked on his competitiveness and fierce defense of his results. At the end of a long and passionate essay on Edwin Hubble in 1989, Sandage coyly remarked on the present state of the Hubble Constant, "But it must be fairly pointed out that some astronomers, not believing the problem of the distance scale has been solved by the results of the 200-inch programme from 1950 to 1980, have suggested that the value of the Hubble constant can be determined to the satisfaction of the skeptics only by the future use of the Hubble Space Telescope. For this one suspects that Hubble might have been pleased." [Allan Sandage, "Edwin Hubble 1889-1953" JRASC 83 #6 (December 1989)] Though not formally religious early on, Sandage became deeply spiritual in his outlook on life and the universe, and on the practice of astronomy. As Donald Lynden-Bell commented in an online Guardian obituary, "Sandage believed that he was discovering the age of creation ..." [9 December 2010, "Allan Sandage Obituary"] And in a 2002 essay for the "Truth Journal," Sandage revealed that he believed that astronomical discovery had theological significance. He took as an example the Big Bang, was it akin to the search

  2. Obituary: David Q. Wark, 1918-2002 (United States)

    McMillin, Larry Max


    David Q. Wark, a research meteorologist at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NESDIS) and its predecessor organizations for 55 years, died of cancer 30 July 2002. He will be long remembered for his seminal contributions to the weather satellite program. A pioneer in the use of satellite sensors to provide observations of the Earth's environment for application to weather forecasting and atmospheric science, Dr. Wark was noted for his brilliant insights, dedication, and exceptional scientific achievements. He developed many of the theoretical and experimental techniques on which NOAA's current multi- billion-dollar meteorological satellite program is based. In the 1960's and early 1970's, he and his NOAA colleague Donald Hilleary were the motivating force and principal investigators for the first satellite instruments dedicated to sounding the atmosphere for temperature and water-vapor. These instruments included the Satellite Infra-Red Spectrometer (SIRS)-A and -B and the Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer (VTPR), which were flown on NASA's Nimbus satellites and NOAA's ITOS-D satellites, respectively. With colleague Henry Fleming, he formulated the radiative transfer equation that quantifies the spectral radiances of the Earth and its atmosphere (measured at satellite altitude) and inverted that equation mathematically to infer the atmospheric temperature profile from satellite-based measurements of those radiances. A difficulty they had to overcome was that the mathematical problem is ill-posed, i.e., it admits of an infinite number of solutions. They arrived at a unique solution via an innovative application of a-priori information on the atmospheric state. This work was described in the landmark 1965 Wark and Fleming paper in the American Meteorological Society's Monthly Weather Review. From that early period until just weeks before his death, Dr. Wark continued

  3. Obituary: Ernest Hurst Cherrington, Jr., 1909-1996 (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.


    Ernest H. Cherrington, Jr., a long-time member of the AAS, died in San Jose, California on 13 July 1996, following a long illness. He had a short but active career as a research astronomer at Perkins Observatory at Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio before World War II, in which he served as an officer in the Army Air Force. After the war ended he turned to full-time teaching and administration at the University of Akron, and then at Hood College in Frederick, Maryland. Ernest was born on 10 September 1909 in Westerville, Ohio, where his father, Ernest H. Cherrington, Sr., was a leader in the temperance movement and publisher of "American Issue", a Prohibitionist magazine. Ernest Jr.'s mother, Betty Clifford (née Denny) Cherrington, was a homemaker. He was an outstanding student in high school and at Ohio Wesleyan University, which he entered in 1927. The little university's Perkins Observatory with its 69-inch reflector, briefly the second largest telescope in the United States, had just been built and gone into operation. After graduating with a BA magna cum laude in astronomy in 1931, Ernest stayed on one more year and earned his MS with a thesis on the motion of material in the tail of Comet Morehouse, supervised by Nicholas T. Bobrovnikoff. In 1932 Ernest entered the University of California at Berkeley as a graduate student, with a one-year teaching assistantship in the Astronomical Department. This was followed by a two-year Lick Observatory Fellowship. In June 1933 he married Ann McAfee Naylor, who had been a classmate at Delaware High School and Ohio Wesleyan. Ernest did his PhD thesis on spectrophotometry of the Mg I b lines in the solar spectrum, using a high-resolution grating spectrograph on the Berkeley campus, designed by C. Donald Shane, his adviser. In this thesis, Ernest tested and improved the then current theory of strong absorption lines in stellar atmospheres. He also spent several short periods at Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton

  4. Pakistani English Newspaper Paid Obituary Announcements: A Descriptive Analysis of the Transliterated Vocabulary (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.


    The study, qualitative and descriptive in nature, examines the use of transliteration in the paid Pakistani obituary announcements authored in the English language. Primarily, it identifies the frequently used transliterated vocabulary in these linguistic messages and reconnoiters the functional relationship that emerges in and between the textual…

  5. The Last Judgement: Exploring Intellectual Leadership in Higher Education through Academic Obituaries (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce; Chan, Roy Y.


    The literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on senior academic leaders with managerial roles. It largely excludes informal and distributed forms of intellectual leadership offered by full professors among others. This article explores the concept of intellectual leadership using academic obituaries. A total of 63 obituaries…

  6. Obituary: Patrick L. Nolan (1952-2011) (United States)

    Digel, Seth


    Patrick Lee Nolan died at his home in Palo Alto, California, on November 6, 2011, from complications related to a brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, which had been diagnosed less than five months earlier. He was born in Colusa, California, on November 18, 1952. Pat was the only child of John Henry Nolan and Carol Lee Harris Nolan. For most of his childhood they lived in Grass Valley, California, where his father was a butcher and his mother was a surgical nurse. Pat graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 1974 with a B.S. in Physics and completed a Ph.D. at the University of California at San Diego in 1982. His graduate and professional career was devoted to high-energy astronomy. His loss is being keenly felt by his friends and colleagues around the world, including the members of the Chancel Choir of the Menlo Park Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member for 25 years. At U. C. San Diego, Pat worked on construction of the Hard X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment for the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory mission, which was launched in 1977. His Ph.D. thesis, supervised by Prof. Laurence E. Peterson, was based on data from this instrument and addressed variability of the high-energy emission from Cygnus X-1 and other black hole binary systems in the Milky Way. After he completed his Ph.D., Pat took a National Research Council postdoctoral research position at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. He worked there from 1982-1984 developing spectral analysis software and studying gamma-ray bursts using the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. A paper in Nature setting constraining limits on positron-electron annihilation radiation in the spectra of bursts marked the culmination of his efforts. Pat was hired by Prof. Robert Hofstadter at Stanford University in 1984 to work on the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). As a co-investigator for EGRET, Pat worked on its calorimeter

  7. OBITUARY: Professor Jan Evetts in memoriam (United States)

    Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Glowacki, Bartek


    It is with great sadness that we report the death of Jan Evetts, who lost his second battle with cancer on 18 August 2005. In 1988 he was appointed Founding Editor of this journal where his leadership created the foundation upon which its success rests today. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials, and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the scientific community is incalculable, as is attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' embryonic superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for applications in magnets. Competing theories for the critical current density at that time were fine filaments or `Mendelssohn Sponge' versus the pinning of Abrikosov quantized vortices. The results of the group's work, to which Jan made a major contribution, came down heavily in favour of the latter theory. Jan's outstanding characteristic was his

  8. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010) (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul


    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as

  9. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006 (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin


    Hugo Schwarz died in a motorcycle accident on 20 October 2006 near his home in La Serena, Chile. At the time of his death he was a staff astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and President of IAU Commission 50 (The Protection of Existing and Potential Observatory Sites). After Hugo's half-brother Frans died when Hugo was an infant, he effectively grew up as an only child. One consequence was that Hugo became an avid reader. He once estimated that he had read between 3,000 and 4,000 books. He also moved around a great deal. For most of the first seven years of his life, Hugo lived in Venezuela because his father worked for Shell Oil Company. According to Hugo's count, he had a total of 43 different addresses in his life. This gave him experience with different cultures and a facility with several languages. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Spanish, and English, and knew some French. He was very fond of quoting his father's sayings in Dutch and liked to relate stories filled with Chilean-slang to people who understood neither, providing translations that retained the cleverness of the originals. While on holiday in Scotland in 1974, Hugo decided to enroll in the Glasgow College of Technology, as it was then known. A year later he transferred to the University of Glasgow, where he earned his BSc (1979) and PhD (officially in 1984). From 1982 to 1986 he worked on X-ray detectors for X-ray astronomy at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, south of London. In 1986 Hugo, his first wife Catriona (Cat), and their two children departed for Chile, where Hugo worked as a staff astronomer for the European Southern Observatory. Over the next nine years he spent over 1,300 nights at La Silla. A big change occurred in 1995 when Hugo moved to La Palma in the Canary Islands to be Astronomer in Charge of the Nordic Optical Telescope. He was very proud of having organized a team of astronomers and technicians who made the NOT into a valuable research facility with minimal

  10. Obituary: Thomas Michael Donahue, 1921-2004 (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamás I.


    Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, and Cassini. Based on observations by the Pioneer Venus entry probe, he concluded that Venus once had an ocean before a runaway greenhouse effect led to its current state. Analyzing similar data from Martian meteorites, he again argued for a substantial Martian ocean, anticipating the current series of missions to Mars. In these and many other cases he laid the foundation for our current understanding of planetary atmospheres. In 1999, Tom described his career this way, "I parlayed my training in atomic physics into a faculty position at Pitt, doing research in aeronomy and laboratory studies of atomic physics. This led to rocket and satellite exploration of the upper atmosphere of Earth in the 60s and spacecraft exploration of Mars, Venus and the Outer Planets beginning in the 70s. Along the way my students, post-docs and I were deeply involved in the problem of anthropogenic destruction of the stratospheric ozone in the early 70s. This led to my continuing interest in global change." Throughout his life Tom retained a keen interest in the history of his family in Ireland, as his mother and grandfather both emigrated from County Kerry. He studied oral and written sources, writing as early as 1942 on the family and the early history of the Eóghanachta Rathleinn. Recently his efforts supported the establishment of the international O'Donoghue society, in particular spearheading a project that continues to reveal fresh detail about family migrations from the High Kings to the Cromwellian period. Tom brought his powerful intellect and drive to a broad range of lifelong passions beyond science. Fluent in several languages, from classical Greek to modern Irish, he was also widely read in American, Irish and French history and literature, and was an exacting student of French wine. He loved classical and folk music, often singing hundreds of songs for his family in keys only he knew. A devotee of tennis, he continued playing weekly matches until early

  11. Leadership in Force XXI: Is the Army's Current Leadership Model and Leader Development Doctrine Properly Addressing the Challenges Brought About by the Transition to Force XXI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Carl


    .... The purpose of this research paper is to answer the question, Is the Army's current leadership model and leader development doctrine properly addressing the challenges brought about by the transition to Force XXI...

  12. Obituary: Leverett Davis, Jr., 1914-2003 (United States)

    Jokipii, Jack Randolph


    of the heliosphere is not yet known for certain, but is certainly greater than some 90 AU (the current distance to the Voyager 1 spacecraft), and probably of the order of, or perhaps greater than, 100 AU. Observational and theoretical investigations of the boundary of this cavity are currently a very active area of research. In the 1960's, Davis's interests in astrophysical and solar magnetic fields, energetic particles and plasmas led naturally to investigations in the new field of space physics, where observations from spacecraft were revolutionizing our understanding. He wrote important papers unraveling the basic physical processes governing the motions of trapped particles in the radiation belts of planets such as the Earth and Jupiter. This work led naturally to his deep involvement in the early space program, where detailed in situ observations of these phenomena became possible. He became a consultant to one of the early companies developing spacecraft, and this led to a number of pioneering contributions to our understanding of interplanetary space. Davis was one of the true pioneers in the exploration of the plasmas and their associated magnetic fields in space using in situ observations from spacecraft, which began in the late 1950's. He participated effectively as a co-investigator in several of the early planetary missions to Venus in 1962 (Mariner 2), to Mars in 1964 (Mariner4), to Jupiter in 1973-74 (Pioneer10, 11) and to Saturn in 1989 (Pioneer11). The Pioneer spacecraft returned data for nearly 30 years, until the last signal was received from Pioneer 10 in 2002. He continued working on spacecraft data until the early 1980's when he retired. In both his personal and professional life, Davis was a man of very high standards and great personal integrity. He was a devoted family man who enjoyed nothing more than a road trip including camping, with his family. He was serious about his work and responsibilities, but also had a subtly infectious sense of

  13. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007) (United States)

    Gilman, Peter A.


    John W. Firor, a former Director of the High Altitude Observatory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and a founder of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society, died of Alzheimer's disease in Pullman, Washington on November 5, 2007, he was 80. He was born in Athens Georgia on October 18, 1927, where his father was a professor of agricultural economics. John had an unusually diverse scientific career. His interest in physics and astrophysics began while serving in the army, during which time he was assigned to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he guarded highly radioactive materials (many have heard him describe how informal the protections were compared to later times). After his service he returned to college and graduated in physics from Georgia Tech in 1949. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, writing his thesis on cosmic rays under John Simpson. John Firor would later remark that: "If you needed cosmic rays to actually do anything, you are sunk." That thought, partly in jest, may help explain his motivation for moving to so many new scientific and management pursuits. John moved from cosmic ray physics to radio astronomy (particularly of the Sun) when he began work at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where he remained until 1961. During this time, he met Walter Orr Roberts, then the Director of the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) in Boulder, Colorado. HAO was then affiliated with the University of Colorado. In 1959, a movement began to upgrade the atmospheric sciences in the United States by establishing a National Center, where the largest, most important atmospheric research problems could be addressed. Roberts became the first Director of NCAR, as well as the first president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the consortium of universities that was commissioned to manage and staff the new Center. HAO became a

  14. Obituary: Dipak Basu (1939-2011) (United States)

    Basu, Joydeep


    Dipak Basu was born in Dhaka in 1939, during a tumultuous period of history in what was then undivided India. During the partition of the country at independence from Britain, he and his family fled the internecine violence as refugees, with only the proverbial clothes on their backs, eventually settling in Kolkata, West Bengal. Being interested in the physical sciences from an early age, Dipak spent his student years at the University of Kolkata, achieving his PhD in physics in 1967. During this time, Dipak was also actively involved in the promotion of science to the broader Bengali community, and played a leading role in the amateur scientific society founded by S.N. Bose (of Bose-Einstein statistics fame). He then came to Ottawa as a post-doctoral fellow in radio astronomy with what is currently the NRC's Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, where he worked with Art Covington's solar flux monitoring group from 1967 to 1969. He remained interested in solar studies throughout his entire career. It is at this time that he also developed a keen interest in quasars (QSOs) which had only recently been discovered and whose red-shifts had been suggested by some to show evidence of quantization. Throughout his career he published several papers attempting to prove there was no valid evidence to support this suggestion. Dipak became Assistant Professor shortly thereafter in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at MacKenzie University in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1970. He then joined the Department of Physics at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad in 1978. There, he achieved tenure and founded and led the Astronomy Group and spent the major part of his professional academic life. A dedicated teacher, Dipak taught a variety of undergraduate and doctoral level courses in fields ranging from electronics, radio astronomy and astrophysics to electronics, optics, thermodynamics and applied mathematics. Dipak returned to Ottawa in 1995. He continued to be fully engaged in

  15. Obituary: Ludwig Friedrich Oster, 1931-2003 (United States)

    Sofia, Sabatino; Altschuler, Martin D.


    cyclotron radiation, plasma oscillations and bremsstrahlung radiation have become classic publications in plasma physics and they continue to be referenced in the current literature. During this period he started his student mentoring work that led to the awarding of several PhD degrees. At Boulder, he extended his work on solar and plasma physics to the newly discovered quasars and pulsars. He loved to study and understand the mysterious and the puzzling phenomena, which the Universe so generously provides. While at Goddard, he joined the effort to understand the variations in total solar irradiance then recently discovered by the Nimbus 7 satellite and the ACRIM experiment on the SMM satellite. He made significant contributions to that problem, particularly regarding the ultraviolet radiation component, and continued to work on it after he had joined the NSF as a science administrator. He published his last scientific paper in 1983, after having joined NSF. Ludwig was a great teacher and an even greater friend. He taught courses including electromagnetic theory, relativistic theory of radiation, quantum mechanics, solar physics and radio astronomy among others. He wrote an introductory textbook in astronomy that was translated into several languages. He directed PhD theses in a variety of topics. Best of all, he instilled in his students a sense of curiosity and confidence that lasted for a lifetime. He used to say, ``if what you think disagrees with the opinion of well-known astronomers, do not simply assume that you are wrong and they are right. It may well be that you are right! Think carefully about it." That advice has served all of us, his former students, well. We will miss his cheerful disposition, his friendliness, and his never- ending curiosity.

  16. Obituary: Douglas H. Sampson, 1925-2002 (United States)

    Mészáros, Peter; Clark, Robert E. H.; Zhang, Honglin; Fontes, Christopher J.


    . In this way, he was able to generate cross sections for iso-electronic sequences with affordable computational time. He applied this method to both electron-impact excitation and ionization. This important work took place when computational power was a small fraction of current standards and it allowed relatively massive amounts of cross section data to be calculated for a variety of ions with application to astrophysics and fusion research. By 1985 Doug turned his attention to treating the electron-ion collision problem in a fully relativistic manner, in support of X-ray laser research. He and his research group developed an approach and associated computer programs, including an atomic structure program and electron-impact excitation and ionization programs that were based on solving the Dirac equation. His efforts were also devoted to making the computer codes very efficient so they could rapidly produce large amounts of data. At this time supercomputers were becoming more accessible, which provided much-needed computer power for a fully relativistic treatment of heavier elements. However, a brute force approach was still not feasible and Doug was able to apply a number of numerical procedures that greatly reduced the required computing time while preserving the accuracy of the calculations. This sustained effort (spanning about 17 years) resulted in a suite of robust codes that can be used to determine fundamental atomic cross sections or rates for a wide variety of plasma modeling applications. In addition, Sampson applied the fitting procedures to vast quantities of these relativistic data, making them readily available to a broad audience of researchers. Both of these non-relativistic and fully relativistic approaches, along with the associated computer codes, are currently in use at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory to model the high-temperature plasmas produced there. Although his

  17. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004 (United States)

    Bash, Frank N.


    distances. This relation between angular diameters and a V-R color index is called the Barnes-Evans Relation. Tom Barnes gives most of the credit to Evans, but said that David insisted that the authors be listed in alphabetical order. This work was greeted with initial skepticism but it stimulated an enormous amount of interest and has been used to measure distances to 100 Cepheid variable stars in our galaxy. The method gives a distance to one of them, Delta Cephei, that agrees closely with recently measured parallaxes using HST. The Barnes-Evans method yields distances which are accurate to a few percent and is applicable to Cepheids in nearby galaxies. Before coming to Texas, David Evans had never given a large lecture course at a university, and his efforts met with mixed success especially in introductory classes for freshmen facing a "science requirement." David had considerably more success supervising PhD dissertations. He was supervisor for four. He was promoted to the position of Jack S. Josey Centennial Professor of Astronomy in 1984, which is the position he held until his retirement in 1986. He was awarded the Gill Medal of the Astronomical Society of South Africa in 1988. David Evans had a remarkable facility for language, especially English. He was an author of eight books including a 1966 edition of "Teach Yourself Astronomy", which was an introduction to astronomy and an inspiration to a number of currently active astronomers. He also loved history, especially of Southern Hemisphere astronomy but also of the McDonald Observatory. In fact, David continued to be very active after retirement and when he died he had completed a book (with Karen Winget) on the eclipse expedition to Mauritania, which is not yet printed.

  18. Obituary: Geoffrey R. Burbidge (1925-2010) (United States)

    Wolfe, Arthur


    Geoffrey R. Burbidge, one of the principal architects of 20th century astrophysics, died in La Jolla, California on January 26, 2010. Together with his wife and life-long collaborator, Margaret Burbidge and several leading astrophysicists, he originated ideas that remain at the core of current astrophysical research. He was, of course, co-author of B2FH (Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler, & Hoyle 1957), one of the most influential scientific papers ever written, which explained how elements heavier than helium are synthesized in the interiors of stars. Geoff Burbidge's research interests spanned a wide range of topics. He was the first to estimate the colossal energetics of extragalactic radio sources. Together with Margaret and Kevin Prendergast he initiated the first systematic program to measure the masses of galaxies from their rotation curves. He published research that effectively began the field of "active galactic nuclei," and he made the fundamental suggestion that galactic X-ray sources were powered by viscous transport of energy in accretion disks surrounding neutron stars or black holes in binary star systems. After the discovery of quasars in 1963, he wrote influential papers on gravitational collapse as their energy source and an excellent book summarizing research on this subject. During the latter part of his career Geoff Burbidge became known as the "great contrarian" who remained skeptical about the cosmological origin of quasar redshifts and rejected the big bang theory. He was author of 355 publications. Geoff was born in 1925 September in Chipping Norton Oxfordshire, where he grew up and developed a lifelong passion for tennis. He attended the yearly matches at Wimbledon with his father, a ritual he maintained for most of his life. In 1946 he got his undergraduate degree in physics at the University of Bristol. After graduating he was assigned for eighteen months to a government ballistics laboratory in London where he became an expert in testing

  19. Obituary: John Leroy Climenhaga, 1916-2008 (United States)

    Scarfe, Colin


    John Leroy Climenhaga was born on 7 November 1916 on a farm some 10 km from Delisle, a small town on the Canadian prairies, located about 50 km south-west of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and died at his home in Victoria, British Columbia, on 27 May 2008. His parents, Reuben and Elizabeth (nee Bert) Climenhaga, were farming folk, and he carried their honest and open attitude to the world throughout his life. John was the seventh born, and last to die, of their ten children. His father also served as an ordained minister of the Brethren in Christ. In early adulthood, John worked on his father's farm, but then attended the University of Saskatchewan, obtaining a B.A. with Honors in Mathematics and Physics and an M.A. in Physics, in 1945 and 1949 respectively. Between these events he worked as a Physics Instructor at Regina College from 1946 to 1948. In 1949 Climenhaga joined the faculty of Victoria College, as one of only two physicists in a small institution that was then part of the University of British Columbia. He remained in Victoria for the rest of his career, playing a major role in the College's growth into a full-fledged university, complete with thriving graduate programs in physics and astronomy as well as in many other fields. He served as Head of the Physics Department during the 1960s, a period which saw the College become the University of Victoria, with a full undergraduate program in Physics, and campaigned successfully for the establishment of a program in Astronomy, which began in 1965. From 1969 until 1972 he held the position of Dean of Arts and Science, and championed the university's participation in the Tri-University Meson Facility, whose high-current medium-energy beam was ideal for the production and study of mesons and their physics. That period was a turbulent one in the university's history, but John's integrity and his balanced and fair-minded approach to conflicts were of immeasurable importance in steering the young institution through it

  20. Obituary: Lawrence Hugh Aller, 1913-2003 (United States)

    Kaler, James B.


    physics to the observations, which he ardently sought. Little pleased him more than gathering photons, except perhaps for making atomic calculations with which he could analyze spectra. His real love was gaseous nebulae, specifically planetary nebulae (which he called his ``hobby"), the graceful shells of gas surrounding dying stars that are making their transitions to becoming white dwarfs. His range of simultaneous research projects was staggering. Having been an undergraduate student at Michigan in the late 1950s, I followed him to UCLA to work on my doctorate. When I arrived, I found him engaged in stellar spectroscopy, solar research, nebular theory, nebular observations (he tossed a box of plates at me and said in effect, ``here is your thesis"), and of all things Mie scattering theory to explain the zodiacal light! A list of his discoveries and influences is impressive. A sample: Lawrence played a major role in Menzel's group, which produced the famed ``Physical Processes in Gaseous Nebulae," an 18-part series that ran in the Astrophysical Journal from 1937 to 1945 and that explained nebular spectra. He was among the first to promulgate what in the 1940s was utter heresy, that the chemical compositions of stars could differ from one another. He was the first to observe gradients in spiral galaxies, which ultimately turned out to be the result of abundance variations. David Bohm and Lawrence established the existence of Maxwellian velocity distributions in nebular plasmas. Leo Goldberg, Edith Müller, and he were instrumental in establishing the chemical composition of the Sun. His observations of planetaries were legion. Never content with current observational and analytical capabilities, he sought out the latest equipment, from image tubes through CCDs to the best computers, ever looking ahead. His work was honored in 1992, when he received the American Astronomical Society's Russell Prize. Perhaps Lawrence's greatest legacy involved his teaching and writing. At

  1. Obituary: Kenneth Ingvard Greisen, 1918-2007 (United States)

    Greisen, Eric W.


    has extended and improved on the Cornell ideas to create the High Resolution (HiRes) Fly's Eye detector. Two weeks before Ken's death, the Utah collaboration reported observations of the high-energy cosmic ray spectrum clearly showing the GZK cutoff as well as the predicted dip at lower energies. The Pierre Auger Observatory, currently nearing completion in Argentina, will also use fluorescence detectors as one of two methods of studying the high-energy end of the cosmic-ray spectrum. In the late 1960s, Ken's research interests extended to the field of gamma-ray astronomy. These led to a number of high-altitude balloon flights carrying large-area gamma-ray telescopes. One such flight found pulsed emission synchronous with the Crab Nebula NP0532, providing the first observation of high-energy gamma rays from a pulsar. As his studies became more astronomical in nature, Ken joined the AAS in 1966, and, in 1968, Ken was named to the AAS organizing committee that established the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the AAS. Ken was selected as HEAD's first Chair for 1970 and 1971. Ken was also on the organizing committee that helped establish IAU Commission 48 on High Energy Astrophysics, also in 1970. He was subsequently elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1974. Ken devoted much of his efforts to teaching. In the late 1950s, he contributed to the work of the Physical Sciences Study Committee at MIT, which was the source of the PSSC high-school physics curriculum. At Cornell, Ken developed and taught for many years a course fundamental to the preparation of students to be professional physicists. Beginning in 1969, he presided over a team from the Physics and Science Education Departments to completely redesign the teaching of introductory physics, producing an innovative, self-paced, auto-tutorial course that retains that format today. Ken regularly concerned himself with the overall structure of physics courses at Cornell, assigned himself early hours

  2. Obituary: Philip M. Solomon, 1939-2008 (United States)

    Scoville, Nick


    monitor the ozone layer depletion. This work, in collaboration with R. deZafra, J. Barrett, and A. Parrish, led to their setting up remote, automated observing systems in Antarctica and in Hawaii; these efforts continued over twenty years up to the present. For those of us who collaborated with Phil, he will be greatly missed. Phil had a keen sense for interesting and significant science; he had a real enthusiasm for discovery; and he enjoyed the competition of forefront scientific research where recognition of significance was vital but where discussion of interpretation was rational, albeit with strong argument. The pleasure of an observing run with Phil was supreme due to his enthusiasm and focus on the astrophysics; these runs also were creative since if the original plans did not quite pan out, he was always ready to modify the observations to take advantage of what one learned from the data coming into the telescope. Often this resulted in much better science--in contrast to the current paradigm with fixed observing programs and queue observing. Phil was also a major presence at scientific meetings giving stimulating talks and provoking challenging discussions. Phil is survived by his wife Sheila, daughter Nina, son-in-law John, granddaughter Sarah, and brother Mark.

  3. Obituary: Theodore Siegumfeldt Jacobsen, 1901-2003 (United States)

    Kraft, Robert Paul; Wallerstein, George


    , but it was not until 1948 that astronomy was split off from mathematics, at which time Jacobsen became chair and sole member of the new Astronomy Department. During the World War II years, he taught navigation to the recruits who moved on to become naval officers. In the postwar years, he taught elementary astronomy, as well as more advanced courses in practical astronomy, the kinds of subjects found in Smart's "Spherical Astronomy" text including celestial mechanics and observational work using the UW Observatory transit instrument. He chaired the Astronomy Department until 1965 when the Department began to undergo its modern expansion; he formally retired in 1971. Jacobsen's post-thesis research continued to center on the determination of radial velocities of cepheids as well as binary stars and he maintained connections on a modest scale with the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, B.C. In this era of emphasis on galaxy evolution and cosmology, it is easy to forget that in the 1920s, there was still controversy over the nature of cepheids---were they pulsating stars or merely some form of odd binary? Jacobsen's extremely accurate radial velocity curves of these stars, when combined with then newly emerging accurate light curves, did much to bolster the pulsation hypothesis. According to astronomers currently working in the field, Jacobsen's 1926 velocity curves, obtained with the then state-of-the-art Mills spectrograph attached to the Lick 36-inch refractor, attained an impressive accuracy in the gamma velocities of these cepheids of about 100 m/s! His last paper on cepheid velocities was a joint publication in 1992, written when Jacobsen was more than 90 years old. He also was a major contributor to the study of the ``level effect," a term applied to the fact that during the pulsation cycle, the radial velocity curves differ depending upon the spectral line formation depth within the cepheid atmospheres. The effect was recognized as a result of the

  4. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004 (United States)

    Dermott, Stanley F.


    physically in the inner ear and not in the brain was largely ignored at the time, but has since been proved correct. At about the same time, he started work with Bondi and Hoyle on the steady state theory of the universe. This attractive hypothesis, which was proposed by Tommy, supposes that the universe is infinite in both time and space, but to reconcile this with Hubble's observations of receding galaxies, matter needs to be created continuously. This struck the trio as no more shocking than creating all of the matter all at once. Tommy stated that "in choosing a hypothesis there is no virtue in being timid." The steady state theory stimulated one of the greatest cosmological debates of the twentieth century. The initial opposition to the theory, led by Martin Ryle, was based on number counts of radio sources. Current observations, particularly of the thermal cosmic background radiation, support the rival theory that Hoyle derisively named the Big Bang. The rivalry stimulated much observational radio astronomy and theoretical work on the origin of elements; one positive outcome for Tommy was that he argued that some of the radio sources observed by Ryle must be external to our galaxy and in that, he was certainly correct. Some of the other problems that engaged Tommy can also be traced back to early conversations with Bondi and Hoyle. In 1955, Hoyle outlined "Gold's pore theory" and the abiogenic origin of hydrocarbons in his book Frontiers of Astronomy, contrasting those ideas with the "curious theory that oil is derived from dead fish." In later years, Tommy was to expand on those ideas, linking the origin of all hydrocarbons to primordial processes that survived the formation of the Earth and Moon. The observation that all petroleum contains clear signatures of biological activity led him to propose that the Earth has a "deep hot biosphere" and it is the action of microbes feeding on methane seeping up from deep in the mantle that gives petroleum the imprint of life

  5. Obituary: Per E. Maltby, 1933-2006 (United States)

    Kjeldseth-Moe, Olav


    Professor Per Maltby, prominent Norwegian Solar Physicist at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Norway, died on 24 May 2006. Lung cancer was diagnosed in February, but he was expected to improve. Until the end of March he came to his office every day, got recent papers off the web, and followed his field closely as he had always done. Per Maltby was born in Oslo, Norway, on 3 November 1933. He started his studies at the University of Oslo in 1952 and took his candidate degree in 1957. Between 1955 and 1958 he was a research assistant at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo. In 1960 Maltby became an assistant professor (amanuensis) at the University of Bergen and from January 1963 he held a corresponding position at the University of Oslo. He became an associate professor in 1967, and from 1983 until he retired in 2003 he was a full Professor at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo. Per Maltby is survived by his wife Elisabet (née Ruud), whom he married in 1956. They had two children. The daughter, Bente, is a medical doctor and gynecologist serving as a section head at the district hospital in Kristiansand in southern Norway. Their son, Lars, holds a doctoral degree in engineering, specializing in the properties of powders. He is currently managing director in the Norwegian division of the French multinational company Saint Gobain. As a father Per Maltby expressed pride in his children and was pleased with their progress in life. He also enjoyed his five grandchildren. As a scientist, Per Maltby was versatile and productive. In the early 1960s he visited the California Institute of Technology where he did pioneering studies of the distribution and time variation of the radio emission from active galaxies, using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. His work with Alan Moffet contributed to revealing the secrets of these remote objects. Their results drew attention and were indeed mentioned in the pages

  6. Obituary: Ralph Asher Alpher, 1921-2007 (United States)

    Koopman, Rebecca A.


    conditions in the early Universe prior to nucleosynthesis. Early on, Alpher and Herman realized that if the expanding Universe began in a hot phase, relic radiation from the era when radiation and matter decoupled should fill the Universe. They published this result in Nature in 1948, predicting that the current temperature should be 5K. In talk after talk, and in a series of papers, they publicized their work and urged observers to start looking for this radiation, but without result. At the time, the model of the hot, expanding Universe, scornfully christened "Big Bang" by Fred Hoyle in 1950, was far from accepted by the cosmology community, especially since the measured value of the Hubble constant produced a very small evolutionary age. Even if the Big Bang model was correct, the consensus was that the relic radiation would be much too faint to detect. Dismayed by the lack of interest in their results, both Alpher and Herman decided in 1955 to give up academia, turning down positions offered at the University of Iowa with James van Allen, and instead accepting jobs at General Electric (GE) and General Motors. Both had families by that time. Ralph had met his wife, Louise Ellen Simons, in 1940. They married January 28, 1942, and had two children, Harriet and Victor. Ralph worked for 32 years at GE Research and Development Center in Niskayuna, New York, on a variety of projects including high-speed aerodynamics, theoretical problems involving the physics of television projection systems, magnetohydrodynamic methods, and, eventually, strategic planning and technology forecasting. The papers about the relic radiation languished in the literature, but Alpher and Herman kept up with developments in cosmology. One can imagine their excitement and gratification when they learned of the serendipitous detection of the cosmic microwave background by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 and found that their model temperature (with updated values of cosmological parameters) was in

  7. Obituary: Horace Welcome Babcock, 1912-2003 (United States)

    Vaughan, Arthur Harris


    set, and they got the job done. The Swope 1-meter telescope was placed into operation at Las Campanas in 1971. The Irénée du Pont 2.5-meter Telescope was completed and dedicated in 1976. The Las Campanas Observatory is the current site of two 6.5 meter optical telescopes constructed there in a collaboration between the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the University of Arizona, Harvard University, the University of Michigan and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; they were placed into operation in 2000 and 2002. That Las Campanas offers unsurpassed astronomical seeing, and its infrastructure provides ample capacity for even larger telescopes of the future, stands as a testimony to Horace Babcock's vision and stubborn tenacity in acquiring and developing the best possible site for the Carnegie Southern Observatory. For several years, Horace owned a 26-foot sailboat, which he kept at Redondo Beach. It was his private domain and escape. On many occasions, he invited younger colleagues to sail with him. The boat was equipped with an automatic pilot of Horace's design. It electronically controlled the vessel's heading by sensing the Earth's magnetic field direction relative to the intended course and drove a servomotor to adjust the tiller accordingly. The device was not unlike the automatic guider Horace had built for the 200-inch telescope. Horace was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1954. He was awarded the National Academy's Henry Draper Medal in 1957; the Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1969; the Royal Astronomical Society's Eddington Medal in 1958 and its Gold Medal in 1970; and the George Ellery Hale Prize of the Solar Physics Division of the AAS in 1992. Horace leaves a daughter Ann L. Babcock and son Bruce H. Babcock by a first marriage, a son Kenneth L. Babcock by a second marriage (to Elizabeth M. Jackson, who survives him), and a granddaughter. Both marriages ended in divorce. Those who

  8. Obituary: Philip Morrison, 1915-2005 (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia


    (somehow often as the conference summarizer). He was an early exponent of the idea of convergent evolution, meaning that structures (including intelligence) with similar functions might arise from very different beginnings. Morrison thought and wrote (often with students) about an enormous range of topics in astrophysics. This list, in fairness, includes both some successes and some false starts: (1) predictions of gamma ray emission from active galaxies, supernova remnants, and the general interstellar medium (long before any extra-solar gamma rays had been seen); (2) cooling of stellar remnants by neutrino emission (with Hong Yee Chiu); (3) possible X-ray emission mechanisms for clusters of galaxies (with James Felten); (4) a fluorescent theory of supernova light emission (akin at least to the current Ni-56 decay scenario); (5) the inevitable "Are quasars giant Crab Nebulas?" question; (6) a suggestion (with Ken Brecher) that the emission from gamma-ray bursts must be beamed into a narrow cone (now known to be true); (7) the association of a subset of active galaxies (including M82) with star formation fueled by recent infall of new gas rather than with a central black hole; (8) prediction of X-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and radio galaxies (later seen, though the mechanism is probably different); and (9) a shadowing mechanism to account for the jet found to be sticking out of the edge of the Crab Nebula in the 1980s. Like any charismatic scientist, he was surrounded by a "cloud" of Morrison stories, many included on the web sites, so here are only four "micros:" (a) about the discovery of gamma ray bursters with the Vela (bomb test monitoring) satellites and the evidence for plate tectonics from underground test monitoring seismometers, he said: "Well, it's hard to waste 108 dollars;" (b) explaining why it was okay to pretend to confuse the real and dummy bomb cores en route to the Trinity test site: "The real one was warm;" (c) concerning the enormous extent of

  9. Obituary: Herbert Gursky, 1930-2006 (United States)

    Doschek, George; Dahlburg, Jill


    near-Earth space environment to be produced by the EIS instrument; and, Launch of STEREO (October 2006): NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) launched 25 October, carrying the collaborative NRL Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) instruments suite, which is currently successfully functioning in the pre-commissioning phase. The instruments onboard STEREO's twin spacecraft will make observations to help NRL researchers construct the first-ever three-dimensional views of coronal mass ejections, vital data — in complement with the long-operational NRL-built NASA LASCO — for understanding how the Sun creates space weather Perhaps Dr. Gursky's most personal research successes were as a member of the group that made the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources in 1961, his work with sounding rockets that culminated in the optical identification of the bright X-ray source Scorpius X1 in 1966, his work on clusters of galaxies and the diffuse X-ray background from the Uhuru Satellite and the discovery of X-ray bursters on the ANS satellite.

  10. Obituary: Jesse Greenstein, 1909-2002 (United States)

    Gunn, James Edward


    's interest in stars of peculiar abundance and he forged close scientific ties with the Kellogg team, particularly Willy Fowler. Jesse arranged a controversial visit to Caltech by Fred Hoyle (Hoyle's steady state cosmology was not popular among Caltech physicists) and Hoyle's protégés Geoff and Margaret Burbidge. Their classic work with Fowler on nucleosynthesis arose from this visit. Later his research turned increasingly toward understanding the denizens of the lower left of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram - white dwarfs, blue subdwarfs, and nuclei of planetary nebulae. He became the observational authority on such stars, and much of our current understanding of these objects is a direct outgrowth of his work. In the course of this work he obtained several spectra of faint blue objects with weak, broad emission lines that were not readily identifiable. The realization that compact stars could have very strong magnetic fields was then current, and he felt that most of these objects could be explained by peculiar Zeeman and pressure effects on the spectra of intrinsically faint degenerate objects. The quasar story has been told many times, but the realization by Maarten Schmidt in 1963 that the spectrum of 3C273 was consistent with a redshift of 16 percent led them to reassess Jesse's work on 3C48, a quasi-stellar radio source with a spectrum similar to some of the peculiar blue "stars" in his library of spectra: this turned out to be the second QSO redshift recognized, with a value of 0.37. In 1960, Jesse had obtained a spectrum of Ton 202, which he had confidently identified as a peculiar DC white dwarf 40 pc distant. When he went through his library of spectra with an eye toward new possibilities, it turned out to be a QSO with a redshift of 0.37, continuing his penchant for being right almost all the time, but with the occasional really spectacular mistake. He characterized his research and the rather frequent and profound changes of direction in a very characteristic

  11. Current Pesticide Risk Assessment Protocols Do Not Adequately Address Differences Between Honey Bees (Apis mellifera and Bumble Bees (Bombus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Stoner


    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated colony-level sublethal effects of imidacloprid on bumble bees, affecting foraging and food consumption, and thus colony growth and reproduction, at lower pesticide concentrations than for honey bee colonies. However, these studies may not reflect the full effects of neonicotinoids on bumble bees because bumble bee life cycles are different from those of honey bees. Unlike honey bees, bumble bees live in colonies for only a few months each year. Assessing the sublethal effects of systemic insecticides only on the colony level is appropriate for honey bees, but for bumble bees, this approach addresses just part of their annual life cycle. Queens are solitary from the time they leave their home colonies in fall until they produce their first workers the following year. Queens forage for pollen and nectar, and are thus exposed to more risk of direct pesticide exposure than honey bee queens. Almost no research has been done on pesticide exposure to and effects on bumble bee queens. Additional research should focus on critical periods in a bumble bee queen’s life which have the greatest nutritional demands, foraging requirements, and potential for exposure to pesticides, particularly the period during and after nest establishment in the spring when the queen must forage for the nutritional needs of her brood and for her own needs while she maintains an elevated body temperature in order to incubate the brood.

  12. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic. (United States)

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis


    To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the records of the Inuulitsivik Maternities. The historical technique of tracing epistemological change over time, pioneered by Michel Foucault and further developed by Ian Hacking, was applied to the history of Canadian authority in the Arctic. This was linked with epistemological changes occurring throughout Western/Southern culture in this period. The applicability of this historical analysis for current issues in the region was then evaluated. An epistemological shift in Western society has moved authority from traditional human actors in government, medicine and, increasingly, science to statistics, which is seen as both impartial and accurate. Human authorities now routinely appeal to statistical authority to validate policy decisions. This change is as apparent in the Arctic as elsewhere, but it has also opened a space for Inuit practices, rooted in traditional Inuit epistemology, to reassert themselves, provided they can satisfy demands for statistical validity. Historical analysis provides a means to identify the spaces which epistemological change and historical contingency have opened in which social and cultural change can occur.

  13. Current State of Climate Education in the United States: Are Graduate Students being Adequately Prepared to Address Climate Issues? (United States)

    Kuster, E.; Fox, G.


    Climate change is happening; scientists have already observed changes in sea level, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, and declining polar ice. The students of today are the leaders of tomorrow, and it is our duty to make sure they are well equipped and they understand the implications of climate change as part of their research and professional careers. Graduate students, in particular, are gaining valuable and necessary research, leadership, and critical thinking skills, but we need to ensure that they are receiving the appropriate climate education in their graduate training. Previous studies have primarily focused on capturing the K-12, college level, and general publics' knowledge of the climate system, concluding with recommendations on how to improve climate literacy in the classroom. While this is extremely important to study, very few studies have captured the current perception that graduate students hold regarding the amount of climate education being offered to them. This information is important to capture, as it can inform future curriculum development. We developed and distributed a nationwide survey (495 respondents) for graduate students to capture their perception on the level of climate system education being offered and their view on the importance of having climate education. We also investigated differences in the responses based on either geographic area or discipline. We compared how important graduate students felt it was to include climate education in their own discipline versus outside disciplines. The authors will discuss key findings from this ongoing research.

  14. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  15. Obituary: Jörn Rossa (1969-2009) (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri


    responsive, punctual, organized, polite and truthful; he did not tolerate false flattery and he held strongly to his own beliefs. Joern ardently loved his family and was faithful to his friends. Joern had several passions outside of astronomy. Among these were music, travel, snorkeling and photography. He played guitar and idolized Fleetwood Mac, The Eagles, and Tom Petty, among many other artists. While visiting 45 U.S. States and many other countries, Joern had a knack for picking up languages and spoke impeccable English. We will miss Joern, a loyal son, friend and colleague. Acknowledgments: Ralf Hahn, Nadya Gorlova, Seppo Laine and Roeland van der Marel provided crucial information, perspectives and memories needed for the foundation of this obituary; Ralf-Juergen Dettmar, Maria-Cruz Gälvez-Ortiz, Maren Hempel and Stefan Kautsch provided advice and support which helped complete the obituary; the photograph is courtesy of Nadya Gorlova.

  16. Obituary of Franz Wickhoff” trans. and ed. Marta Filipova


    Vincenc Kramář


    Wickhoff, ‘a man of great refined artistic taste who refused to be bound by period theories and who was open to all truly artistic impressions’, is remembered in this obituary, written by his former student of Czech origin, Vincenc Kramář (1877-1960), an eminent art historian and art collector. Published in 1909, the text overviews the theoretical and methodological approaches that Wickhoff as well as Riegl used and thus outlines, for the first time, the main traits of the Vienna School of ar...

  17. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.


    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  18. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko


    of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...... for using these methods together for NM: ‘‘LC-based RA’’ (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and ‘‘RA-complemented LCA’’ (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods......While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...

  19. The critically endangered forest owlet Heteroglaux blewitti is nested within the currently recognized Athene clade: A century-old debate addressed. (United States)

    Koparde, Pankaj; Mehta, Prachi; Reddy, Sushma; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Mukherjee, Shomita; Robin, V V


    Range-restricted species generally have specific niche requirements and may often have unique evolutionary histories. Unfortunately, many of these species severely lack basic research, resulting in poor conservation strategies. The phylogenetic relationship of the Critically Endangered Forest Owlet Heteroglaux blewitti has been the subject of a century-old debate. The current classifications based on non-phylogenetic comparisons of morphology place the small owls of Asia into three genera, namely, Athene, Glaucidium, and Heteroglaux. Based on morphological and anatomical data, H. blewitti has been alternatively hypothesized to belong within Athene, Glaucidium, or its own monotypic genus Heteroglaux. To test these competing hypotheses, we sequenced six loci (~4300 bp data) and performed phylogenetic analyses of owlets. Mitochondrial and nuclear trees were not congruent in their placement of H. blewitti. However, both mitochondrial and nuclear combined datasets showed strong statistical support with high maximum likelihood bootstrap (>/ = 90) and Bayesian posterior probability values (>/ = 0.98) for H. blewitti being nested in the currently recognized Athene group, but not sister to Indian A. brama. The divergence of H. blewitti from its sister taxa was between 4.3 and 5.7 Ma coinciding with a period of drastic climatic changes in the Indian subcontinent. This study presented the first genetic analysis of H. blewitti, a Critically Endangered species, and addressed the long debate on the relationships of the Athene-Heteroglaux-Glaucidium complex. We recommend further studies with more data and complete taxon sampling to understand the biogeography of Indian Athene species.

  20. Welcome Address (United States)

    Kiku, H.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  1. Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations. (United States)

    Meliala, Andreasta; Hort, Krishna; Trisnantoro, Laksono


    As in many countries, the geographic distribution of the health workforce in Indonesia is unequal, with a concentration in urban and more developed areas, and a scarcity in rural and remote areas. There is less information on the distribution of specialist doctors, yet inequalities in their distribution could compromise efforts to achieve universal coverage by 2014. This paper uses data from 2007 and 2008 to describe the geographic distribution of specialist doctors in Indonesia, and to examine two key factors that influence the distribution and are targets of current policies: sources of income for specialist doctors, and specialist doctor engagement in private practice. The data demonstrates large differences in the ratio of specialist doctors to population among the provinces of Indonesia, with higher ratios on the provinces of the islands of Java, and much lower ratios on the more remote provinces in eastern Indonesia. Between 65% and 80% of specialist doctors' income derives from private practice in non-state hospitals or private clinics. Despite regulations limiting practice locations to three, most specialists studied in a provincial capital city were working in more than three locations, with some working in up to 7 locations, and spending only a few hours per week in their government hospital practice. Our study demonstrates that the current regulatory policies and financial incentives have not been effective in addressing the maldistribution of specialist doctors in a context of a growing private sector and predominance of doctors' income from private sources. A broader and more integrated policy approach, including more innovative service delivery strategies for rural and remote areas, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States. (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M


    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Celebrities' Memorial Afterlives: Obituaries, Tributes, and Posthumous Gossip in the Romanian Media Deathscape. (United States)

    Rusu, Mihai S


    Cross-culturally, dead are protected from posthumous negative evaluations by the universal "nil nisi bonum" precept that governs the ethics within the community of mourners. In this study, we set out to test the observance of this injunction against posthumous gossiping in the Romanian public deathscape. Obituaries and other posthumous articles ( N = 1,148) were collected that covered the deaths of 63 celebrities who passed away between 2013 and 2016. Materials were gathered from the digital archives of three Romanian news sources (a news agency, a "quality" newspaper, and a tabloid), published one week after the moment of death. The findings show that 22% of the articles do contain negative evaluations of the deceased. The percentage rises to 36.4% if we restrict the sample to only those celebrities with a controversial anthumous reputation (19 of 63). These results indicate that celebrities are not spared from critical assessments after they pass away.

  4. Obituary of Franz Wickhoff” trans. and ed. Marta Filipova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenc Kramář


    Full Text Available Wickhoff, ‘a man of great refined artistic taste who refused to be bound by period theories and who was open to all truly artistic impressions’, is remembered in this obituary, written by his former student of Czech origin, Vincenc Kramář (1877-1960, an eminent art historian and art collector. Published in 1909, the text overviews the theoretical and methodological approaches that Wickhoff as well as Riegl used and thus outlines, for the first time, the main traits of the Vienna School of art history, such as genetic links and universal development of art and the objective study of the works of art, that have been associated with it until today.

  5. Convocation address. (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S


    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  6. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  7. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.


    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  8. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.


    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  9. Convocation address. (United States)

    Zakaria, R


    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  10. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.


    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  11. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.


    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  12. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.


    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  13. Opening Address (United States)

    Yamada, T.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  14. Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004 (United States)

    Liebert, James William


    Raymond E. White, Jr., died unexpectedly at his home, in the early morning hours of October 12, 2004. Death appears to have been caused by severe diabetic shock. He retired from the Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory in July 1999 with the title of University Distinguished Professor, after serving on the faculty of this institution for over 35 years. He was born in Freeport, Illinois, on 6 May 1933, to Beatrice and Raymond E, Sr. -the latter being a career soldier in the US Army. Ray's early schooling took place in Illinois, New Jersey, Germany and Switzerland, following his father's assignments. He obtained a bachelors degree from the University of Illinois in 1955. Next Ray enlisted in the US Army, but quickly was enrolled in Officer Candidate School. He then served as lst Lt. in the US Army Corps of Engineers. Although military affairs remained a lifelong interest, and he was a member of the Company of Military Historians, Ray decided after three years to return to academia. He entered the astronomy PhD program at the University of Illinois in 1958. His PhD dissertation was supervised by Ivan R. King. Ray accepted a faculty position at the University of Arizona in 1964. First and foremost, Ray White was known at Arizona as an excellent teacher, revered by a large number of former students. When the astronomy major program was begun in 1967, Ray was one of three, original, major advisors. Over the next three decades, he was a leader at the University level in reforming the undergraduate program and courses. He was selected Outstanding University Faculty Member in April 1989 and he served as one of a handful of professors who are Faculty Fellows. These Fellows devote untold hundreds of hours as part-time residents at student dormitories, to give students a friendly face to address their problems. In 1995, Ray was among the first group of faculty to be recognized as University Distinguished Professors. In the year of his retirement, 1999, University

  15. Obituary: Norman Hodgson Baker, Jr., 1931-2005 (United States)

    Helfand, David J.


    Norman H. Baker, a key contributor to the foundation of modern stellar pulsation theory and former editor of the "Astronomical Journal", died on 11 October 2005 in Watertown, New York near his beloved summer home in Natural Bridge. He succumbed to complications of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a bone marrow lymphoma that he had successfully surmounted for twenty-two years. Norm, as he was known to all, was born 23 October 1931 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Norman Hodgson and Jeannette (née Lieber) Baker. He attended the University of Minnesota where he met the first of many lifelong astronomical friends, Bill Erickson. He received his BA in 1952. He went on to do his PhD, "Radiation from Particle Interactions which Create Current," at Cornell University under Phil Morrison. He then moved to a postdoctoral position at the Max Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik in München with the intent of pursuing his work in plasma physics with Ludwig Biermann and Arnulf Schlüter. However, Rudolf (Rudi) Kippenhan snatched him away to pursue what became his lifelong interest, stellar physics. This was the dawn of the era in which electronic computers were becoming practical for scientific calculations, and Norm immediately adopted this new tool. Indeed, he remained at the forefront of computing technology throughout his life: He was certainly the first member of the Astronomy Department at Columbia to buy a Mac, and was undoubtedly one of the few emeritus professors in the world known by all the administrative staff as the first person to turn to when stumped by a computer problem. Following his first paper with Kippenhan on stellar rotation, Norm turned his attention to stellar pulsations, a topic he would pursue throughout his career. His 1962 paper in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik" on pulsational models of Cepheids (Baker and Kippenhan 1962, 54, 155) is a classic in the field. The first figure displays the three dimensional model of the atmospheric absorption

  16. Obituary: Janet Akyüz Mattei, 1943-2004 (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne


    period variables. She accelerated a ten-year project to digitize all of AAVSO's archived as well as current data, without which a century of AAVSO observations would now be nearly inaccessible. In the mid-1970s professional interest in the cataclysmic variables began to ramp up. When she received the first requests for an AAVSO visual observing campaign coordinated with observations by orbiting observatories as well as large ground based telescopes, Janet accepted the invitation as both an opportunity and a challenge. AAVSO observers responded marvelously and, coupled with Janet's astute forecasting of when cataclysmic variables were likely to brighten again, the program emerged as one of the major technical successes of her tenure. Many AAVSO members will never forget their excitement when France Córdova came to our Fall meeting in 1978 to announce to the astronomical world that X-rays from SS Cyg had been detected by HEAO-1 on the first occasion after the satellite reached orbit when AAVSO observers reported that the star was brightening to a maximum. It was a moment of tremendous pride for everyone, most of all for Janet. It was a success that was repeated frequently in over six hundred subsequent coordinated observing runs with various satellites. This success greatly increased the impact of AAVSO on current astronomical research, enhanced its reputation, and also provided a more immediate thrill for the observers than the ongoing commitment to monitor slowly varying stars. The late 1970s and early 1980s were a period of substantial inflation in our nation's economy. Furthermore, staff turnover slowed progress with the data processing work, while observations coming to AAVSO from international variable star organizations and independent observers, especially from behind the iron curtain, were increasing rapidly. Faced with rising costs at the same time additional staff was needed to pursue the data processing problems, Janet reacted characteristically: she began

  17. Obituary: Barry James LaBonte, 1950-2005 (United States)

    Rust, David Maurice


    occurrence of a large flare. His work always involved fundamental science that could possibly lead to accurate forecasts of solar activity and its effect on geospace. When he died, he was studying the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic fields and electric currents in the solar corona in order to understand the disequilibrium that produces solar eruptions. I first met Barry when he was a summer intern working with George Simon at the Sacramento Peak Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico in the early 1970s. Besides working on the solar granulation, Barry learned how to use the Doppler-Zeeman analyzer, the first of the many solar magnetographs that he used to such advantage in his productive career. We had common scientific interests, which led me to follow his career closely, although I was on the East Coast and he was in Hawaii. We had both done our thesis under Hal Zirin and our postdoc with Bob Howard and had haunted many of the same scientific meetings, so I felt I knew him well. At APL he brought a depth of understanding and quick intelligence to our little solar group that lighted up every day. Barry was more than an imaginative, witty, and productive scientist whose contributions greatly advanced solar physics. He was also a devoted father, rarely taking off from work except to be with his children. Inspired by his daughter Hillary's decision to train for an operatic career, he became an opera buff. He was an avid reader of history, especially military history, and was a member of the Hawaii Bunny Club and the Howard County Hare Raisers. He is survived by his wife, Beatrice Hawkins, and by their three children, Allan, Hillary, and Anna.

  18. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm (United States)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  19. Are the rules for the right to self-defense outdated to address current conflicts like attacks from non-state actors and cyber-attacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Arias


    Full Text Available The latest US-led coalition’s attacks against ISIS in Syria raised the question whether states can use defensive force against non-state actors. Two critical incidents had previously triggered the discussion on the importance and consequences of cyber-attacks as a new form armed attacks. The first one occurred in Estonia in 2007, when the country experienced extensive computer hacking attacks that lasted several weeks. The second incident happened in 2008, during the Georgia–Russia conflict over South Ossetia, when Georgia experienced cyber-attacks similar to those suffered by Estonia in the previous year. Furthermore, on June 21, 2016, the central banks of Indonesia and South Korea were hit by cyber-attacks on their public websites since activist hacking group Anonymous pledged last month to target banks across the world. The previous incidents have created, once again, public questioning if the rules on the use of force and the right of self-defense established in the United Nations Charter are sufficient and efficient to address these new forms of attacks.

  20. Current and proposed revisions, changes, and modifications to American codes and standards to address packaging, handling, and transportation of radioactive materials and how they relate to comparable international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borter, W.H.; Froehlich, C.H.


    This paper addresses current and proposed revisions, additions, and modifications to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (i.e., ''ASMEthe Code'') Section III, Division 3 and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASME N14.6. It provides insight into the ongoing processes of the associated committees and highlights important revisions, changes, and modifications to this Code and Standard. The ASME Code has developed and issued Division 3 to address items associated with the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. It currently only addresses ''General Requirements'' in Subsections WA and ''Class TP (Type B) Containments'' (Transportation Packages) in Subsection WB, but is in the process of adding a new Subsection WC to address ''Class SC'' (Storage Containments). ANSI/ASME Standard N14.6 which interacts with components constructed to Division 3 by addressinges special lifting devices for radioactive material shipping containers. This Standard is in the process of a complete re-write. This Code and Standard can be classified as ''dynamic'' in that their committees meet at least four times a year to evaluate proposed modifications and additions that reflect current safety practices in the nuclear industry. These evaluations include the possible addition of new materials, fabrication processes, examination methods, and testing requirements. An overview of this ongoing process is presented in this paper along with highlights of the more important proposed revisions, changes, and modifications and how they relate to United States (US) and international regulations and guidance like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Requirement No. TS-R-1

  1. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  2. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  3. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important? (United States)


    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  4. OBITUARY: Dorianna Twersky (1922-2010) Dorianna Twersky (1922-2010) (United States)

    Thomas, P.


    write are in danger of being misunderstood. I honestly believe that authors and referees were keeping to promised deadlines, because they would have been afraid of a disapproving glance from her. The fact that the journal was blossoming under her leadership is true, but this would be said of course in nearly any obituary. If I try nevertheless to distil my admiration for her into an objective-sounding statement, I would point to the fact that she consistently made technically correct decisions regarding matters in which she had no direct personal know-how. The way she worked this miracle was based on an extraordinary capability to judge people: she knew exactly whom to trust to what percentage." Karl Lackner

  5. License Address List (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  6. Reach Address Database (RAD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.


    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  9. Addressing Sexual Harassment (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.


    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  10. Obituary: Gordon Donaldson Obituary: Gordon Donaldson (United States)

    Pegrum, Colin; Campbell, Archie; Hampshire, Damian


    Gordon Donaldson died in Glasgow on 28 November 2012 at the age of 71. He was born in Edinburgh and brought up and educated in Glasgow, which was his home city for much of his life. He was educated first at Glasgow Academy, and then with a scholarship at Christ's College Cambridge. Here he read Natural Sciences, finishing with first class honors in Physics. He then did a PhD on tunneling in superconductors in the Mond Laboratory, supervised by John Adkins. These were interesting times, since type II superconductors had only recently been identified, and the Mond was a leading player in the physics of vortices and other quantum effects. It was headed by Pippard and Shoenberg, and colleagues around that time were Brian Josephson, John Clarke, Colin Gough and John Waldram. On finishing his PhD in 1966 Gordon went straight to a lectureship at the University of Lancaster. In 1975 during a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, with John Clarke's group, Gordon co-invented thin-film gradiometers with integrated DC SQUIDs. He then moved back to Glasgow, to the Department of Applied Physics at Strathclyde University, where he founded a new research group to make and use superconducting devices, especially SQUIDs and gradiometers. From modest beginnings the group grew steadily, acquiring new facilities and members, until in the 1990s it had over 20 members and a host of collaborators from elsewhere in Glasgow and abroad. With funding from the Wellcome Trust, Gordon and colleagues at Glasgow University and the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow set up a new biomagnetism facility in 1998 on the hospital campus to use SQUID gradiometers made at Strathclyde for measurements on patients and volunteers. Another of his main research interests was the use of SQUIDs for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This started in the days before high temperature superconductors (HTS) with wire-wound gradiometers and niobium SQUIDs, soon moving on to miniature thin-film niobium integrated SQUID gradiometers. This was followed by major programs to develop and demonstrate HTS gradiometers for NDE. Gordon was appointed to a personal professorship in 1985 and became Professor of Applied Physics two years later. He was also head of department from 1984 to 1986 and again from 1993 to 1998. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and became Convener of their Physics Panel. He was also a Trustee of the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation. Gordon was much involved in teaching and in many university matters. He was particularly fond of the course How Things Work, which he developed and taught for fifteen years, that was so much in keeping with his passion for useful practical physics and science. After the explosion in HTS research, Gordon became the Coordinator for the National Committee for Superconductivity in the UK for three years from 1990. One of his important tasks was to coordinate the distribution of EPSRC funds to university groups and to support industrial activity. He did this with tact and good judgment. He knew everybody, understood what they were doing, and made sure that while the large groups were well supported, nobody was left out completely. This exercise could have led to resentment, but under his guidance it was a great success and it is a pity that similar exercises have not been tried since. He was a key member of the Low Temperature Group of the Institute of Physics in London, and became its Chairman for the last three years of his tenure. In 1998, he was invited to become editor of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST). He was a referee for every paper in the journal during this period, which was an enormous task and very widely appreciated by the superconductivity community. He was particularly active during the discovery and commercialization of MgB2. He oversaw a smooth handover to his successor as Editor-in-Chief in 2007. Gordon's long list of publications and contributions to books attest to his advancement of superconducting technology. He will be especially remembered as an independent originator of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials and structures using SQUIDs, and for the advancement and use of the gradiometers developed at Berkeley for biomagnetic use. He organized and chaired two key conferences, the International Superconductive Electronics Conference in Glasgow in 1991 and then the 1995 European Conference on Applied Superconductivity in Edinburgh, together with many smaller specialist meetings. Since he retired he was afflicted with severe back problems, and unfortunately operations were not successful. He was confined to a wheelchair and later to the house, which was a great trial to him. Gordon was universally respected and liked both as a scientist and a person. He was sharp, humorous and excellent company on social occasions. He will be much missed by his many colleagues and friends at SuST and throughout science, as well as by his family.

  11. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman


    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  12. Reading handprinted addresses on IRS tax forms (United States)

    Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.


    The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.

  13. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir


    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  14. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.


    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  15. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas


    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  16. Forms of address in Isizulu



    M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...

  17. Can pervasive sensing address current challenges in global healthcare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Atallah


    Full Text Available Important challenges facing global healthcare include the increase in the number of people affected by escalating healthcare costs, chronic and infectious diseases, the need for better and more affordable elderly care and expanding urbanisation combined with air and water pollution. Recent advances in pervasive sensing technologies have led to miniaturised sensor networks that can be worn or integrated within the living environment without affecting a person’s daily patterns. These sensors promise to change healthcare from snapshot measurements of physiological parameters to continuous monitoring enabling clinicians to provide guidance on a daily basis. This article surveys several of the solutions provided by these sensor platforms from elderly care to neonatal monitoring and environmental mapping. Some of the opportunities available and the challenges facing the adoption of such technologies in large-scale epidemiological studies are also discussed.

  18. Chemical Education in India: Addressing Current Challenges and Optimizing Opportunities (United States)

    Krishnan, Mangala Sunder; Brakaspathy, R.; Arunan, E.


    This article gives a brief introduction to the structure of higher education programs in chemical and general sciences in India. The lack of high-quality chemical education in India in the past is traced back to the economic and social developments of the past. Remedial measures undertaken recently to improve the overall quality of chemical…

  19. Address Points, The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant properties. Attributes include addresses, sub-units, address use, LAT/LONG, 10-digit SDAT taxpins, political areas and more., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Baltimore County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2013. The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant...

  20. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, W.


    Beccari, Odoardo (1843-1920) R.E.G. Pichi Sermolli & C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Dedication, Fl. Males. I, 9 (1983) (6)-(44), 3 portr. Full biographical account of this versatile explorer in Sarawak, West New Guinea and Central Sumatra, and palm taxonomist, prolific writer in Italian whose work at

  1. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Beccari, Odoardo (1843-1920) H.E. Moore Jr, Odoardo Beccari (1843-1920). Principes 25 (1981) 29-35, portr. His trips and bibliography on palms. Everist, S.L. (1913-1981) On 21 October, 1981, Dr. Selwyn L. Everist, past director of the Queensland Herbarium, died in hospital in Brisbane, after a

  2. Obituary : Graeme Ernest Coote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissons, Chris


    Graeme Coote, one of New Zealands outstanding scientists, died suddenly on the 16th of August, 997 while competitive race walking. Graeme joined the INS accelerator physics team and its newly commissioned 3 MeV particle accelerator exploring basic nuclear physics. Initially, his special sudy was new types of solid state particle detectors for radiation measurement. Today, descendants of one type of this detector are on the NASA space probes. His work from 1965-76 in these areas stands as one of the fundamental building blocks in this field. He helped to develop, and graft onto the INS Accelerator, a proton microprobe. The proton microprobe has resulted in a range of otherwise impossible studies, especially in calcified biological systems, as Graeme followed his vision of the value of this kind of element maping. He worked to convince a range of collaborators over a range of disciplines, crossing barriers of scientific language and sometimes of interdisciplinary suspicion. Graeme was passionate about his science, a deep and lateral ground-breaking thinker, socially aware and with wide outside interests. (author)

  3. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Portraits of botanists who worked on the Ryukyu Islands, 80 in number, most Japanese, a few Americans, were published in the book by S. Hatusima, Flora of the Ryukyus, p. 56-75 (1971). Baas Becking, L. G. M. A meticulous bibliography, of the former Professor of Experimental Botany at Leiden and

  4. Obituary -- Enrique Chavira Navarrete (United States)

    Carramiñana, A.


    During the twentieth century, Mexican astronomical observatories migrated Tonantzintla and from there to the selected mountain sites of San Pedro Mártir and Cananea. In Tonantzintla Mexican astronomy progressed from cosmography to astrophysics. There, during the fifties and sixties, Guillermo Haro used the Schmidt camera to place México in the astronomical map. Instrumental to this process was Enrique Chavira, whose scientific life almost exactly matched the second half of the century which has just finished, going from the pioneer times of the Tonantzintla Astrophysical Observatory to the fully developed Mexican astronomy of the dawn of the XXI century. Enrique Chavira died unexpectedly 38 days before the turn of the century. Even though his heart had shown past weaknesses, his daily presence in the corridors of the Tonantzintla Institute somehow led us to believe he would always be here. Chavira was the most senior of the astronomers at Tonantzintla and, though he never entered the decision circles, he always had an opinion, frequently ironic, about the main problems of the Instituto. I do remember more than one occasion Alfonso Serrano asking for the advice of Chavira, seeking the experience of the former assistant of Don Guillermo Haro. Born and raised in México City, Chavira eventually moved to Puebla, the closest large city to Tonantzintla, following the steps of Mexican observational astronomy. Without concluding his formal studies, Chavira managed to adjudicate for himself the title of ``astrónomo'', earning it with his skillful handling of the Schmidt camera and the photographic plates. Over the years he took over 8000 astronomical plates, which is a little more than half of the precious Tonantzintla collection. Even though Chavira was aware of his limitations, his ability in photographic astronomy made him a recognized astronomer. The list of his co-authors includes, apart from Guillermo Haro, other renamed astronomers like Manuel Peimbert, Luis Felipe Rodríguez, and Lee Hartmann. He worked in the study of stars with emission lines, flare stars, FU Orionis stars, infrared stars, mainly in in the Tonantzintla plates. Perhaps the closest step to immortality made by Chavira was the co-discovery of comet 1954K which bears the joint name Haro-Chavira, a tacit recognition to the doublet of observers of the golden years of Mexican astronomy. Chavira, witness of the transition from Tacubaya to Tonantzintla, of the overlap of both observatories and the birth of the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica, survivor of the hardest times of this institute to see it finally blossom, stood with a calm mixture of humility, enthusiasm and humour. When the interest of the community for the use of Schmidt cameras decayed, when photographic plates were substituted by photoelectronic detectors and the urban light-pollution damaged the skies of Tonantzintla, Chavira went into the careful examination of astronomical plates, dedicating part of his time to attend the frequent visitors who arrive to the ``Observatorio de Tonantzintla''. He proudly showed to the public the Schmidt camera, telling witty anecdotes, often colored with a touch of fantasy. He stayed always close to astronomy and went to the Institute in an almost religious manner until the last day that life allowed him to do so.

  5. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    AMSHOFF, Ms. Dr. Gerda Jane Hillegonda (5 January 1913 — 10 February 1985) Ms. Amshoff studied biology at the State University of Utrecht. Her Ph.D. thesis was on the Leguminosae of Surinam. In later years she was attached to the Agricultural College of Wageningen and worked as a staffmember of WAG,

  6. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  7. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.


    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  8. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.


    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  9. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  10. Addressing problems of employee performance. (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R


    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  11. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.


    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  12. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim


    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  13. Building technology services that address student needs. (United States)

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin


    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform.

  14. Terms of Address in the Chinese Business Enterprise (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Sultan, Robert


    This study examines terms of address currently used by employees of Chinese business enterprises. The authors find that a speaker's address selections are related significantly to the gender of the speaker, the location of the enterprise in Eastern or Western China, and the ownership type of the enterprise; that is, whether the enterprise is…

  15. CIRM Alpha Stem Cell Clinics: Collaboratively Addressing Regenerative Medicine Challenges. (United States)

    Jamieson, Catriona H M; Millan, Maria T; Creasey, Abla A; Lomax, Geoff; Donohoe, Mary E; Walters, Mark C; Abedi, Mehrdad; Bota, Daniela A; Zaia, John A; Adams, John S


    The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) Alpha Stem Cell Clinic (ASCC) Network was launched in 2015 to address a compelling unmet medical need for rigorous, FDA-regulated, stem cell-related clinical trials for patients with challenging, incurable diseases. Here, we describe our multi-center experiences addressing current and future challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Life’s Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious relations......According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious...... to a number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  17. First keynote address - biological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.


    The author describes the interplay of physical research and the practice of radiation protection. There are both analogies in and differences between the problems of health protection from radiation and chemical pollutants. In formulating research objectives for synfuel technologies, it is important to take what lessons there are to be learned from the radiation experience. The regulation of the exposure of persons to radiation probably rests on a firmer scientific basis than does the regulation of exposure to many toxic chemicals. Some things in radiation protection - in both applied work and in research - should help to guide in approaching chemicals. The second section of this paper gives a brief description of the practice of radiation protection. The next section mentions some fundamental deficiencies that exist in radiation protection. Some physical research avenues illustrate how such deficiencies are being addressed as part of an integrated radiation research program. In the fourth section the author focuses on chemical pollutants, drawing some lessons from the radiation experience

  18. A region addresses patient safety. (United States)

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I


    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  19. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges (United States)

    Carroll, Scott P.; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Denison, R. Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.


    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution, or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  20. Battling with breast cancer - addressing the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, S; Wahid, N; Wasim, B; Tabassum, S [Patel Hospital Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi (Pakistan)


    In the background of the current situation of breast cancer in Pakistan, with its rising incidence and mortality, non afford ability and inaccessibility to screening, diagnosis and treatment, Patel Hospital took up the task of addressing these issues at a local level, by initiating an annual free breast camp in the year 2006. In 2008 an inclusion criteria was defined to focus on high risk women for breast cancer. A comparative analysis over a period of three years was done. In the focused camps, in which 28% patients were found to have a positive family history. Most women were symptomatic. Total 11 patients were diagnosed to have cancer after evaluation. Six patients underwent definitive treatment. A problem with lack of awareness, regarding screening and treatment protocols was identified. Family history seems to be an important risk factor in our set up signifying the need to introduce extensive screening programmes. (author)

  1. Battling with breast cancer - addressing the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, S.; Wahid, N.; Wasim, B.; Tabassum, S.


    In the background of the current situation of breast cancer in Pakistan, with its rising incidence and mortality, non afford ability and inaccessibility to screening, diagnosis and treatment, Patel Hospital took up the task of addressing these issues at a local level, by initiating an annual free breast camp in the year 2006. In 2008 an inclusion criteria was defined to focus on high risk women for breast cancer. A comparative analysis over a period of three years was done. In the focused camps, in which 28% patients were found to have a positive family history. Most women were symptomatic. Total 11 patients were diagnosed to have cancer after evaluation. Six patients underwent definitive treatment. A problem with lack of awareness, regarding screening and treatment protocols was identified. Family history seems to be an important risk factor in our set up signifying the need to introduce extensive screening programmes. (author)

  2. WELCOME ADDRESS: Welcome Address for the 60th Yamada Conference (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidetoshi


    Ladies and Gentlemen On behalf of Yamada Science Foundation, I would like to extend our hearty welcome to all of you who are participating in the 60th Yamada Conference and International Symposium on Research in High Magnetic Fields particularly to those who have come a long way to Japan from various places all over the world. Yamada Science Foundation was founded in 1977 at Osaka, Japan. It develops its activities by giving support to the outstanding research projects in the basic natural sciences, especially in the interdisciplinary domains that bridge between well established research fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology. The Foundation also provides travel funds for scientists to visit or to go out of Japan in order to carry out international collaborative projects. It also holds conferences and workshops. Among these activities, one of the most important is the organization of Yamada Conferences, which are usually held two or three times a year on various topics which seem to be pioneering current research activities in natural sciences. Upon organizing Yamada Conferences, The Board of Directors of The Foundation put emphasis on the three symbolic English letter `I's. The first I stands for International, the second I means Interdisciplinary, and the third, perhaps the most important I symbolizes Innovative. As for this conference, I think it is in some sense interdisciplinary, because it deals with on one hand, the smallest scale of matter, the elementary particles while, on the other hand deals with the largest scale of matter, the universe, which are linked together. I also think many innovative ideas are presented in this conference. In this context, I believe this Conference is well suited to the scope of our Foundation. Another important aspect of holding Yamada Conference is to provide the forum of `Friendship' among the participants. We encourage all of you, particularly young scientists, to get acquainted with each other not only through hot

  3. Realization and Addressing Analysis In Blockchain Bitcoin (United States)

    Sakti Arief Daulay, Raja; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Paryasto, Marisa W.


    The implementation research and analyze address blockchain on this bitcoin will have the results that refers to making address bitcoin a safe and boost security of address the bitcoin. The working mechanism of blockchain in making address bitcoin which is already in the blockchain system.

  4. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan


    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  5. Keynote Address from V. Sucha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, V.; )


    1. Nuclear Energy in Europe: In the EU, the whole nuclear fuel cycle is fully monitored, from uranium enrichment, to fuel production, power reactors, including the two largest plants for reprocessing of spent fuel in the world and final disposal: It goes without saying that the European Union sees nuclear safety, security and safeguards as one of its utmost priorities. 2. Euratom Nuclear safeguards system: The Euratom treaty introduced a strict system of safeguards throughout the EU to ensure that nuclear materials are used only for declared, peaceful purposes; The European Commission's Safeguards Service-better known internationally as Euratom - is a global and quite unique safeguards actor with exceptional enforcement powers; Inspections in the Non-Nuclear Weapon States and in certain installations in the two Nuclear Weapon States of the EU, France and the UK, are carried out jointly by Euratom and IAEA inspectors. More generally, Euratom and IAEA safeguards activities complement each other, which requires close cooperation. In 2013, 1300 inspections took place in the EU in accordance with the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement in place for the Non-Nuclear Weapon States of the EU and the voluntary Safeguards Agreements for UK and France; In this regard, it is important to mention that Euratom has historically supported all measures aimed to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the Agency's safeguards system, and currently this is the case with the IAEA's State-Level Concept. State-level Approaches are being used by the IAEA for a couple of years for all non-nuclear weapon EU member states; these should now be further developed by putting more emphasis on utilizing the unique features of the Euratom regional system of safeguards. 3. EU current support to IAEA in the field of nuclear safeguards: The obligations for the European Commission to safeguard a large variety of nuclear facilities, which are becoming ever more sophisticated

  6. Convolving optically addressed VLSI liquid crystal SLM (United States)

    Jared, David A.; Stirk, Charles W.


    We designed, fabricated, and tested an optically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) that performs a 3 X 3 kernel image convolution using ferroelectric liquid crystal on VLSI technology. The chip contains a 16 X 16 array of current-mirror-based convolvers with a fixed kernel for finding edges. The pixels are located on 75 micron centers, and the modulators are 20 microns on a side. The array successfully enhanced edges in illumination patterns. We developed a high-level simulation tool (CON) for analyzing the performance of convolving SLM designs. CON has a graphical interface and simulates SLM functions using SPICE-like device models. The user specifies the pixel function along with the device parameters and nonuniformities. We discovered through analysis, simulation and experiment that the operation of current-mirror-based convolver pixels is degraded at low light levels by the variation of transistor threshold voltages inherent to CMOS chips. To function acceptable, the test SLM required the input image to have an minimum irradiance of 10 (mu) W/cm2. The minimum required irradiance can be further reduced by adding a photodarlington near the photodetector or by increasing the size of the transistors used to calculate the convolution.

  7. 33 CFR 135.9 - Fund address. (United States)


    ... FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND General § 135.9 Fund address. The address to which correspondence relating to the Coast Guard's administration of the Fund... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fund address. 135.9 Section 135.9...

  8. Obituary: Dr. Richard Roland Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton R


    Full Text Available Richard Baker died at Easter 2007 after a very short illness. It is sad that he died so soon after his retirement from the British American Tobacco Company at the end of 2005, and just as he was beginning to enjoy his new life, even though tobacco science still had a part to play.

  9. Identifying and Addressing Themes of Job Dissatisfaction for Secondary Principals (United States)

    De Jong, David; Grundmeyer, Trent; Yankey, Julie


    Secondary principals serve in important roles that are complex, high-stress, and include demanding job responsibilities. Key stakeholders such as superintendents, school board members, and legislators must understand the challenges facing secondary principals in order to address the current themes of job dissatisfaction. Using new survey data…

  10. Understanding and Addressing Homophobia in Schools: A View from Teachers (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia


    South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group…

  11. Can Innovation Save Gifted Education? 2010 NAGC Presidential Address (United States)

    Robinson, Ann


    Connecting innovation with gifted education is a necessity not only in the current political climate but also because it is a field with deeply held beliefs about the importance of problem solving, creativity, imagination, and invention--all critical components of innovation. In this address, the author focuses on three key ideas. First, she…

  12. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing


    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko


    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  13. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy


    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  14. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.


    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  15. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  16. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun


    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  17. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim


    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  18. 29 CFR 4245.7 - PBGC address. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PBGC address. 4245.7 Section 4245.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE OF INSOLVENCY § 4245.7 PBGC address. See...

  19. A diagonal address generator for a Josephson memory circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Hasuo, S.


    The authors propose that a diagonal D address generator, which is useful for a single flux quantum (SFQ) memory cell in the triple coincidence scheme, can be performed by a full adder circuit. For the purpose of evaluating the D address generator for a 16-kbit memory circuit, a 6-bit full adder circuit, using a current-steering flip-flop circuit, has been designed and fabricated with the lead-alloy process. Operating times for the address latch, carry generator, and sum generator were 150 ps, 250 ps/stage, and 1.4 ns, respectively. From these results, they estimate that the time necessary for the diagonal signal generation is 2.8 ns

  20. Wind versus Biofuels for Addressing Climate, Health, and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.


    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  1. Firewall for Dynamic IP Address in Mobile IPv6 (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Bao, Feng; Zhou, Jianying

    Mobile communication is becoming the mainstream with the rapid growth of mobile devices penetrating our daily life. More and more mobile devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, notebooks etc, are capable of Internet access. Mobile devices frequently change their communication IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network following its current attached domain. This raises a big challenge for building firewall for mobile devices. The conventional firewalls are primarily based on IPv4 networks where the security criteria are specified only to the fixed IP addresses or subnets, which apparently do not apply to mobile IPv6. In this paper we propose three solutions for mobile IPv6 firewall. Our approaches make the firewall adaptive to dynamic IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network. They have different expense and weight corresponding to different degree of universality. The paper focuses the study more from practical aspect.

  2. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia


    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address:   Emergency contacts:   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  3. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Taib Osman


    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  4. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  5. Interventions addressing general parenting to prevent or treat childhood obesity. (United States)

    Gerards, Sanne M P L; Sleddens, Ester F C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J


    Observational studies increasingly emphasize the impact of general parenting on the development of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the current literature review was to provide an overview of interventions addressing general parenting in order to prevent or treat childhood obesity. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies described four different general parenting programs, which were supplemented with lifestyle components (i.e., physical activity and nutrition). All studies showed significant small to moderate intervention effects on at least one weight-related outcome measure. The current review shows that despite the emerging observational evidence for the role of parenting in children's weight-related outcomes, few interventions have been developed that address general parenting in the prevention of childhood obesity. These interventions provide evidence that the promotion of authoritative parenting is an effective strategy for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.

  6. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S


    Full Text Available Puccini Street, Constantia Park 546 Puccini Street, Glenstantia, 0181 A recent study in Denmark analysed the qualitative and quantitative impact of address ambiguities. The qualitative analysis confirmed that the ambiguities affect people every day... description consists of a land parcel number together with a registered name and registration division, and is recorded at a Surveyor-General’s office. An address complements a land parcel description with information such as the street name and the street...

  7. Research Note Consumer Addressability and Customized Pricing


    Yuxin Chen; Ganesh Iyer


    The increasing availability of customer information is giving many firms the ability to reach and customize price and other marketing efforts to the tastes of the individual consumer. This ability is labeled as consumer addressability. Consumer addressability through sophisticated databases is particularly important for direct-marketing firms, catalog retailers such as L.L Bean and Land's End, credit card-issuing banks, and firms in the long-distance telephone market. We examine the strategic...

  8. Moving to world's best uranium address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, Frank


    Most exploration dollars spent in South Australia are focused on exploiting uranium. This is for good reason as South Australia is the world's best address for uranium. Pressure to cut CO 2 emissions and the ballistic growth of the Chinese and Indian economies has heightened expectations that the worldwide use of uranium for power generation will mushroom beyond its current 17% market share. The recent Australia-China deal only seems to confirm this; hence uranium's growing popularity among miners and explorers. Such is the attractiveness of uranium-related floats, when Toro Energy sought $18m in March it was swamped with more than three times share application volume. In the north west, Southern Gold and Hindmarsh Resources are expectantly drilling for commercial uranium deposits all around the acreage that hosts the Challenger gold mine in the Gawler Craton. The first exploration drilling for uranium in quaternary-age river channels will take place in South Australia's far north in May. Red Metal says while older and deeper tertiary river channels in the area that host the Beverley uranium mine were explored for uranium, the younger near-surface channel has not had a single hole drilled for uranium. This is despite the area being one of the 'hottest radiogenic terrains in South Australia'. The company will target calcrete-style uranium mineralisation similar to the Yerrlirrie deposit in Western Australia (52,000t U308). Tasman Resources will start drilling to test seven uranium targets within 30km of Olympic Dam, the world's largest known uranium deposit, later this year. Tasman also holds tenements adjoining the Warrior uranium deposit near Tarcoola that contains known radiometric anomalies within the 40km-long Wynbring paleochannels. They are the fourth largest uranium explorer in South Australia. Alliance Resources and its JV partner Quasar Resources are exploring the Beverley 4 Mile uranium prospect at Arkaroola. Quasar is an affiliate of Heathgate Resources

  9. Battery Cell Voltage Sensing and Balancing Using Addressable Transformers (United States)

    Davies, Francis


    A document discusses the use of saturating transformers in a matrix arrangement to address individual cells in a high voltage battery. This arrangement is able to monitor and charge individual cells while limiting the complexity of circuitry in the battery. The arrangement has inherent galvanic isolation, low cell leakage currents, and allows a single bad cell in a battery of several hundred cells to be easily spotted.

  10. Addressing barriers to low carbon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Fiona; Dunstan, Chris


    Full text: Two energy solutions gaining attention are cogeneration and trigeneration, mostly fuelled by natural gas, although other renewable sources can be used, such as sewage, agricultural waste and municipal waste. Trigeneration has become increasingly popular in Australia's urban centres as a relatively cost-effective means to cut the carbon-intensity of energy supply by more than half compared to traditional coal- fired electricity. Some examples of trigeneration projects include the City of Sydney's planned 360 megawatt trigeneration networks by 2030, the University of Technology Sydney's campus master plan and the six star Green Star Commonwealth Bank Place building in Sydney. Trigeneration and cogeneration can present opportunities such as addressing the issue of rising peak demand, which is a major driver for the current $9 billion per annum of network infrastructure spending. They can also face barriers. For example, depending on the current state of the network, additional network costs can be required to accommodate trigeneration. Furthermore, under the current National Electricity Market regulations and conventions, challenges do exist to timely and financially viable connection to the grid. Here we present two examples of barriers to trigeneration and cogeneration and solutions being considered and implemented. The University of Technology Sydney campus master plan is underway, with approximately 100,000sq.m of floor area being built by 2019 and includes plans for trigeneration. During the master planning phase of development, the university considered small trigeneration units in individual buildings in order to reduce the carbon intensity of electricity supply and deliver high ratings under Green Star ratings. When considering connecting trigeneration with the grid at multiple buildings on an individual basis, a number of barriers were encountered by UTS. The largest barrier was appropriate charging for connecting to and using the grid. However

  11. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  12. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available ; visiting friends; and providing a reference context for presenting other information. The benefits of an international address standards include: enabling address interoperability across boundaries; reducing service delivery costs; enabling development...

  13. Enter your email-address: how German internet users manage their email addresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.


    Writing E-mail is the most popular Internet activity. Meanwhile, many people have more than one E-mail address. The question how people manage their E-mail addresses, more specifically, whether they use them deliberately for different purposes, is the central question of this paper. E-mail addresses

  14. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  15. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen


    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  16. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space (United States)

    Wilkes, John


    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  17. Address rituals as heuristics of social structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Kotze


    Full Text Available The address form as linguistic variable has more realisation possibilities than any other, because semantic variation is involved and it reflects all the different interpersonal relations in the societal structure. Factors such as religious status, sex, kinship and age differences play a key role in the choice of the address form. It is hypothesised that the way in which address forms vary in a speech community is a linguistic reflection of the social norms determining the hierarchical structure of the community. Die aanspreekvorm as linguistiese veranderlike het meer verwesenlikingsmoontlikhede as enige ander vorm, want semantiese verskeidenheid is betrokke en dit reflekteer die verskillende interpersoonlike verhoudings in die gemeenskapstruktuur. Faktore soos religieuse status, geslag, verwantskap en ouderdomsverskille speel 'n sleutelrol in die aanspreekvorm. Daar word gehipotetiseer dat die wyse waarop aanspreekvorms in 'n spraakgemeenskap wissel, 'n linguistiese refleksie is van die sosiale norme wat die hierargiese struktuur van die gemeenskap bepaal.

  18. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, John


    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  19. Content addressable memories in scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotto, I. de; Golinelli, S.


    The content-addressable-memory feature of a new system designed in these laboratories for non-destructive testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessels based on acoustic emission analysis is presented. The content addressable memory is divided into two parts: the first selects the most frequent events among incoming ones (FES: Frequent Event Selection memory), the second stores the frequent events singled out (FEM: Frequent Event Memory). The statistical behaviour of FES is analyzed, and experimental results are compared with theoretical ones; the model presented proved to be a useful tool in dimensioning the instrument store capacity. (Auth.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yarmolik


    Full Text Available A universal approach for generation of address sequences with specified properties is proposed and analyzed. A modified version of the Antonov and Saleev algorithm for Sobol sequences genera-tion is chosen as a mathematical description of the proposed method. Within the framework of the proposed universal approach, the Sobol sequences form a subset of the address sequences. Other sub-sets are also formed, which are Gray sequences, anti-Gray sequences, counter sequences and sequenc-es with specified properties.

  1. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard


    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...

  2. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N


    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  3. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.


    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  4. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.


    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  5. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.


    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  6. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  7. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema


    to rework, misunderstandings, miscommunication and lower quality. This paper investigates how the organisation can reduce the negative aspects of offshoring by presenting two possible approaches; one which lessens the exposure to situations in which these negative impacts happen and another which addresses...

  9. Addressing Diversity: A Call for Action. (United States)

    Henderson, Ingeborg


    Suggests a series of steps that individuals in the foreign language profession can take to effectively address the issue of demographic changes in the U.S. college student populations and keeping foreign language learning a feasible discipline in the future. (26 references) (GLR)

  10. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  11. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels


    , improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  12. 40 CFR 65.14 - Addresses. (United States)


    ... 75202. Region VII (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska), Director, Air and Toxics Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, Kansas 66101. Region VIII (Colorado, Montana... authority has been delegated under section 112(l) of the Act. The mailing addresses for State agencies are...

  13. Addressing the Global Burden of Breast Cancer (United States)

    The US National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health (CGH) has been a key partner in a multi-institutional expert team that has developed a set of publications to address foundational concerns in breast cancer care across the cancer care continuum and within limited resource settings.

  14. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter


    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  15. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.


    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  16. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses (United States)


    ... John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201. (13) Missile Defense Agency. Missile Defense Agency... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Information Security Oversight Office's...

  17. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom (United States)

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick


    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  18. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses. (United States)


    ..., Room LM-401 in the James Madison Memorial Building, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE...

  19. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology. (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  20. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.


    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  1. Volume 1: president's address, CNA committee reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president's address summarizes the 1974-75 activities of the CNA and reports are given by CNA subcommittees on codes, standards and practices, economic development, education and manpower, international affairs, nuclear insurance, nuclear safety and environment, public relations, and technology. (E.C.B.)

  2. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control (United States)

    Tonso, William R.


    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  3. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access (United States)

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda


    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  4. Addressing Sexual Violence as Student Affairs Work (United States)

    Landreman, Lisa M.; Williamsen, Kaaren M.


    In this chapter, we outline the challenges campuses face in addressing sexual violence and Title IX compliance. We argue that there are critical roles for student affairs professionals in Title IX work in developing effective campus sexual violence prevention and response strategies.

  5. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, H.; Cardelli, L.


    . These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the role of nutritional information for addressing under-five child malnutrition in Tanzania. The paper is based on a master's dissertation whose objective was to determine the sources of nutritional information used to provide nutritional information to mothers in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics, ...

  7. Address Points, Address points were attributed according to NENA standards and field verfied between the dates of June 2008 thru August 2008. The address points were then matched to the Verizon Telco database with a 99% hit rate in October of 2008., Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative. (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2006. Address points were attributed according to NENA standards and field verfied between the dates of June 2008 thru August...

  8. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization. (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  9. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl


    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  10. Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski


    Full Text Available Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators The category of expressions of politeness includes, among others, forms of address. Forms of address express honorification. Honorification can be defined as a special type of meaning that consists of information about the social and interpersonal relations between the speaker and the addressee, the speaker and the hearer, and the speaker and the protagonist of the predication. As far as their place in the syntactic structure is concerned, forms of address can either be integrated with the other elements of a predication or not. However, they are always part of a predication’s semantic structure. Moreover, forms of address convey the speaker’s attitude to the meaning of the predicate that they want to convey, which consequently means that forms of address also carry a modal element. Modality can be defined as a situation in which an individual is in a particular mental state, i.e. exhibits some kind of attitude to a situation or a type of situations. Forms of address can be categorised as modal operators conveying imperatives, requests, suppositions, etc. The term "operator" can be used for a unit of language when it changes the semantic structure of the predication. My research on honorification is mainly based on contemporary corpora, both monolingual and multilingual. In the present study, I analyse forms of address which carry imperative and optative meanings.   Formy adresatywne jako dyskretne operatory modalne W obrębie wyrażeń realizujących funkcje grzecznościowe znajduje się grupa form adresatywnych. Są one częścią kategorii honoryfikatywności rozumianej jako szczególny rodzaj znaczenia zawartego w treści wypowiedzi, informację o towarzysko-społecznej relacji między nadawcą a odbiorcą, nadawcą a słuchaczem oraz nadawcą a bohaterem wypowiedzi. Gramatycznie formy adresatywne mogą być zarówno zintegrowane, jak i niezintegrowane syntaktycznie z resztą wypowiedzi, ale

  11. Do pediatric gastroenterology doctors address pediatric obesity?


    Batra, Suruchi; Yee, Caitlin; Diez, Bernadette; Nguyen, Nicholas; Sheridan, Michael J; Tufano, Mark; Sikka, Natalie; Townsend, Stacie; Hourigan, Suchitra


    Objectives: To assess how often obesity is acknowledged at pediatric gastroenterology outpatient visits. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify obese children seen at a gastroenterology subspecialty clinic over a 1-year period of time; 132 children were identified. Demographics, obesity comorbidities, reasons for referral, diagnosis of obesity, and a plan to address obesity were abstracted. Chi-square or Fisher?s exact tests were used to examine statistical associatio...

  12. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  13. Opening address; Allocution d`ouverture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R


    In this opening address the president of WANO underlines the relative isolation of the Kozloduy NPP from the international nuclear community due to the lack of information and contacts. The need for eliminating the isolation is stressed and the following measures are proposed: to make the Kozloduy NPP an active member of the international community; to improve and maintain the safety level; to contribute to the electricity exchange system of Southeastern Europe.

  14. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging


    Iryna Yevseyeva; James Turland; Charles Morisset; Lynne Coventry; Thomas Groß


    In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT) consumerisation that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behaviour influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabil...

  15. Transformed composite sequences for improved qubit addressing (United States)

    Merrill, J. True; Doret, S. Charles; Vittorini, Grahame; Addison, J. P.; Brown, Kenneth R.


    Selective laser addressing of a single atom or atomic ion qubit can be improved using narrow-band composite pulse sequences. We describe a Lie-algebraic technique to generalize known narrow-band sequences and introduce sequences related by dilation and rotation of sequence generators. Our method improves known narrow-band sequences by decreasing both the pulse time and the residual error. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate these composite sequences using 40Ca+ ions trapped in a surface-electrode ion trap.

  16. Activities to Address Challenges in Digital Innovation


    Lund , Jesper


    Part 3: Structures and Networks; International audience; Based on a literature review, this paper identifies four socio-technical challenges relating to innovation actor’s interactions in digital innovation. Furthermore, the paper explores how these challenges can be addressed. The challenges are investigated in a case study of digital innovation. The study is based on a two year long research and development project where an e-newspaper concept and a demonstrator based on e-paper technology ...

  17. Current awareness. (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D


    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  18. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server


    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  19. Methods for Intelligent Mapping of the IPV6 Address Space (United States)


    the " Internet of Things " ( IoT ). (2013, Jan. 7). Forbes. [Online]. Available: how-many- things -are...currently-connected-to-the- internet -of- things - iot / 57 [13] G. Huston, “IPv4 address report,” Mar 2015. [Online]. Available: is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Due to the rapid growth of the Internet , the available pool of unique

  20. Addressing the Challenge of Molecular Change: An Interim Report (United States)

    Levine, Raphael D.


    Invited by the editorial committee of the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry to "contribute my autobiography," I present it here, as I understand the term. It is about my parents, my mentors, my coworkers, and my friends in learning and the scientific problems that we tried to address. Courtesy of the editorial assistance of Annual Reviews, some of the science is in the figure captions and sidebars. I am by no means done: I am currently trying to fuse the quantitative rigor of physical chemistry with systems biology while also dealing with a post-Born-Oppenheimer regime in electronic dynamics and am attempting to instruct molecules to perform advanced logic.

  1. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.


    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  2. Effects of Linear Falling Ramp Reset Pulse on Addressing Operation in AC PDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zujun; Liang Zhihu; Liu Chunliang; Meng Lingguo


    The effects of linear falling ramp reset pulse related to addressing operation in an alternating current plasma display panel (AC PDP) were studied. The wall charge waveforms were measured by the electrode balance method in a 12-inch coplanar AC PDP. The wall charge waveforms show the relationship between the slope ratio of the falling ramp reset pulse and the wall charges at the end of the falling ramp reset pulse which influences the addressing stability. Then the effects of the slope ratio of the linear falling ramp reset pulse on the addressing voltage and addressing time were investigated. The experimental results show that the minimum addressing voltage increases with the increase of the slope ratio of the falling ramp reset pulse, and so does the minimum addressing time. Based on the experimental results, the optimization of the addressing time and the slope ratio of the falling ramp pulse is discussed

  3. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Dutchess County, NY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Weld County, CO, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. Addressing Medicaid/marketplace churn through multimarket plans: assessing the current state of play. (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara


    Both before and after the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the US health insurance system is characterized by fragmentation. Pre-ACA, this fragmentation included major coverage gaps, causing significant periods of coverage interruption, especially for lower-income people. The ACA does not end the problem of churning among sources of public financing, but it does hold the potential for enabling people to move among sources of coverage rather than go without insurance. Several strategies for reducing coverage churn exist, but none is foolproof and all are in their early stages. Thus the ability of issuers to participate across multiple public financing arrangements and to offer stable provider networks becomes crucial to achieving continuity of care. Interviews with nine companies involved in developing or operating multimarket strategies confirm the feasibility of this approach while revealing major challenges, especially the challenge of finding providers willing to treat members regardless of the source of coverage. Strategies for increasing multimarket plans and networks represent one of the great areas of future policy and operational focus. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  6. Jabs and barbs: ways to address misleading vaccination and immunisation information using currently available strategies. (United States)

    Wardle, Jon; Stewart, Cameron; Parker, Malcolm


    Misleading vaccination information undermines confidence in vaccination and may lead to reductions in the effectiveness of vaccination programs. A number of regulatory techniques can be employed to challenge the spread of false information, including health care complaints, therapeutic goods laws, consumer protection laws and professional discipline. This article examines three case studies involving the publication of anti-vaccination information by non-professionally aligned organisations, by non-registered health professionals, and by registered health professionals under the National Law. The article examines the effectiveness of different regulatory responses and makes suggestions for future strategies to deal with the publication of demonstrably false information regarding vaccination.

  7. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Walker County, TX, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  8. Addressing current challenges in cancer immunotherapy with mathematical and computational modelling. (United States)

    Konstorum, Anna; Vella, Anthony T; Adler, Adam J; Laubenbacher, Reinhard C


    The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to boost a patient's immune response to a tumour. Yet, the design of an effective immunotherapy is complicated by various factors, including a potentially immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, immune-modulating effects of conventional treatments and therapy-related toxicities. These complexities can be incorporated into mathematical and computational models of cancer immunotherapy that can then be used to aid in rational therapy design. In this review, we survey modelling approaches under the umbrella of the major challenges facing immunotherapy development, which encompass tumour classification, optimal treatment scheduling and combination therapy design. Although overlapping, each challenge has presented unique opportunities for modellers to make contributions using analytical and numerical analysis of model outcomes, as well as optimization algorithms. We discuss several examples of models that have grown in complexity as more biological information has become available, showcasing how model development is a dynamic process interlinked with the rapid advances in tumour-immune biology. We conclude the review with recommendations for modellers both with respect to methodology and biological direction that might help keep modellers at the forefront of cancer immunotherapy development. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Iowa County, IA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Appling County, GA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  11. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Clark County, NV, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  12. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Nantucket County, MA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  13. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Houston County, MN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  14. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Ballard County, KY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production. (United States)

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y


    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The recovery of green energy, the production of a value-added odorless fertilizer, the elimination of manure pathogens, and the proper disposal of swine mortalities will substantially reduce the carbon and environmental footprints on products of swine origin.

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Jackson County, OR, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Lafayette County, MS, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Warren County, MS, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Clay County, MS, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  20. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available ) (ISO 19112) Precision Redirectable Standards Postal address Street delivery address Y N N Y N Y Fine Y UPU S42 PO Box or Private Bag Y N N Y Fine to Coarse Y UPU S42 Post Restante Y N N Y N Y Coarse Y UPU S42 Delivery address... (for goods, etc) Street address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Intersection address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Landmark address Y N N Y N Y Fine to Moderate N Building address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Site address Y N N Y N Y Fine to Coarse N Farm...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariannamazi


    Full Text Available Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature’s literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  2. Best Practices in Hiring: Addressing Unconscious Bias (United States)

    Simpson, Caroline E.


    Research has shown that implementing certain hiring practices will increase diversity in the workplace while enhancing academic quality. All of these practices rely on addressing the issue of 'unconscious bias.' A brief overview of unconscious bias--what it is, how it works, and simple measures to counter it--will be presented. Successful strategies, actions, and recommendations for implementing best recruiting and hiring practices, which have been proven to enhance academic excellence by ensuring a deep and diverse applicant pool, will also be presented.

  3. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  4. Validation of Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina


    The aim was to explore the use of an activity-based approach to determine the validity of a set of housing standards addressing accessibility. This included examination of the frequency and the extent of accessibility problems among older people with physical functional limitations who used...... participant groups were examined. Performing well-known kitchen activities was associated with accessibility problems for all three participant groups, in particular those using a wheelchair. The overall validity of the housing standards examined was poor. Observing older people interacting with realistic...... environments while performing real everyday activities seems to be an appropriate method for assessing accessibility problems....

  5. Addressing Longevity’ Heterogeneity in Pension Scheme Design


    Ayuso, Mercedes; Bravo, Jorge Miguel; Holzmann, Robert


    Ayuso, M., Bravo, J. M., & Holzmann, R. (2017). Addressing Longevity’ Heterogeneity in Pension Scheme Design. Journal of Finance and Economics, 6(1), 1-21. DOI: 10.12735/jfe.v6n1p1 This paper demonstrates that the link between heterogeneity in longevity and lifetime income across countries is mostly high and often increasing; that it translates into an implicit tax/subsidy, with rates reaching 20 percent and higher in some countries; that such rates risk perverting redistributive objective...

  6. Collisionless current sheet equilibria (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.


    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  7. Scientific foundations of addressing risk in complex and dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotan, T.O.; Storseth, F.; Albrechtsen, E.


    Development, deployment and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and digital infrastructure continue with unabated intensity in the petroleum-related activity on the Norwegian shelf. This development towards what is denoted Integrated Operations (IO) creates new ways of organizing work, new work processes and increased automation, e.g. closer collaboration offshore-onshore, cooperation across organizational and geographical borders. This creates new challenges for managing risk. Although there are different versions of IO today, we argue that it is possible to identify and study generic properties within such IO manifestations. The current paper focus on the potential complexity of IO in the generic sense, and some scientific implications in terms of addressing risk. The paper uses the century-old metaphor of 'wildness in wait' to engage the wide field of complexity theory in a productive way to address systemic properties of risk. The paper further uses the Cynefin sensemaking framework in order to identify and address the crucial distinction between directed (resultant) and un-directed (emergent) order. The paper finally discusses the importance of seeing risk assessment as a social knowledge practice.

  8. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  9. Addressing data heterogeneity: Lessons learned from a multimedia risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkaynak, H.; Xue, Jianping; Butler, D.A.; Haroun, L.A.; MacDonell, M.M.; Fingleton, D.J.


    Cleanup activities are currently being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at a former chemical plant site that has been inactive for more than 20 years. The Army produced nitroaromatic explosives at the 220-acre site during the 1940s, and radioactive materials of the uranium and thorium series were processed there by DOE's predecessor agency during the 1950s and 1960s. Chemical and radioactive contaminants are present in soil, surface water, sediment, and groundwater at the site as a result of both past releases and disposal activities and subsequent contaminant migration. Samples have been collected from these media over a number of years under both DOE's environmental monitoring program and the site characterization program of the Superfund process. Results of samples analyses have been compiled in a computerized data base. These data are being evaluated in the context of potential exposure pathways that are currently present at the site or that may be present in the future, in order to estimate possible adverse impacts to human health and the environment in the absence of cleanup. This paper discusses the methodology used to address associated tasks and the lessons learned during the assessment process. Statistical issues and recommended future directions for dealing with technical aspects of this project and with similar multimedia risk assessment projects are addressed in the final discussion. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  11. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers. (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly


    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  12. Event generators for address event representation transmitters (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe


    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  13. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids (United States)


    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  14. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie


    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  15. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz


    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  16. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Gruzinski


    Full Text Available Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d...

  17. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong


    Serge Gruzinski


    Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown) le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d'...

  18. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, C.J.


    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  19. Addressing Safeguards Challenges for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majali, Raed; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    IAEA safeguard system is considered the corner stone of the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. Effective implementation of this legal instrument enables the IAEA to draw a conclusion with a high degree of confidence on the peaceful use of nuclear material and activities in the state. This paper aims to provide an opportunity to address various challenges encountered by IAEA. Strengthening safeguards system for verification is one of the most urgent challenges facing the IAEA. The IAEA should be able to provide credible assurance not only about declared use of nuclear material and facilities but also about the absence of undeclared material and activities. Implementation of IAEA safeguards continue to play a vital role within the nuclear non-proliferation regime. IAEA must move towards more enhanced safeguards system that is driven by the full use of all the safeguards available relevant information. Safeguards system must be responsive to evolving challenges and continue innovation through efficient implementations of more effective safeguards.

  20. Addressing Complexity in Environmental Management and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kirschke


    Full Text Available Governance for complex problem solving has been increasingly discussed in environmental sustainability research. Above all, researchers continuously observe that sustainability problems are complex or “wicked”, and suggest participatory models to address these problems in practice. In order to add to this debate, this study suggests a more differentiated theoretical approach to define governance for complex environmental problem solving than in previous studies. The approach consists of two vital steps: First, we operationalize complexity and define management strategies for solving environmental sustainability problems based on findings from psychology research. Second, we identify governance strategies that facilitate these management strategies. Linking those strategies suggests that the role of diverse institutions, actors, and interactions differs for five key dimensions of complexity: goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and informational uncertainty. The results strengthen systematic analyses of environmental sustainability problems in both theory and practice.

  1. Selected international efforts to address climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M.; Christ, R. [Atmosphere Unit, United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya)


    Over the past two decades, concern about human-induced climate change has become an increasingly important item on the environmental and political agenda. The signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the adoption of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 provided international organizations and the nations of the world with a new focus for climate-related activities. Although there remains considerable scientific uncertainty about the extent, magnitude, and rate of climate change and the impacts of such change, actions to address climate change have been initiated both internationally and nationally. Major international activities include the World Climate Programme, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. and the United Nations Environment Program me. 16 refs.

  2. Hybrid content addressable memory MSD arithmetic (United States)

    Li, Yao; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Eichmann, George


    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system, because of its inherent weak interdigit dependance, has been suggested as a useful means for a fast and parallel digital arithmetic. To maintain a fast processing speed, a single-stage holographic optical content-addressable memory (CAM) based MSD algorithm was suggested. In this paper, a novel non-holographic opto-electronic CAM based fast MSD addition processing architecture is proposed. The proposed concept has been verified with our first-order proof-of-principle experiments. A figure of merit comparison of this and other existing approaches is also presented. Based on this key opto-electronic CAM element, implementation of more sophisticated I'VISD arithmetic, such as optical MSD subtraction and multiplication operations, are proposed.

  3. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Yevseyeva


    Full Text Available In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabilities and threats to corporate data and devices, combined with a strategy of influencing security behavior by nudging. We argue that nudging, by taking into account the context of the decision-making environment, and the fact that the employee may be in better position to make a more appropriate decision, may be more suitable than strict policies in situations of uncertainty of security-related decisions. Several examples of nudging are considered for different tested and potential scenarios in security context.

  4. Addressing therapeutic boundaries in social networking. (United States)

    Ginory, Almari; Sabatier, Laura Mayol; Eth, Spencer


    Facebook is the leading social networking website, with over 500 million users. Prior studies have shown an increasing number of housestaff accessing the site. While Facebook can be used to foster camaraderie, it can also create difficulties in the doctor-patient relationship, especially when boundaries are crossed. This study explored the prevalence of such boundary crossings and offers recommendations for training. An anonymous voluntary survey regarding Facebook use was distributed to current psychiatry residents through the American Psychiatric Association (APA) listserv. Of the 182 respondents, 95.7% had current Facebook profiles, and 9.7% had received friend requests from patients. In addition, 18.7% admitted to viewing patient profiles on Facebook. There is a substantial utilization of Facebook among psychiatric residents as compared with prior studies. Specific guidance regarding social media websites and the potential for ethical difficulties should be offered to trainees. © 2012 Guilford Publications, Inc.

  5. Addressing complex design problems through inductive learning


    Hanna, S.


    Optimisation and related techniques are well suited to clearly defined problems involving systems that can be accurately simulated, but not to tasks in which the phenomena in question are highly complex or the problem ill-defined. These latter are typical of architecture and particularly creative design tasks, which therefore currently lack viable computational tools. It is argued that as design teams and construction projects of unprecedented scale are increasingly frequent, this is just whe...

  6. Methodological quality of systematic reviews addressing femoroacetabular impingement. (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Marcin; Adamich, John; Simunovic, Nicole; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ayeni, Olufemi R


    As the body of literature on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) continues to grow, clinicians turn to systematic reviews to remain current with the best available evidence. The quality of systematic reviews in the FAI literature is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the quality of the reporting of systematic reviews addressing FAI over the last 11 years (2003-2014) and to identify the specific methodological shortcomings and strengths. A search of the electronic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed, was performed to identify relevant systematic reviews. Methodological quality was assessed by two reviewers using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR) scoring tool. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was used to determine agreement between reviewers on R-AMSTAR quality scores. A total of 22 systematic reviews were assessed for methodological quality. The mean consensus R-AMSTAR score across all studies was 26.7 out of 40.0, indicating fair methodological quality. An ICC of 0.931, 95 % CI 0.843-0.971 indicated excellent agreement between reviewers during the scoring process. The systematic reviews addressing FAI are generally of fair methodological quality. Use of tools such as the R-AMSTAR score or PRISMA guidelines while designing future systematic reviews can assist in eliminating methodological shortcomings identified in this review. These shortcomings need to be kept in mind by clinicians when applying the current literature to their patient populations and making treatment decisions. Systematic reviews of highest methodological quality should be used by clinicians when possible to answer clinical questions.

  7. Implementation of a Network Address Translation Mechanism Over IPv6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgartner, Trevor


    ...; however, NAT provides several other benefits. NAT can be used to mask the internal IP addresses of an Intranet - IPv6, the emerging standard for Internet addressing, provides three times the number of bits for IP addressing...

  8. 75 FR 41790 - Address Management Services-Elimination of the Manual Card Option for Address Sequencing Services (United States)


    .... The authority citation for 39 CFR Part 111 continues to read as follows: Authority: 5 U.S.C. 552(a... addresses (including rural address conversions to city-style addressing). For each 5-digit ZIP Code grouping... customer includes a rural-style address (RR/box number) in an address file submitted for sequencing, and a...

  9. Global Governance Mechanisms to Address Antimicrobial Resistance. (United States)

    Padiyara, Ponnu; Inoue, Hajime; Sprenger, Marc


    Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit. A borderless threat like antimicrobial resistance requires global governance mechanisms to mitigate its emergence and spread, and it is the responsibility of all countries and relevant multilateral organizations. These mechanisms can be in the form of legally binding global governance mechanisms such as treaties and regulatory standards or nonbinding mechanisms such as political declarations, resolutions, or guidelines. In this article, we argue that while both are effective methods, the strong, swift, and coordinated action needed to address rising rates of antimicrobial resistance will be better served through legally binding governance mechanisms.

  10. Addressing uncertainty in atomistic machine learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Christensen, Rune; Khorshidi, Alireza


    Machine-learning regression has been demonstrated to precisely emulate the potential energy and forces that are output from more expensive electronic-structure calculations. However, to predict new regions of the potential energy surface, an assessment must be made of the credibility of the predi......Machine-learning regression has been demonstrated to precisely emulate the potential energy and forces that are output from more expensive electronic-structure calculations. However, to predict new regions of the potential energy surface, an assessment must be made of the credibility...... of the predictions. In this perspective, we address the types of errors that might arise in atomistic machine learning, the unique aspects of atomistic simulations that make machine-learning challenging, and highlight how uncertainty analysis can be used to assess the validity of machine-learning predictions. We...... suggest this will allow researchers to more fully use machine learning for the routine acceleration of large, high-accuracy, or extended-time simulations. In our demonstrations, we use a bootstrap ensemble of neural network-based calculators, and show that the width of the ensemble can provide an estimate...

  11. Addressing terrain masking in orbital reconnaissance (United States)

    Mehta, Sharad; Cico, Luke


    During aerial orbital reconnaissance, a sensor system is mounted on an airborne platform for imaging a region on the ground. The latency between the image acquisition and delivery of information to the end-user is critical and must be minimized. Due to fine ground pixel resolution and a large field-of-view for wide-area surveillance applications, a massive volume of data is gathered and imagery products are formed using a real-time multi-processor system. The images are taken at oblique angles, stabilized and ortho-rectified. The line-of-sight of the sensor to the ground is often interrupted by terrain features such as mountains or tall structures as depicted in Figure1. The ortho-rectification process renders the areas hidden from the line-of sight of the sensor with spurious information. This paper discusses an approach for addressing terrain masking in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and memory-restricted onboard processing systems.

  12. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All (United States)

    Rifkin, Moses


    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  13. Understanding and addressing the Schoolies phenomenon. (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Daube, Mike; Jones, Sandra C; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Kirby, Gary


    This study qualitatively explored Western Australian school leavers' alcohol-related experiences during the Schoolies period to generate insights for the purpose of intervention design. This is in the context of an impending change in the age of Western Australian students completing secondary school which, for the first time, will see around half being of legal age to purchase alcohol. Fifty-four 18-21-year-olds provided reflections via an emailed introspection on their experiences in the immediate post-school period. This provided access to the views of those who chose to attend events and consume large amounts of alcohol, those who attended events but refrained from excessive alcohol consumption, and those who elected to either avoid Schoolies events or engage in alternative celebrations. The data were coded and analysed using NVivo10. Three primary themes were identified that related to the perceived role of alcohol during Schoolies, the range of associated rite-of-passage rituals, and the strategies used by some Leavers to avoid alcohol and its consequences during the Schoolies period. Students and parents constitute important target groups for interventions designed to address alcohol-related harms during Schoolies. In the WA context, legislation on secondary supply and controlled purchase, as recommended by health and police authorities, could reduce harms that are likely to result from the change in the age of school leavers. Suggestions for alternative pastimes to promote to school leavers are provided. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Quantitative tools for addressing hospital readmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagoe Ronald J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased interest in health care cost containment is focusing attention on reduction of hospital readmissions. Major payors have already developed financial penalties for providers that generate excess readmissions. This subject has benefitted from the development of resources such as the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software. This process has encouraged hospitals to renew efforts to improve these outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative tools such as definitions, risk estimation, and tracking of patients for reducing hospital readmissions. Findings This study employed the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software to develop quantitative tools for addressing hospital readmissions. These tools included two definitions of readmissions that support identification and management of patients. They also included analytical approaches for estimation of the risk of readmission for individual patients by age, discharge status of the initial admission, and severity of illness. They also included patient specific spreadsheets for tracking of target populations and for evaluation of the impact of interventions. Conclusions The study demonstrated that quantitative tools including the development of definitions of readmissions, estimation of the risk of readmission, and patient specific spreadsheets could contribute to the improvement of patient outcomes in hospitals.

  15. Assessing what to address in science communication. (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann


    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  16. Addressing Issues for Land Change Science (United States)

    Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing


    Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; and brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

  17. Address Points - COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN: Address Points Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point feature class) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN is an ESRI Geodatabase point feature class that contains address points maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  18. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.


    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  19. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter


    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  20. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; van den Berg, Henk; Kylin, Henrik


    Background The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities. Discussion Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction. Conclusions There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives. PMID:21245017

  1. Nuclear techniques to address HAB concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Nhu Ngoc; Phan Son; Nguyen Ngoc Lam and Chu Van Thuoc


    In December, 1998, The Project Formulation meeting on application of Nuclear Techniques to address red tide (Harmful Algal Bloom concerns) was held in Manila Philippines. This is an IAEA/RCA project with the participation of Australia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, The Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The main objectives of this project (RAS/8/076) included: - Conduct of segmentation studies to gain information on the natural histories of sediments and to correlated these with Red Tide occurrences. - Development of descriptive and predictive of the behaviour of Algal Bloom as affected by the interplay of the causative organism with the environment parameters in the water column and sediments. - Development and field testing of a rapid assay technique based on tritium - labeled saxitoxin for toxin determination. The first phase has been completed in 2002 and the second phase will be completed in 2004. In the two years of 2001 - 2002 Ted Tide occurred in very larger area in Vietnam, for example, in the coast of Binh Thuan Province with the density of 39.10 9 cells/litre. The Ministry of science - technology environment of Vietnam has support 5.000 USD each years for sediment and algal sampling in Cam Ranh Bay (Nha Trang, 11 o 45N and 10 o 15E) and Ha Long Bay in the North - East of Vietnam (21 o 15 and 107 o 3E) and in 2003 in Tuy Phong Bay (Binh Thuan province) (10 o 15N, 108 o 45E). Three sediment core has been taken from Cam Ranh Bay, Ha Long Bay and Tuy Phong Bay. The volume of sediment core is Φ = 8 cm and h = 60 cm. The algal samples have been collected by Bongo nets in Cam Ranh, Ha Long Bay and Tuy Phong Bay. (author)

  2. Building partnerships to address the HIV epidemic. (United States)

    Chua, A C; Leo, Y S; Lee, C C


    Batam is one of the islands comprising the Riau Province in Indonesia, and is closest to Singapore. It is a popular destination of many Singaporeans. Surveillance reports among commercial sex workers conducted in Batam showed the prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is 16.2 percent. At the end of 2006, the total number of HIV-infected Singaporeans was 3,060, the majority being infected via heterosexual transmission. The aim of the Indonesian government is to rapidly scale up HIV treatment to those needing it. One of the factors critical to the rapid scale-up is healthcare worker training. An intersectoral collaboration addressing the issue of HIV care and treatment with a hospital in Batam was created. The first activity of the collaboration was a two-day HIV training course conducted in February 2007. The aim of the course was to provide a basic understanding of HIV, as well as knowledge on common opportunistic infections that may present to a general hospital or clinical setting. 34 doctors from 23 institutions in Batam and three doctors from two hospitals in the Riau Islands attended the two-day HIV training course. The participants found the training very useful and highly relevant. This first HIV training provided a foundation to build on further HIV education. It is our belief that through the HIV training programme, there will be more awareness of HIV among the various medical institutions in Batam. As the HIV epidemic knows no borders, working with neighbouring countries is one strategy that deserves attention.

  3. State of the Union Address, 1997. Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address. (United States)

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of President Clinton's State of the Union Address, delivered on February 4, 1997. The President issues a call to action to work together to prepare America for the twenty-first century. The United States must attend to the unfinished business of balancing the budget, enacting bipartisan campaign-finance reform, and…

  4. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., erlangen (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics


    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  5. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.


    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  6. Ionic liquids for addressing unmet needs in healthcare (United States)

    Agatemor, Christian; Ibsen, Kelly N.; Tanner, Eden E. L.


    Abstract Advances in the field of ionic liquids have opened new applications beyond their traditional use as solvents into other fields especially healthcare. The broad chemical space, rich with structurally diverse ions, and coupled with the flexibility to form complementary ion pairs enables task‐specific optimization at the molecular level to design ionic liquids for envisioned functions. Consequently, ionic liquids now are tailored as innovative solutions to address many problems in medicine. To date, ionic liquids have been designed to promote dissolution of poorly soluble drugs and disrupt physiological barriers to transport drugs to targeted sites. Also, their antimicrobial activity has been demonstrated and could be exploited to prevent and treat infectious diseases. Metal‐containing ionic liquids have also been designed and offer unique features due to incorporation of metals. Here, we review application‐driven investigations of ionic liquids in medicine with respect to current status and future potential. PMID:29376130

  7. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.


    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  8. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen; Steinmann, Paul


    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  9. Medical education--addressing the needs of the dying child. (United States)

    Charlton, R


    This paper reviews the formulation of attitudes, the acquisition of knowledge and the development of skills which together enable medical practitioners to provide comprehensive palliative care for terminally ill children. Ideally, these should be developed to such an extent that a 'good death' can be achieved. Current medical education does not address these areas and the associated issues, including the breaking of bad news, understanding the grief reaction to serious illness and children's perceptions of death. Neither does training include how to take management decisions concerning informed consent, the transition from active treatment to palliative care, symptom control and choosing the place for care. These, and the unintentional attitude that regards the dying child as a 'medical failure', are discussed, together with the need to meet the needs of the parents and siblings, and the effects of bereavement. Finally, recommendations are made for undergraduate curricula and the need to emphasize the relationship of caring for the family unit, and not just the patient.

  10. Policy Tools for Addressing Urban Sprawl: Urban Growth Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. STRAUSS


    Full Text Available The analysis herein explores the topic of urban growth boundaries and how local governments in Romania could use this growth management tool in order to address unplanned, haphazard growth that is taking place at the fringe of cities and in the villages/ farming communities that surround them. The structure of the paper is threefold. The first section focuses on a brief socio-economic profile of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The aim is to provide a better context and facilitate the reader’s understanding of the nature of urban growth and suburbanization in Romania. Cluj-Napoca is currently in the process of adopting a master plan for the city and specific policy recommendations on how to address urban sprawl may prove useful. The authors hope to stir a debate among scholars, practitioners, and residents with regard to how the city of Cluj will further develop and whether future development should occur in the same manner it occurred during the last 10 years. The second section of the paper is meant to introduce the concepts of growth management and urban growth boundaries. The former is described in terms of a planning philosophy while the latter is portrayed as a specific policy tool that growth management advocates suggest it could be used in order to fight sprawl. A case study on urban growth boundaries is presented in order to underscore specific advantages and disadvantages associated with establishing a growth boundary. The last section comprises several preliminary policy recommendations for the city of Cluj-Napoca. Because of the incomplete data the authors currently have on critical issues some of the recommendations are general in scope and need to be further detailed.

  11. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration (United States)

    Diviacco, P.


    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  12. Evaluating Judicial Performance and Addressing Gender Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Melville


    Full Text Available Elek and Rottman argue that judicial evaluation is often biased against women and minority judges. The need to address bias is important, however often the desire for diversity seems so self-evident as to belie deeper analysis. This paper examines the two main rationales for gender equality on the bench. First, female judges are often considered necessary in order to bring a gendered perspective to judging, however it is argued that this rationale is flawed. Second, an alternative rationale based on equality and legitimacy is offered which avoids gender essentialism. While debates typically focus on these two rationales, a third rationale embraces both difference and equality/legitimacy. The presence of female judges has an important symbolic value which destabilises existing fraternal legal norms. Finally, increasing the number of female judges may not necessarily change judging, and this paper also analyses how the transformative potential offered by judicial diversity can work in practice. Elek y Rottman defienden que la evaluación judicial suele estar sesgada en contra de las mujeres y los jueces pertenecientes a minorías. La necesidad de abordar el sesgo es importante, sin embargo a menudo el deseo de diversidad parece tan evidente como para contradecir un análisis más profundo. Este artículo examina los dos motivos principales para la igualdad de género en el banquillo. En primer lugar, las mujeres jueces a menudo se consideran necesarias para aportar una perspectiva de género al hecho de juzgar, sin embargo, se defiende que este razonamiento es erróneo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece una alternativa lógica basada en la igualdad y la legitimidad que evita el esencialismo de género. Mientras que los debates suelen centrarse en estas dos razones, una tercera justificación abarca tanto la diferencia como la igualdad/legitimidad. La presencia de mujeres en la judicatura tiene un importante valor simbólico que desestabiliza las normas

  13. The 2016 Ferno Award Address: Three Things. (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B


    Researchers may optimize smoking treatment by addressing three research topics that have been relatively neglected. First, researchers have neglected to intensively explore how counseling contents affect smoking cessation success. Worldwide, millions of smokers are exposed to different smoking cessation contents and messages, yet existing research evidence does not permit strong inference about the value of particular counseling contents or strategies. Research in this area could enhance smoking outcomes and yield new insights into smoking motivation. Second, researchers have focused great attention on inducing smokers to make quit attempts when they contact healthcare systems; the success of such efforts may have plateaued. Also, the vast majority of quit attempts are self-quit attempts, largely unsuccessful, that occur outside such contacts. Researchers should explore strategies for using healthcare systems as conduits for digital- and other population-based interventions independent of healthcare visits. Such resources should be used to graft timely access to evidence-based intervention onto self-quitting, yielding evidence-based, patient-managed quit attempts. Third, most smoking treatments are assembled via selection of components based on informal synthesis of empirical and impressionistic evidence and are evaluated as a package. However, recent factorial experiments show that components of smoking treatments often interact meaningfully; for example, some components may interfere with the effectiveness of other components. Many extant treatments likely comprise suboptimal sets of components; future treatment development should routinely use factorial experiments to permit the assembly of components that yield additive or synergistic effects.Research in the above three areas should significantly advance our understanding of tobacco use and its treatment. A lack of relevant research, and the likely prospect of significant clinical and public health benefit

  14. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development (United States)

    Habib, Shahid


    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  15. Transgender youth: current concepts (United States)


    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070

  16. Intracranial atherosclerosis: current concepts. (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F


    The most relevant ideas discussed in this article are described here. Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) represents the most common cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Its importance in whites may have been underestimated. New technical developments, such as high-resolution MRI, allow direct assessment of the intracranial atherosclerotic plaque, which may have a profound impact on ICAD diagnosis and therapy in the near future. Early detection of ICAD may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The Barcelonès Nord and Maresme Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study is presented here. The main prognostic factors that characterize the patients who are at a higher risk for ICAD recurrence are classified and discussed. The best treatment for ICAD remains to be established. The Stenting Versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Study is currently ongoing to address this crucial issue. These and other topics will be discussed at the Fifth International Intracranial Atherosclerosis Conference (Valladolid, Spain, autumn 2011).

  17. Current issues in asteroseismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, Michael; Monteiro, Mario J P F G; Straka, Christian W [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)


    In this contribution we briefly review some of the current issues and promises for the future by asteroseismology. We are entering a new phase in this field driven by the wealth of data that has been collected and data that will soon be available for asteroseismology across the HR Diagram. Major difficulties in the descriptions of stellar interiors that arose in the second half of the 20th century may now be in part addressed and solved (this is the expectation{exclamation_point}) by asteroseismology with unprecedented precision. In this contribution we list some of the key open questions in stellar physics, the seismic data we expect to collect in the near future, and some techniques that will provide the tools to connect data and models.

  18. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Rosenthal


    Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.

  19. 21 CFR 1321.01 - DEA mailing addresses. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DEA mailing addresses. 1321.01 Section 1321.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEA MAILING ADDRESSES § 1321.01 DEA mailing addresses. The following table provides information regarding mailing addresses to be used...

  20. Addressing the challenges of ECMO simulation. (United States)

    Alinier, Guillaume; Hassan, Ibrahim Fawzy; Alsalemi, Abdullah; Al Disi, Mohammed; Ait Hssain, Ali; Labib, Ahmed; Alhomsi, Yahya; Bensaali, Fayçal; Amira, Abbes; Ibrahim, Abdulsalam Saif


    The patient's condition and high-risk nature of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy force clinical services to ensure clinicians are properly trained and always ready to deal effectively with critical situations. Simulation-based education (SBE), from the simplest approaches to the most immersive modalities, helps promote optimum individual and team performance. The risks of SBE are negative learning, inauthenticity in learning and over-reliance on the participants' suspension of disbelief. This is especially relevant to ECMO SBE as circuit/patient interactions are difficult to fully simulate without confusing circuit alterations. Our efforts concentrate on making ECMO simulation easier and more realistic in order to reduce the current gap there is between SBE and real ECMO patient care. Issues to be overcome include controlling the circuit pressures, system failures, patient issues, blood colour and cost factors. Key to our developments are the hospital-university collaboration and research funding. A prototype ECMO simulator has been developed that allows for realistic ECMO SBE. The system emulates the ECMO machine interface with remotely controllable pressure parameters, haemorrhaging, line chattering, air bubble noise and simulated blood colour change. The prototype simulator allows the simulation of common ECMO emergencies through innovative solutions that enhance the fidelity of ECMO SBE and reduce the requirement for suspension of disbelief from participants. Future developments will encompass the patient cannulation aspect.

  1. Addressing ethical considerations about nuclear fuel waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greber, M.A.


    Ethical considerations will be important in making decisions about the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. Public discussions of nuclear fuel waste management are dominated by questions related to values, fairness, rights and responsibilities. To address public concerns, it is important to demonstrate that ethical responsibilities associated with the current management of the waste are being fulfilled. It is also important to show that our responsibilities to future generations can be met, and that ethical principles will be applied to the implementation of disposal. Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, as put forward in an Environmental Impact Statement by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is currently under public review by a Federal Environmental Assessment Panel. Following this review, recommendations will be made about the direction that Canada should take for the long-term management of this waste. This paper discusses the ethical principles that are seen to apply to geological disposal and illustrates how the Canadian approach to nuclear fuel waste management can meet the challenge of fulfilling these responsibilities. The author suggests that our ethical responsibilities require that adaptable technologies to site, design, construct, operate decommission and close disposal facilities should de developed. We cannot, and should not, present future generations from exercising control over what they inherit, nor control whether they modify or even reverse today's decisions if that is what they deem to be the right thing to do. (author)

  2. 2006 annual nuclear technology conference - opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, W.


    The Energy Summit organized by Federal Chancellor Merkel set the right course in energy research. The funds to be made available by the federal government for energy research and innovation are to be raised by more than 30% by 2009. However, the Red-Green ban on research into reactor development still needs to be lifted. For Germany, 2005 was a year of change. As far as energy policy is concerned, it was a year more of disenchantment, as the diametrally opposed positions held by CDU/CSU and SPD in matters nuclear mean that, for the time being, the current regulations about residual plant lifetimes will continue to be valid. The Energy Summit as the first round in a process at the end of which, in 2007, there is to be a complete energy policy concept for the next few decades, does raise hopes. Clear emphasis must be given to worldwide developments, however. The assumption that others would follow Germany's 'good' example in opting out of the use of nuclear power has turned out to be naive. Ultimate clarity about which technology will turn out to be a bridge or an interim technology will be obtained in retrospect only. We should buy time now by extending nuclear power plant life so as to be able later to decide more freely about our options. The repository question, which is still considered a point of dispute, is less a technical than a political problem. The sequence of steps to be taken for solution is outlined in great detail and with high precision in the nuclear agreement. Following the ruling by the Lueneburg higher administrative court, Konrad can be installed and commissioned by 2013. After handling the so-called points of doubt, exploration of Gorleben can be completed. Nuclear power is an important building block in the energy mix in peaceful coexistence of various energy resources in accordance with their respective possible uses. For this reason, the renewables and nuclear power should no longer by played off one against the other. Both of them have a

  3. Introduction: Address by Mr. Sigvard Eklund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Full text: In the last few months, 'energy' has become a household word. Governments and the general public have been made aware of a problem which only specialists had been concerned with before. The reasons or the current energy 'squeeze' - I feel the term 'crisis' has been used by the media so much that we tend to forget its original meaning - have been analysed elsewhere. What is essential is that it has now been brought home to many Governments and to a broad spectrum of the general public that there just may be 'limits to growth' in the field of energy, as in many other fields. In this situation efforts are being made to ind both short-term and long-term solutions. In many parts of the world, the negative effects of responses to the short-term problem are being felt: speed and temperature limits, rationing and the relaxation of environmental restrictions are among the measures being taken. Out of the various existing alternatives only nuclear power through fission is ready at present from a technological and economic point of view to make an immediate contribution in a positive sense to the solution of the short-term problem of energy supply. In the balance of alternative sources, nuclear power will play an increasing role. Long-term aspects involve both the expanded use of nuclear power, also for process heat, and the development and utilization of new sources of energy, for instance, solar energy and fusion. For these new sources, however, development work will require 10-20 years before economically and technically sound solutions are available. The new energy picture will certainly affect the IAEA; new trends will already be indicated in our next six-year programme. n considering the future state of nuclear power careful attention will have to be given to the possible consequences of an increased use of nuclear energy: the supply of uranium, siting and safety problems as well as the management of radioactive wastes for which regional or international

  4. Introduction: Address by Mr. Sigvard Eklund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: In the last few months, 'energy' has become a household word. Governments and the general public have been made aware of a problem which only specialists had been concerned with before. The reasons or the current energy 'squeeze' - I feel the term 'crisis' has been used by the media so much that we tend to forget its original meaning - have been analysed elsewhere. What is essential is that it has now been brought home to many Governments and to a broad spectrum of the general public that there just may be 'limits to growth' in the field of energy, as in many other fields. In this situation efforts are being made to ind both short-term and long-term solutions. In many parts of the world, the negative effects of responses to the short-term problem are being felt: speed and temperature limits, rationing and the relaxation of environmental restrictions are among the measures being taken. Out of the various existing alternatives only nuclear power through fission is ready at present from a technological and economic point of view to make an immediate contribution in a positive sense to the solution of the short-term problem of energy supply. In the balance of alternative sources, nuclear power will play an increasing role. Long-term aspects involve both the expanded use of nuclear power, also for process heat, and the development and utilization of new sources of energy, for instance, solar energy and fusion. For these new sources, however, development work will require 10-20 years before economically and technically sound solutions are available. The new energy picture will certainly affect the IAEA; new trends will already be indicated in our next six-year programme. n considering the future state of nuclear power careful attention will have to be given to the possible consequences of an increased use of nuclear energy: the supply of uranium, siting and safety problems as well as the management of radioactive wastes for which regional or international

  5. The next organizational challenge: finding and addressing diagnostic error. (United States)

    Graber, Mark L; Trowbridge, Robert; Myers, Jennifer S; Umscheid, Craig A; Strull, William; Kanter, Michael H


    Although health care organizations (HCOs) are intensely focused on improving the safety of health care, efforts to date have almost exclusively targeted treatment-related issues. The literature confirms that the approaches HCOs use to identify adverse medical events are not effective in finding diagnostic errors, so the initial challenge is to identify cases of diagnostic error. WHY HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS NEED TO GET INVOLVED: HCOs are preoccupied with many quality- and safety-related operational and clinical issues, including performance measures. The case for paying attention to diagnostic errors, however, is based on the following four points: (1) diagnostic errors are common and harmful, (2) high-quality health care requires high-quality diagnosis, (3) diagnostic errors are costly, and (4) HCOs are well positioned to lead the way in reducing diagnostic error. FINDING DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS: Current approaches to identifying diagnostic errors, such as occurrence screens, incident reports, autopsy, and peer review, were not designed to detect diagnostic issues (or problems of omission in general) and/or rely on voluntary reporting. The realization that the existing tools are inadequate has spurred efforts to identify novel tools that could be used to discover diagnostic errors or breakdowns in the diagnostic process that are associated with errors. New approaches--Maine Medical Center's case-finding of diagnostic errors by facilitating direct reports from physicians and Kaiser Permanente's electronic health record--based reports that detect process breakdowns in the followup of abnormal findings--are described in case studies. By raising awareness and implementing targeted programs that address diagnostic error, HCOs may begin to play an important role in addressing the problem of diagnostic error.

  6. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 15, 2011 ... of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. ... plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but ...... governance in their business practices, to provide a tool for a.

  7. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... the adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early warning ...

  8. Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 janv. 2012 ... Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda ... adaptive capacity of communities to address the issue of climate-induced water stress. ... It will do so by testing the electronic dissemination of seasonal forecasts, early ...

  9. Vocatives and Other Direct Address Forms: A Contrastive Study


    Lilli Parrott


    In this paper I analyze Russian direct address forms, both the distinct truncated vocative and nominative-case direct address forms. I contrast the formal and functional restrictions on the truncated vocative with vocatives in other languages (e.g. Czech and Polish), and I compare the interpolation of Russian direct address forms in an utterance to the situation in English. While similarities are found both in the form and the usage of Russian direct address forms with those in other language...

  10. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Lisa G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural community study who were exposed via public drinking water to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA released from a DuPont facility in Parkersburg, West Virginia. We converted pre-E911 to post-E911 addresses using two methods: automated ZP4 address-correction software with the U.S. Postal Service LACS database and E911 data provided by Wood County, West Virginia. Addresses were geocoded using TeleAtlas, an online commercial service, and ArcView with StreetMap Premium North America NAVTEQ 2008 enhanced street dataset. We calculated positional errors using GPS measurements collected at each address and assessed exposure based on geocoded location in relation to public water pipes. Results The county E911 data converted 89% of the eligible addresses compared to 35% by ZP4 LACS. ArcView/NAVTEQ geocoded more addresses (n = 130 and with smaller median distance between geocodes and GPS coordinates (39 meters than TeleAtlas (n = 85, 188 meters. Without E911 address conversion, 25% of the geocodes would have been more than 1000 meters from the true location. Positional errors in TeleAtlas geocoding resulted in exposure misclassification of seven addresses whereas ArcView/NAVTEQ methods did not misclassify any addresses. Conclusions Although the study was limited by small

  11. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods. (United States)

    Vieira, Verónica M; Howard, Gregory J; Gallagher, Lisa G; Fletcher, Tony


    Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification. The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural community study who were exposed via public drinking water to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) released from a DuPont facility in Parkersburg, West Virginia. We converted pre-E911 to post-E911 addresses using two methods: automated ZP4 address-correction software with the U.S. Postal Service LACS database and E911 data provided by Wood County, West Virginia. Addresses were geocoded using TeleAtlas, an online commercial service, and ArcView with StreetMap Premium North America NAVTEQ 2008 enhanced street dataset. We calculated positional errors using GPS measurements collected at each address and assessed exposure based on geocoded location in relation to public water pipes. The county E911 data converted 89% of the eligible addresses compared to 35% by ZP4 LACS. ArcView/NAVTEQ geocoded more addresses (n = 130) and with smaller median distance between geocodes and GPS coordinates (39 meters) than TeleAtlas (n = 85, 188 meters). Without E911 address conversion, 25% of the geocodes would have been more than 1000 meters from the true location. Positional errors in TeleAtlas geocoding resulted in exposure misclassification of seven addresses whereas ArcView/NAVTEQ methods did not misclassify any addresses. Although the study was limited by small numbers, our results suggest that the use of county E911 data in rural

  12. Analyzing the Messages of the State of the Union Address (United States)

    Kissling, Mark T.; Martell, Christopher C.


    In the era of smartphones and 24-hour news networks, the State of the Union address is a major event. All national media outlets--in print, on television, on the Internet--report on the address, some almost exclusively in the days leading up to and after the speech. In this article, considering their experiences teaching about the address, and…

  13. Research of future network with multi-layer IP address (United States)

    Li, Guoling; Long, Zhaohua; Wei, Ziqiang


    The shortage of IP addresses and the scalability of routing systems [1] are challenges for the Internet. The idea of dividing existing IP addresses between identities and locations is one of the important research directions. This paper proposed a new decimal network architecture based on IPv9 [11], and decimal network IP address from E.164 principle of traditional telecommunication network, the IP address level, which helps to achieve separation and identification and location of IP address, IP address form a multilayer network structure, routing scalability problem in remission at the same time, to solve the problem of IPv4 address depletion. On the basis of IPv9, a new decimal network architecture is proposed, and the IP address of the decimal network draws on the E.164 principle of the traditional telecommunication network, and the IP addresses are hierarchically divided, which helps to realize the identification and location separation of IP addresses, the formation of multi-layer IP address network structure, while easing the scalability of the routing system to find a way out of IPv4 address exhausted. In addition to modifying DNS [10] simply and adding the function of digital domain, a DDNS [12] is formed. At the same time, a gateway device is added, that is, IPV9 gateway. The original backbone network and user network are unchanged.

  14. Obituary: Richard D. Schwartz (1941-2011) (United States)

    Wilking, Bruce


    Richard D. Schwartz, Professor Emeritus of Astronomy, died at his home in Sequim, WA, after a nearly 3 year battle against pancreatic cancer. Richard was born in Pretty Prairie, Kansas. He was active in sports and band and graduated in 1959. After completing a BS at Kansas State, and a Master's degree in Divinity at Union Seminary in NY, he further studied astrophysics, receiving his doctorate from University of Washington in 1973. When Dick arrived at the University of Missouri-St. Louis in 1975, he was the only astronomer in the Department of Physics. He built the astronomy program and initiated the B.S. in physics with an astrophysics option that the majority of physics majors choose. Dick was a wonderful teacher and provided outstanding leadership to the campus. He designed and provided oversight on the construction of the campus observatory that was completed in 1981. Since that time the observatory has served as both a teaching and research facility. It is also used for monthly public open houses that draw hundreds of people annually to the campus to view the moon, stars, and planets. Upon his retirement in 2003, the Board of Curators approved naming the campus observatory the "Richard D. Schwartz Observatory" in honor of his distinctive service to the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Just as important as Dick's service to promote public interest in astronomy was his effort to make the campus observatory a research facility. Dick equipped and maintained the observatory with state-of-art detectors that allowed students to get their first taste of scientific research. From 1991-2003, he managed the campus program for the NASA/Missouri Space Grant Consortium and mentored over 30 research students in projects at the observatory. Some of the results have been published in astronomical journals. Many of those students went on to graduate schools and several have achieved tenure and distinction at major universities. In addition to Dick's service to the University of Missouri-St. Louis, he compiled a distinguished record of research that gave him an international reputation as an astrophysicist. During his career, Dick pioneered a new research area studying the energetic mass loss in young stars, leading to hundreds of astronomers and physicists working in this area worldwide. He used a variety of unique telescopes to conduct his research including the Hubble Space Telescope. There have been over 2000 citations to his 80 scientific papers. From 1979-1998, he had continuous funding from NASA and the National Science Foundation and in 1999 he received the Chancellor's Award for Research and Creativity for his distinguished research record.. Dick retired in 2003 after 28 years at UMSL. However, he kept active in research, using the Galaxy View Observatory that he constructed adjacent to his home in Sequim, Washington. Characteristic of his broad scientific interests, this year the Geological Society of America Today will publish Dick's commentary on the scientific basis of anthropogenic global warming. He brought a deep compassion to local activities to raise awareness of climate change, offering thoughtful comments in local newspapers that reflected his rare combination of degrees in astrophysics and divinity. Dick is survived by his wife of 23 years, Eleanor McIntyre, 6 step-children, 14 grandchildren, 2 brothers, 2 nieces, and their families.

  15. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011) (United States)

    Cohen, Howard


    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles. Eventually, he earned both a master's degree (1968) and Ph.D. (1974) in astronomy from this well-known institution. The brilliant and eminent astronomer Daniel M. Popper supervised Oliver's doctoral dissertation, "An Investigation of Eclipsing Binary Stars Exhibiting Calcium II Emission." This research suggested that many systems Oliver investigated belonged to a new category of variable eclipsing binary stars. Popper had previously defined this new class of stars based on spectral features and intended AR Lac to be its prototype. Instead, using Oliver's suggestion, this class became known as RS CVn variables. Rare among astronomers, Popper himself was fussy about errors of measurement-uncompromising about accurate, conscientious work and intolerant about careless research. Oliver was the only student to receive a Ph.D. under this authoritative and honest astronomer, a testament to Oliver's own talents. As a University of Florida faculty member and astronomer, Oliver occupied many roles, including service as associate department chair, director of the university's Rosemary Hill Observatory near Bronson, Florida, and both undergraduate and graduate coordinators. He made significant contributions to both the operation and instrumentation of telescopes at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The establishment of the observatory's 18-inch Ritchey-Crétien telescope as a working telescope was a major accomplishment for which he wrote its operational software and programs for high speed occultation observations of stars. In addition, he was responsible for both relocating the campus teaching observatory to its present site and its operation during the 1970s. Oliver taught thousands of students both basic astronomy and advanced topics in undergraduate and graduate courses including an important sequence of graduate courses on binary stars. Faculty and students also applauded his superb, advanced course on techniques of observational astronomy. In addition, he was always looking for new techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in the classroom, especially PowerPoint techniques for which he received university grants. Oliver's computer skills also allowed him to design several, simple but important programs to help students understand difficult subjects. A favorite, "Oliver's Orrery," clearly shows how different models of the solar system produce planetary motions, a program that remains unique. Research interests involved 3-mm radio astronomy, photometry of eclipsing binary systems, and the design of astronomical instruments and computer controlled telescopes. Oliver was the first visiting astronomer of the Copernicus Institute in Warsaw, Poland, where he helped participate in its establishment. He also held a joint appointment as Senior Research Scientist at UF's Institute for Space Science and Technology from 1988 to 1994. During this time he was a co-investigator on the Long Duration Exposure Facility/Interplanetary Dust Experiment and the Clementine Orbital Meteoroid and Debris Counter. These experiments obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and provided information on the population of small mass, man-made debris in near Earth space. Oliver was twice a NASA Faculty Research Fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he developed models used to predict meteoroid impacts on space probes. He was always excited about discovering orbital debris clouds around the Earth. A favorite and special project from 1984 to 1988 was Oliver's involvement as co-investigator on UF's South Pole Optical Telescope where his knowledge of computer controlled instruments was vital. He visited the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station four times during Antarctic summers and the U.S. State Department and U.S. Navy awarded him the Antarctic Service Medal for activities in Antarctica in October 1986. This small, specialized instrument, the first stellar telescope located at Earth's South Pole, operated for several seasons evaluating observing conditions at in the visible region of the spectrum. In his last two years Oliver embarked on another unique project. In the North Irish town of Armagh, home of the Armagh Observatory, now stands a large, two-meter diameter "Celestial Sphere" made from solid polished grey granite. This impressive and beautiful star ball rests on one of four large base stones engraved to depict the story of the development of astronomy through the ages. On its surface, artist Brian Connolly has etched the brightest stars and other features of the sky in gold. The sphere is aligned north with the stars and correctly oriented toward the pole star. Although this artwork is the vision of the artist, Oliver provided the templates for the precise positions of stars and other heavenly features on the sphere. Oliver had a long interest in public programming and public schools. He actively worked with middle school science teachers, was a creator of "Conversations About Science and Mathematics" and was an innovator in large classroom teaching. He volunteered as a science- and engineering-fair judge for more than twenty years, finally stopping only about a year before his death. Members of the Alachua Astronomy Club, Inc., favorably knew him for his interesting, absorbing and clear presentations. Few could converse as well on the wide spectrum of knowledge that modern astronomy now entails. Predeceased by a son, Michael, he leaves behind his wife Barbara of forty-seven years, three children, Jennifer, Keith and Rebecca, two grandchildren, Elspeth and Moira, and a great granddaughter, Dorothy. Oliver also left behind dear friends, colleagues, students and a legacy difficult to match. He was proud of the department that he had helped shape during his long tenure at UF. Oliver was unique among many astronomers due to his abilities and flair as an excellent speaker and teacher, a superb instrumentalist and programmer, and as a talented research scientist with an unequaled passion and dedication to astronomy and his department.

  16. Obituary: Helen Dodson Prince, 1905-2002 (United States)

    Lindner, Rudi Paul


    Helen Dodson Prince, a pioneer in the observation of solar flares, a pioneer in women's rise in the profession of astronomy, and a respected and revered educator of future astronomers, died on 4 February 2002 in Arlington, Virginia. Helen Dodson was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on 31 December 1905. Her parents were Helen Walter and Henry Clay Dodson. Helen went to Goucher College in nearby Towson with a full scholarship in mathematics. She turned to astronomy under the influence of a legendary teacher, Professor Florence P. Lewis, and she graduated in 1927. Funded by grants and private charity, she earned the Ph.D. in astronomy at the University of Michigan under the direction of Heber Doust Curtis in 1933. Dodson taught at Wellesley College from 1933 until 1943, when she went on leave to spend the last three years of World War II at the MIT Radiation Laboratory. She returned to Goucher after the war as professor of astronomy and mathematics, and in 1947 she came back to Michigan both as professor of astronomy and staff member of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, of which she became associate director. In 1976 she retired from Michigan and spent her later years in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1932 Dodson held the Dean Van Meter fellowship from Goucher; in 1954 she received the Annie Jump Cannon Prize from the AAS; and in 1974 The University of Michigan honored her with its Faculty Distinguished Achievement Award. She published over 130 articles, mostly on her research specialty, solar flares. Dodson's interest in the Sun began at Michigan, although her dissertation was, like so many Michigan dissertations of the era, on stellar spectroscopy, "A Study of the Spectrum of 25 Orionis." She came to Michigan during the establishment and growth of the solar observatory at Lake Angelus, the creation of three gifted and industrious amateurs. Heber Curtis fostered the growth of the McMath-Hulbert enterprise and brought it into the University. Dodson's solar activity grew as a result of a number of summers spent, during her Wellesley years, at the solar observatory at Meudon, near Paris. When she returned to Michigan, Dodson became involved in the study of solar flares, based upon the long series of daily observations made with the tower telescopes at Lake Angelus and the improved spectroscopic equipment developed by Robert McMath, Orren Mohler, Leo Goldberg, Keith Pierce, and others. Her colleague during most of these years was Emma Ruth Hedeman, who co-authored many articles with her. Among her great accomplishments was the Comprehensive Flare Index, a widely used measure of flare activity. A "real live wire" and "a marvelous woman," in the words of students and colleagues, Dodson was also a kind and effective teacher, not at all vain about her accomplishments: She held that solar behavior has a way of making people humble. Dodoson was married to Edmund L. Prince and lived across Lake Angelus from the McMath-Hulbert Observatory; often she sailed to work, a joy denied to almost all other astronomers. During her years at McMath-Hulbert, The University of Michigan was the sole major American research university to have two women holding professorial positions in astronomy: Helen Dodson Prince and Hazel Marie Losh. One of the founding members of the Solar Physics Division, Professor Prince was a major factor in the rise and success of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, even when, after the 1950s, urban growth and upper Midwestern weather conditions conspired to cripple the advantages the observatory's technologies had once conferred. Her colleagues and students recall her with great respect and affection.

  17. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002 (United States)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale


    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he helped the team to solve numerous technical challenges-for example, floating the heavy optics in a mercury bath so that their roundness could be measured without gravitational distortion. The Einstein data, which showed that virtually all classes of astronomical sources are X-ray emitters, opened the door for X-ray astronomy to join the other wavelength domains as an equally important discipline. In recognition of his accomplishments, Leon received the George W. Goddard Award in 1985 from the International Society for Optical Engineering. While the Einstein Observatory was still operating, work began on a successor with a larger effective area and substantially higher angular resolution. Leon led the technology development and then the flight program for the optics on this Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). He insisted on systematic analyses and thorough understanding of all the processing steps and metrology data. He negotiated the establishment of incentives and goals for mirror smoothness, and achieved an increase in the fraction of 6-keV X-rays encircled in a 1-arcsecond diameter from 20% to 60%. With his guidance and the efforts of many superb engineers and scientists, polishing and metrology equipment was designed, built, tested, and used at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems Inc, located in Danbury, Connecticut. The equipment was utilized to fabricate X-ray mirrors at the 0.5-arcsecond level of performance-10 times better than any previous X-ray optic. Following the successful fabrication of the optics, Leon worked with the team at Optical Coating Laboratory Inc, in Santa Rosa, California, to establish a process for depositing iridium coatings that provide a relatively high efficiency up to 10 keV and a very stable final surface. The AXAF telescope comprises four pairs of mirrors nested one inside another to increase the collecting area. A major challenge involved assembling the eight cylindrical optics into a single high-resolution telescope. Leon and the team at Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York, designed a 50-foot-high vertical assembly tower that satisfied demanding environmental controls. The mirror elements were held as stress free as possible, maneuvered into alignment, and bonded into place with a slow-curing epoxy to a precision of a few tenths of an arcsecond. Following its launch aboard the space shuttle Columbia in July 1999, AXAF was renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Up to the time of his death, Leon had been leading a team that used Chandra, plus microwave observations of galaxy clusters, to determine the cosmic distance scale. His colleagues expect to publish their results in late 2003. In recognition of his leadership and extraordinary contributions to Chandra, Leon received the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the American Astronomical Society's high-energy astrophysics division. He died two weeks before he was scheduled to deliver his acceptance speech. Despite his illness, he had crafted a marvelous talk illustrating the tremendous advances enabled by the Chandra telescope. One of us (Tananbaum) presented his talk, which received an enthusiastic response from approximately 1000 AAS members. Leon married Erin Harrington in 1959. She survives him along with their daughter Elaine and her husband Lane Kendig; son David, his wife Jennifer Hanson, and their twin daughters Madeline and Nina; and son Alexander and his companion Sherie Davis. When not involved with X-ray telescopes or family trips to National Parks, Leon designed and built exquisite furniture in his elaborate workshop, where every tool hung neatly from its pegboard hook. On 8 February 2003 more than 200 friends and family members gathered at the Harvard Science Center for a Remembrance Service. Many smiles and more than a few tears were seen as people recalled and celebrated Leon's life. Leon was an amazing individual, respected by his colleagues as an outstanding physicist, mathematician, programmer, and engineer who could solve just about any problem. He set and met incredibly high standards in his professional and personal endeavors. He was modest about his accomplishments, but would acknowledge that ``Chandra has a pretty good mirror" when colleagues would share exciting new results made possible by his dedicated efforts and unique skills. It was a privilege to know him.

  18. Obituary: Gerald S. Hawkins, 1928-2003 (United States)

    Krupp, Edwin C.


    Public perceptions of human prehistory were transformed in the 1960s by astronomer Gerald Stanley Hawkins, who died suddenly and unexpectedly of a heart attack on 26 May 2003 at Hawkridge Farm, in Virginia, near Washington, D.C. His astronomical analysis of Stonehenge, first published in "Nature" on 26 October 1963, and subsequently developed and framed with historical and cultural context in a best-selling book, "Stonehenge Decoded" (1965, in collaboration with John B. White), was also showcased internationally at the time in a one-hour CBS television documentary special, "The Mystery of Stonehenge". The high-profile, unconventional, and cross-disciplinary character of Hawkins's celestial interpretation of Stonehenge alignments and his configuration of the monument as an eclipse predictor attracted archaeological skepticism that provided the controversy desired by the makers of the television program. Antagonism was contrived between Hawkins and archaeologist Richard J.C. Atkinson by the production team to introduce conflict that would enhance audience interest in the subject, and the televised dispute troubled both men for decades. By the early 1970s, however, Hawkins had inspired others to examine the astronomical potential of ancient and prehistoric monuments in many parts of the world. He ignited modern studies of archaeoastronomy. In fact, in a second book on the subject, "Beyond Stonehenge" (1973), Hawkins reported his expanding perspective with accounts of his fieldwork on New Kingdom temples in Egypt, on the giant geoglyphs near Nazca, Peru, and at other sites. He also brought the work of other investigators to the attention of his many readers. He established methods and protocols for alignment studies and invited others to use them. Following, in a sense, the footsteps Sir J. Norman Lockyer left among the antiquities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Hawkins reexamined the alignments of several Egyptian temples, documented significant weaknesses in Lockyer's analysis of the Great Temple of Amun Re at Karnak and formulated a new astronomical interpretation he supported with relevant hieroglyphic inscriptions. His field survey of the giant ground drawings near the Ingenio Valley in the south coastal desert of Peru, sponsored by the National Geography Society, convinced him that the geoglyphs are not astronomically oriented. The impact of Hawkins's work also reached informal science education. Major planetaria in North America produced and presented programs that simulated ancient skies and immersed audiences in the alignments and events Hawkins had spotlighted. Archaeoastronomy evolved in response to his trailblazing inquiries and eventually commanded the interest of a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology, anthropology, art history, history of religions, and more. Hawkins wrote two more books on this theme, "Mindsteps to the Cosmos" (1983) and "Stonehenge, Earth and Sky" (2004, with Hubert Allen). Altogether he wrote 11 books and his first book, "Splendor in the Sky", appeared in 1961. During his career he authored 150 papers. Born on 20 April 1928, in Great Yarmouth, England, Gerald S. Hawkins, like many professional astronomers, was allied to astronomy as a child. When he discovered astronomy in elementary school, he obtained books on it from the public library. In 1939, during World War II, he was relocated inland, along with many children living on the English coast, away from the German bombing. Settled in Nottingham for the war's duration, he joined the local astronomy club as a teenager and systematically observed meteors. He later attended Nottingham University, which granted him a Bachelor of Science in physics (1949). He also collected a subsidiary degree in mathematics from London University. Continuing his study at Manchester University, under Sir Bernard Lovell, he collaborated on the discovery of daytime meteor streams, and he received a PhD in radio astronomy in 1952. Two years later, he left England to accept a research position at the Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was also a Research Associate for Fred Whipple's Harvard Radio Meteor Project at Harvard University. Additionally, he was a Senior Associate with the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, and from 1957 to 1969 he concurrently held an appointment as Professor of Astronomy and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Boston University. He became a U.S. citizen in 1965. Gerald Hawkins served as Dean of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, from 1969 to 1971, when his career trajectory transported him to the United States Information Agency, where he was appointed Science Advisor to the Director and where he remained until his retirement in 1989. Frederick Hawkins, the father of Gerald S. Hawkins, was an accountant. He died when Gerald was three years old, a casualty of aggravation of a wound he had endured during World War I. Gerald's mother, Anne Lillian Hawkins, was a Town Official in Great Yarmouth. In 1955, Gerald Hawkins wed Dorothy Barnes. The couple had two daughters, but the marriage ended in divorce. In 1979, Hawkins married Julia Margaret Dobson, who survives him. Hawkins enjoyed academic, professional, and commercial success and was also honored for his work. He received the Shell Award for Distinguished Writing in 1965 and additional recognition from the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution. A member of the prestigious Cosmos Club of Washington, D.C., which salutes intellectual achievement, especially in science, he was recruited frequently for public lectures by many organizations and institutions. He was a member of the Historical Astronomy Division, a Division Affiliate member of the American Astronomical Society and a member of the International Astronomical Union's Commission 41. Gerald S. Hawkins was a colorful, articulate, and pioneering investigator who modeled a research profile in archaeoastronomy through innovative fieldwork. He induced many others to study ancient and prehistoric astronomy and is acknowledged for his essential and foundational role. His initiative propelled archaeoastronomical research into maturity. The Sherlock Holmes deerstalker cap he wore in the field when investigating standing stones and stone circles in Scotland advertised his attraction to scientific mysteries and his commitment to their solution. He persuaded many that part of the neolithic and bronze age intellectual heritage could be extracted from the unwritten record.

  19. Obituary: Donald Edward Osterbrock, 1924-2007 (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain


    Donald Edward Osterbrock, one of the leading figures of post-World War II astronomy, died suddenly of a heart attack on 11 January 2007, while walking near his office at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He was 82 years old. His initials spelled D.E.O. (God in latin!), but he was known simply as Don to his many friends and colleagues. Don's long and productive career spanned five decades. His scientific work helped shape our understanding of lower main-sequence stars, the ionized interstellar medium, and active galactic nuclei. He was also a highly respected historian of astronomy who shed new light on 19th- and 20th-century astronomy. Don was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on 13 July 1924. Both of his parents were of German descent and valued hard work, education, and science. They both completed their high-school education at night while working full-time during the day. His father eventually became a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Don's plan to become an astronomer was put on hold when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. After graduation from high school, Don joined the United States Army and trained as a meteorologist, taking all of the physics and mathematics courses required for a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Chicago. He was eventually sent to islands in the Pacific Ocean but never was in harm's way. After three years of service, Don returned to Chicago to obtain his bachelor's degree in 1948, his M.S. in astronomy in 1949, and a Ph.D. in astronomy in 1952. Don's years at the University of Chicago and the University's Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, were pivotal for his career and personal life. He came in contact with such luminaries as Otto Struve, Bengt Strömgren, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, and William W. Morgan. At Yerkes, he also met and married Irene L. Hansen, a native of Williams Bay, who was employed as a member of the Yerkes staff. They had a son, William, now living in Santa Cruz; two daughters, Laura of Seattle, Washington, and Carol of Santa Cruz; and three grandchildren. Don did a theoretical Ph.D. thesis with Chandrasekhar calculating the effects of gravitational interactions between interstellar clouds and stars, but arguably his best known graduate work was observational in nature, helping Morgan map the nearest spiral arms of our Galaxy. Morgan put Don's name on the landmark 1952 paper (Morgan, Sharpless, & Osterbrock, AJ, 57, p. 3, 1952), even though, according to Don's own account in his 2000 autobiography A Fortunate Life in Astronomy, the work was mostly Morgan's. This generous gesture by Morgan likely fashioned what was to become Don's own trademark generosity towards his Ph.D. students and colleagues for years to come. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree, Don spent a single but very productive year as a postdoctoral fellow at Princeton University, becoming interested in the stellar structures of red dwarfs. Using numerical integration methods generously provided by Martin Schwarzschild, Don produced the first models of red dwarfs that took into account their outer convective layers (Osterbrock, ApJ, 118, pp. 529-546, 1953). These calculations also inspired Fred Hoyle and Schwarzschild to successfully model red giant stars with similar convective envelopes. In 1953, Osterbrock accepted an instructorship at Caltech, joining a young astronomy department led by Jesse Greenstein. Direct access to Caltech's outstanding astronomical facilities on Mounts Wilson and Palomar marked a turning point in Don's career, since it allowed him to pursue his observational interests in gaseous nebulae. Drawing on his expertise in atomic physics, and a very productive collaboration via air mail with young atomic theorist Michael Seaton, he pioneered the use of spectroscopic methods for the study of gaseous nebulae. In a daring move in 1958, Don left Caltech for the University of Wisconsin, to appease his wife's and his own homesickness for the Midwest. There he continued his work on gaseous nebulae, both observational and theoretical, often as part of the Ph.D. thesis of one of his many excellent graduate students. As time went on, Don became increasingly fascinated by the emission-line spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and this fed a growing need for larger telescope apertures. In 1973, the ``lure of the big telescope in the land of clear skies'' (his own words from his 2000 autobiography) won out, and he finally accepted the long-pending offer from the Chancellor of the University of California at Santa Cruz to become director of Lick Observatory. Lick's 120-inch telescope and its unique image-dissector scanner were ideally suited for the spectroscopic AGN survey that Don had in mind at the time. In the decade and a half that followed, Don amassed arguably the best and largest collection of high-quality spectra on AGN in the world, published several seminal papers based on these unique data, and became in the process one of the world's leading authorities on AGN. During that same period, Don published his ``little blue book'' on the Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae (1974). This textbook and the two subsequent revisions Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei (1989 and 2005—the later edition, with co-author Gary Ferland) have been the standard references for graduate courses and researchers in the field for more than thirty years. This prolific period of Don's career was doubly remarkable considering that, from 1973 to 1981, he was the Director of Lick Observatory. This was a time when tough choices had to be made in order to get the 10-meter Keck Telescopes project under way. Don very effectively and diplomatically guided the upper echelons of the University of California, Santa Cruz, through this process. He also served as president of the American Astronomical Society from 1988 to 1990, no doubt having too much time on his hands after stepping down from the Lick directorship! Don received several awards and honors for his research work. In 1991, he won lifetime achievement awards from the American Astronomical Society and Astronomical Society of the Pacific, two of astronomy's highest honors. In 1997, the Royal Astronomical Society awarded him its Gold Medal, its highest honor, seldom given to an American astronomer. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He received honorary D.Sc. degrees from five universities. Over the years, Don produced 21 Ph.D. students who turned out a significant number of today's researchers in AGN and emission line studies. Mostly after his retirement in 1992, Don authored numerous books, historical studies, and biographies of key figures in 19th- and 20th-century astronomy. He felt that history was too important to be left to historians, and adhered to the ``great man'' theory of history (that aims to explain history by the impact of great men or women) rather than pursue the deconstructionist approach of historians. In recognition for this work, the AAS's Historical Astronomy Division awarded him in 2002 the Leroy E. Doggett Prize, the highest award given to a historian of astronomy. Don was a brilliant scientist, a natural leader, and a gifted historian, yet he was also very modest and unassuming. His firm handshake, warm, infectious smile, and congenial personality were hard to resist. He thrived in the companies of his colleagues and students, freely sharing his ideas on science, history of science, or history in general. In his later years, he seemed at his best when observing on top of Mount Hamilton's Lick Observatory, once the Sun had set and the photons from an AGN were quietly and effortlessly being captured for the next exposure. He would then often kick back on ``his'' La-Z-Boy recliner in the 120-inch telescope control room and take off on one of his many fascinating stories about the history of astronomy. These were truly wonderful moments, and many of us are very grateful to have had the opportunity to share them with him. Don will always have a very special place in our hearts. He was a great mentor, a wonderful role model, and a true gentleman. Our very fond memories of our time with him will never cease to inspire us. He will always be an Ideal to which to aspire.

  20. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006 (United States)

    Seaquist, E. R.


    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy led him to introduce this subject area into the Toronto graduate research and teaching curriculum. In collaboration with the Department of Electrical Engineering, he established a radio astronomy observing site at the U of T's David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) in 1956. This was at a time when few astronomers took this subject seriously. The DDO work led to the precise determination of the absolute flux density of Cas A at 320 MHz, a radiometric standard as important today as it was when it was reported in 1963. On behalf of the University of Toronto, he subsequently participated in radio astronomy activity at the National Research Council's (NRC's) new Algonquin Radio Observatory in Algonquin Park. The radio astronomy program that Don established was an early stimulus for the first successful experiment in Very Long Baseline Interferometry in 1967, a collaboration among the University of Toronto, Queen's University, and NRC. As a teacher, Don was highly regarded by his students, whom he engaged with his characteristic wit and frequent anecdotes. His lectures always were well prepared and organized, and endowed with an underlying belief that the ideas and principles of physics were most easily understood by applying them first to the stars. As an innovative teacher, he was the first professor at Toronto to teach computer programming at the university, recognizing early that students would need such skills in their scientific careers. Similarly, he was a strong advocate for public outreach. He was featured in the Oscar-nominated short film "Universe" produced in 1960 by the National Film Board of Canada. He also was instrumental in the establishment of the McLaughlin Planetarium, which opened in Toronto in October 1968. In honor of his strong record in education, the U of T established an undergraduate scholarship in Don's name in 2003 to reward promising undergraduates in the astronomy program. In 1965, Don became Head of the Department and Director of the DDO, and continued in these positions for thirteen years. During this period, he presided over a major expansion of the Department, which made it the major center of astronomical activity in Canada. This included the establishment in 1971 of a 24-inch telescope at the site of the Carnegie Southern Observatory at Las Campanas, Chile. The clear weather and excellent seeing conditions at Las Campanas attracted many graduate students to study astronomy at the U of T. It was also used by many astronomers from other institutions. Don MacRae was an active participant in the establishment of national observing facilities for all Canadian astronomers. He supported the establishment the Algonquin Radio Observatory in the 1960s to serve the growing community in the emerging field of radio astronomy. He participated in the planning and development of the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, in the 1970s, and served as one of four Canadian astronomers on the Board of the CFHT Corporation from 1973 to 1979. He was appointed as Board Chair in 1978 for the last year of his term. During the 1970s Don was elected to the Board of Trustees of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), dedicated to promoting cooperation between NASA and North American universities. He served as USRA Board Chair in 1973. Don was also an active member of the AAS since 1943, and served as AAS Councilor from 1963-1966. Although Don retired in 1982 and was appointed Professor Emeritus in the Department, he continued his interest in departmental activity for many years after. During the 45 years I knew Don, both as his graduate student 1961-1966, and later as one of his colleagues, I shared with his friends and associates an enduring respect for his wisdom, generosity, sense of humor, powers of observation, and rigorous attention to accuracy and detail. He maintained an abiding ambition to create a leading department and to help in establishing a world-renowned astronomical community in Canada. His legacy is that he succeeded in both areas. Don enjoyed a life-long interest in photography, carpentry and woodworking. In retirement, he spent a great deal of time on family genealogy. He possessed a strong "do-it-yourself" philosophy, manifested for example in clearing land and building a cottage on Georgian Bay, a family project during his younger years. Don died in Toronto of natural causes. He is survived by his older sister Jean Borden, and his three sons David, Charles, and Andrew. Don's wife Betty predeceased him by about one year. He is also survived by his four granddaughters and two grandsons, in all of whom he delighted, as well as nieces and nephews who were particularly dear to him.

  1. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005 (United States)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.


    John Norris Bahcall, one of the most creative and influential astrophysicists of his generation — a scientist who helped prove what makes the Sun shine and helped make the Hubble Space Telescope a reality — passed away in Pasadena, California, on 17 August 2005. Bahcall died peacefully in his sleep from a rare blood disorder. For the past 35 years, Bahcall was the Richard Black Professor of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he created one of the leading astrophysics programs in the world. Active and working to the end, Bahcall said that he was always grateful for a full and happy life that exceeded his wildest expectations. Bahcall died as he lived, surrounded by the family he loved, embracing life to its fullest, happy, working and joking to the end. Bahcall's stellar career encompassed seminal contributions in numerous fields of astrophysics as well as extraordinary leadership on behalf of the scientific community, including the American Astronomical Society, the American Physical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and Congress. Bahcall's contributions made him one of the scientific leaders of his time. He had been recognized by numerous awards including the 1998 National Medal of Science from President Clinton, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Medal of the Swedish Royal Academy, the Dan David Award, the Fermi Award, the first Hans Bethe Prize, the Franklin Medal, the Comstock Prize in physics, NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the top awards of the American Astronomical Society — including the Russell Award, the Heineman Prize, and the Warner Prize. Bahcall was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 and to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He was the recipient of Honorary Degrees from numerous universities around the world. Bahcall's scientific interests and expertise ranged from neutrino physics and the structure of the Sun and other stars, to galaxy models, quasars and the intergalactic medium. His more than 600 scientific publications, on an enormous array of subjects, received nearly 20,000 citations. Many established fundamental paradigms in their fields, while others provided the clearest and most comprehensive overview of them. Bahcall's Neutrino Astrophysics, one of eight books he wrote or edited, has been the most popular book in the field, used by most students and experts. But Bahcall did, in fact, continually return to one core scientific issue: the solar neutrino problem. He realized very early in his career that we should be able to detect the flux, or stream, of these shadowy fundamental particles as they pass through the Earth after escaping from the center of the Sun, where they are produced in prodigious numbers. He clearly saw that a definite detection, or non-detection, of these neutrinos would have major implications both for understanding the Sun and for fundamental particle physics. For decades, he encouraged and supported scientists throughout the world in studying this problem and was most successful in his collaboration with Raymond Davis Jr., who ultimately won the Nobel Prize in 2002 for detecting the solar neutrino flux. It was Bahcall's persistent work that proved definitively that the low flux found by the solar neutrino experiments of Davis and others could not be explained by errors in our model for the Sun. Neutrinos seemed to be missing: either they were not made at the rates required by standard nuclear physics, or they were made but then somehow "lost" in transit between the Sun and the Earth. The latter explanation — neutrino mixing, in which one type of neutrino changes into another at some rate, and in which the neutrino must have a small but finite mass — is now known to be true, and it is surely due to Bahcall's tenacity and insight that this important and surprising modification to the standard model of particle physics was uncovered. A fuller idea of his exceptional scientific scope is indicated by the fact that the standard model for a massive black hole surrounded by a cluster of stars is still called the Bahcall-Wolf model; the most widely quoted model for our Galaxy was for decades the Bahcall-Soneira model; the now common use of quasars as flashlights to illuminate and study the intervening intergalactic medium was originated by Bahcall and Salpeter; and the most accurate models for the solar interior were those developed by Bahcall with Roger Ulrich, Marc Pinsonneault, and others. John Bahcall was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, on 30 December 1934, to Mildred and Malcolm Bahcall. Mildred was a pianist, and both parents worked in business. John Bahcall had one brother, Robert Bahcall, now deceased. At Byrd High School in Shreveport, John became interested in sports, especially tennis; with persistence and dedication — traits he exemplified throughout his life — he became the tennis champion of his state. John continued to play and love tennis his entire life. As a high school senior, Bahcall became interested in debate and joined the school's Debate Team. With the same persistence, dedication, and hard work, Bahcall became a National Debate Team winner — the first time ever for this Louisiana high school. Bahcall's debate skills served him well throughout his life, as all of those who tried to debate him know well. Bahcall's love of physics had a non-traditional beginning. He never took science classes in high school; he was excused to play tennis in the afternoons when science courses were offered. After one year at Louisiana State University, Bahcall transferred to the University of California in Berkeley on a tennis scholarship and support from an uncle who saw the promise in the young Bahcall. At Berkeley he began studying philosophy. Berkeley's graduation requirement of a science course led Bahcall to take a physics class, the first science class he ever took. "I fell in love with Physics," he said, "and it changed my life." Bahcall graduated from Berkeley in 1956 with a degree in Physics. He received a master's degree from the University of Chicago, followed by a 1961 PhD in Physics from Harvard University. After a Research Fellowship at Indiana University working with Emil Konopinski on nuclear weak interactions, Bahcall received an invitation in 1962 to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to work with William A. Fowler, a Nobel Prize winner and expert in the field. Bahcall was working with Willy Fowler and others at the time and place that "nuclear astrophysics" was invented. There he became engaged with neutrino work and to Neta Assaf (then completing her PhD at Caltech) — the two constant loves of his life. John met Neta on a trip to Israel in 1965. She was a young physics graduate student "with a beautiful smile that stole my heart," he said. He spoke no Hebrew and she little English. After a dozen rejections, he got a date with her. They fell in love immediately and their love and friendship lasted a lifetime. "Marrying Neta was the best thing that ever happened to me," John frequently said. Safi Bahcall, their older son, recollects: "The persistence and never giving up was the theme for my dad; solar neutrinos, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the quest for scientific excellence are just a few other examples." Bahcall's first paper from Caltech, a one-page letter to the editor of the Astrophysical Journal, dated 1 December 1962 and entitled "The Solar Neutrino Flux" (written with Fowler, Icko Iben, and Richard Sears), proposed an experiment that might "provide a valuable experimental limit on the effective temperature for neutrino generation in the Sun". That paper set the course for a lifetime of research. The writing of scientific papers was, however, only one of Bahcall's many contributions to world science. He was an educator who changed the nature of postdoctoral training, and a scientific statesman of unusual and beneficent influence. Bahcall moved to the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) at Princeton in 1968 and soon established that institution as a magnet and model for postdoctoral training. A significant fraction of the world's most distinguished astrophysicists benefited from his tutelage and the intellectually fertile atmosphere that he established there. The eminent British scientist Sir Martin Rees describes himself as fortunate to have been one of the first IAS postdoctoral fellows in astrophysics in 1969. Every fellow's birthday and important family events were celebrated. The intellectual atmosphere was intense, and the weekly Tuesday lunches, with John presiding, to which the whole Princeton physics community was invited, were legendary (now named the Bahcall Lunches). Bahcall's postdoc program was the one that astrophysics institutions worldwide emulated. At the IAS, young scientists were selected and recruited in the most exacting manner and then were free to work on whatever they wanted, with whomever they wished. Bahcall mentored over 200 young astronomers in his four decades at the IAS. While maintaining a scientific and educational program that would have exhausted most, Bahcall also demonstrated extraordinary scientific leadership. He was president of the American Astronomical Society, president-elect of the American Physical Society, led the team that produced the 1990 National Research Council "Bahcall Report" that set the scientific and instrumental priorities for astrophysics in the United States for a decade, and worked (with Lyman Spitzer, Jr.) with tireless effectiveness in public and in private to have the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) built and maintained as one of the world's pre-eminent scientific facilities. Neta Bahcall, a professor of astrophysics at Princeton University, was his love, his best friend, and his scientific colleague throughout. She took a leading scientific role at the STScI and wrote over 30 papers with him on subjects ranging from solar neutrinos to binary X-ray sources. They also collaborated in raising three talented children, Safi, Dan, and Orli, who are themselves now establishing significant scientific careers. Said Neta, "Our forty years together were the best, most joyous years of our lives. I could not have imagined a better life, a better husband. We lived a life full of love, of care, of joy. We worked, we shared, we played. We could not have asked for more." "He was a quiet giant of science and a good friend", said Raymond Orbach, Director, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy, a colleague and friend. "John devoted himself to the betterment of mankind. His leadership in astronomy, cosmology, and in the many societies that he served so well has left a lasting influence. We shall owe so much to this remarkable colleague. John created a legacy of imagination and precision, of creativity and rigor. His passing lessens us all." Bahcall's passion for science and for life, his enthusiasm, his integrity, his persistence and dedication, his tremendous will, his high standards for excellence, his love of family and of people, and his wonderful sense of fun were the hallmark of his scientific and personal life. "We all have a deep desire to know what exists out there," said John. "A desire so basic, so beautiful, and so much fun, that it unites all mankind." But no listing of achievements can convey the impression of the man: the wit, the mischievous energy, the passion. Jerry Wasserburg, his old Caltech friend, portrays Bahcall in 1965: "John, running around in white tennis shorts, very sportive and competitive in both creative science and tennis, trying out and enthusiastically arguing every new idea in astrophysics, was the dynamo of the Institute."

  2. Obituary: Frank K. Edmondson (1912-2008) (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Olson, Margaret K. Edmondson; Edmondson, Frank K., Jr.


    Hanging in the basement of Kirkwood Observatory on the Indiana University campus is a battered sign, dated Aug 31, 1932, announcing "Indiana Univ. Eclipse Station." While the path of totality passed well north of Bloomington, IN, where only 80% of the Sun's disk was covered, the eclipse made a lasting impression on the young Frank Kelley Edmondson, then an undergraduate student at Indiana University. Frank was born on August 1, 1912, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Clarence Edward Edmondson and Marie (Kelley) Edmondson. Growing up in Seymour, Indiana, he became interested in astronomy at an early age, reading voraciously from the "Book of Knowledge" at an aunt's house (The Book of Knowledge Set of Encyclopedias). He learned magic and was acquainted with Blackstone, the magician. He took ballet lessons and performed with his brother. He was a YMCA Camp Counselor at Camp Bedford where he taught natural sciences to the campers. He worked one summer as a cook on an ore boat on Lake Michigan. In high school he sang in a musical - and wore a false beard. In 1944 he grew his own beard, one of only two on the IU faculty at the time, and he kept the beard all the many years since. In 1996, Frank was elected to the Shields High School "Wall of Fame." After graduating from Shields High School in 1929, Frank enrolled at Indiana University. He was a member of the IU intercollegiate debate team for four years. He was initiated into Phi Beta Kappa as a junior and was a member of Sigma Xi. He graduated in 1933 and earned a Master's degree in 1934 based on a thesis ("An Analysis of the Radial Velocities of Twenty-One Globular Star Clusters") and professional experience earned while holding the Lawrence Fellowship at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona in 1934-35, where he worked as an observing assistant to Clyde Tombaugh. Despite his close association with Lowell, Tombaugh, and Pluto, Frank approved of the decision of the International Astronomical Union in 2006 to change Pluto's status to a dwarf planet. While in Flagstaff, Frank met Margaret Russell, the youngest daughter of famed American astronomer Henry Norris Russell of Princeton University. The young couple instantly bonded and became engaged after only two weeks. He and Margaret were married on November 24, 1934. Frank and Margaret remained inseparable until her death in 1999, always together at meetings of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, and elsewhere. Studying under astronomer Bart Bok, Frank received his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1937 from Harvard University, where he completed his dissertation on "The Absorption of Light in the Galaxy," and joined the faculty as an Instructor in Astronomy at Indiana University. Frank became the second member of the Astronomy Department, with Professor W. A. Cogshall, housed in Kirkwood Observatory. Frank served as chair of the department from 1944 until 1978. Under his leadership, the University acquired the Goethe Link Observatory in Brooklyn, IN, (a gift from Dr. Goethe Link, a noted Indianapolis physician and avid amateur astronomer), established a graduate program in astronomy, and enlarged the Department of Astronomy from two faculty members to eight. In one of his favorite stories, Edmondson bet Professor Cogshall a chocolate ice cream cone that President Herman B Wells would fund a new position for the Department, knowing full well that Wells had already agreed. Frank retired from IU in 1983. Studying under astronomer Bart Bok, Frank received his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1937 from Harvard University, where he completed his dissertation on "The Absorption of Light in the Galaxy," and joined the faculty as an Instructor in Astronomy at Indiana University. Frank became the second member of the Astronomy Department, with Professor W. A. Cogshall, housed in Kirkwood Observatory. Frank served as chair of the department from 1944 until 1978. Under his leadership, the University acquired the Goethe Link Observatory in Brooklyn, IN, (a gift from Dr. Goethe Link, a noted Indianapolis physician and avid amateur astronomer), established a graduate program in astronomy, and enlarged the Department of Astronomy from two faculty members to eight. In one of his favorite stories, Edmondson bet Professor Cogshall a chocolate ice cream cone that President Herman B Wells would fund a new position for the Department, knowing full well that Wells had already agreed. Frank retired from IU in 1983. When many asteroids were lost during World War II, Frank and his colleague James Cuffey established the Indiana University Asteroid Program. Frank is credited with determining the orbits of 119 asteroids from 7000 photographic plates taken with a 10" astrographic telescope at the Goethe Link Observatory. Frank selected names for each of these asteroids, honoring IU Presidents, prominent scholars, and important Hoosier and astronomical landmarks. Asteroid 4300 Marg Edmondson he named for his wife Margaret. During his years as a faculty member at Indiana University, Frank advised Dr. Alfred Kinsey on statistical techniques for his pioneering studies of human sexuality, and also shared with Kinsey an abiding interest in classical music. The music and the programs at the IU School of Music brought great joy to Frank over his career at IU. His memory for programs he had heard in the past was phenomenal. Frank is best known in Bloomington for his remarkable skill as an educator. He loved teaching. He taught elementary astronomy to literally thousands of students, often taking advantage of his knowledge of music to introduce astronomical topics with appropriate musical selections. His popular, award-winning, televised astronomy course was broadcast to students throughout the state and is widely remembered even today. Following in the tradition of IU's legendary President Herman B Wells, whom he greatly admired, Frank devoted his career to service. In 1957 Indiana University became one of the seven founding members of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), which founded the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Following the formation of AURA, Frank served as a Program Director for Astronomy at the National Science Foundation (1956-1957), helping to assure funding for the new national observatory. He served as Vice President of AURA from 1957-1961, as President of AURA (1962-1965), and as a member of the Board of Directors (1957-1983). Upon his retirement in 1983, he became the AURA Historian writing "AURA and its US National Observatories" (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1997), based on his personal experience plus 10 years (1978-88) searching archives and taping 85 oral histories. In 1964 Frank was awarded the Order of Merit by the Republic of Chile for his work in helping to establish the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory. In 2007, he commemorated the 50th anniversary of the founding of AURA by naming one of the remaining Indiana asteroids Aurapenenta. Frank served as the Treasurer of the American Astronomical Society for 21 years, from 1954 until 1975, and was also a leader of the Minor Planet Center of the International Astronomical Union, serving as its President from 1970-1973, and chairing the U.S. National Committee of the International Astronomical Union in 1963-1964. Frank was honored in 2001 for his attendance at American Astronomical Society (AAS) Meetings over a seventy year span 1931-2001. Professor Cogshall took Frank to his first AAS meeting at Perkins Observatory while he was still a junior at Indiana University. In his reminiscence in the American Astronomical Society's First Century volume, Frank recalls that Einstein played the violin at the banquet of the Princeton meeting in 1935, and that Koussevitsky conducted a concert by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Harvard Yard at the 1936 meeting, Frank's fourth AAS meeting. Frank's fifth AAS meeting, in 1937, was held in Bloomington shortly after he joined the faculty. Closer to home, Frank assisted Indiana University in many ways as it continued to grow during the 20th century, and he received a Distinguished Alumni Service Award from the University in 1997. His contributions to astronomy where honored by the Indiana State Legislature on the centennial of the Department of Astronomy in 1995. Frank's commitment to service is a hallmark of our campus, and one that the Department of Astronomy is proud to continue. Indiana University Emeritus Professor Frank Kelley Edmondson passed away on December 8, 2008, at Bloomington Hospital, at the age of 96. His wife, his parents and two brothers (W. T. Edmondson and Richard H. Edmondson) pre-deceased him. He is survived by his two children: Margaret Olson (Edward) of Urbana, Illinois, and Frank K. Edmondson Jr. (Vickie) of Seattle, Washington, a sister-in-law (Sally Edmondson of Philadelphia) and by six grandchildren (Mylene Melson, Yvonne Edmondson, Catherine Edmondson, Eric Olson, Jeffrey Olson, Charissa Young). He is also survived by twelve great-grandchildren, three great-great-grandchildren, and by several nieces and nephews. Frank enjoyed the many coincidences that sparked new connections and initiatives in his career. He liked to say that he was the right person in the right place at the right time. That was almost always true, and often because Frank himself understood and anticipated what would be needed, and made sure to be ready with an answer or guidance. He has been an inspiration to generations of students and colleagues and will be long remembered.

  3. Obituary: Russell Makidon (1971-2009) (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand


    Russell Benjamin Makidon died at the age of 38 in Baltimore on June 22, 2009. Complications following surgery to remove a tumor cut his life tragically short. Russ was a Mission Systems Scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which he joined straight out of graduate school in 1997. He brought both the force of his intellect and his superb people skills to STScI, where he served the Institute and the broader community with extraordinary effectiveness. Russ was pivotal in helping to develop the wavefront sensing and control system of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). He was also a member of the NSF Center for Adaptive Optics at Lick Observatory. Born to Cathy Ann and Peter Makidon, a worker at General Motors, on January 22, 1971, in Bay City, Michigan, Russ was an only child. He was raised by his mother, in Florida, and her parents, in Munger, Michigan. He is survived by his mother, his grandfather Benjamin Franklin Histed, and his father. In addition to his interest in science, Russ was a talented artist and his sketches had appeared in statewide and national competitions. Turning down a scholarship at the Savannah College of Art and Design, he studied physics and astronomy at the University of Michigan, followed by a Masters under Stephen Strom at the University of Massachusetts. He measured pre-main sequence stellar rotation in NGC 2264 and other OB associations, providing insight on the role that circumstellar disks play in setting stellar angular momentum in young stellar clusters and associations. This work, and his extraordinary skills in facilitating scientific exchange, led to his co-investigatorship on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Orion Treasury Project. Russ advanced the understanding of high contrast imaging, especially the relation between the properties of a wavefront control or adaptive optics systems and the physics of coronagraphic imaging. He developed a practical understanding of coronagraphy, performing timely and relevant numerical studies that laid a foundation for several recent extreme adaptive optics coronagraphs. He co-founded the Lyot Project coronagraph used at the US Air Force AEOS telescope on Maui. This instrument produced the first images of the disk surrounding the star AB Aurigae showing structure at the scale of our solar system. Russ' detailed modeling of AEOS' imaging prompted the US Air Force to upgrade their system with a fully-functioning deformable mirror, which improved its coronagraphic performance markedly. The existing P1640 integral field coronagraphic spectrograph on Palomar Hale and the state-of-the-art Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph, both dedicated to imaging extra-solar Jovian planets and protoplanetary disks, owe a debt to Russ' organized quantitative forays into the unknown. >At STScI Russ worked on several essential aspects of HST: its Fine Guidance Sensors, maintaining the telescope's focus, and helping to produce the Hubble Deep Field South, one of the deepest images of the sky at that time. In his last few years Russ played a key role in preparing to monitor and control the optical quality of JWST after launch. This crucial activity will affect the quality of JWST's entire scientific output. Russ understood the optical, mechanical, and operational complexities of JWST, in addition to appreciating its overarching scientific mission. He effectively drew together experts from Ball Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Goddard Space Flight Center, JPL, and STScI, gathering diverse threads of systems engineering, optics, detector characteristics, observational, and operational constraints in one skein while tactfully holding aloft JWST's guiding science goals. Russ had a special touch with people. He was able to draw astronomers, optical engineers, mission planners, programmers, systems engineers, project leads, in fact, anyone, into comfortably exchanging concerns, results, opinions, and more. His gift was in making friends with everyone he met, hearing and remembering their stories. These talents set him apart as a truly extraordinary person, as well as a highly effective channel of technical and scientific communication in any project that he worked on. Russ combined a lively scientific interest with an eagerness to learn and apply new methods. As it became clear to Russ that a set of computer simulations he had set up would definitively outline or constrain future approaches, an excited glint would kindle behind his usually quiet gaze. He would then retire from further discussion, saying ``Well, we'll see what we can do,'' to re-emerge from seclusion hours or days later, visibly delighted with the swath his work cut through pre-existing uncertainties, a path his colleagues would necessarily have to study when charting their courses. Russ was notable for his gentle and serene character and attitude toward people and things. He was the type of person you look for when you have a preliminary and confused idea in your mind, and you need someone to talk with, someone who has the patience to hear you and ask the right questions, to help you to settle things correctly and clearly in your mind. He was smart, with a genuine passion for science. He really enjoyed new, good results, and was often the first person to congratulate a colleague on a new finding or a noteworthy publication. Russ was also extremely approachable, and willing to help complete strangers. He would spend hours explaining the details of his work to a newly-met graduate student, working through the intricacies of detailed simulations of a point spread function affected by a cross-wind over the telescope aperture. However, on the racquetball court or in other games Russ displayed a highly competitive streak, giving no quarter to those he vanquished A talented artist, Russ appreciated the fine details and the seldom noticed beauty that the world has to offer. His smile was freely given, his quick wit and wry sense of humor was second to none. He had a special ability to bring people from many walks of life together; he was a loyal friend, a loving son and grandson, and a highly valued colleague. Russell faced his final decisions on uncertain and risky surgical procedures with a quiet, strong faith, surrounded by his family and friends. If the length of a man's life is measured in the number of friends he loved, instead of the number of years he lived, he lived longer than all of us.

  4. Obituary: Michael John Klein, 1940-2005 (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel


    Michael John Klein died on 14 May 2005 at home in South Pasadena, California. The cause of death was tongue cancer that metastasized to the lungs. He was a non-smoker. Mike was a passionate radio astronomer, a trusted astronomical observer, an educator and a family man. Mike was born on 19 January 1940 in Ames, Iowa, the son of Florence Marie (Graf) and Fred Michael Klein. His mother was a homemaker, and his father was a banker. Mike had two older sisters, Lois Jean (Klein) Flauher and Marilyn June (Klein) Griffin. In 1962, Mike married his high school sweetheart Barbara Dahlberg, who survives him along with their three children, Kristin Marie (Klein) Shields, Michael John Klein Jr., Timothy Joel Klein, and six grandchildren. Mike developed a love for astronomy early in his life, and credited an early morning, newspaper-delivery route that he had at age twelve, which took him outside well before sunrise. He told family members that as he walked along his route, he stared into the sky and wondered what everything was. He studied sky charts, located stars, and began to understand how the planets shifted their positions relative to the stars each day. Another big influence in Mike's life was his brother in-law, Jim Griffin. Jim helped Mike understand that his passion for science did not have to remain a hobby, but could and should become a career. Jim's encouragement led Mike to attend Iowa State University in Ames, where he earned a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Mike then started graduate school in electrical engineering at Michigan State, but after one semester transferred to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he earned an MS (1966) and PhD (1968) in astronomy. His doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Professor Fred Haddock, was based on extensive observations of the planets and examined the physical and thermal properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Mike was awarded a Resident Research Associate position at JPL by the National Research Council in 1968. He joined JPL as a full time research scientist in 1969 where he remained until his death. He observed the radio emissions from Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus and other planets for over thirty-five years. Mike produced the most extensive set of observations of the synchrotron emission from Jupiter ever recorded. When JPL and the NASA Ames Research Center initiated a radio search for signs of extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) in the 1980s, Mike managed the JPL effort to scan the entire sky for signs of narrow band radio signals. He was open-minded about the possible existence of extra-terrestrial intelligent life. Mike devoted much of his energy to education in the last fifteen years of his life. He felt that science created a pathway for learning and remarked that "students need science and science needs students." Using SETI as a vehicle for education, Mike co-authored a book, Cosmic Quest: Searching for Life Among the Stars (with Margaret Poynter) in order to promote public awareness of astronomy and exobiology. In the early 1990s, Mike became a leader and driving force in a collaborative educational effort involving JPL, NASA, the Lewis Center for Educational Research in Apple Valley, California, and the Apple Valley Unified School District. A 34-meter (110-foot) radio antenna at NASA's Deep Space Network's Goldstone Complex was converted into an interactive, research, and teaching instrument available to classrooms throughout the United States and military bases overseas via the Internet. Known as the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT), the project has been in operation for approximately ten years in fourteen countries and three territories. More than 15,000 students from kindergarten through twelfth grade have participated to date and the number is expected to grow to more 50,000 students in the next four years. As a tribute to Mike's leadership, the GAVRT instrument has been named the "Michael J. Klein Radio Telescope." Mike was a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, the International Scientific Radio Union, and the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, for whom he was a Distinguished Lecturer in 1992 and 1993. He appeared on many television programs including CBS Nightwatch with Charlie Rose, ABC, NBC, and CNN News. Mike achieved balance and perspective in his personal and professional life. He loved being a professional radio astronomer and shared his passion with family, friends, and students. He would take his children with him when he went on overnight observing trips to the desert. Mike was also active in his church where he taught Sunday school and held other positions. His family recalls how he always made time for them, be it for weeklong treks in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, sporting events, church outings, vacations, or nightly family dinners. He was completely present in multiple worlds. Mike's children still marvel at the ability he had to take any controversial topic and explore how opposing sides might merge their views, where others would have debated the correctness of one side or the other. Mike was an inspiration to scientists and non-scientists alike. He set a high standard in his scientific work, and he shared his passion for life and the wonders of the universe.

  5. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005 (United States)

    Wijers, Ralph


    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we now call the "Bethe Ansatz." Soon after his acceptance of an assistant professorship at Tübingen in 1932, he had to flee Hitler's Germany because his mother was Jewish. Bethe went to the Bragg Institute in Manchester, England, where he worked again with Peierls. In 1934, Cornell University unexpectedly offered him a position as part of R. Clifton Gibbs's expansion of the physics department; he accepted and stayed there for the rest of his life. Right from the start, Bethe enjoyed America and its atmosphere very much. His first activity there was to write the "Bethe Bible": three articles in Reviews of Modern Physics to educate his colleagues in theoretical nuclear physics. Then he did the work that astrophysicists will still appreciate him most for, and which brought him the 1967 Nobel Prize. Having worked with George Gamow's student Charles Critchfield (at Gamow's suggestion) on the proton-proton chain for nuclear fusion in the Sun (published in 1938), Bethe was initially a bit discouraged with Arthur Eddington's estimates of the Solar core temperature; their calculations did not agree well with the observed solar luminosity. However, at the Washington conference in 1937, he heard of Strömgren's new estimates of the solar interior, which brought his and Critchfield's theory into much better agreement with the data. Fairly soon after the meeting, Bethe also worked out the process whereby more massive stars must accomplish hydrogen fusion, in what we now call the CNO cycle. Curiously, Bethe held up its publication briefly in order to compete for a prize for the best unpublished paper on energy production in stars. He did win, and used the money in part to bring his mother to the United States; eventually, the paper appeared in Physics Review in 1939, and founded a whole branch of astrophysics. The war brought Bethe to the Manhattan project, of which he became one of the intellectual leaders. He ploughed through problems theoretical and practical by attacking them head-on and not allowing himself to be side-tracked by those who would deem the problem be much more complex and difficult, moving straight forward like an intellectual battleship ("The H.A. Bethe Way," as his collaborator Gerald E. Brown would dub the style). Bethe's involvement in the Project brought to light his abilities in the managerial and political arena, which he used later to much effect to influence the wider world; he was among those who fought hard during the Cold War to contain the impact of the terrible weapons he had helped invent. As his two children, Henry and Monica, were born, the war years also made him a family man. As his father did with him, he often took them on long walks, in the hills around Ithaca or further afield; he much enjoyed walking, and mountains. Just after the war, during and following the June 1947 Shelter Island Conference, Bethe made another of his great contributions to physics—some might say his greatest. The experiments by Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford, on what came to be known as the "Lamb shift," were discussed, and during the meeting the assembled crowd (Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, and Hendrick Kramers among them) got stuck on the infinities of QED. During the train ride home, Bethe managed to compute the correct answer by realizing that the complex QED machinery could be bypassed, the H.A. Bethe Way. His 1967 Nobel Prize spurred a brief revival of Bethe's interest in astrophysics, but his work in the following years continued to focus on nuclear physics and dense matter (and disarmament and nuclear power, of course). In 1978 he re-entered astrophysics with a bang: Bethe was losing interest in nuclear physics and, after a few years of trying, Gerry Brown lured him back to astrophysics during a stay at the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA). The refugee from Hitler and the refugee from McCarthy jointly attacked the problem of supernova collapse. Bethe had the crucial insight that the low entropy of massive stellar cores would cause them to collapse to well above nuclear density, contrary to prevailing opinion. With James Applegate and James Lattimer, they published their finding in the BBAL ('"babble") paper of 1979. After that, astrophysics never quite left Bethe again, and with Brown (his "junior collaborator"), he took an interest in the fate of massive stars and black holes more generally. The series of papers on formation of black holes, gamma-ray bursts, and gravity-wave sources continued until close to his death. These papers are done very much the H.A. Bethe Way, often finding simple approximations to much more complicated work of others, and are quite straightforward. An inevitable part of the Bethe-Brown collaboration was a January stay in California; during the 1999 edition I had the good fortune of becoming a small footnote to the great Bethe story. Gerry and Hans invited me to join them for a while, to discuss issues of binary star evolution and population synthesis. I have to admit to being rather taken aback by the way in which the 93-year old gave me a good intellectual runaround every day. And yet, as many others have commented, there was nothing facetious or overbearing in his manner: He made me feel like a valuable colleague and welcome guest. Good meals were an essential part of Hans's every day, and during a dinner prepared by Rose Bethe and Betty Brown, the old stories surfaced. I could not resist asking about the legendary story of Rose and Hans's evening walk under the stars. Hans, so says the story, tried to impress his fiancée by commenting that at that moment, he was probably the only person on Earth who understood why the stars shine. Hans grinned a bit sheepishly, but Rose roundly confirmed the story with a big smile. Not too impressed, she had replied: "That's nice." And so it was.

  6. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009) (United States)

    Marché, Jordan D., II


    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the future course of stellar astronomy," a prediction strongly borne out in the decades that followed. In 1959, Code founded the Space Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) within the UW Department of Astronomy. Early photometric and spectrographic equipment was test-flown aboard NASA's X-15 rocket plane and Aerobee sounding rockets. Along with other SAL personnel, including Theodore E. Houck, Robert C. Bless, and John F. McNall, Code (as principal investigator) was responsible for the design of the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) as one of two suites of instruments to be flown aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), which represented a milestone in the advent of space astronomy. With its seven reflecting telescopes feeding five filter photometers and two scanning spectrometers, WEP permitted the first extended observations in the UV portion of the spectrum. After the complete failure of the OAO-1 spacecraft (launched in 1966), OAO-2 was successfully launched on 7 December 1968 and gathered data on over a thousand celestial objects during the next 50 months, including stars, nebulae, galaxies, planets, and comets. These results appeared in a series of more than 40 research papers, chiefly in the Ap.J., along with the 1972 monograph, The Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), edited by Code. Between the OAO launches, other SAL colleagues of Code developed the Wisconsin Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (or APT), the first computer-controlled (or "robotic") telescope. Driven by a PDP-8 mini-computer, it routinely collected atmospheric extinction data. Code was also chosen principal investigator for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (or WUPPE). This used a UV-sensitive polarimeter designed by Kenneth Nordsieck that was flown twice aboard the space shuttles in 1990 and 1995. Among other findings, WUPPE observations demonstrated that interstellar dust does not appreciably change the direction of polarization of starlight, thereby supporting its possible composition as graphite. Code was the recipient of numerous awards, including the Professional Achievement Award of the University of Chicago Alumni Association (1969), NASA's Public Service Award (1970), and its highest honor, the Distinguished Public Service Medal (1992). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1971), the International Academy of Astronautics (1972), chosen a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1974), and elected vice president (1976-78) and president (1982-84) of the AAS. He was a member of the Board of Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council and served for many years on the board of directors (and later was appointed chairman, 1977-80) of AURA, Inc. Code was closely involved with AURA's bid to manage the Space Telescope Science Institute and served as the latter's interim director (15 January - 1 September 1981). He also played a significant role in establishing the WIYN (Wisconsin, Indiana, Yale, and NOAO) consortium and Observatory. Code's numerous achievements reflect his competencies as both a theorist and experimentalist/observer, along with noted administrative skills. During his lengthy career at Wisconsin, Code supervised twenty doctoral dissertations (one of which was co-directed with Robert Bless). Following his retirement in 1995, he and his wife relocated to Tucson, Arizona, where he was appointed adjunct professor at the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory and concurrently WIYN Observatory Scientist. At the time of his death, he was the Joel Stebbins and Hilldale Professor of Astronomy Emeritus at UW-Madison. Code belonged to the First Unitarian Church of Madison. He is survived by his wife of 65 years, Mary Guild Code, their four children, Alan, Douglas, Edith, and David, and six grandchildren. Among other sources, this essay draws upon the 1982 oral history interview with Code, conducted by David H. DeVorkin (National Air and Space Museum/Smithsonian Institution); remarks made by the late Donald E. Osterbrock at Code's 80th birthday dinner (2003), Frank K. Edmondson's (1997) history of AURA, and previous work published by the author on the WEP. One box of Code's papers (1958-1985) is preserved at the Memorial Library Archives, UW-Madison. Additional contributions toward this essay have come from Robert W. Smith, Robert C. Bless, and the members of Code's family.

  7. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.


    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors

  8. Obituary: Elizabeth Katherine Holmes, 1973-2004 (United States)

    Beichman, Charles Arnold


    Elizabeth (Beth) K. Holmes died suddenly in Pasadena on March 23, 2004, from the unexpected effects of a long-standing heart condition. She was 30 years old. At the moment of her passing, she was at her computer comparing her theoretical models on the effects of planets on the distribution of zodiacal dust with some of the first observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Born on June 24, 1973, in New York City, Beth was the only child of James and Barbara Holmes, who were respectively, a financial manager and a nurse and social worker. Undeterred by numerous treatments and operations to correct a congenital heart condition, Beth developed an interest in math and physics leading to her graduation from MIT in 1995 with a bachelor's degree in Physics. She entered the University of Florida shortly afterwards to begin her PhD studies under the direction of Stanley Dermott. Beth was particularly interested in the dynamics of interplanetary dust, and initially worked on secular perturbations of the zodiacal cloud: how the planets impose warping of the cloud, and how they can force the center of the cloud to be offset from the Sun. Despite the fact that Beth was primarily a theorist, she was keen to include some observing experience in her PhD education. She recently completed an observing program with Harold Butner at the Steward and Palomar Observatories looking for submillimeter and mid-infrared emission around nearby main-sequence stars - a signpost of planetary formation. The results were published last year in the Astronomical Journal. Beth's PhD thesis work, some results of which were recently published in the Astrophysical Journal, focused on dust originating in the Kuiper belt and how some of this dust is expected to be spatially structured due to resonant interactions with Neptune. This phenomenon may be quite common in other planetary systems, with recent images of Epsilon Eridani perhaps providing a prime example of a Kuiper disk analog. After graduating from Florida in 2002, Beth took up a National Research Council postdoctoral position at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with Charles Beichman and T. Velusamy with the goal of applying her theoretical knowledge of zodiacal clouds to observations from the Spitzer Space telescope. In advance of the launch of Spitzer, Beth gathered detailed information on over 150 solar type stars and carefully planned a Spitzer observing program to detect faint zodiacal signals. While waiting through numerous launch delays, she prepared models of zodiacal clouds influenced by the presence of planets to be ready when Spitzer images of stars like Vega, Upsilon Andromedae, and Fomalhaut became available. These models were presented as talks and posters at a number of conferences. Her models were a critical part of the Early Release Observations of Fomalhaut and the subsequent Spitzer paper on the possibility that a Jovian-mass planet located approximately 40 AU from the star was responsible for the structures seen in the Fomalhaut disk. The Fomalhaut paper in the special Spitzer edition of the Astrophysical Journal is dedicated to Beth's memory. Beth was an enthusiastic and cheerful colleague who made friends everywhere she worked. In addition to developing friendships and collaborations at JPL, she became a valued member of the Spitzer/MIPS instrument team at the University of Arizona. She was active on the Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy of the American Astronomical Society, publishing an article on "The Postdoc Perspective on the Women in Astronomy II Conference" in the January 2004 issue of STATUS, the CSWA magazine, and serving as an associate editor of that magazine. She was an inspiring role model for young women in science, befriending and mentoring a number of Caltech women undergraduates, as well as making numerous appearances in K-12 classrooms for science outreach. She pursued her love of plants (cactus in particular), cats and fish, spending her spare time lovingly tending her small garden. Her friends and colleagues will remember Beth for her scientific contributions, but also for her courage as we realize that she worked beside us completely unshadowed by the heart condition that would take her in so sudden and untimely a manner. We take solace in the knowledge that at the moment of her passing, she was pursuing her passion for astronomy, working among colleagues who valued her work and her friendship, that she had a supportive and loving family with parents on the East Coast and close relatives on the West Coast, and that in her fiancé, Todd Rope, she had found a kindred spirit.

  9. Obituary: Ronald Eugene Pitts, 1949-2008 (United States)

    MacConnell, D. Jack


    Ronald Pitts, systems engineer in the Commanding Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute and long-time Computer Sciences Corporation employee, died suddenly of a stroke on 4 May 2008 at his home in Laurel, Maryland. He was a dedicated scientist-engineer, husband, father, volunteer, and cherished friend to many. Ron was born on 19 January 1949 in Tucson, Arizona, and was raised, along with his sister Suzanne, on his parents' turkey farm outside Tucson. He picked up practical knowledge from his father, Vernon, and became a competent amateur electrician and plumber, skills he kept honed and used throughout his life. His mother, Ruth (Stephens), was a nurse and taught him compassion and patience and encouraged his inquisitive mind. Ron attended public schools and enrolled at the University of Arizona, graduating with a B. S. in Astronomy in 1971. Being from a family of modest means, he put himself through school working summers and part-time at a large copper mine south of town. Ron enrolled in the graduate astronomy program at the Ohio State University [OSU] in the fall of 1971 where he was a first-year fellowship student. During his second and third years, he was the Perkins Assistant, taking spectra for the very exacting but appreciative Philip Keenan who once remarked to another faculty member that Ron was the best observer he ever had. Later, in 1980, Ron was co-author with Keenan on "Revised MK Spectral Types for G, K, and M stars" and again in 1985 in a study of supergiants in open clusters. He met his future wife, Patricia Moore, also a graduate student in the department, and they were wed in 1973. Ron was also partially supported during his early OSU years by an NSF grant to Robert Wing, writing parts of Wing's photometric reduction code and observing on the program at Kitt Peak and Flagstaff in the summer of 1974. Wing remembers him as being very competent and pleasant to work with. Ron's thesis topic was "Oscillator Strengths for Neutral Iron and Silicon" under the direction of Gerald Newsom, and he was awarded the PhD in 1979. Newson recalls his facility with instrumentation, designing new circuitry to solve problems with the shock tube and ferreting out sources of systematic errors, and that it was enjoyable to work with him. In the fall of 1979, Ron went to Ball State University where he taught undergraduate astronomy classes for four years. In the summer of 1983, Ron left academia for the position of IUE Resident Astronomer with Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC] at the Goddard Space Flight Center where he joined a small contingent of other Ohio State graduates. For the next eleven years, he supported guest observers, implemented work-arounds as the IUE gyroscopes failed, improved calibrations, and had several proposals accepted to obtain spectra of spectrophotometric standards and to observe upper-main-sequence stars in the Pleiades, a Per, and NGC 2244, work that he did with Nancy Remage Evans. Ron worked diligently on the software to combine the best IUE calibration with ground-based data of the hot cluster stars and to fit the temperature and gravity. He also became interested in advanced technology for lunar remote telescopes and co-authored several studies with Peter Chen and others. After their children were of school age, Ron's wife Pat also worked for CSC/IUE for part of this period. In October 1994, Ron transferred to the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, where he joined the science instrument commanding group under the direction of Vicki Balzano. His first task was helping to write the commanding software controlling the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to be installed in HST in February 1997, and he became the in-house expert on the workings of this complex instrument, in particular on the details of the time-tag mode. In time, he became familiar with all the on-board instruments and oversaw the approval of the instrument commanding before the weekly HST command loads were distributed to the Goddard Space Flight Center for uploading to the telescope. In recent years, Ron participated in developing the onboard Javascript code for commanding the James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Spectrograph operations. He also helped write special commanding to support some activities to follow the final HST servicing mission. His "behind-the-scenes" contributions to IUE, HST, and JWST helped and will help astronomers around the world obtain their data. Ron seemed knowledgeable about almost any subject and could talk engagingly and at length on politics, economics, a variety of technical topics, the history of the early Church, and science fiction, among others. He was one of those people who always appeared to be smiling. He, Pat, and their daughter Marie enjoyed singing in the Central Maryland Chorale, and he served his church as an elder, Sunday-school teacher, and choir member. Ron sat on various church committees, set up and maintained the computers, and devoted many hours to the upkeep of the building. After Hurricane Katrina, he went on two mission trips with church members to help victims in Mississippi. Once again, his carpentry, electrical, and plumbing skills made him a valuable team member. Ron is survived by his wife, Pat, a cartographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, their son Mark, a graduate student in astronomy at the University of Hawaii, and their daughter Marie, a graduate student in biology at the University of Maryland.

  10. Obituary: Damon Paul Simonelli, 1959-2004 (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie Jean; Veverka, Joseph


    Damon Paul Simonelli died unexpectedly on 1 December 2004 after he collapsed of heart failure at his home near Pasadena, California. Damon led pioneering studies in the scientific exploration of the satellites of the Solar System with spacecraft. He was a longtime member of the AAS's Division for Planetary Sciences community. Only two weeks before his death he attended the 2004 DPS meeting in Louisville where he presented a paper on the surface roughness of Phoebe based on Cassini observations. Damon was born in the Bronx, New York, on 15 August 1959. His father, Aldo Simonelli (d. 1990), was a clarinetist for the New York City Opera Company, and his mother, Alice Kennard Simonelli, was a secretary. His parents met while they were both students at the Julliard School. Family history has it that Damon's mother was an opera student, but she ruined her voice after singing when she had the flu. By junior high school, Damon had become a master at convincing his mother to wake him up at 3 AM to watch televised moonwalks, and to allow the entire family to view Star Trek episodes at the dinner table. Damon graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1976, with a composition on the New York State Regents exam that mentioned the significance of bicentennial toilet bowl lids. In addition to placing great emphasis on humor, the Simonelli family valued education. Damon's younger sister Danelle graduated from Vassar College and has served many years as a U. S. Park Ranger at Liberty Island. Damon graduated with a BA summa cum laude in physics from Cornell in 1980, where he had begun working with Carl Sagan. Damon had painstakingly gone through all the Viking images to look for any possibility of sentient life on Mars (he didn't find any). Perhaps the arrival of data from the first great explorers of the outer Solar System - Voyagers 1 and 2 - convinced Damon to continue at Cornell with Joe Veverka. While at Cornell, Damon began his pioneering work on the use of quantitative radiative transfer models to understand the physical character of planetary surfaces. He also became interested in post-eclipse brightening on the Galilean satellite Io, a phenomenon that was purported to be due to the condensation of the satellite's tenuous atmosphere during an eclipse by Jupiter. He carefully and skeptically studied this phenomenon, as well as the related problem of night time atmospheric condensation. His thesis was on the microphysical nature and thermal properties of Io's surface. He graduated with a PhD in Astronomy and Space Sciences from Cornell in 1987. Damon took on a new scientific challenge when he accepted a National Research Council Fellowship at NASA Ames Research Center with Jim Pollack. He worked with Pollack, Ray Reynolds, and Chris McKay on the interior structure of the Pluto/Charon system, and the carbon budget in the outer Solar System. Using new data on the density of Pluto derived from mutual events, Damon led a team that maintained the rockier composition of Pluto implied it formed in a CO-rich outer solar nebula rather than in a circumplanetary nebula. A paper by Simonelli and Reynolds suggested the possibility that Pluto was dense because it had lost its volatiles during an impact event that formed Charon, a suggestion that was later validated by Robin Canup's work. At the time of his death, Damon was a collaborator on the New Horizons Mission to Pluto, due to be launched in early 2006. Damon returned to Cornell in 1991 to embark on a third scientific career. With Veverka, Peter Thomas, and Paul Helfenstein, he led a team to study the nature of the small, formerly uninteresting bodies of the Solar System, including the inner satellites of Jupiter that were imaged by the Galileo camera. He applied Thomas's "spud" shape model and Helfenstein's Hapke model to derive the shapes, roughness, albedo, and surface texture of a wide range of small bodies, including Io, Phobos, Phoebe, the asteroids Gaspra and Ida, and Europa. Damon also became an expert at planning spacecraft observations and command sequences for Galileo. He was recognized for these efforts with a NASA Superior Performance Award. Damon became known as a patient mentor to undergraduate students, many of whom are coauthors on his papers. In 2002, Damon left his home turf of Cornell to accept a Senior National Research Council Fellowship at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory with Bonnie J. Buratti. Damon quickly became a key member of the Small Bodies Group at JPL, assuming responsibility for planning the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) Cassini observations of Titan. Although Damon had spent many Friday nights as a Cornell undergraduate conducting open nights at the Campus observatory, his first professional astronomical observing experience was at JPL. Damon's style in science was always the egoless pursuit of truth. Generous in showing data to competitors, he never took shortcuts when it came to matters of scientific integrity. This good man did not have a single enemy among his colleagues. Damon was an avid cyclist, amateur actor, and hockey player, continuing his participation in a team even after his move from the great white north to sunny southern California. He had an encyclopedic knowledge of sports, movies, TV, and science fiction, and he owned a world class collection of Star Trek and other science fiction memorabilia, most of which has been distributed to his friends. His science fiction book collection is now part of the Palomar Observatory Library in the Monastery, and his Star Trek collection will be on view at the Altadena Public Library later in 2006. Although Damon's contributions to science were substantial, and his personal attributes of honesty, selflessness, humor, and intelligence deeply affected his wide circle of friends, his early death left unwritten chapters in both his professional and personal life. The deluge of Cassini data he had intended to work on had just begun to come in, and he will not see the New Horizons launch and encounter. He was devoted to his parents and sister and to the families of his close friends. The Community's tribute to Damon's life will be to continue his work and to keep his spirit of scientific honesty alive. His unique and dry wit and keen scientific insights will be missed. Damon's survivors include his mother Alice and sister Danelle.

  11. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008) (United States)

    Bregman, Joel


    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical phenomena. She was involved in outreach and education at many levels and throughout her career. She would give planetarium shows, popular science talks for the public, and would speak to local and national news agencies, where she would explain recent NASA science findings. Among other contributions to higher education, she created a course, "Naked Eye Astronomy" at the University of Michigan, which remains the most popular course that the department offers. She was an active member of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), where she was a frequent speaker as well as a mentor to students. Beth Brown was an inspiration to women and minorities in encouraging them to pursue careers in astronomy and physics. One could not find a finer roll model. She will be missed but not forgotten.

  12. Obituary: Albert G. Petschek, 1928-2004 (United States)

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Libersky, Larry D.


    Albert G. Petschek died suddenly 8 July 2004. He enjoyed good health and was very active professionally and personally until his death. He was highly respected, particularly in theoretical physics, for his deep, broad-ranging analytical powers, which resulted in contributions to nuclear physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing. Albert was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1928. His extended family left Czechoslovakia when its sovereignty was threatened by Germany in 1938 and settled throughout the Western Hemisphere. Albert's father, a banker, settled in Scarsdale, near New York City. Albert graduated from White Plains High School and obtained his BS from MIT in a program accelerated during World War II. While getting his masters degree at the University of Michigan, Albert met his wife, Marilyn, also a physics masters student. In 1953, Albert obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester working with Robert Marshak on aspects of nuclear theory, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Albert's younger brother, Harry, also became a PhD physicist. Harry is now well known in plasma physics for reconnection theory. At Los Alamos, Albert worked closely with Carson Mark, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Conrad Longmire designing the first thermonuclear weapons. His derivation of several radiation diffusion solutions, later published as LAMS 2421, remains a classic in its field, as does work on nuclear theory done with Baird Brandow and Hans Bethe during a sabbatical at Cornell in 1961. Bethe was a frequent visitor to Los Alamos and a close friend. A devoted family man, Albert also valued Los Alamos as a safe, stimulating environment for raising an active family. Like many of the scientists at Los Alamos, Albert enjoyed its ready access to outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing. Albert often combined his passions for intellectual activity and the outdoors - discussing Lie groups around a camp fire or the controversies concerning the origin of lightning in electrical storms while hiking through a high mountain pass, watching a thundercloud form. Albert's son Rolfe was inspired in part by such outings to become a professional physicist. For more than a decade following his PhD, Albert's primary scientific work was secret, contributing to the security of his adopted country, and he published little in the open literature. However, by the time of his death, Albert's broad interests and scientific rigor had resulted in 69 cited papers on such diverse topics as nuclear theory, plasma physics, radiation, numerical hydrodynamics and plastic flow, astrophysics (supernovae, quasars, gamma-ray bursts), chemical kinetics, atmospheric physics (plumes, electrification), geotectonics, nuclear weapons effects, inertial fusion and quantum computing. Even this list understates Albert's intellectual breadth: while his scientific publications are all in physics, he was also very knowledgeable in some aspects of biology and finance, and his broad-ranging analytical powers were appreciated by practitioners of many professions. In an increasingly specialized world, Albert's broad interests, wide knowledge, and willingness to think deeply about many problems are inspiring. In 1966 Albert joined the faculty of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech) in Socorro, New Mexico, as a full professor. In 1968 he left Tech to spend three years at Science, Systems and Software, a scientific consulting firm in San Diego California, and then returned to New Mexico Tech. Albert's intellectual leadership, the courses he taught in theoretical physics, and his frequent, insightful questions at seminars will long be remembered by those with whom he interacted at New Mexico Tech. Of his 69 published works, 39 were published in collaboration with Stirling Colgate. Colgate, at that time New Mexico Tech's president, had helped recruit Albert there. Albert's PhD students at New Mexico Tech keenly remember his patience, kindness and availability. His office door was always open, and he was eager to lead them through difficulties in their research. Albert maintained his connection to LANL while at New Mexico Tech, consulting at LANL during many holidays and summers. In 1981 he became one of the first Fellows of Los Alamos National Laboratories. Albert also enjoyed service to the science community, editing a book on supernovae (1990), routinely judging local and regional science fairs, and advising LANL on the recipients of the Los Alamos prize. In 1987, Albert retired from New Mexico Tech and returned full time to Los Alamos in the Physics division. Although he subsequently retired from LANL in 1994, he remained very active at LANL until his death, spending three to four days there most weeks as an emeritus fellow, consultant, and frequent attendee of, and questioner at, seminars and colloquia. During this period his published scientific contributions were primarily to quantum computing and numerical hydrodynamics. While he was retired Albert's part time status allowed him to spend yet more time with his family and he explored many parts of the world with them. Albert was an avid hiker, cross country skier, mushroom gatherer, gardener, and bicyclist. He commuted by bicycle between his home in La Senda and the Lab, an elevation change of 200 meters, in almost any weather, until his death. He is survived by Marilyn, his wife of 55 years, his brother Harry, his four children, Evelyn, Rolfe, Elaine, and Mark and three grandchildren.

  13. Obituary: Rodger Doxsey (1947-2009) (United States)

    Livio, Mario


    Rodger Doxsey, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute, passed away on October 13, 2009, after a prolonged illness. For the past 20 years, Rodger has been known to be truly the go-to guy for making the Hubble Space Telescope perform as it has. I have always argued that no person is truly irreplaceable. I still believe that to be true. However, my colleague and friend Rodger Doxsey came probably as close as anyone ever could to being irreplaceable. I know of no one who had a deeper and more thorough understanding of the workings of HST than Rodger had. In fact, there used to be a joke around the Institute, that when Rodger goes on vacation, the telescope experiences some malfunction. Usually when we retire a computer, we make sure that all the information on it is stored elsewhere. Unfortunately we cannot do the same with the human brain. Rodger was always driven by one passion - the desire to make the Hubble Space Telescope the most productive scientific instrument ever. He has been involved with, and often led, every effort to prolong the life of the telescope, and to make it operate more efficiently. Here is a description by another Hubble pioneer, astronomer John Bahcall, of the birth of the "Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Program," a wonderful example of one of Rodger's many brainchildren: "The Snapshot program originated in a lunchtime conversation between Rodger Doxsey and myself in the STScI cafeteria sometime in the spring of 1989. We were both late to lunch and probably were the only people in the cafeteria. The principal topic of conversation was the expected low observing efficiency of the HST. Rodger described the extraordinary difficulty in making a schedule that would use a reasonable percentage of the available time for science observations. Slewing was slow and changing instruments or modes of observing was time-consuming. Also, the scheduling software that existed in 1989 was not very powerful. I asked Rodger, without thinking very carefully about what I was saying, if it would be possible for the software he was developing to insert new objects in the holes in the schedule. I wondered aloud if one could improve the efficiency by choosing new objects, close to the directions of the scheduled targets, from a previously prepared list of interesting objects scattered over the sky. I remember that Rodger suddenly became very quiet, thought about the question, and finally replied something like: 'In principle, it is possible.' The Snapshot program was born at that lunch." Rodger Doxsey was born in Schenectady, New York, on March 11, 1947. He is survived by his companion, Vicky Balzano, who also works at STScI; his father, John, of Cleveland, Ohio; and his four siblings, Martha Doxsey of Edmonton, Alberta; Douglas Doxsey of Ironwood, Michigan; Virginia Doxsey of Boston; and Mary Lou Shane of Duxbury, Vermont. As a boy, his sisters described, he used to be absorbed in crossword puzzles and jigsaw puzzles. At MIT, where he studied physics and earned his Ph.D., he became fascinated with rowing, and he kept returning every year to race with his old crewmates in the Head of the Charles Regatta. He was also very fond of the work of the American artist Alexander Calder, and a lithograph of one of his drawings hung on the wall of his office. Very few people know of a ritual Rodger and I have developed over the years. During the first servicing mission and subsequent observatory verification, Rodger and I used to spend nights at the Institute, following all the tests for the instruments. After the performance test of each instrument, we shook hands ceremoniously. This became somewhat of a superstition, and consequently, in all the following servicing missions we continued with the same ritual. During SM4, Rodger was already too weak to attend all the activities continuously. We did meet, however, after the completion of SM4, and performed the ritualistic handshake to celebrate all the instruments. Goodbye friend. Hubble's Guardian. To me, you will always be irreplaceable.

  14. Obituary: Harrison Edward Radford, 1927-2000 (United States)

    Moran, James Michael; Kirby, Kate Page; Chance, Kelly V.; Brown, Campbell


    Harrison Edward ``Harry" Radford, a noted laboratory spectroscopist and pioneer in the application of magnetic resonance techniques to spectroscopy, died on 5 May 2000, after a long battle with amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During a 37-year career at the National Bureau of Standards and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harry measured the frequencies of numerous molecular transitions which aided the emerging field of astrochemistry. Harry was both an excellent theoretician and a preeminently skilled experimentalist. He has several major spectroscopic achievements to his credit. He performed the first study of a short-lived molecular free radical, OH, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, opening up a huge and important field of research. Together with colleagues he made the first observation of the rotational spectrum of CH by far infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy and extended the technique to other molecules such as CH3O. Harry was born in Peterborough, New Hampshire, on 26 July 1927. He was the son of Harrison Edwin Radford, a roofer, and Dorothy (née Cole) Radford. He dropped out of high school to join the Navy in 1944 as an electronics technician's mate. After his discharge in 1946 he worked in the family construction business for four years as a roofer. In 1950 he entered the University of New Hampshire and graduated four years later, Summa Cum Laude, with a degree in physics. As a graduate student at Yale from 1954 to 1959 he wrote his PhD thesis under the supervision of V.W. Hughes on the microwave Zeeman spectra of oxygen and fluorine where he used the technique of paramagnetic resonance absorption in atomic vapors. In 1954 he married Mildred Spofford. They had three daughters, Susan (born in 1955), Amy (1957), and Sarah (1960). In 1974 he married Alfa Goldthwaithe Morrison, who survived him. From 1959 until 1969 Harry worked at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST) in Washington DC. While there, he became interested in determining the long wavelength spectra and chemical properties of molecular free radicals, which can be generated in gaseous samples only in extremely low densities. He saw the potential for the application of magnetic resonance techniques to free radical spectroscopy early on. In 1965 he made the definitive measurements of the ground state lambda doublet transition frequencies of OH, which had recently been discovered in the interstellar medium. These measurements made it possible to determine the velocities of molecular clouds with high precision. For his work with the Bureau he earned the Department of Commerce's Silver Medal for Meritorious service. In 1969 Harry moved to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts where he remained until his retirement in 1992. He continued to do research for four more years, almost until the onset of his illness. He initially joined the group, under A.E. Lilley, that was formed to bring together laboratory spectroscopy and the fledgling field of radio astronomy of interstellar molecules. This interdisciplinary effort led to the discovery of several new molecules based on precise laboratory microwave measurements of their spectra, beginning with methanol, which helped to lay the foundation for the new science of astrochemistry. While at SAO Harry pioneered the application of laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the spectra of free radicals. His measurements of molecules such as OH, NH, CH, SO, HO2, HCO, NH2, N2H4, DO2, DOCO, CH3O, and CH2OH informed and guided research in astrochemistry. He also applied this technique to the study of atmospherically important molecules. In recognition for his work he received the Senior Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 1983. Harry spent sabbatical years at Cambridge University in 1977, working with Douglas Russell, Brian Thrush, and Paul Davies. Additional sabbatical years were taken at the University of Bonn in 1983 (as a Humboldt Fellow) with Wolfgang Urban and at the MPI in Goettingen in 1993 with Friedrich Temps and Heinz Wagner. He was an active participant in the biennial International Symposia on Free Radicals for many years. In 1985, he was co-chair of the very successful meeting held in Colorado. Harry's closest professional colleague and friend was Ken Evenson of the NIST Boulder Laboratories. Evenson died two years after Harry from the same form of ALS. They wrote many papers on laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy over a twenty-year period beginning in 1965. Harry often spent summers working in Boulder with Ken on various projects. They enjoyed hiking in the Colorado mountains. After his real retirement in 1996, Harry pursued various interests including German translation, computer tutoring, and art classes until the onset of ALS in 1998. Harry had an extensive interest in music. He played the Baroque recorder and participated for many years as a bass chorister at The First Church in Belmont, Unitarian, where his wife of 26 years, Alfa Radford, is the Music Minister. Harry was also a gifted craftsman and he built three harpsichords. Harry was always a very easy and generous person to work with, a quiet, self-effacing scientist who let his work speak for him. He was fond of saying that every life leaves a residue. To his many scientific friends and colleagues, Harry's personal and professional ``residue" is his experimental elegance and scientific excellence, tempered by humanity.

  15. Obituary: John J. Hillman, 1938-2006 (United States)

    Chanover, Nancy


    John J. Hillman, a dedicated NASA civil servant, spectroscopist, astrophysicist, planetary scientist, and mentor, died on February 12, 2006 of ocular melanoma at his home in Columbia, Maryland. His professional and personal interests were wide-reaching and varied, and he devoted his career to the advancement of our understanding of the beauty and wonder in the world around us. His love of nature, art, and science made him a true Renaissance man. John was born in Fort Jay, New York, on November 22, 1938, and was raised in Washington, D.C. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Physics from American University in 1967, 1970, and 1975, respectively. He began working at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, then in its infancy, in 1969, juggling a full-time position as a Research Physicist, the completion of his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and a young family. His background in molecular spectroscopy enabled him to apply his skills to numerous disciplines within NASA: infrared and radio astronomy; electronic, vibrational, and rotational structure of interstellar molecules; solar and stellar atmospheres; and planetary atmospheres. He published more than 70 journal papers in these disciplines. He was a frequent contributor to the Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, and possessed a rare ability to bridge the gap between laboratory and remote sensing spectroscopy, bringing scientists from different disciplines together to understand our Universe. The last fifteen years of John's career were devoted to the development of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) cameras. He championed this technology as a low-cost, low-power alternative to traditional imaging cameras for in situ or remotely sensed planetary exploration. It was within this context that I got to know John, and eventually worked closely with him on the demonstration and application of this technology for planetary science using ground-based telescopes in New Mexico, California, and Hawaii. John's interest in AOTF technology did not stop at planetary science: he cleverly applied this powerful tool to some of his other areas of interest, including art and history. Hyperspectral imaging, when applied to oil paintings, can reveal drawings underneath a "finished" work of art, and John was keen to learn more about his favorite artists by making spectral image cubes of their famous paintings. He also participated in an effort by the National Museum of American History to preserve the Star Spangled Banner flag that motivated Francis Scott Key to pen our national anthem. Perhaps John's most famous "observing run" was conducted at the Smithsonian, on the Mall in Washington, D.C., with an AOTF camera mounted on scaffolding in front of the flag. Spectral imaging revealed locations on the flag with signs of deterioration not visible to the unaided eye. In yet another example of John's amazing ability to bring together people from various disciplines, the team of people who worked on the flag project included planetary scientists, molecular spectroscopists, textile conservators, and agricultural scientists with expertise in the proteins of wool and cotton. John was deeply committed to the scientific community, as demonstrated by his numerous service contributions. He spent two terms at NASA Headquarters, once in 1983-1985 as a Discipline Scientist for Planetary Astronomy, and once in 1999-2001 as a Discipline Scientist for the Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Atmospheres Programs in NASA's Solar System Exploration Division. He also served as a frequent reviewer for journals in planetary science, astrophysics, and molecular spectroscopy and served on numerous review panels for NASA and Goddard Space Flight Center. Although John spent the vast majority of his career at a NASA center, he loved teaching and working with students. He was occasionally called upon to teach an astronomy course at the University of Maryland, which he thoroughly enjoyed, and for the last several years of his career he was a Co-Director of the College Park Scholars program at the University of Maryland. There he had an opportunity to share his love of science with college freshmen and provide them with unique educational experiences such as small seminars, individualized attention, and field trips. Even at Goddard, John maintained contact with numerous graduate students, many of whom he brought to Goddard as postdoctoral fellows funded through the National Research Council Resident Research Associateship Program. He was a natural mentor, providing leadership, advice, and friendship to the junior scientists who worked with him over the years. One of the most exciting things about John was that he had numerous interests outside of astronomy. He enjoyed painting, and was a copyist at the National Gallery of Art. He was a skilled floral designer and won floral design contests in addition to owning a flower shop with one of his daughters. He was a gourmet chef, and could make a delicious meal out of the most basic of ingredients. He loved to ski, travel, garden, work on old cars, and read thriller novels. Most significantly, though, John was a deeply dedicated family man. He frequently shared stories about his adventures with his wife of 47 years, Patricia, his five children, his twelve grandchildren, and their extended family. With all of the professional accolades and successes he had received by the time he retired from Goddard, he viewed his family as his most significant accomplishment. The astronomical community suffered a great loss in the passing of John Hillman. His commitment to professional service, his dedication to mentoring younger scientists, and his ability to bring together scientists from widely varying disciplines to work on a problem enabled him to make unique contributions to our field. Those of us who knew him miss his outgoing, friendly, inquisitive, and generous personality. John greeted each day with optimism, as a discovery and an adventure waiting to happen.

  16. Obituary: Seth L. Tuttle (1931-2011) (United States)

    Eriksson, Samantha


    Seth L. Tuttle, 80, a retired physicist who worked 25 years at the National Science Foundation (NSF) died on August 8, 2011, at the Dove House hospice in Westminster, MD, from complications of a fall that he suffered while visiting his son in Denver, in December, 2010 and that left him a quadriplegic. Seth was a native of Spokane, Washington. In High School he was student body president, "Thespian of the Year," played football, basketball and tennis and graduated as the valedictorian, winning several scholarships, including one from the National Honor Society. He attended the University of Idaho but dropped out and in 1951 enlisted in the Army. He graduated from the Infantry Candidate School and Paratrooper Jump School and served during the Korean War, a tour of duty he was very proud of and of which he had many memories that he liked to share. At the end of the Korean War he got out of the Army, and went back to school, finishing with a degree in Math in 1955 at the University of Washington. He next attended graduate school at the U of Michigan, majoring in astronomy, but interrupted his studies once again and went to work for the Michigan Institute of Science and Technology (MIST). At MIST he headed the Launch Phase Analysis group of the Ballistic Missile Radiation Analysis Center, analyzing models of radiation from ballistic missiles for the US Early Warning System. Later he became Deputy Director of a project that designed, built and operated an observatory on Maui, Hawaii, dedicated to track missiles and satellites. In 1971 Seth moved to Washington, DC with his family, to work at the Institute for Defense Analysis on missile defense and optical and infrared physics matters of interest to the Defense Department. In 1974, in a complete turnaround from defense oriented work, he went to the NSF as Program Manager for Energy Conservation and Energy Systems research. A few years later when the Department of Energy (DoE) was established, NSF's energy related programs were transferred to DoE. Seth chose to stay at the NSF, where he spent the rest of his working life. Staying at the NSF allowed him to return to his first scientific interest, astronomy. He became a Program Manager in NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences (AST), serving at various times as Program Manager for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC- Arecibo Obs.) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Seth liked to say that in order to show that managers have to make changes to show that they manage, regardless if this is necessary or not. His own management philosophy ran exactly opposite to this statement, however, intervening only minimally in the affairs of the National Centers and only when he thought that it was absolutely necessary to do so. Seth was an extremely sociable and gregarious person, well known to many and much liked throughout the Foundation. He put a lot of effort and enthusiasm into organizing AST's vernal equinox party for many years, and he invariably acted as Master of Ceremonies, distributing various awards to those who worked with and helped AST during the year. The most coveted of these, that Seth made famous, was the VLA mashed penny award that consisted of a penny mashed flat by one of the VLA antennas, attached to a certificate mentioning the good work of the recipient in favor of astronomy. He kept a good supply of these in his office in preparation for the party! Seth also loved to act as Santa Claus, and at one memorable NSF Christmas Party, he, along with a couple of other NSF staff members, performed a musical number in drag to great success! Seth was a lifelong tennis player and started a group at the Carderock Springs Tennis and Swim club, with strange rules, called "Kabuki Tennis" that played under all weather conditions. He was a cigar aficionado and loved wine, beer and good food. Seth's political views tended to be liberal and he enjoyed teasing his more conservative colleagues about their views, but did so always in a good natured manner. He was a great story teller and loved a good joke, especially a dirty one. In retirement, he organized a monthly lunch for retired men in his neighborhood. Whenever he found himself close to the NSF he liked to have lunch with his former colleagues, enjoying the latest astronomy related gossip. Seth was very close to his children and grandchildren. He is survived by a son, Russell Tuttle of Lakewood, CO and a daughter, Samantha Eriksson of New Windsor, MD and four grandchildren. His wife of 49 years, the former Dorothea Leonard, died in 2007.

  17. Obituary: Richard Joseph Elston, 1960-2004 (United States)

    Jannuzi, Buell Tomasson; Bechtold, Jill


    Richard Joseph Elston, known for his development of innovative astronomical instrumentation, died on 26 January 2004 in Gainesville, Florida, after a four-year battle with Hodgkin's lymphoma. A professor of astronomy at the University of Florida, Richard had an unusually broad range of interests and skills, and a willingness to share his passion for astronomy with others, which made him a highly valued member of the astronomical community. Born 1 July 1960, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Richard was the son of a geologist father and journalist mother. His childhood interest in astronomy and instrumentation matured as he majored in physics and astronomy at the University of New Mexico (BS, 1983) under the mentorship of Michael Zeilik. Richard pursued his PhD in astronomy at the University of Arizona and earned his degree in 1988. He pioneered the use of IR arrays for deep imaging surveys of the sky to study galaxy formation, and completed his thesis Search for Rapidly Forming Galaxies at High Redshift under the direction of George Rieke. Richard's graduate work included the first detection of galaxies at intermediate redshifts with evolved populations too red to have been identifiable from optical imaging surveys alone. In the Astrophysical Journal Letters in 1988, he, George Rieke, and Marcia Rieke reported the discovery of this new class of galaxies, now known as EROs (Extremely Red Objects), important as the possible progenitors of present day elliptical galaxies. Following post-doctoral positions at Kitt Peak National Observatory from 1988 to 1991 and at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington from 1991 to 1992, Richard joined the scientific staff of Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, part of the NSF's National Optical Astronomy Observatory. By 1994, he had become head of CTIO's IR instrumentation program and was leading the development of new instruments for the US astronomical community. In 1996, Richard married astronomer Elizabeth Lada, and both joined the faculty of the University of Florida. They worked closely together and with their colleagues to develop the department into a leading center for astronomical research. Richard assembled a strong near-IR instrument team whose most recently completed instrument was FLAMINGOS, the FLoridA Multi-object Imaging Near-IR Grism Observational Spectrometer. FLAMINGOS serves as both a wide-field IR imager and multi-object spectrograph. Successfully used at the 6.5-m MMT Observatory, 8-m Gemini South telescope, and KPNO 2.1-m and Mayall 4-m telescopes, FLAMINGOS allows scientists to complete observations in one night that would previously have required 100 nights. FLAMINGOS is the primary instrument for several major survey programs that are studying topics ranging from how individual stars and planets form to how the largest structures in the Universe evolve. One of Richard's innovations with FLAMINGOS was the use of a separate "pre-dewar" that maintains at cryogenic temperatures the multi-slit masks required to select the targets for observation, but can be thermally cycled more quickly than the entire instrument. This feature allows the changing of masks on a nightly basis. New instruments having the innovations pioneered with FLAMINGOS are under construction and are to be used at several of the world's largest telescopes in the decades ahead. Richard was involved in getting both the University of Florida and the U.S. astronomical community on the path toward larger telescope facilities. He played a crucial role in the University of Florida's joining the team building the10.4-m Grand Telescope of the Canary Islands. As a member of the panel that studied optical/near-IR astronomy from the ground for the most recent (2000) National Academies decadal review of astronomy, Richard was a passionate advocate for open access to the next large (30-m class) telescope to be built. The final report included a recommendation for a public role in such a telescope. Richard's work as a researcher and educator was recognized in 2000, when he was named a recipient of the Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers. With the birth of his son, Joseph, in 1999, Richard's life reached an important milestone. During his battle with cancer, Richard awed everyone with his ability to be productive professionally and still be so devoted to his family. He and his son shared a love for the outdoors and adventure. Richard was an expert SCUBA instructor, skier, hiker, wind surfer, airplane pilot, and sailor. Joseph is already a "proto-naturalist." Richard will be best remembered as a wonderful father, beloved husband, loving brother, son, uncle, friend and inspiration to all whose lives he touched. Reprinted with permission from Physics Today, Vol. 57, No.7, pp. 76-77. Copyright 2004, American Institute of Physics.

  18. Obituary for Péter Csizmadia (United States)


    This conference proceedings is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, a computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who has been missing since the end of October 2009 and whose last scientific presentation occurred during the 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2-4 September 2009, Budapest. Péter Csizmadia Péter Csizmadia 1972-2009 The accident: Péter Csizmadia, along with three other young Hungarian mountaineers (Kata Tolnay, Vera Mikolovits, and Balázs Pechtol) disappeared in China's Sichuan region near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas, in the early morning of 23 October 2009. A huge part of a glacier fell, resulting in an extraordinary ice and stone avalanche that covered the valley where they had their camp for the night. Neither their bodies nor their belongings were found by the ground and helicopter rescue teams. A brief CV: Péter Csizmadia was born in 1972. He received an MSc in physics (1996) and a PhD in heavy ion physics (2003) both of these degrees were issued by Eötvös University (Budapest, Hungary). At the beginning of his career his main research interest was centred around quark hadronization (1995-2005). Later he joined the relativity group of RMKI and worked on numerical simulations in general relativity, investigating problems such as cosmological inflation and gravitational collapse in general relativity (2005-2009). In 2005, Péter joined to our relativity group and started to work on the first version of a high precision adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, called GridRipper. He was the founder and he remained the main developer of GridRipper until his disappearance. Due to his efforts GridRipper became a fourth order precision AMR code implemented as C++/Java classes for solving hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations numerically. The already implemented and tested applications include the study of various dynamical systems such as cosmological inflation, gravitational collapse of spherically symmetric systems, the production and evolution of micro black holes and topology changes. The code is capable of solving hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDE) with any of the usually implemented integration schemes such as second or fourth order Runge-Kutta, Iterated Crank-Nicholson or Lax-Wendroff. The initial data may be given by analytic expressions, by a set of elliptic equations or by numerical data provided by an independent code. The analytic and numerical methods applied in developing GridRipper are unique in the sense that this code - foremost in the World - is capable of following the time evolution inside the black hole region approaching the developing singularity arbitrarily close (see In the meantime András László joined us, and we started to develop GridRipper jointly such that Péter's expertise played a fundamental role in all the new developments. The initial version of GridRipper was suitable for studying only spherically symmetric systems as it was a 1+1 dimensional version. The new version of GridRipper is applicable to generic systems living in 1+N dimensional spacetimes in which the angular degrees of freedom are treated by spectral methods. The effectiveness of the applied method is justified by the fact that simulations that usually require supercomputer background for other methods can be carried out on average PCs by GridRipper. It was in fact the year 2009 when we reached the desired success, and signs of the true pay-back for the energy invested started to appear. The unexpected disappearance of Péter in China happened when a natural increase of interest within the numerical relativity community became visible. András and I have decided to keep it alive and, if possible, develop GridRipper further, the foundations of which could not be laid without Péter's expertise. This decision is supported not only by the fact that we had the chance to work together with a physicist possessing outstanding programming capabilities, but also because we got to know in Péter a remarkably nice person and a good friend. Peter was always cheerful and ready for discussions or to provide support to anybody who asked for his help. With the loss of Péter we all lost an exceptional colleague and a true friend. István Rácz Recent publications of Péter Csizmadia Csizmadia P and Lévai P 2005 Energy dependence of transverse quark flow in heavy ion collisions Acta Physica Hungarica A22 371-380 Csizmadia P, 2006 Testing a new mesh refinement code in the evolution of a spherically symmetric Klein-Gordon field International Journal of Modern Physics D15 107-119 Csizmadia P 2007 Fourth order AMR and nonlinear dynamical systems in compactified space Class. Quantum Grav. 24 S369 Hamar G, Zhu L L, Csizmadia P, Lévai P 2008The robustness of quasiparticle coalescence in quark matter European Physical Journal Special Topics 155 67-74 Hamar G, Zhu L L, Csizmadia P, Lévai P 2008 Strange hadron yields and ratios in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energy J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 35 044067 Csizmadia P and Rácz I 2008 On the cosmological relevance of oscillons, Poster at the Frontiers in Numerical Gravitational Astrophysics Summer School, Erice, Italy, June 27-July 5 Csizmadia P, Rácz I 2010 Gravitational collapse and topology change in spherically symmetric dynamical systems Class. Quantum Grav. 27 015001

  19. Obituary: Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010) (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu


    Chushiro Hayashi, the greatest Japanese theoretical astrophysicist, died of old age at a hospital in Kyoto on 28 February, 2010; he was 89 years old. C. Hayashi was born in Kyoto on July 25, 1920 as the fourth son of his parents Mume and Seijiro Hayashi. His father Seijiro managed a small finance company and the family "Hayashi" can trace its history back to honorable master carpenters who engaged in construction of the historic Kamigamo-shrine and Daitokuji-temple in Kyoto. In his high-school days in Kyoto, Hayashi enjoyed judo, and he was interested in philosophy and read a lot of philosophy books. Some of his schoolmates thought that Hayashi would become a philosopher. After graduating high school, he moved to Tokyo and entered the University of Tokyo, Department of physics in 1940, where he encountered astrophysics through a paper by G. Gamow and M. Schönberg on the URCA process (1941), A.S. Eddington's book "Internal Constitution of the Stars" (1926), etc. It was a difficult time of World War II. After a short time at university of two and half years, he graduated and was conscripted into the Navy. In 1945 the war was over he returned to his hometown Kyoto, where he joined a group of Professor Hideki Yukawa at Kyoto University, and studied elementary particle physics as well as astrophysics. In his early outstanding paper (1950), Hayashi pointed out an important effect of neutrinos in the expanding early hot universe, resulting in chemical equilibrium between neutrons and protons, while Gamow et al. (1948) did not notice the effect in their abg-theory, where they assumed a pure neutron state as an initial state. Also Hayashi investigated the structures of red giant stars; he showed how red giant stars kept such large radius structures, in terms of stellar models with energy source of nuclear shell-burning (1949, 1957). He received a DSc in 1954; the title of his thesis was "Hamiltonian Formalism in Non-local Field Theories." After that, Hayashi concentrated on astrophysics. In 1957 he was appointed as Professor at Kyoto University. In the study of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution, he discovered the famous "Hayashi phase," which was described in a three-page paper published (1961). He also compiled his studies of stellar evolution into a thick paper of 183 pages published in Supplement of Progress of Theoretical Physics with co-authors R. Hoshi and D. Sugimoto (1962). The paper was quite comprehensive, involving the whole stellar evolution from birth as protostars through death as supernovae, and frequently referred to as HHS. It was a bible in the field of stellar evolution for a long time, and may be so still. The study of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution made Hayashi himself become interested in star formation and then planetary formation. Hayashi and his co-worker T. Nakano found that dynamical collapse of an interstellar cloud (which we should call a molecular cloud core, today) proceeded isothermally, by comparing the cooling time with the free-fall time (1965). Also, Hayashi and his co-workers made computer simulation of spherical collapse of a cloud to form a star (1970), resulting in rather high flare-up luminosity than Larson's simulation (1969). These studies were really pioneer works in the field of star formation. From 1970s through 1980s, Hayashi investigated the origin of the solar system extensively together with his co-workers (mostly his graduate students or former students). Once a year at Kyoto University there was held a small workshop on the origin of solar system by Hayashi; in addition to astrophysicists and astronomers, geochemists, cosmochemists and mineralogists came to the workshop from everywhere in Japan. Discussion was always active and tough. Hayashi and his co-workers presented many theoretical studies in the workshop every year, and they compiled those studies into a chapter in the Protostars and Planets II Book (1985). Like HHS above, the chapter gives a quite comprehensive planetary cosmogony, which includes formation of solar nebula, solid particle settling, planetesimal formation due to gravitational instability, coalescence of planetesimals, formation of terrestrial and Jovian planets, and, finally, nebula dissipation. It is called the "Kyoto model" and is now considered as a standard model of solar system formation. In his tenure at Kyoto University was 30 years long, Hayashi had many graduate students and thoroughly drummed physics into them. Every Saturday afternoon, Hayashi held a colloquium in his office, but presenting in front of him was the most fearful training for his students. His disciplined methods of education and training, however, resulted in many of his students becoming university professors. Hayashi was honored with many prizes; Eddington Medal from RAS (1970), Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy (1971), Order of Culture (1986), Order of the Sacred Treasure, the first class (1994), the Kyoto Prize of Inamori Foundation (1995), the Bruce Medal for outstanding lifetime contributions from ASP (2004), etc. In 1984 Hayashi retired from Kyoto University. Even after that, Hayashi kept a small private seminar with his former students S. Narita and M. Kiguchi at a guest room of the university once a week and later at his home less frequently, and enjoyed discussion on astrophysics. The seminar lasted for 25 years until he was hospitalized for old age, i.e., a few months before his death.

  20. Obituary: William Gordon (1918-2010) (United States)

    Terzian, Yervant


    Bill Gordon was born in Paterson, New Jersey on January 8, 1918, and died in Ithaca, New York, on February 16, 2010. He is known as the engineer and ionospheric physicist who conceived and built the Arecibo giant radar/radio telescope. Bill graduated from Montclair State College in New Jersey and then in 1953 received his doctorate degree from Cornell University in electrical engineering, working under Henry Booker. During World War II he was in the Army where he studied the atmospheric conditions that affected radar transmissions. In the mid 1950s he began investigating giant antennas capable of studying the earths ionosphere. He succeeded in raising funds from the US Defense Department to construct the 1000 ft in diameter radar/radio telescope near the city of Arecibo on the island of Puerto Rico. The telescope was completed in 1963 under Bill's management, and he was its first Director. The huge fixed spherical antenna surface was made of a thin wire mesh allowing it to operate at frequencies up to about 600 MHz (50 cm wavelength). The spherical surface required complex 'line feeds' to correct for the spherical aberration, but allowed the telescope to track celestial radio sources by moving the line feeds which were supported by a platform suspended 500 ft above the reflector surface. Its sky coverage declination range was from -2 to +38 degrees. The large collecting area of the telescope made possible the detailed study of the physical properties of the earth's ionosphere. Measurements also included the rotation rates of the planets Mercury and Venus, radar imaging of the Moon and terrestrial planets. This new magastructure operated at low frequencies with its prime frequency at 430 MHz. One of Bill's passions was to make controlled experiments with the ionosphere. These so called 'heating experiments,' used a powerful HF radar transmitting from 5 to 10 MHz, to heat the ionosphere near the plasma frequency. The Arecibo radar then would study the heated atmospheric section to investigate the changes in the physical parameters of the ionosphere. Bill Gordon, in 1966, moved to Rice University in Houston, Texas, where he was a Distinguished Professor and Senior Administrator (Dean, Provost and Vice President). The Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in 1970 was designated as 'The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center' (NAIC), and began to be funded as a National Center by the National Science Foundation. Cornell has remained the managing institution since that time. Early in the 1970s a grant from the NSF made it possible to replace the surface of the telescope with perforated rigid panels allowing it to operate at least up to 5000 MHz. In the 1990s the long imperfect line feeds were replaced by a complex Gregorian system that greatly increased the sensitivity of the telescope. This allowed the radiation to be collected at a focal point rather than via a long line. These and other major improvements have kept the telescope as the most sensitive radio/radar telescope in the world. Observations of pulsars at Arecibo resulted in the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics to Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse who indirectly showed that gravitational waves exist, as Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts. In 1990 Aleksander Wolszczan discovered a special pulsar and he was able to show that it was surrounded by earth size planets. The exotic and photogenic giant radar/radio telescope has also been featured in prominent movies such as the James Bond 'Golden Eye' in 1995, and Carl Sagan's 'Contact' in 1997. Bill's many graduate students from Cornell and Rice, simply adored him. One of his students, Dr. Richard A. Behnke, has said 'Simply he was the greatest man I have known'. Bill was married to Elva Freile Gordon for 61 years. Elva died in 2001. Bill later remarried with Elizabeth Bolgiano Gordon. In his career Bill received many awards. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, and he also received several honorary Gold medals, including the Balth van der Pol Gold Medal from URSI, and the Arctowski Gold Medal of the National Academy of Sciences.

  1. Obituary: Paul Barr, 1955-2005 (United States)

    Parmar, Arvind


    Paul Barr, an extragalactic astronomer and spacecraft mission planner, died on 19 October 2005 at his home in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, at the age of 50. Although his scientific interests ranged from AGN to X-ray binaries, he will perhaps best be remembered for his mission planning skills on EXOSAT, ISO, and Integral. Many hundreds of observers have benefited from his ability to juggle seemingly impossible observing constraints and arrive at the optimum observing program. A rare talent. Barr was born in Sunderland, England, on 28 July 1995. After attending Saint Aidans Grammar School, where his father was the headmaster, he obtained his Bachelors Degree in astronomy from the University of London (June 1976) before moving to the Mullard Space Science Laboratory. There he obtained his Doctorate in X-ray astronomy in February 1980, using data from the Ariel V and Copernicus satellites. After a Post-Doctoral position at London University, where he did research into ultra-violet emission from AGN and X-ray binaries using IUE, Paul joined ESA in 1983. He worked on a wide range of missions including EXOSAT, ISO, and Integral. These observatories spanned the wavelength range from the Infra-red to the gamma-ray, giving insight into Paul's flexibility and ability to contribute in many areas. On ISO, Paul oversaw the scientific development and use of the very successful observation scheduling system — this topic became his specialty. As ISO operations became routine, he took up the challenge of space-borne gamma-ray astronomy and moved in 1997 to Integral where he worked in the Science Operation Centre (ISOC), at ESTEC in the Netherlands, as senior mission planner. He worked with the gamma-ray imager (IBIS) instrument team to ensure that operations of their instrument were properly supported by ESA and supported preparations of announcements of opportunity. In early 2005 the ISOC moved to Europe's Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) just outside Madrid, Spain. Paul, however, decided to stay put physically, but move on scientifically, and transferred to the Ulysses mission where he joined the software development team. We miss a uniquely flexible scientist in these days of increasing specialization and a colleague with an infectious enthusiasm for all things to do with Sunderland, especially the football club.

  2. Obituary: Andrew Lange (1957-2010) (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc


    The worlds of physics and astrophysics were stunned to learn on 22 January 2010 that Andrew Lange, the Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics at Caltech, had taken his own life the night before. He had succumbed to the severe depression that he had suffered from for many years, unbeknownst to even his closest colleagues. Lange will perhaps be best remembered as the co-leader of Boomerang, the balloon-borne experiment that provided the first high-angular-resolution map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). And while this was certainly his most notable achievement, Andrew amassed a record of accomplishment as an instrumentalist, leader, mentor, and communicator that extended much further. Andrew was born in Urbana, Illinois on July 23, 1957, the son of an architect and a librarian, and raised primarily in Connecticut. His family and early friends remember him as a serious and extremely intelligent child and young man. Andrew Lange's lifelong interest in the CMB was nurtured as an undergraduate at Princeton University by David Wilkinson, and he recalled fondly a summer spent working with John Mather at Goddard Space Flight Center. Andrew Lange went to graduate school in physics at Berkeley where he worked in Paul Richards' group. Although his thesis project, the Berkeley-Nagoya rocket experiment, showed an anomalous sub-millimeter excess in the CMB spectrum that was shortly thereafter shown by a later flight of the same rocket and COBE-FIRAS to be incorrect, Lange's talents were recognized by the physics department at Berkeley who appointed him shortly after his PhD (1987) to their faculty. While on the Berkeley faculty, Andrew obtained early detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, upper limits to small-angle CMB fluctuations, and important infrared constraints to the interstellar medium. He also led a pioneering instrument operating 300 mK detectors for a small infrared satellite experiment. This early work showed high ambition and daring, and it pioneered new techniques that paid off later in a number of ways in CMB science and in infrared/sub-mm astronomy. At a meeting of Packard Fellows (he was awarded the Fellowship in 1989), Lange met Frances Arnold, another Fellow from Caltech, fell in love, and thus wound up moving to Caltech in 1994. Upon arriving, Lange led a team that proposed a space CMB mission (FIRE), one of several proposals spawned by the exciting results flowing from COBE. While FIRE lost out to the WMAP team, this disappointment freed Lange and his collaborators to focus on Boomerang, a balloon-borne experiment which, although of more limited scope than the satellite mission, could be flown far more quickly for far less money. Their efforts paid off with a long-duration Antarctic balloon flight in 1998 and the dramatic announcement, in May 2000, of the remarkable science results from this flight. Boomerang provided the first high-resolution high-signal-to-noise map of the CMB from which was obtained a crystal-clear measurement of the first acoustic peak in the CMB power spectrum, and thus a robust determination of the geometry of the Universe. This experiment, widely recognized in cosmology as a watershed event, helped usher in the era of precision cosmology, with precise constraints to several cosmological parameters and strong evidence in support of inflation. These results were confirmed a few days later by MAXIMA, a balloon experiment that Lange helped get started, as well as a string of subsequent suborbital experiments and then WMAP. Over the next years, Andrew continued to improve the precision of CMB cosmological-parameter measurements, leading or participating in a string of subsequent CMB experiments, including the Planck satellite (a partial outgrowth of the FIRE proposal). But he also focused increasingly on the search for the CMB-polarization signature of inflationary gravitational waves, initiating a string of projects in this direction. Andrew Lange loved to work in the laboratory, and his legacy includes several generations of novel instrumentation for CMB studies and infrared/submillimeter astronomy. The spider-web bolometers that he and Jamie Bock developed dominated sub-orbital CMB science (and beyond) for nearly 15 years, and the transition-edge sensors he and colleagues have been developing more recently are poised to play a defining role in the coming decade. As a mentor too, Andrew Lange amassed an extraordinary track record. He had a unique ability to identify and attract the most talented young scientists, to motivate them and provide them with what they needed to succeed. He routinely relinquished leadership of projects that he had initiated to younger colleagues. The number of his former students, postdocs, and other younger collaborators who now occupy top faculty and senior-scientist positions is remarkable. Collectively, his former students and postdocs are, as Andrew did, "making measurable what is not so," a Galileo quotation that Lange was drawn to. In the year before his death, Andrew served as Chairman of the Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy at Caltech, broadening the scope of his shepherding of scientific projects and programs. Andrew's work was recognized by a number of honors, including the California Scientist of the Year Award (2003), the Balzan Prize (2006), and the Dan David Prize (2009). Andrew is survived by Frances, and their sons James, William, and Joseph.

  3. Obituary: Anne Barbara Underhill, 1920-2003 (United States)

    Roman, Nancy Grace


    Anne was born in Vancouver, British Columbia on 12 June 1920. Her parents were Frederic Clare Underhill, a civil engineer and Irene Anna (née Creery) Underhill. She had a twin brother and three younger brothers. As a young girl she was active in Girl Guides and graduated from high school winning the Lieutenant Governor's medal as one of the top students in the Province. She also excelled in high school sports. Her mother died when Anne was 18 and, while undertaking her university studies, Anne assisted in raising her younger brothers. Her twin brother was killed in Italy during World War II (1944), a loss that Anne felt deeply. Possibly because of fighting to get ahead in astronomy, a field overwhelming male when she started, she frequently appeared combative. At the University of British Columbia, Anne obtained a BA (honors) in Chemistry (1942), followed by a MA in 1944. After working for the NRC in Montreal for a year, she studied at the University of Toronto prior to entering the University of Chicago in 1946 to obtain her PhD. Her thesis was the first model computed for a multi-layered stellar atmosphere (1948). During this time she worked with Otto Struve, developing a lifetime interest in hot stars and the analysis of their high dispersion spectra. She received two fellowships from the University Women of Canada. She received a U.S. National Research Fellowship to work at the Copenhagen Observatory, and upon its completion, she returned to British Columbia to work at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory as a research scientist from 1949--1962. During this period she spent a year at Harvard University as a visiting professor and at Princeton where she used their advanced computer to write the first code for modeling stellar atmospheres. Anne was invited to the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) as a full professor in 1962. She was an excellent teacher, well liked by the students in her classes, and by the many individuals that she guided throughout her career. She tried conscientiously to learn Dutch with only moderate success. She started her lectures in Dutch but switched to English when she was excited. For a semester, she talked of black body radiation; the Dutch came out as ``black corpse radiation." The students enjoyed this so much that they never corrected her. While in Utrecht, she served briefly on the editorial board of the Astrophysical Journal. After Utrecht, Anne returned to North America to work with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt Maryland. The senior scientists at Goddard were looking for a competent astronomer who could help raise the scientific standards of the laboratory. Anne was successful in this aim, particularly in guiding and encouraging the younger staff. As project scientist for the International Ultraviolet Explorer, she contributed greatly to the success of that project. In 1969, Anne received an honorary degree from York University. The period as Goddard Lab Chief was trying for Anne and she was happy to accept a Senior Scientist position. She spent two years in Paris collaborating with Richard Thomas editing a series of books on astronomy. Of these, she wrote "O-Stars and Wolf Rayet Stars" in collaboration with Peter Conti, and "B Stars With and Without Emission Lines" in collaboration with Vera Doazan. Both books were well received. On return from Paris she continued scientific research until she retired in 1985. Upon retirement, Anne returned to Vancouver and became an honorary professor at the University of British Columbia. She had an office, library facilities and the stimulation of colleagues. She enjoyed helping and mentoring the women students and she was happy to get back to observing at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria. In 1985 she received the D.S. Beals award, given to a Canadian astronomer for outstanding achievement in research. She was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1985. She received a D.Sc. from the University of British Columbia in 1992. Anne was one of the world experts on hot stars who influenced many students as well as the entire field. Between 1945 and 1996 she published more than 200 papers in refereed journals or symposium proceedings in addition to books. Her legacy will be long lasting. The following quote from Giusa-Cayrel de Strobel, an acquaintance of 50 years, summarizes the impression she left. ``In writing this brief note, many meetings we attended together are coming in my memory. They evolved almost always in the same way: first, our joy of the encounter, then the appearing of a scientific disagreement between us, and afterwards, before parting, the reconciliation. Anne never held an argument against her opponent; some of the people she admired and liked most were those with whom she argued vehemently." Anne cared passionately about astronomy and defended her views vigorously both individually and at meetings. She had difficulty making friends but those who got beyond the surface found that she was a kind, generous, and caring person as well as good company. Anne was deeply committed to her religious faith and sang in choirs as long as she could. She loved hiking, traveling the world, and music. In 2002, her health began deteriorating and was further weakened by several small strokes. Anne died on 3 July 2003 at the age of 83. She is remembered fondly by her family, friends, and former colleagues.

  4. Obituary: Gerald Frederick Tape, 1915-2005 (United States)

    Hughes, Robert E.


    Gerald Frederick Tape, a distinguished science statesman and administrator, died on November 20, 2005. Jerry, as he was known to all, took on many diverse and important responsibilities throughout his life and dealt with them with quiet authority and grace. This was the hallmark of his life. The Board of Trustees of Associated Universities, Inc., which he served for many years, expressed this in its condolences, writing "Jerry personified integrity, thoroughness and dedication. His sensitivity for the views of others, his sincerity, his personal commitment, his calm approach and his unfailing good humor were all greatly admired and respected." Jerry was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan on May 29, 1915 but grew up in Milan, a nearby country farm community, and in Ypsilanti where his father was Principal of Michigan State Normal College, which later became Eastern Michigan University (EMU). It was there that he first became interested in physics. It was there also that he met and courted Josephine Waffen, who later would become his wife for more than sixty-six years and fill their lives with three loving sons, Walter, James, and Thomas. Upon graduation from EMU, Jerry was awarded a scholarship that took him to the University of Michigan where he earned a Ph.D. in Physics, researching the decay modes of the radioisotopes of iodine. In the Fall of 1939, during the waning days of the Great Depression, he was offered an Instructorship in the Physics Department of Cornell University, a promising start for a fruitful academic career. He brought his bride Jo to Ithaca and joined the cyclotron group under Robert Bacher and Willy Higginbotham while devising a laboratory course in nuclear techniques for graduate students. Bacher and Higginbotham soon left Cornell to join a new wartime laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and many other colleagues were "drafted" for war work. Bacher persuaded Jerry to join him at the MIT Radiation Laboratory in February, 1942, and the twenty-seven year old physicist started a new career developing microwave radar applications. In his four years at the Rad Lab Jerry undertook a variety of tasks. His innate management skills were soon noted, and he served as a technical envoy to generals and admirals explaining the capabilities, and the installation and operational requirements, of this powerful new tool. He actively facilitated the installation of transponder beacons on aircraft and naval vessels. Much of his time was spent in England where he became Deputy Director of the British Branch of the Radiation Lab (BBRL). As the war ended, the Rad Lab was preparing to close, and Jerry worked with Leland Haworth, a Lab Division Leader of Radar Groups, in contributing their technical analyses to the massive permanent record of the developments and accomplishments of the past five years. Wheeler Loomis, the Associate Director of the Rad Lab, left to assume the Chairmanship of the Physics Department at the University of Illinois. Haworth, Jerry, and other lab emeriti also decided to reestablish their careers at this distinguished institution. Jerry became an Associate Professor and returned to nuclear research working with, and upgrading, the Department's cyclotron. It was a productive and rewarding period, but it ended in 1950 when Haworth, who had left Illinois to become Director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), persuaded him to come to Brookhaven in a management role. Within a year he became Deputy Director of the Laboratory and started a new career in the management of big science. The decade of the fifties was a period of dynamic growth at Brookhaven. The Cosmotron and the Research Reactor became operational, new programs were initiated, and more advanced facilities were under construction or in the design phase. Jerry had responsibility for the administrative oversight of these activities, and he exercised it with such care and thoughtfulness that he quickly became an indispensable figure in the laboratory's day-to-day operations. Haworth, as Director, was able to focus upon scientific planning and dealing with ever increasing external interactions and pressures. Brookhaven was founded by an independent scientific management organization, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which in turn had been established for that very purpose by nine major, eastern, research universities. AUI managed and operated the Laboratory under contract with the Atomic Energy Commission. The corporation had a small executive staff and a Board of Trustees comprised of eighteen distinguished scientists and administrators. During the fifties the president of AUI was Lloyd V. Berkner, an active and very effective campaigner for big science projects. In this period, he worked tirelessly to convince the National Science Foundation (NSF) to support a National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The proposal was very controversial within the astronomy community and became a divisive issue among many leading astronomers. Success came late in 1956 with NSF's decision to establish NRAO under AUI management. Founding and guiding this new institution became a major new responsibility for AUI and for Jerry Tape. At the end of the decade, Berkner retired from AUI and Haworth became the President. It was a short-lived tenure, however, because President Kennedy asked Haworth to accept an appointment as an Atomic Energy Commissioner, which he did early in 1961. I. I. Rabi, a founding Trustee, took on the presidency temporarily and brought Jerry Tape into AUI as his special assistant and vice president. After a formal search, Jerry was elected President of AUI in 1962. It was in these new roles that Jerry Tape had his first responsibility for overseeing the development of the NRAO. His background in radar development was a great asset, and he enthusiastically accepted the challenges that this fledgling organization faced. Of prime concern were the cost and schedule overruns resulting from design and fabrication problems that developed in the 140-foot telescope project. These had to be renegotiated with the NSF, honing skills that Jerry had already developed. In the course of this, he also made an effort to reach out and understand the astronomical community and to mend some of the rifts that accompanied the NSF's first venture into "big science." This all changed in 1963 when President Kennedy asked Leland Haworth to become the Director of the National Science Foundation and also asked Gerald Tape to take on Haworth's role as an Atomic Energy Commissioner working under the Chairmanship of Glenn Seaborg. All five Commissioners participated in all official actions of the body, but each one had special areas of concentration of effort. With some overlap, this assured fuller and deeper coverage of the broad spectrum of issues they faced. Jerry's special interests were nuclear weapons development; research in the physical, biological, and life sciences; and international cooperation. This menu was a broad one, and for six years of full-time effort it required endless travel to laboratories, conferences, and government-to-government meetings. International delegations involved civil as well as defense programs. Formal civil exchange programs were negotiated with many nations including the USSR. Negotiations on arms control issues involved contacts with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Atoms for Peace conferences. In the national research program area, Jerry became the lead Commissioner for the establishment of what became the Fermi Laboratory and its management organization, Universities Research Association (URA). Fermi Lab soon became, and still is, the primary United States high-energy particle physics institution. In 1969, Jerry Tape returned to AUI as president where he was welcomed enthusiastically. Both BNL and NRAO had grown and were thriving. Plans were being formulated for major new facilities, a proton collider with superconducting magnets at BNL and the Very Large Array (VLA) at NRAO. Research output was first-class at both institutions. The NRAO was steadily drawing more young astronomers into a field that was just beginning to show its promise and its indispensability. Jerry took a great interest in the development of the VLA and interacted closely with David Heeschen, the Observatory Director, and with Jack Lancaster, the Project Director. In the middle of the decade, he helped them to steer through some rough waters created by Congressional criticisms that threatened the program. He cooperated closely with NSF and obtained the necessary support to defuse the threat. His last official act for AUI and NRAO was to preside over the grand opening celebration at the site of the VLA. It was on the last day of his presidency, October l, 1980. Jerry Tape clearly led an exemplary life when traced through the series of successful enterprises that marked his rise to ever increasing responsibilities and contributions. But the full measure of a man is also revealed in the way he filled the smaller but unrestricted periods of time that become available to him. Jerry was first and foremost a family man and was constant in his attention and devotion to this call. The AUI trustees recognized the importance of public service and encouraged his participation in worthwhile causes as long as they did not interfere with his primary duties. The AUI staff was small but dedicated and ably maintained timely and effective communication with him in his absence. Thus, Jerry found the time to contribute to issues and organizations that were of importance in his life. Through the last part of the sixties, Jerry served for six years as the United States Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with the rank of Ambassador. It was a demanding role, not only because of the frequent trips to the Vienna headquarters, but also because there were continuous official requirements for reports and documentation. A few years later, he returned to IAEA as a member of its Scientific Advisory Committee. In the early seventies he became a member of the President's Scientific Advisory Committee (PSAC) and also a member and chair of the Defense Science Board (DSB). For many years he was a member and chair of The Nuclear Intelligence Panel (NIP) of the Central Intelligence Agency. Continuing to serve his country, Jerry soon accepted membership on The General Advisory Committee (GAC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration and in his later years worked as a consultant for the Defense Nuclear Safety Board. Jerry did not limit himself to serving government institutions and agencies. For more than thirty years he was a Director of Science Service Inc., the organization that so successfully operated the annual Science Talent Search that challenged and energized science-oriented youths around the nation. His long association with the program reflected the great pleasure he found in the annual opportunity to interact with these exceptional young budding scientists. The list goes on: the Advisory Council of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the University of Chicago Board of Governors for Argonne National Lab, and the Atomic Industrial Forum. Each of these efforts, and others, can be described both as a labor of love and as a fulfillment of a sense of duty. These contributions did not go unnoticed or unappreciated. Jerry's life was adorned with a stream of accolades, citations, and awards. A short listing will illuminate the respect he commanded for a broad range of achievements: Army-Navy Certificate of Achievement, Meritorious Civilian Service Medal from the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense Medal for Public Service, Henry DeWolf Smyth Nuclear Statesman Award, Distinguished Public Service Award NSF, Distinguished Associate Award DOE, Enrico Fermi Award DOE, Fellow of the American Physical Society, and Member of the National Academy of Engineering.

  5. Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, 1929-2007 (United States)

    Snodgrass, Herschel B.


    It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years. He was the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific research papers and a book, Solar and Stellar Activity Cycles (1994), published by Cambridge University Press. He died suddenly of a heart attack, at his home in Glebe, Australia, in the early morning of 11 November 2007. Peter was an organizer of, and participant in, many international conferences and workshops. He traveled extensively, holding visiting appointments at the University of Colorado (JILA), at Cambridge University, at the College de France (Paris), and at the California Institute of Technology [CalTech]. Most of his work was in the field of solar physics, but he also did some work on the philosophy of science and on tides. Peter came from a line of mathematicians. His father, Robert Wilson, immigrated to Australia from Glasgow in 1911, and became a mathematics teacher at Scotch College, a private school in Melbourne. There his name was changed to 'Bill' because 'Bob' was already taken." Peter's enjoyment of this story as characteristic of Australian academia (as any fan of Monty Python would understand) is indicative of his infectious sense of humor. In a similar vein, he claimed ancestry traced back to the eighteenth-century Scottish mathematician Alexander Wilson, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow. That Wilson is famous in the solar physics community for his discovery, known as the "Wilson Effect," of the photospheric depressions associated with sunspots. Peter himself could not resist writing a paper on this subject, and was delighted when the bait was taken by some less-informed colleagues who chided him for "naming an effect after himself." "Bill" Wilson married Naomi Christian, a Melbourne native, and together they had three children. Peter was the eldest; he was born on 17 October 1929. He attended Scotch College, where his father taught, and went on to the University of Melbourne where he eventually earned an M. Sc. in experimental physics. This was not his cup of tea, however, and he first endeavored to follow in his father's footsteps, taking short-term appointments teaching mathematics at the secondary-school level abroad, in England, and in Scotland. After a few years Peter returned to Melbourne and took a post at Scotch College following his father's retirement. He soon decided, however, that teaching young boys in a private school was not his cup of tea either, and in 1959 he secured a position in applied mathematics at the University of Sydney. He had just married his first wife, Margaret, and they moved north together to start their family. Peter flourished at the University of Sydney, but his advancement in rank was hampered by the lack of a Ph. D. The problem was solved by Ron Giovanelli, Chief of the Division of Physics at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization [CSIRO], an astrophysicist whose interest lay in the transfer of radiation through the outer layers in the Sun. Giovanelli took Peter on as a thesis student. This both earned him the needed Ph. D. and started him on his research career in solar physics. He now began to move up the academic ladder at Sydney. To satisfy his love of adventure, Peter was also able to take a series of visiting positions in the United States, working with Dick Thomas and others at JILA and Sacramento Peak Observatory (National Solar Observatory) in New Mexico. During this time he created a framework for further collaborations that became known as the Sydney-Boulder Astrophysics Association [SBAA]. In 1971 Peter was appointed Professor and Chair of the Department of Applied Mathematics at Sydney, and for the next two decades he worked hard to strengthen this department. He was very successful in this endeavor; he had a reputation for fairness and honesty and was well liked. Under his leadership the department grew in both size and quality. Peter fostered a group of outstanding students, including Chris Cannon, David Rees, and Lawrence Cram. One of his proudest accomplishments was to recruit several women onto the faculty and to increase the number of female students. One of these, Nalini Joshi, is presently Head of School. After Peter resigned as Chair, he went on to several other positions associated with the governance of the University, including the Academic Senate, the Governing Council of the Women's College, and the Board of Trustees. Peter and his first wife were divorced in 1982, after their two children, Sally and Michael, had grown up and left home. A few years later he met and married Geraldine Barnes, a Senior Lecturer in the English Department. This proved to be a fabulous match; they supported each other's academic pursuits, attended each other's conferences, enjoyed a rich social life centered around the university, and traveled extensively together. Their marriage helped both of them refocus their careers. Geraldine steadily advanced in rank, and is now Head of the School of Letters, Arts and the Media. Peter became one of the chief organizers of a series of workshops focused on the solar activity cycle. The first solar cycle workshop was held in 1986 at CalTech's Big Bear Solar Observatory [BBSO], and it was at this meeting that I first met Peter. There were three subsequent meetings, roughly a year apart, held at the University of Sydney, at Stanford's Fallen Leaf Lake in the Sierras, and at Sacramento Peak Observatory, and these were very successful in bringing together the main players in this research field. My subsequent association with Peter involved several trips back and forth between Portland (Oregon), Boulder, and Sydney and collaborations on about a dozen controversial research papers. Together with Peter Fox and Pat McIntosh, we became the solar-physics "gang of four." A dinner in Sydney with Geraldine, Peter, and their friends always meant liberal amounts of fine Australian wine, lively conversations on every imaginable topic (except physics), much laughter, and a deliciously endless meal. A weekend at their beach house in Killcare was even better, featuring long walks on the golden-sand beach and in the nearby bush. Kookaburras, Currawongs, and Rainbow Lorikeets frequented the outdoor deck, and the bush teemed with large and fascinating spiders. Back in Sydney, short-term visitors enjoyed lodgings and excellent breakfasts at the University of Sydney's Women's College, with Peter on the Council. Peter was a man of many interests. He was an expert sailor, a small-plane pilot who took colleagues and friends on adventurous flights, and a lover of sports. He was a skier, a hiker, and a good tennis player who disdained proper form but usually won the point. In 1994, one day after his 65th birthday, Peter suffered a serious stroke. Recovery from this was extremely difficult, painful, and slow; he did, however, recover to a remarkable degree. He had to learn to walk all over again and his vocal chords were partially paralyzed, but after several years of determined work, Peter was able to play a little tennis and squash, and he could bowl and hike. During the last decade of his life he traveled to Easter Island, to the Galapagos, and to the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Peter continued to take pleasure in his research to the end, in collaboration with close colleagues who were always among his closest friends. Among these was Chris Durrant, who had been Head of the School of Mathematics and Statistics from 1994 to 1998. They were writing a series of papers on the mechanism of the Sun's polar field reversals. I was looking forward to joining them this coming summer. My last visit with Peter was in Phoenix, Arizona, where Geraldine was participating in a conference. We hiked into the Superstition Mountains, and I remember him walking slowly, being careful of his balance, but going the whole distance with pride and in good spirits. Peter was a truly remarkable man with, as Geraldine has put it, "a genuine gift for leadership and the encouragement of team spirit." He was a creative and productive scientist with a tremendous life force, a great sense of adventure, and a warm heart. My own collaborations with him were a joy. His death is a sad loss to all who knew him, and he will be sorely missed, but Peter R. Wilson lived life to the fullest and gave his best to the world. We should be glad for him. At the end of his (unpublished) autobiography, where he describes his recovery from the stroke, he writes: "So as I forecast in 1994, I have continued to 'soldier on', and must admit that a miracle has indeed occurred, at least 80%; I wouldn't have missed the past ten years for anything. Who knows what the inevitable advance of old age may hold, but I cannot complain that I have been 'short changed' in any way."

  6. Obituary: Elisabetta (Betty) Pierazzo (1963-2011) (United States)

    Sykes, Mark


    Elisabetta Pierazzo, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute, died at her home in Tucson, Arizona, on May 15. She was 47. Betty was an expert in the area of impact modeling throughout the solar system, as well as an expert on the astrobiological and environmental effects of impacts on Earth and Mars. Her work ranged widely, from providing detailed insights into the Chicxulub impact that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs to putting constraints on the thickness of the ice shell of Jupiter's moon Europa. She was interested in the rise of life and explored the delivery of organics to planets and Europa by comets as well as the creation of subsurface hydrothermal systems by impacts that may have been favorable sites for life on Mars. She was also an expert on Meteor Crater in Arizona and made several appearances on national and international broadcasts of programs including National Geographic specials, explaining the formation of this well-known structure. Betty was innovative, rigorous and systematic in her approach to science. She recognized the need for benchmarking and validating the different complex numerical codes to model impact and explosion cratering, organizing and leading a community effort to accomplish this major task. In addition to her science, Betty passionately promoted science education and public outreach. She took time away from her successful research career to teach undergraduates at the University of Arizona, she developed interactive websites and impact rock and meteorite kits for classroom use, as well as created professional development workshops for elementary and middle school science teachers. Betty arrived in the United States in 1989 from Italy and the following year attended graduate school at the Department of Planetary Sciences at the University of Arizona. She handled the difficulties of living in a foreign country by opening her house and her kitchen to others. She received her Ph.D. in 1997. The quality of her graduate work was recognized by the University of Arizona with the Gerard P. Kuiper Memorial Award. She continued at the University of Arizona as a Research Associate, and in 2002 joined the Planetary Science Institute as a Research Scientist. She was promoted to Senior Scientist in 2007. Betty was an active member of the planetary community. She served on numerous NASA review panels, was an associate editor of Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, reviewed papers for numerous scientific journals, served as organizer of workshops and meetings on impact cratering held around the world, and was an organizer of the 2007 Meteoritical Society Meeting held in Tucson, Arizona. Betty was noted for the intensity with which she approached both life and work. Whether it was in the office, the classroom, on the volleyball court, the soccer field, or dance floor, her enthusiasm and joy in the activity was irresistible. She was cherished by very many people for her staunch friendship and support. She inspired countless people as a colleague, teacher, mentor and friend. Her life was even more brightened with her marriage to Keith Powell in 2007. Over the past six months, Betty battled a rare form of cancer. She dealt with it aggressively, and never let it overwhelm her. She was always looking towards the future. In the last week of her life, in the midst of chemotherapy, she was grading class papers, working on research papers, writing reviews and preparing education proposals with her colleagues, all the while finding time to spend precious moments with her family and friends. She was ultimately and suddenly struck down by a pulmonary embolism. Her loss is great to all those who knew her and worked with her. Hers is a great loss to the Planetary Science Institute and to our profession. We are grateful to her husband, Keith, and to her family for the time she did have with us.

  7. Obituary: Jeannette Virginia Lincoln, 1915-2003 (United States)

    Coffey, Helen E.


    J. (Jeannette) Virginia Lincoln died on 1 August 2003 of natural causes at age 87. She was a pioneer in space weather forecasting and was instrumental in establishing the World Data Center-A for Solar-Terrestrial Physics (WDC-A for STP) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Lincoln received a U.S. Department of Commerce Gold Medal for Distinguished Service in 1973 for outstanding accomplishments and leadership. She was elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a Fellow of the Society of Women Engineers. A physicist, she served as Division Chief of the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division (STPD) and Director of WDC-A for STP from 1966 until her retirement in 1980. Virginia was born on Labor Day, 7 September 1915, in Ames, Iowa, to Rush B. Lincoln and Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln. Her father, Rush B. Lincoln (b. 1881, d. 1977 at age 95), served as a Major General in the U.S. Air Force. He was a direct descendant of the brother of President Abraham Lincoln. Her mother Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln (d. 1986 at age 104) taught Chemistry at Iowa State University. Her brother, Rush B. Lincoln, Jr. (d. 2002), was five years older. Her grandfather Lincoln fought in the Civil War as a Confederate Captain. Virginia was immersed in military life and continued many contacts and visited military installations throughout her life. Her parents lived with her until their deaths. She enjoyed the perks of being a General's daughter, actively participating in her parent's lives, and served as caregiver in their declining years. Influenced by her Army background, she developed a strong assertive personality and good problem-solving capabilities. She received a bachelor's degree in physics from Wellesley College in 1936 and a master's degree from Iowa State University in 1938. She was an instructor in household equipment at Iowa State from 1936 to 1942. Electric appliances were new-fangled devices and people had to be educated in their use. In 1942, Virginia joined the U.S. National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC, as a physicist in the Interservice Radio Propagation Laboratory (IRPL), working in ionospheric research. In 1946 the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (CRPL) was formed to centralize research and provide predictions in the field of radio propagation, including investigating solar and geophysical effects and ionospheric data. In 1954 CRPL moved to Boulder, Colorado. Her first job was preparing monthly ionospheric prediction contour maps as a radio weather forecaster. The predictions were used in selecting frequencies for long distance communications. Alan H. Shapley, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, had contracts with solar observatories to obtain their data, and worked with Lincoln on forecasts. In 1949, Virginia helped create a statistical method for predicting sunspot activity that is still used today in forecasting solar storms that can disrupt radio communication on Earth. Taking on administrative responsibilities, Virginia was appointed Chief of Radio Warning Services in 1959, the first woman to head a section in the federal bureau. Also in 1959, Lincoln was the only woman in the official U.S. delegation of over 50 scientists to attend a meeting of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in the former Soviet Union. Using her Russian slides, Virginia gave many talks about the IGY to groups including the Chemical Society banquet, educational associations and women's service clubs. She was part of weekly meetings with Walt Roberts and the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) staff, discussing solar-terrestrial relationships. They developed auroral and cosmic ray indices for the Calendar Records (graphical display of indices and outstanding solar-terrestrial events each day) of the IGY. In 1966 she gave up forecasting work to devote time to data center work, serving as Director of the WDC-A for STP and the STP Division Chief for NOAA NGDC. She was passionate about the World Data Center system and maintaining data archives for future generations. She would introduce herself as "I am the World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics." Attending many foreign and U.S. meetings, she constantly searched for new data sets to add to the STP collection. She retired in 1980 after 38 years of federal service. When she was inducted into the Colorado Women's Hall of Fame in March 2000, she said: "My work with the World Data Centers introduced me to colleagues worldwide that became a source of much enjoyment, seeing them periodically at the international scientific meetings in Europe, Asia, and Australia." She was a past chair of the Denver Section of the Society of Women Engineers and very active in encouraging girls to study math and science. A member of the Association of Federal Professional and Administrative Women (AFPAW) and the Federally Employed Women (FEW), she supported improving the status of women. Virginia categorized herself as a joiner. She was active in many organizations, achieving life membership in the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). In her younger days she was a figure skater and she enjoyed square dancing, playing golf, and traveling. She also enjoyed the arts and held season tickets to the University of Colorado Artist Series, the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, the opera, and the Colorado Music Festival. She was preceded in death by her parents and her brother Rush. Survivors include a nephew, Rush B. Lincoln III, a niece Deborah Lincoln Niekras, four great nieces and a great nephew. Her memoirs, "My Busy Life: How I Never Stopped Enjoying It" by Jeanette Virginia Lincoln, are available at the Carnegie Library in Boulder, Colorado. Also available are her history of her father "Rush Blodget Lincoln, My Father - the General" and a history of her mother's family. Lincoln's legacy in the World Data Center system continues to this day.

  8. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008) (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant


    Edwin E. Salpeter, who died 26 November 2008 at his home in Ithaca, NY, belonged to the "second wave" of Jewish scientific refugees from Nazi-dominated Europe, those who left as children just before the onset of WWII and so completed their educations elsewhere. Salpeter was born in Vienna on 3 December 1924, and arrived with his family in Australia in 1939, his father was a physicist and a close friend of Erwin Schrodinger. In Australia, he finished high school, and he entered the University of Sydney at the early age of 16. He received his BS and MSc degrees in physics and mathematics from the University of Sydney, before moving on to a PhD from the University of Birmingham in 1948, for work with Rudolf Peierls on the electrodynamic self-energy of the electron, the first of more than 380 inventoried publications. He had chosen Birmingham over Cambridge or Oxford because of Peierls, and then chose Cornell over Princeton because of Hans Bethe's presence there. His autobiography describes those as two of his very best decisions ever. Marrying psychobiology student Miriam (Mika) Mark less than a year after arriving at Cornell was surely the third, and they remained in Ithaca the rest of their lives, eventually collaborating on some projects in neurobiology before her death in 2000. Their household was a secular one, but (Ed told a colleague) their two daughters received a basic Jewish education "just in case." Daughter Shelley Salpeter and her son Nicholas Buckley were also collaborators with Salpeter on 21st century projects in meta-analysis, epidemiology, and other statistics-heavy problems in biomedicine. Ed Salpeter is survived by his second wife, Antonia (Lhamo) Shouse. Astronomers may be interested to learn that the Cornell press release announcing his death was prepared by Lauren Gold, daughter of Thomas Gold (and Carrie Gold) the co-author of the steady state theory. Apparently, Ed's father Jakob Salpeter late in life considered the anisotropy reported in the Cosmic Microwave Background and wrote in 1968 to Ron Bracewell and Edward Conklin, who had measured it, expressing puzzlement and doubt that there could be preferred frame effects within special relativity. Ed Salpeter described himself as a generalist, always ready to look at new problems in new fields, and a young colleague quoted him as saying there were problems to be solved on backs of envelopes of various sizes. The result was that he made significant contributions in quantum electro- dynamics (the Bethe-Salpeter equation), nuclear physics (electron screening corrections) and astrophysics (helium burning and beyond), stellar populations (the Salpeter initial mass function and galactic chemical evolution), ionospheric physics (his most-cited paper, because of a Raman-like backscatter effect that is useful for measuring electron densities in laboratory plasmas), equations of state for dense matter (e.g. Jovian planet cores), neutrino emission processes, black hole accretion as an AGN energy source (contemporary with a similar idea from Zeldovich, and before the black hole name had even been coined), interstellar atomic and molecular gas, HI rotation curves, and other aspects of astrophysical dark matter. This is not a complete list! In 2004 a special symposium was organized by his students and colleagues near Siena, Italy, to celebrate the 50 years since his publication of the Initial Mass Function that coincided with his 80th birthday. The symposium proceedings 'The Initial Mass Function: 50 Years Later' was dedicated to Ed 'from whom we have learned so much, to his insight and friendship'. Ed Salpeter received a security clearance in the mid-1950's and kept it up, so that, in addition to evaluating various anti-ballistic-missile defense schemes as a member of the JASONS, he was one of 17 participants in the 1985-87 APS study of directed energy weapons, also known as Star Wars. The panel was unanimous in technical disapproval of the project, and many undoubtedly shared Ed's moral disapproval. His 21 year term as the astrophysics member of the editorial board of Reviews of Modern Physics (1971-92) remains a record and arose from a combination of extremely good judgment and patience with authors, referees, and other editors. His experience as a member of the National Science Board (1978-84) was a less happy one, and he felt he had not been an effective one when the NSF decided to back out of supporting a national-facility large millimeter dish, leaving that territory to individual university groups and the Europeans. How many students did Ed Salpeter have? Well, lots. He was advisor or committee chair for students in computer and geological sciences as well as in physics and astronomy, and was sometimes part of teams he called "two chiefs and one Indian" for additional students. No complete list seems to exist, but the incomplete lists add up to at least 55. Of those, you are likely to have heard of or know (because we do!): Hubert Reeves (who has great-grandstudents of his own!), George Helou, Vahe Petrosian, Bill Newman, Nathan Krumm, Bruce Tarter, Jonathan Katz, Lars Bildsten, Allen Boozer, Bruce Draine, Robert Gould, Nicolas Krall, Richard Lovelace, David Stevenson, Hugh Van Horn, Lyle Hoffman, and Edvige Corbelli. Thus he lived to achieve that mark of maturity, being invited to retirement parties for ones students. Former students, collaborators, and all spoke uniformly of his generosity, quick understanding, and willingness to discuss science on any and all occasions. Among the honors Ed Salpeter received were four honorary D.Sc.'s, five academy memberships, and major prizes from the Royal Astronomical Society, the American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Physical Society, the Royal Swedish Academy, and the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG). The text of his AG lecture was published in English, but he told one of us that he felt he no longer had a native language, because he couldn't really think in German any more, but his English was noticeably accented. EES was not the only Nazi refugee astronomer to deliver the (Karl) Schwarzschild lecture. Martin Schwarzshild (who had a Goettingen PhD) provided his lecture in German, but a 1968 speaker, Peter A.G. Scheuer (who left Germany at age 9) was asked to continue in English after the first two sentences. In his long and spectacularly productive life Ed Salpeter remained a modest person who loved to have a good time, on the ski slopes, or throwing large parties at his home. Most of all he enjoyed working closely with his students who have been deeply inspired by his keen intuition.

  9. Obituary: Roy Henry Garstang (1925-2009) (United States)

    Malville, J.


    Roy Henry Garstang 84 passed away on November 1, 2009 in Boulder Colorado. He was born in Southport, England in September of 1925 to Percy Brocklehurst and Eunice (Gledhill) Garstang. He won a scholarship to Caius College in Cambridge University. Because it was wartime, he could spend only two years at his studies. However, he managed to complete three years of required work during that time, and then spent 1945-46 as a Junior Scientific Officer at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. He received his BA in 1946 from Cambridge, his MA in 1950, and his PhD in Mathematics in 1954, with a thesis: "Atomic Transitions in Astrophysics," working under D. R. Hartree. He also received a ScD from Cambridge in Physics and Chemistry in 1983. He married Ann in August 1959. She and two daughters, Jennifer and Susan, survive him. While still pursuing his PhD, Roy Garstang served as a Research Associate at the Yerkes Observatory, from 1951-1952, working under Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. During that time he continued with his own calculations of atomic structure and transition probabilities, although these were not part of Chandra's research interests. After earning his PhD, he went to teach at the University of London, where he also served as the Assistant Director of the University of London Observatory (1959-1964). He was editor of "The Observatory" Magazine form 1953-1960. The continuing theme of this research was to help meet the needs of astrophysicists for atomic data. In 1964, he left England for the United States, where he joined the faculty at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he would remain for the rest of his professional career. It was entirely fitting, considering his interest in performing calculations of interest to astrophysicists, that soon after arriving in Boulder he was appointed Chairman of JILA - Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (1966-1967). He was Director of the Division of Physics and AstroGeophysics (1979-80), acting Director of the Fiske Planetarium (1980-81), Chair of the Faculty Assembly (1988-1989) and recipient of the Faculty Assembly Excellence in Service Award in 1990. During his career Garstang was active in a number of professional organizations, including the British Astronomical Association (two-term Vice President) and Sigma Xi for which he was the Secretary of the University of Colorado for 20 years. He was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Institute of Physics (British), the Royal Statistical Society, and the Cambridge Philosophical Society. He published more than 150 articles in scientific journals. Roy Garstang was the consummate resource for atomic calculations needed by the astrophysical community. His first scientific paper published when he was a graduate student in 1950 was "Some line strengths for ionized neon" (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 110: 612-614) and some 55 papers later, in 1981 he published calculations on neutral technetium "Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium" (PASP 93:641. 1981). A continuing interest of his was forbidden transitions, such as are important in the solar corona, aurora, planetary nebula, and nova shells. He made important calculations of the energy levels and spectra of highly ionized species of iron and worked extensively on magnetic quadrupole radiation, which proved to be important in the solar corona. Garstang also studied the effects of strong magnetic field on atomic spectra, ranging from the thousand gauss fields of sunspots to megagauss fields of white dwarfs. He was internationally recognized for his work on light pollution, which turned into a major course change for him, becoming his primary research interest after 1984. Between 1984 and 2007, he published 40 scientific papers of which 37 concerned sky brightness in one way or another. He constructed and modified a light pollution model (Dust and Light Pollution, PASP 103:1109 (1991)) which included an ozone layer, scattering of light by molecules and aerosols with improved variations with altitude, curvature of the earth, and a dust layer of dust either volcanic or desert origin. His models have become the standard for the field and have successfully reproduced the variation of sky glow with position in the sky and with distance from light sources. His models raised awareness of the factors contributing to light pollution at observatory sites and led to efforts to reduce urban light pollution. Garstang played an important role in the teaching program of the CU Bolder Astrophysics and Planetary Science department, teaching large introductory classes, laboratory and observatory sessions as well as upper division classes and graduate classes. His appetite for teaching undergraduate can be appreciated by some of the laboratory exercise he invented such as measuring the solar constant by the rate of rise of temperature inside closed car ("How hot does your parked car become?" AAPT Announce 18:139 (1988)). In 1994 he published a letter in AmJPh about a continuing discussion of SI units. The letter reveals much about his approach to life and physics. "I have done a lot of work during the last 15 years on light pollution. If you want to reach lighting engineers you have to talk about lumens, lux, foot-candles, and whatever. If you do not, your reward is simply not to be understood. Photons per square meter per second per steradian means nothing to them. The problem is doubly compounded because astronomers have their own traditional units, such as number of tenth magnitude stars per square degree, magnitudes per square arc second, and so on, which are equally obscure to the engineering community. By all means work in metric, but be prepared to quote your main results in language understood by the consumers of your results. In fact, a little common sense is what we need."

  10. Obituary: Frank J. Low (1933-2009) (United States)

    McCarthy, Don


    Frank James Low was born on November 23, 1933, in Mobile, Alabama. He received his undergraduate degree in physics from Yale University in 1955, and his Ph.D. in physics from Rice University in 1959. He worked at Texas Instruments, NRAO, Rice University, and spent most of his career at The University of Arizona with Steward Observatory and the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. To honor his fundamental insight and innovations that revolutionized the fields of infrared and airborne astronomy, Frank received the Helen B. Warner Prize (1968), the Joseph Weber Award (2003), shared the Rumford Prize in physics (1986), the Karl Jansky Lectureship (2006), and the Bruce Medal (2006) for lifetime contributions in astronomy. This year the world celebrates the International Year of Astronomy, commemorating the accomplishments of Galileo. There are great parallels between Frank and Galileo. After developing a revolutionary low-temperature detector, Frank re-engineered and optimized telescopes for infrared performance. He not only oriented them to the heavens but also placed them there throughout Earth's atmosphere and to the Moon. He made fantastic new discoveries from the Sun throughout the Universe. He radically changed the way the entire world looks at the Universe and impacted generations of new scientists as well as the general public. Frank's level of innovation is stunning and diverse. Chopping and undersized secondary mirrors, cold baffling, cryogenic designs, "Low Dewars," Helium-3 systems, JFET amplifiers for the IRAS satellite, airborne astronomy, the silver-coated 28-inch survey telescope, the MMT, the 36-foot radio dish, Apollo 17 radiometer, television detector systems, infrared microscopes, and on and on. His insights enabled the IRAS and Spitzer missions and contributed to Spacelab2, KAO, SOFIA, NICMOS/HST, JWST, etc. He also established a small business (Infrared Laboratories Inc.) that for more than 40 years has supplied instrumentation to astronomers and semi-conductor industries around the world, in some cases literally giving it away. Frank applied his new tools to a wide variety of scientific fields. He measured the Sun's brightness at millimeter wavelengths, discovered the internal energy sources in Jupiter and Saturn, mapped the Milky Way in the far-infrared, discovered the Kleinmann-Low nebula of star formation in Orion, and investigated the infrared emission from active galaxies. He was especially excited about dust disks around stars such as HD 98800 and helped make the fist direct spatial measurements of circumstellar dust emission in Betelgeuse and non-spherical dusk structures around IRC +10216, VY CMa, etc. He helped initiate the first direct detection of low mass stellar companions to nearby stars. I first noticed Frank while in David Wilkinson's office at Princeton. Frank was pictured on the cover of an aviation magazine near the NASA Learjet and 12-inch telescope. That image of a new frontier attracted me to Arizona. As a graduate student, I wanted to be challenged by a great person. The pioneering nature of infrared astronomy caught my interest as did Frank's mapping-radiometer on Apollo 17, and then the opportunity to pioneer interferometry. For some reason, Frank took me on even though I was not the most talented student. Working with him was pure exploration and pioneering, always involving hands-on construction and observing. I was invigorated by his constant creativity and innovation as well as by his depth of insight not only in technical matters but also in how people think and behave. He continually provided new opportunities to learn and improve. His cutting insights and constant drive for optimization changed the way I think and how I approach life in general. Frank was a compassionate teacher and coach. He would console after defeat while urging on to the next level. He patiently taught me how to write meaningfully and concisely. He challenged me to write my first NSF proposals and scientific papers and guided me through the process. Like a good coach, Frank had a knack for finding flaws or weak points in my performance so, even when we disagreed, he was motivating me to improve my thinking and arguments for another round of discussion. He provided first-author opportunities when many professors might not. We swam and hiked together, mixed concrete and laid bricks, cut cardboard baffles for the 61-inch telescope, appeared live from the KPNO 4-meter telescope on "Good Morning America" after VB-8b, ate lunches at Eric's, and so on. I am honored to have worked with Frank, who in my mind has the stature of Galileo. The level of his accomplishments, combined with his deep enjoyment of life with a wonderful family, are amazing to me. I am happy to have opportunities to share his pioneering and insightful approach to life with new generations of students who need this perspective badly. I am proud to have been one of his students.

  11. Obituary: Robert C. Bless (1927 - 2015) (United States)

    Surrounded by his loving family, Robert Charles Bless died at home on November 29th, three days before his 88th birthday. He was born in Ithaca, NY on Dec. 3, 1927 to a Russian father, Arthur Aaron Bless, and a French mother, Eva Chantrell Bless. Bob spent many summers on the family farm in the South of France, where he gained a great pride and joy in his French heritage, large extended family, and mother tongue. As a child growing up in Gainesville, FL, Bob's first job was snake wrangling, earning 10 cents per foot, with an added bonus for the more venomous species. Young Robbie took daily adventures in the Florida woods and swamps, armed only with pockets full of pecans and oranges. He enjoyed spending time at the family's lake cabin, where he learned to sail and helped his father plant acres of trees to grow their timber plantation. As a first generation immigrant, Bob's father received a PhD in physics, which inspired Bob to pursue an extensive educational route in astrophysics. Bob excelled in academics, graduating high school at the age of 16 and the University of Florida (B.Sc.) at 19. His path to graduate school was interrupted by a diagnosis of tuberculosis that forced him into a Florida sanitorium for one year. During this time, Bob made the most of what he described as the most dismal part of life by advocating for patient rights, initiating an inter-sanitorium newsletter, and gaining skills and experience in community organization and leadership - qualities that would later inform his leadership in academe. After being one of the first successfully treated tuberculosis patients in the US, Bob went on to earn a M.Sc. from Cornell University, and received his PhD degree in Astronomy from the University of Michigan in 1958. That same year, Bob joined the staff of the Astronomy Department of the University of Wisconsin (UW), Madison. It was there that Bob met Diane McQueen. Despite Bob's Dodge Dart and what has been described as the worst first date in either of their memories, Bob and Diane married in 1969 in a small ceremony on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state and continued to cultivate a happy and loving marriage of 45 years. Bob's contributions to UW and to the field of astronomy were truly impressive and influential. He was a dedicated and extremely effective teacher at all levels of university education, as shown by very high student evaluation ratings from freshmen to graduate students. In addition to astronomy courses, for many years Bob co-taught a popular course on the history of astronomy and cosmology. He authored a well-received undergraduate textbook, Discovering the Cosmos, that emphasized the contributions of astronomy to the history of Western thinking as well as its fascinating modern factual discoveries. In his book, Bob cautioned his readers: "in reading this book you will discover that astronomy is enjoyably mind expanding and even exciting. This is not, however, 'astronomy without tears'." His dedication to astronomy education extended far beyond the academic community and helped set a pattern of outreach to the general public now widely followed by NASA and other institutions. The clearest manifestation of that dedication was his founding, in 1990, of UW Space Place. His colleagues considered him to be not only smart, as most university staff are, but, perhaps more importantly, wise as well, meaning that he could digest diverse material, determine its broader implications, and suggest and execute on effective courses of action as necessary. He served as Chair of the Astronomy department for several years, but his leadership role extended until his retirement and even beyond as his advice continued to be sought by subsequent Chairs. Perhaps his largest contribution to the department was his counsel and friendship to all of its members, from technicians to senior academics, sometimes acting as mentor or peacemaker and moderator. He was especially important in orchestrating the relocation of the department to new quarters when Sterling Hall was extensively renovated, and in overseeing the renovations to Washburn Observatory that were completed in 2009. Bob was an innovative and accomplished scientist, specializing in both instrumental design and calibration measurements - an absolutely vital determinant of the data's utility in which instrumental readings are converted to physically meaningful results. Early in his career he worked on the UW's Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP), which was the primary payload in NASA's Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), the first true space observatory. Launched in 1968 and operating until 1973, OAO-2 measured the properties of light from celestial objects from above the earth's obscuring atmosphere. Bob was a principal team member in all aspects of WEP (and many of OAO-2), including design, fabrication, testing, operations, and scientific research. Bob went on as designer and Principal Investigator of the High Speed Photometer (HSP), one of the original instruments chosen to be launched in 1990 with the famous Hubble Space Telescope, arguably the most successful telescope in history. (WEP, OAO-2, and HSP are on public display at UW Space Place.) Bob's worldwide reputation was illustrated by his being chosen as Chair of the Board of Directors of the Gemini Observatory, an international consortium operating two very large ground-based telescopes in Chile and Hawaii. This Board had the heavy responsibility of selecting the instruments aboard the telescopes and thereby the nature of their scientific impacts. Bob also served on several important committees within NASA, some requiring his moving to Washington for extensive periods of time. He authored numerous scientific papers and review articles in prestigious journals and books. Bob retired from the University as Professor Emeritus on Bastille Day in 1994 at the age of 67. Bob's expertise and dedication to astronomy and instrumentation took backseat only to his role as husband and father. He relished family dinners and international travel where he never missed an opportunity to regale family and friends as the resident historian. In 1992, at the age of 64, Bob embraced fatherhood when he and Diane became the guardians for Diane's nieces and nephew. Throwing footballs, offering cooking lessons, and tutorship in nearly any subject, Bob had much to share with his newfound children. A passionate classical music enthusiast, Bob also was a wine connoisseur and everybody at Barriques knew his name. Bob is survived by his wife, Diane; daughters Jacqueline (Bartlett) of Mazomanie; and Andrea (Caleb) of Middleton; son Brandon (Stephanie) of Craftsbury Common, Vermont; grandchildren Teolyn, Finch, Luca and Wilder; sister, Marguerite McInnis and nephews (Alexander and Lauchlin McInnis) and niece (Marguerite McInnis) of Florida, and other relatives and friends. He was preceded in death by his parents Eva Chantrell Bless and Arthur Aaron Bless. The family would like to thank Agrace Hospice and Drs. Thomas Hyzer and Wayne Grogan and their respective staffs for the care provided to Bob. There will be a Celebration of Bob's life held in early summer when all of his family can join his friends in sharing memories. "I hope that you will have found the experience worth the effort, and as at the end of a long journey to unfamiliar places, that you will be a somewhat different person for it." - Robert Charles Bless Reprinted with permission from Cress Funeral & Cremation Service.

  12. Obituary: John Louis Perdrix, 1926-2005 (United States)

    Orchiston, D. Wayne


    John Perdrix, astronomical historian and co-founder of the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, died on 27 June 2005. John Louis Perdrix was born in Adelaide, Australia, on 30 June 1926. After studying chemistry at Melbourne Technical College and working in industry, he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Minerals and Geochemistry. In 1974 the Division relocated to the Western Australian capital, Perth, and John spent the rest of his working life there involved in geochemical research. From his teenage years John had a passion for astronomy, which he fine-tuned through the Astronomical Society of Victoria and the Victorian Branch of the British Astronomical Association. He was very active in both groups, serving as President of the former and Secretary/Treasurer of the latter. He was also an FRAS, and a member of the AAS, the BAA parent body, and the IAU (Commission 41)?no mean feat for an Australian amateur astronomer. Throughout his life, he was a strong advocate of close amateur-professional relations. John's main research interest was history of astronomy, and over the years he wrote a succession of research papers, mainly about aspects of Australian astronomy. His well-researched and neatly-illustrated papers on the Melbourne Observatory and the Great Melbourne Telescope are classics, and when the Observatory's future was in the balance they played a key role in the State Government's decision to convert this unique facility into a museum precinct. To support his research activities, John built up an amazing library that developed its own distinctive personality and quickly took over his house and garage before invading commercial storage facilities! Apart from writing papers, John had an even greater passion for editing and publishing. From 1985 to 1997 he produced the Australian Journal of Astronomy, and in 1998 this was replaced by the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage (JAH2). Both journals appeared under the banner of his own publishing house, Astral Press, until 2005 when JAH2 was transferred to the Centre of Astronomy at James Cook University. When cancer was first diagnosed, this did not deter John, and he continued to pursue his astronomical and editorial interests. Early in 2005 the cancer was in remission and John decided to make one final overseas trip, a long-anticipated visit to St. Petersburg. It was while he was returning to Australia that the illness aggressively reappeared, and he was taken off the airplane at Dubai and died peacefully in Rashid Hospital three days later. He was just three days short of his seventy-ninth birthday. Always the consummate gentleman, John Perdrix had a keen sense of humor and was wonderful company. He will be greatly missed by all who knew him. Our condolences go to his six children, Louise, John, Timothy, Fleur, Lisa and Angella.

  13. Obituary: Kenneth L. Franklin, 1923-2007 (United States)

    Rao, Joe; Degrasse Tyson, Neil


    Renowned astronomer and astronomy popularizer Kenneth L. Franklin died early Monday morning, June 18, 2007, in Boulder, Colorado, two weeks after undergoing heart surgery. He was 84 years old. Kenneth Linn Franklin, the only child of Myles and Ruth (Houston) Franklin, was born March 25, 1923 in Alemeda, California. Ken obtained his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1953 at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1954 to 1956 he was a research fellow in radio astronomy at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC. While there, he and Bernard F. Burke discovered radio emissions from the planet Jupiter. They announced their find on April 6, 1955, at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In 1956 Ken joined the staff of the American Museum-Hayden Planetarium, where he later served as chairman and chief scientist. Over the course of thirty years he wrote and/or presented innumerable sky shows for the planetarium sky theater, taught popular and technical courses in astronomy, and answered questions from the public. Ken was frequently consulted by local industries engaged in the space program, as well as by the news media and publishers. He was often interviewed on local and national radio and television, especially when a celestial event of special interest was due to occur. On the first page of the November 1966 issue of Sky & Telescope, in comments about the upcoming Leonid meteor shower, Franklin stuck his neck out. Based on some calculations that he'd made, he said he felt we were going to be in for a "interesting display." His was one of the few forecasts that suggested the '66 Leonids might be memorable. As it turned out, he was right — that year observers experienced the now-legendary Leonid meteor storm. From 1973 to 1979, Ken was the AAS's public-affairs officer. For two decades he also served in the society's Harlow Shapley Visiting Lecturer Program, speaking at one or two colleges each year. Ken was an active member of many professional organizations and was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Explorers Club. Ken served as astronomy editor of the World Almanac from 1970 to 1995, and from 1980 to 1992 he provided all of the astronomical calculations for the Farmer's Almanac through his association with the Hart Wright Company of Lewiston, Maine. He also contributed daily almanac information to the New York Times from 1975 to 1997 and launched that paper's weekly Sky Watch feature in the science section. Asteroid number 2845 is named Franklinken in his honor. Since 2004 Ken and his wife, Charlotte, have resided in Loveland, Colorado. In addition to Charlotte, Ken is survived by his daughters Kathleen Williams, Christine Redding, and Julie Jones. The photograph of Kenneth Franklin is provided by the American Museum of Natural History and Sky & Telescope magazine.

  14. Obituary: Roland Svensson, 1950-2003 (United States)

    Björnsson, Claes-Ingvar


    Roland Svensson was found dead on 8 April 2003. He succumbed to the complications arising from diabetes. His contribution to the understanding of the basic properties of relativistic plasmas remains a cornerstone when studying radiation processes in many astrophysical contexts. Roland was born on 6 May 1950 in Karlshamn, Sweden. At a young age he moved with his family to Skåne, the southernmost part of Sweden. This is where he received his early education including a BS in Physics at the University of Lund in 1973. For the rest of his life, this region was home for Roland. His mother and father are Linnea Martinsson (d. 1984) and Sune Svensson. The two younger brothers are Lennart and Peter. Lennart works as a machine engineer in Sweden while Peter has settled in California as a biology professor. Roland started graduate studies in theoretical physics in Lund before receiving a Fulbright Scholarship in 1976. He then moved to the University of California in Santa Cruz and enrolled in the astronomy and astrophysics graduate program. Although his interest in astronomy had been raised during the time in Lund, it was the stimulating environment in Santa Cruz that convinced Roland to concentrate on research in astronomy. With Roland's attitude of never accepting anything unless he understood its roots, his extended background in physics served him well throughout his astronomy career; in particular, it influenced his choice of a thesis topic. At the time, the importance of relativistic temperatures attained by accreting matter in the immediate vicinity of neutron stars and black holes was becoming clear. Roland set out to make a detailed description of the physical effects electron-positron pair production and annihilation would have on such plasmas. In 1981 Roland defended his thesis titled ``Physical Properties in Relativistic Plasmas" and completed his PhD under the supervision of Bill Mathews. Roland extended the results of his thesis during two post-docs, first at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Munich and later at Nordita in Copenhagen. He stayed another five years at Nordita as assistant professor. In 1990 he moved to Stockholm Observatory to take up the chair in astrophysics and cosmology. Roland's fundamental work on pair-plasmas was done alone. It was during his time at Nordita that this aspect of Roland's research started to change. He now took the first steps towards establishing an international network within high-energy astrophysics, a pursuit that was to intensify during his time at Stockholm Observatory. The initial impetus for this was Roland's desire to develop the applications of his early work to concrete astrophysical phenomena. An important part of this effort was to engage other scientists that could complement his own background. His initiative and coordination were behind many subsequent research projects. Starting with quasars and active galactic nuclei, his interest widened to include compact X-ray binaries and gamma-ray bursts. Roland's interest in observational astronomy and data analysis grew with time. As a result his group in high-energy astrophysics at Stockholm Observatory initiated Swedish participation in several international space-based observatories, including INTEGRAL and GLAST. One of the aims of his network was to involve scientists from Russia and the eastern European countries. Due to Roland's diligence in writing applications, this led to a lively scientific exchange, which proved to be an important factor in the success of the network. It also helped these countries to further their international contacts in general. Roland enjoyed teaching and it was a source of inspiration for him. Well-prepared lectures in combination with his sensitivity and ability to listen made him a teacher much liked by the students. He was at his best with a small group where teaching could develop into discussion. With his patience and desire to convey the essence of an argument, he could go a long way to help a student but, at the same time, he made it clear that the responsibility for learning lay with the student. He was, for a long time, director of graduate studies at Stockholm Observatory. The present graduate program owes much to Roland's efforts to modernize its structure and bring it up to an international level. Throughout his life, two of Roland's guidelines were respect for others and responsibility for ones own doing. Although Roland was a private person who valued his integrity, he had a great interest in people. He was an often seen guest at dinners and other social events, where his wry humor together with an outstanding memory and affection for details spurred many a discussion and caused much laughter. At such occasions Roland also excelled as a photographer; in particular, he had an eye for catching the mood and character of the people around him. With his strong personality and firm belief in science as a guiding star, Roland leaves behind a memory of one who chose a way through life that was truly his own.

  15. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor: An obituary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve, E-mail: [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)


    The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has exerted a peculiar attraction over nuclear engineers. Despite many unsuccessful attempts over half a century to develop it as a commercial power reactor, there is still a strong belief amongst many nuclear advocates that a highly successful HTGR technology will emerge. The most recent attempt to commercialize an HTGR design, the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), was abandoned in 2010 after 12 years of effort and the expenditure of a large amount of South African public money. This article reviews this latest attempt to commercialize an HTGR design and attempts to identify which issues have led to its failure and what lessons can be learnt from this experience. It concludes that any further attempts to develop HTGRs using Pebble Bed technology should only be undertaken if there is a clear understanding of why earlier attempts have failed and a high level of confidence that earlier problems have been overcome. It argues that the PBMR project has exposed serious weaknesses in accountability mechanisms for the expenditure of South African public money. - Research highlights: {yields} In this study we examine the reasons behind the failure of the South African PBMR programme. {yields} The study reviews the technical issues that have arisen and lessons for future reactor developments. {yields} The study also identifies weaknesses in the accountability mechanisms for public spending.

  16. Obituary: Hakki Ogelman (1940-2011) (United States)

    Orio, Marina


    Hakki Boran Ögelman died in Austin, Texas, on September 4, 2011, after battling esophageal cancer for several months. Hakki was born in Ankara, Turkey, on July 8, 1940, and was the son of Salehettin Ögelman, a lawyer, and Vedya Özlem Ögelman, a schoolteacher. He had a sister, older by three years, the late Esen Yerliçi. Soon after his birth, the family moved to Istanbul, where Hakki attended the Robert College from sixth grade and obtained an international baccalaureate at age 17. In the same year, he moved to the United States to further his education at DePaw University in Indiana, where he obtained a Bachelor's Degree in three years and developed a strong passion for physics. He was accepted as a graduate student in physics at Cornell University, where he was fortunate to have such professors as Hans Bethe and Ed Salpeter, among others. Hakki's advisor, Kenneth Greisen, had worked on the Manhattan Project and was a leading expert in the study of charged particles from space and gamma rays from astronomical sources. For his Ph.D., Hakki flew a balloon experiment to measure gamma rays at the highest energy, deriving from the radioactive decay of elementary particles from space. Hakki received his Ph.D. from Cornell in February of 1966. After a postdoctoral year working on gamma ray astrophysics at the University of Sydney in Australia, Hakki accepted a fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center where he became an expert on pulsars and wrote a series of articles published by Nature on astronomical sources of gamma rays. At age 30, Hakki declined the offer of a civil service position at NASA and left for Turkey, feeling he wanted to give back to his home country, which had given him a strong education and instilled in him core values. After a period in the military as an officer, he was offered a position at the Middle East Technical University (METU) of Ankara, an English speaking university. After becoming a full professor at METU and spending a sabbatical year back at Goddard, Hakki took leave from Ankara to help the development of a university in the rural area of Adana and became the Dean of Basic Sciences at Çukurova University. He established a group working on exploitation techniques of solar energy and planned for himself and his wife a solar house that was built on campus. Hakki was a member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences, served as a member of the Executive Science Board for the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey from 1976-1984, and represented Turkey on international science councils and co-operations. Turkey during those years was in turmoil, first apparently on the brink of a civil war and later governed by a strict military regime. Upsetting personal experiences convinced Hakki that Turkey had become too difficult for a free intellectual person, so he took a prolonged sabbatical at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching near Munich, where he had already spent several summers and kept in touch with an international and vibrant community of scientists working on high-energy astrophysics. What started as a sabbatical stretched into almost 8 years. From gamma rays he moved to lower energies, X-rays, and made several interesting discoveries first with EXOSAT, then with ROSAT, the second imaging telescope in X-rays. Hakki was broadly educated across many areas of physics, astronomy and science in general. He was very curious and an avid reader of science and non-science books and articles. Such broad horizons helped him think "outside the box." He was the first to observe novae as accreting and exploding white dwarfs in binary systems in X-rays, thereby observing the "naked white dwarf" to obtain clues on its mass, chemical composition and possible evolutionary path toward a supernova Ia explosion. Hakki's work on cooling neutron stars, pulsars and their nebulae (his main interest) was always innovative. One difficult riddle he hoped to solve was the relationship between the mass and radius of a neutron star in order to infer the equation of state of neutron stars and whether they contain exotic particles. He was particularly interested in the glitches of neutron stars (sudden small increases in the rotation speed) because these may be caused by transitions of vortices in the superfluid core of the star. Turkey recognized Hakki as an outstanding scientist, and he was awarded the Sedat Simavi Prize in 1988 and the Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council Prize in 1991. Eventually, Hakki returned to the U.S. where he felt that scientific life was most lively and interesting. He accepted a position as professor of physics at the University of Wisconsin in Madison at the beginning of 1991. Working with ROSAT, he made new discoveries related to neutron stars and novae. He mentored five successful graduate students and a post-doctoral associate, worked with countless collaborators, and was loved by his students in Wisconsin. He bought a house on Lake Monona in Madison because "being on water was important to him and reminded him of the Bosphorus." He visited Turkey for a long time every summer, worked with students and collaborators there, and was instrumental in establishing the Turkish National Observatory. In 1996, while he was at the peak of his career and his third son was just a year and a half old, Hakki's life was disrupted by a massive stroke. He became physically handicapped and had to slow his pace somewhat. He was able to go back to teaching and still carried on independent and original research, but he had to take time to rest after each activity. He taught at the University of Wisconsin until March of 2011, even after heart surgery a year earlier. Eventually, an aggressive form of cancer caught up with his energy and love of science and life. Hakki had been married three times, each marriage lasting for more than 10 years. He is survived by three sons and a daughter-in-law, Kenan Ögelman of Austin, Texas, Nedim and Laura Ögelman of Alexandria, Virginia, and Roberto Ögelman of Madison, Wisconsin, and two grandsons, Anders and Soren Ögelman, of Alexandria, Virginia. His family, friends and colleagues will miss Hakki's inquisitive spirit.

  17. Obituary: Malcolm Raff (1940-2010) (United States)

    Shuch, H.


    In his seventy years, Malcolm Raff never did figure out exactly what he wanted to be when he grew up. The only son of lawyer Henry Raff and music teacher Ruth Raff (nee Marshak), Mal's interests vacillated between the analytical and the artistic. Early skill as a pianist and trombone player competed for his youthful attention with amateur radio and astronomy, leading him to pursue a liberal arts education at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, from which institution he earned BS degrees in math and physics in 1961. Mal's lifelong passion for flying, leading to his becoming not only a licensed commercial pilot but also a certified flight instructor (airplane, instruments, and helicopter) was kindled in graduate school at the University of Illinois (MS astronomy 1963), and refined during his years at the University of California, Berkeley (PhD astrophysics, 1976). Mal's love of aviation derived in part from his viewing birds as kin. He told his wife Connie to watch birds land if she wanted to understand how an airplane should land. Following a devastating Bay Area oil spill in 1971, he not only assisted with cleanup, but began banding birds, cataloguing their blood samples, and tracking their health. This interest in ornithology continued throughout his life, toward the end of which Mal was a lead technical volunteer for the Mickaboo Bird Rescue Organization, and guardian to a large family of rescued birds, including: QT, an eight year old Lessor Sulpher Crested Cockatoo, adopted four years ago Pique, a 32 year old Red-Vented Cockatoo, adopted two years ago Cabernet, a Crimson Rosella from Australia, age unknown, adopted 2 1/2 years ago Bruno, a ten year old Brown Headed Cow Bird, rescued when found out of its nest Noe, Protrero, Duboce, and Taraval, four Cherry Head Conures of San Francisco's Telegraph Hill, raised by Mal from age two weeks, and all named after streets of San Francisco. After flirting with an academic career for a couple of years in the Berkeley astronomy department, Mal put his nascent computer science skills to work, first at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, then in the aerospace industry, and later at a string of cutting-edge biotechnology companies (some of which he had helped to co-found). He became a recognized leader not only in database manipulation, but also in digital image processing on a grand scale, leading to his playing a pivotal role in the Human Genome Project. At Applied Biosystems in the early 1980s, Mal conceived and implemented the original digital signal processing algorithms and graphics for the world's first automated DNA sequencer, modifying data acquisition and analysis techniques to permit DNA mapping. I once asked Mal how he made the unlikely transition from astrophysics to genetic engineering. "It's all the same process," he replied. "The techniques that I once applied to imaging the very far and distant, I now use to analyze the very small and near." When the NASA SETI (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) program was cancelled by the US Congress in 1993, Mal was one of the first radio amateurs to devote his skills and energies to helping privatize the research. A charter member of the non-profit SETI League, Mal chaired that organization's Strategic Planning Committee and participated actively in its annual symposia and technical workshops. His SETI activities (plus reruns of classic Star Trek episodes) motivated Mal to contemplate extraterrestrial life. Around the time the SETI League was founded, he chanced to take up scuba diving. The reefs off the coast of Central America, he commented, are probably as close as he would ever come to experiencing what life might be like on an alien planet. Upon his retirement, Mal pursued his passion for music, first as a benefactor to the Jazzschool in Berkeley, then as a student of Brazilian jazz and vibraphone (an instrument he had always admired and wanted to learn), and ultimately as a gifted vibe player, as well as founder and leader of Riff Raff, a locally acclaimed jazz combo. Barry Lloyd, a mutual friend, is a former Army helicopter pilot who was injured in VietNam. He met Mal in the mid 1970s at a meeting of the UC Berkeley Flying Club. Mal expressed an interest in helicopters, and Barry was looking for a way to get back into flying following his long hospitalization and recuperation. Barry found Mal "very brash, and incredibly interesting. He seemed to know how everything worked." They struck a deal, in which they would instruct each other. To this day, Barry says he got the better end of the bargain. Benjamin Mendelsohn, another former flight student of Mal's, recalls that his professional life was "filled with careers in different disciplines, which presented a series of puzzles that engaged his curiosity. He combined his image processing skills and his aviation interests to develop a vision system that would allow aircraft to land in zero visibility conditions. After that, he moved into biotechnology where he spent most of his professional career. Mal worked on the programming of one of the first mechanisms that would take a prepared strand of genetic material, whose special dyes would light up when lit by a laser, and based on the light emanating from the strand the sequences of bases that made it up could be read out. Mal once joked that the expertise he developed as an astronomer to look at the dips in the spectra from stars now allowed him to look at the peaks in the signal by flipping his downs to ups in his programs. Clever, that!" Fred Leif, a fellow radio amateur, recalls that "some 30 years ago a group of amateur radio operators in Berkeley came together to talk about organizing so as to aid our community during disasters. Mal was recognized as one of the few who had experience in using radio during emergencies. As it turned out, he had a lot to teach us about the task at hand. We went through a year of internal bickering, but Mal was a guiding light ... he stuck to his principles ... and demanded excellence. Over the following decades we built a highly functioning group. We were tested by the Loma Prieta Earthquake and the Oakland Hills Fire. We were recognized by our clients and our peers as a reliable, professional caliber, citizen volunteer group. We earned their trust and respect, from which Mal derived a level of satisfaction." For these and other contributions, Mal Raff (radio amateur WA2UNP) was inducted posthumously into CQ Magazine's Amateur Radio Hall of Fame. In a conversation reminiscent of a scene from the TV sitcom "Big Bang Theory," Mal and his friend Tanya Renner once speculated on what superpower they would want, should they ever become superheroes. Mal said he would choose clarity. "Yet, Mal already had clarity," recalls Tanya. "The ability to perceive, without obscurity, was one of Mal's numerous and wonderful traits. He understood the individuality of each being, bird or human, he met. He also had the foresight to adapt to challenging new projects, and bountifully contributed knowledge based on his amazing experiences. Mal was equally my mentor, friend, and superhero of clarity." "Above all, to me, Mal had a big heart and a big brain--a rare and potent combination," recalls colleague Kevin Hockett. "He was a clear example of a person who never stopped growing, who always found new things to learn and master and love. I won't now be able to see a chromatogram trace, a bird preening in shade, or a star turning out its light, and not equally see Mal." Former flight student Juan Richardson reminisces, "The first time I saw Mal I thought that he looked like an interesting person who might be worth getting to know. That turned out to be truer than I expected. One tip-off was those bushy, wild, out-of-control eyebrows. Then there was the Berkeleyesque attire with science oriented T-shirts. Here was definitely a person who was going to be the person who he wanted to be, with minimal accommodation to societal norms. People liked that about him - or they didn't, it didn't matter. He liked living in Berkeley because of the university atmosphere. He sort-of never left college, but he did make the transition from student to teacher. Teaching was what he did, it is the role that he liked to be in - and he was good at it. He saw it as a two step process: acquire knowledge, then dispense it - and he liked both aspects." "Some say the measure of a man is in what he accomplishes," notes Mal's fellow musician, pilot, ham radio operator, and former coworker George Golda. "One can certainly say Mal was a Jack of all trades and Master of ALL, but the true measure of Mal was his deep compassion for all things living. His insight into human nature and his empathy for others broke through his sometimes crusty but thin veneer. No matter how much he tried, he could not hide the fact that he loved you. His tongue-in-cheek sense of humor coupled with his sly grin would floor you, and will be sorely missed by all who knew him. Sometimes we are lucky in this life to cross the path of a rare jewel. Mal was that jewel to his wife Connie, and the myriad of family and friends too numerous to name." Malcolm Isaac Raff was diagnosed with a glioblastoma on August 1, 2010, and died at home three months later. He is survived by his wife Connie Woods, sister Judi Lehrhaupt in Pennsylvania, the aforementioned eight birds, and a very old and wise adopted tortoise.

  18. Obituary: Alan D. Fiala (1942-2010) (United States)

    Kaplan, George


    Dr. Alan Dale Fiala, astronomer and expert on solar eclipses, died on May 26, 2010 in Arlington, Virginia, of respiratory failure after a brief illness. He was 67. Fiala had been a staff astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., for his entire professional career, where he rose from a position as a summer intern to become the Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office, responsible for annual publications for astronomy and navigation that are used the world over. He retired from the observatory in 2000. Although a childhood case of polio affected his mobility for the rest of his life, he seldom let his physical constraints limit his activities, which were many and varied. Alan Fiala was born in Beatrice, Nebraska on November 9, 1942, the middle son of Emil A. ("John") and Lora Marie Fiala. Fiala's father was a postal clerk and Civil Service examiner. Fiala expressed interest in astronomy at a very young age. He contracted polio when he was 9. He graduated from Beatrice High School in 1960 with a straight-A average and went on to study at Carleton College. He received his B.A. summa cum laude after three years, in 1963, with a major in astronomy and minors in physics and mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics). In 1962, Alan Fiala obtained a job as a summer intern at the Naval Observatory in Washington, working in the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO). He entered the graduate program at Yale University and continued to work summers at the observatory. He received his Ph.D. in 1968, under Gerald Clemence. His dissertation was titled "Determination of the Mass of Jupiter from a Study of the Motion of 57 Mnemosyne." After receiving his doctorate, Fiala became a permanent member of the Naval Observatory staff. Computers were just being introduced there and he participated in the automation of many procedures used to prepare the annual publications of the Nautical Almanac Office. One of his first assignments was to prepare a visual identification chart of the navigational stars to be used for backup navigation on Apollo 8 and several subsequent space missions. In 1973, Alan Fiala was assigned to take over and modernize the prediction of solar and lunar eclipses. He developed software for calculating eclipse phenomena and generating eclipse maps that is still the basis of the computations at the observatory almost four decades later. As one of the world's experts on eclipse calculations, he was the lead author of the chapter on eclipse calculations in the 1992 Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, and was also the co-author of Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1500 B.C-A.D. 3000 with Bao-Lin Liu, the foremost Chinese expert. In 1979, Alan Fiala began a collaborative effort with two other colleagues, supported by NSF and NASA, to observe solar eclipses in order to detect possible long-term variations in the solar diameter. Fiala pioneered the use of portable video cameras to record the disappearance and reappearance of the Sun from behind the Moon's limb during an eclipse, as viewed from the edges of the central eclipse paths. He was the leader or co-organizer of expeditions to ten solar eclipses around the world and was the co-author of several articles on this project. In 1996, Alan Fiala was appointed Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office. The office, which dates from 1849, is responsible for four annual publications that set the international standard for accuracy for positional astronomy and celestial navigation. Fiala made great progress in modernizing and standardizing the production process for the publications. He also began revision of the scientific basis of the books while adding complementary information on the Internet. Fiala was Chief of NAO during its sesquicentennial and, with Steven J. Dick, co-edited the Proceedings of the Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium. Alan Fiala received numerous awards during his career at the Observatory, including the Captain James Melville Gilliss Award for service. Minor planet 3695 Fiala was named in his honor on the occasion of his retirement in 2000. Alan Fiala was elected to the International Astronomical Union in 1976. He was also a member of the American Astronomical Society, Institute of Navigation, and several other professional societies. He served as the chair of the AAS Division on Dynamical Astronomy during its 25th year. Alan Fiala had many interests outside of astronomy, including sports car racing. He started as a member of a racing team and continued as a volunteer official in technical inspection for the Sports Car Club of America. He was generous with his time, serving as a leader of citizens groups in Northern Virginia and a national organization for people with post-polio syndrome. Other interests included genealogy, gardening, photography, cooking, travel, languages, literature, and the arts. He was also a master beekeeper. Fiala is survived by his two brothers, John and Kent. He was buried in Odell, Nebraska, not far from his childhood home. Fiala will be remembered fondly by his many friends and colleagues, who will miss his good humor and his meticulous approach to any subject he wished to master. Fiala's life was an inspiration to many, and he left behind a valuable legacy of work not just for astronomy, but also for the many organizations to which he donated his time.

  19. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008) (United States)

    Ho, Paul


    Chi Yuan graduated from the National Taiwan University in1959, and received his Masters of Science degree from the University of Florida in 1962, and his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1966. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Professor C.C. Lin at MIT for three years, before taking his faculty post at the City College of New York in 1969. He attained full professorship at CCNY in 1981. From 1994-1996, Chi returned to Taiwan as Director of the newly found Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). From 1997-2002, he was the recipient of an Outstanding Scholar Award, reserved for the most distinguished scientists employed in Taiwan. Chi retired from ASIAA in 2007, but continued to be active in his research during his two-year fight with brain cancer. Chi Yuan made his greatest impact with his work on the density-wave theory for spiral arm structures in galaxies, with C.C. Lin and Frank Shu. His early work elucidated the observational tests of density-wave theory, and the effects of magnetic fields in galactic shocks. In the 1980s, Chi Yuan worked on spiral density waves in Saturn's rings. In the past two decades, Chi Yuan concentrated on the problem of barred and spiral structures in the nuclei of galaxies, with their implications for fueling the central supermassive black holes. He also worked on the problem of the migration of giant extrasolar planets in their solar disks. These studies were made possible by his establishment of a program on computational fluid dynamics, which became one of the key initiatives in theory at the ASIAA. Among his academic records, two contributions are particularly notable. First, with Typhoon Lee, Fred Lo, and Frank Shu, Chi Yuan founded the ASIAA in order to stimulate the growth of astronomy in Taiwan. Second, and perhaps his greatest influence, has been his training and mentoring of a great number of students in astrophysics, especially for the last 20 years in Taiwan. Today, astronomy is flourishing in Taiwan, in no small measure because of his efforts. Chi Yuan was also a scholar in Chinese history, well known for his calligraphy, and a passionate leader of the Tiao Yu Tai Islands movement in the early 1970s on the territorial integrity of China. He was a gourmand and a gourmet. He was a man of principle and integrity. He is greatly missed by his many friends and colleagues, both inside and outside of astronomy and physics.

  20. Obituary: Gerson Goldhaber (1924-2011) (United States)

    Pennypacker, Carl


    Gerson Goldhaber was a leading particle physicist who turned his attention to cosmology in the latter part of career. He was the first person to assert from his interpretations of the data, and then report in professional meetings, evidence for the existence of Dark Energy. The evidence came from his study of supernova in the Berkeley Supernova Cosmology Project. In the words of Nobel laureate Sheldon Glashow, "His seminal contributions to our understanding of the smallest structures of Nature (particle physics) and to the largest (cosmology) have been truly remarkable. "He made substantial, prize-winning discoveries in both fields. Characteristic of Goldhaber's methods were an unrelenting and continuous pursuit to find and build capabilities to make measurements concerning the most important physics and cosmology questions of our times. He was unparalleled at forming or adding to teams in pursuit of such work, and then quickly moving to data analysis, even in early stages of the experiment. Leon Lederman noted: "Gerson's vitality, intellectual weight, ideas, and presence saved the experiment and directly led to its success. Such teamwork and selflessness is rarely acknowledged in prizes... His energy, taste in research, imagination and his impressive bibliography indicate Goldhaber to be one of the major figures in the evolution of this field of research, now called "particle astrophysics." Goldhaber's uncanny data-analysis skills enabled him to continually invent new methods of analysis and displays of very complex data, and he often was the most enthusiastic member of the team in isolating the most important variables and encouraging the team to see their role in an existing or new physical phenomena. Goldhaber helped lead or co-lead teams but was always involved in deep data analysis, whether the data be quarks or high-redshift supernova. Indeed, his prize-winning work spans 1043 orders of magnitude of length-scale, from the size of quarks - ~10-14 cm to the entire size of the visible Universe - ~ 1029 cm. Goldhaber was also widely regarded as one of the kindest, most open, and friendly physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and his collegiality and attempts to build group esprit-de-corp were a large part of the group's success, when financial and other issues were always on the verge of ending the work. Indeed, Goldhaber led considerable weight to the effort. Goldhaber was born in Chemnitz, Germany, Feb. 20, 1924, and moved with his family to Cairo, Egypt, in 1933 to escape Nazi persecution. He earned his Master's of Science degree in physics at Hebrew University, Jerusalem, in 1947 and his Ph.D. in 1950 from the University of Wisconsin. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1953 while working as an instructor at Columbia University. Later that same year, he joined the UC Berkeley Physics Department and the research staff at its Radiation Laboratory, which would later morph into Berkeley Lab, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory. Goldhaber first rose to major scientific prominence with his contributions to the discovery of the antiproton. In collaboration with his first wife, nuclear chemist/physicist Sulamith Löw, Goldhaber led a group that used a photographic emulsion detector technique he developed to confirm the discovery of the antiproton at Berkeley Lab's Bevatron accelerator by the research group of Emilio Segrè and Owen Chamberlain. Segrè and Chamberlain received the Nobel Prize in 1959 for this discovery. In 1960, Goldhaber and physicist George Trilling formed the Trilling-Goldhaber experimental particle-physics group, which included his wife, Sulamith. In 1963, the group discovered the A meson, a subatomic particle Goldhaber named after his son, Amos Nathaniel. "The wisest professional decision I ever made was to join Gerson in a collaboration whose success resulted almost entirely from his extraordinary insight into where to find new and important science," said Trilling. "He was a great physicist and a wonderful human being." In 1965, shortly after arriving in India on a family trip around the world, Sulamith Goldhaber went into a coma and died. For solace, Goldhaber took up art, working in various media before gravitating to paintings and drawings. In 1969, he married Judith Margoshes Golwyn, playwright, poet, and for many years a lead science writer at Berkeley Lab. During their 41-year marriage, Gerson and Judith collaborated on many art projects and articles on scientific subjects. They also raised two daughters, Michaela and Shaya. In 1972, the Trilling-Goldhaber group began a collaboration with a group led by physicist Burton Richter at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), on an experiment with SLAC's Stanford Positron-Electron Asymmetric Ring. The collaborators built a machine that was initially called the SLAC-LBL Solenoidal Magnetic Detector, later known as the Mark I detector. With Goldhaber leading the data analysis, the Stanford-Berkeley collaborators in November of 1974 announced the discovery of a new subatomic particle that turned out to be the first member of the "charm" flavor of quarks. Goldhaber proposed the particle be named "psi" for the Greek letter, because its particle tracks formed a pattern that resembled the psi symbol. The same particle was almost simultaneously discovered by a collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory led by MIT physicist Samuel Ting. The Brookhaven group called their discovery the "J" particle. As leaders of the two collaborations, Richter and Ting won the 1976 Nobel Prize for the discovery of what is now known as the J/psi particle. In 1989 Goldhaber shifted his considerable intellectual focus to astrophysics, and became one of the first members of Berkeley Lab's Deep Supernova Search. Founded by Richard Muller, Carl Pennypacker, and Saul Perlmutter, this group would later be renamed the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP). Goldhaber switched his research interests from particle physics to cosmology in 1989 partly because his wife Judith was collaborating with astrophysicist Carl Pennypacker in writing a musical (which was later produced) based on the life and ideas of Stephen Hawking, entitled Falling Through a Hole in the Air, with lyrics by Judith and music by Carl. Gerson thus had many opportunities to talk about cosmology and became intrigued with it. By 1997 the SCP group had collected and analyzed 38 of the Type Ia supernovae "standard candles" in sufficient detail to take a stab at measuring the expansion rate of the universe. Judith felt that her husband was courageous in changing his field of research from particle physics to cosmology at this point in his career. "He had reached a prominent level in particle physics. When he went to physics conferences he'd be at the head table and giving the keynote talks." (Interview with Judith Goldhaber, p. 138) When he switched to astrophysics, he worked in relative obscurity-until the discovery of dark energy. As Ursula Pavlish described ("Gerson Goldhaber: A Life in Science," 2011, Physics in Perspective 13, 189-214), "At that time scientists believed that the ultimate fate of the expanding universe depended on the density of matter it contained, its so-called Omega Mass (OM). Above a certain value, gravity would eventually slow down the expansion, and galaxies would begin to move closer together; below that value, the universe would expand forever. The SCP group proposed to measure OM by analyzing the light from distant supernovae and calculating their distances from our solar system. An exploding supernova burns up the entire star within seconds, typically producing light as bright or brighter than that of an entire galaxy, but all Type Ia supernovae produce light of essentially the same maximum brightness, so they can be used as 'standard candles' in calculating their distances from our solar system. In particular, just after a new moon, a series of reference images-photographs showing galaxies in a certain portion of the night sky-are taken, and three weeks later, just before the next new moon, another set of photographs is taken, the new points of light on which are supernovae whose brightnesses and redshifts are carefully measured and analyzed to determine how fast they are retreating owing to the expansion of the universe." "Goldhaber showed his discovery of a peak in the SCP data to his team members at the LBL and gave a talk on it in Santa Barbara, California, on December 14, 1997, where Robert Kirshner, one of the leaders of the competing High-z Supernova Search Team, was in the audience. Kirshner did not affirm the significance of the SCP data, perhaps because Goldhaber's unusual particle-physics method of analysis was unfamiliar to astrophysicists. In any case, Goldhaber recalled that David Gross asked him, "Can you be sure with such small statistics?" Goldhaber answered, "Yes, I am sure." (I 9, pp. 10-11)" "Saul Perlmutter actually had presented the teams's results even earlier, in the fall of 1997, in Santa Cruz, California. Goldhaber and his co-workers' analysis, as well as similar results developed independently by the High-z Supernova Search Team led by Kirshner, Adam Riess, and Brian Schmidt, soon confirmed Goldhaber's gut reaction that 'it looked convincing.'" These bumps found by Goldhaber were studied by the Berkeley group for some time, to understand if dust or other systematics were confusing such measurements, but no such systematic effect could be found. Both teams published in 1998, and such work lead to the Nobel Prizes for the team leaders, in 2011.

  1. Obituary: Gary Lars Grasdalen, 1945-2003 (United States)

    Strom, Stephen Eric


    With the passing of Gary Grasdalen on 20 April 2003 the astronomical community has lost one its most creative members. Born in Albert Lea, Minnesota on 7 October 1945 to the farming family of Lars G. and Lillie Grasdalen, Gary developed a strong childhood interest in science, and a particular fascination with astronomy. In 1964, he entered Harvard College intending to pursue those interests. During his freshman year, Gary enrolled in an undergraduate research seminar in which he first displayed the combination of keen insight and imagination in applying new techniques that was manifest throughout his professional career. In 1968, he published his first two papers---studies of the C12/C13 ratio in metal deficient stars, and of Fe I and Fe II transition probabilities---which summarized research carried out during his junior and senior years at Harvard. Grasdalen next entered the astronomy graduate program at the University of California, Berkeley. There he developed a strong interest in the early stages of stellar evolution and, in particular, the potential of S-1 image intensifiers and newly available near-infrared detectors to detect and analyze the stellar populations embedded within their parent molecular cloud complexes. Following award of his PhD in 1972, Grasdalen was appointed to the staff at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Early in his career at KPNO, Gary developed tools that enabled routine near-infrared mapping of nearby molecular cloud complexes, most notably the telescope control programs that enabled precise raster scanning of these regions. Those same programs were some of the many innovations in which Gary had a hand. These innovations enabled a generation of KPNO observers in the 1970s to fully exploit the power of the newly commissioned Mayall telescope as well as the smaller telescopes on Kitt Peak. In 1973, he published the first map of the central region of a molecular cloud, which revealed an extensive embedded, optically obscured population of newly formed stars in the Ophiuchus complex. This discovery led to a series of survey papers cataloging and describing the young stellar population associated with multiple nearby clouds. The results from these early survey papers produced finding lists and nomenclature for embedded young stars that are still referenced by researchers. By developing the tools needed to point telescopes precisely, Grasdalen was able to follow a hunch that he had while a graduate student at Berkeley---that Herbig-Haro objects were excited by optically obscured young stars that were displaced from these emission nebulae. He believed these objects to be reflection nebulae, scattering light earthward from a young star whose powerful wind had carved out a cavity thus creating an indirect pathway for optical photons to reach observers from an otherwise invisible star. Grasdalen compiled a list of candidate H-H objects from the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey and began a near-infrared search for associated young stars, first using inefficient PbS and when they became available, InSb detectors. In 1974, his insight was rewarded with the discovery of the embedded young star associated with H-H 100 in Corona Austrina, and soon thereafter, with multiple candidate infrared sources associated with H-H objects. The 1974 discovery paper notes that the exciting source for H-H 100 is located near the geometric center of a 0.1 pc, roughly spherical cloud, providing early evidence that young stars form within regions that we now call ``molecular cores". Following several years of study, it became clear that the H-H objects themselves are in fact directly excited via stellar wind-molecular cloud interactions, thus invalidating the hypothesis that H-H objects are pure reflection nebulae. Nevertheless, Grasdalen's pioneering discovery of infrared sources associated with these objects, combined with the infrared survey results, led to a veritable explosion of infrared and molecular line studies of star-forming regions. Grasdalen was also a major contributor to early attempts to understand the nature of intermediate mass young stars - the Herbig Ae/Be stars. His work demonstrated both their pre-main sequence nature via surface gravity measurements and that these objects share infrared properties in common with their lower mass counterparts. Results from these studies were summarized in a review published in "Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics" in 1975. This was an early attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of star-formation in molecular cloud complexes and to link the emerging results from mm-wave and infrared observations. Perhaps as noteworthy as the overview was his introduction of the term ``Young Stellar Object" or YSO. In part, this term was invented by Grasdalen as a reaction to the term ``QSO", which in those days (and indeed today) seemed to create an aura of mystery, seductive both to the public and the astronomical community; we star-formation types hoped that YSO would do the same for our field! In 1978, Grasdalen left Kitt Peak for the University of Wyoming where, along with Bob Gehrz and John Hackwell, he made the Mt. Jelm 2.1-meter telescope a world-leading facility for infrared studies. His research interests evolved to include, in addition to YSO research, infrared spectroscopic study of novae, a field that he, Gehrz and Hackwell pioneered and which Bob Gehrz has carried forward, creating an impressive and important oeuvre. Grasdalen was a mentor to a generation of graduates from the University of Wyoming including Kathleen deGioia-Eastwood, Matthew Greenhouse, Karl Klett, Gregory Sloan, Jill Price, Michael Castelaz, Craig Gullixson and Thomas Hayward. To a person, they spoke to the high standards he set, his constant expectation of excellence and critical thinking, the amazing range and depth of his knowledge, and his incredibly creative mind. Following important and influential service on the Optical-Infrared panel for the 1990 decadal survey, Gary left the University of Wyoming and, for awhile (and much to our collective loss), astronomy. Gary was a very private and, in many ways, a wary person. His decision may have been linked to a need for a break from a lifetime of pressure. In the early 1980s, Gary acknowledged that he was gay, a fact which for years he carefully hid from his friends and colleagues. While he found much support at the University of Wyoming (and elsewhere), both subtle and rampant homophobia had to have an affect on someone who was both unusually sensitive and filled with self-doubt. With increasing frequency, whatever Gary may have felt deep within led to bouts of self-destructive behavior. At least it seemed that way to his friends and colleagues; to him, it may have been release. A sad consequence was his contracting AIDS. During the 1990s, Gary ran a non-alcoholic bar in Denver, and according to some, was at relative peace. Apparently, his love for astronomy was still deeply felt and he ultimately returned to work during his last years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory. There, he once again brought his expertise in telescope control systems to bear to upgrade the observatory and enable tracking of rapidly moving objects. He continued to work at Table Mountain until a few weeks before passing away from complications associated with AIDS. We will miss his acid, sometimes black humor, his enjoyment of a stimulating argument, his seemingly off-the-wall, but always, in retrospect incredibly insightful comments. He accomplished much and, perhaps had he found peace and acceptance earlier, could have accomplished so much more. His two sisters, Lavon Engen of Naples, Florida and Janet Stallerin of Albert Lean, Minnesota, survive Gary.

  2. OBITUARY: Leslie E Howlett, 1904 1992 (United States)

    Preston-Thomas, H.


    Dr L E Howlett of Ottawa (Canada), who died in his 88th year on 21 January 1992, was a member of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) from 1955 to 1968 and was President of the Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (CCDM) from 1956. He was elected Vice-President of the CIPM in 1960 and President in 1964, and was made an honorary member following his retirement in 1968. After taking degrees from the universities of British Colombia, Toronto and McGill, Howlett joined Canada's National Research Council in 1931, remaining with that institution for virtually all of his working life. He initially set up, singlehandedly, an optics laboratory at the NRC, being joined by a technician in 1932. By the beginning of the war in September 1939 the laboratory had a staff of four, and this was the basis from which, under Howlett's direction, and with no prior optical production in the country, a Canadian optical industry was generated, with samples of a variety of optical instruments being completed by the end of April 1940, and many thousands of precision optical components being manufactured during the course of the war. Much of this precision optical work involved testing, measurement and calibration. Howlett's interests in such work were substantially enlarged when in 1948 he was put in charge, as Assistant Director, of applied research in the Division of Physics. This was, in effect, to be in charge of Canada's standards laboratory, and he then was naturally a candidate for membership of the CIPM. On the subsequent establishment of the Division of Applied Physics Howlett became its Director, a position he retained until his retirement. It was under Howlett's direction that Canada progressed from a state of having only commercial and surveying standards of very moderate precision to that of possessing a world-class standards laboratory. During the period of his membership of the CIPM, he was an enthusiastic proponent of the establishment of the ionizing radiation laboratory at the BIPM, and of the introduction of quantum metrology to the SI in the form of the krypton-86 definition of the metre, adopted in 1960 during his presidency of the CCDM, and the caesium-133 definition of the second in 1967. He was responsible for establishing Metrologia, under the auspices of the CIPM, being editor from its inception in 1965 until his retirement. For these, and for many other related services, Canada and the world measurement community will remember him and his work with gratitude.

  3. Obituary: John Daniel Kraus, 1910-2004 (United States)

    Kraus, John D., Jr.; Marhefka, Ronald J.


    John Daniel Kraus, 94, of Delaware, Ohio, director of the Ohio State University "Big Ear" Radio Observatory, physicist, inventor, and environmentalist died 18 July 2004 at his home in Delaware, Ohio. He was born on 28 June 1910 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He received a Bachelor of Science in 1930, a Master of Science in 1931, and a PhD in physics in 1933 (at 23 years of age), all from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. During the 1930s at Michigan, he was involved in physics projects, antenna consulting, and in atomic-particle-accelerator research using the University of Michigan's premier cyclotron. Throughout the late 1920s and the 1930s, John was an avid radio amateur with call sign W8JK. He was back on the air in the 1970s. In 2001 the amateur radio magazine CQ named him to the inaugural class of its Amateur Radio Hall of Fame. He developed many widely used innovative antennas. The "8JK closely spaced array" and the "corner reflector" were among his early designs. Edwin H. Armstrong wrote John in July 1941 indicating in part, "I have read with interest your article in the Proceedings of the Institute on the corner reflector...Please let me congratulate you on a very fine piece of work." Perhaps John's most famous invention, and a product of his intuitive reasoning process, is the helical antenna, widely used in space communications, on global positioning satellites, and for other applications. During World War II, John was in Washington, DC as a civilian scientist with the U.S. Navy responsible for "degaussing" the electromagnetic fields of steel ships to make them safe from magnetic mines. He also worked on radar countermeasures at Harvard University's Radio Research Laboratory. He received the U.S. Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his war work. In 1946 he took a faculty position at Ohio State University, becoming professor in 1949, and retiring in 1980 as McDougal Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Astronomy. Even so, he never retired. He was always working, researching, writing, and seeking new knowledge. He was active and vital to the end. Early on, John became fascinated by Karl Jansky's discoveries of radio noise from space and the potential to use radio waves rather than visible light to "see" the universe. He maintained contact with radio astronomy pioneer, Grote Reber. John pursued radio-astronomy research in parallel with textbook writing and his OSU teaching responsibilities. By 1953 he was observing with a 96 helix antenna and had produced one of the first maps of the radio sky. This was followed by his design and construction of the innovative, 110-meter, "Big Ear" Radio Telescope - a tiltable, flat reflector joined to a fixed, standing, paraboloidal reflector. Observations began in the mid-1960s. Interspersed with this work were radio observations of Jupiter, Mars, and Venus as well as of the ionized trails of the Sputniks and U.S. satellites. John and his radio astronomy team discovered some of the most distant known objects at the edge of the universe and produced one of the most complete surveys of the radio sky. As he stated, "The radio sky is no carbon copy of the visible; it is a new and different firmament." He was closely identified with efforts and activities related to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence or SETI. He edited and published the first magazine on the subject called Cosmic Search. The now famous "WOW!" signal, of possible extraterrestrial origin, was detected by "Big Ear" in 1977. He was the author of hundreds of technical articles and the holder of many patents. John was a dedicated educator and inspiring teacher, renown for providing plain English solutions to complicated problems. He was thesis advisor to 58 PhD and Master's candidates. His textbooks made complex subjects accessible to many readers. They have been widely used throughout the world and include "Antennas" (McGraw-Hill: 1950, 1988, 2002) and "Electromagnetics" (McGraw-Hill: 1953, 1973, 1984, 1992, 1999) and "Radio Astronomy" (McGraw-Hill: 1966; Cygnus-Quasar: 1986). They have appeared in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Russian, and Portuguese. He also wrote popular books, including the autobiographical "Big Ear" and "Big Ear Two" (Cygnus-Quasar: 1976, 1995), and the instructional "Our Cosmic Universe" (Cygnus-Quasar: 1980). His professional memberships included the American Astronomical Society, election to the National Academy of Engineering (1972), and Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He received the Centennial Medal (1984), the Edison Medal (1985), and the Heinrich Hertz Medal (1990) from the IEEE. The Antenna and Propagation Society of IEEE twice awarded him its Distinguished Achievement Award, the last in 2003. He was awarded the Sullivant Medal (1970) from the Ohio State University and the Outstanding Achievement Award (1981) from the University of Michigan. John and his wife, Alice Nelson Kraus, whom he married in 1941, were committed environmentalists. Alice and he donated the 80-acre Kraus Wilderness Preserve to the Ohio Wesleyan University in 1976. They also endowed scholarships to enhance environmental learning for students at Ohio Wesleyan and OSU. In addition, John was a passionate advocate of metrification in the USA. Predeceased in 2002 by his beloved wife, he is survived by two sons, John D. Kraus, Jr., and Nelson H. Kraus, and five grandchildren. His professional and personal papers are housed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory archives in Charlottesville, Virginia. John was viewed by many as a last living link to many of the astonishing scientific discoveries of the 20th century. He valued an open mind and direct physical insights and was of a by-gone era of hands-on invention, empirical testing, and observational research. Yet, he commanded an insightful grasp of the theory, which he could translate into thought provoking learning experiences for students and working engineers alike. In his epilogue to "Big Ear", John said, "I haven't discovered the ultimate truths of the universe but I have experienced the thrill and excitement of playing a small part in the adventure of exploring the astounding, baffling, stranger-than-fiction cosmos in which we dwell."

  4. Richard Nixon, 1972-2016 Obituary


    Tom, Brian Dermot; Thompson, Simon Gregory; Duffy, SW; Sweeting, Michael John; Ohlssen, DI


    After a year-long journey with cancer, Dr Richard Nixon died on August 26th, 2016, aged only 43 years. He leaves behind his wife of 5 years, Valda, and their 1-year-old baby daughter, Kyra. Richard, a Yorkshireman, was born on September 8th, 1972. He attended Ilkley Grammar School, studied mathematics at Durham University (1991–1994) and was awarded the Diploma in Mathematical Statistics from the University of Cambridge in 1995. Richard then took a career break for a couple of years to...

  5. Obituary: Henry Albers (1925-2009) (United States)

    Chromey, Fred


    Henry Albers, professor of astronomy at Vassar College for over thirty years, died March 29, 2009, in Fairhope, Alabama. For his work at Vassar, where he held the Maria Mitchell Chair, Albers received the first Maria Mitchell Women in Science Award for his inspiration of women astronomers. He said "In the final analysis it is the students who bring the joy into teaching." As a professional astronomer, Albers did observational work on Galactic structure in the southern Milky Way, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. In retirement, Albers published Maria Mitchell - A Life in Journals and Letters, the firsthand account of America's first woman astronomer. Albers's research was on photographic near-infrared spectroscopy of red giant stars in the southern Milky Way, some proper motion studies, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. A series of seven NSF grants supported his six trips to Chile to make spectroscopic observations, as well as his sabbatical collaborations at Minnesota, Leiden, and the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. Henry Albers arrived at Vassar in 1958, to find an astronomy program that had been recently absorbed by the physics department, and that was suffering neglect after the retirement of Maud Makemson. For the next 31 years, with incredible energy -- he sometimes taught seven courses a year -- he built the astronomy program into one double in size (from one to two tenure lines), whose th century facilities have been replaced with a st century observatory. For a remarkable stretch of 20-some-years, Albers and physicist Bob Stearns, with considerable grace, alternated chairmanship of the joint department of physics and astronomy. Henry Albers was a devoted citizen of Vassar College and an enthusiastic participant in the process of faculty governance at that institution. He would have been the first to concede that his enthusiasm was sometimes excessive, and that his contributions at faculty meetings occasionally failed to move the discussion forward. Before more than one meeting, he was known to make a note to himself on his copy of the agenda, which read, in large block letters: "shut up." Fortunately, Albers was seldom able to repress his concern for the College or his dedication to its improvement. He served on all major committees and most minor ones as well. For example, he chaired a committee that eventually got telephones in faculty offices, another that lobbied for establishment of an academic computing center, and another that constructed Vassar's system of post-tenure review of senior faculty. It was Henry Albers who introduced the motion on the floor of the faculty, which passed by a vote of 100 to 2, moving that Vassar College accept coeducation. Albers was a caring mentor and although fundamentally compassionate, had a somewhat prankish sense of humor - unfailingly directed at the most pompous targets in sight. Although deeply dedicated to the College, Albers had an admirable ability to disengage from his life at Vassar. He regularly spent college breaks as the resident astronomer on cruise ships. Every May, he would celebrate his last class by sharing a jug of wine in the faculty commons with his regular lunchtime group. After retiring in 1989, he continued his hobbies of gardening, painting, and choral singing, but also immediately began work as a math and science volunteer in the local public schools on Cape Cod. He completed his final scholarly project, his edition of the Letters and Journals of Maria Mitchell, in 2002.

  6. Obituary: Sumner P. Davis (1924-2008) (United States)

    Feinberg, Jack


    University of California, Berkeley physicist Sumner P. Davis, a beloved teacher whose research centered on the optical spectroscopy of diatomic molecules found in the sun and other stars, died Dec. 31, 2008 in El Cerrito, CA after a brief illness. He was 84. After his military service during WWII, Davis finished his undergraduate work at UCLA in 1947, pursuing spectroscopy under the guidance of Joseph Ellis. Davis trained as a graduate student under molecular spectroscopist Francis Jenkins at UC Berkeley, where Davis used his ham radio expertise to construct an RF discharge to excite isotopes of diatomic selenium for his thesis. After receiving his Ph.D. from UC Berkeley, Davis went to MIT to postdoc under George Harrison, the premier artisan of finely-ruled diffraction gratings. In 1959, Jenkins invited Davis back to UC Berkeley to join the physics faculty, and Davis brought with him a highly prized gift - a diffraction grating presented to him by Harrison which Davis used for years to measure molecular spectra. At UC Berkeley Davis constructed a walk-in 15-foot-long spectrometer to produce detailed spectra of diatomic molecules of interest to astrophysics. With John G. Phillips he measured with high-precision the molecular constants of CN, C2, FeH, CS, SH and SiC2, TiO and others. Davis also studied the effect of the nuclear structure of Hg and Se on their optical spectra. He authored a book, Diffraction Grating Spectographs (1970), as well as monographs on CN and C2 spectra. Davis frequently traveled to the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak, to collect laboratory data using their Fourier transform spectrometer. He coauthored the book Fourier Transform Spectrometry (2001) with Mark C. Abrams and James Brault. In 1989, while returning to California after a long session on the spectrometer, his car, driven by Grace, his wife of 42 years, went off the road. Grace was killed but Sumner survived. Sumner Davis was, first and foremost, a consummate teacher: articulate and insightful, patient and empathetic. Joe Reader, a former student of Davis and now a director of the Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center at NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland recalls: "Sumner always had an extremely positive attitude. When I told him that a vacuum pump I had built had exploded in the laboratory, he replied: "Well, now, we have to ask ourselves, what can we learn from this explosion?" Restless after his retirement in 1993, Davis returned to UC Berkeley for another decade to direct the upper division physics teaching laboratory. He created dozens of videos explaining the various laboratory experiments, ranging from Zeeman spectroscopy to Josephson junctions. Davis supervised 36 Ph.D.s during his career, many of whom became his lifelong friends. He would take his students bicycling through the Berkeley hills, and invite them to his home each Sunday evening to play music with other amateur musicians, with Davis playing (fairly respectable) oboe. Davis learned to fly as a young man while in the Army Air Corps, and he remained an avid glider pilot into his 80s. As recently as 2000, Davis served as president of the Pacific Soaring Council, Inc. He always offered his graduate students a ride in his glider, and Davis and his glider were pictured in National Geographic magazine after achieving an altitude record of 10,000+ feet over Arizona. He was a fellow of the American Physical Society and the Optical Society of America, and a member of the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers. Upon his retirement, he received the Berkeley Citation. He was a NATO Senior Fellow in Science in 1967 and twice a visiting astronomer at the National Solar Observatory in Kitt Peak. Davis is survived by his wife, Robin Free, of El Cerrito, CA, who remarked, "He was like a 10-year-old boy. Every morning he would wake up and think, what adventures am I going to have today?" His recent e-mail sums up his spirit: "My desktop has been down for a week, and I am snowed with e-mail and behind on a few other things. Otherwise, all is well. We had 11 Chinese educators visit us, to look over all the labs. As I started to introduce our advanced lab, I put on my academic gown and a large conical wizard's cap, and told them how wizardry is necessary even in scientific Physics laboratories. I then made a pass through the lab rooms in my tie-dyed lab coat and the cat's hat from Dr. Seuss's Cat in the Hat. Got a few high fives from the students. The hat is now resting on the head of large giraffe in my office."

  7. Obituary: Ronald A. Parise, 1951-2008 (United States)

    Gull, Theodore R.


    Ronald A. Parise, astronomer and astronaut, passed away at his home in Burtonsville, Maryland, in the presence of his family on 9 May 2008. He died of a brain tumor at age 56 after several years of valiant struggle. He was an inspiration to many students, ham operators, astronomers, and friends the world over. His enthusiasm for astronomy and space exploration was infectious. We, colleagues at Goddard Space Flight Center and Computer Sciences Corporation, treasured his contributions to space astronomy and human spaceflight. Ron, along with Samuel Durrance, flew as Payload Specialist on Astro-1 and Astro-2. They were selected by peers from the instrument teams of the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT provided by Hopkins University), the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT, Goddard Space Flight Center) and the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimetry Experiment (WUPPE, University of Wisconsin). Astro-1 flew 2-10 December 1990 on the Columbia. Astro-2 flew 2-18 March 1995. Ron carried along amateur radio equipment and operated on the air during his free time during the missions. Ron was born 24 May 1951 in Warren, Ohio, to Henry and Catherine Parise. His interests first were in amateur radio, becoming a licensed operator by age eleven. He later was attracted to both astronomy and aviation, becoming a pilot in his teens. Ron graduated from Western Reserve High School in 1969 and attended Youngstown State University where he received a bachelor of science degree in physics with minors in mathematics, astronomy. and geology. His graduate work was at University of Florida where he obtained a masters degree in 1977 and a doctorate in 1979 in astronomy. Ron joined Operations Research, Inc. upon graduation, working at Goddard Space Flight Center where he supported studies of several NASA missions. In 1980 he joined Computer Sciences Corporation supporting the International Ultraviolet Explorer [IUE], first as a data-management scientist and later as the section manager of the IUE hardcopy facility. By 1981 he joined a team of engineers and scientists beginning the development of the newly selected the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), selected by NASA to fly on board the space shuttles as an attached Spacelab experiment. The UIT project, headed by Ted Stecher as Principal Investigator, was one of three ultraviolet experimental telescopes selected to fly together as an Office of Space Sciences [OSS] payload. Initial plans were for multiple flights with emphasis of observing Halley's Comet in three missions from November 1985 to summer 1986. Ron's responsibilities involved flight hardware and software development, electronic system design, and mission planning activities for UIT. His proficiency led to his selection by the Principal Investigators of the three instruments as a Payload Specialist candidate and acceptance by NASA as one of three payload specialists in support of the series of missions. He, Samuel Durrance, and Kenneth Nordsieck shouldered the responsibilities of training as payload specialists for the instruments integrated on a common pointer, the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System, IPS. As a team they represented the operational needs of the instrument teams and trained to fly with the shuttle team. Preparations moved forward to the March 1986 launch date of Astro-1 to observe Comet Halley and well over a hundred astronomical sources. Unfortunately, the Challenger accident occurred 28 January 1986, thirty-five days before the intended launch date of Astro-1. Ron and Sam, as prime Payload Specialists, and Ken as backup/ ground communicator, took the delay well, staying focused on training to ensure that Astro-1, delayed until December 1990, would be an outstanding success. With at least thirteen launch delays, and on-orbit operational problems, they, the professional astronaut crew, the science teams, and the multitude of engineers and mission support staff managed to accomplish a very successful astronomy mission. Even though Comet Halley was not observed by Astro-1, well over a hundred papers on multiple astronomical sources resulted from Astro-1 and Astro-2. Ron participated in a number of observational astronomy projects using data from ground-based observatories, Copernicus, IUE, and the Astro observatory. His interests were primarily in circumstellar matter within binary star systems and globular- cluster evolution. He bridged the gaps between science, engineering, and spaceflight operations. After the completion of the two Astro missions, Ron supported NASA studies in advanced communications for spaceflight missions and was involved in projects in the Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch developing standard Internet Protocols [IP] in space-data transmission applications. Throughout his career, Ron supported education both by appearances at schools and through his amateur radio interests. Indeed, he had a large following of ham radio operators as he, along with Frank Bauer, brought about the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment [SAREX] payload that enabled many schools to talk to Shuttle crew members in space. Ron's love for amateur radio and for inspiring students came to focus through the Amateur Radio on the International Space STation [ARISS] program. His volunteer help was key in the development of those systems now on board the ISS. As Frank Bauer, a ham colleague, put it in his tribute to Ron Parise, WA4SIR SK: may your exploration spirit live on in us all! Ron leaves behind his wife, Cecilia; son, Nicholas; daughter, Katharine; his parents Henry and Kathryn Parise; and sister, Rita Parise.

  8. Leonid Pavlovich Shil'nikov (obituary) (United States)

    Anosov, Dmitry V.; Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Gonchenko, Sergei V.; Grines, Vyacheslav Z.; Ilyashenko, Yulij S.; Katok, Anatolii B.; Kashchenko, Sergey A.; Kozlov, Valerii V.; Lerman, Lev M.; Morozov, Albert D.; Neishtadt, Anatolii I.; Pesin, Yakov B.; Samoilenko, Anatoly M.; Sinai, Yakov G.; Treschev, Dmitrii V.; Turaev, Dmitry V.; Sharkovskii, Aleksandr N.; Shil'nikov, Andrei L.


    A remarkable mathematician, one of the most prominent specialists in the theory of dynamical systems and bifurcation theory, a laureate of the Lyapunov Prize of the Russian Academy of Sciences and of the Lavren'ev Prize of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, a Humboldt Professor, Head of the Department of Differential Equations of the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Cybernetics of Nizhnii Novgorod University, Professor Leonid Pavlovich Shil'nikov passed away on 26 December 2011.

  9. Obituary: Robert H. Koch (1929-2010) (United States)

    Koch, Joanne; Corcoran, Michael; Holenstein, Bruce; Sion, Edward


    Robert H. Koch, emeritus professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Pennsylvania, passed away at his home in Ardmore, Pennsylvania on 11 October 2010 after a brief illness. Bob was 80 years old and remained sharp and intellectually engaged with the astronomical community up until the onset of complications from a brain tumor. Bob was born in York, Pennsylvania on 19 December 1929, and graduated from York Catholic High School in 1947. He attended the University of Pennsylvania on a senatorial scholarship, graduating in 1951. After two years in the United States Army, he enrolled in graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania, doing his doctoral research on the photoelectric photometry of R CMa, AO Cas, AS Eri, and XY Leo at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona in Tucson. Bob would continue this exploration of close binary stars, their atmospheres and interactions, for the rest of his career. Bob met his future spouse, Joanne C. Underwood, while in graduate school in 1957 and they were married in 1959. Bob received his PhD in astronomy in 1959 and moved to Amherst, Massachusetts, where he taught as a member of the Four College Astronomy Department until 1966. Following a year at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, Bob joined the Astronomy Department at Penn, teaching and doing research there until his retirement in 1996. Bob's main interests were the study of close and eclipsing binary stars, stellar envelopes and winds, intrinsic variables, transits and occultations, and the Milky Way Galaxy, producing well over 100 refereed publications. Bob was partial to photoelectric photometry and polarimetry, conducting most of his observational research at the University of Pennsylvania Flower and Cook Observatory, and at other ground- and space-based observatories. As an international figure in the area of binary stars, Bob had widespread collaborations with scientists at other institutions, in the US and throughout the world, and made significant contributions to the understanding of the process of mass transfer and accretion in close binary star systems and in developing stellar polarization standards. A number of astronomers were the recipients of his inspiration and mentorship as doctoral students at Penn. Bob was a polymath who was able to expound eloquently on the intricacies of observational polarization measures or the various dealings of notable figures of the High Middle Ages with no advance notice. Along with a friend, biochemist Dr. Robert E. Davies, Bob helped establish at Penn one of the first courses to examine the astrophysical and biological implications for life beyond earth, long before NASA's own focus on the subject took shape. Bob was active in the astronomical community and served as president of IAU Commission 42 (close binaries). A life-long love of astronomy led Bob to continue pursuing many areas of astronomical research during retirement. As an emeritus professor, he made important contributions to the detection of exoplanets by the eclipse-timing method, and explored the development of large, lightweight telescope mirrors for ground- and space-based observatories. In his retirement, Bob also researched and wrote a history of observational astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. He also was an active gardener and a talented musician, and learned to play the mandolin when he was 77. In addition, Bob and Joanne both loved traveling and bird watching, visiting nearly 30 countries during his retirement years. Besides Joanne, Bob's survivors include sons Thomas and James (Dana), daughters Elizabeth (Murray) and Patricia Budlong (Steven), seven grandchildren, a brother and a sister. Bob once wrote that he long ago decided "to control my career so as to have as much fun as grief;" in this he was successful beyond his dreams.

  10. Obituary: Franklyn M. Branley, 1915-2002 (United States)

    Franklin, Kenneth L.


    Franklyn Mansfield Branley was born in New Rochelle, New York, 5 June 1915, and died of natural causes in Brunswick, Maine, on 5 May 2002, just one month before his 87th birthday. He will be remembered by the hundreds of grateful students he so skillfully introduced to astronomy. Franklyn Branleys parents were Ella Lockwood and Percival Branley. Mr. Branley was a veteran of the Spanish American war and an insurance salesman for Metropolitan Life. Frank's mother died during a flu epidemic when he was only a few years old. At that time, his sister was taken in by the Lockwood family and he and his two brothers were sent to live with a farm family near Newburgh, New York. His father visited them there on the weekends. Because he contracted polio at a young age, he did not participate in sports except for swimming. He was an avid stamp collector. After graduating from the New Paltz Normal School (now SUNY), he married his college sweetheart, Margaret Lemon, who became a grade school teacher for a while. After he retired, he and Peg moved from New Jersey to Sag Harbor, New York. When they were both in their eighties, they moved to Thornton Oaks, a retirement community in Brunswick, Maine. His life had been devoted to education, chiefly writing books that make science accessible to, and fun for, children at the grade school level. There are about 200 of his books in print, or available in school libraries or on the shelves of now grown youngsters who have saved them for their children. His last, published posthumously in fall 2002, ``Mission to Mars," has a forward by Neil Armstrong. Frank and his publishers have been able to engage top-flight illustrators with the imagination to envision his concepts. Each one is only about 30 pages, with few words on a page. Thus, each book lights a candle against the cursed darkness. Branley joined the staff of the American Museum-Hayden Planetarium in September 1956, to run the Planetariums education program. He came from the New Jersey State Teachers College where he was teaching teachers how to teach science, and had been a guest lecturer at the Hayden for several months. Frank continued his own education while working at the Planetarium, gaining a Masters degree from New York University, and his Ed. D. from Columbia Teachers College. I joined the Hayden staff two weeks after Frank. Many of our friends and professional colleagues are aware of the confusion caused by the coincidence of our arrival and the similarity of our names. Frank did not appreciate it when the payroll department took my deductions from his check. About five years ago, a librarian I met in our travels wanted to know if I still wrote books. Evidently, the confusion persists. On Friday, 4 October 1957, the Russian satellite, Sputnik, was sent into orbit, surprising the world, and embarrassing our science establishment in the midst of the International Geophysical Year. CBS producers Vern Diamond and Don Hewitt were at the Planetarium on Saturday to plan a Sunday nationwide broadcast concerning this event. Branley and I were the only staff members available for the hour-long show. Richard C. Hottlet was at the Planetarium, and Douglas Edwards was in the CBS studio. It went well. In 1959, Chairman Joseph Miles Chamberlain, then Education Officer of the AAS, Frank Edmondson, AAS Treasurer, and Frank Branley met at the nearby Alden Hotel for lunch. When they had finished, the Society's Visiting Professor program was born. Branley, assisted by his secretary Barbara Harrison, administered the program for several years. The first four in the stable were Harlow Shapley, Seth Nicholson, Frank Edmondson, and Gibson Reaves. This highly successful program is now named for Harlow Shapley. In 1968, he took the reins of the Hayden as Chairman until he retired in 1972. During that time, we went to taped public shows, but shows for schools continued to be live. The use of tapes for the shows allowed much tighter control over their scientific content, and for more uniformity in their presentation. Gone, however, were ``the live lecturers and their live mistakes," as someone complained. This was also the period when we changed from a Zeiss Model 4 star projector to a Zeiss Model 6. This entailed a major renovation of the Sky Theater. Branley also transformed the room with the ceiling model of the Copernican solar system into another theater using eleven screens with 22 slide projectors. This involved a very complex control system taking several months to perfect. During his whole tenure at the Hayden, Branley organized many workshops for the teachers of the Metropolitan New York area. These were very well conceived and received. Not only did the teachers get useful instruction from professional astronomers, they were also entertained with a behind-the-scenes look at the Planetarium, and could see how the shows were put on. Many brought their classes to see the shows, a welcome occurrence, because all our income came solely from the box office. Perhaps Frank Branley's greatest direct impact on astronomy, and even the Society, was a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation for 13 years. It was a two-week summer adventure for top-level high school students with a strong interest in science, especially astronomy. They arrived from all over the country, but we never knew quite where they were staying. Every morning, there were at least two concentrated lectures by top astronomers and other specialists. In the afternoon, astronomy graduate students, also from around the country, gave a continuing course in astronomy. The students were either reinforced in their interest in astronomy, or they found out it was not for them. Either outcome was good, as it came early in their lives. The program must have been well respected, for the NSF seldom financed anything like this for more than about three years. At his death, he was survived by his wife, Margaret, a sister Marion Gray, daughter Mary Jane Day, four grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. Another daughter, Sandra Kay Bridges, died in 1985.

  11. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009) (United States)

    Hill, Frank


    Cliff Toner passed away unexpectedly at home in Tucson, Arizona on March 29, 2009. For most of his career, Cliff was involved with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), a facility of the National Solar Observatory in Tucson, Arizona. GONG is a set of instruments around the world to observe the inside of the sun using the sound that is trapped below the solar surface. This science is called helioseismology. Cliff Toner was born on December 8, 1959 in New Westminster, British Columbia near the western coast of Canada. After receiving his B.Sc. in Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver in 1981, he headed east to the University of Western Ontario in London. His graduate school period was spent in collaboration with David F. Gray, with whom he received both an M.Sc. in Astronomy in 1984, and a Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988. Toner actually wrote two theses at UWO, one on "Line Asymmetries in F, G, and K Supergiants and Bright Giants" for his M.Sc., and the other on "The Time Variability of Spectral Line Asymmetries and Equivalent Widths for the G8 Dwarf ? Boo A: Evidence for a Starpatch" for his Ph.D. After graduate school, Cliff Toner left the cool climate of Canada in 1988 and accepted a postdoctoral position in the warmer temperatures of Hawai'i at the Institute for Astronomy located at the University of Hawai'i in Honolulu. There he worked primarily with Barry LaBonte. At first, he continued his work on ? Boo A, but he became interested in the sun and helioseismology. This led to the discovery of halos of enhanced high-frequency acoustic power surrounding solar active regions (Ap.J. 415, 847). At the end of his post-doc, Cliff Toner was hired by the GONG project as a Data Scientist in 1991. He quickly tackled the problem of merging the data from the six GONG sites, which was the major data reduction challenge facing GONG at the time. In parallel, he and Stuart Jefferies developed an algorithm to measure the radii of full-disk solar images to a relative precision of 0.01% by determining the zero points of the Hankel transform of the image. As a by-product of the algorithm, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of each image was also obtained, and this led Toner to develop a merging scheme based on the MTF of every image. It proved to be a very effective approach, and both the radii measurement and the merging algorithm remain in daily use in the GONG processing pipeline. However, there was one remaining challenge to assembling the GONG time series in a seamless manner. Each of the six GONG instruments is slightly and unavoidably misaligned with geographic North, producing an angular misregistration of the solar image between sites. Cliff Toner developed a sophisticated optimization scheme that determined a network-wide solution to the relative orientations of the images, and then pinned down the absolute value with drift scans. He further refined the solutions to compensate for gear irregularities in the camera rotator units at the sites. As a result of these algorithms, Toner was able to co-align all of the GONG images to a precision and accuracy of 0.02∘, as verified by his observations of the transits of Mercury and Venus. Without this complex and clever strategy and these extremely important algorithms, it would have been impossible for the GONG data to be merged into a single uniform time series of adequate accuracy for precision helioseismology. Cliff Toner's tireless, selfless, and generally unseen work behind the scenes was essential for the success of GONG. Toner also developed the scheme for merging together the GONG high-cadence magnetograms, and was working on determining the radii of the forthcoming GONG Ha data at the time of his untimely death. Cliff Toner was a very tall man, and colleagues at Hawai'i enjoyed the sight of him riding around the campus on a small moped. Everyone who met him loved him for his patience and willingness to help out. One of his colleagues from his stay in Hawai'i, K.D. Leka, recalls that "Cliff was the embodiment of a "gentle giant"; so tall, yet so soft-spoken and patient, and I just recall a sense of his always being ready to help any living thing. Cliff was out with a back injury in March 1991, and it was under his temporarily-abandoned desk that Betsy, the IfA cat had her one (and only) litter (when my cat Audrey, whom many of you know, was born). As the littermates grew, Cliff, Matt Penn and I had kittens crawling over us; I can still hear his chuckles, "well helloooh, who are you there now?" as they would scramble up his chair to his desk. It was always with a smile that he'd greet me when we ran into each other after the "Hawai'i days"; we'd swap some stories, kid updates but only recently we were more in touch as I'm now playing with GONG data. I was heartened to hear he was working on the magnetogram merging, because I knew it'd be done really well with his attention." Cliff Toner was a caring and loving person, an excellent scientist, and a hero of GONG. He will be sorely missed by everyone who knew him. He is survived by his wife, Nelsey, children, Ariel, Nathaniel, Miranda, and Kayla, sister Gloria, brothers Ethan (Heather) and Emanuel (Lisa).

  12. Obituary: Robert Fleischer, 1918-2001 (United States)

    Boyce, Peter Bradford; Saffell, Mary E.


    Robert Fleischer was born 20 August 1918 to Leon and Rose Fleischer in Flushing, NY. He was educated at Harvard, receiving his BS in 1940, MA in 1947, and PhD in 1949. He specialized in geophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. Fleischer joined the faculty at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute advancing from Assistant to Full professor in 1958. As Director of the RPI Observatory, Fleischer attempted to bring modern astronomy to the institutions in the Albany area by procuring the funds to build a radio telescope. He left for the National Science Foundation (NSF) before the observatory was completed. It is a testament to his character that without his enormous energy, organizational, and fundraising abilities, the radio telescope project languished after he left. Fleischer joined the NSF in 1962 as the Program Director for Solar-Terrestrial Research. He was the government-wide Coordinator for the International Quiet Sun Years, and coordinated the 1966 South American Eclipse expeditions. Thereafter, he was appointed Deputy Head of the Office of International Science Activities. Fleischer is most notably remembered as the head of the Astronomy Section at the National Science Foundation. He brought astronomy into its own at NSF and involved the community in a major way through use of advisory committees. He was dedicated to helping the astronomical community understand the funding system, the political environment, and the various factors in how money is allocated. Fleischer truly believed in the concept that scientists should be making the important decisions about their field. He was instrumental in injecting science into the oversight of the National Observatories. Relations with the community say a lot about the man, the complexities of his character, and the forces that drove him. Fleischer was passionate in his beliefs and in his devotion to doing the best for astronomy. His strong approach and belief in himself served him well in many ways, but caused him grief from time to time. Fleischer wrestled with the issue of how to assemble a committee of busy people who had not thought about the problems at hand, provide them with enough background to enable them to comment effectively, and structure any discussion so as to provide effective advice to the agency. Yet, he had a strong sense that NSF, having the broad overview of the situation and a better understanding of the politics of funding, was in a better position to make major decisions than any group of scientists that might be assembled. This ultimately led to confrontation with the astronomical community. Fleischer was also of the opinion that perhaps the most important advice a committee can give comes, not from the official pronouncements but, from the informal communication which happens when any group of people get together---the one-on-one discussions over coffee, the brief comments heard around the table, and even the general sense of body language. He stressed this to the staff before each meeting. Ironically, his zeal to run an effective meeting made him less receptive to the informal, and even some of the formal, communications from the Committee. Preparation for meetings of the NSF Astronomy Advisory Committee was intense. The agenda was structured so as to present a maximum amount of information to the Committee. Once the agenda was set, the meetings followed them strictly. As chairman of the Advisory Committee, Fleischer ran the meeting with an iron hand, sometimes cutting off discussion that the Committee might have felt valuable, adding to the sense of the Committee's frustration. As a consequence, the meetings actually had a negative effect on the community. Although Fleischer was a strong believer in helping and encouraging his staff, and arranged for the entire staff of the Astronomy Section to attend both internal and off-site management training courses, his tendency toward an autocratic personal style was unsettling. Pressures from the community and within NSF eventually led to his being transferred from the Astronomy Section in 1975. Shortly thereafter, Fleischer retired from the government and established his own firm, The Greylock Center, an educational management consulting group that specialized in helping educational institutions in understanding how to deal with the federal government. In this, he was eminently successful. His knowledge of procedures, the timing of the federal budget cycle, and the various factors that are important in making funding decisions were a major asset in his work. And, he thrived on educating newcomers about dealing with the federal bureaucracy. He eventually closed his consulting business in 1984 and retired to a farm in Keedysville, Maryland, where he raised Angus cattle with his third wife, Marie. Fleischer passed away 14 September 2001 in Raleigh, NC, where he was doing his best to cope with Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Obituary: Leonard Searle (1930-2010) (United States)

    Preston, George


    Leonard Searle, Astronomer and Director Emeritus of Carnegie Observatories, died at his home on July 2, 2010, in Pasadena, CA, in the midst of a busy retirement that followed a long, distinguished scientific career. Searle was born on October 23, 1930, in the London suburb of Mitcham to parents of modest means. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from University of Saint Andrews in Scotland, and his PhD from Princeton University, where he met his future wife, Eleanor Millard. They were married in Princeton in 1952. Eleanor, his lifelong companion, was a distinguished medieval historian who joined the Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences at Caltech as professor in 1979. She died in 1999. Leonard joined the faculty at University of Toronto in 1953, resigning that position in 1960 to become a Senior Research Fellow at Caltech, where he worked with Jesse Greenstein and Wallace Sargent on the chemical compositions of stars. The Caltech appointment marked the beginning of a fruitful association with Sargent, with whom he published 25 papers. In 1963 Searle left Caltech to join the faculty of the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia. Then in 1968 he returned to Pasadena to join the staff of Carnegie Observatories, his final academic home. Several themes punctuate Searle's academic career. One of the most persistent was the abundance of helium in the very early universe, a quantity whose numerical value is of great importance for cosmology. He pursued this topic with Sargent, first in the study of old evolved "horizontal branch" stars. Later, convinced that such stars could not provide a satisfactory answer, he and Sargent turned to certain small galaxies which provided more reliable estimates of the important helium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio. In the pursuit of this answer they devised the "simple model" of chemical evolution, a formalism used by astronomers to this day. He worked with the Dutch astronomer Piet van der Kruit to construct successful models of certain spiral galaxies by careful measurements of surface brightness, and later he worked with colleagues in Pasadena to derive the abundances of chemical elements in primordial stars of our Milky Way Galaxy. His most successful venture was the formulation of a scheme for the assembly of the Milky Way Galaxy from "primordial fragments." This work, which he undertook with then-Carnegie Fellow Robert Zinn, has withstood the test of time. It has been quoted more than 1000 times since it was published in 1978. Searle accepted the Directorship of Carnegie Observatories in 1989 at a signal time in its history. Under his leadership an initial plan to build a single 8.4 meter telescope evolved finally into the construction of two 6.5 meter telescopes, operated since 2000 by a 5-institution consortium at Carnegie's Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Searle's vital contribution to the Magellan project was his shrewd ability to hire good experts, and then to delegate authority in ways that invited their fruitful participation. All the while, Searle managed to maintain the Observatories' tradition of academic excellence, even as it was plunging into a new world of big-telescope technology. He pursued a visiting scholars program, and he used the important telescope time-allocation process to promote the intellectual growth of Carnegie scientists. His sympathy for the plight of financially strapped Eastern European astronomers took the form of support for the Polish OGLE telescope, to this day a shining success story at Carnegie's Las Campanas Observatory. Following retirement in 1996, Searle continued to follow the progress of the Observatories by frequent contact with his colleagues of many years. He and Eleanor wintered in Pasadena, and during hot Pasadena summers they escaped to their home at Somerset in the south of England. Searle maintained an avid interest in both British and American politics. He has no surviving relatives.

  14. Obituary: John Beverley Oke, 1928-2004 (United States)

    Hesser, James Edward


    John Beverley (Bev) Oke passed away of heart failure early on 2 March 2004 at his Victoria, B.C. home. Bev's insatiable scientific curiosity led to fundamental contributions in many areas of stellar and extragalactic astronomy, including the development of advanced instrumentation for the largest optical telescopes and the mentoring of scores of grateful students and colleagues. Bev Oke was born in Sault Ste. Marie, ON, Canada on 23 March 1928, the son of Lyla Parteshuk and the Rev. C. Clare Oke. He entered the University of Toronto in 1945 to study physics with a steadily increasing fraction of astronomy, receiving his BA in 1949. Summer employment at the David Dunlap Observatory (DDO, 1948) and at the Dominion Observatory (Ottawa, 1949, 1950) sealed his interest in astronomy as a career. For his MA thesis (1950, Toronto), performed under theoretician Ralph Williamson, he made interior models of the Sun, and was proud to have proved that the proton-proton cycle was indeed the source of solar energy. Upon entering Princeton University he worked with Martin Schwarzschild on stellar interiors models and Lyman Spitzer on interstellar lines. A lifelong friendship with Alan Sandage began during Bev's second year while Alan was a post-doc at Princeton. During Bev's third year he spent three months in Pasadena with Lyman obtaining data for his thesis on Of stars. While in Pasadena he began a second life-long collaboration with Jesse Greenstein, an astronomer whose approach to science Bev deeply respected. In the small field of astronomy in that era, Bev wrote to DDO Director Jack Heard indicating the nearing completion of his PhD studies and his interest in a position. This led to a lectureship at the University of Toronto (1953-1956), followed by an Assistant Professorship (1956-1958). Bev's interest in instruments began at this time, when he built a device to convert photographic density to intensity, and worked with DDO engineer-machinist Jerry Longworth to implement one of the first two photoelectric scanners ever built. His main interests at the time were the classification of the thousands of stellar spectra in the DDO archives, and studies of Cepheids using his new spectrum scanner. At a Halloween party in 1954 he met Nancy Sparling. Together they initiated a life partnership factually punctuated by their August, 1955 marriage and the arrival of their children, Christopher (1957), Kevin (1958), Jennifer (1961) and Valerie (1966). Their home was notable to all for the deep aura of familial love and joy in the pursuit of knowledge and accomplishments. In winter 1957-58 Jesse Greenstein invited Bev to join Cal Tech, where he became an Associate Professor (1958) and then Professor (1964); during the period 1970-1978 he was Hale Observatories Director. With the large telescopes at Mount Wilson and Mount Palomar, astronomy there could aspire to be the best in the world, but this required instrumentation of the highest capabilities. Bev soon began to contribute in a major way to their instrumentation excellence following examples established, among others, by Ira Bowen and Horace Babcock. His began by improving the DC amplifiers then in use; constructing a high-spectral-resolution, scanning spectrophotometer; designing vacuum Dewars for astronomical applications; creating pulse counting systems for photoelectric devices; and building the innovative 32-channel spectrum scanner for the Palomar 5-m telescope that was completed in 1968. Bev built instruments to advance astronomy and to satisfy his wide-ranging curiosity about nature. With the first single-channel spectrum scanner he built at Cal Tech he played a key role in the discovery of the redshift of 3C273. Using his multi-channel spectrometer with students and colleagues, he pursued a highly successful quest to establish accurate spectral-energy distributions for diverse classes of stars and galaxies, based upon rigorous calibration against physical standards. Through this painstaking work he enabled the advances of astronomers worldwide for subsequent generations and extending to the present day. Among his 222 refereed publications, his 1974 paper on absolute spectral-energy distributions for white dwarfs and his 1983 paper with Jim Gunn on secondary standard stars for absolute spectrophotometry led his extraordinary citations. He maintained a career-long interest in the theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres to help him analyze his lengthy series of observational determinations of absolute stellar fluxes in variable and non-variable stars. As CCD technologies became practical for real science in the late 1970s, Bev leapt to apply them, publishing in 1977 among the first, if not the first, astronomical spectra obtained with them. Using the new detector technology, he seized the opportunity to design and build a very efficient, low-resolution, double (blue, red) spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the 5-m Palomar telescope. It went into operation in 1981 and was still in use (with upgraded detectors) in 2004. When the design and construction of the Keck 10-m Telescope began in the 1980s, Bev applied lessons he had learned from the experiences of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to design the Keck dome, with its many innovations. With Judith Cohen he designed and built the low-resolution imaging spectrograph (LRIS) for the Keck telescopes, which contributed greatly to the impact of that observatory in its early years. LRIS was a logical continuation of the Palomar Double Spectrograph design but had even greater efficiency. They commissioned LRIS on Mauna Kea in 1993, some two years after Bev's early retirement from Cal Tech. In Fall, 1991 Bev became a visiting worker at the National Research Council Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, B.C., where he remained active until the day of his death. During those years he used LRIS extensively to study the evolution of clusters of galaxies, and actively pursued time-resolved studies of variable stars. At the time of his death, he had resumed efforts to improve aspects of the absolute energy distribution calibrations whose shortcomings he appreciated as only he could. He was also designing spectrographs for the next generation of 20-30-m aperture telescopes as part of Canadian studies for a 20-m telescope and then for the U.S.-Canadian partnership to develop a 30-m telescope. In retirement he served for a decade as Instrumentation Editor for the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, enhancing its reputation as a vehicle of choice for disseminating information about developments in astronomical hardware and software. In addition to publishing more than 32 research papers in those same retirement years, he played a leadership role in the design and implementation of the Centre of the Universe visitor center that opened in 2001 at the DAO. Bev Oke lived to exceptionally high standards in his scientific work and in his treatment of others. Yet he was a modest, generous and genuinely pleasant man with a deep sense of humor who freely shared his knowledge and enthusiasm: his door was always open to those with a challenging problem. He respected and acknowledged all who contributed to his life in astronomy, whether administrative staff, technician, engineer, student or an astronomical peer. In turn, others documented their appreciation for his support in frequent acknowledgements to him in their papers. He and Nancy raised four exceptional children in a home filled with love, intellectual vitality, music and art, into which they invited countless friends from all regions of the globe. As a visitor to their home, it paid to be Bev's partner rather than his opponent in a game of crokinole. The day before he died, Bev worked on his research at DAO and then returned home, where he repaired a problem on his beloved MG sports car. At the time he died during early-morning darkness on 2 March, the stars fittingly shone brightly in a cloudless sky.

  15. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004 (United States)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.


    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a wide variety of interests including a wonderfully diverse taste in music and an exceptional talent for home brewing beer. Mike was one of those rare individuals, enthusiastic and driven by his work at the Observatory as well as by his personal research, and with the skills to deliver in both aspects. His devotion to the Observatory and to research was surpassed only by that for his family. He is survived by his wife Cheryl, their two children Alexandria ("Andrea") and Abigail ("Abi"), three stepdaughters Mandy, Memoree and Misty and his sister Lisa Gay Gilmore.

  16. Obituary: William K. Rose (1935-2010) (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia


    Stellar astrophysicist William Kenneth Rose died near his home in Potomac, Maryland, on September 30, 2010, after an extended illness. Rose was the son of pharmacist Kenneth William Rose and Shirley Near Rose and was born in Ossining, New York, on August 10, 1935. He received an AB from Columbia College in 1957 and a PhD in physics from Columbia University in 1963, with a thesis on "measurements of linear polarization in discrete radio sources using a 9.4 cm maser," under the direction of Charles H. Townes. Rose played a major role in designing and constructing the maser and used it at a radio telescope at Maryland Point that belonged to the Naval Research Lab. He observed Jupiter and Saturn and a number of extra-solar-system sources, and also diffuse centimeter emission (see appendix). The thesis was not published in an archival journal, but can be found under Library of Congress code QB 475.R67. While in graduate School, Bill married Sheila Tuchman, whose primary scientific interests were biological. None of their three children chose to be scientists, but two are CPAs. Bill moved successfully through the academic hurdles) from a research position at Princeton (1963-67), where a collaboration with Nick Woolf and Martin Schwarzchild on the infrared spectra of giant stars became one of his most-cited papers, to assistant and associate professorships at MIT (1967-71), and then associate and full professorships at the University of Maryland (1971 to retirement in 2005). His most innovative work was probably that on nova explosions arising from degenerate ignition of hydrogen accreted on white dwarfs in close binary systems, published in 1968. The same idea occurred to others at about the same time, and Bill did not, perhaps, get quite his fair share of the credit. I first met Sheila and Bill in summer 1969 at the Stony Brook summer school on stellar evolution (not published until 1972). He lectured on the nature of nova explosions and on nuclear burning in thin shells in stars and the instabilities in each. Almost equally memorable, when the Roses had to depart a few days before the end of the school, they left behind a perfectly magnificent cake for the students to share at the closing party. During the first year that I was a visiting assistant professor at the University of Maryland, Bill and I team-taught the very first of the astronomy program's courses designed to fulfill a new, junior-level breadth requirement. It was called "The Inconstant Universe." I did cosmology and be did high-energy astrophysics. We were also two of the three authors of a short paper called "A low mass primary for Cygnus X-1?" It pointed out that, if the primary of HDE 226868 was a low-mass, hot, short-lived helium star (on which each of us had published previous papers) then the solution of the radial velocity orbit, which came only from the lines of the OB primary, could yield a companion mass small enough for the X-ray emitting component to be a neutron star rather than a black hole. Such a system would be intrinsically much fainter than one with an OB supergiant primary, and so must be much closer to us than a supergiant plus black hole system. Our prediction resulted in two serious observers rushing to telescopes to look for interstellar absorption features in the optical spectrum of HDE 226868. They found lines with the velocity signatures of two spiral arms, thus placing the system at a large distance, giving it high luminosity and large mass. It was and is a black hole. The paper had the distinction of being the only one either of us ever wrote that was accepted and typeset before the postcard arrived by seamail to announce its receipt. Bill Rose lent his expertise to a wide range of topics, including models of X-ray and radio sources, magnetic fields, pulsar radiation mechanisms, formation of stars and black holes, and nucleosynthesis. Another much-cited paper, with Beatrice M. Tinsley, had a pun for its title: "Late stages of stellar evolution in the light of elliptical galaxies." The point was that the gE optical and IR emission is dominated by evolved stars, so that one can learn a good deal about the giants from integrated spectra and colors (and must get the stellar population right to understand the galaxies). Three advanced undergraduate textbooks resulted from Rose's interest in education at that level, though he also taught non-major courses and coordinated the graduate qualifying exam in astronomy for many years. A fourth book was nearly finished at the time of his death, and Sheila Rose is looking into having it completed and published. Three of his four University of Maryland thesis students remain active in astronomy and science education, Phil Hardee, John Cowan, and James Beall. Rose was a member of the International Astronomical Union and its Commission (34) on interstellar matter, though curiously not of 35, stellar constitution. He was also part of the American Astronomical Society, AAUP, and the Washington and New York Academies of Science. The Maryland astronomy program was, in its day, a very collegial one. It was Frank Kerr, one of the two founding members, who proposed both Bill Rose and me for membership in the Cosmos Club as persons distinguished in science.

  17. Obituary: Cornell H. Mayer, 1921-2005 (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Venkataraman


    Cornell (Connie) H. Mayer, a pioneer of radio astronomy, died on 19 November 2005 of congestive heart failure at his home in Mt. Vernon, Virginia. He was eighty-three. Cornell Mayer was born in Ossian, Iowa on 10 December 1921. After graduating from the University of Iowa in 1943, he joined the Navy during World War II and was stationed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, DC. There he assisted Fred T. Haddock in the development of the first radar antenna inside a submarine periscope. This device has been credited with shortening the war in the Pacific because of the number of Japanese ships that were sunk with its aid. With Haddock, Connie also discovered centimeter-wave radio bursts from the sun coincident with solar flares. They made the first detection of thermal radio emission from the Orion nebula and other galactic HII regions. They also detected extragalactic objects and thus initiated the important field of centimeter-wave astronomy. Their observations were made with a 50-foot parabolic reflector on a gun mount located on the roof of one of the NRL buildings. This telescope had the world's highest radio resolving power for many years. With Haddock's departure to the University of Michigan in 1956 to create a new radio observatory there, Connie became head of a group in the Radio Astronomy Branch at NRL, where he remained until his retirement in 1980. Much of his work involved the measurement of planetary temperatures by analysis of radio emissions. By making technical innovations in instrumentation--such as replacing disc choppers with a ferrite switch to compare the sky and reference load, or using argon gas tubes for calibration--Connie greatly improved the performance of his equipment. This resulted in the discovery of an astonishing, 600oC surface temperature of Venus, which contradicted the widespread notion that Venus was similar to the Earth and potentially habitable. In spite of the extraordinarily careful and systematic way that the observations were carried out and analyzed, many remained skeptical about the result and its interpretation in terms of a massive greenhouse effect, until the Mariner-II spacecraft fly-by in 1962, which put all such doubts to rest. Connie and his group continued to make radio observations of other planets and discovered a non-thermal centimeter wavelength emission from Jupiter. This led directly to work done at Caltech that demonstrated the existence of Van Allen-like belts around the planet. Being a superb engineer, Connie firmly believed that technology led to scientific discovery. Like others, he was preoccupied with the improvement of the sensitivity of radio astronomy receivers, and applied physics to new designs. In 1959, Connie collaborated with Charles Townes and his students at Columbia in the first application of the maser to astronomy. When Townes received the 1964 Nobel Prize for the invention of the maser, he asserted that Connie's desire to improve receiver sensitivity was influential in his work and shared a portion of his prize money with him. Connie's greatest contribution was in the study of non-thermal radio sources at very short wavelengths. Non-thermal sources were recognized by the fact that their flux density decreases with increasing frequency. If the emission mechanism were synchrotron radiation (as theorized in 1950), then the radiation should be linearly polarized up to a theoretical maximum of 70 percent. In 1949, John Bolton had identified a discrete radio source with the Crab Nebula optical counterpart. The optical radiation was known to contain a diffuse component with a featureless spectrum. The Russian astrophysicist Joseph Shklovsky boldly hypothesized that both the optical and radio emissions were due to the synchrotron mechanism. This implied that the optical radiation would be polarized, and Soviet scientists found it so in 1954. Soon after, the radio source Virgo A was matched with the peculiar galaxy M87, whose spectrally featureless optical jet was found to be polarized in 1956. Thus the crucial evidence in support of the synchrotron mechanism for both galactic and extragalactic radio sources was the detection of polarization in their optical radiation. The very next year, Connie and his collaborators showed that at a 3 cm wavelength, the Crab Nebula was substantially polarized (8%) at a position angle close to that of the optical direction. The hundreds of pixels obtainable in the optical, as opposed to only one in the NRL 3 cm observation, enabled the variation of position angle with sky position to be measured. Five years later, the NRL group, succeeded in measuring the first polarization in two extragalactic radio sources, Cygnus A and Centaurus A, at 3 cm. Later measurements at slightly longer wavelengths showed that polarization must be common in synchrotron sources, but that the amount decreased rapidly with increasing wavelength. It was already evident from the NRL measurements that Faraday rotation was important, and it was also clear that increased resolution would be required to remove the effects of averaging over distributions with varying position angles. This led Connie to build receivers at even shorter wavelengths and to use them on larger telescopes than NRL's. The most spectacular results were obtained in 1966 with a 1.55 cm receiver on the NRAO 140-ft reflector at Green Bank, which provided a beam width of only 1?:7. They found that the Crab Nebula had a distribution of polarization similar to that observed optically, reaching up to 16%. Internal Faraday rotation was clearly required to explain the rapid depolarization with increasing wavelength. For Cygnus A, they had just enough resolution to show that the two components of the double radio source were nearly orthogonally polarized. Their most beautiful result was on the galactic supernova remnant Cassiopea A, where they found a remarkable circular circumferential symmetry in the polarization vectors, explaining why previous work with poorer resolution indicated no polarization. Most importantly they recognized that the implied radial field "suggests that the magnetic field has been carried out with the expansion of the supernova envelope, and...[they] observe[d] polarized radiation associated with a component which has been stretched out in the radial direction during the expansion of the shell." This landmark paper led the way for later polarimetric studies of both galactic and extragalactic radio sources. Observations two decades later with the VLA (the world's most powerful, synthesis radio telescope with a quarter million pixels to each one of Connie's), substantiated most or all of his early conclusions, and was a tribute to his pioneering effort. The NRL group was later involved in discoveries about the variability of interstellar water and SiO masers, the structure of molecular clouds and star forming regions, the development of techniques for precision time transfer, remote sensing of the ocean and atmosphere, and much else, but in the aforementioned radio astronomy work, Connie Mayer had no peer. A colleague remarked, "Connie was among the last of the scientist-engineers who built their own equipment, performed their own experiments, and also interpreted the results into paradigm shifting science." Connie was a rare and noble example of natural modesty, becoming uncomfortable if anyone praised him. After his death, his wife found many awards that he had received but never framed nor told her about. He joked that he did not want a formal funeral "with a lot of people getting up and mouthing off about me." He received full military honor services at Arlington National Cemetery, but was cremated as per his wishes. He is survived by Carey Whitehead Mayer, his wife of fifty-six years, and their daughter, Carolyn Elizabeth Mayer. Their son, John, died in 1978.

  18. Obituary: Dianne K. Prinz, 1938-2002 (United States)

    Cook, John William; Howard, Russell Alfred


    Dr. Dianne Kasnic Prinz died 12 October 2002 at the Hospice of Northern Virginia after a long struggle with lymphatic cancer. She worked for over 29 years until retirement at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC on sounding rocket, space shuttle, and satellite experiments to observe the Sun at ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Dianne Prinz was born 29 September 1938. She received her BS degree from the University of Pittsburgh in 1960, and a PhD in Physics from Johns Hopkins University in 1967, where she was a University Fellow 1960--1964 and a Gilman Fellow 1960--1963. She was a Research Associate in the Physics Department of the University of Maryland 1967--1971 and, from 1971 until her retirement in February 2001, she was a Research Physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). At the time of her retirement she was Head of the Solar Radiation Section, Solar Physics Branch, Space Science Division of the Naval Research Laboratory and was supervising the work of a team of scientists that was operating the SUSIM (Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance Monitor) experiment on the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft as well as reducing and analyzing the observations. Dianne was a member of the Washington Academy of Science (elected 1976 and Fellow 1987), served as Vice President of the National Capital Section of the Optical Society of America (1976), and received the Navy Award of Merit for Group Achievement (1985), the NASA Public Service Group Achievement Award (1987), and the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award (2001). Her professional memberships included the American Astronomical Society and its Solar Physics Division, the American Geophysical Union, and Sigma Xi. She had over 60 publications in her scientific bibliography. Early in her career at NRL, Dianne developed a Lyman alpha spectroheliograph sounding rocket payload. Launching at White Sands Missile Range in 1972, she obtained high spatial resolution (for that day) full disk solar images. Her published analysis was pioneering for the study of the Lyman alpha irradiance and established the range of brightness of solar active regions relative to the quiet disk. Dianne also had a keen interest in understanding how the upper atmosphere responds to changing solar conditions, a field of research now called ``space weather." Early in her career she collaborated with NRL scientists Robert Meier and Phillip Mange on the analysis of some of the first satellite remote sensing observations of the atmosphere and ionosphere. That work laid the foundation for many future NASA and DoD space weather programs, and throughout the years she continued to participate in the design of atmospheric remote sensing instruments that are flying in space today. In 1978 Dianne was selected by NASA to train as a Payload Specialist astronaut to operate the solar instruments that were to fly on the Spacelab 2 mission aboard the Space Shuttle. From a group of four in training (the others were Drs. J.D.-F. Bartoe, Loren Acton, and George Simon), Bartoe and Acton were finally selected and flew on the Spacelab 2 mission in 1985, when Dianne served as mission communicator with the Payload Specialists. She and Simon were due to fly on a planned follow-up second flight but the aftermath of the explosion of the Challenger Space Shuttle shortly afterward led to cancellation and the end of this phase of her career. In addition to the scientific aspects of her work, she made a substantial effort to communicate her enthusiasm to the public. After the Spacelab 2 mission she often gave presentations to adult and student audiences on her experiences, sometimes bringing along her flight suit. She received letters from all over the world from correspondents who had read of her role. Dianne was a member of the team at NRL that developed the requirements for a new instrument to accurately monitor, over many years, the solar ultraviolet irradiance, which was known to vary considerably and is a crucial input to many processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere. It was critical to overcome the challenge of maintaining the absolute calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer. The new instrument, called the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM), was flown first on an early Space Shuttle flight (STS-3) and next on the NASA Spacelab 2 mission, for which she had trained as an astronaut payload specialist. The SUSIM design was then revised for a long-term flight aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). After the launch in 1991 of the UARS SUSIM, she led the NRL team that ran the UARS SUSIM flight operations and developed the data analysis software. After the death of Guenter Brueckner, she became the Principal Investigator of UARS SUSIM and continued the operation, analysis, and publication of these critical scientific observations. To determine the SUSIM absolute calibration, careful studies were performed to separate the degradation of the instrument response from the true solar variability. Extensive work was necessary to model the degradation of the instrumental sensitivity with time, the stray light correction, the field-of-view correction, and the wavelength scale. Dianne managed these tasks and produced a long term, well-calibrated history of solar ultraviolet irradiances over the full activity levels of a solar cycle. Dianne grew up on a farm in southwestern Pennsylvania, the daughter of Joseph J. Kasnic, a steel worker and part-time farmer, and Anna M. Kosyrich Kasnic, a homemaker, part-time teacher and accomplished artist and musician. Diane will be remembered for her deep love of animals, whether her beloved horse Chesterfield or stray or hungry cats in her neighborhood. Her marriage to Dr. Gary Prinz ended in divorce. She is survived by her sister and brother. Diane had an early interest in science and, throughout her career, worked as an experimental physicist and designer of optical instrumentation. She was a pioneer in her interests in space science, and usually overcame the obstacles she encountered in her field and at a time when she was often the first woman in authority encountered by male co-workers. She had a no-nonsense attitude in her work relations, but inspired the friendship of colleagues through her genuine good will, competence, and utter lack of pretension.

  19. Obituary: Timothy Hawarden (1943-2009) (United States)

    Robson, Ian


    British astronomy lost one of its most respected and liked members with the sudden death of Dr Timothy (Tim) Hawarden. Hawarden was one of those people who changed his wavelength and discipline as the emerging challenges of astronomy dictated, and was successful in all of his ventures. He experienced a huge breadth of achievement; moving from photographic plates, through electronic detectors to infrared astronomy from the ground and subsequently from space. He was an acknowledged leader in his fields around the world and, in addition to his professional accomplishments, he was a keen practitioner of culinary technique. His bouillabaisse was legendary. In his later years he was a source of inspiration for young children in his outreach work. Tim Hawarden began his career as an optical astronomer in South Africa. He graduated from the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg in 1966 with a BSc in Physics and Applied Mathematics, followed by an MSc in Astronomy from the University of Cape Town in 1970 and a PhD in 1975. Hawarden's early years were formed by learning the precise art of photometry from the legendary Cousins, and this focus on precision has stood him in good stead throughout his career. He then moved Australia in 1975, where he spent three years as Deputy Astronomer-in-Charge of the UK Schmidt Telescope, from where he moved to the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, where he remained for the rest of his career. Hawarden rapidly moved into the newly emerging field of infrared astronomy. His research moved from stars and stellar clusters to barred spiral galaxies and he was keen to employ the new tools coming on-line to pursue this work. The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (KIRT) was the world's premier facility and Tim Hawarden became the Head of the unit at the ROE in 1981, a post he held for the next six years, overseeing a range of developments that have stood the test of time and have provided the platform on which UKIRT has retained its world-class standing right through to this day. He was posted to Hilo, Hawaii as a support astronomer in 1987. He undertook a key role as Project Scientist for the UKIRT Upgrades Programme, which was a major undertaking that would transform the capability of the telescope and enable it to retain its cutting-edge competitiveness in spite of the emerging threat of the new breed of 8-10m ground-based telescope. He returned to Edinburgh in 2001 where his next role was as the UK Project Scientist in leading efforts to seek out opportunities for the next generation of large ground-based telescopes. He continued in this role until his retirement in 2006. The other key area of work for which Tim will be remembered world-wide is his contribution to infrared astronomy from space. There are two strands to this; first as a Co-Investigator for the ISOCAM instrument for the European Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and then for his work on Edison. Although this failed to become a mission in its own right, there were huge and positive repercussions from the studies. Tim Hawarden was the instigator of what became the norm for such missions in the future: passive radiation cooling, rather than relying solely on cryogens. This was breakthrough stuff and although Hawarden met initial severe resistance from the engineering establishment, typically he persevered and showed through detailed calculation that his ideas were sound. He soon gathered a strong following from fellow astronomers and eventually this idea was accepted and widely adopted. Tim's legacy can be seen in missions as diverse as the Herschel Telescope, launched in June 2009, through to the James Webb Space Telescope, the Hubble successor to be launched in 2014. In acknowledgement of his expertise in the space domain, he was personally appointed by the NASA Administrator to his blue-ribbon Advisory Working Group on Long-Term Plans for NASA Space Science. This was a huge accolade and shows the esteem in which Tim Hawarden was held, probably more so by his NASA colleagues than on the European scene.

  20. Obituary: Charles Latif Hyder, 1930-2004 (United States)

    White, Oran Richard


    My friend and colleague, Charles Hyder, was a true physicist with a sound intuitive grasp of fundamentals in modern physics and the underlying mathematics. I admired his knowledge of the history of modern physics and quantum mechanics when we discussed contemporary problems in interpreting solar observations. He had the ability to present his ideas clearly and persuasively to both students and his colleagues. His insatiable curiosity about life in general led him to consider the effects of nuclear weapons development on the human race. Appreciation of the biological effects of radioactive materials produced in the course of weapons and power reactor development led him to a more public career beyond traditional research. Charles Hyder was born April 18, 1930 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He graduated from Albuquerque High School and served in the Air Force during the Korean War. He received a BS and MS in physics from the University of New Mexico (1958, 1960) and a PhD in astrogeophysics at the University of Colorado (1964). His positions included the Department of Astronomy and Institute of Geophysics at UCLA (1964-65), Sacramento Peak Solar Observatory (1965-1970) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (1970-1977). He also taught at the University of New Mexico (1970-1977) and was active on the Solar Maximum Mission science team (1970-1977, 1980-1984). He was married twice with both marriages ending in divorce. He and his first wife Ann had three children (Paul, Roxanne and Querida) and he and his second wife Laurie had a son Niels. Charles Hyder's professional career in solar physics began in 1961 during his graduate studies at the Department of AstroGeophysics of the University of Colorado and continued until 1983 when he chose to follow his convictions to expose the threat of nuclear proliferation. His early research was in the study of the quantum mechanics of polarized light produced in the presence of magnetic fields. Application of this work to interpretation of solar spectra was a basic theme in fifty-one papers published between 1963 and 1983. Charles' interest in solar prominences and flares led him to study the physics of in-falling plasma in solar active regions and the production of the so-called "two ribbon" flares associated with active region prominences. His final work in solar physics was done on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) in collaboration with colleagues at Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center. After 1983, Charles' devoted his full energy to exposing the threat of nuclear weapons and reactor by-products in the biosphere. His was a very public crusade with a seven month fast in Lafayette Park, Washington D.C. and a vigorous opposition to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. His analysis emphasized the need to understand convection of "hot" containers of radioactive waste in the WIPP salt bed. He concluded that the containers would eventually emerge at the surface and be a biological threat. His greatest fear was that dispersal of plutonium in small amounts worldwide was inevitably leading to biological mutation and destruction of life as we know it. We all remember his imposing stature and the strength of his arguments in discussions of life, physics, and the dangers of radioactive materials dispersed on the Earth. He led an unconventional life where he truly reveled in learning and earnestly worked to make a difference.

  1. Obituary: Romuald Zalubas, 1911-2003 (United States)

    Reader, Joseph


    Romuald Zalubas, a long-time member of the Atomic Spectroscopy Group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, died of a stroke on June 27, 2003. Romuald was born in Pandelys, Lithuania in 1911. He studied mathematics and physics at the University of Kaunas, Lithuania, earning a master's degree there in 1936. He then became an assistant at the Astronomical Observatory of Vilnius and an inspector at the Trade Teacher's Institute. Near the end of the Second World War, with the coming communist takeover of Lithuania, he and his wife and young son fled to Germany, where he became director of a high school for Lithuanian refugees. In 1949 he emigrated to the U.S., first lecturing in mathematics and physics in Nazareth College in Rochester, N.Y. and then at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. In 1955 he was awarded a PhD Degree in astrophysics from Georgetown. His thesis was entitled "An Investigation of Faint Lines in the Solar Spectrum Between 5000 Å and 6000 Å." After completing his PhD degree, Romuald came to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). His research at NBS centered on the observation and analysis of complex atomic spectra. He measured and analyzed the spectra of neutral and singly ionized thorium, and helped establish standard wavelengths in these spectra that served to calibrate spectra of high-resolution spectrometers for many years. His research also included work on the analysis of neutral praseodymium and five-times ionized yttrium, as well as several data compilations. His experimental work entailed photographing spectra having thousands of lines with high-resolution spectrometers. Often the spectra were excited in a magnetic field. This provided information about the J-values and Landé g-values of the combining levels. When all of this information was completed, mainframe computers were used to try to break the code of the meaning of these data to deduce the energy levels that give rise to the spectra. This is a time consuming process that requires extreme patience as well as confidence that all of this work will lead to an understandable energy level structure for the atom. The investigation of a single atom might take two, three, or more years. Romus, as he was normally called, indeed had the personal attributes to be successful at this challenging enterprise. Of all his publications, Romus was probably best known for the major compilation "Atomic Energy Levels-The Rare Earth Elements," published in 1978 in collaboration with William Martin and Lucy Hagan. This 411 page volume completed the NBS series of four volumes on atomic energy levels. Charlotte Moore Sitterly published the first three volumes, Atomic Energy Levels as Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra, in 1949, 1952, and 1958. The rare earth volume contains energy level data for 66 different rare earth atoms and ions. Romus was a member of the American Astronomical Society, Sigma Xi, and the Lithuanian American Catholic Academy of Sciences. He was a fellow of the Optical Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He retired from NBS in 1981, but continued on as Guest Researcher working on data compilations until 1987. In the Atomic Spectroscopy Group, Romus was well known for his strong anticommunist views and his dry wit. He was generous in helping others with their research. He enjoyed mentoring summer students and giving fatherly advice to younger members of the Group. Romus was an expert at fabricating electrodeless discharge lamps, and made many lamps for himself and others as well. He donated quite a few of his lamps to other laboratories and observatories for use as a source of wavelength standards. Romus was especially proud of the new home in Silver Spring that he and his wife, Alexandra, and son, Paul, moved to in 1963. To him it signified how much he had achieved after coming to the U.S. with nearly nothing to his name. Most of his leisure time was spent on the plants and garden for this house. Much of the social life of the Atomic Spectroscopy Group at that time revolved around gatherings that he and Alexandra held in their home. Romus also took great pleasure in following the activities of his three grandchildren, Mark, Eugene, and Lara, with whom he was very close.

  2. Obituary: Daniel E. Harris (1934 - 2015) (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Massaro, Francesco; Cheung, Teddy

    Our friend and colleague, Daniel E. Harris, died on December 6th 2015. Dan was a passionate astronomer and world traveller. He led a rich and scientifically productive life until the end. Dan was the first person to receive a PhD in radio astronomy at Caltech where he was a student of John Bolton, one of the fathers of Radio Astronomy and the founder of the Owens Valley Radio Observatory that Dan used for his thesis and first publications. One of Dan's first projects was with Jim Roberts to measure improved positions and flux densities for radio sources in the newly released 3C catalog. During this study, Dan discovered the first flat spectrum radio sources, which he named CTA 21, CTA 26, and CTA 102 and which were later identified as quasars. His PhD thesis resulted in the then definitive study of the evolution of supernova remnants. Later Dan worked on radio galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) first at radio and then at X-ray wavelengths with the Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra Observatories where he pioneered the new field of relativistic X-ray jets and how they relate to radio galaxies and AGN. After graduating from Caltech in 1961, Dan wanted to see the world. Beginning in 1962, Dan lived in Bologna, Italy, where he worked with Professor Marcello Ceccarelli and the radio astronomy group and was active in the construction of the Northern Cross Radio Observatory ("la Croce"), the first Italian radio telescope. He left Bologna in the Spring of 1964 as his friends remember him to "divenir del mondo esperto e de li vizi umani e del valore"1, as he joined V. Radhakrishnan (Rad) and Dave Morris to sail in a 36-ft trimaran from England to Puerto Rico where he took a position at the Arecibo Observatory working with Marshall Cohen on interplanetary scintillations. After five years at the Arecibo Observatory, Dan went on to work at the Argentinian Institute of Radio Astronomy, Harvard University, the Dwingeloo Radio Observatory in the Netherlands, and at the Dominion Radio Observatory in Penticton, Canada. He finally returned to the U.S. in 1980 and spent the next 35 years at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One of Dan's most memorable attributes was his cheerful enjoyment of life. Dan was the life of the party; he was joyful, open and friendly. Dan enjoyed good food, drinks, and conversations with friends and strangers alike. Dan belonged to a time prior to big egos when scientific discoveries seemed to be made by the curious, adventurous, and non-conformists. Dan's free spirit manifested itself in his publications. Dan was a rigorous scientist who was not afraid of writing his papers with a hint of good humour. When presenting new radio measurements Dan went for "descriptive names" to describe radio maps2 such as the "original," the "goldfish," the "double," the "beaver," the "bean." At a recent IAU symposium held in the Galápagos Islands, where many of his colleagues and friends gathered to celebrate his 80th birthday, Dan's talk was entitled: "Slugs and Snails and Puppy Dog Tails: jets from an unconventional angle." As Dan worked with observatories outside the university system he was not officially a faculty member, but he mentored and collaborated with many younger researchers. This younger crowd that with sadness write these lines, always looked up to Dan as a role model in life as well as science, and will most of all miss his steadfast support. He was always ready to share his experience, expertise, and data. Even after leaving his full-time position with Chandra, Dan never retired. He kept working part-time at the SAO where he continued his research and was awarded competitive grants, telescope time, published, and led collaborations. Dan also worked for peace causes throughout his life. Dan joined the tax resistance movement during the Vietnam war, a movement of hundreds of thousands of Americans who refused to pay a portion of their income tax to the government in order to defund the war. He was also an active member of the organization that published the Astronomers and the Arms Race Newsletter. As a concerned scientist, Dan advocated against the star wars agenda and the militarization of space during the eighties. Dan was an active member of the AAS and frequent participant at meetings. The last meeting he attended was the 2015 Seattle one where he presented a talk and chaired a session. His presence at the 2015 meeting is a testament of his unwavering energy. Dan is survived by his wife Barbara, three children: Justine, Seth, and Leila, and four grandchildren.

  3. Obituary: Sam Roweis (1972-2010) (United States)

    Hogg, David


    Computer scientist and statistical astronomer Sam Roweis took his own life in New York City on 2010 January 12. He was a brilliant and accomplished researcher in the field of machine learning, and a strong advocate for the use of computational statistics for automating discovery and scientific data analysis. He made several important contributions to astronomy and was working on adaptive astronomical data analysis at the time of his death. Roweis obtained his PhD in 1999 from the California Institute of Technology, where he worked on a remarkable range of subjects, including DNA computing, modeling of dynamical systems, signal processing, and speech recognition. During this time he unified and clarified some of the most important data analysis techniques, including Principal Component Analysis, Hidden Markov Models, and Expectation Maximization. His work was aimed at making data analysis and modeling faster, but also better justified scientifically. The last years of his PhD were spent in Princeton NJ, where he came in contact with a young generation of cosmologists thinking about microwave background and large-scale structure data. In a postdoc at University College London, Roweis co-created the Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) algorithm; a simple but flexible technique for mapping a large data set onto a low-dimensional manifold. The LLE paper obtained more than 2700 citations in 9 years, launched a new sub-field of machine learning known as "manifold learning," and inspired work in data visualization, search, and applied mathematics. In 2001, Roweis took a faculty job at the University of Toronto Computer Science Department. He continued working on data analysis methods that have probabilistic interpretation and therefore scientific applicability, but at the same time have good performance on large data sets. He was awarded a Sloan Fellowship, a Canada Research Chair, and a fellowship of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, among other honors and awards. During this period he turned some of his attention to astronomy, beginning with a project to infer a distribution function (in this case the velocity distribution of disk stars) in the face of non-trivial measurement errors and missing data. He also contributed inference ideas and optimization technology to a precise photometric re-calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He was awarded tenure at Toronto in 2006. In 2005, Roweis began the collaboration. Under his leadership, this group built software that can take any astronomical image of unknown provenance and rapidly and robustly determine its pointing, orientation, and plate scale with no first guess or prior information of any kind. The system works in part by converting astrometric calibration into a well-posed problem in decision theory. It is now recovering corrupted data in plate-scanning projects, calibrating data taken by amateur astronomers, and working inside the photo-sharing site flickr. was the primary PhD project of Roweis's student Dustin Lang (now at Princeton University), who is one of the first PhDs in computer science to obtain a postdoc in astronomy. These interdisciplinary successes demonstrated the enormous potential of having Roweis thinking about astronomical data. In September 2009, after a few years at search giant Google, he took a tenured position in the New York University Computer Science Department. At the time of his death, he was working on flexible data analysis systems for imaging and spectroscopy, capitalizing on and contributing to NYU's involvement in SDSS-III; the idea was that pipelines should not just reduce the science data, they should also simultaneously learn instrument and calibration parameters from the union of the calibration and science data. In his astronomical projects he advocated straightforward and simple models that are flexible and therefore live in large parameter spaces; these are feasible only with good engineering. The system works by brute force search, after geometric hashing has trimmed the tree of possibilities by about 15 orders of magnitude. His data-reduction pipelines usually had more parameters than data; these are incredibly flexible for automated discovery of instrument properties but they require clever regularization. Many students came to machine learning after inspiration from Roweis, and many astronomers modified their techniques and approaches after even short conversations with him. His extremely popular on-line video lectures give beautiful examples of his clear and engaging style. He was an ideal collaborator: reliable, funny, enthusiastic, creative, and outrageously intelligent. He is survived by his father Shoukry Roweis, his wife Meredith Goldwasser, and his two daughters Aya and Orli.

  4. Obituary: Soren W. Henriksen (1916-2011) (United States)

    Chovitz, Bernard


    Soren Werner Henriksen, one of the first to apply space age data to the mapping sciences, died September 5, 2011, at the age of 95. He was a polymath in the fields of geodesy, surveying, photogrammetry, cartography, and astronomy, his culminating achievement being "Glossary of the Mapping Sciences" a 581 page compendium published in 1994. Soren was born in New York, New York, on August 5, 1916, and grew up in Chicago, Illinois. In 1938 he joined the Illinois National Guard, and transferred in 1941 to the U. S. Army. He served until August 1945, after being severely wounded in the Philippines that summer. He entered the Illinois Institute of Technology next year, earning a Bachelor's degree in 1949 in mathematics. A Master's degree from the University of Illinois in 1950, continuing in mathematics, followed. The U. S. Army Map Service (AMS), a component of the Army Corps of Engineers, was actively recruiting mathematicians at that time. The exigencies of the Cold War required improvements in knowledge of the figure of the Earth, intercontinental connections, and the Earth's gravity field. Soren joined AMS in 1951 and was assigned to the Occultation Section of the Research and Analysis Branch in the Geodetic Division. This was his fortuitous introduction to professional astronomy. He was lucky to have a first-rate mentor in John O'Keefe (BAAS, 2000. 32, 1683), the head of the Branch, whose expertise lay in the application of astronomical methods for position determination, in particular, lunar occultations and solar eclipses. Soren rapidly applied his mathematical skills to this area, and in 1955 was promoted to Chief of the Section. In addition to his operational duties of analyzing and reducing observational data, he authored the definitive manual on the subject: "The Application of Occultations to Geodesy," published as AMS Technical Report 46 in 1962. Well before the first artificial satellite launch in 1957 O'Keefe had realized the tremendous advantage of observations from this source for geodesy and laid the ground-work for their utilization at AMS. Soren turned the attention of his Section to the development of satellite observing systems. He was largely responsible for the employment of Minitrack II and SECOR, mobile satellite tracking systems that could be readily shifted from one set of sites to another. In 1960 he was promoted to Chief of Research and Analysis. The administrative and supervisory duties this entailed limited his opportunities for individual research, and at the beginning of 1965 he left for a position at Raytheon Autometric where he was able to apply his experience in satellite data analysis to the demands of various contractors. A typical contract report of this period coauthored by him was "Modes of Satellite Triangulation Adjustment." During his seven years at Autometric he received its Outstanding Author Award twice. He helped organize the Third International Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy held in Washington, D. C., in April 1971, and coedited the proceedings, published as Geophysical Monograph 15 by the American Geophysical Union (AGU). Based on this accomplishment, in 1972 AGU asked him to serve as editor for a collection of articles covering NASA's National Geodetic Satellite Project. This turned out to be a two year task, during which Soren carried the load of assembling the 1030 page, two volume, compilation. After completion Soren returned to the Federal government as a research geodesist in the Geodetic Research and Development Laboratory at NOAA in 1974. His work there covered a variety of topics including determination of polar motion, utilization of geoceiver observations, and photogrammetric applications. He applied his editorial skills to the 1980 edition of the "Manual of Photogrammetry" as an associate editor, and authored the entry on field surveys for photogrammetry. But the major efforts of his ten year stint at NOAA were devoted to the preparation of a glossary to supplant the classic "Definition of Terms Used in Geodetic and Other Surveys" by Hugh Mitchell published in 1948. Soren envisaged not just a revision and update, but a vastly increased encyclopedic dictionary, encompassing in addition to geodesy and surveying the related fields of cartography, map production, photogrammetry, and remote sensing. This ambitious scheme proved to be controversial, and the resulting publication "Geodetic Glossary", issued in 1986 by the National Geodetic Survey of NOAA, omitted many of the entries not directly related to geodesy. Before then, Soren decided to leave and continue work on his own version. He took advantage of his eligibility for retirement in 1984, and in 1988 submitted his manuscript to a joint committee of the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the American Congress of Surveying and Mapping, and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Publication followed under the auspices of ASCE. Soren participated actively in the life of several professional societies. He was a member of AGU, ASPRS, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Royal Astronomical Society, and American Astronomical Society. A prominent trait of Soren's was his competitiveness, both in and outside of his profession. Two of his favorite forms of recreation were duplicate bridge and the ancient Chinese board game, Go. After age limited his mobility, he turned to the challenge of computer games like Myst. He retained an interest in updating his glossary to the end. He is survived by his wife of 59 years, Pamelia, a daughter, Kirsten, and two grandchildren. A son, Donn, predeceased him.

  5. Obituary: William A. Rense (1914-2008) (United States)

    Cushman, Glen


    On March 28, 2008, the space research community lost another of its pioneers. William A. Rense, professor emeritus of physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder, who died in Estes Park, Colorado, following complications from cancer. He was 94. Bill, as he was widely known, was born in 1914 in Massillon, Ohio, the son of German immigrants. His was a large family - five brothers and one sister. His father, Joseph Rense, worked for the city of Cleveland while his mother, Rosalia (Luther) Rense was a housewife. As a child, Bill developed a love of astronomy which led him to earn a bachelor's degree in physics and astronomy from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, followed by master's and PhD degrees in physics at Ohio State University. He held teaching positions at Rutgers, University of Miami (Florida), Texas A & M, and Louisiana State University before taking his final appointment at CU in 1949. While teaching at LSU, he met and in 1942 married Wanda (Childs) Rense. In addition to teaching physics at CU, Bill did research in CU's Upper Air Laboratory. His early work there included studies of polarized light and its implications for the analysis of zodiacal light. He and his co-workers also began developing instrumentation to be flown above the Earth's atmosphere in sounding rockets. In 1952 he obtained the first photographic spectrogram of the solar Lyman-alpha line of hydrogen (121.6nm). This work was followed in 1956 by the first full disk spectroheliogram in Lyman-alpha. These results could not have been possible without the use of pointing control systems for sounding rockets. These "sun trackers" kept the payloads pointed at the sun long enough for the measurements to be made, and CU was a pioneer in their development. The expanding research venue led the Upper Air Laboratory to be renamed the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), and Bill Rense was its first director. He continued his research into the properties of the solar atmosphere with high resolution observations of He I and He II (58.4 and 30.4 nm) and O I (130.5nm), as well as terrestrial atmospheric absorption measurements, utilizing the sun as an Extreme Ultraviolet source. In the meantime, the pointing control business proved to be so popular that it was transferred to a then-small local business owned by Ball Brothers Research Corporation. It is now the Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. Bill retired from CU in 1980. He had a successful and productive career at LASP, but teaching was his first love. Besides teaching undergraduates, he trained graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in the latest research techniques. His family recalls the joy he took in teaching honors classes at their home in Boulder as well as the many letters he received from the students he inspired. He had a constantly enquiring mind and loved to share his curiosity with others, whether the subject was beat frequencies heard on a jet plane or stellar constellations seen from Estes Park. Bill was a devoted amateur naturalist and kept detailed records of the weather and of the first appearances of birds and flowers observed at his summer cabin in Allenspark, Colorado. One of his earliest publications concerned the nighttime observation of migrating birds, seen as they flew in front of the moon. It is a technique employed by birders as far back as 1902 and still used today. Working in collaboration with George H. Lowery, Curator of the Museum of Zoology at LSU, Bill established the observational ground rules that would enable ornithologists to determine the compass heading, altitude and density of birds along their nocturnal flyways. When people are asked what Bill Rense was like, a word that frequently comes up is "courtly". In all his transactions with other people, Bill was unfailingly soft spoken and gracious. When confronted with a profoundly bad idea, his typical response would be to say, "Well - that's different." In a field sometimes dominated by large egos, his unassuming manner may have been what made him stand out as a teacher and as a friend. A quote from Alexander Pope seems to fit him: "True politeness consists in being easy one's self, and in making everyone about one as easy as one can. William A. Rense is survived by his wife, Wanda Rense of Estes Park, Colorado, and three sons: William of Estes Park, John of Anchorage, Alaska, and Charles of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A memorial service was held on April 2, 2008, at Good Samaritan Village, Estes Park.

  6. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005 (United States)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock


    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning his Ph.D. in 1978 from Chicago, Ron held a number of research and postdoctoral positions. These included a few months at the Venezuelan National Observatory in Merida, where he helped to set up an astrometric program. This work was unfortunately cut short because of difficulties obtaining the requisite work visa. He also had a two year postdoc at Northwestern University, where he did spectroscopy of massive stars and studied various open clusters. Ron and Ellen's first child, Heather, was born on 9 June 1981 in Evanston, IL. Ron and Ellen moved to Washington, DC, in 1981, where Ron joined the staff of the U.S. Naval Observatory Transit Circle Division. Their son, Geoffrey, was born on 10 May 1983. The marriage ended in divorce in 2001. During the three years that he spent at the USNO headquarters, Ron received training in observing and data reduction with the 6-inch transit circle. When in 1984 the observatory opened the Black Birch Station in New Zealand for surveying the southern sky with the 7-inch transit circle, Ron joined the first group of astronomers to transfer. There he became involved in developing software for the 7-inch, particularly with the image dissector and the acquisition and reduction of planetary observations. Together with Ellis Holdenreid, he worked on some aspects of the real time control software for the 7-inch. He also continued to work on his earlier interest in runaway OB stars. When Ron's tour at the Black Birch Station was coming to an end, he requested a transfer to the USNO Flagstaff Station in northern Arizona. There was a transit circle at the Flagstaff Station being fitted with a CCD camera, and Ron's experience with transit circles in Washington and Black Birch made him well-qualified to help with the modernization of this instrument. Ron worked with David and Alice Monet to automate the 8-inch and develop astrometric software for reducing and analyzing its observations. This telescope came to be known as the FASTT, for Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope. It was used from 1992 onward to obtain highly accurate astrometric positions of various Solar System bodies that were targets of several NASA space missions. In addition, Ron observed astrometric calibration regions for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He collaborated in projects to predict and observe stellar and planetary occultations, determine the masses of certain asteroids, and improve the orbits of numerous planetary satellites. In his letter recalling Ron Stone's career, Bill van Altena wrote, "I also knew and respected Ron as a scientist who worked to do the very best that he could with the FASTT system and produced an outstanding set of data that will be remembered as setting the standards for the best that could be done with drift scanning astrometry." Ron used FASTT observations of radio stars and the brightest quasars to confirm the tie between the optical and radio reference frames. He developed extensive software for automated reduction of FASTT observations. During his last year of life, he took on the additional responsibility of bringing another new telescope, the 1.3-meter, into operation, and was making good progress in this effort until his illness forced him to relinquish the task. Besides his professional interests, Ron was a avid outdoorsman. During his years in Williams Bay, he rode a motorcycle and enjoyed SCUBA diving. He is one of the few people to have gone diving in Lake Geneva. He liked nothing better than hiking and exploring wilderness areas. As his brother, Dwight, recalled, "If he saw a mountain, he had to climb it!"

  7. Obituary: Adriaan Blaauw, 1914-2010 (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Tim


    Professor Adriaan Blaauw, one of the most influential astronomers of the twentieth century, passed away on 1 December 2010. Adriaan Blaauw was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on 12 April 1914. He studied astronomy at Leiden University, under de Sitter, Hertzsprung and Oort, and obtained his doctorate (cum laude) with van Rhijn at the Kapteyn Laboratory in Groningen in 1946, on a PhD thesis entitled: A study of the Scorpio-Centaurus Cluster. In this work he used the proper motions of the stars on the sky, deduced by very careful comparison of position measurements taken more than 50 years apart, and demonstrated that most of the bright hot O and B stars in the constellations Scorpius and Centaurus have nearly identical space motions and hence constitute a physical group of stars. This work laid the basis for a career of groundbreaking studies of the properties of these OB associations which still contain the fossil imprint of their star formation history. Perhaps Blaauw's most famous work explained why some OB stars are found in isolation and are traveling unusually rapidly: the so-called run-away stars. During his time at Yerkes, he and Morgan had discovered curious examples such as the OB stars μ Columbae and AE Aurigae which are moving very fast in opposite directions, putting both of them at the location of the Orion Nebula at approximately the same time, 2.6 million years earlier. Blaauw proposed in 1961 that run-away stars had originally been members of binary stars, and when one star in the binary experiences a supernova explosion, its companion suddenly ceases to feel the gravitational pull that keeps it in its orbit and hence it "runs away" at its orbital velocity and rapidly leaves the group it was born in. In addition to his distinguished research career, Blaauw played a decisive role in the creation of the intergovernmental European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, often referred to as the European Southern Observatory, or simply as ESO. In 1953, Baade and Oort proposed the idea of combining European resources to create an astronomical research organisation that could compete in the international arena. Blaauw had returned to Leiden in 1948 at Oort's invitation, had moved to Yerkes Observatory in 1953, becoming its associate director in 1956, and moved back to Groningen in 1957, where he revitalized the institute and initiated a new program in radio astronomy together with van Woerden. Here he was also in a key position to contribute to transforming the idea of Baade and Oort into reality. He was Secretary of the ESO Committee (the proto ESO Council) from 1959 through 1963, a period which included the signing of the ESO Convention on 5 October 1962 by the five founding Member States Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. Blaauw became ESO's Scientific Director in 1968. In this position he also provided the decisive push to combine the various national journals for astronomy into Astronomy and Astrophysics, which today is one of the leading astronomy research publications in the world. Blaauw succeeded Heckman as Director General of ESO in 1970, for a five-year term. During this period several telescopes including the ESO 0.5-meter and 1-meter Schmidt telescopes began operating at ESO's first observatory site, La Silla, in Chile, and much work was done on the design and construction of the ESO 3.6-meter telescope, which saw first light in 1976. Blaauw decided that it was crucial for this challenging project to move ESO's Headquarters and the Technical Department from Hamburg to Geneva, to benefit from the presence of the experienced CERN engineering group. After his ESO period, Blaauw returned to Leiden, where he continued to play a very important role in international astronomy. He was President of the International Astronomical Union from 1976 to 1979. During his tenure he used his considerable diplomatic skills to convince China to rejoin the IAU even though Taiwan was also a member. He retired from his Leiden professorship in 1981 and moved back to Groningen, but stayed active in various areas. He organized the historical archives of ESO and of the IAU - a work which resulted in two books, ESO's Early History and History of the IAU. He also served as Chairman of the Scientific Evaluation Committee for the European Space Agency satellite HIPPARCOS, which would measure the proper motions of the 100,000 brightest stars with unprecedented accuracy, and advised on many aspects of its scientific programme. When the data became available in 1996, he was actively involved in the re-analysis of the young stellar groups he had studied during his PhD research, more than fifty years earlier. Blaauw remained keenly interested in developments at ESO. He drove himself from Groningen to Garching and back for a two-day stay in July 2009 in order to take another look at the historical documents in the ESO library. He visited Chile in February 2010 during which he was driven to La Silla and then Paranal by car to enjoy Chile's beautiful landscapes and 'inspect' the telescopes on both these sites. He actively engaged young people in interesting discussions and throughout the visit displayed a crystal clear perspective on the development of astronomy in general and of ESO's program in particular, including the exciting opportunities for the future. The characteristic twinkle in his eye was as bright as always. Blaauw won many academic distinctions, including membership in many academies of science, honorary doctorates from the University of Besancon and from l'Observatoire de Paris and the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He was well-known for his warm personality, wisdom, humour, legendary patience, and the very rare gift of being able to slow down when the pressure mounts. The personal account of his life entitled My Cruise Through the World of Astronomy, published in the 2004 Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, provides an accurate and inspiring picture of a truly remarkable person, who positively influenced the lives of many others.

  8. Obituary: Grote Reber, 1911-2002 (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.


    Grote Reber, a pioneer of radio astronomy died in Tasmania, Australia on 20 December 2002, two days before his 91st birthday. Reber was born in Chicago on 22 December 1911 and grew up in the Chicago suburb of Wheaton, IL. His father, Schuyler Colefax Reber, who was a lawyer and part owner of a canning factory, died when Grote was only 21; his mother, Harriet Grote was an elementary school teacher in Wheaton. Among her 7th and 8th grade students at Longfellow School in Wheaton was young Edwin Hubble with whom Grote later exchanged views on cosmology. Grote graduated from the Armour Institute of Technology (now the Illinois Institute of Technology) with a degree in Electrical Engineering. He excelled in electronics courses but did less well in mathematics. After receiving his degree in 1933, Grote held a series of jobs with various Chicago companies including the Stewart-Warner and Belmont Radio Corporations. Grote had a lifelong interest in electronics. At the age of 16, he received his amateur radio license, W9GFZ, signed by then Secretary of the Interior, Herbert Hoover. After contacting over 50 countries, he was looking for new challenges. He had read about Karl Jansky's discovery of cosmic radio emission and tried to interest astronomers at Yerkes Observatory, but except for Jesse Greenstein, they showed little interest. ``So," as he later related, ``I consulted with myself and decided to build a dish." He took astronomy courses from Philip Keenan and others at the University of Chicago. Using $2,000 of his own funds (about his annual salary), he took the summer of 1937 off from his engineering job at the Stewart-Warner Corporation to erect a 32-ft parabolic transit dish in a vacant lot next to his mother's house. Using his experience and skills as an electrical engineer and radio amateur he designed, built and tested a series of sensitive radio receivers, which he placed at the focal point of his parabolic dish. Following a succession of failures, in the spring of 1939, he finally succeeded in detecting the galactic radio noise and went on to make the first maps of radio emission from the galaxy and, in 1943, to detect radio emission from the sun. Automobile ignition noise interfered with Reber's observations, so he observed only at night, laboriously writing down every minute the readings from his detector output. In the daytime, he returned to his job in Chicago, catching a few hours sleep each evening before returning to his observations; on weekends he analyzed his data. At first, Grote's discoveries were received with skepticism by the astronomical community and he had great difficulty in getting his papers accepted for publication in the astronomical literature. As he later claimed, ``The astronomers of the time didn't know anything about radio or electronics, and the radio engineers didn't know anything about astronomy. They thought the whole affair was at best a mistake, and at worst a hoax." But, following visits of Kennan and others to his Wheaton facility, he finally convinced "Astrophysical Journal" editor, Otto Struve, and others of the importance of his work. In addition to his classic publications in the "Astrophysical Journal", "Nature", and the "Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers" (now the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineering), he also wrote influential reports in "Popular Science", "Scientific American" and "Sky and Telescope". In 1947, together with Jesse Greenstein, he wrote the first review of radio astronomy which was published in the journal, "Observatory". Plagued by local interference, he discussed with Otto Struve moving his antenna to a better site in Texas and also the possibility of building a much larger 200-ft dish. Reber recognized that an equatorial mount would be very expensive and proposed to use an alt-az mount together with an analogue coordinate converter of the type later implemented in Dwingeloo and Jodrell Bank. Through his younger brother Schuyler, then a business student at Harvard, he gained the interest of Harlow Shapley and Fred Whipple but he was unable to obtain any financial support from Harvard or any other university. Following his mother's death in 1945, Grote reluctantly accepted a position with the National Bureau of Standards in Washington and arranged to have his antenna re-erected in Washington where it was put on an alt-azimuth mount. But he was frustrated with government bureaucracy and disillusioned by the growing atmosphere of McCarthyism in Washington. In 1951, he moved to Hawaii where he pursued a variety of research programs in radio astronomy as well as atmospheric and ionospheric physics from the top of Haleakula on the island of Maui. From Hawaii, he moved on to Tasmania in 1954, in order to exploit the ionospheric transparency associated with the south magnetic pole. While radio astronomers in the rest of the world were exploiting the newly emerging microwave technology to move to shorter and shorter wavelengths, Grote, characteristically departing from conventional ``wisdom," concentrated on the extremely long wavelengths. Working with Bill Ellis at the University of Tasmania, Reber designed and built a series of arrays to study Galactic radio emission and absorption at wavelengths of a few hundred meters. Following several years spent at the CSIRO Ionospheric Prediction Service, Grote moved from Hobart to Bothwell, in central Tasmania, where he designed and built an energy efficient home and where he lived for many years and made good friends. With the growing importance after WWII of the contributions being made throughout the world by radio astronomy, Reber's pioneering studies ultimately became widely recognized. In 1961 he received the Cresson Prize from the Franklin Institute and in 1962, an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Ohio State University. He also received the AAS Russell Lecture Prize and the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Throughout his life, he had a strong interest in political and social issues. Writing to the Director of the NSF and the President of the NAS, he argued against big science and to reduce funding for large radio telescopes such as the VLA. Throughout his career, he questioned the ``big-bang" universe and authored a widely distributed paper on ``The Endless Boundless Universe." He was greatly concerned about the consequences of world population growth and preserving our natural resources, particularly the overuse of fossil fuels, which motivated his research on electric cars and consideration of increased use of sailing ships. He had no tolerance for scientific or other activities that did not meet his high standards but he was generous in giving recognition and praise to those whose work he admired. A college era friend recently described Grote as ``nervously energetic, enthusiastic, with a keen mind that went everywhere, an ever present, lively, sardonic, iconoclastic sense of humor, and strong opinions." In addition to his pioneering work in radio astronomy, Reber also pursued and published research in a variety of fields ranging from radio circuitry and ionospheric physics to studies of cosmic rays, the atmosphere, archaeology and the growth of beans. He held a number of patents, including one for a radio sextant to ``shoot the sun" on cloudy days. Throughout most of his career, he worked as an amateur relying on his deep curiosity along with his imagination and skills as an electronics engineer combined with his persistent, forceful personality, and stubborn disregard for conventional opinion. At various times, he held guest appointments at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Ohio State University, the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization and, starting in 1951, he also received generous support from the Research Corporation in New York. However, he valued his independence and was skeptical of the strings that would be attached to any institutional support. He was scornful of establishment science, with its ``self appointed pontiffs," but his achievements were ultimately widely recognized by professional astronomers. Reber's extraordinary achievements as an amateur were probably unique in 20th century science.

  9. Obituary: Harry W. Fulbright (1918-2009) (United States)

    Pipher, Judy; Forrest, Bill


    Harry W. Fulbright, Emeritus Professor in Physics at the University of Rochester, died May 16, 2009 at the age of 90. His distinguished career spanned many disciplines. During WWII, he worked on the Manhattan Project at Washington University and at Los Alamos for two years, and spent 4 years on the Princeton University faculty before joining the faculty at Rochester in 1950. Fulbright retired July 1, 1989, having spent years at Rochester as an experimental physicist who among other things renovated a 26-inch cyclotron, turning it into the first variable energy cyclotron used. It became the center of the department's low energy nuclear experimentation until another faculty member installed a Van de Graaf which replaced it. That cyclotron was later shipped to India where Fulbright helped install it for its second career. Although Fulbright concentrated on nuclear physics for most of his career, his interests turned to Astronomy in his later years. Fulbright spent the summer of 1986 helping to design and build equipment for a holographic determination of and improvement of the shape of the 140 ft. diameter Green Bank radio dish. He spent several weeks the next year at Green Bank, continuing the collaboration with Ron Maddalena and other staff members on the project, alternately making measurements and then panel adjustments. The result, according to observations made on standard sources, was a substantial improvement in antenna efficiency. The time required for an observation at 24 GHz was reduced by a factor of two or three. He participated in observations with that dish involving 12 GHz signals from geostationary communication satellites. Fulbright joined Bill Forrest and John Bally in VLA (B array) HI observations of regions near high velocity outflow star forming and evolved objects. Little, if any, HI emission was evident in these data. As the director of the Advanced Undergraduate Lab in Physics and Astronomy, Fulbright included astronomical experiments in the complement he developed over the 11 year period before he retired. Among other experiments, he retrofitted an existing spectrograph with a thermoelectrically cooled 2048 element linear CCD to use at the University's C.E.K. Mees Observatory. A simple sliding shutter built into the slit structure of the spectrograph allowed automatic computer-controlled cyclic background subtraction. In addition, the students did all computer programming required for device control, for monitoring and recording of data, and for wavelength calibration. Preliminary tests were made with the collaboration of Dave Meisel, SUNY Geneseo, then Associate Director of Mees. Several student senior theses utilized this instrument. With other students, Fulbright built a sensitive low-noise 21-cm receiver and Dicke Switch for a computer controlled 8-foot dish antenna (used originally for satellite work), which he mounted on the roof of the Rochester Physics building. Undergraduate students over a several year period joined him in designing, constructing and improving the electronics for 21-cm observations. They were able to map the Milky Way until a new radar at the airport put them out of the faint object business. After that they followed the radio emission of the Sun during almost a full solar cycle. In 1988 he helped two other students built a small, two-dimensional CCD camera intended for use at Mees, incorporating a small TI 211, 192x 165 pixels element, a thermoelectric cooler, and a mechanical shutter, with operation and data acquisition under computer control. Following his retirement in 1989 he continued to work with the Advanced Lab students for several years. Harry Fulbright was a brilliant and versatile experimentalist, and passed on these skills to the present generation. He is sorely missed by all in the Rochester De