Sample records for current address obituary

  1. Arne Zettersten: obituary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock, Charles


    Obituary of Arne Zettersten, Professor of English Language at the University of Copenhagen (1934-2015)......Obituary of Arne Zettersten, Professor of English Language at the University of Copenhagen (1934-2015)...

  2. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Baehni, Ch. (1906-1964) R. Weibel, l’Oeuvre scientifique de Charles Baehni. Trav. Soc. Bot. Genève 8 (1966) 18-21. — Obituary and concise bibliography. Banks & Solander E.W. Groves, Notes on the botanical specimens collected by Banks and Solander on Cook’s first voyage, together with an itinerary of

  3. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Aubréville, Andre (30.xi.1897—11.viii.1982) G. Aymonin, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 130 (1983) 257-261; J.F. Leroy, Adansonia II, 5 (1983) 123-140. Obituaries of the former director of the Paris Herbarium.

  4. Obituaries: Zainab al-Ghazali

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matt Horton


    An obituary for Zainab al-Ghazali, an outspoken advocate of shariah law and an ally of the underground Muslim Brotherhood who founded her own organization, the Muslim Women's Association in 1937, is presented...

  5. An analysis of obituaries in staff magazines. (United States)

    Heynderickx, Priscilla C; Dieltjens, Sylvain M


    In the literature, extensive attention is given to the content, structure, and style of obituaries in newspapers. Analyses of the demise of colleagues in internal business communications are however nonexistent. This article discusses a bottom-up analysis of 150 obituaries published in Flemish staff magazines--obituaries that mostly focus on the deceased's career and professional qualities. Following analysis, the data were divided in obituaries that are continuous texts and obituaries with a letter format. The differences between the two types lie at different levels: format, content, structure, and language use. Obituaries with a letter format are characterized and determined by three paradoxes: the sender-receiver paradox, life-death paradox, and happiness-sadness paradox.

  6. The Special Education Story: Obituary, Accident Report, Conversion Experience, Reincarnation, or None of the Above? (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.


    The current status of special education and possible futures are examined through a true news story of current "reform" efforts in Washington, D.C. schools and in imaginary future news stories reporting on special education as an obituary, an accident, a conversion experience, and a reincarnation. The author urges special educators to reject…

  7. Obituary of Philip H. Cooper, MD. (United States)

    Patterson, James W; Wick, Mark R; Mills, Stacey E


    Dermatopathology lost a giant in the field with the death of Philip H. Cooper, MD, on Friday, January 30, 2015. The following obituary represents a celebration of his life and his contributions to our field.

  8. Obituary for Moshe Shapiro (United States)

    Grant, Edward R.


    induced symmetry breaking to form chiral products from achiral precursors, and showed how to use phase-coherent laser excitation to launch directional currents in semiconductors, in the absence of bias voltage. He has also contributed to important advances in laser catalysis, quantum computing and decoherence, transition state spectroscopy, potential inversion and wavefunction imaging, the theory of strong field phenomena in atoms and molecules, quantum theory of elementary exchange reactions and foundations of quantum mechanics. His most recent research focused on the control of molecular, atomic, and photonic processes with coherent light, quantum pattern recognition, coherent chiral separation and the coherent suppression of spontaneous emission, decoherence and other decay processes. At UBC, Moshe is remembered for his perceptiveness, broad vision and collegiality. 'One day he came to a group meeting with the idea of a solar-pumped living laser,' said physics colleague, Valery Milner. 'After thinking about this for two months, we designed an experiment using a random laser cavity that produced gain with milliwatts of pumping power applied to a fluorescent protein. We have now only to get lasing with the bacterium we engineered to express this protein.' Moshe studied for his PhD guided by Professor Raphael D Levine, in theoretical chemistry at the Hebrew University, focusing on photodissociation and molecular collisions. In 1970, he moved to Harvard University as a postdoctoral fellow, where he worked in reaction dynamics with Martin Karplus, a 2013 Nobel laureate in chemistry. In 1972, Moshe joined the faculty of the Department of Chemical Physics at the Weizmann Institute. There, he served as a department chair and was named the Jacques Mimran Professor of Chemical Physics. In 2002, he was appointed to a Canada Research Chair in Quantum Control in the Department of Chemistry at UBC. He won the Willis E Lamb Medal for achievements in the Physics of Quantum Electronics

  9. Obituary--rigid contact lenses. (United States)

    Efron, Nathan


    Scleral and corneal rigid lenses represented 100 per cent of the contact lens market immediately prior to the invention of soft lenses in the mid-1960s. In the United Kingdom today, rigid lenses comprise 2 per cent of all new lens fits. Low rates of rigid lens fitting are also apparent in 27 other countries which have recently been surveyed. Thus, the 1998 prediction of the author that rigid lenses--also referred to as 'rigid gas permeable' (RGP) lenses or 'gas permeable' (GP) lenses--would be obsolete by the year 2010 has essentially turned out to be correct. In this obituary, the author offers 10 reasons for the demise of rigid lens fitting: initial rigid lens discomfort; intractable rigid lens-induced corneal and lid pathology; extensive soft lens advertising; superior soft lens fitting logistics; lack of rigid lens training opportunities; redundancy of the rigid lens 'problem solver' function; improved soft toric and bifocal/varifocal lenses; limited uptake of orthokeratology; lack of investment in rigid lenses; and the emergence of aberration control soft lenses. Rigid lenses are now being fitted by a minority of practitioners with specialist skills/training. Certainly, rigid lenses can no longer be considered as a mainstream form of contact lens correction. May their dear souls (bulk properties) rest in peace.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Prof.Zhou Gucheng,born September 1898,died 10 November,1996 Professor Zhou Gucheng,who died at age 99,was one of the mostoutstanding historians and politicians of China.He contributed greatly tothe study of Chinese and world history and the history and culture of thePacific regions in recent years.Zhou Gucheng was born in Yiyang County,Hunan Province,China,in September 1898.In 1921,he graduated from Peking SeniorNormal College and then worked in the First Normal School of Changsha,Hunan Province as an English teacher.In 1927,he was a journalist andtranslator of two magazines,the Oriental Magazine and the EducationalMine,attached to the Commercial Press,and taught in JinanUniversity.In 1930,he took up the position of professor and director ofthe Sociology Department of Zhongshan University at Guangazhou.In thenext year,he was appointed as professor and director of the HistoryDepartment of Jinan University.Since 1942,he had been a professor at

  11. 78 FR 45910 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email Address... (United States)


    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email... concerning the November 2013 Email Address Collection Test Supplement. The Census Bureau and the Bureau of.... We foresee that in the future, we could collect email addresses from our respondents. For those that...

  12. 22 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xiv - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions (United States)


    ... DISPUTES PANEL Ch. XIV, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XIV—Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions (a... Boston New Jersey New York New Mexico Dallas New York Boston/New York 2 North Carolina Atlanta North...

  13. Using the Dead to Teach the Living: Making the Classroom Come Alive with Obituaries (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.; Macari, Andrea M.


    The "American Psychologist" did not regularly publish the obituaries of prominent psychologists until 1979. The objective of the obituary section was not to canonize the deceased, but rather to respond to the field's budding interest in the history of psychology. This article argues that the obituary, when viewed as a historical…

  14. The genus Cyclidiopsis: an obituary. (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew S; Triemer, Richard E


    Since its creation in 1917 the genus Cyclidiopsis, and its validity, has been a source of debate among euglenid taxonomists. While many authors have supported its legitimacy, various other authors have considered it to be a subgenus of Astasia or even promoted its complete dissolution. In this study, we have sequenced the small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA of Cyclidiopsis acus, the type species for the genus. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that C. acus grouped with taxa from the genus Lepocinclis, which necessitated the removal of this taxon from Cyclidiopsis and into Lepocinclis as Lepocinclis cyclidiopsis nom. nov. After an extensive literature search it was determined that only two other previously described Cyclidiopsis taxa were morphologically distinct, and the rest were reassigned as synonyms of L. cyclidiopsis. These findings prompted a re-examination of the initial description of Cyclidiopsis, and it was determined that the morphological characters establishing the genus as a distinct group were no longer valid in light of current phylogenetic analyses and the emended generic description for Lepocinclis. Therefore, the remaining two taxa were formally moved to the genus Lepocinclis as L. crescentia comb. nov. and L. pseudomermis comb. nov.

  15. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Becerra-Fajardo

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with

  16. Obituary: Alexander Dalgarno (1928 - 2015) (United States)

    Hartquist, Tom; Babb, James F. Babb; Loeb, Avi

    collisions and calculated charge transfer cross sections. Some of these proved later to be important for forming the spectra of diffuse astronomical matter surrounding high mass stars and 100 million solar mass black holes at the centers of active galaxies. In the early 1950s David Bates stimulated Alex's interest in the study of quantum processes occurring in the upper terrestrial atmosphere. Together they considered the sources of the nightglow and dayglow features and concluded that the altitudes previously inferred for them from observations were up to several hundred kilometers too large. Experiments carried on V2 rockets, like those seen by Alex in wartime London, proved him and David to be right. Alex felt that though many theorists believe that "physics is embodied in its equations," it is instead "to be found in the solutions to the equations." He was a master at developing and applying methods that simplified calculations leading to reliable solutions. Exploiting the contemporary advances in electronic computation, by the 1960s Alex and his colleagues were able to address atomic and molecular processes of increasing complexity. Their development and early applications of the S-matrix theory of molecular rotational excitation by particle impact triggered major advances in molecular physics and theoretical chemistry and in the understanding of processes important in many environments, including a wide variety of astrophysical sources. In 1967 Alex became a professor in the Harvard Department of Astronomy and a member of the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He was a team member for several Atmosphere Explorer satellite missions, which elucidated the roles of atoms and ions in the upper atmosphere and paved the way for further applications to the other planets. By 1969 Alex was publishing papers on molecular hydrogen (H2) radiative processes, including photodissociation, in which the foundations of molecular astrophysics began to emerge. H2 is the

  17. Obituary Dr A. W. Kloos (1880—1952)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.


    At the end of the previous number of “Blumea” could just be inserted the death notice of one of the honorary collaborators of the Rijksherbarium, Dr Ir A. W. Kloos, who passed away in his home at Dordrecht on June 3rd, 1952. A more detailed obituary may follow here. Abraham Willem Kloos was born at

  18. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015) (United States)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    water on Mars from infrared absorption at 2.85 microns. The analysis that "this bound water comprises about one percent by weight of the surface material" was confirmed forty years later when the Mars Rover Curiosity determined water content by vaporizing Martian soil. Jim was a crucial participant in NASA's first major infrared space mission, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), especially because of his detector expertise which solved a major focal plane problem for the mission. His archive contains a napkin from a British pub on which he sketched a wiring diagram to show his colleagues how to save the 25 micron detector array. Once the results began from IRAS, Jim's scientific interests moved to extragalactic astronomy. He was a major participant in two of the most significant discoveries from IRAS, announced in 1984: an extended population of optically faint, infrared bright galaxies, and the presence of galaxies with exceptional infrared luminosities (now known as the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies, ULIRGs). After the great success of IRAS, NASA begin planning a major infrared mission, first labeled "Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility" but soon becoming the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), and now operating as the Spitzer Space Telescope. Although hundreds contributed, Jim was among the few individuals who contributed most to the success of Spitzer. His colleagues acknowledged this by awarding him both the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 2005 and the American Astronomical Society's 2008 Joseph Weber Award for Astronomical Instrumentation, with the citation stating, "It is no exaggeration to say that without Dr. Houck's contributions, modern IR astronomy would never have reached its current level of maturity." Jim was the Principal Investigator for the infrared spectrograph on Spitzer (IRS), initially chosen for the original SIRTF mission. Jim became the vital infrared representative on the review panel setting astronomy

  19. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek


    Full Text Available Abstract Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets; a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid, and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with

  20. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis. (United States)

    Yach, Derek


    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  1. Obituary: E. Dorrit Hoffleit, 1907-2007 (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia


    next year as a research assistant (later research associate) at Harvard College Observatory, then directed by Harlow Shapley, about whom her opinion was much warmer than that expressed by Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin. Dorrit's immediate supervisor at Harvard was Henrietta Swope, daughter of the President of General Electric, and eventually best known for work at Mount Wilson Observatory with Walter Baade on variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds, published in papers that continued to appear long after Baade's death. Hoffleit's first ten papers were also on variable stars and appeared in Harvard Observatory publications. But the MA she completed in 1932 was on the light curves of meteors and was published in the Proceedings of the United States National Academy of Sciences. By this time, Dorrit had established a work pattern that was to persist right up to retirement - at least 40 hours per week on whatever the current boss thought she should be doing, and another 20 or so on other astronomical research that interested her. Hffleit had supposed that an MA would be her highest degree, but Shapley urged her to go on for a PhD, with, it would seem, a bit of urging on both sides from Bart Bok, who informed her that "if God recommends that you do something, it is your duty to do it." The thesis (PhD 1938) was on yet a third topic, spectroscopic parallaxes. This means determining the luminosities of stars, hence their distances, from line width and ratio diagnostics in their spectra. The pioneer was Antonia Maury, whose insights were not appreciated by Shapley's predecessor, E. C. Pickering. Another valuable Hoffleit mentor was Ernst Öpik, on a three-month visit to Harvard in 1934, from whom Dorrit learned stellar statistics and half a dozen other things. The thesis also provided her "break out" paper into the Astrophysical Journal (on CN as a giant/dwarf discriminator). Hoffleit began to branch out into astrometry, comets, and other parts of astronomy and, starting in 1941

  2. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906-2004 (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith


    origin outside the solar system. To fill the daytime gap when meteors could not be photographed, Fred organized a program for the radio detection of these objects. With the launch of Sputnik in October 1957, Whipple's visual network of amateur astronomers (Moon watch) was already in place to follow its progress and later on he developed an optical tracking system for meteors and artificial satellites using wide field, Baker-Nunn cameras. This latter system proved so successful that the precision tracking of these satellites could be used to model the Earth's shape and density variations from the observed gravitational effects upon these satellite orbits. He once noted that the highlight of his career was having his family and parents present at the White House while he received the President's Award for Distinguished Public Service from John F. Kennedy for this work. His seminal works in 1950-51 on the icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus prompted a complete paradigm switch. Until then, the current consensus model for a comet was a flying cloud of particles; it had been so since the second half of the nineteenth century when comets were identified with meteor showers. He envisaged the cometary nucleus as a conglomerate of ices (mostly water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide ices) embedded within, and covered over with, a nonvolatile matrix of meteoric material. Part of his rationale for developing this "dirty snowball" model for the cometary nucleus was to provide an explanation of the so-called nongravitational forces acting upon comets. The rocket-like thrusting of a comet when the ices vaporize near the sun introduced a small, but noticeable, thrust on the comet itself and when this effect was properly modeled, the motions of active comets could be predicted far more accurately. Subsequent spacecraft ultraviolet observations showing enormous cometary hydrogen atmospheres confirmed that the major cometary ice was likely to be water. The

  3. The current unmet need in type 2 diabetes mellitus: addressing glycemia and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Levy, Philip


    The treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires a multifaceted approach of both lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight control, smoking cessation) and pharmacological therapy. In addition to agents that improve hyperglycemia, patients often require treatments to address the additional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Although the benefits of early, aggressive glycemic control are clearly established, treatment remains suboptimal. Many patients fail to achieve long-term glycemic control, with rates of patients with T2DM achieving target goals for hypertension and dyslipidemia also unsatisfactory. Several factors contribute to the failure to meet treatment goals. These include poor adherence by patients to lifestyle and pharmacological treatment, lack of understanding by patients of the long-term benefits of treatment, patient concerns about adverse effects leading to poor compliance, and failure of health care providers to initiate or intensify medications appropriately (termed clinical inertia). This article reviews the current state of T2DM treatment and the management of CV risk factors associated with T2DM, and identifies unmet treatment needs.

  4. The GÉANT network: addressing current and future needs of the HEP community (United States)

    Capone, Vincenzo; Usman, Mian


    The GÉANT infrastructure is the backbone that serves the scientific communities in Europe for their data movement needs and their access to international research and education networks. Using the extensive fibre footprint and infrastructure in Europe the GÉANT network delivers a portfolio of services aimed to best fit the specific needs of the users, including Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure, end-to-end performance monitoring, advanced network services (dynamic circuits, L2-L3VPN, MD-VPN). This talk will outline the factors that help the GÉANT network to respond to the needs of the High Energy Physics community, both in Europe and worldwide. The Pan-European network provides the connectivity between 40 European national research and education networks. In addition, GÉANT also connects the European NRENs to the R&E networks in other world region and has reach to over 110 NREN worldwide, making GÉANT the best connected Research and Education network, with its multiple intercontinental links to different continents e.g. North and South America, Africa and Asia-Pacific. The High Energy Physics computational needs have always had (and will keep having) a leading role among the scientific user groups of the GÉANT network: the LHCONE overlay network has been built, in collaboration with the other big world REN, specifically to address the peculiar needs of the LHC data movement. Recently, as a result of a series of coordinated efforts, the LHCONE network has been expanded to the Asia-Pacific area, and is going to include some of the main regional R&E network in the area. The LHC community is not the only one that is actively using a distributed computing model (hence the need for a high-performance network); new communities are arising, as BELLE II. GÉANT is deeply involved also with the BELLE II Experiment, to provide full support to their distributed computing model, along with a perfSONAR-based network monitoring system. GÉANT has also

  5. Obituary: Martha Locke Hazen, 1931-2006 (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne


    role in the field for several years, helping to organize the first Space for Women conference in 1975. Martha's long term support for the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) was a natural consequence of her earlier work as an observational astronomer as well as curator of the plate stacks. She joined AAVSO in 1975, and was first elected to the Council in 1984, became a vice president, and eventually became president in 1992. When long-term AAVSO secretary Clinton Banker Ford (obituary, BAAS, 26, p. 1602-1603, 1994) passed away in February 1993, Martha was elected secretary to replace Ford, and served in that capacity for over ten years. Her services to AAVSO went well beyond those years in elective offices, however, and cannot be fully understood only in those terms. Martha also served a vital role as a friend and mentor for Janet Akyüz Mattei ((obituary, BAAS, 36, p. 1681-1682, 2004) throughout the latter's tenure as the director of AAVSO. The proximity of the plate stacks and AAVSO offices made it convenient for them to spend frequent lunch hours together, almost invariably discussing problems in administering the AAVSO. Both the authors of this obituary can testify, as former AAVSO presidents, to the importance of Martha's support and advice for Janet, and to the importance of her role behind the scenes in AAVSO activities for many years. AAVSO honored Martha for this service by presenting her their 37th Merit Award. After her first marriage ended in divorce in 1982, Martha married Bruce McHenry, a retired career professional from the National Park Service, in 1991. That their relationship was a happy and fulfilling one is attested by the many friends Bruce made among Martha's astronomical associates. Their extensive travel together frequently involved Bruce's continuing professional interest in natural-history interpretation, but also touched many astronomical bases. Their travels also took the happy couple to the sites of many old canals, an

  6. Obituary: William L. Kraushaar, 1920-2008 (United States)

    Clark, George W.


    rays with interstellar matter are most abundant. It also demonstrated the existence of extra-galactic gamma-ray sources that have since been identified as giant black holes at the centers of distant galaxies. The OSO 3 experiment opened the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, which has become one of the most active areas of space research. Upon his move to Wisconsin, Kraushaar established a research group in the new area of X-ray astronomy. Using instruments flown on "sounding" rockets, he and his colleagues produced the first all-sky map of low-energy X rays that revealed the spatial distribution of million-degree interstellar gas. They extended these results in several satellite experiments. Kraushaar was appointed the Max Mason Professor of Physics in 1980. Kraushaar was a fellow of the American Physical Society, and a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received Fulbright and Guggenheim fellowships and the Senior Scientist Award of the Humboldt Foundation. He served on numerous advisory committees of the National Academy of Sciences and NASA. Kraushaar co-authored with Professor Uno Ingard a college text, Introduction to Mechanics, Matter, and Waves. After his retirement, Kraushaar moved to Maine where he resided in Scarborough with summers at his cabin in Denmark, Maine. He is survived by his wife, the former Elizabeth Rodgers, and by three children from his first marriage. This obituary is based on an article that appeared in the 2 April 2008 edition of MIT Tech Talk.

  7. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.


    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  8. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses. (United States)

    Becerra-Fajardo, Laura; Ivorra, Antoni


    Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible.

  9. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008 (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain


    papers that are still standard references in the field today. In the last 15 years, Andrew became an avid proponent of two of NASA's Great Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Since 1985, he was NASA Interdisciplinary Scientist and member of the Science Working Group for the Chandra X-ray Observatory. He was also an adjunct astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore since 1994. Taking advantage of this leap in technology, Andrew used these facilities to examine the environment of black holes in unprecedented detail and led a research group that was second to none in this area of research. Over the years, Andrew trained and supervised twelve Ph.D. students and more than fifteen postdoctoral research scientists, all of whom are active members of the astronomical community today. This group's work on nearby radio galaxies (e.g., Cygnus A, M87, and Pictor A) and Seyfert galaxies (e.g., the Circinus galaxy, NGC 1068, NGC 4151, and NGC 4258) is simply outstanding, a monument to Andrew's passion and perseverance to seek a complete physical understanding of the AGN phenomenon. Andrew was at his best in one-on-one discussions. He did not beat around the bush. He was always direct, frank, and honest, all for the sake of better science. He also never did anything halfway. Andrew was fully devoted to his science and held himself and others to the highest intellectual standards. He inspired many by his example, his discipline, and a sense of humor that was equally charming and disarming. The twinkle in his eyes and mischievous smile were sure signs that he was about to say something provocative and witty. Andrew will be dearly missed by the entire astronomical community. I thank Andrew's wife and brother, Kaija and Martin Wilson, for their assistance in writing this obituary.

  10. Obituary: Robert Mowbray Walker, 1929-2004 (United States)

    Schoenherr, Neil T.


    spectacular results. Chief among these was the identification and characterization of stellar condensates in meteorites, which opened a window into stellar evolution and the creation of the heavier elements. Always in pursuit of more powerful ways to analyze small amounts of material, Walker devoted the last years of his life to the implementation of nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) promoting the development, acquisition and application of the most advanced instrument of its kind. This effort was rewarded with the discovery, which he had forecast years earlier, of presolar silicate grains in interplanetary dust particles. The Robert M. Walker Symposium at the University in March 2003 honored his contributions and achievements. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973. Among his other honors are the E.O. Lawrence Memorial Award of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the J. Lawrence Smith medal of the National Academy of Sciences, the Leonard medal of the Meteoritical Society and the Antarctic Service Medal. He received honorary doctorates from Union College (1967), the French University of Clermont-Ferrand (1975) and Washington University (2004). He was also one of the founders, and first president, of VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance), an organization that provides technological expertise to third world countries. Walker and his wife maintained a residence in St. Louis County but in 2001, Bob became a part time visiting professor at the University of Brussels. It was in Brussels that his fatal illness was correctly diagnosed. In addition to his wife, Walker is survived by his sons, Eric and Mark Walker; and three grandchildren. His most important legacy will remain the sizable number of students, postdocs, and colleagues within the meteoritic and cosmochemist communities that he mentored and inspired. Portions of this obituary are based upon one given in the on-line Record of Washington University and another published by Floss

  11. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988 (United States)

    Milone, E. F.


    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  12. OBITUARY Chris Beling, 1955-2010 (United States)

    Coleman, P. G.


    This short tribute to Chris Beling, who died in July 2010 at the age of 54, is written on behalf of all members of the positron research community, by whom he was much loved and admired. Obituary Picture 1 Chris Beling, a much respected and admired member of the positron research community who was a familiar face at SLOPOS and other positron conferences over the past three decades, suffered heart failure as he swam out to rescue his younger brother Jeremy while holidaying in his home town of Paignton, in the southwest of England, on June 18 2010. Chris gained a first-class honours degree in physics at Keble College, Oxford, in 1977, and his PhD in Radiation Physics from the University of London in 1981. His postdoctoral research, performed with Alan Smith at St Bart's Medical College in London, focussed on positron studies of liquids [1]. His appointment as a lecturer at University College London in 1983 marked the beginning of his research involving positron beams [2] which was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1987 he moved to the University of Hong Kong (HKU), where he became professor of physics in 2007, working with Professor Steve Fung (with whom he studied at Oxford) and later with Francis Ling. During his 23 years in Hong Kong Chris developed his research interests, concentrating principally on positron beam studies of semiconductors [3]. His brother Jeremy commented that 'moving to Hong Kong was the making of Chris; he found love and happiness'. Chris's research interests reflected the deep intellectual interest he had in his work. He maintained a strong interest in developing the capabilities of positron beam systems - initially by proposing models for field-assisted moderators to increase slow positron yields [4] and later by constructing a hybrid magnetic/electrostatic beam [5] and scanning annihilation spectroscopy [6], among other imaginative advances. His interests in semiconductor physics led him to develop a positron technique analogous to

  13. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources. (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F


    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  14. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004 (United States)

    Danielson, G. Edward


    Agoura Hills, California and Susan Stroll of Eagle Rock, California; and an uncle, Eddy Westphal of Indiana. A portion of this obituary was taken from a tribute by Robert Tindol published September 14, 2004 in an electronic Caltech Newsletter.

  15. Obituary: Bohdan Paczynski, 1940-2007 (United States)

    Spergel, David


    would like to thank Bruce Draine and Jeremiah Ostriker for their assistance in writing this obituary. The photograph is by Robert P. Matthews, Princeton University (1989).

  16. Obituary: John Allen Eddy (1931-2009) (United States)

    Gingerich, Owen


    and eventual impacts of environmental changes of all kinds. In 2004 they moved to Tucson, where Eddy worked for NASA at the National Solar Observatory until the time of his death. Author's Note: A principal source of information is the interview with John A. Eddy by Spencer Weart on 21 April 1999, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA, See also the obituary by Peter Foukal in Physics Today, January 2010, pp. 60-61.

  17. Addressing Therapeutic Options for Ebola Virus Infection in Current and Future Outbreaks. (United States)

    Haque, Azizul; Hober, Didier; Blondiaux, Joel


    Ebola virus can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality rates. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent or vaccine has been approved for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus infection of humans. Although the number of Ebola cases has fallen in the last few weeks, multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus infection and the likelihood of future exposure highlight the need for development and rapid evaluation of pre- and postexposure treatments. Here, we briefly review the existing and future options for anti-Ebola therapy, based on the data coming from rare clinical reports, studies on animals, and results from in vitro models. We also project the mechanistic hypotheses of several potential drugs against Ebola virus, including small-molecule-based drugs, which are under development and being tested in animal models or in vitro using various cell types. Our paper discusses strategies toward identifying and testing anti-Ebola virus properties of known and medically approved drugs, especially those that can limit the pathological inflammatory response in Ebola patients and thereby provide protection from mortality. We underline the importance of developing combinational therapy for better treatment outcomes for Ebola patients.

  18. Obituary: Allan R. Sandage (1926-2010) (United States)

    Devorkin, David


    , - Homepage News - Tribute to a Pioneering Cosmologist.mht] Sandage deeply believed that true "knowledge . . . came directly from the sky rather than by dialectic discussion or revelation." [Allan Sandage, "Edwin Hubble 1889-1953" JRASC 83 #6 (December 1989)] With convictions like these it is not surprising that cross-over physicists who engaged him, such as Edwin Salpeter, expressed amazement that Sandage could command resources available to no other astronomer, or that he could sit on invaluable catalogue data for years before releasing it as a whole argument. [Interview of Edwin Salpeter by Spencer Weart, 30 March 1978, AIP.] Colleagues, writers and historians who encountered him during his mature years consistently remarked on his competitiveness and fierce defense of his results. At the end of a long and passionate essay on Edwin Hubble in 1989, Sandage coyly remarked on the present state of the Hubble Constant, "But it must be fairly pointed out that some astronomers, not believing the problem of the distance scale has been solved by the results of the 200-inch programme from 1950 to 1980, have suggested that the value of the Hubble constant can be determined to the satisfaction of the skeptics only by the future use of the Hubble Space Telescope. For this one suspects that Hubble might have been pleased." [Allan Sandage, "Edwin Hubble 1889-1953" JRASC 83 #6 (December 1989)] Though not formally religious early on, Sandage became deeply spiritual in his outlook on life and the universe, and on the practice of astronomy. As Donald Lynden-Bell commented in an online Guardian obituary, "Sandage believed that he was discovering the age of creation ..." [9 December 2010, "Allan Sandage Obituary"] And in a 2002 essay for the "Truth Journal," Sandage revealed that he believed that astronomical discovery had theological significance. He took as an example the Big Bang, was it akin to the search

  19. Obituary: David Q. Wark, 1918-2002 (United States)

    McMillin, Larry Max


    David Q. Wark, a research meteorologist at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NESDIS) and its predecessor organizations for 55 years, died of cancer 30 July 2002. He will be long remembered for his seminal contributions to the weather satellite program. A pioneer in the use of satellite sensors to provide observations of the Earth's environment for application to weather forecasting and atmospheric science, Dr. Wark was noted for his brilliant insights, dedication, and exceptional scientific achievements. He developed many of the theoretical and experimental techniques on which NOAA's current multi- billion-dollar meteorological satellite program is based. In the 1960's and early 1970's, he and his NOAA colleague Donald Hilleary were the motivating force and principal investigators for the first satellite instruments dedicated to sounding the atmosphere for temperature and water-vapor. These instruments included the Satellite Infra-Red Spectrometer (SIRS)-A and -B and the Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer (VTPR), which were flown on NASA's Nimbus satellites and NOAA's ITOS-D satellites, respectively. With colleague Henry Fleming, he formulated the radiative transfer equation that quantifies the spectral radiances of the Earth and its atmosphere (measured at satellite altitude) and inverted that equation mathematically to infer the atmospheric temperature profile from satellite-based measurements of those radiances. A difficulty they had to overcome was that the mathematical problem is ill-posed, i.e., it admits of an infinite number of solutions. They arrived at a unique solution via an innovative application of a-priori information on the atmospheric state. This work was described in the landmark 1965 Wark and Fleming paper in the American Meteorological Society's Monthly Weather Review. From that early period until just weeks before his death, Dr. Wark continued

  20. Obituary: Ernest Hurst Cherrington, Jr., 1909-1996 (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.


    Ernest H. Cherrington, Jr., a long-time member of the AAS, died in San Jose, California on 13 July 1996, following a long illness. He had a short but active career as a research astronomer at Perkins Observatory at Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio before World War II, in which he served as an officer in the Army Air Force. After the war ended he turned to full-time teaching and administration at the University of Akron, and then at Hood College in Frederick, Maryland. Ernest was born on 10 September 1909 in Westerville, Ohio, where his father, Ernest H. Cherrington, Sr., was a leader in the temperance movement and publisher of "American Issue", a Prohibitionist magazine. Ernest Jr.'s mother, Betty Clifford (née Denny) Cherrington, was a homemaker. He was an outstanding student in high school and at Ohio Wesleyan University, which he entered in 1927. The little university's Perkins Observatory with its 69-inch reflector, briefly the second largest telescope in the United States, had just been built and gone into operation. After graduating with a BA magna cum laude in astronomy in 1931, Ernest stayed on one more year and earned his MS with a thesis on the motion of material in the tail of Comet Morehouse, supervised by Nicholas T. Bobrovnikoff. In 1932 Ernest entered the University of California at Berkeley as a graduate student, with a one-year teaching assistantship in the Astronomical Department. This was followed by a two-year Lick Observatory Fellowship. In June 1933 he married Ann McAfee Naylor, who had been a classmate at Delaware High School and Ohio Wesleyan. Ernest did his PhD thesis on spectrophotometry of the Mg I b lines in the solar spectrum, using a high-resolution grating spectrograph on the Berkeley campus, designed by C. Donald Shane, his adviser. In this thesis, Ernest tested and improved the then current theory of strong absorption lines in stellar atmospheres. He also spent several short periods at Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton

  1. Obituary: Patrick L. Nolan (1952-2011) (United States)

    Digel, Seth


    Patrick Lee Nolan died at his home in Palo Alto, California, on November 6, 2011, from complications related to a brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, which had been diagnosed less than five months earlier. He was born in Colusa, California, on November 18, 1952. Pat was the only child of John Henry Nolan and Carol Lee Harris Nolan. For most of his childhood they lived in Grass Valley, California, where his father was a butcher and his mother was a surgical nurse. Pat graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 1974 with a B.S. in Physics and completed a Ph.D. at the University of California at San Diego in 1982. His graduate and professional career was devoted to high-energy astronomy. His loss is being keenly felt by his friends and colleagues around the world, including the members of the Chancel Choir of the Menlo Park Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member for 25 years. At U. C. San Diego, Pat worked on construction of the Hard X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment for the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory mission, which was launched in 1977. His Ph.D. thesis, supervised by Prof. Laurence E. Peterson, was based on data from this instrument and addressed variability of the high-energy emission from Cygnus X-1 and other black hole binary systems in the Milky Way. After he completed his Ph.D., Pat took a National Research Council postdoctoral research position at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. He worked there from 1982-1984 developing spectral analysis software and studying gamma-ray bursts using the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. A paper in Nature setting constraining limits on positron-electron annihilation radiation in the spectra of bursts marked the culmination of his efforts. Pat was hired by Prof. Robert Hofstadter at Stanford University in 1984 to work on the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). As a co-investigator for EGRET, Pat worked on its calorimeter

  2. OBITUARY: Professor Jan Evetts in memoriam (United States)

    Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Glowacki, Bartek


    It is with great sadness that we report the death of Jan Evetts, who lost his second battle with cancer on 18 August 2005. In 1988 he was appointed Founding Editor of this journal where his leadership created the foundation upon which its success rests today. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials, and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the scientific community is incalculable, as is attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' embryonic superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for applications in magnets. Competing theories for the critical current density at that time were fine filaments or `Mendelssohn Sponge' versus the pinning of Abrikosov quantized vortices. The results of the group's work, to which Jan made a major contribution, came down heavily in favour of the latter theory. Jan's outstanding characteristic was his

  3. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006 (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin


    Hugo Schwarz died in a motorcycle accident on 20 October 2006 near his home in La Serena, Chile. At the time of his death he was a staff astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and President of IAU Commission 50 (The Protection of Existing and Potential Observatory Sites). After Hugo's half-brother Frans died when Hugo was an infant, he effectively grew up as an only child. One consequence was that Hugo became an avid reader. He once estimated that he had read between 3,000 and 4,000 books. He also moved around a great deal. For most of the first seven years of his life, Hugo lived in Venezuela because his father worked for Shell Oil Company. According to Hugo's count, he had a total of 43 different addresses in his life. This gave him experience with different cultures and a facility with several languages. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Spanish, and English, and knew some French. He was very fond of quoting his father's sayings in Dutch and liked to relate stories filled with Chilean-slang to people who understood neither, providing translations that retained the cleverness of the originals. While on holiday in Scotland in 1974, Hugo decided to enroll in the Glasgow College of Technology, as it was then known. A year later he transferred to the University of Glasgow, where he earned his BSc (1979) and PhD (officially in 1984). From 1982 to 1986 he worked on X-ray detectors for X-ray astronomy at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, south of London. In 1986 Hugo, his first wife Catriona (Cat), and their two children departed for Chile, where Hugo worked as a staff astronomer for the European Southern Observatory. Over the next nine years he spent over 1,300 nights at La Silla. A big change occurred in 1995 when Hugo moved to La Palma in the Canary Islands to be Astronomer in Charge of the Nordic Optical Telescope. He was very proud of having organized a team of astronomers and technicians who made the NOT into a valuable research facility with minimal

  4. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010) (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul


    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as

  5. Obituary: Thomas Michael Donahue, 1921-2004 (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamás I.


    Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, and Cassini. Based on observations by the Pioneer Venus entry probe, he concluded that Venus once had an ocean before a runaway greenhouse effect led to its current state. Analyzing similar data from Martian meteorites, he again argued for a substantial Martian ocean, anticipating the current series of missions to Mars. In these and many other cases he laid the foundation for our current understanding of planetary atmospheres. In 1999, Tom described his career this way, "I parlayed my training in atomic physics into a faculty position at Pitt, doing research in aeronomy and laboratory studies of atomic physics. This led to rocket and satellite exploration of the upper atmosphere of Earth in the 60s and spacecraft exploration of Mars, Venus and the Outer Planets beginning in the 70s. Along the way my students, post-docs and I were deeply involved in the problem of anthropogenic destruction of the stratospheric ozone in the early 70s. This led to my continuing interest in global change." Throughout his life Tom retained a keen interest in the history of his family in Ireland, as his mother and grandfather both emigrated from County Kerry. He studied oral and written sources, writing as early as 1942 on the family and the early history of the Eóghanachta Rathleinn. Recently his efforts supported the establishment of the international O'Donoghue society, in particular spearheading a project that continues to reveal fresh detail about family migrations from the High Kings to the Cromwellian period. Tom brought his powerful intellect and drive to a broad range of lifelong passions beyond science. Fluent in several languages, from classical Greek to modern Irish, he was also widely read in American, Irish and French history and literature, and was an exacting student of French wine. He loved classical and folk music, often singing hundreds of songs for his family in keys only he knew. A devotee of tennis, he continued playing weekly matches until early

  6. Obituary: Leverett Davis, Jr., 1914-2003 (United States)

    Jokipii, Jack Randolph


    of the heliosphere is not yet known for certain, but is certainly greater than some 90 AU (the current distance to the Voyager 1 spacecraft), and probably of the order of, or perhaps greater than, 100 AU. Observational and theoretical investigations of the boundary of this cavity are currently a very active area of research. In the 1960's, Davis's interests in astrophysical and solar magnetic fields, energetic particles and plasmas led naturally to investigations in the new field of space physics, where observations from spacecraft were revolutionizing our understanding. He wrote important papers unraveling the basic physical processes governing the motions of trapped particles in the radiation belts of planets such as the Earth and Jupiter. This work led naturally to his deep involvement in the early space program, where detailed in situ observations of these phenomena became possible. He became a consultant to one of the early companies developing spacecraft, and this led to a number of pioneering contributions to our understanding of interplanetary space. Davis was one of the true pioneers in the exploration of the plasmas and their associated magnetic fields in space using in situ observations from spacecraft, which began in the late 1950's. He participated effectively as a co-investigator in several of the early planetary missions to Venus in 1962 (Mariner 2), to Mars in 1964 (Mariner4), to Jupiter in 1973-74 (Pioneer10, 11) and to Saturn in 1989 (Pioneer11). The Pioneer spacecraft returned data for nearly 30 years, until the last signal was received from Pioneer 10 in 2002. He continued working on spacecraft data until the early 1980's when he retired. In both his personal and professional life, Davis was a man of very high standards and great personal integrity. He was a devoted family man who enjoyed nothing more than a road trip including camping, with his family. He was serious about his work and responsibilities, but also had a subtly infectious sense of

  7. Obituary: John W. Firor (1927-2007) (United States)

    Gilman, Peter A.


    John W. Firor, a former Director of the High Altitude Observatory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and a founder of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society, died of Alzheimer's disease in Pullman, Washington on November 5, 2007, he was 80. He was born in Athens Georgia on October 18, 1927, where his father was a professor of agricultural economics. John had an unusually diverse scientific career. His interest in physics and astrophysics began while serving in the army, during which time he was assigned to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he guarded highly radioactive materials (many have heard him describe how informal the protections were compared to later times). After his service he returned to college and graduated in physics from Georgia Tech in 1949. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1954, writing his thesis on cosmic rays under John Simpson. John Firor would later remark that: "If you needed cosmic rays to actually do anything, you are sunk." That thought, partly in jest, may help explain his motivation for moving to so many new scientific and management pursuits. John moved from cosmic ray physics to radio astronomy (particularly of the Sun) when he began work at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where he remained until 1961. During this time, he met Walter Orr Roberts, then the Director of the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) in Boulder, Colorado. HAO was then affiliated with the University of Colorado. In 1959, a movement began to upgrade the atmospheric sciences in the United States by establishing a National Center, where the largest, most important atmospheric research problems could be addressed. Roberts became the first Director of NCAR, as well as the first president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the consortium of universities that was commissioned to manage and staff the new Center. HAO became a

  8. Obituary: Geoffrey R. Burbidge (1925-2010) (United States)

    Wolfe, Arthur


    Geoffrey R. Burbidge, one of the principal architects of 20th century astrophysics, died in La Jolla, California on January 26, 2010. Together with his wife and life-long collaborator, Margaret Burbidge and several leading astrophysicists, he originated ideas that remain at the core of current astrophysical research. He was, of course, co-author of B2FH (Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler, & Hoyle 1957), one of the most influential scientific papers ever written, which explained how elements heavier than helium are synthesized in the interiors of stars. Geoff Burbidge's research interests spanned a wide range of topics. He was the first to estimate the colossal energetics of extragalactic radio sources. Together with Margaret and Kevin Prendergast he initiated the first systematic program to measure the masses of galaxies from their rotation curves. He published research that effectively began the field of "active galactic nuclei," and he made the fundamental suggestion that galactic X-ray sources were powered by viscous transport of energy in accretion disks surrounding neutron stars or black holes in binary star systems. After the discovery of quasars in 1963, he wrote influential papers on gravitational collapse as their energy source and an excellent book summarizing research on this subject. During the latter part of his career Geoff Burbidge became known as the "great contrarian" who remained skeptical about the cosmological origin of quasar redshifts and rejected the big bang theory. He was author of 355 publications. Geoff was born in 1925 September in Chipping Norton Oxfordshire, where he grew up and developed a lifelong passion for tennis. He attended the yearly matches at Wimbledon with his father, a ritual he maintained for most of his life. In 1946 he got his undergraduate degree in physics at the University of Bristol. After graduating he was assigned for eighteen months to a government ballistics laboratory in London where he became an expert in testing

  9. Obituary: Ludwig Friedrich Oster, 1931-2003 (United States)

    Sofia, Sabatino; Altschuler, Martin D.


    cyclotron radiation, plasma oscillations and bremsstrahlung radiation have become classic publications in plasma physics and they continue to be referenced in the current literature. During this period he started his student mentoring work that led to the awarding of several PhD degrees. At Boulder, he extended his work on solar and plasma physics to the newly discovered quasars and pulsars. He loved to study and understand the mysterious and the puzzling phenomena, which the Universe so generously provides. While at Goddard, he joined the effort to understand the variations in total solar irradiance then recently discovered by the Nimbus 7 satellite and the ACRIM experiment on the SMM satellite. He made significant contributions to that problem, particularly regarding the ultraviolet radiation component, and continued to work on it after he had joined the NSF as a science administrator. He published his last scientific paper in 1983, after having joined NSF. Ludwig was a great teacher and an even greater friend. He taught courses including electromagnetic theory, relativistic theory of radiation, quantum mechanics, solar physics and radio astronomy among others. He wrote an introductory textbook in astronomy that was translated into several languages. He directed PhD theses in a variety of topics. Best of all, he instilled in his students a sense of curiosity and confidence that lasted for a lifetime. He used to say, ``if what you think disagrees with the opinion of well-known astronomers, do not simply assume that you are wrong and they are right. It may well be that you are right! Think carefully about it." That advice has served all of us, his former students, well. We will miss his cheerful disposition, his friendliness, and his never- ending curiosity.

  10. Obituary: Geoffrey Gardner Douglass, 1942-2005 (United States)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William; Corbin, Thomas


    Geoffrey Gardner Douglass passed away on 15 February 2005, following a long illness. Geoff was born 11 June 1942 in Rocky River, Ohio, and grew up there with a passion for science, theatre, and pets. He attended the nearby Case Institute of Technology (Cleveland, Ohio) before coming to the U.S. Naval Observatory on 28 April 1967. He worked at the USNO for over 30 years, until his retirement in January 1999. He was involved in the observing and measurement of parallax and double star plates on the SAMM and MANN measuring engines, and was stationed at Blenheim, New Zealand from 1985-1988 working at the Black Birch site on the Twin Astrograph Telescope. While there he and his wife Doris travelled extensively throughout New Zealand and Australia, He later worked with an early iteration of the USNO StarScan measuring machine. However, most of his work involved observations of visual double stars with the USNO 26-inch Clark Refractor, collaborating with F.J. ("Jerry") Josties on the photographic program in the late 1960s to the development of the USNO's speckle interferometry program throughout the 1990s. Geoff collaborated closely with Charles Worley from 1968 until Charles's death in December 1997, writing much of the double star software and assisting in the production of the USNO's double star catalogs. This was a period of transition, when some 200,000 punch cards of the Lick IDS (Index Catalog of Double Stars) were transferred from Lick Observatory to the USNO, then converted to magnetic tape. This ultimately resulted in the 1984 WDS catalog (currently maintained online). It was often joked that the "W" and "D" in the WDS (officially the "Washington Double Star" catalog) really stood for "Worley" and "Douglass." The "Curmudgeon" and the "Dour Scot" were a team for nearly thirty years. Geoff's first observation, of BU 442, was made 2 June 1967 with the USNO double star (photographic) camera, and his last, STF 342, was made on 28 November 1998 with the USNO speckle

  11. Obituary: Dipak Basu (1939-2011) (United States)

    Basu, Joydeep


    Dipak Basu was born in Dhaka in 1939, during a tumultuous period of history in what was then undivided India. During the partition of the country at independence from Britain, he and his family fled the internecine violence as refugees, with only the proverbial clothes on their backs, eventually settling in Kolkata, West Bengal. Being interested in the physical sciences from an early age, Dipak spent his student years at the University of Kolkata, achieving his PhD in physics in 1967. During this time, Dipak was also actively involved in the promotion of science to the broader Bengali community, and played a leading role in the amateur scientific society founded by S.N. Bose (of Bose-Einstein statistics fame). He then came to Ottawa as a post-doctoral fellow in radio astronomy with what is currently the NRC's Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, where he worked with Art Covington's solar flux monitoring group from 1967 to 1969. He remained interested in solar studies throughout his entire career. It is at this time that he also developed a keen interest in quasars (QSOs) which had only recently been discovered and whose red-shifts had been suggested by some to show evidence of quantization. Throughout his career he published several papers attempting to prove there was no valid evidence to support this suggestion. Dipak became Assistant Professor shortly thereafter in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at MacKenzie University in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1970. He then joined the Department of Physics at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad in 1978. There, he achieved tenure and founded and led the Astronomy Group and spent the major part of his professional academic life. A dedicated teacher, Dipak taught a variety of undergraduate and doctoral level courses in fields ranging from electronics, radio astronomy and astrophysics to electronics, optics, thermodynamics and applied mathematics. Dipak returned to Ottawa in 1995. He continued to be fully engaged in

  12. Obituary Analysis of Early 20th Century Marriage and Family Patterns in Northwest Ohio. (United States)

    Matcha, Duane A.


    A content analysis of obituary notices spanning a one-year period. Examined marital and family patterns such as age at marriage, length of marriage, marital status at time of death, and other factors. Single women had the highest average age at death. Patterns were less consistent among men. (RJM)

  13. Pakistani English Newspaper Paid Obituary Announcements: A Descriptive Analysis of the Transliterated Vocabulary (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.


    The study, qualitative and descriptive in nature, examines the use of transliteration in the paid Pakistani obituary announcements authored in the English language. Primarily, it identifies the frequently used transliterated vocabulary in these linguistic messages and reconnoiters the functional relationship that emerges in and between the textual…

  14. The Last Judgement: Exploring Intellectual Leadership in Higher Education through Academic Obituaries (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce; Chan, Roy Y.


    The literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on senior academic leaders with managerial roles. It largely excludes informal and distributed forms of intellectual leadership offered by full professors among others. This article explores the concept of intellectual leadership using academic obituaries. A total of 63 obituaries…

  15. Dead Academics: What Can We Learn about Academic Work and Life from Obituaries? (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm


    This article analyses the obituaries of 100 academics published in the British quality press in 2007 to see what they tell us about the changing nature of contemporary academic work, and how it is presented in this particular genre of writing. It concludes that the influence of Oxbridge and the American higher education system, and the dominance…

  16. Obituary: Douglas H. Sampson, 1925-2002 (United States)

    Mészáros, Peter; Clark, Robert E. H.; Zhang, Honglin; Fontes, Christopher J.


    . In this way, he was able to generate cross sections for iso-electronic sequences with affordable computational time. He applied this method to both electron-impact excitation and ionization. This important work took place when computational power was a small fraction of current standards and it allowed relatively massive amounts of cross section data to be calculated for a variety of ions with application to astrophysics and fusion research. By 1985 Doug turned his attention to treating the electron-ion collision problem in a fully relativistic manner, in support of X-ray laser research. He and his research group developed an approach and associated computer programs, including an atomic structure program and electron-impact excitation and ionization programs that were based on solving the Dirac equation. His efforts were also devoted to making the computer codes very efficient so they could rapidly produce large amounts of data. At this time supercomputers were becoming more accessible, which provided much-needed computer power for a fully relativistic treatment of heavier elements. However, a brute force approach was still not feasible and Doug was able to apply a number of numerical procedures that greatly reduced the required computing time while preserving the accuracy of the calculations. This sustained effort (spanning about 17 years) resulted in a suite of robust codes that can be used to determine fundamental atomic cross sections or rates for a wide variety of plasma modeling applications. In addition, Sampson applied the fitting procedures to vast quantities of these relativistic data, making them readily available to a broad audience of researchers. Both of these non-relativistic and fully relativistic approaches, along with the associated computer codes, are currently in use at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory to model the high-temperature plasmas produced there. Although his

  17. Obituary: John Leroy Climenhaga, 1916-2008 (United States)

    Scarfe, Colin


    John Leroy Climenhaga was born on 7 November 1916 on a farm some 10 km from Delisle, a small town on the Canadian prairies, located about 50 km south-west of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and died at his home in Victoria, British Columbia, on 27 May 2008. His parents, Reuben and Elizabeth (nee Bert) Climenhaga, were farming folk, and he carried their honest and open attitude to the world throughout his life. John was the seventh born, and last to die, of their ten children. His father also served as an ordained minister of the Brethren in Christ. In early adulthood, John worked on his father's farm, but then attended the University of Saskatchewan, obtaining a B.A. with Honors in Mathematics and Physics and an M.A. in Physics, in 1945 and 1949 respectively. Between these events he worked as a Physics Instructor at Regina College from 1946 to 1948. In 1949 Climenhaga joined the faculty of Victoria College, as one of only two physicists in a small institution that was then part of the University of British Columbia. He remained in Victoria for the rest of his career, playing a major role in the College's growth into a full-fledged university, complete with thriving graduate programs in physics and astronomy as well as in many other fields. He served as Head of the Physics Department during the 1960s, a period which saw the College become the University of Victoria, with a full undergraduate program in Physics, and campaigned successfully for the establishment of a program in Astronomy, which began in 1965. From 1969 until 1972 he held the position of Dean of Arts and Science, and championed the university's participation in the Tri-University Meson Facility, whose high-current medium-energy beam was ideal for the production and study of mesons and their physics. That period was a turbulent one in the university's history, but John's integrity and his balanced and fair-minded approach to conflicts were of immeasurable importance in steering the young institution through it

  18. Obituary: Lawrence Hugh Aller, 1913-2003 (United States)

    Kaler, James B.


    physics to the observations, which he ardently sought. Little pleased him more than gathering photons, except perhaps for making atomic calculations with which he could analyze spectra. His real love was gaseous nebulae, specifically planetary nebulae (which he called his ``hobby"), the graceful shells of gas surrounding dying stars that are making their transitions to becoming white dwarfs. His range of simultaneous research projects was staggering. Having been an undergraduate student at Michigan in the late 1950s, I followed him to UCLA to work on my doctorate. When I arrived, I found him engaged in stellar spectroscopy, solar research, nebular theory, nebular observations (he tossed a box of plates at me and said in effect, ``here is your thesis"), and of all things Mie scattering theory to explain the zodiacal light! A list of his discoveries and influences is impressive. A sample: Lawrence played a major role in Menzel's group, which produced the famed ``Physical Processes in Gaseous Nebulae," an 18-part series that ran in the Astrophysical Journal from 1937 to 1945 and that explained nebular spectra. He was among the first to promulgate what in the 1940s was utter heresy, that the chemical compositions of stars could differ from one another. He was the first to observe gradients in spiral galaxies, which ultimately turned out to be the result of abundance variations. David Bohm and Lawrence established the existence of Maxwellian velocity distributions in nebular plasmas. Leo Goldberg, Edith Müller, and he were instrumental in establishing the chemical composition of the Sun. His observations of planetaries were legion. Never content with current observational and analytical capabilities, he sought out the latest equipment, from image tubes through CCDs to the best computers, ever looking ahead. His work was honored in 1992, when he received the American Astronomical Society's Russell Prize. Perhaps Lawrence's greatest legacy involved his teaching and writing. At

  19. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004 (United States)

    Bash, Frank N.


    distances. This relation between angular diameters and a V-R color index is called the Barnes-Evans Relation. Tom Barnes gives most of the credit to Evans, but said that David insisted that the authors be listed in alphabetical order. This work was greeted with initial skepticism but it stimulated an enormous amount of interest and has been used to measure distances to 100 Cepheid variable stars in our galaxy. The method gives a distance to one of them, Delta Cephei, that agrees closely with recently measured parallaxes using HST. The Barnes-Evans method yields distances which are accurate to a few percent and is applicable to Cepheids in nearby galaxies. Before coming to Texas, David Evans had never given a large lecture course at a university, and his efforts met with mixed success especially in introductory classes for freshmen facing a "science requirement." David had considerably more success supervising PhD dissertations. He was supervisor for four. He was promoted to the position of Jack S. Josey Centennial Professor of Astronomy in 1984, which is the position he held until his retirement in 1986. He was awarded the Gill Medal of the Astronomical Society of South Africa in 1988. David Evans had a remarkable facility for language, especially English. He was an author of eight books including a 1966 edition of "Teach Yourself Astronomy", which was an introduction to astronomy and an inspiration to a number of currently active astronomers. He also loved history, especially of Southern Hemisphere astronomy but also of the McDonald Observatory. In fact, David continued to be very active after retirement and when he died he had completed a book (with Karen Winget) on the eclipse expedition to Mauritania, which is not yet printed.

  20. Obituary: Edmond M. Reeves, 1934-2008 (United States)

    Noyes, Robert; Parkinson, William


    infrared solar spectrum in 1951, recognized at around 180 nm the prominent CO features in the shock tube spectra and in the solar spectra. The identification was confirmed by comparing the high-temperature laboratory spectra with published solar spectra taken by the Naval Research Laboratory with a rocket-borne spectrograph. Ed's work for the Solar Satellite Project included planning and carrying out laboratory, Vacuum UV absolute-intensity calibrations of the early rocket and satellite spectrometers. He set the requirement that the solar spectroscopic instruments have radiometric calibrations in the Vacuum UV, traceable to a laboratory standard. The space missions began with rocket experiments in the early 1960s, progressed to the Orbiting Solar Observatory [OSO] program in the mid-1960s, and culminated in the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer on the Apollo Telescope Mount [ATM] of the Skylab missions in 1973 and 1974. Ed received NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 1974. This sequence of space instruments laid much of the early groundwork for our current understanding of the outer solar atmosphere. For example, the OSO observations revealed for the first time coronal "holes," which we now know are the seat of the fast solar wind. Another experiment of particular interest and importance to solar physics resulted from the launch of a rocket-borne objective grating spectrograph into the path of totality of a solar eclipse from Wallops Island, Virginia, on 7 March 1970. This lucky "rocket group" included Ralph Nicholls from York University, Canada; Reg Garton and Bob Speer from Imperial College, London; Bob Wilson, then from Culham in the UK; and, of course, Leo Goldberg and colleagues from HCO, a group made up of mentors, advisors, teachers, and friends of Ed's. The eclipse spectrogram revealed strong emission from neutral hydrogen (Lyman-alpha) in the solar corona. The discovery of the Lyman-alpha corona inspired the project for a Lyman-alpha coronagraph

  1. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004 (United States)

    Dermott, Stanley F.


    physically in the inner ear and not in the brain was largely ignored at the time, but has since been proved correct. At about the same time, he started work with Bondi and Hoyle on the steady state theory of the universe. This attractive hypothesis, which was proposed by Tommy, supposes that the universe is infinite in both time and space, but to reconcile this with Hubble's observations of receding galaxies, matter needs to be created continuously. This struck the trio as no more shocking than creating all of the matter all at once. Tommy stated that "in choosing a hypothesis there is no virtue in being timid." The steady state theory stimulated one of the greatest cosmological debates of the twentieth century. The initial opposition to the theory, led by Martin Ryle, was based on number counts of radio sources. Current observations, particularly of the thermal cosmic background radiation, support the rival theory that Hoyle derisively named the Big Bang. The rivalry stimulated much observational radio astronomy and theoretical work on the origin of elements; one positive outcome for Tommy was that he argued that some of the radio sources observed by Ryle must be external to our galaxy and in that, he was certainly correct. Some of the other problems that engaged Tommy can also be traced back to early conversations with Bondi and Hoyle. In 1955, Hoyle outlined "Gold's pore theory" and the abiogenic origin of hydrocarbons in his book Frontiers of Astronomy, contrasting those ideas with the "curious theory that oil is derived from dead fish." In later years, Tommy was to expand on those ideas, linking the origin of all hydrocarbons to primordial processes that survived the formation of the Earth and Moon. The observation that all petroleum contains clear signatures of biological activity led him to propose that the Earth has a "deep hot biosphere" and it is the action of microbes feeding on methane seeping up from deep in the mantle that gives petroleum the imprint of life

  2. Obituary: Theodore Siegumfeldt Jacobsen, 1901-2003 (United States)

    Kraft, Robert Paul; Wallerstein, George


    , but it was not until 1948 that astronomy was split off from mathematics, at which time Jacobsen became chair and sole member of the new Astronomy Department. During the World War II years, he taught navigation to the recruits who moved on to become naval officers. In the postwar years, he taught elementary astronomy, as well as more advanced courses in practical astronomy, the kinds of subjects found in Smart's "Spherical Astronomy" text including celestial mechanics and observational work using the UW Observatory transit instrument. He chaired the Astronomy Department until 1965 when the Department began to undergo its modern expansion; he formally retired in 1971. Jacobsen's post-thesis research continued to center on the determination of radial velocities of cepheids as well as binary stars and he maintained connections on a modest scale with the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, B.C. In this era of emphasis on galaxy evolution and cosmology, it is easy to forget that in the 1920s, there was still controversy over the nature of cepheids---were they pulsating stars or merely some form of odd binary? Jacobsen's extremely accurate radial velocity curves of these stars, when combined with then newly emerging accurate light curves, did much to bolster the pulsation hypothesis. According to astronomers currently working in the field, Jacobsen's 1926 velocity curves, obtained with the then state-of-the-art Mills spectrograph attached to the Lick 36-inch refractor, attained an impressive accuracy in the gamma velocities of these cepheids of about 100 m/s! His last paper on cepheid velocities was a joint publication in 1992, written when Jacobsen was more than 90 years old. He also was a major contributor to the study of the ``level effect," a term applied to the fact that during the pulsation cycle, the radial velocity curves differ depending upon the spectral line formation depth within the cepheid atmospheres. The effect was recognized as a result of the

  3. Obituary: Philip M. Solomon, 1939-2008 (United States)

    Scoville, Nick


    monitor the ozone layer depletion. This work, in collaboration with R. deZafra, J. Barrett, and A. Parrish, led to their setting up remote, automated observing systems in Antarctica and in Hawaii; these efforts continued over twenty years up to the present. For those of us who collaborated with Phil, he will be greatly missed. Phil had a keen sense for interesting and significant science; he had a real enthusiasm for discovery; and he enjoyed the competition of forefront scientific research where recognition of significance was vital but where discussion of interpretation was rational, albeit with strong argument. The pleasure of an observing run with Phil was supreme due to his enthusiasm and focus on the astrophysics; these runs also were creative since if the original plans did not quite pan out, he was always ready to modify the observations to take advantage of what one learned from the data coming into the telescope. Often this resulted in much better science--in contrast to the current paradigm with fixed observing programs and queue observing. Phil was also a major presence at scientific meetings giving stimulating talks and provoking challenging discussions. Phil is survived by his wife Sheila, daughter Nina, son-in-law John, granddaughter Sarah, and brother Mark.

  4. Obituary: Kenneth Ingvard Greisen, 1918-2007 (United States)

    Greisen, Eric W.


    has extended and improved on the Cornell ideas to create the High Resolution (HiRes) Fly's Eye detector. Two weeks before Ken's death, the Utah collaboration reported observations of the high-energy cosmic ray spectrum clearly showing the GZK cutoff as well as the predicted dip at lower energies. The Pierre Auger Observatory, currently nearing completion in Argentina, will also use fluorescence detectors as one of two methods of studying the high-energy end of the cosmic-ray spectrum. In the late 1960s, Ken's research interests extended to the field of gamma-ray astronomy. These led to a number of high-altitude balloon flights carrying large-area gamma-ray telescopes. One such flight found pulsed emission synchronous with the Crab Nebula NP0532, providing the first observation of high-energy gamma rays from a pulsar. As his studies became more astronomical in nature, Ken joined the AAS in 1966, and, in 1968, Ken was named to the AAS organizing committee that established the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the AAS. Ken was selected as HEAD's first Chair for 1970 and 1971. Ken was also on the organizing committee that helped establish IAU Commission 48 on High Energy Astrophysics, also in 1970. He was subsequently elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1974. Ken devoted much of his efforts to teaching. In the late 1950s, he contributed to the work of the Physical Sciences Study Committee at MIT, which was the source of the PSSC high-school physics curriculum. At Cornell, Ken developed and taught for many years a course fundamental to the preparation of students to be professional physicists. Beginning in 1969, he presided over a team from the Physics and Science Education Departments to completely redesign the teaching of introductory physics, producing an innovative, self-paced, auto-tutorial course that retains that format today. Ken regularly concerned himself with the overall structure of physics courses at Cornell, assigned himself early hours

  5. Obituary: Per E. Maltby, 1933-2006 (United States)

    Kjeldseth-Moe, Olav


    Professor Per Maltby, prominent Norwegian Solar Physicist at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Norway, died on 24 May 2006. Lung cancer was diagnosed in February, but he was expected to improve. Until the end of March he came to his office every day, got recent papers off the web, and followed his field closely as he had always done. Per Maltby was born in Oslo, Norway, on 3 November 1933. He started his studies at the University of Oslo in 1952 and took his candidate degree in 1957. Between 1955 and 1958 he was a research assistant at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo. In 1960 Maltby became an assistant professor (amanuensis) at the University of Bergen and from January 1963 he held a corresponding position at the University of Oslo. He became an associate professor in 1967, and from 1983 until he retired in 2003 he was a full Professor at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo. Per Maltby is survived by his wife Elisabet (née Ruud), whom he married in 1956. They had two children. The daughter, Bente, is a medical doctor and gynecologist serving as a section head at the district hospital in Kristiansand in southern Norway. Their son, Lars, holds a doctoral degree in engineering, specializing in the properties of powders. He is currently managing director in the Norwegian division of the French multinational company Saint Gobain. As a father Per Maltby expressed pride in his children and was pleased with their progress in life. He also enjoyed his five grandchildren. As a scientist, Per Maltby was versatile and productive. In the early 1960s he visited the California Institute of Technology where he did pioneering studies of the distribution and time variation of the radio emission from active galaxies, using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. His work with Alan Moffet contributed to revealing the secrets of these remote objects. Their results drew attention and were indeed mentioned in the pages

  6. Obituary: Philip Morrison, 1915-2005 (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia


    (somehow often as the conference summarizer). He was an early exponent of the idea of convergent evolution, meaning that structures (including intelligence) with similar functions might arise from very different beginnings. Morrison thought and wrote (often with students) about an enormous range of topics in astrophysics. This list, in fairness, includes both some successes and some false starts: (1) predictions of gamma ray emission from active galaxies, supernova remnants, and the general interstellar medium (long before any extra-solar gamma rays had been seen); (2) cooling of stellar remnants by neutrino emission (with Hong Yee Chiu); (3) possible X-ray emission mechanisms for clusters of galaxies (with James Felten); (4) a fluorescent theory of supernova light emission (akin at least to the current Ni-56 decay scenario); (5) the inevitable "Are quasars giant Crab Nebulas?" question; (6) a suggestion (with Ken Brecher) that the emission from gamma-ray bursts must be beamed into a narrow cone (now known to be true); (7) the association of a subset of active galaxies (including M82) with star formation fueled by recent infall of new gas rather than with a central black hole; (8) prediction of X-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and radio galaxies (later seen, though the mechanism is probably different); and (9) a shadowing mechanism to account for the jet found to be sticking out of the edge of the Crab Nebula in the 1980s. Like any charismatic scientist, he was surrounded by a "cloud" of Morrison stories, many included on the web sites, so here are only four "micros:" (a) about the discovery of gamma ray bursters with the Vela (bomb test monitoring) satellites and the evidence for plate tectonics from underground test monitoring seismometers, he said: "Well, it's hard to waste 108 dollars;" (b) explaining why it was okay to pretend to confuse the real and dummy bomb cores en route to the Trinity test site: "The real one was warm;" (c) concerning the enormous extent of

  7. Obituary: Horace Welcome Babcock, 1912-2003 (United States)

    Vaughan, Arthur Harris


    set, and they got the job done. The Swope 1-meter telescope was placed into operation at Las Campanas in 1971. The Irénée du Pont 2.5-meter Telescope was completed and dedicated in 1976. The Las Campanas Observatory is the current site of two 6.5 meter optical telescopes constructed there in a collaboration between the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the University of Arizona, Harvard University, the University of Michigan and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; they were placed into operation in 2000 and 2002. That Las Campanas offers unsurpassed astronomical seeing, and its infrastructure provides ample capacity for even larger telescopes of the future, stands as a testimony to Horace Babcock's vision and stubborn tenacity in acquiring and developing the best possible site for the Carnegie Southern Observatory. For several years, Horace owned a 26-foot sailboat, which he kept at Redondo Beach. It was his private domain and escape. On many occasions, he invited younger colleagues to sail with him. The boat was equipped with an automatic pilot of Horace's design. It electronically controlled the vessel's heading by sensing the Earth's magnetic field direction relative to the intended course and drove a servomotor to adjust the tiller accordingly. The device was not unlike the automatic guider Horace had built for the 200-inch telescope. Horace was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1954. He was awarded the National Academy's Henry Draper Medal in 1957; the Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1969; the Royal Astronomical Society's Eddington Medal in 1958 and its Gold Medal in 1970; and the George Ellery Hale Prize of the Solar Physics Division of the AAS in 1992. Horace leaves a daughter Ann L. Babcock and son Bruce H. Babcock by a first marriage, a son Kenneth L. Babcock by a second marriage (to Elizabeth M. Jackson, who survives him), and a granddaughter. Both marriages ended in divorce. Those who

  8. Obituary: Herbert Gursky, 1930-2006 (United States)

    Doschek, George; Dahlburg, Jill


    near-Earth space environment to be produced by the EIS instrument; and, Launch of STEREO (October 2006): NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) launched 25 October, carrying the collaborative NRL Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) instruments suite, which is currently successfully functioning in the pre-commissioning phase. The instruments onboard STEREO's twin spacecraft will make observations to help NRL researchers construct the first-ever three-dimensional views of coronal mass ejections, vital data — in complement with the long-operational NRL-built NASA LASCO — for understanding how the Sun creates space weather Perhaps Dr. Gursky's most personal research successes were as a member of the group that made the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources in 1961, his work with sounding rockets that culminated in the optical identification of the bright X-ray source Scorpius X1 in 1966, his work on clusters of galaxies and the diffuse X-ray background from the Uhuru Satellite and the discovery of X-ray bursters on the ANS satellite.

  9. Obituary: Ralph Asher Alpher, 1921-2007 (United States)

    Koopman, Rebecca A.


    conditions in the early Universe prior to nucleosynthesis. Early on, Alpher and Herman realized that if the expanding Universe began in a hot phase, relic radiation from the era when radiation and matter decoupled should fill the Universe. They published this result in Nature in 1948, predicting that the current temperature should be 5K. In talk after talk, and in a series of papers, they publicized their work and urged observers to start looking for this radiation, but without result. At the time, the model of the hot, expanding Universe, scornfully christened "Big Bang" by Fred Hoyle in 1950, was far from accepted by the cosmology community, especially since the measured value of the Hubble constant produced a very small evolutionary age. Even if the Big Bang model was correct, the consensus was that the relic radiation would be much too faint to detect. Dismayed by the lack of interest in their results, both Alpher and Herman decided in 1955 to give up academia, turning down positions offered at the University of Iowa with James van Allen, and instead accepting jobs at General Electric (GE) and General Motors. Both had families by that time. Ralph had met his wife, Louise Ellen Simons, in 1940. They married January 28, 1942, and had two children, Harriet and Victor. Ralph worked for 32 years at GE Research and Development Center in Niskayuna, New York, on a variety of projects including high-speed aerodynamics, theoretical problems involving the physics of television projection systems, magnetohydrodynamic methods, and, eventually, strategic planning and technology forecasting. The papers about the relic radiation languished in the literature, but Alpher and Herman kept up with developments in cosmology. One can imagine their excitement and gratification when they learned of the serendipitous detection of the cosmic microwave background by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 and found that their model temperature (with updated values of cosmological parameters) was in

  10. Obituary: Jesse Greenstein, 1909-2002 (United States)

    Gunn, James Edward


    's interest in stars of peculiar abundance and he forged close scientific ties with the Kellogg team, particularly Willy Fowler. Jesse arranged a controversial visit to Caltech by Fred Hoyle (Hoyle's steady state cosmology was not popular among Caltech physicists) and Hoyle's protégés Geoff and Margaret Burbidge. Their classic work with Fowler on nucleosynthesis arose from this visit. Later his research turned increasingly toward understanding the denizens of the lower left of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram - white dwarfs, blue subdwarfs, and nuclei of planetary nebulae. He became the observational authority on such stars, and much of our current understanding of these objects is a direct outgrowth of his work. In the course of this work he obtained several spectra of faint blue objects with weak, broad emission lines that were not readily identifiable. The realization that compact stars could have very strong magnetic fields was then current, and he felt that most of these objects could be explained by peculiar Zeeman and pressure effects on the spectra of intrinsically faint degenerate objects. The quasar story has been told many times, but the realization by Maarten Schmidt in 1963 that the spectrum of 3C273 was consistent with a redshift of 16 percent led them to reassess Jesse's work on 3C48, a quasi-stellar radio source with a spectrum similar to some of the peculiar blue "stars" in his library of spectra: this turned out to be the second QSO redshift recognized, with a value of 0.37. In 1960, Jesse had obtained a spectrum of Ton 202, which he had confidently identified as a peculiar DC white dwarf 40 pc distant. When he went through his library of spectra with an eye toward new possibilities, it turned out to be a QSO with a redshift of 0.37, continuing his penchant for being right almost all the time, but with the occasional really spectacular mistake. He characterized his research and the rather frequent and profound changes of direction in a very characteristic

  11. Assessing and Addressing the "Testing Backlash": Practical Advice and Current Public Opinion Research for Business Coalitions and Standards Advocates. (United States)

    Business Roundtable, Washington, DC.

    As states and communities across the United States work to raise expectations for student learning, many are challenged by concerns and questions from increasingly vocal parents and teachers. This report summarizes the best advice for business coalitions and standards advocates on how to address the testing backlash. It also features an analysis…

  12. Obituaries, past and present: from the fast food biographical narrative to a newspaper literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Vieira


    Full Text Available This article offers a panorama of the cultural phenomena of obituary publishing and reading, both on newspapers in English, their original locus, and anthologies. It relates the appearance of this specific genre and its hegemonic lasting in contemporary American and British newspapers to the biographical, instantaneous and literary aspects of its narrative. The reasons for the extemporaneous interest of the reader in a genre that often migrates from the ephemerality of newspapers to long-lasting print anthologies is searched for in its romanesque configuration, itself originated from other genres and formed by discourses of life and death, ultimately legitimized by the truth discourse of the Press. Hence, the obituary would be consumed, esthetically, both as an ethically profound true story and as easy literature.

  13. Implications of Methodist clergies’ average lifespan and missional lessons learned from obituaries of deceased ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehlohonolo J. Mathibe


    Full Text Available We are born, we touch the lives of others, we die – and then we are remembered. For the purpose of this article, I have assessed from obituaries the average lifespan of the clergy (ministers in the Methodist Church of South Africa (MCSA, who died between 2003 and 2014. These obituaries were published in the Yearbooks of the MCSA from 2004 to 2015. I also give attention to how the deceased ministers are remembered. The average lifespan of Methodist ministers is 72 years, and it is likely to increase to 74 years by 2023. This article discusses the implications of Methodist ministers’ average lifespan and suggests that the clergy should be encouraged and enabled to retire at the age of 60 years. The following 12 themes (or missional lessons, mainly answering the question of how the clergy are remembered, emerged from the qualitative analysis of obituaries: they were gifted preachers of the gospel of Jesus Christ; they lived a balanced life; they were humble servants in Jesus’ vineyard; they were sensitive storytellers with a deep sense of humour; they were community builders; they were leaders and meticulous in administration; they were prayer warriors; they loved and valued education; they were disciplined and principled; they enjoyed music; they worked hard for an everlasting peace on earth; and they were zealous stewards of God’s creation.

  14. Pakistani English Newspaper Paid Obituary Announcements: A Descriptive Analysis of the Transliterated Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid M. Chaudhry


    Full Text Available The study, qualitative and descriptive in nature, examines the use of transliteration in the paid Pakistani obituary announcements authored in the English language. Primarily, it identifies the frequently used transliterated vocabulary in these linguistic messages and reconnoiters the functional relationship that emerges in and between the textual moves of these announcements due to the linkage created by these transliterated words and phrases. Additionally, the study sheds light on the motives of the authors of these announcements behind opting for this lexical borrowing. Data, for the purpose, comes from the two prominent Pakistani English newspapers: The Dawn and The News International. The study concludes that the transliterated vocabulary used in the Pakistani English obituary announcements is a need-based, religiously and culturally enthused, lexical borrowing that not only helps the authors of these texts convey their intentional messages effectively but also enhances the exactness and spontaneity of the contents of these announcements. Keywords: Obituary Announcement, Transliteration, Lexical borrowing, Source language, Target language, Cognitive synonyms

  15. Current Pesticide Risk Assessment Protocols Do Not Adequately Address Differences Between Honey Bees (Apis mellifera and Bumble Bees (Bombus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Stoner


    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated colony-level sublethal effects of imidacloprid on bumble bees, affecting foraging and food consumption, and thus colony growth and reproduction, at lower pesticide concentrations than for honey bee colonies. However, these studies may not reflect the full effects of neonicotinoids on bumble bees because bumble bee life cycles are different from those of honey bees. Unlike honey bees, bumble bees live in colonies for only a few months each year. Assessing the sublethal effects of systemic insecticides only on the colony level is appropriate for honey bees, but for bumble bees, this approach addresses just part of their annual life cycle. Queens are solitary from the time they leave their home colonies in fall until they produce their first workers the following year. Queens forage for pollen and nectar, and are thus exposed to more risk of direct pesticide exposure than honey bee queens. Almost no research has been done on pesticide exposure to and effects on bumble bee queens. Additional research should focus on critical periods in a bumble bee queen’s life which have the greatest nutritional demands, foraging requirements, and potential for exposure to pesticides, particularly the period during and after nest establishment in the spring when the queen must forage for the nutritional needs of her brood and for her own needs while she maintains an elevated body temperature in order to incubate the brood.

  16. Addressing the current bottlenecks of metabolomics: Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis™, an isotopic-labeling technique for accurate biochemical profiling. (United States)

    de Jong, Felice A; Beecher, Chris


    Metabolomics or biochemical profiling is a fast emerging science; however, there are still many associated bottlenecks to overcome before measurements will be considered robust. Advances in MS resolution and sensitivity, ultra pressure LC-MS, ESI, and isotopic approaches such as flux analysis and stable-isotope dilution, have made it easier to quantitate biochemicals. The digitization of mass spectrometers has simplified informatic aspects. However, issues of analytical variability, ion suppression and metabolite identification still plague metabolomics investigators. These hurdles need to be overcome for accurate metabolite quantitation not only for in vitro systems, but for complex matrices such as biofluids and tissues, before it is possible to routinely identify biomarkers that are associated with the early prediction and diagnosis of diseases. In this report, we describe a novel isotopic-labeling method that uses the creation of distinct biochemical signatures to eliminate current bottlenecks and enable accurate metabolic profiling.

  17. Obituary: Jörn Rossa (1969-2009) (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri


    responsive, punctual, organized, polite and truthful; he did not tolerate false flattery and he held strongly to his own beliefs. Joern ardently loved his family and was faithful to his friends. Joern had several passions outside of astronomy. Among these were music, travel, snorkeling and photography. He played guitar and idolized Fleetwood Mac, The Eagles, and Tom Petty, among many other artists. While visiting 45 U.S. States and many other countries, Joern had a knack for picking up languages and spoke impeccable English. We will miss Joern, a loyal son, friend and colleague. Acknowledgments: Ralf Hahn, Nadya Gorlova, Seppo Laine and Roeland van der Marel provided crucial information, perspectives and memories needed for the foundation of this obituary; Ralf-Juergen Dettmar, Maria-Cruz Gälvez-Ortiz, Maren Hempel and Stefan Kautsch provided advice and support which helped complete the obituary; the photograph is courtesy of Nadya Gorlova.

  18. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  19. Professor "Nonlinear": Obituary and memoir for Roman Juszkiewicz (1952-2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwing, Wojciech A


    On 28th and 29th of January 2013 we held an international meeting in Zielona G\\'ora (Poland) honouring the first anniversary of premature passing away^(1) of Professor Roman Juszkiewicz. We have celebrated an opening of a new seminar room at the University of Zielona G\\'ora commemorated to the memory of Roman Juszkiewicz and we have shared our anecdotes and memories of this great scientist and friend. Here we want to present a limited and short memoir and obituary for Roman Juszkiewicz. 1: Roman Juszkiewicz passed away on 28th of January 2012

  20. Inaugural address (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.


    was how IAGRG was born, and currently the association has about 350 members, both from within India and abroad. The full inaugural address is available in the PDF

  1. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko


    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  2. Welcome Address (United States)

    Kiku, H.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  3. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States. (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M


    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Welcome Address


    Shantanu Sengupta


    This article is part of the NEDA-PIDS Seminar-Workshop on the Philippine System of National Accounts. It outlines the seminar’s major objectives and the problems and issues that need to be addressed. It argues that coordination among institutions can lead to effective resolution to sensitive issues.

  5. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieger, Khara D., E-mail: [RTI International (United States); Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Christensen, Frans [Sustainability and Risk Management, COWI A/S, Department for Pollution Prevention (Denmark); Baun, Anders [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark); Olsen, Stig I. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark)


    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key 'lessons learned' from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: 'LC-based RA' (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and 'RA-complemented LCA' (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  6. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems. (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.


    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  7. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  8. Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004 (United States)

    Liebert, James William


    Raymond E. White, Jr., died unexpectedly at his home, in the early morning hours of October 12, 2004. Death appears to have been caused by severe diabetic shock. He retired from the Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory in July 1999 with the title of University Distinguished Professor, after serving on the faculty of this institution for over 35 years. He was born in Freeport, Illinois, on 6 May 1933, to Beatrice and Raymond E, Sr. -the latter being a career soldier in the US Army. Ray's early schooling took place in Illinois, New Jersey, Germany and Switzerland, following his father's assignments. He obtained a bachelors degree from the University of Illinois in 1955. Next Ray enlisted in the US Army, but quickly was enrolled in Officer Candidate School. He then served as lst Lt. in the US Army Corps of Engineers. Although military affairs remained a lifelong interest, and he was a member of the Company of Military Historians, Ray decided after three years to return to academia. He entered the astronomy PhD program at the University of Illinois in 1958. His PhD dissertation was supervised by Ivan R. King. Ray accepted a faculty position at the University of Arizona in 1964. First and foremost, Ray White was known at Arizona as an excellent teacher, revered by a large number of former students. When the astronomy major program was begun in 1967, Ray was one of three, original, major advisors. Over the next three decades, he was a leader at the University level in reforming the undergraduate program and courses. He was selected Outstanding University Faculty Member in April 1989 and he served as one of a handful of professors who are Faculty Fellows. These Fellows devote untold hundreds of hours as part-time residents at student dormitories, to give students a friendly face to address their problems. In 1995, Ray was among the first group of faculty to be recognized as University Distinguished Professors. In the year of his retirement, 1999, University

  9. Obituary: Norman Hodgson Baker, Jr., 1931-2005 (United States)

    Helfand, David J.


    Norman H. Baker, a key contributor to the foundation of modern stellar pulsation theory and former editor of the "Astronomical Journal", died on 11 October 2005 in Watertown, New York near his beloved summer home in Natural Bridge. He succumbed to complications of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a bone marrow lymphoma that he had successfully surmounted for twenty-two years. Norm, as he was known to all, was born 23 October 1931 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Norman Hodgson and Jeannette (née Lieber) Baker. He attended the University of Minnesota where he met the first of many lifelong astronomical friends, Bill Erickson. He received his BA in 1952. He went on to do his PhD, "Radiation from Particle Interactions which Create Current," at Cornell University under Phil Morrison. He then moved to a postdoctoral position at the Max Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik in München with the intent of pursuing his work in plasma physics with Ludwig Biermann and Arnulf Schlüter. However, Rudolf (Rudi) Kippenhan snatched him away to pursue what became his lifelong interest, stellar physics. This was the dawn of the era in which electronic computers were becoming practical for scientific calculations, and Norm immediately adopted this new tool. Indeed, he remained at the forefront of computing technology throughout his life: He was certainly the first member of the Astronomy Department at Columbia to buy a Mac, and was undoubtedly one of the few emeritus professors in the world known by all the administrative staff as the first person to turn to when stumped by a computer problem. Following his first paper with Kippenhan on stellar rotation, Norm turned his attention to stellar pulsations, a topic he would pursue throughout his career. His 1962 paper in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik" on pulsational models of Cepheids (Baker and Kippenhan 1962, 54, 155) is a classic in the field. The first figure displays the three dimensional model of the atmospheric absorption

  10. Presidential address. (United States)

    Vohra, U


    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  11. Obituary: Janet Akyüz Mattei, 1943-2004 (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne


    period variables. She accelerated a ten-year project to digitize all of AAVSO's archived as well as current data, without which a century of AAVSO observations would now be nearly inaccessible. In the mid-1970s professional interest in the cataclysmic variables began to ramp up. When she received the first requests for an AAVSO visual observing campaign coordinated with observations by orbiting observatories as well as large ground based telescopes, Janet accepted the invitation as both an opportunity and a challenge. AAVSO observers responded marvelously and, coupled with Janet's astute forecasting of when cataclysmic variables were likely to brighten again, the program emerged as one of the major technical successes of her tenure. Many AAVSO members will never forget their excitement when France Córdova came to our Fall meeting in 1978 to announce to the astronomical world that X-rays from SS Cyg had been detected by HEAO-1 on the first occasion after the satellite reached orbit when AAVSO observers reported that the star was brightening to a maximum. It was a moment of tremendous pride for everyone, most of all for Janet. It was a success that was repeated frequently in over six hundred subsequent coordinated observing runs with various satellites. This success greatly increased the impact of AAVSO on current astronomical research, enhanced its reputation, and also provided a more immediate thrill for the observers than the ongoing commitment to monitor slowly varying stars. The late 1970s and early 1980s were a period of substantial inflation in our nation's economy. Furthermore, staff turnover slowed progress with the data processing work, while observations coming to AAVSO from international variable star organizations and independent observers, especially from behind the iron curtain, were increasing rapidly. Faced with rising costs at the same time additional staff was needed to pursue the data processing problems, Janet reacted characteristically: she began

  12. Obituary: Barry James LaBonte, 1950-2005 (United States)

    Rust, David Maurice


    occurrence of a large flare. His work always involved fundamental science that could possibly lead to accurate forecasts of solar activity and its effect on geospace. When he died, he was studying the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic fields and electric currents in the solar corona in order to understand the disequilibrium that produces solar eruptions. I first met Barry when he was a summer intern working with George Simon at the Sacramento Peak Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico in the early 1970s. Besides working on the solar granulation, Barry learned how to use the Doppler-Zeeman analyzer, the first of the many solar magnetographs that he used to such advantage in his productive career. We had common scientific interests, which led me to follow his career closely, although I was on the East Coast and he was in Hawaii. We had both done our thesis under Hal Zirin and our postdoc with Bob Howard and had haunted many of the same scientific meetings, so I felt I knew him well. At APL he brought a depth of understanding and quick intelligence to our little solar group that lighted up every day. Barry was more than an imaginative, witty, and productive scientist whose contributions greatly advanced solar physics. He was also a devoted father, rarely taking off from work except to be with his children. Inspired by his daughter Hillary's decision to train for an operatic career, he became an opera buff. He was an avid reader of history, especially military history, and was a member of the Hawaii Bunny Club and the Howard County Hare Raisers. He is survived by his wife, Beatrice Hawkins, and by their three children, Allan, Hillary, and Anna.

  13. Addressing Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sosa Elízaga


    Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

  14. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm (United States)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  15. Model for Electron-Beam-Induced Current Analysis of mc-Si Addressing Defect Contrast Behavior in Heavily Contaminated PV Material: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrey, H.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.


    Much work has been done to correlate electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) contrast behavior of extended defects with the character and degree of impurity decoration. However, existing models fail to account for recently observed contrast behavior of defects in heavily contaminated mc-Si PV cells. We have observed large increases in defect contrast with decreasing temperature for all electrically active defects, regardless of their initial contrast signatures at ambient temperature. This negates the usefulness of the existing models in identifying defect character and levels of impurity decoration based on the temperature dependence of the contrast behavior. By considering the interactions of transition metal impurities with the silicon lattice and extended defects, we attempt to provide an explanation for these observations. Our findings will enhance the ability of the PV community to understand and mitigate the effects of these types of defects as the adoption of increasingly lower purity feedstocks for mc-Si PV production continues.

  16. Emilie Snethlage (1868-1929: a previously unpublished account of the journey to the Tocantins River and Emil-Heinrich Snethlage's obituary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Conway Oren


    Full Text Available The article presents biographical note of German ornithologist Emilie Snethlage (1868-1929 and comments on two documents translated from German: a previously unpublished account of the journey to the Tocantins River, 1907, and the obituary written by Emil Heinrich-Snethlage, published in 1930. It highlights the singularity of the professional career of a scientist who worked in Brazil since 1905, the value of her work and aspects of her narrative. Scientific names cited in the texts were updated.

  17. Current and proposed revisions, changes, and modifications to American codes and standards to address packaging, handling, and transportation of radioactive materials and how they relate to comparable international regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borter, W.H.; Froehlich, C.H. [BNFL Fuel Solutions, Campbell, CA (United States)


    This paper addresses current and proposed revisions, additions, and modifications to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (i.e., ''ASMEthe Code'') Section III, Division 3 and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ASME N14.6. It provides insight into the ongoing processes of the associated committees and highlights important revisions, changes, and modifications to this Code and Standard. The ASME Code has developed and issued Division 3 to address items associated with the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. It currently only addresses ''General Requirements'' in Subsections WA and ''Class TP (Type B) Containments'' (Transportation Packages) in Subsection WB, but is in the process of adding a new Subsection WC to address ''Class SC'' (Storage Containments). ANSI/ASME Standard N14.6 which interacts with components constructed to Division 3 by addressinges special lifting devices for radioactive material shipping containers. This Standard is in the process of a complete re-write. This Code and Standard can be classified as ''dynamic'' in that their committees meet at least four times a year to evaluate proposed modifications and additions that reflect current safety practices in the nuclear industry. These evaluations include the possible addition of new materials, fabrication processes, examination methods, and testing requirements. An overview of this ongoing process is presented in this paper along with highlights of the more important proposed revisions, changes, and modifications and how they relate to United States (US) and international regulations and guidance like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Requirement No. TS-R-1.

  18. Prayers for the salvation of the soul. Obituary in stone in Sant Pau del Camp monastery in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Santiago Fernández


    Full Text Available This paper examines some inscriptions preserved in the monastery of Sant Pau del Camp, in Barcelona, in order to determine their functionality and find out who were their moral authors. We try to answer the questions of who and why. This collection of epigraphs is peculiar in Spanish medieval epigraphy; it cannot be assimilated exactly to epitaphia necrologica, because those in Sant Pau del Camp specially emphasize the foundation of anniversaries, that guarantee perpetual prayer for the deceased’s soul. Consequently, we have conceptualized some of these inscriptions as fundationes of anniversary. This tradition is not habitual in other areas of the Iberian Peninsula, except Catalonia. Also, we can find similar inscriptions in the south of France. We also analyze the relationship of these epigraphs with obituaries and testamentary dispositions.

  19. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  20. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  1. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important? (United States)


    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  2. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi


    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  3. OBITUARY: Dorianna Twersky (1922-2010) Dorianna Twersky (1922-2010) (United States)

    Thomas, P.


    write are in danger of being misunderstood. I honestly believe that authors and referees were keeping to promised deadlines, because they would have been afraid of a disapproving glance from her. The fact that the journal was blossoming under her leadership is true, but this would be said of course in nearly any obituary. If I try nevertheless to distil my admiration for her into an objective-sounding statement, I would point to the fact that she consistently made technically correct decisions regarding matters in which she had no direct personal know-how. The way she worked this miracle was based on an extraordinary capability to judge people: she knew exactly whom to trust to what percentage." Karl Lackner

  4. Reach Address Database (RAD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  5. License Address List (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  6. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  7. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling


    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  8. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity. (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L


    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  9. Obituary: Gordon Donaldson Obituary: Gordon Donaldson (United States)

    Pegrum, Colin; Campbell, Archie; Hampshire, Damian


    Gordon Donaldson died in Glasgow on 28 November 2012 at the age of 71. He was born in Edinburgh and brought up and educated in Glasgow, which was his home city for much of his life. He was educated first at Glasgow Academy, and then with a scholarship at Christ's College Cambridge. Here he read Natural Sciences, finishing with first class honors in Physics. He then did a PhD on tunneling in superconductors in the Mond Laboratory, supervised by John Adkins. These were interesting times, since type II superconductors had only recently been identified, and the Mond was a leading player in the physics of vortices and other quantum effects. It was headed by Pippard and Shoenberg, and colleagues around that time were Brian Josephson, John Clarke, Colin Gough and John Waldram. On finishing his PhD in 1966 Gordon went straight to a lectureship at the University of Lancaster. In 1975 during a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, with John Clarke's group, Gordon co-invented thin-film gradiometers with integrated DC SQUIDs. He then moved back to Glasgow, to the Department of Applied Physics at Strathclyde University, where he founded a new research group to make and use superconducting devices, especially SQUIDs and gradiometers. From modest beginnings the group grew steadily, acquiring new facilities and members, until in the 1990s it had over 20 members and a host of collaborators from elsewhere in Glasgow and abroad. With funding from the Wellcome Trust, Gordon and colleagues at Glasgow University and the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow set up a new biomagnetism facility in 1998 on the hospital campus to use SQUID gradiometers made at Strathclyde for measurements on patients and volunteers. Another of his main research interests was the use of SQUIDs for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This started in the days before high temperature superconductors (HTS) with wire-wound gradiometers and niobium SQUIDs, soon moving on to miniature thin-film niobium integrated SQUID gradiometers. This was followed by major programs to develop and demonstrate HTS gradiometers for NDE. Gordon was appointed to a personal professorship in 1985 and became Professor of Applied Physics two years later. He was also head of department from 1984 to 1986 and again from 1993 to 1998. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and became Convener of their Physics Panel. He was also a Trustee of the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation. Gordon was much involved in teaching and in many university matters. He was particularly fond of the course How Things Work, which he developed and taught for fifteen years, that was so much in keeping with his passion for useful practical physics and science. After the explosion in HTS research, Gordon became the Coordinator for the National Committee for Superconductivity in the UK for three years from 1990. One of his important tasks was to coordinate the distribution of EPSRC funds to university groups and to support industrial activity. He did this with tact and good judgment. He knew everybody, understood what they were doing, and made sure that while the large groups were well supported, nobody was left out completely. This exercise could have led to resentment, but under his guidance it was a great success and it is a pity that similar exercises have not been tried since. He was a key member of the Low Temperature Group of the Institute of Physics in London, and became its Chairman for the last three years of his tenure. In 1998, he was invited to become editor of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST). He was a referee for every paper in the journal during this period, which was an enormous task and very widely appreciated by the superconductivity community. He was particularly active during the discovery and commercialization of MgB2. He oversaw a smooth handover to his successor as Editor-in-Chief in 2007. Gordon's long list of publications and contributions to books attest to his advancement of superconducting technology. He will be especially remembered as an independent originator of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials and structures using SQUIDs, and for the advancement and use of the gradiometers developed at Berkeley for biomagnetic use. He organized and chaired two key conferences, the International Superconductive Electronics Conference in Glasgow in 1991 and then the 1995 European Conference on Applied Superconductivity in Edinburgh, together with many smaller specialist meetings. Since he retired he was afflicted with severe back problems, and unfortunately operations were not successful. He was confined to a wheelchair and later to the house, which was a great trial to him. Gordon was universally respected and liked both as a scientist and a person. He was sharp, humorous and excellent company on social occasions. He will be much missed by his many colleagues and friends at SuST and throughout science, as well as by his family.

  10. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety


    Kotecha, Meena


    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  11. Addressing inequities in healthy eating. (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn


    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  12. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman


    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  13. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G


    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  14. Addressing the terawatt challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.


    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level...... of deployment. This would place a significant demand on the current and future supply of raw materials (chemical elements) used by those technologies. Oftentimes, the average crustal abundance of a chemical element is cited as a measure of its scalability, however another important metric for scalability...

  15. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  16. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas


    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  17. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Arckenhausen, J.C.P. (1784-1855) The draftsman from Goslar, Germany, who was in the service of C.L. Blume, from 1829 till 1832 or probably later. He worked up many of the drawings Blume had brought from Bogor, for the Flora Javae, mostly vol. 1 and 2, fewer vol. 3 and 4. In a book by H.G. Griep e.a.

  18. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A fine collection of portraits of botanists, each with a brief text giving the most important biographical details, is now being published in Taxon to fill the even-numbered pages. These have not been mentioned here. Since recently a Biographical Section has been added to the Rijksherbarium Library,

  19. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Beccari, Odoardo (1843-1920) H.E. Moore Jr, Odoardo Beccari (1843-1920). Principes 25 (1981) 29-35, portr. His trips and bibliography on palms. Everist, S.L. (1913-1981) On 21 October, 1981, Dr. Selwyn L. Everist, past director of the Queensland Herbarium, died in hospital in Brisbane, after a perio

  20. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.


    Allen, Caroline K. (1904-1975) Student of Lauraceae, mainly American but also of SE. Asia and New Guinea, on the Arnold Arboretum staff from 1933 to 1948, later in New York Botanical Garden, where, when the Flora Malesiana in 1968 suddenly was in difficulties, she made considerable efforts to save t

  1. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Ames, Oakes (1874-1950) Plimpton, Pauline Ames (ed.), Oakes Ames, Jottings of a Harvard botanist. 1874-1950. Bot. Mus. Harv. Univ. Cambr. Mass. x + 403 p., frontisp. + 41 illus. (1980?). Brink, R. (1902-1980) Agriculturist; see Fl. Males, i 1: 80. Before the war he was attached to the Sugarcane Indu

  2. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Arckenhausen, J.C.P. (1784-1855) The draftsman from Goslar, Germany, who was in the service of C.L. Blume, from 1829 till 1832 or probably later. He worked up many of the drawings Blume had brought from Bogor, for the Flora Javae, mostly vol. 1 and 2, fewer vol. 3 and 4. In a book by H.G. Griep

  3. Timothy Edward Toohing (obituary)

    CERN Multimedia

    Sanford, J R; Goldwasser, E L


    Toohig was involved in the design and development of accelerators and synchrotrons. He spent time at Fermilab in Italy and was a major contributor for the US-Soviet experiment on the channeling of charged particle beams.

  4. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Bailey, Irving Widmer (1884-1967) R.H. Wetmore, Phytomorphology 18 (1968) 294-298, phot. Dennstedt, A.W. H. Manitz, August Wilhelm Dennstedt’s Schlüssel zum Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Taxon 17 (1968) 496-501, 2 tab.). — Rather extensive survey; validly published names are listed, as well as the nom

  5. Raymond Stora's obituary (United States)

    Becchi, C.


    On Monday, July 20, 2015 Raymond Stora passed away; although he was seriously ill, his death was unexpected, the result of a sudden heart attack. Raymond was born on September 18, 1930. He had been sick for many months, yet continued to go to CERN where he was able to discuss the problems in physics and mathematics that interested him. In fact, his last publication (recorded on SPIRES) carries the date of December 2014, just before he contracted pneumonia, which dramatically reduced his mobility and hence the possibility of going to CERN. Still, this last project revived Raymond's interest in algebraic curves, and he spent a large part of his last months at home reading papers and books on this subject. In 2013, despite the large amount of time that his various therapies required, Raymond made a fundamental contribution to a difficult problem on renormalization in configuration space based on the subtle technical properties of homogeneous distributions. His knowledge of physics and, in particular, of quantum field theory, as well as of many fields of mathematics was so well known that many members of and visitors to CERN frequently asked Raymond for advice and assistance, which he gave with great enthusiasm and in the most gracious way. Ivan Todorov, commenting on Raymond's death, noted that we must remember Raymond's remarkable qualities, which were both human and scientific.

  6. Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 22, 2017 ... degree in Political Science from the University of Stel- lenbosch, and ... tor at the School of Tourism and Hospitality at the Walter Sisulu. University (WSU) in ... Press. SAHARAJ's impact factor has risen during his leadership.

  7. Lúdovik Osterc : obituary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik


    Full Text Available Ludovik Osterc lived in his early youth in Bezigrad, a northern section of the town of Ljubljana. Here he completed primary school. In 1938, after the completion, also in Ljubljana, of the secondary school (Vegova gimnazija, he enrolled at the Ljubljana Faculty of Philosophy to study Romance philology. This he concluded in 1941 with a diploma in French language and literature as his main subject.

  8. Obituary: Peter E. Brommer (United States)

    Buschow, K. H. J.; de Boer, F. R.; Degiorgi, L.; Jochemsen, R.; Wada, H.; Oostinga, Jeroen; van Wetering, Karine


    With great sadness we inform you that Dr P.E. Brommer, editor of Physica B: Condensed Matter Physics has passed away on March 23. Peter has been on the editorial board of the journal for more than 10 years. He was very dedicated to the journal and performed his editorial work with great care and sincerity. For all of us, the opinion and judgment of Peter have always been of crucial importance. We are very grateful for what Peter has meant for the journal. We will enormously miss him.

  9. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    AIRY SHAW, see H.K.A. SHAW. ALLEN, Betty Eleanor Gosset Molesworth (1913, Opotiki, New Zealand — x) Fl. Mal. I, 5 (1958) cclii, portr.; Fl. Mai. I, 8 (1974) ix; E. FERNANDEZ GALIANO, Acta Bot. Malacitana 8 (1983) 5—10. (Spanish) Bibliogr.

  10. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul


    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  11. Address Points, Point addresses represent site addresses issued by the Towns, Villages, and Cities in Manitowoc County. The points are used for emergency dispatching., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2013. Point addresses represent site addresses issued by the Towns, Villages, and Cities in Manitowoc County. The points are...

  12. Glutathione and zebrafish: Old assays to address a current issue. (United States)

    Massarsky, Andrey; Kozal, Jordan S; Di Giulio, Richard T


    Several xenobiotic agents (e.g. metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nanoparticles, etc.) commonly involve the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress as part of their toxic mode of action. Among piscine models, the zebrafish is a popular vertebrate model to study toxicity of various xenobiotic agents. Similarly to other vertebrates, zebrafish possess an extensive antioxidant system, including the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), which is an important antioxidant that acts alone or in conjunction with enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Upon interaction with ROS, GSH is oxidized, resulting in the formation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSSG is recycled by an auxiliary antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (GR). This article outlines detailed methods to measure the concentrations of GSH and GSSG, as well as the activities of GPx and GR in zebrafish larvae as robust and economical means to assess oxidative stress. The studies that have assessed these endpoints in zebrafish and alternative methods are also discussed. We conclude that the availability of these robust and economical methods support the use of zebrafish as a model organism in studies evaluating redox biology, as well as the induction of oxidative stress following exposure to toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Swimming Against the Current: Zebrafish Help Address Educational Challenges. (United States)

    Pickart, Michael A; Liang, Jennifer; Hutson, Lara; Pierret, Christopher


    Zebrafish can be important tools for learning and authentic student research. The broad zebrafish community is rich with examples to improve education for learners of all ages and geographical locales. This special collection of articles is presented with the hope of encouraging readers to reflect on the educational outcomes reported here and to consider new ways zebrafish may engage others to learn and grow.

  14. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  15. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  16. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic (United States)

    Buddy, Juanita


    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  17. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation. (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R


    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  18. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI


    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.


    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...capabilities of CAM are extended to allow simultaneous transformation of multimembered sets and to allow communication between neighboring word cells. A

  20. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  1. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses (United States)


    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at

  2. Crédito, capital fictício, fragilidade financeira e crises: discussões teóricas, origens e formas de enfrentamento da crise atual Credit, fictitious capital, financial fragility and crises: theoretical discussions, origins and ways of addressing the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Rollemberg Mollo


    Full Text Available O artigo discute a crise atual, comparando concepções marxista e pós-keynesiana. A primeira seção examina as razões teóricas para a inerência das crises no capitalismo conforme as duas visões. A segunda mostra como e por que o neoliberalismo agravou a crise, ainda que inerente ao capitalismo. A terceira examina criticamente os limites das políticas atuais de enfrentamento da crise.The article discusses the current crisis, comparing Marxian and Post-Keynesian views. The first section examines the theoretical reasons why crises are inherent in the functioning of capitalism, according to each theory. The second shows why and how neoliberalism has caused the crisis to worsen, even though it is inherent to capitalism. The third section critically examines the limits of the current policies in addressing the crisis.

  3. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism. (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine E.


    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  4. Ideology in Obituary:Critical Discourse Analysis of the Obituaries in New York Times and Other Three English Media%英文讣闻的意识形态——《纽约时报》及其他三英文媒体中本拉登讣闻的批评话语分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    讣闻报道作为特殊的新闻体裁,隐含了某种特定的意识形态。文章从Fairclough话语三维分析模式出发对《纽约时报》关于本拉登的讣闻报道从描述、阐释、解释三个维度进行批评话语分析,同时与BBC,CBC,Al Jazzera三个媒体的讣闻作相关对比,进而挖掘其隐含意识形态。%As a special genre of news report, obituary has some specific implicit ideology. This paper will conduct a critical discourse analysis of Osama Bin Laden's obituary in New York Times according to Fairclough's three - dimensional framework with the compari

  5. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim


    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  6. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  7. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels


    and environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However......Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional......, improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  8. Terms of Address in the Chinese Business Enterprise (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Sultan, Robert


    This study examines terms of address currently used by employees of Chinese business enterprises. The authors find that a speaker's address selections are related significantly to the gender of the speaker, the location of the enterprise in Eastern or Western China, and the ownership type of the enterprise; that is, whether the enterprise is…

  9. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance


    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl


    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  10. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity (United States)

    Wales, David J.


    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  11. Nanoscale content-addressable memory (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)


    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  12. Addressing the Special Education Crisis (United States)

    Amprey, Walter G.


    In the author's past work as a superintendent, and in his current capacity as an educational consultant, he has seen hundreds of dollars (per special education student) wasted in unnecessary costs and lost funding opportunities resulting from out-of-date, ineffective management systems. In addition to the fiscal implications, this imposes…

  13. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  14. Non-inductive current drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    This lecture addresses the various ways of non-inductive current generation. In particular, the topics covered include the bootstrap current, RF current drive, neutral beam current drive, alternative methods, and possible synergies between different ways of non-inductive current generation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    This lecture addresses the various ways of non-inductive current generation. In particular, the topics covered include the bootstrap current, RF current drive, neutral beam current drive, alternative methods, and possible synergies between different ways of non-inductive current generation.

  16. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan


    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  17. The role of game design in addressing behavioural change


    Coulton, Paul


    With the increasing promotion of design for behavioural change as a means of addressing the complex societal and environmental challenges the world currently faces, comes the associated challenge of developing appropriate design techniques to achieve such change. Whilst many designers have sought inspiration from game design they have often drawn from the techniques associated with ‘gamification’ which has been heavily criticised as manipulative and only capable of addressing simplistic extri...

  18. Sailing the Information Ocean with Awareness of Currents: Discovery and Application of Source Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Xin,; Dong,; Marian, Amelie; Srivastava, Divesh


    The Web has enabled the availability of a huge amount of useful information, but has also eased the ability to spread false information and rumors across multiple sources, making it hard to distinguish between what is true and what is not. Recent examples include the premature Steve Jobs obituary, the second bankruptcy of United airlines, the creation of Black Holes by the operation of the Large Hadron Collider, etc. Since it is important to permit the expression of dissenting and conflicting opinions, it would be a fallacy to try to ensure that the Web provides only consistent information. However, to help in separating the wheat from the chaff, it is essential to be able to determine dependence between sources. Given the huge number of data sources and the vast volume of conflicting data available on the Web, doing so in a scalable manner is extremely challenging and has not been addressed by existing work yet. In this paper, we present a set of research problems and propose some preliminary solutions on th...

  19. WELCOME ADDRESS: Welcome Address for the 60th Yamada Conference (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidetoshi


    Ladies and Gentlemen On behalf of Yamada Science Foundation, I would like to extend our hearty welcome to all of you who are participating in the 60th Yamada Conference and International Symposium on Research in High Magnetic Fields particularly to those who have come a long way to Japan from various places all over the world. Yamada Science Foundation was founded in 1977 at Osaka, Japan. It develops its activities by giving support to the outstanding research projects in the basic natural sciences, especially in the interdisciplinary domains that bridge between well established research fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology. The Foundation also provides travel funds for scientists to visit or to go out of Japan in order to carry out international collaborative projects. It also holds conferences and workshops. Among these activities, one of the most important is the organization of Yamada Conferences, which are usually held two or three times a year on various topics which seem to be pioneering current research activities in natural sciences. Upon organizing Yamada Conferences, The Board of Directors of The Foundation put emphasis on the three symbolic English letter `I's. The first I stands for International, the second I means Interdisciplinary, and the third, perhaps the most important I symbolizes Innovative. As for this conference, I think it is in some sense interdisciplinary, because it deals with on one hand, the smallest scale of matter, the elementary particles while, on the other hand deals with the largest scale of matter, the universe, which are linked together. I also think many innovative ideas are presented in this conference. In this context, I believe this Conference is well suited to the scope of our Foundation. Another important aspect of holding Yamada Conference is to provide the forum of `Friendship' among the participants. We encourage all of you, particularly young scientists, to get acquainted with each other not only through hot

  20. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S


    Full Text Available numbers inside the security estate and therefore these addresses are not necessarily part of the municipal address database. If a person inside such a security estate wants to open a financial account, how can one verify that their address is valid? A... African addresses’, subsequently given the designation SANS 1883. The aim of the standard is not to devise a new system of addressing or to build a national address database, but rather to enable interoperability in address data sets and geographical...

  1. Obituary: Kuan-Teh Jeang. (United States)

    Berkhout, Ben; Benkirane, Monsef; Lever, Andrew; Wainberg, Mark; Fassati, Ariberto; Borrow, Persephone; Fujii, Masahiro; Sriskantharajah, Srimathy; Cockerill, Matthew


    Dear colleagues: Our loyal friend Kuan-Teh Jeang, "Teh" to friends and colleagues, passed away unexpectedly at the age of 54 on the evening of January 27, 2013. Great shock and sorrow was apparent in the avalanche of email messages by the very many international colleagues with whom Teh interacted over the years. Many of us came to know Teh as an energetic and gifted scientist for whom we had much respect and affection.

  2. Obituary - Dr. A. Venkoba Rao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh


    Full Text Available I have to inform with great regret the sad demise of Dr Venkoba Rao, one of the senior most and highly esteemed psychiatrists this country has produced. His research work in psychiatry and medicine, as well as his work in philosophy and the human predicament, have been noteworthy indeed. He was a researcher and an academician of the highest order.It was always a great pleasure interacting with him. Both juniors and his peers will remember him with great regard and equal fondness. He never made himself difficult to approach, and was open to all positive inputs, from whatever source.He was highly appreciative of the work done by the Mens Sana Research Foundation too. I treasure the encouraging letter he wrote to us sometime back about the Mens Sana Monograph Psychiatry, Science, Religion and Health, of which here is an excerpt:The articles in general are of high standard and are very readable.....Imust tell you that your monograph makes an enjoyable and informative reading and my personal congratulations to you on your achievement.In fact, he was encouraging towards all efforts in the field of mental health.His wide knowledge of philosophy and Indian thought, coupled with active research interest in mainstream psychiatry, made him a unique presence in the field.His absence will be felt for a long long time indeed.But I have lived, and have not lived in vain;My mind may lose its force, my blood its fire,And my frame perish even in conquering pain:But there is that within me which shall tireTorture and Time, and breathe when I expire;Something unearthly, which they deem not of,Like the remembered tone of a mute lyre....Byron ( Childe Harold On behalf of the Mens Sana Editorial Board, our subscribers, readers, as well as the Mensanamonographs group, I offer our deepest condolences to his bereaved family.May his soul rest in peace.

  3. OBITUARY: Maurice Jacob (1933 2007) (United States)

    Quercigh, Emanuele; Šándor, Ladislav


    Maurice Jacob passed away on 2 May 2007. With his death, we have lost one of the founding fathers of the ultra-relativistic heavy ion programme. His interest in high-energy nuclear physics started in 1981 when alpha alpha collisions could first be studied in the CERN ISR. An enthusiastic supporter of ion beam experiments at CERN, Maurice was at the origin of the 1982 Quark Matter meeting in Bielefeld [1] which brought together more than 100 participants from both sides of the Atlantic, showing a good enthusiastic constituency for such research. There were twice as many the following year at Brookhaven. Finally in the mid-eighties, a heavy ion programme was approved both at CERN and at Brookhaven involving as many nuclear as particle physicists. It was the start of a fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration which is nowadays continuing both at RHIC and at LHC. Maurice followed actively the development of this field, reporting at a number of conferences and meetings (Les Arcs, Bielefeld, Beijing, Brookhaven, Lenox, Singapore, Taormina,...). This activity culminated in 2000, when Maurice, together with Ulrich Heinz, summarized the main results of the CERN SPS heavy-ion experiments and the evidence was obtained for a new state of matter [2]. Maurice was a brilliant theoretical physicist. His many contributions have been summarized in a recent article in the CERN Courier by two leading CERN theorists, John Ellis and Andre Martin [3]. The following is an excerpt from their article: `He began his research career at Saclay and, while still a PhD student, he continued brilliantly during a stay at Brookhaven. It was there in 1959 that Maurice, together with Giancarlo Wick, developed the helicity amplitude formalism that is the basis of many modern theoretical calculations. Maurice obtained his PhD in 1961 and, after a stay at Caltech, returned to Saclay. A second American foray was to SLAC, where he and Sam Berman made the crucial observation that the point-like structures (partons) seen in deep-inelastic scattering implied the existence of high-transverse-momentum processes in proton proton collisions, as the ISR at CERN subsequently discovered. In 1967 Maurice joined CERN, where he remained, apart from influential visits to Yale, Fermilab and elsewhere, until his retirement in 1998. He became one of the most respected international experts on the phenomenology of strong interactions, including diffraction, scaling, high-transverse-momentum processes and the formation of quark gluon plasma. In particular, he pioneered the studies of inclusive hadron-production processes, including scaling and its violations. Also, working with Ron Horgan, he made detailed predictions for the production of jets at CERN's proton antiproton collider. The UA2 and UA1 experiments subsequently discovered these. He was also interested in electron positron colliders, making pioneering calculations, together with Tai Wu, of radiation in high-energy collisions. Maurice was one of the scientific pillars of CERN, working closely with experimental colleagues in predicting and interpreting results from successive CERN colliders. He was indefatigable in organizing regular meetings on ISR physics, bringing together theorists and experimentalists to debate the meaning of new results and propose new measurements. He was one of the strongest advocates of Carlo Rubbia's proposal for a proton antiproton collider at CERN, and was influential in preparing and advertising its physics. In 1978 he organized the Les Houches workshop that brought the LEP project to the attention of the wider European particle physics community. He also organized the ECFA workshop at Lausanne in 1984 that made the first exploration of the possible physics of the LHC. It is a tragedy that Maurice has not lived to enjoy data from the LHC.' References [1] Maurice Jacob and Helmut Satz (eds) 1982 Proc. Workshop on Quark Matter Formation and Heavy Ion Collisions, Bielefeld, 10 14 May 1982 (Singapore: World Scientific Publishing) [2] Heinz Ulrich W and Jacob Maurice 2000 Evidence for a new state of matter: An assessment of the results from the CERN lead beam program. Preprint nucl-th/0002042 [3] Ellis J and Martin A 2007 CERN Courier 47 issue 6

  4. Obituary: Dr. Richard Roland Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton R


    Full Text Available Richard Baker died at Easter 2007 after a very short illness. It is sad that he died so soon after his retirement from the British American Tobacco Company at the end of 2005, and just as he was beginning to enjoy his new life, even though tobacco science still had a part to play.

  5. The MUC family : an obituary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jan; Rossen, John W A; Büller, Hans A; Einerhand, Alexandra W C


    Mucins are glycoproteins that are common on the surfaces of many epithelial cells; they are deemed to mediate many interactions between these cells and their milieu. Several of these mucins form the mucus layer that is found in many hollow organs. The biophysical properties of mucins are related to

  6. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change (United States)


    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  7. Address switching: Reforming the architecture and traffic of Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing; BAO CongXiao


    The success of the Internet is largely ascribable to the packet-switching scheme, which, however, also presents major challenges. Having identified three missing links in the current Internet architecture based on our long-term experiences of designing and operating large-scale backbones, we put forward a new, but incrementally deployable, network scheme-address switching. The address switching has both the advantages of packet switching and circuit switching; it supplies the missing links in the current Internet architecture and can reform the Internet traffic. Our analysis, protocol design and experiments indicate that the address switching can greatly improve the quality of service (QoS), security and routing scalability of today's Internet. So it can provide flexible, high-performance and "per-service" networking for the scientific research communities. Moreover, it can provide a fairer and more sustainable business model for the commodity Internet.

  8. Understanding and Addressing Homophobia in Schools: A View from Teachers (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia


    South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group…

  9. Bullying in Schools: Addressing Desires, Not Only Behaviours (United States)

    Rigby, Ken


    Currently the main approach in responding to bullying in schools is to focus on undesired behaviours and to apply sanctions. This approach is often ineffective as well as failing to address the needs of children as persons as distinct from the behaviour they produce. A proposed alternative approach is to inquire into the motivation of children who…

  10. Ergonomics of electronic mail address systems: related literature review and survey of users. (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G


    The paper reviews the cognitive ergonomics literature related to electronic mail (e-mail) address design. Based on this information, a survey of 160 users of current e-mail address system was conducted. The aim was to obtain information on likes, dislikes and difficulties associated with e-mail address and to obtain users' suggestions and input for improving the current e-mail address system. The survey results indicated that users want an improved e-mail address system with regard to shorter length, useful information and appropriate presentation of information.

  11. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function. (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou


    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  12. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy


    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  13. Neurochip Based on Light-addressable Potentiometric Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingjun Liu; Hua Cai; Ying Xu; Lifeng Qin; Lijiang Wang; Ping Wang


    A novel neurochip based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is designed. Using its light addressable characteristic. The problems of the limitations of restricted discrete active sites of current neurochips, such as microelectrode array and field effect transistor array can be settled easily. Based on the theoretical analysis of the interface between cells and LAPS, spontaneously discharges of hippocampal neurons induced by Mg2+-free media treatment were recorded by LAPS. The results demonstrate that this kind of neurochip has potential to monitor electrophysiology of cultured cells in a non-invasive way.

  14. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun


    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  15. Analysis on IPv4 Address s Running Out Day in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    IPv6 related research is widely developed. It is important to China also. So this report describes current IPv4 address allocation status of China. Then it analyzes address usage. After describing the factors above, this report makes several assumptions and gets the result of IPv4 address's running out day in China. Conclusion is in 2006 IPv4 address in China will run out and IPv6 related applications are to be on the stage.

  16. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems (United States)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar


    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  17. Public health approach to address maternal mortality. (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash


    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health.

  18. Public health approach to address maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rai


    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women′s health.

  19. Image compression using address-vector quantization (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu


    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  20. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu


    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  1. State of industry, environment, human resources addressed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yergin, D.; Brookes, W.; DeArment, R.


    The article is based on three addresses to the AMC Coal Convention '91. Yergin examines the impact of the Gulf crisis on the world energy market. Brookes is sceptical about the 'green industry' and calls for better scientific evidence. DeArment addresses the MSAA's Job Safety Analysis program and other health and safety matters.

  2. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim


    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  3. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation. (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  4. Firewall for Dynamic IP Address in Mobile IPv6 (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Bao, Feng; Zhou, Jianying

    Mobile communication is becoming the mainstream with the rapid growth of mobile devices penetrating our daily life. More and more mobile devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, notebooks etc, are capable of Internet access. Mobile devices frequently change their communication IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network following its current attached domain. This raises a big challenge for building firewall for mobile devices. The conventional firewalls are primarily based on IPv4 networks where the security criteria are specified only to the fixed IP addresses or subnets, which apparently do not apply to mobile IPv6. In this paper we propose three solutions for mobile IPv6 firewall. Our approaches make the firewall adaptive to dynamic IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network. They have different expense and weight corresponding to different degree of universality. The paper focuses the study more from practical aspect.

  5. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao


    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  6. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia


    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address:   Emergency contacts:   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  7. An address geocoding method for improving rural spatial information infrastructure (United States)

    Pan, Yuchun; Chen, Baisong; Lu, Zhou; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhou, YanBing


    The transition of rural and agricultural management from divisional to integrated mode has highlighted the importance of data integration and sharing. Current data are mostly collected by specific department to satisfy their own needs and lake of considering on wider potential uses. This led to great difference in data format, semantic, and precision even in same area, which is a significant barrier for constructing an integrated rural spatial information system to support integrated management and decision-making. Considering the rural cadastral management system and postal zones, the paper designs a rural address geocoding method based on rural cadastral parcel. It puts forward a geocoding standard which consists of absolute position code, relative position code and extended code. It designs a rural geocoding database model, and addresses collection and update model. Then, based on the rural address geocoding model, it proposed a data model for rural agricultural resources management. The results show that the address coding based on postal code is stable and easy to memorize, two-dimensional coding based on the direction and distance is easy to be located and memorized, while extended code can enhance the extensibility and flexibility of address geocoding.

  8. Battery Cell Voltage Sensing and Balancing Using Addressable Transformers (United States)

    Davies, Francis


    A document discusses the use of saturating transformers in a matrix arrangement to address individual cells in a high voltage battery. This arrangement is able to monitor and charge individual cells while limiting the complexity of circuitry in the battery. The arrangement has inherent galvanic isolation, low cell leakage currents, and allows a single bad cell in a battery of several hundred cells to be easily spotted.

  9. A WiFi public address system for disaster management. (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A


    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  10. Discovery of IPV6 Router Interface Addresses via Heuristic Methods (United States)


    Claffy, Y. Hyun, K. Keys, M. Fomenkov, and D. Krioukov, “ Internet mapping: From art to science,” in Conference For Homeland Security, 2009. CATCH’09... Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, there is continued pressure for widespread IPv6 adoption. Because the IPv6 address space is orders of magnitude...heuristic techniques in an attempt to improve upon current state-of-the- art IPv6 router infrastructure discovery methods. The first heuristic

  11. VT E911 road address range geocoder (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  12. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  13. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education. (United States)

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul


    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  14. An Efficient Reconfigurable Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswathy Sekharan


    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient reconfigurable Content Addressable memory (CAMs which is a hardware search engine that are much faster than other algorithmic approaches for search intensive applications. Content Addressable Memories are composed of conventional semiconductor memory (usually SRAM with added comparison circuitry that enables a search operation to complete in a single clock cycle. To understand more about Content Addressable Memory, it helps to contrast it with RAM. A RAM is an integrated circuit that stores data temporarily. In CAM, the user supplies the data and gets back the address.In this paper we introduce a temporary memory called Cache. The cache-CAM (C-CAM saves 80% power over a conventional CAM. Compared with existing software search engines proposed hardware search engine can do multiple searches at a time with more flexibility.

  15. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  16. Chemical Address Tags of Fluorescent Bioimaging Probes


    Shedden, Kerby; Rosania, Gus R.


    Chemical address tags can be defined as specific structural features shared by a set of bioimaging probes having a predictable influence on cell-associated visual signals obtained from these probes. Here, using a large image dataset acquired with a high content screening instrument, machine vision and cheminformatics analysis have been applied to reveal chemical address tags. With a combinatorial library of fluorescent molecules, fluorescence signal intensity, spectral, and spatial features c...

  17. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  18. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K


    Full Text Available Various countries and international organizations have address standards or are developing them. An address is needed for many more applications than just postal delivery, such as: goods delivery; connecting utilities; opening bank accounts; voting...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, rural addressing does collect address points, Published in unknown, Gibson County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'rural addressing does collect address points'. The extent of these data is generally Gila...

  20. Address Points, Address points, Published in 2008, Norton County Appraisal Office. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Address points'. Data by this publisher are...

  1. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi


    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  2. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. (United States)


    ... change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application for...) Whenever the address of the managing owner changes, the managing owner shall notify the Director, National... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to...

  3. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses. (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G


    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  4. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen


    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  5. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Brandon


    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  6. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  7. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas


    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  8. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N


    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  9. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access (United States)

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda


    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  10. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.


    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  11. Addressing Psychosocial Factors with Library Mentoring (United States)

    Farrell, Bridget; Alabi, Jaena; Whaley, Pambanisha; Jenda, Claudine


    The majority of articles on mentoring in the library and information science field address career development by emphasizing the orientation process for new librarians and building the requisite skills for a specific job. Few articles deal with the psychological and social challenges that many early-career and minority librarians face, which can…

  12. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008


    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  13. Parallel Memory Addressing Using Coincident Optical Pulses (United States)


    defined for Al and M, respectively, and at each does not have to be the same for every pair of adjacent destination nodeje D, u D2, the number of...system, a register SKIP may be used at each nodej has to skip before reading the messages addressed node to indicate the number of messages to be

  14. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  15. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address (United States)

    Dause, Emily


    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  16. assessing nutrition intervention programmes that addressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2012 ... address short-term hunger and improve active learning capacity of children in ... evaluation report of 2000 recommended that school feeding should ... were, however, anecdotal accounts of improved school attendance and classroom .... question of what type of food is best suited for the supplementation ...

  17. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control (United States)

    Tonso, William R.


    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  18. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.


    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  19. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter


    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  20. Mapping virtual addresses to different physical addresses for value disambiguation for thread memory access requests (United States)

    Gala, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin


    A multiprocessor system includes nodes. Each node includes a data path that includes a core, a TLB, and a first level cache implementing disambiguation. The system also includes at least one second level cache and a main memory. For thread memory access requests, the core uses an address associated with an instruction format of the core. The first level cache uses an address format related to the size of the main memory plus an offset corresponding to hardware thread meta data. The second level cache uses a physical main memory address plus software thread meta data to store the memory access request. The second level cache accesses the main memory using the physical address with neither the offset nor the thread meta data after resolving speculation. In short, this system includes mapping of a virtual address to a different physical addresses for value disambiguation for different threads.

  1. Early knee osteoarthritis management should first address mechanical joint overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Arendt


    Full Text Available Early knee osteoarthritis poses a therapeutic dilemma to the musculoskeletal clinician. Despite the recent interest in arthroscopic and injectable regenerative therapies intended to repair or restore a focal target such as cartilage, meniscus, or subchondral bone, none have been shown to slow disease progression. A likely cause of these disappointing treatment outcomes is the failure to address chronic and excessive loading of the knee joint. A growing body of evidence suggests that first-line therapies for early knee osteoarthritis should emphasize unloading the knee joint since any potential therapeutic benefit of regenerative therapies will likely be attenuated by excessive mechanical demand at the knee joint. Minimally invasive medical devices such as patient-specific interpositional implants and extracapsular joint unloading implants are currently in development to address this clinical need.

  2. Addressing concerns related to geologic hazards at the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility , TA-63, Los Alamos National Laboratory: focus on the current Los Alamos Seismic Network earthquake catalog, proximity of identified seismic events to the proposed facility , and evaluation of prev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    . Understanding the subtle differences between Tshirege Member cooling units and the nature of the contacts between cooling units is critical to identifying the presence or absence of faults associated with the Pajarito fault system on the Pajarito Plateau. The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) continuously monitors local earthquake activity in the Los Alamos area in support of LANL's Seismic Hazards program. Seismic monitoring of LANL facilities is a requirement of DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). LASN currently consists of nine permanent seismic instrument field stations that telemeter real-time sensitive ground motion data to a central recording facility. Four of these stations are located on LANL property, with three of those within 2.5 miles of TA-63. The other five stations are in remote locations in the Jemez Mountains, Valles Caldera, St Peters Dome, and the Caja del Rio plateau across the Rio Grande from the Los Alamos area. Local earthquakes are defined as those with locations within roughly 100 miles of Los Alamos. Plate 1 shows the current LASN station locations and all local earthquakes recorded from 1973 through 2011. During this time period, LASN has detected and recorded over 850 local earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Over 650 of these were located within about 50 miles of Los Alamos, and roughly 60 were within 10 miles. The apparent higher density of earthquakes close to Los Alamos, relative to the rest of north-central New Mexico, is due largely to the fact that LASN is a sensitive local seismic network, recording many very small nearby events (magnitude less than 1.0) that are undetectable at greater distances.

  3. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  4. Defeating Internet attacks and Spam using "disposable" Mobile IPv6 home addresses

    CERN Document Server

    Mutaf, Pars


    We propose a model of operation for next generation wireless Internet, in which a mobile host has hundreds of "disposable" Mobile IPv6 home addresses. Each correspondent is distributed a different disposable home address. If attacked on a given home address, the mobile user can block packets to that address and become unreachable to the attacker. Blocking one address does not affect other addresses. Other correspondents can still reach the mobile host. A new home address can also be requested via e-mail, instant messaging, or directly from the target host using a protocol that we develop. This model is especially useful against battery exhausting Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks and CPU exhausting distributed DoS attacks, since it seems to be the only viable solution, currently. We show however that this model can also be used to defeat other attacks and also to stop spam.

  5. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change. (United States)

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F


    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization. (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  7. 76 FR 42074 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 20 Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity... information pertinent to its considerations. II. Discussion Currently, there are no NRC regulations...

  8. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available This workshop was conceived with the aim of discussing what an address actually is and exploring the possibility of developing an international address standard across the various domains that use addresses. This paper attempts to provide...

  9. Characterization of addressability by simultaneous randomized benchmarking

    CERN Document Server

    Gambetta, Jay M; Merkel, S T; Johnson, B R; Smolin, John A; Chow, Jerry M; Ryan, Colm A; Rigetti, Chad; Poletto, S; Ohki, Thomas A; Ketchen, Mark B; Steffen, M


    The control and handling of errors arising from cross-talk and unwanted interactions in multi-qubit systems is an important issue in quantum information processing architectures. We introduce a benchmarking protocol that provides information about the amount of addressability present in the system and implement it on coupled superconducting qubits. The protocol consists of randomized benchmarking each qubit individually and then simultaneously, and the amount of addressability is related to the difference of the average gate fidelities of those experiments. We present the results on two similar samples with different amounts of cross-talk and unwanted interactions, which agree with predictions based on simple models for the amount of residual coupling.

  10. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions (United States)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.


    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  11. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard


    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...

  12. Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski


    Full Text Available Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators The category of expressions of politeness includes, among others, forms of address. Forms of address express honorification. Honorification can be defined as a special type of meaning that consists of information about the social and interpersonal relations between the speaker and the addressee, the speaker and the hearer, and the speaker and the protagonist of the predication. As far as their place in the syntactic structure is concerned, forms of address can either be integrated with the other elements of a predication or not. However, they are always part of a predication’s semantic structure. Moreover, forms of address convey the speaker’s attitude to the meaning of the predicate that they want to convey, which consequently means that forms of address also carry a modal element. Modality can be defined as a situation in which an individual is in a particular mental state, i.e. exhibits some kind of attitude to a situation or a type of situations. Forms of address can be categorised as modal operators conveying imperatives, requests, suppositions, etc. The term "operator" can be used for a unit of language when it changes the semantic structure of the predication. My research on honorification is mainly based on contemporary corpora, both monolingual and multilingual. In the present study, I analyse forms of address which carry imperative and optative meanings.   Formy adresatywne jako dyskretne operatory modalne W obrębie wyrażeń realizujących funkcje grzecznościowe znajduje się grupa form adresatywnych. Są one częścią kategorii honoryfikatywności rozumianej jako szczególny rodzaj znaczenia zawartego w treści wypowiedzi, informację o towarzysko-społecznej relacji między nadawcą a odbiorcą, nadawcą a słuchaczem oraz nadawcą a bohaterem wypowiedzi. Gramatycznie formy adresatywne mogą być zarówno zintegrowane, jak i niezintegrowane syntaktycznie z resztą wypowiedzi, ale

  13. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit (United States)


    current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining...manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States, this paper concludes with three examples that are predicated on the synergistic benefits associated with small reforms.

  14. Sending and Addressing Messages in Web Services


    Borkowski, Piotr


    This thesis provides an overview of Web Services technology. The concept of Web Services and Service Oriented Architecture are explained. The thesis focuses on the mechanisms for transporting and addressing messages in web services, especially SOAP. It presents the development history of SOAP, an overview of the SOAP 1.2 specification, and the differences between SOAP in version 1.1 and 1.2. Further, the thesis presents two web servers for development and deployment of web services using Java...

  15. Design of an addressable memory controller.


    Ham, Byung Woon.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The main memory is an essential subsystem in a Von Neumann type of stored program machine. Because of the speed gap existence between the processor and the main memor>% there has been a constant need to improve the main memor\\' to achieve a better throughput. One method is to use a CAM(Content Addressable Memorv'). It is known as a \\ery powerful facility for searching a particular item from a data array rather than from...

  16. Addressing spiritual leadership: an organizational model. (United States)

    Burkhart, Lisa; Solari-Twadell, P Ann; Haas, Sheila


    The Joint Commission requires health systems to address spiritual care. Research indicates that spirituality is associated with better physical, psychological, and social health and that culturally diverse populations and individuals at end-of-life often request spiritual care. The authors report the results of a consensus conference of 21 executives representing 10 large faith-based health systems who discussed the input, process, and outcomes of a corporate model for spiritual leadership. Specific initiatives are highlighted.

  17. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.


    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  18. Politeness Strategies in American Presidential Inaugural Addresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立文; 朱琳靓


    American presidential inaugural address(PIA)a very important variety with worldwide influence and long-lasting significance.Its main task and purpose is to outline the main policies of the new government and win people's support.However.the prerequisite of winning people's sympathy and support lies in people's good relationship with and trust in the government.Therefore almost all the speakers resort to"approached-based" positive politeness strategy quite often which performs this function very well.

  19. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  20. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach (United States)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.


    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  1. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India. (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit


    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. Copyright 2013, NMJI.

  2. Challenges in Diabetes Care: Can Digital Health Help Address Them? (United States)

    Iyengar, Varun; Wolf, Alexander; Brown, Adam; Close, Kelly


    In Brief There is great enthusiasm for the potential of digital health solutions in medicine and diabetes to address key care challenges: patient and provider burden, lack of data to inform therapeutic decision-making, poor access to care, and costs. However, the field is still in its nascent days; many patients and providers do not currently engage with digital health tools, and for those who do, the burden is still often high. Over time, digital health has excellent potential to collect data more seamlessly, make collected data more useful, and drive better outcomes at lower costs in less time. But there is still much to prove. This review offers key background information on the current state of digital health in diabetes, six of the most promising digital health technologies and services, and the challenges that remain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariannamazi


    Full Text Available Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature’s literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  4. Grid Added Value to Address Malaria

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, V; Hofmann, M


    Through this paper, we call for a distributed, internet-based collaboration to address one of the worst plagues of our present world, malaria. The spirit is a non-proprietary peer-production of information-embedding goods. And we propose to use the grid technology to enable such a world wide "open source" like collaboration. The first step towards this vision has been achieved during the summer on the EGEE grid infrastructure where 46 million ligands were docked for a total amount of 80 CPU years in 6 weeks in the quest for new drugs.

  5. A Task Force to Address Bullying. (United States)

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy


    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema


    Offshoring various stages in the product development process – from engineering tasks like R&D and design to manufacturing activities - can impact the development process, the product and the organisation. Some of these impacts are positive while some are negative. The negative impacts are related...... to rework, misunderstandings, miscommunication and lower quality. This paper investigates how the organisation can reduce the negative aspects of offshoring by presenting two possible approaches; one which lessens the exposure to situations in which these negative impacts happen and another which addresses...

  7. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  8. Panels and Lectures Address China Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Video Resources


    Full Text Available Editors note: Over the past several months, colleagues have brought to our attention three public panel discussions and lectures that address contemporary controversies in Chinese studies. These discussions have been video-recorded and are available to view on the internet. These presentations may be useful either for scholarly pursuits or may be excerpted for classroom viewing. We wish to thank those who contacted us about these resources, and we encourage readers who know of other such video resources to let us know about them so that we can inform our ASIANetwork colleagues of their existence and availability.

  9. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  10. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, R. Daniel


    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  11. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  12. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Karan K; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J; Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John


    Scalable implementation of the optics required to control trapped atomic ions' quantum states will be required to construct large-scale ion trap quantum information processors. All experiments in ion traps so far have employed approaches cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits, with the majority relying on manipulation of free space beams with bulk optics. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic dielectric waveguides integrated within a linear surface-electrode ion trap chip, and qubit addressing at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers that emit through openings in the trap electrodes to an ion trapped 50 $\\mu$m above the chip. We perform quantum coherent operations using visible light routed in and emitted from silicon nitride waveguides and couplers, on the optical qubit transition in individual $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions. The addressing beam is focused near the ion position with a 2 $\\mu$m 1/$e^2$-radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between $10^{-2}$ a...

  13. 5 CFR Appendix A to 5 Cfr Chapter... - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions (United States)


    ..., GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL Ch. XIV, App... Nevada San Francisco New Hampshire Boston New Jersey Boston New Mexico Dallas New York Boston North...

  14. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Waukesha County, WI, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health. (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas


    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Sheridan County, NE, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Cabarrus County, NC, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Box Butte County, NE, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Malheur County, OR, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  20. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Calhoun County, WV, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Valencia County, NM, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  2. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Frontier County, NE, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  3. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Genesee County, MI, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Nantucket County, MA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Benton County, IN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  6. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Lincoln County, WY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Colbert County, AL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  8. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Sutter County, CA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Valley County, ID, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Red Lake County, MN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  11. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Warren County, MS, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  12. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Overton County, TN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  13. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Livingston County, KY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  14. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Sullivan County, PA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Jackson County, CO, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Ashland County, OH, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Penobscot County, ME, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Christian County, IL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Monroe County, MO, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  20. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Appling County, GA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Irion County, TX, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  2. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Schuyler County, IL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  3. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Blaine County, OK, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Jasper County, IN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Webster County, NE, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  6. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Stanton County, KS, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Goochland County, VA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  8. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Grant County, SD, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Saline County, AR, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Randolph County, GA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  11. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Marshall County, IL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  12. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Lemhi County, ID, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  13. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Ocean County, NJ, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  14. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, McDuffie County, GA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Miller County, GA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Franklin County, PA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Jackson County, OR, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Pottawattamie County, IA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Crawford County, MI, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  20. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Blaine County, ID, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, James City County, VA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  2. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Shoshone County, ID, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  3. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Raleigh County, WV, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, West Baton Rouge Parish, LA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Lexington County, SC, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  6. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Navajo County, AZ, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Barton County, MO, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  8. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Livingston County, IL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Stark County, IL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. The adequacy of the current social plan to address retrenchment challenges in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulane Ngele


    Full Text Available The purpose of the Social Plan Guidelines is to manage large-scale retrenchments and ameliorate their effects on employees. In this study a comprehensive literature review and two case studies were conducted to review the theoretical and practical application of the Social Plan. The research findings identified various challenges that inhibit the effective management of retrenchments. These challenges were analysed and interpreted and a new model to effectively manage retrenchments was developed. The new model is centred on a company’s business plan; the concept is a participative performance-driven governance approach between management and employees focusing on business results. The new model suggests that the employment relations management and corporate social investment of an organisation be utilised as vehicles to manage retrenchments effectively.

  11. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Walker County, TX, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  12. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Weld County, CO, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  13. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Roanoke city, VA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  14. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Houston County, MN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Iowa County, IA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Henry County, IN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Choctaw County, OK, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Harford County, MD, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Buffalo County, WI, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  20. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Cleveland County, OK, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Berkeley County, SC, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  2. Jabs and barbs: ways to address misleading vaccination and immunisation information using currently available strategies. (United States)

    Wardle, Jon; Stewart, Cameron; Parker, Malcolm


    Misleading vaccination information undermines confidence in vaccination and may lead to reductions in the effectiveness of vaccination programs. A number of regulatory techniques can be employed to challenge the spread of false information, including health care complaints, therapeutic goods laws, consumer protection laws and professional discipline. This article examines three case studies involving the publication of anti-vaccination information by non-professionally aligned organisations, by non-registered health professionals, and by registered health professionals under the National Law. The article examines the effectiveness of different regulatory responses and makes suggestions for future strategies to deal with the publication of demonstrably false information regarding vaccination.

  3. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Ballard County, KY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Skagway Municipality, AK, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Lafayette County, MS, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  6. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Knox County, TX, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Union County, NC, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  8. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Nassau County, FL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Lubbock County, TX, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Westchester County, NY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  11. Addressing Current Challenges on Groundwater Model Structure through Effective Use of Geophysical Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, Nikolaj;

    We wish to present a method for effective generation of structural models for groundwater flow simulations. The methodology is presented for two cases. A regional scale test, where geophysical data and borehole data is used for generating the regional scale hydrostratigraphy, and a local detailed...

  12. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Nye County, NV, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  13. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Stonewall County, TX, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  14. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Dutchess County, NY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Upshur County, TX, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Clallam County, WA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Greene County, VA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Chaves County, NM, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Juncos Municipio, PR, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  20. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Hardin County, TN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Moore County, TN, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  2. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Scotland County, MO, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  3. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Charles City County, VA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Jackson Parish, LA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Palm Beach County, FL, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  6. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Clark County, NV, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Waupaca County, WI, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  8. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Scott County, KS, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Martin County, KY, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Haskell County, OK, Current Address Ranges Relationship File (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  11. Address Forms in Chinese and English-Speaking Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Address forms is one of markers of politeness and is an indispensable part of communication. An appropriate address form promotes interpersonal communication smoothly. An address form is polite in one culture, but might be inappropriate in an⁃other culture. The paper contrasts address forms in English and Chinese culture and explores the reasons for their different choice of address terms.

  12. GIS-based geocoding methods for area-based addresses and 3D addresses in urban areas


    Jiyeong Lee


    For more than four decades, two address-matching methods, the street-based address geocoding method and address-point-matching method, have been used to identify geographical coordinates from postal addresses. However, street-based address geocoding methods developed for the US addressing system are not universally applicable in developing a single-portal geocoding middleware for worldwide Internet-based geographic information systems applications. Problems also exist with address-point match...

  13. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Gruzinski


    Full Text Available Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d...

  14. Validation of Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina


    The aim was to explore the use of an activity-based approach to determine the validity of a set of housing standards addressing accessibility. This included examination of the frequency and the extent of accessibility problems among older people with physical functional limitations who used...... participant groups were examined. Performing well-known kitchen activities was associated with accessibility problems for all three participant groups, in particular those using a wheelchair. The overall validity of the housing standards examined was poor. Observing older people interacting with realistic...... no mobility device (n = 10) or who used a wheelchair (n = 10) or a rollator (n = 10). The setting was a kitchen designed according to present housing standards. The participants prepared lunch in the kitchen. Accessibility problems were assessed by observation and self-report. Differences between the three...

  15. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia


    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  16. Library outreach: addressing Utah's "Digital Divide". (United States)

    McCloskey, K M


    A "Digital Divide" in information and technological literacy exists in Utah between small hospitals and clinics in rural areas and the larger health care institutions in the major urban area of the state. The goals of the outreach program of the Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library at the University of Utah address solutions to this disparity in partnership with the National Network of Libraries of Medicine-- Midcontinental Region, the Utah Department of Health, and the Utah Area Health Education Centers. In a circuit-rider approach, an outreach librarian offers classes and demonstrations throughout the state that teach information-access skills to health professionals. Provision of traditional library services to unaffiliated health professionals is integrated into the library's daily workload as a component of the outreach program. The paper describes the history, methodology, administration, funding, impact, and results of the program.

  17. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement. (United States)

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M


    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  18. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  19. Discurso de paraninfo Guest speaker's address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bruni


    Full Text Available O presente texto é o discurso de paraninfo pronunciado para os formandos da turma de 2001 da Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Marília/SP. Constitui-se em pequena reflexão sobre o momento da formatura, a passagem para a vida profissional e os problemas mais candentes que a vida acadêmica enfrenta hoje no Brasil.This is the text of the guest speaker's address given on the graduation ceremony of the 2001 class at the Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências da Universidade Estadual Paulista at Marília/São Paulo. It consists in a brief reflection about the moment of graduation, the passage to professional life and the most serious problems of academic life today in Brazil.

  20. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Yevseyeva


    Full Text Available In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabilities and threats to corporate data and devices, combined with a strategy of influencing security behavior by nudging. We argue that nudging, by taking into account the context of the decision-making environment, and the fact that the employee may be in better position to make a more appropriate decision, may be more suitable than strict policies in situations of uncertainty of security-related decisions. Several examples of nudging are considered for different tested and potential scenarios in security context.

  1. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie


    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  2. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit. (United States)

    Mehta, Karan K; Bruzewicz, Colin D; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J; Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John


    The long coherence times and strong Coulomb interactions afforded by trapped ion qubits have enabled realizations of the necessary primitives for quantum information processing and the highest-fidelity quantum operations in any qubit to date. Although light delivery to each individual ion in a system is essential for general quantum manipulations and readout, experiments so far have employed optical systems that are cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic waveguide devices for light routing and ion addressing that are fully integrated within a surface-electrode ion trap chip. Ion qubits are addressed at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers emitting through openings in the trap electrodes to ions trapped 50 μm above the chip; using this light, we perform quantum coherent operations on the optical qubit transition in individual (88)Sr(+) ions. The grating focuses the beam to a diffraction-limited spot near the ion position with 2 μm 1/e(2) radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between 10(-2) and 4 × 10(-4) at distances 7.5-15 μm from the beam centre. Owing to the scalability of the planar fabrication technique employed, together with the tight focusing and stable alignment afforded by the integration of the optics within the trap chip, this approach presents a path to creating the optical systems required for large-scale trapped-ion quantum information processing.

  3. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit (United States)

    Mehta, Karan K.; Bruzewicz, Colin D.; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J.; Sage, Jeremy M.; Chiaverini, John


    The long coherence times and strong Coulomb interactions afforded by trapped ion qubits have enabled realizations of the necessary primitives for quantum information processing and the highest-fidelity quantum operations in any qubit to date. Although light delivery to each individual ion in a system is essential for general quantum manipulations and readout, experiments so far have employed optical systems that are cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic waveguide devices for light routing and ion addressing that are fully integrated within a surface-electrode ion trap chip. Ion qubits are addressed at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers emitting through openings in the trap electrodes to ions trapped 50 μm above the chip; using this light, we perform quantum coherent operations on the optical qubit transition in individual 88Sr+ ions. The grating focuses the beam to a diffraction-limited spot near the ion position with 2 μm 1/e2 radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between 10-2 and 4 × 10-4 at distances 7.5-15 μm from the beam centre. Owing to the scalability of the planar fabrication technique employed, together with the tight focusing and stable alignment afforded by the integration of the optics within the trap chip, this approach presents a path to creating the optical systems required for large-scale trapped-ion quantum information processing.

  4. 75 FR 41790 - Address Management Services-Elimination of the Manual Card Option for Address Sequencing Services (United States)


    ... 111 Address Management Services--Elimination of the Manual Card Option for Address Sequencing Services... line of ``Address Management Services comments.'' Faxed comments are not accepted. FOR FURTHER... send address cards to the appropriate Address Management Services district office or to the delivery...

  5. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server


    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  6. Addressing therapeutic boundaries in social networking. (United States)

    Ginory, Almari; Sabatier, Laura Mayol; Eth, Spencer


    Facebook is the leading social networking website, with over 500 million users. Prior studies have shown an increasing number of housestaff accessing the site. While Facebook can be used to foster camaraderie, it can also create difficulties in the doctor-patient relationship, especially when boundaries are crossed. This study explored the prevalence of such boundary crossings and offers recommendations for training. An anonymous voluntary survey regarding Facebook use was distributed to current psychiatry residents through the American Psychiatric Association (APA) listserv. Of the 182 respondents, 95.7% had current Facebook profiles, and 9.7% had received friend requests from patients. In addition, 18.7% admitted to viewing patient profiles on Facebook. There is a substantial utilization of Facebook among psychiatric residents as compared with prior studies. Specific guidance regarding social media websites and the potential for ethical difficulties should be offered to trainees.

  7. Addressing Enterprise-Level Information System Deficiencies (United States)


    Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Dipta Kazi, BA, MS Captain...the United States Air Force (USAF) management of its supply chain information system (IS) network. The USAF currently employs a decentralized the management of its supply chain IS network. This section contains an introduction to the USAF supply IS network, problem statement, purpose

  8. How Should we Address Climate Change?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Duzheng; YAN Zhongwei; HUANG Gang


    @@ Global warming goes on The climate has always been changing. Here we refer to the changes concerning the current global warming,which is unprecedented both in terms of the rate at which the warming takes place and the extent to which human activities exert impacts on it. Observational analyses indicate that the global mean temperature increased by about 0.6℃/century over the last century;

  9. Addressing uncertainty in atomistic machine learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Christensen, Rune; Khorshidi, Alireza


    Machine-learning regression has been demonstrated to precisely emulate the potential energy and forces that are output from more expensive electronic-structure calculations. However, to predict new regions of the potential energy surface, an assessment must be made of the credibility of the predi......Machine-learning regression has been demonstrated to precisely emulate the potential energy and forces that are output from more expensive electronic-structure calculations. However, to predict new regions of the potential energy surface, an assessment must be made of the credibility...... of the predictions. In this perspective, we address the types of errors that might arise in atomistic machine learning, the unique aspects of atomistic simulations that make machine-learning challenging, and highlight how uncertainty analysis can be used to assess the validity of machine-learning predictions. We...... suggest this will allow researchers to more fully use machine learning for the routine acceleration of large, high-accuracy, or extended-time simulations. In our demonstrations, we use a bootstrap ensemble of neural network-based calculators, and show that the width of the ensemble can provide an estimate...

  10. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors. (United States)

    Fellermann, Harold; Cardelli, Luca


    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands. These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state-of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities of the subcellular matrix. We provide a non-deterministic semantics of our programming language that enables us to analytically derive the computational and constructive power of our machinery. This semantics is used to derive the sets of all constructable chemicals and supermolecular structures that emerge from different underlying instruction sets. Because our proofs are constructive, they can be used to automatically infer control programs for the construction of target structures from a limited set of resource molecules. Finally, we present an example of our framework from the area of oligosaccharide synthesis.

  11. Assessing what to address in science communication (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann


    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  12. Addressing uncertainty in atomistic machine learning. (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew A; Christensen, Rune; Khorshidi, Alireza


    Machine-learning regression has been demonstrated to precisely emulate the potential energy and forces that are output from more expensive electronic-structure calculations. However, to predict new regions of the potential energy surface, an assessment must be made of the credibility of the predictions. In this perspective, we address the types of errors that might arise in atomistic machine learning, the unique aspects of atomistic simulations that make machine-learning challenging, and highlight how uncertainty analysis can be used to assess the validity of machine-learning predictions. We suggest this will allow researchers to more fully use machine learning for the routine acceleration of large, high-accuracy, or extended-time simulations. In our demonstrations, we use a bootstrap ensemble of neural network-based calculators, and show that the width of the ensemble can provide an estimate of the uncertainty when the width is comparable to that in the training data. Intriguingly, we also show that the uncertainty can be localized to specific atoms in the simulation, which may offer hints for the generation of training data to strategically improve the machine-learned representation.

  13. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies (United States)

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy


    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus.1 Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  14. The Value of Addressing Patient Preferences. (United States)

    Allen, Jeff D; Stewart, Mark D; Roberts, Samantha A; Sigal, Ellen V


    Recent scientific progress is, in some cases, leading to transformative new medicines for diseases that previously had marginal or even no treatment options. This offers great promise for people affected by these diseases, but it has also placed stress on the health care system in terms of the growing cost associated with some new interventions. Effort has been taken to create tools to help patients and health care providers assess the value of new medical innovations. These tools may also provide the basis for assessing the price associated with new medical products. Given the growing expenditures in health care, value frameworks present an opportunity to evaluate new therapeutic options in the context of other treatments and potentially lead to a more economically sustainable health care system. In summary, the contribution to meaningful improvements in health outcomes is the primary focus of any assessment of the value of a new intervention. A component of such evaluations, however, should factor in timely access to new products that address an unmet medical need, as well as the magnitude of that beneficial impact. To achieve these goals, value assessment tools should allow for flexibility in clinical end points and trial designs, incorporate patient preferences, and continually evolve as new evidence, practice patterns, and medical progress advance.

  15. Addressing Issues for Land Change Science (United States)

    Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing


    Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; and brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

  16. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies. (United States)

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy


    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.

  17. Address Points - COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN: Address Points Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point Shapefile) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN is a point shapefile that contains address points maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  18. Address Points - COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN: Address Points Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point feature class) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN is an ESRI Geodatabase point feature class that contains address points maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  19. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., erlangen (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics


    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  20. Obesity in pregnancy: addressing risks to improve outcomes. (United States)

    Kriebs, Jan M


    The rapidly increasing rates of obesity among women of childbearing age, not only in the United States but also across the globe, contribute to increased risks during pregnancy and childbirth. Overweight and obesity are quantified by body mass index (BMI) for clinical purposes. In 2010, 31.9% of U.S. women aged 20 to 39 years met the definition of obesity, a BMI of 30 kg/m or greater. Across the life span, obesity is associated with increased risks of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, and other diseases. During pregnancy, increasing levels of prepregnancy BMI are associated with increases in both maternal and fetal/neonatal risks. This article reviews current knowledge about obesity in pregnancy and health risks related to increased maternal BMI, addresses weight stigma as a barrier to care and interventions that have evidence of benefit, and discusses the development of policies and guidelines to improve care.

  1. Addressed qubit manipulation in radio-frequency dressed lattices (United States)

    Sinuco-León, G. A.; Garraway, B. M.


    Precise control over qubits encoded as internal states of ultracold atoms in arrays of potential wells is a key element for atomtronics applications in quantum information, quantum simulation and atomic microscopy. Here we theoretically study atoms trapped in an array of radio-frequency dressed potential wells and propose a scheme for engineering fast and high-fidelity single-qubit gates with low error due to cross-talk. In this proposal, atom trapping and qubit manipulation relies exclusively on long-wave radiation making it suitable for atom-chip technology. We demonstrate that selective qubit addressing with resonant microwaves can be programmed by controlling static and radio-frequency currents in microfabricated conductors. These results should enable studies of neutral-atom quantum computing architectures, powered by low-frequency electromagnetic fields with the benefit of simple schemes for controlling individual qubits in large ensembles.

  2. Addressing Confounding in Predictive Models with an Application to Neuroimaging. (United States)

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T


    Understanding structural changes in the brain that are caused by a particular disease is a major goal of neuroimaging research. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) comprises a collection of tools that can be used to understand complex disease efxcfects across the brain. We discuss several important issues that must be considered when analyzing data from neuroimaging studies using MVPA. In particular, we focus on the consequences of confounding by non-imaging variables such as age and sex on the results of MVPA. After reviewing current practice to address confounding in neuroimaging studies, we propose an alternative approach based on inverse probability weighting. Although the proposed method is motivated by neuroimaging applications, it is broadly applicable to many problems in machine learning and predictive modeling. We demonstrate the advantages of our approach on simulated and real data examples.

  3. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam


    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  4. Address burnout with a caring, nurturing environment. (United States)


    With their hectic schedules and demanding work responsibilities, emergency physicians are particularly vulnerable to symptoms of burnout. One study showed that more than half of emergency providers reported at least one symptom of burnout when they were asked to fill out a survey tool used to measure burnout--more than any other type of provider. It's a concern because physicians experiencing burnout may be less attentive to their patients, and some ultimately choose to leave medicine because they are no longer satisfied with their work. However, there are steps health systems and administrators can take to help physicians who are struggling, and prevent isolated problems from escalating into larger issues. When a national sample of more than 7,200 physicians agreed to take the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a survey tool used to measure burnout, nearly half (45.8%) reported at least one symptom of burnout, and 65% of the emergency providers reported symptoms of burnout. Burnout is not just fatigue. It involves disappointment in a relationship or relationships, and lack of satisfaction or fulfillment with work, according to experts. Symptoms may include moodiness, irritability, sarcasm, and may result in performance issues as well. Further, there may be physical changes such as weight loss or changes in appetite. To prevent or address burnout, experts advise health systems to nurture a caring, collaborative environment, and to make sure that providers have mentors or resources to reach out to if they are experiencing any work-related problems. They also advise administrators to make sure that burnout is a safe topic of conversation.

  5. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  6. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter


    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  7. Policy Tools for Addressing Urban Sprawl: Urban Growth Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. STRAUSS


    Full Text Available The analysis herein explores the topic of urban growth boundaries and how local governments in Romania could use this growth management tool in order to address unplanned, haphazard growth that is taking place at the fringe of cities and in the villages/ farming communities that surround them. The structure of the paper is threefold. The first section focuses on a brief socio-economic profile of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The aim is to provide a better context and facilitate the reader’s understanding of the nature of urban growth and suburbanization in Romania. Cluj-Napoca is currently in the process of adopting a master plan for the city and specific policy recommendations on how to address urban sprawl may prove useful. The authors hope to stir a debate among scholars, practitioners, and residents with regard to how the city of Cluj will further develop and whether future development should occur in the same manner it occurred during the last 10 years. The second section of the paper is meant to introduce the concepts of growth management and urban growth boundaries. The former is described in terms of a planning philosophy while the latter is portrayed as a specific policy tool that growth management advocates suggest it could be used in order to fight sprawl. A case study on urban growth boundaries is presented in order to underscore specific advantages and disadvantages associated with establishing a growth boundary. The last section comprises several preliminary policy recommendations for the city of Cluj-Napoca. Because of the incomplete data the authors currently have on critical issues some of the recommendations are general in scope and need to be further detailed.

  8. 21 CFR 1321.01 - DEA mailing addresses. (United States)


    ... Addresses Code of Federal Regulations Section—Topic DEA Mailing address DEA Administrator 1308.43(b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DEA mailing addresses. 1321.01 Section 1321.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEA MAILING ADDRESSES § 1321.01...

  9. Organizational Assessment: An Overlooked Approach To Managing Diversity And Addressing Racism In The Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigid Trenerry


    Full Text Available Strategies to manage diversity and address racism within organizations are fast becoming routine practice. This is especially important given the demographic compositions of workforces are changing and evidence that racism is commonplace within workplaces and associated with a range of detrimental economic, social and health outcomes. In this paper, we consider organizational assessment as a largely overlooked approach to managing diversity and addressing racism in the workplace. Approaches to organizational assessment in the fields of diversity management and cultural competency are explored and critiqued before turning to a review of organizational assessment tools focused on managing diversity and/or addressing racism. A critical review of the eight tools that met the inclusion criteria led to the formulation of six key principles to guide the selection of organizational assessment tools.. Current organizational assessment tools lack an explicit focus on addressing systemic racism and require further refinement and testing in order to effectively manage diversity and address racism in the workplace.

  10. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration (United States)

    Diviacco, P.


    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  11. Evaluating Judicial Performance and Addressing Gender Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Melville


    Full Text Available Elek and Rottman argue that judicial evaluation is often biased against women and minority judges. The need to address bias is important, however often the desire for diversity seems so self-evident as to belie deeper analysis. This paper examines the two main rationales for gender equality on the bench. First, female judges are often considered necessary in order to bring a gendered perspective to judging, however it is argued that this rationale is flawed. Second, an alternative rationale based on equality and legitimacy is offered which avoids gender essentialism. While debates typically focus on these two rationales, a third rationale embraces both difference and equality/legitimacy. The presence of female judges has an important symbolic value which destabilises existing fraternal legal norms. Finally, increasing the number of female judges may not necessarily change judging, and this paper also analyses how the transformative potential offered by judicial diversity can work in practice. Elek y Rottman defienden que la evaluación judicial suele estar sesgada en contra de las mujeres y los jueces pertenecientes a minorías. La necesidad de abordar el sesgo es importante, sin embargo a menudo el deseo de diversidad parece tan evidente como para contradecir un análisis más profundo. Este artículo examina los dos motivos principales para la igualdad de género en el banquillo. En primer lugar, las mujeres jueces a menudo se consideran necesarias para aportar una perspectiva de género al hecho de juzgar, sin embargo, se defiende que este razonamiento es erróneo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece una alternativa lógica basada en la igualdad y la legitimidad que evita el esencialismo de género. Mientras que los debates suelen centrarse en estas dos razones, una tercera justificación abarca tanto la diferencia como la igualdad/legitimidad. La presencia de mujeres en la judicatura tiene un importante valor simbólico que desestabiliza las normas

  12. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development (United States)

    Habib, Shahid


    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  13. Addressing the Old Water Paradox using tritium (United States)

    Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe


    , including intermediate stores such as soil water, interflow, and water in the regolith, a multi-tracer approach is required to apportion the contribution of water from these stores during high flow events. Most of the major ions and EC were not useful in determining the changing water stores and the variation in stable isotopes was minor. Tritium provides the opportunity to directly assess how the average residence time of water varies across the flow event and through this address some aspects of the old water paradox.

  14. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development (United States)

    Habib, Shahid


    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  15. Analytical Approaches to Address Homeland Security Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, Gregory M.; Young, Jonathan


    Homeland security concerns arising since September 11, 2001, have captured national attention and sparked a number of responses at all levels of government. As events have unfolded and the nature of the situation has become better understood within the United States, the need for effective planning and response has resulted in the identification of significant analytical challenges. These challenges relate to a number of different needs, including the following: (1) estimating the probability and the potential impact of various threats, (2) identifying the need for and effectiveness of specific counter-measures, and (3) assessing the combined results of interacting activities and events. Analytical approaches traditionally used for safety engineering and risk analysis, coupled with analytical approaches borrowed from other systems analysis disciplines, can be usefully adapted to help meet these challenges. This paper identifies and discusses several illustrative examples of the analytical challenges currently being faced with respect to homeland security. Linkages are then examined between these specific challenges and traditional analytical approaches from a variety of disciplines, including safety engineering and risk analysis. Since effective cooperation among responsible agencies and organizations has been identified as an issue of concern and is essential to achieve an effective homeland security strategy and response capability, issues relating to multiple interacting activities are specifically highlighted.

  16. Research on the Mo del of a Lightweight Resource Addressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bingqing; SUN Zhixin


    This paper discussed the characteristics of addressing from the perspective of Internet address-ing mechanism. An Internet of things (IOT) resource ad-dressing iteration model was defined. In the model, a di-rect addressing mode for active nodes and an indirect addressing mode for passive codes were proposed, which meet the requirement for multiple encoding mode. A uni-fied IOT resource lightweight addressing scheme based on IPv6 has been proposed to implement the two addressing modes. The scheme utilized the virtual domain to solve the problem of the heterogeneous encoding. The paper imple-mented the addressing process from the Internet host to the sensor node based on IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPAN) protocol. The experi-ment results show that the scheme is performed to realize communication between wireless sensor networks and IPv6 networks.

  17. A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi


    Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

  18. Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature (United States)

    Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.


    The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure

  19. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Lisa G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural community study who were exposed via public drinking water to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA released from a DuPont facility in Parkersburg, West Virginia. We converted pre-E911 to post-E911 addresses using two methods: automated ZP4 address-correction software with the U.S. Postal Service LACS database and E911 data provided by Wood County, West Virginia. Addresses were geocoded using TeleAtlas, an online commercial service, and ArcView with StreetMap Premium North America NAVTEQ 2008 enhanced street dataset. We calculated positional errors using GPS measurements collected at each address and assessed exposure based on geocoded location in relation to public water pipes. Results The county E911 data converted 89% of the eligible addresses compared to 35% by ZP4 LACS. ArcView/NAVTEQ geocoded more addresses (n = 130 and with smaller median distance between geocodes and GPS coordinates (39 meters than TeleAtlas (n = 85, 188 meters. Without E911 address conversion, 25% of the geocodes would have been more than 1000 meters from the true location. Positional errors in TeleAtlas geocoding resulted in exposure misclassification of seven addresses whereas ArcView/NAVTEQ methods did not misclassify any addresses. Conclusions Although the study was limited by small

  20. Beyond pills and tests: addressing the social determinants of tuberculosis. (United States)

    Wingfield, Tom; Tovar, Marco A; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Saunders, Matthew J; Datta, Sumona; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Lewis, James J; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton


    Poverty drives tuberculosis (TB) rates but the approach to TB control has been disproportionately biomedical. In 2015, the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy explicitly identified the need to address the social determinants of TB through socio-economic interventions. However, evidence concerning poverty reduction and cost mitigation strategies is limited. The research described in this article, based on the 2016 Royal College of Physicians Linacre Lecture, aimed to address this knowledge gap. The research was divided into two phases: the first phase was an analysis of a cohort study identifying TB-related costs of TB-affected households and creating a clinically relevant threshold above which those costs became catastrophic; the second was the design, implementation and evaluation of a household randomised controlled evaluation of socio-economic support to improve access to preventive therapy, increase TB cure, and mitigate the effects of catastrophic costs. The first phase showed TB remains a disease of people living in poverty - 'free' TB care was unaffordable for impoverished TB-affected households and incurring catastrophic costs was associated with as many adverse TB treatment outcomes (including death, failure of treatment, lost to follow-up and TB recurrence) as multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. The second phase showed that, in TB-affected households receiving socio-economic support, household contacts were more likely to start and adhere to TB preventive therapy, TB patients were more likely to be cured and households were less likely to incur catastrophic costs. In impoverished Peruvian shantytowns, poverty remains inextricably linked with TB and incurring catastrophic costs predicted adverse TB treatment outcome. A novel socio-economic support intervention increased TB preventive therapy uptake, improved TB treatment success and reduced catastrophic costs. The impact of the intervention on TB control is currently being evaluated by the Community

  1. Address forms in Persian based on Iranian movies


    Derakhshan Rokni, Tina


    The present thesis: “Address forms in Persian language based on Iranian movies”, investigates address forms as socio-linguistic forms which are directly related to social factors such as age, gender and social class. In the Persian language there is a strong tradition of addressing each other in various ways, changing from one context to another. Addressing is a universal phenomenon, but the rules that govern the choice are different from one language to another. So, the hierarchical struc...

  2. Obituary: Cornell H. Mayer, 1921-2005 (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Venkataraman


    Cornell (Connie) H. Mayer, a pioneer of radio astronomy, died on 19 November 2005 of congestive heart failure at his home in Mt. Vernon, Virginia. He was eighty-three. Cornell Mayer was born in Ossian, Iowa on 10 December 1921. After graduating from the University of Iowa in 1943, he joined the Navy during World War II and was stationed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, DC. There he assisted Fred T. Haddock in the development of the first radar antenna inside a submarine periscope. This device has been credited with shortening the war in the Pacific because of the number of Japanese ships that were sunk with its aid. With Haddock, Connie also discovered centimeter-wave radio bursts from the sun coincident with solar flares. They made the first detection of thermal radio emission from the Orion nebula and other galactic HII regions. They also detected extragalactic objects and thus initiated the important field of centimeter-wave astronomy. Their observations were made with a 50-foot parabolic reflector on a gun mount located on the roof of one of the NRL buildings. This telescope had the world's highest radio resolving power for many years. With Haddock's departure to the University of Michigan in 1956 to create a new radio observatory there, Connie became head of a group in the Radio Astronomy Branch at NRL, where he remained until his retirement in 1980. Much of his work involved the measurement of planetary temperatures by analysis of radio emissions. By making technical innovations in instrumentation--such as replacing disc choppers with a ferrite switch to compare the sky and reference load, or using argon gas tubes for calibration--Connie greatly improved the performance of his equipment. This resulted in the discovery of an astonishing, 600oC surface temperature of Venus, which contradicted the widespread notion that Venus was similar to the Earth and potentially habitable. In spite of the extraordinarily careful and systematic way that the observations were carried out and analyzed, many remained skeptical about the result and its interpretation in terms of a massive greenhouse effect, until the Mariner-II spacecraft fly-by in 1962, which put all such doubts to rest. Connie and his group continued to make radio observations of other planets and discovered a non-thermal centimeter wavelength emission from Jupiter. This led directly to work done at Caltech that demonstrated the existence of Van Allen-like belts around the planet. Being a superb engineer, Connie firmly believed that technology led to scientific discovery. Like others, he was preoccupied with the improvement of the sensitivity of radio astronomy receivers, and applied physics to new designs. In 1959, Connie collaborated with Charles Townes and his students at Columbia in the first application of the maser to astronomy. When Townes received the 1964 Nobel Prize for the invention of the maser, he asserted that Connie's desire to improve receiver sensitivity was influential in his work and shared a portion of his prize money with him. Connie's greatest contribution was in the study of non-thermal radio sources at very short wavelengths. Non-thermal sources were recognized by the fact that their flux density decreases with increasing frequency. If the emission mechanism were synchrotron radiation (as theorized in 1950), then the radiation should be linearly polarized up to a theoretical maximum of 70 percent. In 1949, John Bolton had identified a discrete radio source with the Crab Nebula optical counterpart. The optical radiation was known to contain a diffuse component with a featureless spectrum. The Russian astrophysicist Joseph Shklovsky boldly hypothesized that both the optical and radio emissions were due to the synchrotron mechanism. This implied that the optical radiation would be polarized, and Soviet scientists found it so in 1954. Soon after, the radio source Virgo A was matched with the peculiar galaxy M87, whose spectrally featureless optical jet was found to be polarized in 1956. Thus the crucial evidence in support of the synchrotron mechanism for both galactic and extragalactic radio sources was the detection of polarization in their optical radiation. The very next year, Connie and his collaborators showed that at a 3 cm wavelength, the Crab Nebula was substantially polarized (8%) at a position angle close to that of the optical direction. The hundreds of pixels obtainable in the optical, as opposed to only one in the NRL 3 cm observation, enabled the variation of position angle with sky position to be measured. Five years later, the NRL group, succeeded in measuring the first polarization in two extragalactic radio sources, Cygnus A and Centaurus A, at 3 cm. Later measurements at slightly longer wavelengths showed that polarization must be common in synchrotron sources, but that the amount decreased rapidly with increasing wavelength. It was already evident from the NRL measurements that Faraday rotation was important, and it was also clear that increased resolution would be required to remove the effects of averaging over distributions with varying position angles. This led Connie to build receivers at even shorter wavelengths and to use them on larger telescopes than NRL's. The most spectacular results were obtained in 1966 with a 1.55 cm receiver on the NRAO 140-ft reflector at Green Bank, which provided a beam width of only 1?:7. They found that the Crab Nebula had a distribution of polarization similar to that observed optically, reaching up to 16%. Internal Faraday rotation was clearly required to explain the rapid depolarization with increasing wavelength. For Cygnus A, they had just enough resolution to show that the two components of the double radio source were nearly orthogonally polarized. Their most beautiful result was on the galactic supernova remnant Cassiopea A, where they found a remarkable circular circumferential symmetry in the polarization vectors, explaining why previous work with poorer resolution indicated no polarization. Most importantly they recognized that the implied radial field "suggests that the magnetic field has been carried out with the expansion of the supernova envelope, and...[they] observe[d] polarized radiation associated with a component which has been stretched out in the radial direction during the expansion of the shell." This landmark paper led the way for later polarimetric studies of both galactic and extragalactic radio sources. Observations two decades later with the VLA (the world's most powerful, synthesis radio telescope with a quarter million pixels to each one of Connie's), substantiated most or all of his early conclusions, and was a tribute to his pioneering effort. The NRL group was later involved in discoveries about the variability of interstellar water and SiO masers, the structure of molecular clouds and star forming regions, the development of techniques for precision time transfer, remote sensing of the ocean and atmosphere, and much else, but in the aforementioned radio astronomy work, Connie Mayer had no peer. A colleague remarked, "Connie was among the last of the scientist-engineers who built their own equipment, performed their own experiments, and also interpreted the results into paradigm shifting science." Connie was a rare and noble example of natural modesty, becoming uncomfortable if anyone praised him. After his death, his wife found many awards that he had received but never framed nor told her about. He joked that he did not want a formal funeral "with a lot of people getting up and mouthing off about me." He received full military honor services at Arlington National Cemetery, but was cremated as per his wishes. He is survived by Carey Whitehead Mayer, his wife of fifty-six years, and their daughter, Carolyn Elizabeth Mayer. Their son, John, died in 1978.

  3. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009) (United States)

    Marché, Jordan D., II


    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the future course of stellar astronomy," a prediction strongly borne out in the decades that followed. In 1959, Code founded the Space Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) within the UW Department of Astronomy. Early photometric and spectrographic equipment was test-flown aboard NASA's X-15 rocket plane and Aerobee sounding rockets. Along with other SAL personnel, including Theodore E. Houck, Robert C. Bless, and John F. McNall, Code (as principal investigator) was responsible for the design of the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) as one of two suites of instruments to be flown aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), which represented a milestone in the advent of space astronomy. With its seven reflecting telescopes feeding five filter photometers and two scanning spectrometers, WEP permitted the first extended observations in the UV portion of the spectrum. After the complete failure of the OAO-1 spacecraft (launched in 1966), OAO-2 was successfully launched on 7 December 1968 and gathered data on over a thousand celestial objects during the next 50 months, including stars, nebulae, galaxies, planets, and comets. These results appeared in a series of more than 40 research papers, chiefly in the Ap.J., along with the 1972 monograph, The Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), edited by Code. Between the OAO launches, other SAL colleagues of Code developed the Wisconsin Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (or APT), the first computer-controlled (or "robotic") telescope. Driven by a PDP-8 mini-computer, it routinely collected atmospheric extinction data. Code was also chosen principal investigator for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (or WUPPE). This used a UV-sensitive polarimeter designed by Kenneth Nordsieck that was flown twice aboard the space shuttles in 1990 and 1995. Among other findings, WUPPE observations demonstrated that interstellar dust does not appreciably change the direction of polarization of starlight, thereby supporting its possible composition as graphite. Code was the recipient of numerous awards, including the Professional Achievement Award of the University of Chicago Alumni Association (1969), NASA's Public Service Award (1970), and its highest honor, the Distinguished Public Service Medal (1992). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1971), the International Academy of Astronautics (1972), chosen a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1974), and elected vice president (1976-78) and president (1982-84) of the AAS. He was a member of the Board of Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council and served for many years on the board of directors (and later was appointed chairman, 1977-80) of AURA, Inc. Code was closely involved with AURA's bid to manage the Space Telescope Science Institute and served as the latter's interim director (15 January - 1 September 1981). He also played a significant role in establishing the WIYN (Wisconsin, Indiana, Yale, and NOAO) consortium and Observatory. Code's numerous achievements reflect his competencies as both a theorist and experimentalist/observer, along with noted administrative skills. During his lengthy career at Wisconsin, Code supervised twenty doctoral dissertations (one of which was co-directed with Robert Bless). Following his retirement in 1995, he and his wife relocated to Tucson, Arizona, where he was appointed adjunct professor at the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory and concurrently WIYN Observatory Scientist. At the time of his death, he was the Joel Stebbins and Hilldale Professor of Astronomy Emeritus at UW-Madison. Code belonged to the First Unitarian Church of Madison. He is survived by his wife of 65 years, Mary Guild Code, their four children, Alan, Douglas, Edith, and David, and six grandchildren. Among other sources, this essay draws upon the 1982 oral history interview with Code, conducted by David H. DeVorkin (National Air and Space Museum/Smithsonian Institution); remarks made by the late Donald E. Osterbrock at Code's 80th birthday dinner (2003), Frank K. Edmondson's (1997) history of AURA, and previous work published by the author on the WEP. One box of Code's papers (1958-1985) is preserved at the Memorial Library Archives, UW-Madison. Additional contributions toward this essay have come from Robert W. Smith, Robert C. Bless, and the members of Code's family.

  4. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005 (United States)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock


    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning his Ph.D. in 1978 from Chicago, Ron held a number of research and postdoctoral positions. These included a few months at the Venezuelan National Observatory in Merida, where he helped to set up an astrometric program. This work was unfortunately cut short because of difficulties obtaining the requisite work visa. He also had a two year postdoc at Northwestern University, where he did spectroscopy of massive stars and studied various open clusters. Ron and Ellen's first child, Heather, was born on 9 June 1981 in Evanston, IL. Ron and Ellen moved to Washington, DC, in 1981, where Ron joined the staff of the U.S. Naval Observatory Transit Circle Division. Their son, Geoffrey, was born on 10 May 1983. The marriage ended in divorce in 2001. During the three years that he spent at the USNO headquarters, Ron received training in observing and data reduction with the 6-inch transit circle. When in 1984 the observatory opened the Black Birch Station in New Zealand for surveying the southern sky with the 7-inch transit circle, Ron joined the first group of astronomers to transfer. There he became involved in developing software for the 7-inch, particularly with the image dissector and the acquisition and reduction of planetary observations. Together with Ellis Holdenreid, he worked on some aspects of the real time control software for the 7-inch. He also continued to work on his earlier interest in runaway OB stars. When Ron's tour at the Black Birch Station was coming to an end, he requested a transfer to the USNO Flagstaff Station in northern Arizona. There was a transit circle at the Flagstaff Station being fitted with a CCD camera, and Ron's experience with transit circles in Washington and Black Birch made him well-qualified to help with the modernization of this instrument. Ron worked with David and Alice Monet to automate the 8-inch and develop astrometric software for reducing and analyzing its observations. This telescope came to be known as the FASTT, for Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope. It was used from 1992 onward to obtain highly accurate astrometric positions of various Solar System bodies that were targets of several NASA space missions. In addition, Ron observed astrometric calibration regions for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He collaborated in projects to predict and observe stellar and planetary occultations, determine the masses of certain asteroids, and improve the orbits of numerous planetary satellites. In his letter recalling Ron Stone's career, Bill van Altena wrote, "I also knew and respected Ron as a scientist who worked to do the very best that he could with the FASTT system and produced an outstanding set of data that will be remembered as setting the standards for the best that could be done with drift scanning astrometry." Ron used FASTT observations of radio stars and the brightest quasars to confirm the tie between the optical and radio reference frames. He developed extensive software for automated reduction of FASTT observations. During his last year of life, he took on the additional responsibility of bringing another new telescope, the 1.3-meter, into operation, and was making good progress in this effort until his illness forced him to relinquish the task. Besides his professional interests, Ron was a avid outdoorsman. During his years in Williams Bay, he rode a motorcycle and enjoyed SCUBA diving. He is one of the few people to have gone diving in Lake Geneva. He liked nothing better than hiking and exploring wilderness areas. As his brother, Dwight, recalled, "If he saw a mountain, he had to climb it!"

  5. Obituary: William Gordon (1918-2010) (United States)

    Terzian, Yervant


    Bill Gordon was born in Paterson, New Jersey on January 8, 1918, and died in Ithaca, New York, on February 16, 2010. He is known as the engineer and ionospheric physicist who conceived and built the Arecibo giant radar/radio telescope. Bill graduated from Montclair State College in New Jersey and then in 1953 received his doctorate degree from Cornell University in electrical engineering, working under Henry Booker. During World War II he was in the Army where he studied the atmospheric conditions that affected radar transmissions. In the mid 1950s he began investigating giant antennas capable of studying the earths ionosphere. He succeeded in raising funds from the US Defense Department to construct the 1000 ft in diameter radar/radio telescope near the city of Arecibo on the island of Puerto Rico. The telescope was completed in 1963 under Bill's management, and he was its first Director. The huge fixed spherical antenna surface was made of a thin wire mesh allowing it to operate at frequencies up to about 600 MHz (50 cm wavelength). The spherical surface required complex 'line feeds' to correct for the spherical aberration, but allowed the telescope to track celestial radio sources by moving the line feeds which were supported by a platform suspended 500 ft above the reflector surface. Its sky coverage declination range was from -2 to +38 degrees. The large collecting area of the telescope made possible the detailed study of the physical properties of the earth's ionosphere. Measurements also included the rotation rates of the planets Mercury and Venus, radar imaging of the Moon and terrestrial planets. This new magastructure operated at low frequencies with its prime frequency at 430 MHz. One of Bill's passions was to make controlled experiments with the ionosphere. These so called 'heating experiments,' used a powerful HF radar transmitting from 5 to 10 MHz, to heat the ionosphere near the plasma frequency. The Arecibo radar then would study the heated atmospheric section to investigate the changes in the physical parameters of the ionosphere. Bill Gordon, in 1966, moved to Rice University in Houston, Texas, where he was a Distinguished Professor and Senior Administrator (Dean, Provost and Vice President). The Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in 1970 was designated as 'The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center' (NAIC), and began to be funded as a National Center by the National Science Foundation. Cornell has remained the managing institution since that time. Early in the 1970s a grant from the NSF made it possible to replace the surface of the telescope with perforated rigid panels allowing it to operate at least up to 5000 MHz. In the 1990s the long imperfect line feeds were replaced by a complex Gregorian system that greatly increased the sensitivity of the telescope. This allowed the radiation to be collected at a focal point rather than via a long line. These and other major improvements have kept the telescope as the most sensitive radio/radar telescope in the world. Observations of pulsars at Arecibo resulted in the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics to Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse who indirectly showed that gravitational waves exist, as Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts. In 1990 Aleksander Wolszczan discovered a special pulsar and he was able to show that it was surrounded by earth size planets. The exotic and photogenic giant radar/radio telescope has also been featured in prominent movies such as the James Bond 'Golden Eye' in 1995, and Carl Sagan's 'Contact' in 1997. Bill's many graduate students from Cornell and Rice, simply adored him. One of his students, Dr. Richard A. Behnke, has said 'Simply he was the greatest man I have known'. Bill was married to Elva Freile Gordon for 61 years. Elva died in 2001. Bill later remarried with Elizabeth Bolgiano Gordon. In his career Bill received many awards. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, and he also received several honorary Gold medals, including the Balth van der Pol Gold Medal from URSI, and the Arctowski Gold Medal of the National Academy of Sciences.

  6. Obituary: Walter G. Egan, 1923-2003 (United States)

    Hilgeman, Theodore


    Walter G. Egan, a scientist and engineer with a professional life spanning well over half a century, died on 3 November 2003. Born to Caroline and George Egan on 12 October 1923 in New York City, Egan studied Electrical Engineering at the City College of New York from 1941 until 1943 when he was called to active duty in World War II, switching from enlisted reserve status. During the war, he served honorably in both the Signal Corps and the Medical Corps. Following his discharge in 1946, he resumed his college studies, obtaining a BEE in 1949 from City College of New York, an MA in Physics in 1951 from Columbia University, and a PhD in Solid State Physics in 1960 from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Egan's PhD thesis was "Ferromagnetic Resonance in thin Nickel Films," performed under advisor H. Juretschke. Egan's professional career covered both industry and academia. In the summer of 1942, he worked for the Bruce Engineering Company. From 1957 to 1963, he worked for Ford Instrument Company, a Division of Sperry Rand Corporation, successively as an Engineering Project Supervisor, Assistant Director of Research, and Executive Assistant to the Director of Research. From 1964 to 1986 Egan worked as a Staff Scientist at the Grumman Corporation Corporate Research Center where his pioneering work consisted of research and development of remote sensing equipment and techniques for the remote sensing of terrestrial and space targets and backgrounds. I came to know and work with him during his tenure at the Grumman Corporation, where we co-authored many papers and a book. His insight into remote sensing engineering and research, shared willingly with younger colleagues, was a major stimulus to my future research in this field. Egan instilled a sense of discipline in publication, so our work could be shared with others in a timely way. This drive to share his knowledge with others also made him an excellent teacher. Subsequently, he held the position of Research Associate at the Mohonk Preserve, New Paltz, New York; Professor of Physics at York College, City University of New York; Research Professor of Physics at Polytechnic University, Brooklyn New York; and Professor of Earth Sciences at Adelphi University, Garden City, New York. Research was the focus of his professional life. At various points in his career Egan was a member of Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, Eta Kappa Nu, Sigma Pi Sigma, the American Radio Relay League, the Research Society of America, the American Physical Society, the American Astronomical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the American Geophysical Union, the Optical Society of America, the American Meteorological Society, the Institute for Aerosol Research, and the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers. A long and distinguished professional career was accompanied by more than two-hundred published works in the fields of Planetary Astronomy, Geophysics, Atmospheric Physics, Soils Physics, Materials Properties, Photometry, Polarization, Remote Sensing, Aerosols, Oceanography, and Optics. We co-wrote the book Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic Press) in 1979. This was followed by Egan's two books on remote sensing: Photometry and Polarization in Remote Sensing (Elsevier) in 1985 and Optical Remote Sensing, Science and Technology (Marcel Dekker) in 2004. These books have become classical references in today's remote sensing courses. He brought clarity to this burgeoning field of research at a time when it was just developing. Egan is survived by his wife, Joan K. Egan. He also leaves behind many younger colleagues, myself included, who considered him both a mentor and a friend.

  7. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.


    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluou

  8. Obituary: John Norris Bahcall, 1934-2005 (United States)

    Striker, Jeremiah P.; Bahcall, Neta A.


    John Norris Bahcall, one of the most creative and influential astrophysicists of his generation — a scientist who helped prove what makes the Sun shine and helped make the Hubble Space Telescope a reality — passed away in Pasadena, California, on 17 August 2005. Bahcall died peacefully in his sleep from a rare blood disorder. For the past 35 years, Bahcall was the Richard Black Professor of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he created one of the leading astrophysics programs in the world. Active and working to the end, Bahcall said that he was always grateful for a full and happy life that exceeded his wildest expectations. Bahcall died as he lived, surrounded by the family he loved, embracing life to its fullest, happy, working and joking to the end. Bahcall's stellar career encompassed seminal contributions in numerous fields of astrophysics as well as extraordinary leadership on behalf of the scientific community, including the American Astronomical Society, the American Physical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, NASA, and Congress. Bahcall's contributions made him one of the scientific leaders of his time. He had been recognized by numerous awards including the 1998 National Medal of Science from President Clinton, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Medal of the Swedish Royal Academy, the Dan David Award, the Fermi Award, the first Hans Bethe Prize, the Franklin Medal, the Comstock Prize in physics, NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the top awards of the American Astronomical Society — including the Russell Award, the Heineman Prize, and the Warner Prize. Bahcall was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 and to the American Philosophical Society in 2001. He was the recipient of Honorary Degrees from numerous universities around the world. Bahcall's scientific interests and expertise ranged from neutrino physics and the structure of the Sun and other stars, to galaxy models, quasars and the intergalactic medium. His more than 600 scientific publications, on an enormous array of subjects, received nearly 20,000 citations. Many established fundamental paradigms in their fields, while others provided the clearest and most comprehensive overview of them. Bahcall's Neutrino Astrophysics, one of eight books he wrote or edited, has been the most popular book in the field, used by most students and experts. But Bahcall did, in fact, continually return to one core scientific issue: the solar neutrino problem. He realized very early in his career that we should be able to detect the flux, or stream, of these shadowy fundamental particles as they pass through the Earth after escaping from the center of the Sun, where they are produced in prodigious numbers. He clearly saw that a definite detection, or non-detection, of these neutrinos would have major implications both for understanding the Sun and for fundamental particle physics. For decades, he encouraged and supported scientists throughout the world in studying this problem and was most successful in his collaboration with Raymond Davis Jr., who ultimately won the Nobel Prize in 2002 for detecting the solar neutrino flux. It was Bahcall's persistent work that proved definitively that the low flux found by the solar neutrino experiments of Davis and others could not be explained by errors in our model for the Sun. Neutrinos seemed to be missing: either they were not made at the rates required by standard nuclear physics, or they were made but then somehow "lost" in transit between the Sun and the Earth. The latter explanation — neutrino mixing, in which one type of neutrino changes into another at some rate, and in which the neutrino must have a small but finite mass — is now known to be true, and it is surely due to Bahcall's tenacity and insight that this important and surprising modification to the standard model of particle physics was uncovered. A fuller idea of his exceptional scientific scope is indicated by the fact that the standard model for a massive black hole surrounded by a cluster of stars is still called the Bahcall-Wolf model; the most widely quoted model for our Galaxy was for decades the Bahcall-Soneira model; the now common use of quasars as flashlights to illuminate and study the intervening intergalactic medium was originated by Bahcall and Salpeter; and the most accurate models for the solar interior were those developed by Bahcall with Roger Ulrich, Marc Pinsonneault, and others. John Bahcall was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, on 30 December 1934, to Mildred and Malcolm Bahcall. Mildred was a pianist, and both parents worked in business. John Bahcall had one brother, Robert Bahcall, now deceased. At Byrd High School in Shreveport, John became interested in sports, especially tennis; with persistence and dedication — traits he exemplified throughout his life — he became the tennis champion of his state. John continued to play and love tennis his entire life. As a high school senior, Bahcall became interested in debate and joined the school's Debate Team. With the same persistence, dedication, and hard work, Bahcall became a National Debate Team winner — the first time ever for this Louisiana high school. Bahcall's debate skills served him well throughout his life, as all of those who tried to debate him know well. Bahcall's love of physics had a non-traditional beginning. He never took science classes in high school; he was excused to play tennis in the afternoons when science courses were offered. After one year at Louisiana State University, Bahcall transferred to the University of California in Berkeley on a tennis scholarship and support from an uncle who saw the promise in the young Bahcall. At Berkeley he began studying philosophy. Berkeley's graduation requirement of a science course led Bahcall to take a physics class, the first science class he ever took. "I fell in love with Physics," he said, "and it changed my life." Bahcall graduated from Berkeley in 1956 with a degree in Physics. He received a master's degree from the University of Chicago, followed by a 1961 PhD in Physics from Harvard University. After a Research Fellowship at Indiana University working with Emil Konopinski on nuclear weak interactions, Bahcall received an invitation in 1962 to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to work with William A. Fowler, a Nobel Prize winner and expert in the field. Bahcall was working with Willy Fowler and others at the time and place that "nuclear astrophysics" was invented. There he became engaged with neutrino work and to Neta Assaf (then completing her PhD at Caltech) — the two constant loves of his life. John met Neta on a trip to Israel in 1965. She was a young physics graduate student "with a beautiful smile that stole my heart," he said. He spoke no Hebrew and she little English. After a dozen rejections, he got a date with her. They fell in love immediately and their love and friendship lasted a lifetime. "Marrying Neta was the best thing that ever happened to me," John frequently said. Safi Bahcall, their older son, recollects: "The persistence and never giving up was the theme for my dad; solar neutrinos, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the quest for scientific excellence are just a few other examples." Bahcall's first paper from Caltech, a one-page letter to the editor of the Astrophysical Journal, dated 1 December 1962 and entitled "The Solar Neutrino Flux" (written with Fowler, Icko Iben, and Richard Sears), proposed an experiment that might "provide a valuable experimental limit on the effective temperature for neutrino generation in the Sun". That paper set the course for a lifetime of research. The writing of scientific papers was, however, only one of Bahcall's many contributions to world science. He was an educator who changed the nature of postdoctoral training, and a scientific statesman of unusual and beneficent influence. Bahcall moved to the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) at Princeton in 1968 and soon established that institution as a magnet and model for postdoctoral training. A significant fraction of the world's most distinguished astrophysicists benefited from his tutelage and the intellectually fertile atmosphere that he established there. The eminent British scientist Sir Martin Rees describes himself as fortunate to have been one of the first IAS postdoctoral fellows in astrophysics in 1969. Every fellow's birthday and important family events were celebrated. The intellectual atmosphere was intense, and the weekly Tuesday lunches, with John presiding, to which the whole Princeton physics community was invited, were legendary (now named the Bahcall Lunches). Bahcall's postdoc program was the one that astrophysics institutions worldwide emulated. At the IAS, young scientists were selected and recruited in the most exacting manner and then were free to work on whatever they wanted, with whomever they wished. Bahcall mentored over 200 young astronomers in his four decades at the IAS. While maintaining a scientific and educational program that would have exhausted most, Bahcall also demonstrated extraordinary scientific leadership. He was president of the American Astronomical Society, president-elect of the American Physical Society, led the team that produced the 1990 National Research Council "Bahcall Report" that set the scientific and instrumental priorities for astrophysics in the United States for a decade, and worked (with Lyman Spitzer, Jr.) with tireless effectiveness in public and in private to have the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) built and maintained as one of the world's pre-eminent scientific facilities. Neta Bahcall, a professor of astrophysics at Princeton University, was his love, his best friend, and his scientific colleague throughout. She took a leading scientific role at the STScI and wrote over 30 papers with him on subjects ranging from solar neutrinos to binary X-ray sources. They also collaborated in raising three talented children, Safi, Dan, and Orli, who are themselves now establishing significant scientific careers. Said Neta, "Our forty years together were the best, most joyous years of our lives. I could not have imagined a better life, a better husband. We lived a life full of love, of care, of joy. We worked, we shared, we played. We could not have asked for more." "He was a quiet giant of science and a good friend", said Raymond Orbach, Director, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy, a colleague and friend. "John devoted himself to the betterment of mankind. His leadership in astronomy, cosmology, and in the many societies that he served so well has left a lasting influence. We shall owe so much to this remarkable colleague. John created a legacy of imagination and precision, of creativity and rigor. His passing lessens us all." Bahcall's passion for science and for life, his enthusiasm, his integrity, his persistence and dedication, his tremendous will, his high standards for excellence, his love of family and of people, and his wonderful sense of fun were the hallmark of his scientific and personal life. "We all have a deep desire to know what exists out there," said John. "A desire so basic, so beautiful, and so much fun, that it unites all mankind." But no listing of achievements can convey the impression of the man: the wit, the mischievous energy, the passion. Jerry Wasserburg, his old Caltech friend, portrays Bahcall in 1965: "John, running around in white tennis shorts, very sportive and competitive in both creative science and tennis, trying out and enthusiastically arguing every new idea in astrophysics, was the dynamo of the Institute."

  9. Obituary: Grote Reber, 1911-2002 (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.


    Grote Reber, a pioneer of radio astronomy died in Tasmania, Australia on 20 December 2002, two days before his 91st birthday. Reber was born in Chicago on 22 December 1911 and grew up in the Chicago suburb of Wheaton, IL. His father, Schuyler Colefax Reber, who was a lawyer and part owner of a canning factory, died when Grote was only 21; his mother, Harriet Grote was an elementary school teacher in Wheaton. Among her 7th and 8th grade students at Longfellow School in Wheaton was young Edwin Hubble with whom Grote later exchanged views on cosmology. Grote graduated from the Armour Institute of Technology (now the Illinois Institute of Technology) with a degree in Electrical Engineering. He excelled in electronics courses but did less well in mathematics. After receiving his degree in 1933, Grote held a series of jobs with various Chicago companies including the Stewart-Warner and Belmont Radio Corporations. Grote had a lifelong interest in electronics. At the age of 16, he received his amateur radio license, W9GFZ, signed by then Secretary of the Interior, Herbert Hoover. After contacting over 50 countries, he was looking for new challenges. He had read about Karl Jansky's discovery of cosmic radio emission and tried to interest astronomers at Yerkes Observatory, but except for Jesse Greenstein, they showed little interest. ``So," as he later related, ``I consulted with myself and decided to build a dish." He took astronomy courses from Philip Keenan and others at the University of Chicago. Using $2,000 of his own funds (about his annual salary), he took the summer of 1937 off from his engineering job at the Stewart-Warner Corporation to erect a 32-ft parabolic transit dish in a vacant lot next to his mother's house. Using his experience and skills as an electrical engineer and radio amateur he designed, built and tested a series of sensitive radio receivers, which he placed at the focal point of his parabolic dish. Following a succession of failures, in the spring of 1939, he finally succeeded in detecting the galactic radio noise and went on to make the first maps of radio emission from the galaxy and, in 1943, to detect radio emission from the sun. Automobile ignition noise interfered with Reber's observations, so he observed only at night, laboriously writing down every minute the readings from his detector output. In the daytime, he returned to his job in Chicago, catching a few hours sleep each evening before returning to his observations; on weekends he analyzed his data. At first, Grote's discoveries were received with skepticism by the astronomical community and he had great difficulty in getting his papers accepted for publication in the astronomical literature. As he later claimed, ``The astronomers of the time didn't know anything about radio or electronics, and the radio engineers didn't know anything about astronomy. They thought the whole affair was at best a mistake, and at worst a hoax." But, following visits of Kennan and others to his Wheaton facility, he finally convinced "Astrophysical Journal" editor, Otto Struve, and others of the importance of his work. In addition to his classic publications in the "Astrophysical Journal", "Nature", and the "Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers" (now the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineering), he also wrote influential reports in "Popular Science", "Scientific American" and "Sky and Telescope". In 1947, together with Jesse Greenstein, he wrote the first review of radio astronomy which was published in the journal, "Observatory". Plagued by local interference, he discussed with Otto Struve moving his antenna to a better site in Texas and also the possibility of building a much larger 200-ft dish. Reber recognized that an equatorial mount would be very expensive and proposed to use an alt-az mount together with an analogue coordinate converter of the type later implemented in Dwingeloo and Jodrell Bank. Through his younger brother Schuyler, then a business student at Harvard, he gained the interest of Harlow Shapley and Fred Whipple but he was unable to obtain any financial support from Harvard or any other university. Following his mother's death in 1945, Grote reluctantly accepted a position with the National Bureau of Standards in Washington and arranged to have his antenna re-erected in Washington where it was put on an alt-azimuth mount. But he was frustrated with government bureaucracy and disillusioned by the growing atmosphere of McCarthyism in Washington. In 1951, he moved to Hawaii where he pursued a variety of research programs in radio astronomy as well as atmospheric and ionospheric physics from the top of Haleakula on the island of Maui. From Hawaii, he moved on to Tasmania in 1954, in order to exploit the ionospheric transparency associated with the south magnetic pole. While radio astronomers in the rest of the world were exploiting the newly emerging microwave technology to move to shorter and shorter wavelengths, Grote, characteristically departing from conventional ``wisdom," concentrated on the extremely long wavelengths. Working with Bill Ellis at the University of Tasmania, Reber designed and built a series of arrays to study Galactic radio emission and absorption at wavelengths of a few hundred meters. Following several years spent at the CSIRO Ionospheric Prediction Service, Grote moved from Hobart to Bothwell, in central Tasmania, where he designed and built an energy efficient home and where he lived for many years and made good friends. With the growing importance after WWII of the contributions being made throughout the world by radio astronomy, Reber's pioneering studies ultimately became widely recognized. In 1961 he received the Cresson Prize from the Franklin Institute and in 1962, an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Ohio State University. He also received the AAS Russell Lecture Prize and the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Throughout his life, he had a strong interest in political and social issues. Writing to the Director of the NSF and the President of the NAS, he argued against big science and to reduce funding for large radio telescopes such as the VLA. Throughout his career, he questioned the ``big-bang" universe and authored a widely distributed paper on ``The Endless Boundless Universe." He was greatly concerned about the consequences of world population growth and preserving our natural resources, particularly the overuse of fossil fuels, which motivated his research on electric cars and consideration of increased use of sailing ships. He had no tolerance for scientific or other activities that did not meet his high standards but he was generous in giving recognition and praise to those whose work he admired. A college era friend recently described Grote as ``nervously energetic, enthusiastic, with a keen mind that went everywhere, an ever present, lively, sardonic, iconoclastic sense of humor, and strong opinions." In addition to his pioneering work in radio astronomy, Reber also pursued and published research in a variety of fields ranging from radio circuitry and ionospheric physics to studies of cosmic rays, the atmosphere, archaeology and the growth of beans. He held a number of patents, including one for a radio sextant to ``shoot the sun" on cloudy days. Throughout most of his career, he worked as an amateur relying on his deep curiosity along with his imagination and skills as an electronics engineer combined with his persistent, forceful personality, and stubborn disregard for conventional opinion. At various times, he held guest appointments at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Ohio State University, the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization and, starting in 1951, he also received generous support from the Research Corporation in New York. However, he valued his independence and was skeptical of the strings that would be attached to any institutional support. He was scornful of establishment science, with its ``self appointed pontiffs," but his achievements were ultimately widely recognized by professional astronomers. Reber's extraordinary achievements as an amateur were probably unique in 20th century science.

  10. Obituary: Gerald Frederick Tape, 1915-2005 (United States)

    Hughes, Robert E.


    Gerald Frederick Tape, a distinguished science statesman and administrator, died on November 20, 2005. Jerry, as he was known to all, took on many diverse and important responsibilities throughout his life and dealt with them with quiet authority and grace. This was the hallmark of his life. The Board of Trustees of Associated Universities, Inc., which he served for many years, expressed this in its condolences, writing "Jerry personified integrity, thoroughness and dedication. His sensitivity for the views of others, his sincerity, his personal commitment, his calm approach and his unfailing good humor were all greatly admired and respected." Jerry was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan on May 29, 1915 but grew up in Milan, a nearby country farm community, and in Ypsilanti where his father was Principal of Michigan State Normal College, which later became Eastern Michigan University (EMU). It was there that he first became interested in physics. It was there also that he met and courted Josephine Waffen, who later would become his wife for more than sixty-six years and fill their lives with three loving sons, Walter, James, and Thomas. Upon graduation from EMU, Jerry was awarded a scholarship that took him to the University of Michigan where he earned a Ph.D. in Physics, researching the decay modes of the radioisotopes of iodine. In the Fall of 1939, during the waning days of the Great Depression, he was offered an Instructorship in the Physics Department of Cornell University, a promising start for a fruitful academic career. He brought his bride Jo to Ithaca and joined the cyclotron group under Robert Bacher and Willy Higginbotham while devising a laboratory course in nuclear techniques for graduate students. Bacher and Higginbotham soon left Cornell to join a new wartime laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and many other colleagues were "drafted" for war work. Bacher persuaded Jerry to join him at the MIT Radiation Laboratory in February, 1942, and the twenty-seven year old physicist started a new career developing microwave radar applications. In his four years at the Rad Lab Jerry undertook a variety of tasks. His innate management skills were soon noted, and he served as a technical envoy to generals and admirals explaining the capabilities, and the installation and operational requirements, of this powerful new tool. He actively facilitated the installation of transponder beacons on aircraft and naval vessels. Much of his time was spent in England where he became Deputy Director of the British Branch of the Radiation Lab (BBRL). As the war ended, the Rad Lab was preparing to close, and Jerry worked with Leland Haworth, a Lab Division Leader of Radar Groups, in contributing their technical analyses to the massive permanent record of the developments and accomplishments of the past five years. Wheeler Loomis, the Associate Director of the Rad Lab, left to assume the Chairmanship of the Physics Department at the University of Illinois. Haworth, Jerry, and other lab emeriti also decided to reestablish their careers at this distinguished institution. Jerry became an Associate Professor and returned to nuclear research working with, and upgrading, the Department's cyclotron. It was a productive and rewarding period, but it ended in 1950 when Haworth, who had left Illinois to become Director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), persuaded him to come to Brookhaven in a management role. Within a year he became Deputy Director of the Laboratory and started a new career in the management of big science. The decade of the fifties was a period of dynamic growth at Brookhaven. The Cosmotron and the Research Reactor became operational, new programs were initiated, and more advanced facilities were under construction or in the design phase. Jerry had responsibility for the administrative oversight of these activities, and he exercised it with such care and thoughtfulness that he quickly became an indispensable figure in the laboratory's day-to-day operations. Haworth, as Director, was able to focus upon scientific planning and dealing with ever increasing external interactions and pressures. Brookhaven was founded by an independent scientific management organization, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which in turn had been established for that very purpose by nine major, eastern, research universities. AUI managed and operated the Laboratory under contract with the Atomic Energy Commission. The corporation had a small executive staff and a Board of Trustees comprised of eighteen distinguished scientists and administrators. During the fifties the president of AUI was Lloyd V. Berkner, an active and very effective campaigner for big science projects. In this period, he worked tirelessly to convince the National Science Foundation (NSF) to support a National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The proposal was very controversial within the astronomy community and became a divisive issue among many leading astronomers. Success came late in 1956 with NSF's decision to establish NRAO under AUI management. Founding and guiding this new institution became a major new responsibility for AUI and for Jerry Tape. At the end of the decade, Berkner retired from AUI and Haworth became the President. It was a short-lived tenure, however, because President Kennedy asked Haworth to accept an appointment as an Atomic Energy Commissioner, which he did early in 1961. I. I. Rabi, a founding Trustee, took on the presidency temporarily and brought Jerry Tape into AUI as his special assistant and vice president. After a formal search, Jerry was elected President of AUI in 1962. It was in these new roles that Jerry Tape had his first responsibility for overseeing the development of the NRAO. His background in radar development was a great asset, and he enthusiastically accepted the challenges that this fledgling organization faced. Of prime concern were the cost and schedule overruns resulting from design and fabrication problems that developed in the 140-foot telescope project. These had to be renegotiated with the NSF, honing skills that Jerry had already developed. In the course of this, he also made an effort to reach out and understand the astronomical community and to mend some of the rifts that accompanied the NSF's first venture into "big science." This all changed in 1963 when President Kennedy asked Leland Haworth to become the Director of the National Science Foundation and also asked Gerald Tape to take on Haworth's role as an Atomic Energy Commissioner working under the Chairmanship of Glenn Seaborg. All five Commissioners participated in all official actions of the body, but each one had special areas of concentration of effort. With some overlap, this assured fuller and deeper coverage of the broad spectrum of issues they faced. Jerry's special interests were nuclear weapons development; research in the physical, biological, and life sciences; and international cooperation. This menu was a broad one, and for six years of full-time effort it required endless travel to laboratories, conferences, and government-to-government meetings. International delegations involved civil as well as defense programs. Formal civil exchange programs were negotiated with many nations including the USSR. Negotiations on arms control issues involved contacts with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Atoms for Peace conferences. In the national research program area, Jerry became the lead Commissioner for the establishment of what became the Fermi Laboratory and its management organization, Universities Research Association (URA). Fermi Lab soon became, and still is, the primary United States high-energy particle physics institution. In 1969, Jerry Tape returned to AUI as president where he was welcomed enthusiastically. Both BNL and NRAO had grown and were thriving. Plans were being formulated for major new facilities, a proton collider with superconducting magnets at BNL and the Very Large Array (VLA) at NRAO. Research output was first-class at both institutions. The NRAO was steadily drawing more young astronomers into a field that was just beginning to show its promise and its indispensability. Jerry took a great interest in the development of the VLA and interacted closely with David Heeschen, the Observatory Director, and with Jack Lancaster, the Project Director. In the middle of the decade, he helped them to steer through some rough waters created by Congressional criticisms that threatened the program. He cooperated closely with NSF and obtained the necessary support to defuse the threat. His last official act for AUI and NRAO was to preside over the grand opening celebration at the site of the VLA. It was on the last day of his presidency, October l, 1980. Jerry Tape clearly led an exemplary life when traced through the series of successful enterprises that marked his rise to ever increasing responsibilities and contributions. But the full measure of a man is also revealed in the way he filled the smaller but unrestricted periods of time that become available to him. Jerry was first and foremost a family man and was constant in his attention and devotion to this call. The AUI trustees recognized the importance of public service and encouraged his participation in worthwhile causes as long as they did not interfere with his primary duties. The AUI staff was small but dedicated and ably maintained timely and effective communication with him in his absence. Thus, Jerry found the time to contribute to issues and organizations that were of importance in his life. Through the last part of the sixties, Jerry served for six years as the United States Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with the rank of Ambassador. It was a demanding role, not only because of the frequent trips to the Vienna headquarters, but also because there were continuous official requirements for reports and documentation. A few years later, he returned to IAEA as a member of its Scientific Advisory Committee. In the early seventies he became a member of the President's Scientific Advisory Committee (PSAC) and also a member and chair of the Defense Science Board (DSB). For many years he was a member and chair of The Nuclear Intelligence Panel (NIP) of the Central Intelligence Agency. Continuing to serve his country, Jerry soon accepted membership on The General Advisory Committee (GAC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration and in his later years worked as a consultant for the Defense Nuclear Safety Board. Jerry did not limit himself to serving government institutions and agencies. For more than thirty years he was a Director of Science Service Inc., the organization that so successfully operated the annual Science Talent Search that challenged and energized science-oriented youths around the nation. His long association with the program reflected the great pleasure he found in the annual opportunity to interact with these exceptional young budding scientists. The list goes on: the Advisory Council of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the University of Chicago Board of Governors for Argonne National Lab, and the Atomic Industrial Forum. Each of these efforts, and others, can be described both as a labor of love and as a fulfillment of a sense of duty. These contributions did not go unnoticed or unappreciated. Jerry's life was adorned with a stream of accolades, citations, and awards. A short listing will illuminate the respect he commanded for a broad range of achievements: Army-Navy Certificate of Achievement, Meritorious Civilian Service Medal from the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense Medal for Public Service, Henry DeWolf Smyth Nuclear Statesman Award, Distinguished Public Service Award NSF, Distinguished Associate Award DOE, Enrico Fermi Award DOE, Fellow of the American Physical Society, and Member of the National Academy of Engineering.

  11. Obituary: Ben Hawkins Moore, 1921-2003 (United States)

    Moore, James F.


    Ben H. Moore, emeritus professor of physics, astronomy and earth sciences at St. Cloud State University, Minnesota, died 7 November 2003, in South Padre Island, Texas. Ben was born 18 March 1921, in Kansas City, Missouri, to Fraser D. and Cora R. (Hawkins) Moore. Though his parents provided a strong guiding influence on Ben's development, Ben's career was impacted most clearly by his work as a student and research assistant for Allen Basset (Ben's father-in-law) at Park College. This relationship turned Ben's early interest in chemistry and biology toward a focus on physics. Ben received his undergraduate degree from Park College where he graduated Phi Delta Kappa. He received a MS in physics from Kansas State University. He also did post-masters work at the University of Kansas, the University of Colorado, the University of Washington and Temple University. In addition to his work as a research assistant, Ben taught at Park College as well as Washington Kansas High School, Wyandotte High School, and Kansas City Kansas Junior College before moving to St. Cloud State University in 1960. He retired from this teaching position in May 1982 but remained involved in activities of his department, including some teaching, through most of his years in retirement. Ben's accomplishments were mainly centered on his teaching. His development of courses and his rapport with students consistently brought praise from both his colleagues and his students. Above all, his work involved innovative development of the curriculum in the sciences at St. Cloud State. Soon after his arrival at the university, Ben took over the fledgling field geology course and continued to shape this offering into a program in earth sciences. The popularity of his classes, which attracted both general students and a growing number of majors, finally enabled the university to establish an earth sciences department in the late 1960's and Ben was the first chair of that department. In the mid-1960's Ben took a leave to study oceanography at the University of Washington. Clearly this field of study is now seen as extremely important, but few institutions in the Midwest were prepared to offer even a single course in oceanography. Ben's idea was to make St. Cloud one of the rare universities with such an emphasis and also to apply the methodology of oceanographers to the study of the great lakes region. By the end of the 1960's, geologists had become involved with exploration of lunar materials and St. Cloud State University became one of the locations for study of these materials under Ben's direction. This venture into space exploration led Ben back to physics and astronomy and his insights were incorporated into an expanded earth sciences program. He took time at Temple University to study the use of planetarium programs and he also studied at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago. In the 1970's Ben managed the construction of a planetarium at St. Cloud State University making it one of the few such facilities in the upper Midwest. The addition of the planetarium allowed an immediate expansion of interest in astronomy among students and in the mid-1970's Ben became director of the planetarium program in addition to his other teaching and administrative responsibilities. By the time of his retirement, the astronomy major had become the largest offering in the science programs both in terms of majors and general students drawn to the courses. While Ben's achievements were almost exclusively focused on the development of curricula and programs, he did continue to read extensively and contributed occasional articles and reviews to professional journals. In retirement, this activity continued even more vigorously as he was regularly invited to review manuscripts and write reviews of new materials. His most significant contribution might have been his outreach to the general community. He continued to direct programs at the planetarium after his retirement, especially those aimed at the public schools and the general public. These regularly scheduled programs provided a way for the university and for the science programs to achieve a level of prominence in the community and they opened vistas of wonder for budding scientists in the schools. After his experiences at the Adler Planetarium, he developed a particular presentation on the Star of Bethlehem that he gave not only in St. Cloud but also in Texas where he spent winters in the last few years. His program was designed to highlight the scientific questions that arise when one thinks about the possible explanations of such an event. On the other hand, the popular knowledge of, and interest in, this story became a vehicle for Ben to draw an even greater appreciation for the sciences from public audiences. Ben married Alice Winifred Bassett in 1943 in Kansas City, Missouri; she died in 1971. A year later he married Marjorie Rotnem who survives him. He is also survived by three sons (John, James and Robert Moore), and one daughter (Donna Habermeyer) from his first marriage as well as Richard and Diane Rotnem from his second marriage; there are seven grandchildren. His devotion to his family was perhaps even more central to his life than his love for teaching and science. He is also survived by a host of friends, colleagues and students who hold him in the highest regard. In the last few years of his life, Ben took on a project in thinking about the relation between science and religion, partly at my urging. His written comments on this topic are more than two hundred pages. Throughout his career he had fought for ways to be Christian and to be an authentic scientist. This meant, for him, a level of humility for both disciplines as well as clear and reasonable thinking. Among the many other things that Ben's life models for us is this life long passion to be both religious and rigorously scientific at the same time, finding no ultimate conflict in doing that. In my view, his influence on these significant questions remains a lasting legacy of his life's work.

  12. Obituary: Adriaan Blaauw, 1914-2010 (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Tim


    Professor Adriaan Blaauw, one of the most influential astronomers of the twentieth century, passed away on 1 December 2010. Adriaan Blaauw was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on 12 April 1914. He studied astronomy at Leiden University, under de Sitter, Hertzsprung and Oort, and obtained his doctorate (cum laude) with van Rhijn at the Kapteyn Laboratory in Groningen in 1946, on a PhD thesis entitled: A study of the Scorpio-Centaurus Cluster. In this work he used the proper motions of the stars on the sky, deduced by very careful comparison of position measurements taken more than 50 years apart, and demonstrated that most of the bright hot O and B stars in the constellations Scorpius and Centaurus have nearly identical space motions and hence constitute a physical group of stars. This work laid the basis for a career of groundbreaking studies of the properties of these OB associations which still contain the fossil imprint of their star formation history. Perhaps Blaauw's most famous work explained why some OB stars are found in isolation and are traveling unusually rapidly: the so-called run-away stars. During his time at Yerkes, he and Morgan had discovered curious examples such as the OB stars μ Columbae and AE Aurigae which are moving very fast in opposite directions, putting both of them at the location of the Orion Nebula at approximately the same time, 2.6 million years earlier. Blaauw proposed in 1961 that run-away stars had originally been members of binary stars, and when one star in the binary experiences a supernova explosion, its companion suddenly ceases to feel the gravitational pull that keeps it in its orbit and hence it "runs away" at its orbital velocity and rapidly leaves the group it was born in. In addition to his distinguished research career, Blaauw played a decisive role in the creation of the intergovernmental European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, often referred to as the European Southern Observatory, or simply as ESO. In 1953, Baade and Oort proposed the idea of combining European resources to create an astronomical research organisation that could compete in the international arena. Blaauw had returned to Leiden in 1948 at Oort's invitation, had moved to Yerkes Observatory in 1953, becoming its associate director in 1956, and moved back to Groningen in 1957, where he revitalized the institute and initiated a new program in radio astronomy together with van Woerden. Here he was also in a key position to contribute to transforming the idea of Baade and Oort into reality. He was Secretary of the ESO Committee (the proto ESO Council) from 1959 through 1963, a period which included the signing of the ESO Convention on 5 October 1962 by the five founding Member States Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. Blaauw became ESO's Scientific Director in 1968. In this position he also provided the decisive push to combine the various national journals for astronomy into Astronomy and Astrophysics, which today is one of the leading astronomy research publications in the world. Blaauw succeeded Heckman as Director General of ESO in 1970, for a five-year term. During this period several telescopes including the ESO 0.5-meter and 1-meter Schmidt telescopes began operating at ESO's first observatory site, La Silla, in Chile, and much work was done on the design and construction of the ESO 3.6-meter telescope, which saw first light in 1976. Blaauw decided that it was crucial for this challenging project to move ESO's Headquarters and the Technical Department from Hamburg to Geneva, to benefit from the presence of the experienced CERN engineering group. After his ESO period, Blaauw returned to Leiden, where he continued to play a very important role in international astronomy. He was President of the International Astronomical Union from 1976 to 1979. During his tenure he used his considerable diplomatic skills to convince China to rejoin the IAU even though Taiwan was also a member. He retired from his Leiden professorship in 1981 and moved back to Groningen, but stayed active in various areas. He organized the historical archives of ESO and of the IAU - a work which resulted in two books, ESO's Early History and History of the IAU. He also served as Chairman of the Scientific Evaluation Committee for the European Space Agency satellite HIPPARCOS, which would measure the proper motions of the 100,000 brightest stars with unprecedented accuracy, and advised on many aspects of its scientific programme. When the data became available in 1996, he was actively involved in the re-analysis of the young stellar groups he had studied during his PhD research, more than fifty years earlier. Blaauw remained keenly interested in developments at ESO. He drove himself from Groningen to Garching and back for a two-day stay in July 2009 in order to take another look at the historical documents in the ESO library. He visited Chile in February 2010 during which he was driven to La Silla and then Paranal by car to enjoy Chile's beautiful landscapes and 'inspect' the telescopes on both these sites. He actively engaged young people in interesting discussions and throughout the visit displayed a crystal clear perspective on the development of astronomy in general and of ESO's program in particular, including the exciting opportunities for the future. The characteristic twinkle in his eye was as bright as always. Blaauw won many academic distinctions, including membership in many academies of science, honorary doctorates from the University of Besancon and from l'Observatoire de Paris and the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He was well-known for his warm personality, wisdom, humour, legendary patience, and the very rare gift of being able to slow down when the pressure mounts. The personal account of his life entitled My Cruise Through the World of Astronomy, published in the 2004 Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, provides an accurate and inspiring picture of a truly remarkable person, who positively influenced the lives of many others.

  13. Obituary: Frank K. Edmondson (1912-2008) (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Olson, Margaret K. Edmondson; Edmondson, Frank K., Jr.


    Hanging in the basement of Kirkwood Observatory on the Indiana University campus is a battered sign, dated Aug 31, 1932, announcing "Indiana Univ. Eclipse Station." While the path of totality passed well north of Bloomington, IN, where only 80% of the Sun's disk was covered, the eclipse made a lasting impression on the young Frank Kelley Edmondson, then an undergraduate student at Indiana University. Frank was born on August 1, 1912, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Clarence Edward Edmondson and Marie (Kelley) Edmondson. Growing up in Seymour, Indiana, he became interested in astronomy at an early age, reading voraciously from the "Book of Knowledge" at an aunt's house (The Book of Knowledge Set of Encyclopedias). He learned magic and was acquainted with Blackstone, the magician. He took ballet lessons and performed with his brother. He was a YMCA Camp Counselor at Camp Bedford where he taught natural sciences to the campers. He worked one summer as a cook on an ore boat on Lake Michigan. In high school he sang in a musical - and wore a false beard. In 1944 he grew his own beard, one of only two on the IU faculty at the time, and he kept the beard all the many years since. In 1996, Frank was elected to the Shields High School "Wall of Fame." After graduating from Shields High School in 1929, Frank enrolled at Indiana University. He was a member of the IU intercollegiate debate team for four years. He was initiated into Phi Beta Kappa as a junior and was a member of Sigma Xi. He graduated in 1933 and earned a Master's degree in 1934 based on a thesis ("An Analysis of the Radial Velocities of Twenty-One Globular Star Clusters") and professional experience earned while holding the Lawrence Fellowship at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona in 1934-35, where he worked as an observing assistant to Clyde Tombaugh. Despite his close association with Lowell, Tombaugh, and Pluto, Frank approved of the decision of the International Astronomical Union in 2006 to change Pluto's status to a dwarf planet. While in Flagstaff, Frank met Margaret Russell, the youngest daughter of famed American astronomer Henry Norris Russell of Princeton University. The young couple instantly bonded and became engaged after only two weeks. He and Margaret were married on November 24, 1934. Frank and Margaret remained inseparable until her death in 1999, always together at meetings of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, and elsewhere. Studying under astronomer Bart Bok, Frank received his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1937 from Harvard University, where he completed his dissertation on "The Absorption of Light in the Galaxy," and joined the faculty as an Instructor in Astronomy at Indiana University. Frank became the second member of the Astronomy Department, with Professor W. A. Cogshall, housed in Kirkwood Observatory. Frank served as chair of the department from 1944 until 1978. Under his leadership, the University acquired the Goethe Link Observatory in Brooklyn, IN, (a gift from Dr. Goethe Link, a noted Indianapolis physician and avid amateur astronomer), established a graduate program in astronomy, and enlarged the Department of Astronomy from two faculty members to eight. In one of his favorite stories, Edmondson bet Professor Cogshall a chocolate ice cream cone that President Herman B Wells would fund a new position for the Department, knowing full well that Wells had already agreed. Frank retired from IU in 1983. Studying under astronomer Bart Bok, Frank received his Ph.D. in astronomy in 1937 from Harvard University, where he completed his dissertation on "The Absorption of Light in the Galaxy," and joined the faculty as an Instructor in Astronomy at Indiana University. Frank became the second member of the Astronomy Department, with Professor W. A. Cogshall, housed in Kirkwood Observatory. Frank served as chair of the department from 1944 until 1978. Under his leadership, the University acquired the Goethe Link Observatory in Brooklyn, IN, (a gift from Dr. Goethe Link, a noted Indianapolis physician and avid amateur astronomer), established a graduate program in astronomy, and enlarged the Department of Astronomy from two faculty members to eight. In one of his favorite stories, Edmondson bet Professor Cogshall a chocolate ice cream cone that President Herman B Wells would fund a new position for the Department, knowing full well that Wells had already agreed. Frank retired from IU in 1983. When many asteroids were lost during World War II, Frank and his colleague James Cuffey established the Indiana University Asteroid Program. Frank is credited with determining the orbits of 119 asteroids from 7000 photographic plates taken with a 10" astrographic telescope at the Goethe Link Observatory. Frank selected names for each of these asteroids, honoring IU Presidents, prominent scholars, and important Hoosier and astronomical landmarks. Asteroid 4300 Marg Edmondson he named for his wife Margaret. During his years as a faculty member at Indiana University, Frank advised Dr. Alfred Kinsey on statistical techniques for his pioneering studies of human sexuality, and also shared with Kinsey an abiding interest in classical music. The music and the programs at the IU School of Music brought great joy to Frank over his career at IU. His memory for programs he had heard in the past was phenomenal. Frank is best known in Bloomington for his remarkable skill as an educator. He loved teaching. He taught elementary astronomy to literally thousands of students, often taking advantage of his knowledge of music to introduce astronomical topics with appropriate musical selections. His popular, award-winning, televised astronomy course was broadcast to students throughout the state and is widely remembered even today. Following in the tradition of IU's legendary President Herman B Wells, whom he greatly admired, Frank devoted his career to service. In 1957 Indiana University became one of the seven founding members of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), which founded the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Following the formation of AURA, Frank served as a Program Director for Astronomy at the National Science Foundation (1956-1957), helping to assure funding for the new national observatory. He served as Vice President of AURA from 1957-1961, as President of AURA (1962-1965), and as a member of the Board of Directors (1957-1983). Upon his retirement in 1983, he became the AURA Historian writing "AURA and its US National Observatories" (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1997), based on his personal experience plus 10 years (1978-88) searching archives and taping 85 oral histories. In 1964 Frank was awarded the Order of Merit by the Republic of Chile for his work in helping to establish the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory. In 2007, he commemorated the 50th anniversary of the founding of AURA by naming one of the remaining Indiana asteroids Aurapenenta. Frank served as the Treasurer of the American Astronomical Society for 21 years, from 1954 until 1975, and was also a leader of the Minor Planet Center of the International Astronomical Union, serving as its President from 1970-1973, and chairing the U.S. National Committee of the International Astronomical Union in 1963-1964. Frank was honored in 2001 for his attendance at American Astronomical Society (AAS) Meetings over a seventy year span 1931-2001. Professor Cogshall took Frank to his first AAS meeting at Perkins Observatory while he was still a junior at Indiana University. In his reminiscence in the American Astronomical Society's First Century volume, Frank recalls that Einstein played the violin at the banquet of the Princeton meeting in 1935, and that Koussevitsky conducted a concert by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Harvard Yard at the 1936 meeting, Frank's fourth AAS meeting. Frank's fifth AAS meeting, in 1937, was held in Bloomington shortly after he joined the faculty. Closer to home, Frank assisted Indiana University in many ways as it continued to grow during the 20th century, and he received a Distinguished Alumni Service Award from the University in 1997. His contributions to astronomy where honored by the Indiana State Legislature on the centennial of the Department of Astronomy in 1995. Frank's commitment to service is a hallmark of our campus, and one that the Department of Astronomy is proud to continue. Indiana University Emeritus Professor Frank Kelley Edmondson passed away on December 8, 2008, at Bloomington Hospital, at the age of 96. His wife, his parents and two brothers (W. T. Edmondson and Richard H. Edmondson) pre-deceased him. He is survived by his two children: Margaret Olson (Edward) of Urbana, Illinois, and Frank K. Edmondson Jr. (Vickie) of Seattle, Washington, a sister-in-law (Sally Edmondson of Philadelphia) and by six grandchildren (Mylene Melson, Yvonne Edmondson, Catherine Edmondson, Eric Olson, Jeffrey Olson, Charissa Young). He is also survived by twelve great-grandchildren, three great-great-grandchildren, and by several nieces and nephews. Frank enjoyed the many coincidences that sparked new connections and initiatives in his career. He liked to say that he was the right person in the right place at the right time. That was almost always true, and often because Frank himself understood and anticipated what would be needed, and made sure to be ready with an answer or guidance. He has been an inspiration to generations of students and colleagues and will be long remembered.

  14. Obituary: Harrison Edward Radford, 1927-2000 (United States)

    Moran, James Michael; Kirby, Kate Page; Chance, Kelly V.; Brown, Campbell


    Harrison Edward ``Harry" Radford, a noted laboratory spectroscopist and pioneer in the application of magnetic resonance techniques to spectroscopy, died on 5 May 2000, after a long battle with amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During a 37-year career at the National Bureau of Standards and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harry measured the frequencies of numerous molecular transitions which aided the emerging field of astrochemistry. Harry was both an excellent theoretician and a preeminently skilled experimentalist. He has several major spectroscopic achievements to his credit. He performed the first study of a short-lived molecular free radical, OH, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, opening up a huge and important field of research. Together with colleagues he made the first observation of the rotational spectrum of CH by far infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy and extended the technique to other molecules such as CH3O. Harry was born in Peterborough, New Hampshire, on 26 July 1927. He was the son of Harrison Edwin Radford, a roofer, and Dorothy (née Cole) Radford. He dropped out of high school to join the Navy in 1944 as an electronics technician's mate. After his discharge in 1946 he worked in the family construction business for four years as a roofer. In 1950 he entered the University of New Hampshire and graduated four years later, Summa Cum Laude, with a degree in physics. As a graduate student at Yale from 1954 to 1959 he wrote his PhD thesis under the supervision of V.W. Hughes on the microwave Zeeman spectra of oxygen and fluorine where he used the technique of paramagnetic resonance absorption in atomic vapors. In 1954 he married Mildred Spofford. They had three daughters, Susan (born in 1955), Amy (1957), and Sarah (1960). In 1974 he married Alfa Goldthwaithe Morrison, who survived him. From 1959 until 1969 Harry worked at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST) in Washington DC. While there, he became interested in determining the long wavelength spectra and chemical properties of molecular free radicals, which can be generated in gaseous samples only in extremely low densities. He saw the potential for the application of magnetic resonance techniques to free radical spectroscopy early on. In 1965 he made the definitive measurements of the ground state lambda doublet transition frequencies of OH, which had recently been discovered in the interstellar medium. These measurements made it possible to determine the velocities of molecular clouds with high precision. For his work with the Bureau he earned the Department of Commerce's Silver Medal for Meritorious service. In 1969 Harry moved to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts where he remained until his retirement in 1992. He continued to do research for four more years, almost until the onset of his illness. He initially joined the group, under A.E. Lilley, that was formed to bring together laboratory spectroscopy and the fledgling field of radio astronomy of interstellar molecules. This interdisciplinary effort led to the discovery of several new molecules based on precise laboratory microwave measurements of their spectra, beginning with methanol, which helped to lay the foundation for the new science of astrochemistry. While at SAO Harry pioneered the application of laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the spectra of free radicals. His measurements of molecules such as OH, NH, CH, SO, HO2, HCO, NH2, N2H4, DO2, DOCO, CH3O, and CH2OH informed and guided research in astrochemistry. He also applied this technique to the study of atmospherically important molecules. In recognition for his work he received the Senior Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 1983. Harry spent sabbatical years at Cambridge University in 1977, working with Douglas Russell, Brian Thrush, and Paul Davies. Additional sabbatical years were taken at the University of Bonn in 1983 (as a Humboldt Fellow) with Wolfgang Urban and at the

  15. Obituary: Donald Edward Osterbrock, 1924-2007 (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain


    Donald Edward Osterbrock, one of the leading figures of post-World War II astronomy, died suddenly of a heart attack on 11 January 2007, while walking near his office at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He was 82 years old. His initials spelled D.E.O. (God in latin!), but he was known simply as Don to his many friends and colleagues. Don's long and productive career spanned five decades. His scientific work helped shape our understanding of lower main-sequence stars, the ionized interstellar medium, and active galactic nuclei. He was also a highly respected historian of astronomy who shed new light on 19th- and 20th-century astronomy. Don was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on 13 July 1924. Both of his parents were of German descent and valued hard work, education, and science. They both completed their high-school education at night while working full-time during the day. His father eventually became a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Don's plan to become an astronomer was put on hold when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. After graduation from high school, Don joined the United States Army and trained as a meteorologist, taking all of the physics and mathematics courses required for a bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Chicago. He was eventually sent to islands in the Pacific Ocean but never was in harm's way. After three years of service, Don returned to Chicago to obtain his bachelor's degree in 1948, his M.S. in astronomy in 1949, and a Ph.D. in astronomy in 1952. Don's years at the University of Chicago and the University's Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, were pivotal for his career and personal life. He came in contact with such luminaries as Otto Struve, Bengt Strömgren, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, and William W. Morgan. At Yerkes, he also met and married Irene L. Hansen, a native of Williams Bay, who was employed as a member of the Yerkes staff. They had a son, William, now living in Santa Cruz; two daughters, Laura of Seattle, Washington, and Carol of Santa Cruz; and three grandchildren. Don did a theoretical Ph.D. thesis with Chandrasekhar calculating the effects of gravitational interactions between interstellar clouds and stars, but arguably his best known graduate work was observational in nature, helping Morgan map the nearest spiral arms of our Galaxy. Morgan put Don's name on the landmark 1952 paper (Morgan, Sharpless, & Osterbrock, AJ, 57, p. 3, 1952), even though, according to Don's own account in his 2000 autobiography A Fortunate Life in Astronomy, the work was mostly Morgan's. This generous gesture by Morgan likely fashioned what was to become Don's own trademark generosity towards his Ph.D. students and colleagues for years to come. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree, Don spent a single but very productive year as a postdoctoral fellow at Princeton University, becoming interested in the stellar structures of red dwarfs. Using numerical integration methods generously provided by Martin Schwarzschild, Don produced the first models of red dwarfs that took into account their outer convective layers (Osterbrock, ApJ, 118, pp. 529-546, 1953). These calculations also inspired Fred Hoyle and Schwarzschild to successfully model red giant stars with similar convective envelopes. In 1953, Osterbrock accepted an instructorship at Caltech, joining a young astronomy department led by Jesse Greenstein. Direct access to Caltech's outstanding astronomical facilities on Mounts Wilson and Palomar marked a turning point in Don's career, since it allowed him to pursue his observational interests in gaseous nebulae. Drawing on his expertise in atomic physics, and a very productive collaboration via air mail with young atomic theorist Michael Seaton, he pioneered the use of spectroscopic methods for the study of gaseous nebulae. In a daring move in 1958, Don left Caltech for the University of Wisconsin, to appease his wife's and his own homesickness for the Midwest. There he continued his work on gaseous nebulae, both observational and theore

  16. Obituary: Roland Svensson, 1950-2003 (United States)

    Björnsson, Claes-Ingvar


    Roland Svensson was found dead on 8 April 2003. He succumbed to the complications arising from diabetes. His contribution to the understanding of the basic properties of relativistic plasmas remains a cornerstone when studying radiation processes in many astrophysical contexts. Roland was born on 6 May 1950 in Karlshamn, Sweden. At a young age he moved with his family to Skåne, the southernmost part of Sweden. This is where he received his early education including a BS in Physics at the University of Lund in 1973. For the rest of his life, this region was home for Roland. His mother and father are Linnea Martinsson (d. 1984) and Sune Svensson. The two younger brothers are Lennart and Peter. Lennart works as a machine engineer in Sweden while Peter has settled in California as a biology professor. Roland started graduate studies in theoretical physics in Lund before receiving a Fulbright Scholarship in 1976. He then moved to the University of California in Santa Cruz and enrolled in the astronomy and astrophysics graduate program. Although his interest in astronomy had been raised during the time in Lund, it was the stimulating environment in Santa Cruz that convinced Roland to concentrate on research in astronomy. With Roland's attitude of never accepting anything unless he understood its roots, his extended background in physics served him well throughout his astronomy career; in particular, it influenced his choice of a thesis topic. At the time, the importance of relativistic temperatures attained by accreting matter in the immediate vicinity of neutron stars and black holes was becoming clear. Roland set out to make a detailed description of the physical effects electron-positron pair production and annihilation would have on such plasmas. In 1981 Roland defended his thesis titled ``Physical Properties in Relativistic Plasmas" and completed his PhD under the supervision of Bill Mathews. Roland extended the results of his thesis during two post-docs, first at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Munich and later at Nordita in Copenhagen. He stayed another five years at Nordita as assistant professor. In 1990 he moved to Stockholm Observatory to take up the chair in astrophysics and cosmology. Roland's fundamental work on pair-plasmas was done alone. It was during his time at Nordita that this aspect of Roland's research started to change. He now took the first steps towards establishing an international network within high-energy astrophysics, a pursuit that was to intensify during his time at Stockholm Observatory. The initial impetus for this was Roland's desire to develop the applications of his early work to concrete astrophysical phenomena. An important part of this effort was to engage other scientists that could complement his own background. His initiative and coordination were behind many subsequent research projects. Starting with quasars and active galactic nuclei, his interest widened to include compact X-ray binaries and gamma-ray bursts. Roland's interest in observational astronomy and data analysis grew with time. As a result his group in high-energy astrophysics at Stockholm Observatory initiated Swedish participation in several international space-based observatories, including INTEGRAL and GLAST. One of the aims of his network was to involve scientists from Russia and the eastern European countries. Due to Roland's diligence in writing applications, this led to a lively scientific exchange, which proved to be an important factor in the success of the network. It also helped these countries to further their international contacts in general. Roland enjoyed teaching and it was a source of inspiration for him. Well-prepared lectures in combination with his sensitivity and ability to listen made him a teacher much liked by the students. He was at his best with a small group where teaching could develop into discussion. With his patience and desire to convey the essence of an argument, he could go a long way to help a student but, at the same time, he made it clear that the responsibility for lear

  17. Obituary: Albert G. Petschek, 1928-2004 (United States)

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Libersky, Larry D.


    Albert G. Petschek died suddenly 8 July 2004. He enjoyed good health and was very active professionally and personally until his death. He was highly respected, particularly in theoretical physics, for his deep, broad-ranging analytical powers, which resulted in contributions to nuclear physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing. Albert was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1928. His extended family left Czechoslovakia when its sovereignty was threatened by Germany in 1938 and settled throughout the Western Hemisphere. Albert's father, a banker, settled in Scarsdale, near New York City. Albert graduated from White Plains High School and obtained his BS from MIT in a program accelerated during World War II. While getting his masters degree at the University of Michigan, Albert met his wife, Marilyn, also a physics masters student. In 1953, Albert obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester working with Robert Marshak on aspects of nuclear theory, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Albert's younger brother, Harry, also became a PhD physicist. Harry is now well known in plasma physics for reconnection theory. At Los Alamos, Albert worked closely with Carson Mark, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Conrad Longmire designing the first thermonuclear weapons. His derivation of several radiation diffusion solutions, later published as LAMS 2421, remains a classic in its field, as does work on nuclear theory done with Baird Brandow and Hans Bethe during a sabbatical at Cornell in 1961. Bethe was a frequent visitor to Los Alamos and a close friend. A devoted family man, Albert also valued Los Alamos as a safe, stimulating environment for raising an active family. Like many of the scientists at Los Alamos, Albert enjoyed its ready access to outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing. Albert often combined his passions for intellectual activity and the outdoors - discussing Lie groups around a camp fire or the controversies concerning the origin of lightning in electrical storms while hiking through a high mountain pass, watching a thundercloud form. Albert's son Rolfe was inspired in part by such outings to become a professional physicist. For more than a decade following his PhD, Albert's primary scientific work was secret, contributing to the security of his adopted country, and he published little in the open literature. However, by the time of his death, Albert's broad interests and scientific rigor had resulted in 69 cited papers on such diverse topics as nuclear theory, plasma physics, radiation, numerical hydrodynamics and plastic flow, astrophysics (supernovae, quasars, gamma-ray bursts), chemical kinetics, atmospheric physics (plumes, electrification), geotectonics, nuclear weapons effects, inertial fusion and quantum computing. Even this list understates Albert's intellectual breadth: while his scientific publications are all in physics, he was also very knowledgeable in some aspects of biology and finance, and his broad-ranging analytical powers were appreciated by practitioners of many professions. In an increasingly specialized world, Albert's broad interests, wide knowledge, and willingness to think deeply about many problems are inspiring. In 1966 Albert joined the faculty of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech) in Socorro, New Mexico, as a full professor. In 1968 he left Tech to spend three years at Science, Systems and Software, a scientific consulting firm in San Diego California, and then returned to New Mexico Tech. Albert's intellectual leadership, the courses he taught in theoretical physics, and his frequent, insightful questions at seminars will long be remembered by those with whom he interacted at New Mexico Tech. Of his 69 published works, 39 were published in collaboration with Stirling Colgate. Colgate, at that time New Mexico Tech's president, had helped recruit Albert there. Albert's PhD students at New Mexico Tech keenly remember his patience, kindness and availability. His office door was always open, and he was eager to lead them through difficulties in their research. Albert maintained his connection to LANL while at New Mexico Tech, consulting at LANL during many holidays and summers. In 1981 he became one of the first Fellows of Los Alamos National Laboratories. Albert also enjoyed service to the science community, editing a book on supernovae (1990), routinely judging local and regional science fairs, and advising LANL on the recipients of the Los Alamos prize. In 1987, Albert retired from New Mexico Tech and returned full time to Los Alamos in the Physics division. Although he subsequently retired from LANL in 1994, he remained very active at LANL until his death, spending three to four days there most weeks as an emeritus fellow, consultant, and frequent attendee of, and questioner at, seminars and colloquia. During this period his published scientific contributions were primarily to quantum computing and numerical hydrodynamics. While he was retired Albert's part time status allowed him to spend yet more time with his family and he explored many parts of the world with them. Albert was an avid hiker, cross country skier, mushroom gatherer, gardener, and bicyclist. He commuted by bicycle between his home in La Senda and the Lab, an elevation change of 200 meters, in almost any weather, until his death. He is survived by Marilyn, his wife of 55 years, his brother Harry, his four children, Evelyn, Rolfe, Elaine, and Mark and three grandchildren.

  18. Obituary: Ian R. Bartky, 1934-2007 (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.


    Ian Robertson Bartky, a physical chemist who turned to history for his second career, died 18 December 2007 of complications from lung cancer. He was 73. In addition to his scientific career, he will be remembered for his meticulous research on the evolution of time systems, especially for his two books Selling the True Time: Nineteenth Century Timekeeping in America (Stanford University Press, 2000), and One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (Stanford University Press, 2007). Ian was born on 15 March 1934 in Chicago, Illinois. He was the son of Walter Bartky, a Professor of Astronomy at the University of Chicago, and eventually its Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences. The elder Bartky's astronomy textbook, Highlights of Astronomy, published in 1935 and reprinted as late as 1964, includes a considerable discussion of time and standard meridians, which may have influenced Ian, even though his father died in 1958 at the age of 57 when Ian would have been only in his early 20s. Imbued with the love of science from his father, Ian graduated from Illinois Institute of Technology, and went on to obtain his doctorate in physical chemistry from the University of California Berkeley. He mentor was Nobelist William F. Giauque, and Ian always spoke fondly of Giauque's influence in setting rigorous standards that Ian followed when he joined the National Bureau of Standards [NBS] in 1961. Ian spent most of his career there, and it was there that he acquired his professional interest in time, notably when the House Commerce Committee asked him in the mid-1970s to determine whether the dates of Daylight Saving Time should be extended. This resulted in an NBS report in 1976, which concluded that any energy savings would be miniscule. With his usual attention to detail, Ian researched the entire history of the problem, and thus acquired his second great love after science--history. With Elizabeth Harrison he published a well-known article on the issues involved with Daylight Saving Time in Scientific American for 1979. My first interaction with Ian was leading up to the 150th anniversary of the United States Naval Observatory [USNO] in December 1980. While working on an article for Sky and Telescope on the early history of the Naval Observatory, I ran across documents in the National Archives from England proposing that the Navy's new Depot of Charts and Instruments--forerunner of the Observatory--erect a time ball as had been done in Portsmouth England in 1829. Ian had been in the National Archives working on the history of time. When I mentioned this 1829 document, he said it was impossible, because the first time ball in the world was in 1833 at Greenwich, England. But the documents told the story, and this Eureka moment led to our article in the Journal for the History of Astronomy (volume 12, October 1981), on the world's first time ball. This was to the considerable chagrin of the staff at Greenwich, who thought they had the world's first time ball, and who still ceremonially drop one at 1 PM local time. Ian went on to write the history of time balls for the Naval Observatory's sesquicentennial symposium at the end of 1980, as published in Sky with Ocean Joined. We then collaborated on another article for JHA (volume 13, February 1982) on the history of the first North American time ball, dropped at the USNO beginning in 1845. Time balls and Daylight Saving Time were only a small part of Ian's interest in time as he began to untangle the many issues involved in the history of timekeeping and time dissemination. His book Selling the True Time is a model of scholarship, and with it Ian proved to have that rare combination--a scientist with deep technical knowledge who could also ask and answer profound historical questions. He also had a keen appreciation of the role of human nature in history, always looking for the motivations for particular historical actions. Ian was proud to have the book published by Stanford University Press. When Stanford also published his final book One Time Fits All: The Campaigns fo

  19. Obituary: Joseph Wyan Chamberlain, 1928-2004 (United States)

    Hunten, Donald M.


    Joseph W. Chamberlain died at home with his family on April 14 2004 after a long illness. He was born August 24, 1928 and raised in Boonville, Missouri, where his father was the doctor. There was no doubt that both Joe and his elder brother Gilbert would also become doctors, but Joe's first class in comparative anatomy at the University of Missouri convinced him that this was not his destiny and he immediately switched to physics and astronomy. He obtained a Masters degree in physics and moved on to the University of Michigan; his advisor was Lawrence Aller and he was also strongly influenced by Leo Goldberg. Early in 1952 he was awarded a PhD and began work at the Air Force Cambridge Research Center where he changed his interests to the upper atmosphere. Among his duties was liaison with research groups at several universities, and I met him when he visited us at the University of Saskatchewan one very cold winter day. He was soon posted to work with Aden Meinel at Yerkes Observatory, where he was added to the faculty and became the leader of the group when Meinel departed to organize the Kitt Peak National Observatory. He himself moved there in 1962 as Associate Director for Space Science; the name of the division was later changed to Planetary Science. He recruited a strong group to work on planetary atmospheres and several group members played important roles in the Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Voyager and Galileo missions. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1965. As leader of the group he recruited at Kitt Peak, Joe earned the admiration and loyalty of us all. He strongly preferred doing science to his administrative tasks, but he was still effective at the latter. He was considerably bothered that his superiors, especially the managing boards with which he had to deal, did not always meet his high standards. Joe's friends and colleagues felt, and still feel, that he would have been much happier as a member of a teaching faculty, and are glad that his last nineteen active years were spent in that role. In the 1960's the AAS had no Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS), and the group organized an annual series of five Arizona Conferences on Planetary Atmospheres. By 1967 several members of the community felt that a DPS was needed; the AAS Council asked Joe to serve as chair of the organizing committee, and when the Division was formed he became the first Chairman. In 1971, he became Director of the NASA Lunar Science Institute and a few years later Professor of Space Physics and Astronomy at Rice University (Houston). After retirement as Professor Emeritus in 1992, he returned to Tucson where he continued an active interest in golf, opera, chess and satirical humor. Joe's program at Yerkes began with observations of aurora and airglow, making use of the wonderful spectrographs designed and built by Meinel. Among his many contributions was the identification and analysis of a band system in the airglow that now bears his name. His interests shifted toward the theoretical; for example, he applied the radiative-transfer theory of his colleague Chandrasekhar to the sodium twilight airglow. In 1961 he published Theory of the Aurora and Airglow, a book so influential that it was reprinted a few years ago by the American Geophysical Union. In the same period his interest in interplanetary hydrogen led to a low-velocity model that was at odds with Eugene N. Parker's model of the solar wind, and a debate ensued until observations showed Parker to be essentially correct. But the Chamberlain ideas were applied to the structure of the Earth's hydrogen exosphere, and for 40 years this work has been accepted as definitive. Later he studied the reduction of the hydrogen escape rate by the "cooling" that results from the loss of the energy carried by the escaping atoms. Joe was selected to deliver the 1961 Helen Warner lecture and chose the topic "The upper atmospheres of the planets." This paper clearly expounds the method by which the exospheric temperature can be calculated and applies it to Mars; it has been the basis of subsequent papers by many workers. After he returned to academic life at Rice in 1973, he collected his notes from a graduate course into the 1978 book Theory of Planetary Atmospheres, a second edition of which appeared in 1987 (with the collaboration of the undersigned). His other interest included early studies of changes in the ozone layer and the possible devastating effects from what has now become recognized as global warming. He is survived by his wife of 54 years, Marilyn; daughter Joy of London; sons David of Austin and Jeffrey (Joel) of Seattle; and granddaughter Jacqueline. His brother Gilbert and numerous nieces and nephews also survive him.

  20. Obituary: Roy Henry Garstang (1925-2009) (United States)

    Malville, J.


    Roy Henry Garstang 84 passed away on November 1, 2009 in Boulder Colorado. He was born in Southport, England in September of 1925 to Percy Brocklehurst and Eunice (Gledhill) Garstang. He won a scholarship to Caius College in Cambridge University. Because it was wartime, he could spend only two years at his studies. However, he managed to complete three years of required work during that time, and then spent 1945-46 as a Junior Scientific Officer at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. He received his BA in 1946 from Cambridge, his MA in 1950, and his PhD in Mathematics in 1954, with a thesis: "Atomic Transitions in Astrophysics," working under D. R. Hartree. He also received a ScD from Cambridge in Physics and Chemistry in 1983. He married Ann in August 1959. She and two daughters, Jennifer and Susan, survive him. While still pursuing his PhD, Roy Garstang served as a Research Associate at the Yerkes Observatory, from 1951-1952, working under Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. During that time he continued with his own calculations of atomic structure and transition probabilities, although these were not part of Chandra's research interests. After earning his PhD, he went to teach at the University of London, where he also served as the Assistant Director of the University of London Observatory (1959-1964). He was editor of "The Observatory" Magazine form 1953-1960. The continuing theme of this research was to help meet the needs of astrophysicists for atomic data. In 1964, he left England for the United States, where he joined the faculty at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he would remain for the rest of his professional career. It was entirely fitting, considering his interest in performing calculations of interest to astrophysicists, that soon after arriving in Boulder he was appointed Chairman of JILA - Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (1966-1967). He was Director of the Division of Physics and AstroGeophysics (1979-80), acting Director of the Fiske Planetarium (1980-81), Chair of the Faculty Assembly (1988-1989) and recipient of the Faculty Assembly Excellence in Service Award in 1990. During his career Garstang was active in a number of professional organizations, including the British Astronomical Association (two-term Vice President) and Sigma Xi for which he was the Secretary of the University of Colorado for 20 years. He was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Institute of Physics (British), the Royal Statistical Society, and the Cambridge Philosophical Society. He published more than 150 articles in scientific journals. Roy Garstang was the consummate resource for atomic calculations needed by the astrophysical community. His first scientific paper published when he was a graduate student in 1950 was "Some line strengths for ionized neon" (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 110: 612-614) and some 55 papers later, in 1981 he published calculations on neutral technetium "Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium" (PASP 93:641. 1981). A continuing interest of his was forbidden transitions, such as are important in the solar corona, aurora, planetary nebula, and nova shells. He made important calculations of the energy levels and spectra of highly ionized species of iron and worked extensively on magnetic quadrupole radiation, which proved to be important in the solar corona. Garstang also studied the effects of strong magnetic field on atomic spectra, ranging from the thousand gauss fields of sunspots to megagauss fields of white dwarfs. He was internationally recognized for his work on light pollution, which turned into a major course change for him, becoming his primary research interest after 1984. Between 1984 and 2007, he published 40 scientific papers of which 37 concerned sky brightness in one way or another. He constructed and modified a light pollution model (Dust and Light Pollution, PASP 103:1109 (1991)) which included an ozone layer, scattering of light by molecules and aerosols with improved variations with altitude, curvature of the earth, and a dust layer of dust either volcanic or desert origin. His models have become the standard for the field and have successfully reproduced the variation of sky glow with position in the sky and with distance from light sources. His models raised awareness of the factors contributing to light pollution at observatory sites and led to efforts to reduce urban light pollution. Garstang played an important role in the teaching program of the CU Bolder Astrophysics and Planetary Science department, teaching large introductory classes, laboratory and observatory sessions as well as upper division classes and graduate classes. His appetite for teaching undergraduate can be appreciated by some of the laboratory exercise he invented such as measuring the solar constant by the rate of rise of temperature inside closed car ("How hot does your parked car become?" AAPT Announce 18:139 (1988)). In 1994 he published a letter in AmJPh about a continuing discussion of SI units. The letter reveals much about his approach to life and physics. "I have done a lot of work during the last 15 years on light pollution. If you want to reach lighting engineers you have to talk about lumens, lux, foot-candles, and whatever. If you do not, your reward is simply not to be understood. Photons per square meter per second per steradian means nothing to them. The problem is doubly compounded because astronomers have their own traditional units, such as number of tenth magnitude stars per square degree, magnitudes per square arc second, and so on, which are equally obscure to the engineering community. By all means work in metric, but be prepared to quote your main results in language understood by the consumers of your results. In fact, a little common sense is what we need."

  1. Obituary: James N. Kile, 1958-2007 (United States)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.


    James N. Kile, of Needham Heights, Massachusetts, died on 17 August 2007, following a brave two-year battle with cancer. One of three children of David R. Kile and Betty Jane Kile, Jim was born in Niagara Falls, New York, on 20 April 1958 and lived in the nearby village of Lewiston before his family settled in Alden, an hour east of Niagara Falls, when Jim was nine. Jim's father worked for American Telephone and Telegraph for 37 years, and his mother was a homemaker. Jim earned his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980, a Master's degree from Northwestern University in 1982, and a Doctorate from Tufts University in 1996 under the direction of Robert Willson. His thesis involved comparison of radio data from the Very Large Array and the Russian RATAN 600 telescope with Yohkoh soft X-ray data, with an emphasis on understanding the relationship between solar noise storms and coronal magnetic fields. While working on his thesis, Jim collaborated with one of us (EWC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory on an investigation of the 154-day periodicity in solar flares. The resulting publication (ApJ 370, 442, 1991) is his most cited work. Jim co-authored four other papers in refereed journals. Jim's professional affiliations included the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Geophysical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Jim worked as a contractor in the defense industry from 1982 until the time of his death, settling in the Boston area in the early 1980s. He worked for Calspan Corporation from 1982-1989, the Ultra Corporation from 1989-1994, and the Riverside Research Institute from 1994-2007. He was a highly-respected expert in radar systems, including radar data and systems analysis, systems engineering, and planning support for radar acquisition programs and technology development. The work entailed frequent extended travel to Norway for system testing. During the summer of 1997 Jim was an instructor for introductory physics laboratories at Simmons College, and in 2002 he developed and taught a synthetic aperture radar measurement and signature intelligence course for the Air Force Institute of Technology in Dayton, Ohio, where he was appointed Adjunct Assistant Professor of Physics in the Department of Engineering Physics, a position he held until 2005. On the local level, Jim assisted in astronomy education projects, such as nighttime telescope viewing, in the Needham public schools and stargazing/astronomy courses at several Massachusetts Audubon wildlife sanctuaries. Jim met the love of his life in the mid-1980s, and he and Elaine were married within the year, on 19 October 1985. They shared a passion for birding and a love for nature witnessed up close when hiking, kayaking, snowshoeing, and cross-country skiing. Jim had a wide range of interests. He was an accomplished folk musician, playing the guitar and ukulele. He was a devoted "Trekkie" who could quote every line from early Star Trek episodes and was a life member of the American Radio Relay League [ARRL]. Jim had the warm and open personality characteristic of those raised in the snow-belt. He was always good company. His courage as he was dying, much too soon, was a great source of strength for his family. Jim is survived by his wife Elaine C. (Smith) Kile, his father David R. Kile, his sister Diane Kile and her husband David Galson, his brother David M. Kile and his wife Susan Kile, and four nephews, one niece, and a great niece and nephew. He was predeceased by his mother Betty Jane Kile.

  2. Obituary: Henry Emil Kandrup, 1955-2003 (United States)

    Merritt, David; Gottesman, Stephen T.


    Henry Emil Kandrup died on 18 October 2003 at his home in Gainesville Florida. Henry was a theoretical astrophysicist specializing in the application of chaotic dynamics to stellar systems. At the time of his death, Henry was a Professor at the University of Florida where he had taught for 13 years. Henry was born in Manhasset, New York on July 24, 1955 and spent most of his childhood in Great Neck. His parents, Jytte and Fred, were immigrants from Denmark where his father had worked as a silver smith. Henry was a precocious child, skipping both third and fifth grades. With the help of Sidney Spivack, a professor of sociology at Columbia University, his parents enrolled Henry in the Brooks Preparatory School in Andover, Massachusetts. After graduating at age 16, Henry enrolled at Cornell, transferring to Princeton the following year. Henry's parents adored their only child and worked hard to provide him with intellectual opportunities. Henry became an accomplished musician (organ, piano, French horn) and linguist (English, Danish, German) and was a passionate devotee of opera and ballet. Henry received his PhD in 1980 from the University of Chicago, where his thesis advisor was James Ipser. He taught at Oakland University in Michigan and Syracuse University in New York before coming to the University of Florida in 1990. Henry was sui generis. He shunned conventionality in his personal appearance and in his public demeanor, and always chose forthrightness and candor over polite silence. But to those of us who knew Henry well, his bluntness was a reflection of his intellectual consistency. Henry always said exactly what he thought, both in his published work and his public presentations, and never compromised himself for the sake of appearances. Nothing that he said or wrote was less than fully thought out. Henry's PhD thesis was entitled "Stochastic Problems in Stellar Dynamics," and most of his subsequent research was in this field. Motion in stellar systems can be stochastic for three reasons: deflection of trajectories by close encounters; non-integrability of the smoothed-out potential; and an oscillating mean field. Henry made important contributions to our understanding of all three sorts of chaos. In a series of papers from the early 1990's, Henry developed the idea of ``chaotic phase mixing," the process by which an ensemble of points evolves toward a uniform coarse-grained population of phase space. Prior to Henry's work, the evolution of stellar systems to a steady state was attributed loosely to "violent relaxation," defined as phase-space repopulation driven by changes in the smooth potential. Henry pointed out that changes in the gravitational potential do not by themselves constitute relaxation; at best, they can contribute to relaxation by inducing a degree of chaos in the stellar trajectories. But it is the chaos that is responsible for the mixing and hence for the approach to a steady state. Among his other important contributions to stellar dynamics were a formal demonstration of the equivalence of Landau damping and phase mixing, and a proof (with J. F. Sygnet) of the linear stability of a broad class of stellar systems. Shortly before his death, Henry was working on the chaotic dynamics of charged particle beams and on the influence of binary super massive black holes on orbital motion in galaxies. Henry was one of the principle organizers of more than a dozen workshops on non-linear dynamics in astronomy and astrophysics that were held at the University of Florida. At the time of his death, he was negotiating with Springer Verlag over publication of a monograph, Hamiltonian Galactic Dynamics. Henry was famous for the energetic quality of his lectures. Like many other excellent teachers, he drew upon his research to enliven his undergraduate teaching. Under Research Interests, his web site lists "creative utilization of playdough, margaritas, and spirographs in graduate and undergraduate teaching." Henry received numerous teaching citations and awards; he was consistently voted the best teacher in the department by his University of Florida students, and his Introductory Astronomy courses at Syracuse were cited as "Recommended Courses" in Lisa Birnbach's New and Improved College Book for 1990. Henry was also well known for his dedication to students and postdocs. He was an exceptionally patient and gentle advisor, never openly critical, and often gave more credit to his students than was strictly necessary. He also took a deep personal interest in his students' welfare; as he told one of them, "an advisor should spend half of his time as the student's analyst." Henry was a model scientist in many ways. It is hard to imagine stellar dynamics without him.

  3. Obituary: A. Keith Pierce, 1918 - 2005 (United States)

    Livingston, William Charles


    A. Keith Pierce was a solar astronomer who will be remembered for bringing the physics lab to the telescope and for his design of the world's largest solar telescope, the 1.5-meter McMath Telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Born in Lincoln, Nebraska, he died of cancer in Tucson on 11 March 2005. He was eighty-six. His father, Tracy Pierce, had gone to graduate school in Berkeley, California, with a major in mathematics and a minor in astronomy. Fellow students of his class included Seth Nicholson and Donald Shane, people who were later to influence young Keith's life. Tracy Pierce received an appointment as an instructor, later Professor, of mathematics at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln. In his spare time dad Tracy became something of a telescope nut, following "the bible" —Albert Ingall's A.T.M (Amateur Telescope Making). His enthusiasm rubbed off on his son. Seth Nicholson, who became a famous Mt. Wilson Observatory astronomer, and Donald Shane from Berkeley, both stayed at the Pierce home while on their Sigma Xi lecture tours. After two years at Lincoln, followed by two more at Berkeley, Keith had earned his bachelor's degree in astronomy. During World War II, Dr. Shane became personnel director at the E.O. Lawrence Radiation Lab and arranged for Keith to work there at the cyclotron. A crash program to produce U235 from U238 was under way. At a crucial point in 1942 the cyclotron turned out the sought-after material. Much celebration ensued among the Rad Lab leaders. During this gala, Keith was on the night-shift and pretty much on his own. It was then that he turned a valve to the right, when left was called for, and the entire system went down. Shortly thereafter he was sent to Oak Ridge for the duration of the war. He cannot have been thought of badly, however, because he was invited to the Trinity test in New Mexico. (He didn't go because of the pending birth of his first son, John.) The year 1945 found Keith back in Berkeley working on his Ph.D. under Shane. After finishing this degree, Keith was brought by Leo Goldberg to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and then to Lake Angelus, where his association with Robert McMath began. His prowess with instrumentation led to a mapping of the infrared solar spectrum with unprecedented accuracy. McMath, a Detroit engineer, had this dream of building a large solar telescope at a suitable elevated and dry location. Through friends in Washington (viz. the Director of the Bureau of the Budget), he found funds to construct this telescope under the guidance of Keith Pierce. Kitt Peak National Observatory was an ancillary result. The above is a distillation of an interview with Keith regarding his career on the occasion in 1992 of the re-dedication of the McMath-Pierce Solar Facility. I would add that Keith carried out seminal work on the solar spectrum. These include "The Chromospheric Spectrum Outside Eclipse, ?? 3040-9266," with Jim Breckenridge, "The Kitt Peak Table of Photographic Solar Spectrum Wavelengths," and with Charles Slaughter, "Solar Limb Darkening, I and II." For sixteen years, Keith directed the Solar Program of KPNO with a gentle hand. At home with his first wife, Mildred, and later with his second, Trudy, he extended warm hospitality to visitors from around the world. He leaves three children: John (deceased), Barbara Isabel Orville, and Willard Ross.

  4. Obituary: Daniel E. Harris (1934 - 2015) (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Massaro, Francesco; Cheung, Teddy

    Our friend and colleague, Daniel E. Harris, died on December 6th 2015. Dan was a passionate astronomer and world traveller. He led a rich and scientifically productive life until the end. Dan was the first person to receive a PhD in radio astronomy at Caltech where he was a student of John Bolton, one of the fathers of Radio Astronomy and the founder of the Owens Valley Radio Observatory that Dan used for his thesis and first publications. One of Dan's first projects was with Jim Roberts to measure improved positions and flux densities for radio sources in the newly released 3C catalog. During this study, Dan discovered the first flat spectrum radio sources, which he named CTA 21, CTA 26, and CTA 102 and which were later identified as quasars. His PhD thesis resulted in the then definitive study of the evolution of supernova remnants. Later Dan worked on radio galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) first at radio and then at X-ray wavelengths with the Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra Observatories where he pioneered the new field of relativistic X-ray jets and how they relate to radio galaxies and AGN. After graduating from Caltech in 1961, Dan wanted to see the world. Beginning in 1962, Dan lived in Bologna, Italy, where he worked with Professor Marcello Ceccarelli and the radio astronomy group and was active in the construction of the Northern Cross Radio Observatory ("la Croce"), the first Italian radio telescope. He left Bologna in the Spring of 1964 as his friends remember him to "divenir del mondo esperto e de li vizi umani e del valore"1, as he joined V. Radhakrishnan (Rad) and Dave Morris to sail in a 36-ft trimaran from England to Puerto Rico where he took a position at the Arecibo Observatory working with Marshall Cohen on interplanetary scintillations. After five years at the Arecibo Observatory, Dan went on to work at the Argentinian Institute of Radio Astronomy, Harvard University, the Dwingeloo Radio Observatory in the Netherlands, and at the Dominion Radio Observatory in Penticton, Canada. He finally returned to the U.S. in 1980 and spent the next 35 years at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One of Dan's most memorable attributes was his cheerful enjoyment of life. Dan was the life of the party; he was joyful, open and friendly. Dan enjoyed good food, drinks, and conversations with friends and strangers alike. Dan belonged to a time prior to big egos when scientific discoveries seemed to be made by the curious, adventurous, and non-conformists. Dan's free spirit manifested itself in his publications. Dan was a rigorous scientist who was not afraid of writing his papers with a hint of good humour. When presenting new radio measurements Dan went for "descriptive names" to describe radio maps2 such as the "original," the "goldfish," the "double," the "beaver," the "bean." At a recent IAU symposium held in the Galápagos Islands, where many of his colleagues and friends gathered to celebrate his 80th birthday, Dan's talk was entitled: "Slugs and Snails and Puppy Dog Tails: jets from an unconventional angle." As Dan worked with observatories outside the university system he was not officially a faculty member, but he mentored and collaborated with many younger researchers. This younger crowd that with sadness write these lines, always looked up to Dan as a role model in life as well as science, and will most of all miss his steadfast support. He was always ready to share his experience, expertise, and data. Even after leaving his full-time position with Chandra, Dan never retired. He kept working part-time at the SAO where he continued his research and was awarded competitive grants, telescope time, published, and led collaborations. Dan also worked for peace causes throughout his life. Dan joined the tax resistance movement during the Vietnam war, a movement of hundreds of thousands of Americans who refused to pay a portion of their income tax to the government in order to defund the war. He was also an active member of the organization that published the Astronomers and the Arms Race Newsletter. As a concerned scientist, Dan advocated against the star wars agenda and the militarization of space during the eighties. Dan was an active member of the AAS and frequent participant at meetings. The last meeting he attended was the 2015 Seattle one where he presented a talk and chaired a session. His presence at the 2015 meeting is a testament of his unwavering energy. Dan is survived by his wife Barbara, three children: Justine, Seth, and Leila, and four grandchildren.

  5. Obituary: Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010) (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu


    Chushiro Hayashi, the greatest Japanese theoretical astrophysicist, died of old age at a hospital in Kyoto on 28 February, 2010; he was 89 years old. C. Hayashi was born in Kyoto on July 25, 1920 as the fourth son of his parents Mume and Seijiro Hayashi. His father Seijiro managed a small finance company and the family "Hayashi" can trace its history back to honorable master carpenters who engaged in construction of the historic Kamigamo-shrine and Daitokuji-temple in Kyoto. In his high-school days in Kyoto, Hayashi enjoyed judo, and he was interested in philosophy and read a lot of philosophy books. Some of his schoolmates thought that Hayashi would become a philosopher. After graduating high school, he moved to Tokyo and entered the University of Tokyo, Department of physics in 1940, where he encountered astrophysics through a paper by G. Gamow and M. Schönberg on the URCA process (1941), A.S. Eddington's book "Internal Constitution of the Stars" (1926), etc. It was a difficult time of World War II. After a short time at university of two and half years, he graduated and was conscripted into the Navy. In 1945 the war was over he returned to his hometown Kyoto, where he joined a group of Professor Hideki Yukawa at Kyoto University, and studied elementary particle physics as well as astrophysics. In his early outstanding paper (1950), Hayashi pointed out an important effect of neutrinos in the expanding early hot universe, resulting in chemical equilibrium between neutrons and protons, while Gamow et al. (1948) did not notice the effect in their abg-theory, where they assumed a pure neutron state as an initial state. Also Hayashi investigated the structures of red giant stars; he showed how red giant stars kept such large radius structures, in terms of stellar models with energy source of nuclear shell-burning (1949, 1957). He received a DSc in 1954; the title of his thesis was "Hamiltonian Formalism in Non-local Field Theories." After that, Hayashi concentrated on astrophysics. In 1957 he was appointed as Professor at Kyoto University. In the study of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution, he discovered the famous "Hayashi phase," which was described in a three-page paper published (1961). He also compiled his studies of stellar evolution into a thick paper of 183 pages published in Supplement of Progress of Theoretical Physics with co-authors R. Hoshi and D. Sugimoto (1962). The paper was quite comprehensive, involving the whole stellar evolution from birth as protostars through death as supernovae, and frequently referred to as HHS. It was a bible in the field of stellar evolution for a long time, and may be so still. The study of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution made Hayashi himself become interested in star formation and then planetary formation. Hayashi and his co-worker T. Nakano found that dynamical collapse of an interstellar cloud (which we should call a molecular cloud core, today) proceeded isothermally, by comparing the cooling time with the free-fall time (1965). Also, Hayashi and his co-workers made computer simulation of spherical collapse of a cloud to form a star (1970), resulting in rather high flare-up luminosity than Larson's simulation (1969). These studies were really pioneer works in the field of star formation. From 1970s through 1980s, Hayashi investigated the origin of the solar system extensively together with his co-workers (mostly his graduate students or former students). Once a year at Kyoto University there was held a small workshop on the origin of solar system by Hayashi; in addition to astrophysicists and astronomers, geochemists, cosmochemists and mineralogists came to the workshop from everywhere in Japan. Discussion was always active and tough. Hayashi and his co-workers presented many theoretical studies in the workshop every year, and they compiled those studies into a chapter in the Protostars and Planets II Book (1985). Like HHS above, the chapter gives a quite comprehensive planetary cosmogony, which includes formation of solar nebula, solid particle settling, planetesimal formation due to gravitational instability, coalescence of planetesimals, formation of terrestrial and Jovian planets, and, finally, nebula dissipation. It is called the "Kyoto model" and is now considered as a standard model of solar system formation. In his tenure at Kyoto University was 30 years long, Hayashi had many graduate students and thoroughly drummed physics into them. Every Saturday afternoon, Hayashi held a colloquium in his office, but presenting in front of him was the most fearful training for his students. His disciplined methods of education and training, however, resulted in many of his students becoming university professors. Hayashi was honored with many prizes; Eddington Medal from RAS (1970), Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy (1971), Order of Culture (1986), Order of the Sacred Treasure, the first class (1994), the Kyoto Prize of Inamori Foundation (1995), the Bruce Medal for outstanding lifetime contributions from ASP (2004), etc. In 1984 Hayashi retired from Kyoto University. Even after that, Hayashi kept a small private seminar with his former students S. Narita and M. Kiguchi at a guest room of the university once a week and later at his home less frequently, and enjoyed discussion on astrophysics. The seminar lasted for 25 years until he was hospitalized for old age, i.e., a few months before his death.

  6. Obituary: Jeannette Virginia Lincoln, 1915-2003 (United States)

    Coffey, Helen E.


    J. (Jeannette) Virginia Lincoln died on 1 August 2003 of natural causes at age 87. She was a pioneer in space weather forecasting and was instrumental in establishing the World Data Center-A for Solar-Terrestrial Physics (WDC-A for STP) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Lincoln received a U.S. Department of Commerce Gold Medal for Distinguished Service in 1973 for outstanding accomplishments and leadership. She was elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a Fellow of the Society of Women Engineers. A physicist, she served as Division Chief of the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division (STPD) and Director of WDC-A for STP from 1966 until her retirement in 1980. Virginia was born on Labor Day, 7 September 1915, in Ames, Iowa, to Rush B. Lincoln and Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln. Her father, Rush B. Lincoln (b. 1881, d. 1977 at age 95), served as a Major General in the U.S. Air Force. He was a direct descendant of the brother of President Abraham Lincoln. Her mother Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln (d. 1986 at age 104) taught Chemistry at Iowa State University. Her brother, Rush B. Lincoln, Jr. (d. 2002), was five years older. Her grandfather Lincoln fought in the Civil War as a Confederate Captain. Virginia was immersed in military life and continued many contacts and visited military installations throughout her life. Her parents lived with her until their deaths. She enjoyed the perks of being a General's daughter, actively participating in her parent's lives, and served as caregiver in their declining years. Influenced by her Army background, she developed a strong assertive personality and good problem-solving capabilities. She received a bachelor's degree in physics from Wellesley College in 1936 and a master's degree from Iowa State University in 1938. She was an instructor in household equipment at Iowa State from 1936 to 1942. Electric appliances were new-fangled devices and people had to be educated in their use. In 1942, Virginia joined the U.S. National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC, as a physicist in the Interservice Radio Propagation Laboratory (IRPL), working in ionospheric research. In 1946 the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (CRPL) was formed to centralize research and provide predictions in the field of radio propagation, including investigating solar and geophysical effects and ionospheric data. In 1954 CRPL moved to Boulder, Colorado. Her first job was preparing monthly ionospheric prediction contour maps as a radio weather forecaster. The predictions were used in selecting frequencies for long distance communications. Alan H. Shapley, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, had contracts with solar observatories to obtain their data, and worked with Lincoln on forecasts. In 1949, Virginia helped create a statistical method for predicting sunspot activity that is still used today in forecasting solar storms that can disrupt radio communication on Earth. Taking on administrative responsibilities, Virginia was appointed Chief of Radio Warning Services in 1959, the first woman to head a section in the federal bureau. Also in 1959, Lincoln was the only woman in the official U.S. delegation of over 50 scientists to attend a meeting of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in the former Soviet Union. Using her Russian slides, Virginia gave many talks about the IGY to groups including the Chemical Society banquet, educational associations and women's service clubs. She was part of weekly meetings with Walt Roberts and the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) staff, discussing solar-terrestrial relationships. They developed auroral and cosmic ray indices for the Calendar Records (graphical display of indices and outstanding solar-terrestrial events each day) of the IGY. In 1966 she gave up forecasting work to devote time to data center work, serving as Director of the WDC-A for STP and the STP Division Chief for NOAA NGDC. She was passionate about the World Data Center system and maintaining data archives for future generations. She would introduce herself as "I am the World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics." Attending many foreign and U.S. meetings, she constantly searched for new data sets to add to the STP collection. She retired in 1980 after 38 years of federal service. When she was inducted into the Colorado Women's Hall of Fame in March 2000, she said: "My work with the World Data Centers introduced me to colleagues worldwide that became a source of much enjoyment, seeing them periodically at the international scientific meetings in Europe, Asia, and Australia." She was a past chair of the Denver Section of the Society of Women Engineers and very active in encouraging girls to study math and science. A member of the Association of Federal Professional and Administrative Women (AFPAW) and the Federally Employed Women (FEW), she supported improving the status of women. Virginia categorized herself as a joiner. She was active in many organizations, achieving life membership in the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). In her younger days she was a figure skater and she enjoyed square dancing, playing golf, and traveling. She also enjoyed the arts and held season tickets to the University of Colorado Artist Series, the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, the opera, and the Colorado Music Festival. She was preceded in death by her parents and her brother Rush. Survivors include a nephew, Rush B. Lincoln III, a niece Deborah Lincoln Niekras, four great nieces and a great nephew. Her memoirs, "My Busy Life: How I Never Stopped Enjoying It" by Jeanette Virginia Lincoln, are available at the Carnegie Library in Boulder, Colorado. Also available are her history of her father "Rush Blodget Lincoln, My Father - the General" and a history of her mother's family. Lincoln's legacy in the World Data Center system continues to this day.

  7. Obituary: Helen Dodson Prince, 1905-2002 (United States)

    Lindner, Rudi Paul


    Helen Dodson Prince, a pioneer in the observation of solar flares, a pioneer in women's rise in the profession of astronomy, and a respected and revered educator of future astronomers, died on 4 February 2002 in Arlington, Virginia. Helen Dodson was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on 31 December 1905. Her parents were Helen Walter and Henry Clay Dodson. Helen went to Goucher College in nearby Towson with a full scholarship in mathematics. She turned to astronomy under the influence of a legendary teacher, Professor Florence P. Lewis, and she graduated in 1927. Funded by grants and private charity, she earned the Ph.D. in astronomy at the University of Michigan under the direction of Heber Doust Curtis in 1933. Dodson taught at Wellesley College from 1933 until 1943, when she went on leave to spend the last three years of World War II at the MIT Radiation Laboratory. She returned to Goucher after the war as professor of astronomy and mathematics, and in 1947 she came back to Michigan both as professor of astronomy and staff member of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, of which she became associate director. In 1976 she retired from Michigan and spent her later years in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1932 Dodson held the Dean Van Meter fellowship from Goucher; in 1954 she received the Annie Jump Cannon Prize from the AAS; and in 1974 The University of Michigan honored her with its Faculty Distinguished Achievement Award. She published over 130 articles, mostly on her research specialty, solar flares. Dodson's interest in the Sun began at Michigan, although her dissertation was, like so many Michigan dissertations of the era, on stellar spectroscopy, "A Study of the Spectrum of 25 Orionis." She came to Michigan during the establishment and growth of the solar observatory at Lake Angelus, the creation of three gifted and industrious amateurs. Heber Curtis fostered the growth of the McMath-Hulbert enterprise and brought it into the University. Dodson's solar activity grew as a result of a number of summers spent, during her Wellesley years, at the solar observatory at Meudon, near Paris. When she returned to Michigan, Dodson became involved in the study of solar flares, based upon the long series of daily observations made with the tower telescopes at Lake Angelus and the improved spectroscopic equipment developed by Robert McMath, Orren Mohler, Leo Goldberg, Keith Pierce, and others. Her colleague during most of these years was Emma Ruth Hedeman, who co-authored many articles with her. Among her great accomplishments was the Comprehensive Flare Index, a widely used measure of flare activity. A "real live wire" and "a marvelous woman," in the words of students and colleagues, Dodson was also a kind and effective teacher, not at all vain about her accomplishments: She held that solar behavior has a way of making people humble. Dodoson was married to Edmund L. Prince and lived across Lake Angelus from the McMath-Hulbert Observatory; often she sailed to work, a joy denied to almost all other astronomers. During her years at McMath-Hulbert, The University of Michigan was the sole major American research university to have two women holding professorial positions in astronomy: Helen Dodson Prince and Hazel Marie Losh. One of the founding members of the Solar Physics Division, Professor Prince was a major factor in the rise and success of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, even when, after the 1950s, urban growth and upper Midwestern weather conditions conspired to cripple the advantages the observatory's technologies had once conferred. Her colleagues and students recall her with great respect and affection.

  8. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011) (United States)

    Cohen, Howard


    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles. Eventually, he earned both a master's degree (1968) and Ph.D. (1974) in astronomy from this well-known institution. The brilliant and eminent astronomer Daniel M. Popper supervised Oliver's doctoral dissertation, "An Investigation of Eclipsing Binary Stars Exhibiting Calcium II Emission." This research suggested that many systems Oliver investigated belonged to a new category of variable eclipsing binary stars. Popper had previously defined this new class of stars based on spectral features and intended AR Lac to be its prototype. Instead, using Oliver's suggestion, this class became known as RS CVn variables. Rare among astronomers, Popper himself was fussy about errors of measurement-uncompromising about accurate, conscientious work and intolerant about careless research. Oliver was the only student to receive a Ph.D. under this authoritative and honest astronomer, a testament to Oliver's own talents. As a University of Florida faculty member and astronomer, Oliver occupied many roles, including service as associate department chair, director of the university's Rosemary Hill Observatory near Bronson, Florida, and both undergraduate and graduate coordinators. He made significant contributions to both the operation and instrumentation of telescopes at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The establishment of the observatory's 18-inch Ritchey-Crétien telescope as a working telescope was a major accomplishment for which he wrote its operational software and programs for high speed occultation observations of stars. In addition, he was responsible for both relocating the campus teaching observatory to its present site and its operation during the 1970s. Oliver taught thousands of students both basic astronomy and advanced topics in undergraduate and graduate courses including an important sequence of graduate courses on binary stars. Faculty and students also applauded his superb, advanced course on techniques of observational astronomy. In addition, he was always looking for new techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in the classroom, especially PowerPoint techniques for which he received university grants. Oliver's computer skills also allowed him to design several, simple but important programs to help students understand difficult subjects. A favorite, "Oliver's Orrery," clearly shows how different models of the solar system produce planetary motions, a program that remains unique. Research interests involved 3-mm radio astronomy, photometry of eclipsing binary systems, and the design of astronomical instruments and computer controlled telescopes. Oliver was the first visiting astronomer of the Copernicus Institute in Warsaw, Poland, where he helped participate in its establishment. He also held a joint appointment as Senior Research Scientist at UF's Institute for Space Science and Technology from 1988 to 1994. During this time he was a co-investigator on the Long Duration Exposure Facility/Interplanetary Dust Experiment and the Clementine Orbital Meteoroid and Debris Counter. These experiments obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and provided information on the population of small mass, man-made debris in near Earth space. Oliver was twice a NASA Faculty Research Fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he developed models used to predict meteoroid impacts on space probes. He was always excited about discovering orbital debris clouds around the Earth. A favorite and special project from 1984 to 1988 was Oliver's involvement as co-investigator on UF's South Pole Optical Telescope where his knowledge of computer controlled instruments was vital. He visited the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station four times during Antarctic summers and the U.S. State Department and U.S. Navy awarded him the Antarctic Service Medal for activities in Antarctica in October 1986. This small, specialized instrument, the first stellar telescope located at Earth's South Pole, operated for several seasons evaluating observing conditions at in the visible region of the spectrum. In his last two years Oliver embarked on another unique project. In the North Irish town of Armagh, home of the Armagh Observatory, now stands a large, two-meter diameter "Celestial Sphere" made from solid polished grey granite. This impressive and beautiful star ball rests on one of four large base stones engraved to depict the story of the development of astronomy through the ages. On its surface, artist Brian Connolly has etched the brightest stars and other features of the sky in gold. The sphere is aligned north with the stars and correctly oriented toward the pole star. Although this artwork is the vision of the artist, Oliver provided the templates for the precise positions of stars and other heavenly features on the sphere. Oliver had a long interest in public programming and public schools. He actively worked with middle school science teachers, was a creator of "Conversations About Science and Mathematics" and was an innovator in large classroom teaching. He volunteered as a science- and engineering-fair judge for more than twenty years, finally stopping only about a year before his death. Members of the Alachua Astronomy Club, Inc., favorably knew him for his interesting, absorbing and clear presentations. Few could converse as well on the wide spectrum of knowledge that modern astronomy now entails. Predeceased by a son, Michael, he leaves behind his wife Barbara of forty-seven years, three children, Jennifer, Keith and Rebecca, two grandchildren, Elspeth and Moira, and a great granddaughter, Dorothy. Oliver also left behind dear friends, colleagues, students and a legacy difficult to match. He was proud of the department that he had helped shape during his long tenure at UF. Oliver was unique among many astronomers due to his abilities and flair as an excellent speaker and teacher, a superb instrumentalist and programmer, and as a talented research scientist with an unequaled passion and dedication to astronomy and his department.

  9. Obituary: Timothy Hawarden (1943-2009) (United States)

    Robson, Ian


    British astronomy lost one of its most respected and liked members with the sudden death of Dr Timothy (Tim) Hawarden. Hawarden was one of those people who changed his wavelength and discipline as the emerging challenges of astronomy dictated, and was successful in all of his ventures. He experienced a huge breadth of achievement; moving from photographic plates, through electronic detectors to infrared astronomy from the ground and subsequently from space. He was an acknowledged leader in his fields around the world and, in addition to his professional accomplishments, he was a keen practitioner of culinary technique. His bouillabaisse was legendary. In his later years he was a source of inspiration for young children in his outreach work. Tim Hawarden began his career as an optical astronomer in South Africa. He graduated from the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg in 1966 with a BSc in Physics and Applied Mathematics, followed by an MSc in Astronomy from the University of Cape Town in 1970 and a PhD in 1975. Hawarden's early years were formed by learning the precise art of photometry from the legendary Cousins, and this focus on precision has stood him in good stead throughout his career. He then moved Australia in 1975, where he spent three years as Deputy Astronomer-in-Charge of the UK Schmidt Telescope, from where he moved to the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, where he remained for the rest of his career. Hawarden rapidly moved into the newly emerging field of infrared astronomy. His research moved from stars and stellar clusters to barred spiral galaxies and he was keen to employ the new tools coming on-line to pursue this work. The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (KIRT) was the world's premier facility and Tim Hawarden became the Head of the unit at the ROE in 1981, a post he held for the next six years, overseeing a range of developments that have stood the test of time and have provided the platform on which UKIRT has retained its world-class standing right through to this day. He was posted to Hilo, Hawaii as a support astronomer in 1987. He undertook a key role as Project Scientist for the UKIRT Upgrades Programme, which was a major undertaking that would transform the capability of the telescope and enable it to retain its cutting-edge competitiveness in spite of the emerging threat of the new breed of 8-10m ground-based telescope. He returned to Edinburgh in 2001 where his next role was as the UK Project Scientist in leading efforts to seek out opportunities for the next generation of large ground-based telescopes. He continued in this role until his retirement in 2006. The other key area of work for which Tim will be remembered world-wide is his contribution to infrared astronomy from space. There are two strands to this; first as a Co-Investigator for the ISOCAM instrument for the European Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and then for his work on Edison. Although this failed to become a mission in its own right, there were huge and positive repercussions from the studies. Tim Hawarden was the instigator of what became the norm for such missions in the future: passive radiation cooling, rather than relying solely on cryogens. This was breakthrough stuff and although Hawarden met initial severe resistance from the engineering establishment, typically he persevered and showed through detailed calculation that his ideas were sound. He soon gathered a strong following from fellow astronomers and eventually this idea was accepted and widely adopted. Tim's legacy can be seen in missions as diverse as the Herschel Telescope, launched in June 2009, through to the James Webb Space Telescope, the Hubble successor to be launched in 2014. In acknowledgement of his expertise in the space domain, he was personally appointed by the NASA Administrator to his blue-ribbon Advisory Working Group on Long-Term Plans for NASA Space Science. This was a huge accolade and shows the esteem in which Tim Hawarden was held, probably more so by his NASA colleagues than on the European scene.

  10. Obituary: Sam Roweis (1972-2010) (United States)

    Hogg, David


    Computer scientist and statistical astronomer Sam Roweis took his own life in New York City on 2010 January 12. He was a brilliant and accomplished researcher in the field of machine learning, and a strong advocate for the use of computational statistics for automating discovery and scientific data analysis. He made several important contributions to astronomy and was working on adaptive astronomical data analysis at the time of his death. Roweis obtained his PhD in 1999 from the California Institute of Technology, where he worked on a remarkable range of subjects, including DNA computing, modeling of dynamical systems, signal processing, and speech recognition. During this time he unified and clarified some of the most important data analysis techniques, including Principal Component Analysis, Hidden Markov Models, and Expectation Maximization. His work was aimed at making data analysis and modeling faster, but also better justified scientifically. The last years of his PhD were spent in Princeton NJ, where he came in contact with a young generation of cosmologists thinking about microwave background and large-scale structure data. In a postdoc at University College London, Roweis co-created the Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) algorithm; a simple but flexible technique for mapping a large data set onto a low-dimensional manifold. The LLE paper obtained more than 2700 citations in 9 years, launched a new sub-field of machine learning known as "manifold learning," and inspired work in data visualization, search, and applied mathematics. In 2001, Roweis took a faculty job at the University of Toronto Computer Science Department. He continued working on data analysis methods that have probabilistic interpretation and therefore scientific applicability, but at the same time have good performance on large data sets. He was awarded a Sloan Fellowship, a Canada Research Chair, and a fellowship of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, among other honors and awards. During this period he turned some of his attention to astronomy, beginning with a project to infer a distribution function (in this case the velocity distribution of disk stars) in the face of non-trivial measurement errors and missing data. He also contributed inference ideas and optimization technology to a precise photometric re-calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He was awarded tenure at Toronto in 2006. In 2005, Roweis began the collaboration. Under his leadership, this group built software that can take any astronomical image of unknown provenance and rapidly and robustly determine its pointing, orientation, and plate scale with no first guess or prior information of any kind. The system works in part by converting astrometric calibration into a well-posed problem in decision theory. It is now recovering corrupted data in plate-scanning projects, calibrating data taken by amateur astronomers, and working inside the photo-sharing site flickr. was the primary PhD project of Roweis's student Dustin Lang (now at Princeton University), who is one of the first PhDs in computer science to obtain a postdoc in astronomy. These interdisciplinary successes demonstrated the enormous potential of having Roweis thinking about astronomical data. In September 2009, after a few years at search giant Google, he took a tenured position in the New York University Computer Science Department. At the time of his death, he was working on flexible data analysis systems for imaging and spectroscopy, capitalizing on and contributing to NYU's involvement in SDSS-III; the idea was that pipelines should not just reduce the science data, they should also simultaneously learn instrument and calibration parameters from the union of the calibration and science data. In his astronomical projects he advocated straightforward and simple models that are flexible and therefore live in large parameter spaces; these are feasible only with good engineering. The system works by brute force search, after geometric hashing has trimmed the tree o

  11. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008) (United States)

    Ho, Paul


    Chi Yuan graduated from the National Taiwan University in1959, and received his Masters of Science degree from the University of Florida in 1962, and his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1966. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Professor C.C. Lin at MIT for three years, before taking his faculty post at the City College of New York in 1969. He attained full professorship at CCNY in 1981. From 1994-1996, Chi returned to Taiwan as Director of the newly found Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). From 1997-2002, he was the recipient of an Outstanding Scholar Award, reserved for the most distinguished scientists employed in Taiwan. Chi retired from ASIAA in 2007, but continued to be active in his research during his two-year fight with brain cancer. Chi Yuan made his greatest impact with his work on the density-wave theory for spiral arm structures in galaxies, with C.C. Lin and Frank Shu. His early work elucidated the observational tests of density-wave theory, and the effects of magnetic fields in galactic shocks. In the 1980s, Chi Yuan worked on spiral density waves in Saturn's rings. In the past two decades, Chi Yuan concentrated on the problem of barred and spiral structures in the nuclei of galaxies, with their implications for fueling the central supermassive black holes. He also worked on the problem of the migration of giant extrasolar planets in their solar disks. These studies were made possible by his establishment of a program on computational fluid dynamics, which became one of the key initiatives in theory at the ASIAA. Among his academic records, two contributions are particularly notable. First, with Typhoon Lee, Fred Lo, and Frank Shu, Chi Yuan founded the ASIAA in order to stimulate the growth of astronomy in Taiwan. Second, and perhaps his greatest influence, has been his training and mentoring of a great number of students in astrophysics, especially for the last 20 years in Taiwan. Today, astronomy is flourishing in Taiwan, in no small measure because of his efforts. Chi Yuan was also a scholar in Chinese history, well known for his calligraphy, and a passionate leader of the Tiao Yu Tai Islands movement in the early 1970s on the territorial integrity of China. He was a gourmand and a gourmet. He was a man of principle and integrity. He is greatly missed by his many friends and colleagues, both inside and outside of astronomy and physics.

  12. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009) (United States)

    Hill, Frank


    Cliff Toner passed away unexpectedly at home in Tucson, Arizona on March 29, 2009. For most of his career, Cliff was involved with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), a facility of the National Solar Observatory in Tucson, Arizona. GONG is a set of instruments around the world to observe the inside of the sun using the sound that is trapped below the solar surface. This science is called helioseismology. Cliff Toner was born on December 8, 1959 in New Westminster, British Columbia near the western coast of Canada. After receiving his B.Sc. in Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver in 1981, he headed east to the University of Western Ontario in London. His graduate school period was spent in collaboration with David F. Gray, with whom he received both an M.Sc. in Astronomy in 1984, and a Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988. Toner actually wrote two theses at UWO, one on "Line Asymmetries in F, G, and K Supergiants and Bright Giants" for his M.Sc., and the other on "The Time Variability of Spectral Line Asymmetries and Equivalent Widths for the G8 Dwarf ? Boo A: Evidence for a Starpatch" for his Ph.D. After graduate school, Cliff Toner left the cool climate of Canada in 1988 and accepted a postdoctoral position in the warmer temperatures of Hawai'i at the Institute for Astronomy located at the University of Hawai'i in Honolulu. There he worked primarily with Barry LaBonte. At first, he continued his work on ? Boo A, but he became interested in the sun and helioseismology. This led to the discovery of halos of enhanced high-frequency acoustic power surrounding solar active regions (Ap.J. 415, 847). At the end of his post-doc, Cliff Toner was hired by the GONG project as a Data Scientist in 1991. He quickly tackled the problem of merging the data from the six GONG sites, which was the major data reduction challenge facing GONG at the time. In parallel, he and Stuart Jefferies developed an algorithm to measure the radii of full-disk solar images to a relative precision of 0.01% by determining the zero points of the Hankel transform of the image. As a by-product of the algorithm, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of each image was also obtained, and this led Toner to develop a merging scheme based on the MTF of every image. It proved to be a very effective approach, and both the radii measurement and the merging algorithm remain in daily use in the GONG processing pipeline. However, there was one remaining challenge to assembling the GONG time series in a seamless manner. Each of the six GONG instruments is slightly and unavoidably misaligned with geographic North, producing an angular misregistration of the solar image between sites. Cliff Toner developed a sophisticated optimization scheme that determined a network-wide solution to the relative orientations of the images, and then pinned down the absolute value with drift scans. He further refined the solutions to compensate for gear irregularities in the camera rotator units at the sites. As a result of these algorithms, Toner was able to co-align all of the GONG images to a precision and accuracy of 0.02∘, as verified by his observations of the transits of Mercury and Venus. Without this complex and clever strategy and these extremely important algorithms, it would have been impossible for the GONG data to be merged into a single uniform time series of adequate accuracy for precision helioseismology. Cliff Toner's tireless, selfless, and generally unseen work behind the scenes was essential for the success of GONG. Toner also developed the scheme for merging together the GONG high-cadence magnetograms, and was working on determining the radii of the forthcoming GONG Ha data at the time of his untimely death. Cliff Toner was a very tall man, and colleagues at Hawai'i enjoyed the sight of him riding around the campus on a small moped. Everyone who met him loved him for his patience and willingness to help out. One of his colleagues from his stay in Hawai'i, K.D. Leka, recalls that "Cliff was the embodiment of a "gentle giant"; so tall, yet so soft-spoken and patient, and I just recall a sense of his always being ready to help any living thing. Cliff was out with a back injury in March 1991, and it was under his temporarily-abandoned desk that Betsy, the IfA cat had her one (and only) litter (when my cat Audrey, whom many of you know, was born). As the littermates grew, Cliff, Matt Penn and I had kittens crawling over us; I can still hear his chuckles, "well helloooh, who are you there now?" as they would scramble up his chair to his desk. It was always with a smile that he'd greet me when we ran into each other after the "Hawai'i days"; we'd swap some stories, kid updates but only recently we were more in touch as I'm now playing with GONG data. I was heartened to hear he was working on the magnetogram merging, because I knew it'd be done really well with his attention." Cliff Toner was a caring and loving person, an excellent scientist, and a hero of GONG. He will be sorely missed by everyone who knew him. He is survived by his wife, Nelsey, children, Ariel, Nathaniel, Miranda, and Kayla, sister Gloria, brothers Ethan (Heather) and Emanuel (Lisa).

  13. Obituary: Frank Culver Jones, 1932-2007 (United States)

    Ormes, Johnathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.


    Frank C. Jones, an emeritus theoretical physicist at NASA, died May 2, 2007 at age 74 after a struggle with a rare form of cancer. He died at his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, surrounded by his family. Frank was born July 30, 1932 in Fort Worth, Texas, the oldest of three boys. His parents were Kenneth Hugh and Nancy Culver Jones. Frank's father was a lawyer, and his grandfather was a Methodist minister. Frank graduated from Rice University in 1954 and earned a master's degree in 1955 and a doctorate in 1961, both in physics, from the University of Chicago. He did his graduate work with Prof. John Simpson. Dr. Jones began his professional career as an instructor in physics at Princeton University before joining NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1963 as a National Research Council associate. He subsequently became a member of the Theory Division and the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. His area of expertise was the origin, transport, and electromagnetic interactions of cosmic rays. His particular focus was the stochastic physics related to the diffusion of particles in random fields, plasma turbulence, and the shock acceleration of charged particles in collisionless plasmas. From 1993 to 1995, Frank was head of Goddard's Theoretical High Energy Astrophysics Office and continued to serve as Head of the Theory group. In 2003 he served as Acting Chief of the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. He retired in 2005 and continued his affiliation with NASA as an emeritus scientist at Goddard until his death. As a youngster, Frank showed the signs of curiosity and initiative that indicated he might become an experimentalist. At the memorial service for Frank, his brother related the stories of how Frank had rigged a hidden microphone to play through the family television as his brother courted a young woman on the front porch swing, and how one of Frank's early chemistry experiments caused all the family silverware to turn black. Although Frank started his professional career as an experimentalist, his wife Ardythe says he didn't become really happy until he turned to theoretical work after his postdoctoral appointment at Princeton. Frank, with characteristic good humor, was not averse to telling his experimentalist friends that, after attempting balloon-borne experiments, he decided he was better suited to theoretical work. In more than four decades of research at NASA, Dr. Jones made a number of pioneering contributions to his area of expertise, regularly attending and presenting his work at the biannual International Cosmic Ray Conferences sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). He was known among his colleagues for his low-key presentations that demonstrated his deep understanding of the fundamentals of broad areas of physics far removed from cosmic radiation. This knowledge, combined with his friendly, generous, and open personality, meant that he was much sought after for his insight, advice, and wisdom on physics generally. He authored a paper on Compton scattering--the decrease in energy of a high energy photon when it interacts with matter--that is still widely used (Jones, F. C. Physics Review. 167, p. 1159, 1968). His works on acceleration of particles at oblique shocks with M. Baring and D. Ellison (Advances in Space Research, 15, #8/9, p. 397, 1995 & Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 90, p. 547, 1994.) are essential references in the field. Frank's review paper with D. Ellison in Space Science Reviews is considered one of the classics in the field of particle acceleration (Space Science Reviews, 58, p. 259, 1992). Frank was never afraid to look at an unconventional idea. When scientists were searching for evidence of tachyons, Frank looked into the kind of Cherenkov radiation they might produce (Jones, F. C. Physics Review D, 6, p. 2727, 1972). Don Ellison, Professor at North Carolina State University and one of Frank's most productive graduate students, told us that Frank had an astonishing memory. Don said he used to visit with Frank after lunch to discuss progress on his dissertation and get advice. He would think that Frank was dozing off and not listening to his report. However, he would find that many weeks or even months later Frank would remember the conversation and quote it back to him long after he had forgotten the encounter. Frank's colleagues were also the beneficiaries of this recall ability in informal settings. An avid fan of vintage movies, Frank could recall a scene from movies released long ago to draw an analogy or encapsulate a pertinent idea for any point of discussion that happened to be on the table. Frank was elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 1974 and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1996, being cited for "theoretical investigations of propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium." Frank took his turn at public service duties. He was elected by his peers to a three-year term on the Executive Committee of the Cosmic Physics Division (now the Astrophysics Division) of the American Physical Society (APS) in 1980. He served the APS as Council Member from 1994 until 1997, as a member and chair of the Committee on Constitution and Bylaws 1996-1998, and as its Chair in 1997. Frank chaired the Publications Committee responsible for the volumes of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference in La Jolla, California, in 1985, as well as serving on the conference steering committee. In 1987, when COSNEWS, the Newsletter of the Cosmic Ray Commission of the IUPAP, needed a new Editor and Publisher, Frank volunteered and served until 2002. Frank loved computer technology and was highly regarded in the laboratory as a helpful expert on this new technology as it grew and personal computers came to be found in every office. These sometimes incomprehensible new devices were well understood by Frank. He was always providing helpful advice to everyone from technicians to scientists and managers. This generosity resulted in his becoming the first senior research scientist to be honored with the Laboratory's Peer Award. Survivors include his wife of 52 years, Ardythe Grube Jones of Silver Spring, Maryland, two children, Cheryl Mattis of Columbia and Timothy Jones of Silver Spring, two brothers, and four grandchildren.

  14. Obituary: Robert H. Koch (1929-2010) (United States)

    Koch, Joanne; Corcoran, Michael; Holenstein, Bruce; Sion, Edward


    Robert H. Koch, emeritus professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Pennsylvania, passed away at his home in Ardmore, Pennsylvania on 11 October 2010 after a brief illness. Bob was 80 years old and remained sharp and intellectually engaged with the astronomical community up until the onset of complications from a brain tumor. Bob was born in York, Pennsylvania on 19 December 1929, and graduated from York Catholic High School in 1947. He attended the University of Pennsylvania on a senatorial scholarship, graduating in 1951. After two years in the United States Army, he enrolled in graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania, doing his doctoral research on the photoelectric photometry of R CMa, AO Cas, AS Eri, and XY Leo at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona in Tucson. Bob would continue this exploration of close binary stars, their atmospheres and interactions, for the rest of his career. Bob met his future spouse, Joanne C. Underwood, while in graduate school in 1957 and they were married in 1959. Bob received his PhD in astronomy in 1959 and moved to Amherst, Massachusetts, where he taught as a member of the Four College Astronomy Department until 1966. Following a year at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, Bob joined the Astronomy Department at Penn, teaching and doing research there until his retirement in 1996. Bob's main interests were the study of close and eclipsing binary stars, stellar envelopes and winds, intrinsic variables, transits and occultations, and the Milky Way Galaxy, producing well over 100 refereed publications. Bob was partial to photoelectric photometry and polarimetry, conducting most of his observational research at the University of Pennsylvania Flower and Cook Observatory, and at other ground- and space-based observatories. As an international figure in the area of binary stars, Bob had widespread collaborations with scientists at other institutions, in the US and throughout the world, and made significant contributions to the understanding of the process of mass transfer and accretion in close binary star systems and in developing stellar polarization standards. A number of astronomers were the recipients of his inspiration and mentorship as doctoral students at Penn. Bob was a polymath who was able to expound eloquently on the intricacies of observational polarization measures or the various dealings of notable figures of the High Middle Ages with no advance notice. Along with a friend, biochemist Dr. Robert E. Davies, Bob helped establish at Penn one of the first courses to examine the astrophysical and biological implications for life beyond earth, long before NASA's own focus on the subject took shape. Bob was active in the astronomical community and served as president of IAU Commission 42 (close binaries). A life-long love of astronomy led Bob to continue pursuing many areas of astronomical research during retirement. As an emeritus professor, he made important contributions to the detection of exoplanets by the eclipse-timing method, and explored the development of large, lightweight telescope mirrors for ground- and space-based observatories. In his retirement, Bob also researched and wrote a history of observational astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. He also was an active gardener and a talented musician, and learned to play the mandolin when he was 77. In addition, Bob and Joanne both loved traveling and bird watching, visiting nearly 30 countries during his retirement years. Besides Joanne, Bob's survivors include sons Thomas and James (Dana), daughters Elizabeth (Murray) and Patricia Budlong (Steven), seven grandchildren, a brother and a sister. Bob once wrote that he long ago decided "to control my career so as to have as much fun as grief;" in this he was successful beyond his dreams.

  15. Obituary: William Merz Sinton, 1925-2004 (United States)

    Spencer, John Robert


    Bill Sinton, one of the pioneers of infrared planetary astronomy, died at his home in Flagstaff, Arizona, on March 16th 2004, at the age of 78. Bill was born in Baltimore on April 11, 1925. He developed lifelong interests in railroads and radios while still a child, and by age 15 he had already built a shortwave radio receiver and won his ham radio license. His abiding interest in electronic and mechanical devices would serve him well in his professional career. He fought with the 26th Infantry Division in the Second World War and was wounded in France in October 1944. After the war he obtained his bachelor's degree in physics at Johns Hopkins (1949). His doctoral work at the same institution, with John Strong, gave him his first taste of infrared astronomy, including the first measurements of the moon at 1-millimeter wavelength. He obtained his PhD, on the infrared spectrum and temperature of Venus, in 1953. During a 1-year postdoc at Johns Hopkins he probed the lunar subsurface by observing the cooling of the moon during eclipse at millimeter wavelengths, and observed the diurnal variation in Martian surface temperatures in the 10-micron window. He joined Harvard College Observatory as a research associate and lecturer in 1954, and became interested in the question of life on Mars and the then-plausible possibility that Mars's dark markings were due to vegetation. In 1956, using a monochromator that he built himself, he detected absorptions near 3.4 microns in the Martian spectrum which he attributed to a C-H stretch transition in Martian vegetation. These "Sinton bands," as they came to be known, sparked great interest at the time, and though at least some of the spectral structure was later found to be due to terrestrial HDO, and the presence of abundant organic molecules on the Martian surface was finally ruled out by the Viking landers, some of the spectral features that he detected appear to be intrinsic to Mars and are still not well understood. In 1957, Bill moved to Lowell Observatory, and spent the next nine years there. He considered these to be the most productive years of his career. In his time at Lowell, he continued his studies of the Moon's thermal emission, and built an infrared Michelson interferometer spectrometer that he put to use in identifying the 3.1-micron water of hydration band on Mars. He also met and married his wife Marge in 1960, and their three sons, Bob, David, and Alan were born during the Flagstaff years. In 1965, Bill was invited by John Jefferies to join the faculty of the University of Hawaii, and to help in the development of the fledgling Mauna Kea Observatory. His work on the design the 88-inch telescope on Mauna Kea, the cornerstone of the observatory, included designing its telescope control system, making it one of the first computer-controlled optical telescopes. His scientific work at the Institute for Astronomy included continued studies of Mars, with his PhD student Terry Martin, as well as the infrared spectrum of Uranus and Neptune. He sometimes translated his pseudocolored maps of the thermal emission from the planets, pixel by pixel, into the unique medium of stained glass. In 1979, following the discovery of Io's volcanoes by Voyager, he obtained some of the first ground-based observations of the infrared thermal emission from the volcanoes. He devoted the last decade of his career to the ground-based study of Io's volcanoes, working to characterize their time variability and developing techniques to identify their locations on Io. He was one of the founding members of the International Jupiter Watch in 1987, and was the first leader of its Satellite Discipline. When he retired from the University of Hawaii in 1990, he and Marge returned to Flagstaff, and he renewed his association with Lowell Observatory as an adjunct astronomer. He built a miniature steam-powered railroad around his house, to the delight of the neighborhood children who would get to ride on it on special occasions. In 1993 he was diagnosed with ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease), and was confined to a wheelchair shortly afterwards, but he continued to attend scientific meetings, and to contribute to Lowell Observatory as a member of its Advisory Board, till shortly before his death. In 2002 he published an autobiography, I Choose to Live, which described his life and his battle with ALS. Because he could no longer use a keyboard he wrote the entire book using voice-recognition software- a testament to his determination to keep as active and productive as possible despite the encroachments of the disease.We remember Bill as a warm, gentle, and enthusiastic man with an encyclopedic knowledge of all things infrared. He had a love of mechanical gadgets of all types, whether he was designing plumbing for a He3 cooled germanium bolometer or for a model steam engine. He is greatly missed by his family, friends, and former colleagues. Within two weeks of Bill's death came the announcement that CH4 gas had been discovered on Mars by the Mars Express spacecraft, confirming similar results from ground-based telescopes. The methane, touted as possible evidence for extant Martian life, was discovered via its 3.3-micron C-H stretch band. This is essentially the same vibrational transition, potentially carrying the same hints of living Martian organisms, which Bill thought he had seen on Mars 45 years earlier. So while Bill's initial conclusion that Mars is covered with extensive vegetation turned out to be wrong, his insight that the 3-micron region, with its telltale signature of carbon-hydrogen bonds, was the best place to search for evidence of life on our sister world, may have been right all along.

  16. Obituary: Gerald S. Hawkins, 1928-2003 (United States)

    Krupp, Edwin C.


    Public perceptions of human prehistory were transformed in the 1960s by astronomer Gerald Stanley Hawkins, who died suddenly and unexpectedly of a heart attack on 26 May 2003 at Hawkridge Farm, in Virginia, near Washington, D.C. His astronomical analysis of Stonehenge, first published in "Nature" on 26 October 1963, and subsequently developed and framed with historical and cultural context in a best-selling book, "Stonehenge Decoded" (1965, in collaboration with John B. White), was also showcased internationally at the time in a one-hour CBS television documentary special, "The Mystery of Stonehenge". The high-profile, unconventional, and cross-disciplinary character of Hawkins's celestial interpretation of Stonehenge alignments and his configuration of the monument as an eclipse predictor attracted archaeological skepticism that provided the controversy desired by the makers of the television program. Antagonism was contrived between Hawkins and archaeologist Richard J.C. Atkinson by the production team to introduce conflict that would enhance audience interest in the subject, and the televised dispute troubled both men for decades. By the early 1970s, however, Hawkins had inspired others to examine the astronomical potential of ancient and prehistoric monuments in many parts of the world. He ignited modern studies of archaeoastronomy. In fact, in a second book on the subject, "Beyond Stonehenge" (1973), Hawkins reported his expanding perspective with accounts of his fieldwork on New Kingdom temples in Egypt, on the giant geoglyphs near Nazca, Peru, and at other sites. He also brought the work of other investigators to the attention of his many readers. He established methods and protocols for alignment studies and invited others to use them. Following, in a sense, the footsteps Sir J. Norman Lockyer left among the antiquities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Hawkins reexamined the alignments of several Egyptian temples, documented significant weaknesses in Lockyer's analysis of the Great Temple of Amun Re at Karnak and formulated a new astronomical interpretation he supported with relevant hieroglyphic inscriptions. His field survey of the giant ground drawings near the Ingenio Valley in the south coastal desert of Peru, sponsored by the National Geography Society, convinced him that the geoglyphs are not astronomically oriented. The impact of Hawkins's work also reached informal science education. Major planetaria in North America produced and presented programs that simulated ancient skies and immersed audiences in the alignments and events Hawkins had spotlighted. Archaeoastronomy evolved in response to his trailblazing inquiries and eventually commanded the interest of a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology, anthropology, art history, history of religions, and more. Hawkins wrote two more books on this theme, "Mindsteps to the Cosmos" (1983) and "Stonehenge, Earth and Sky" (2004, with Hubert Allen). Altogether he wrote 11 books and his first book, "Splendor in the Sky", appeared in 1961. During his career he authored 150 papers. Born on 20 April 1928, in Great Yarmouth, England, Gerald S. Hawkins, like many professional astronomers, was allied to astronomy as a child. When he discovered astronomy in elementary school, he obtained books on it from the public library. In 1939, during World War II, he was relocated inland, along with many children living on the English coast, away from the German bombing. Settled in Nottingham for the war's duration, he joined the local astronomy club as a teenager and systematically observed meteors. He later attended Nottingham University, which granted him a Bachelor of Science in physics (1949). He also collected a subsidiary degree in mathematics from London University. Continuing his study at Manchester University, under Sir Bernard Lovell, he collaborated on the discovery of daytime meteor streams, and he received a PhD in radio astronomy in 1952. Two years later, he left England to accept a research position at the Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was also a Research Associate for Fred Whipple's Harvard Radio Meteor Project at Harvard University. Additionally, he was a Senior Associate with the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, and from 1957 to 1969 he concurrently held an appointment as Professor of Astronomy and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Boston University. He became a U.S. citizen in 1965. Gerald Hawkins served as Dean of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, from 1969 to 1971, when his career trajectory transported him to the United States Information Agency, where he was appointed Science Advisor to the Director and where he remained until his retirement in 1989. Frederick Hawkins, the father of Gerald S. Hawkins, was an accountant. He died when Gerald was three years old, a casualty of aggravation of a wound he had endured during World War I. Gerald's mother, Anne Lillian Hawkins, was a Town Official in Great Yarmouth. In 1955, Gerald Hawkins wed Dorothy Barnes. The couple had two daughters, but the marriage ended in divorce. In 1979, Hawkins married Julia Margaret Dobson, who survives him. Hawkins enjoyed academic, professional, and commercial success and was also honored for his work. He received the Shell Award for Distinguished Writing in 1965 and additional recognition from the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution. A member of the prestigious Cosmos Club of Washington, D.C., which salutes intellectual achievement, especially in science, he was recruited frequently for public lectures by many organizations and institutions. He was a member of the Historical Astronomy Division, a Division Affiliate member of the American Astronomical Society and a member of the International Astronomical Union's Commission 41. Gerald S. Hawkins was a colorful, articulate, and pioneering investigator who modeled a research profile in archaeoastronomy through innovative fieldwork. He induced many others to study ancient and prehistoric astronomy and is acknowledged for his essential and foundational role. His initiative propelled archaeoastronomical research into maturity. The Sherlock Holmes deerstalker cap he wore in the field when investigating standing stones and stone circles in Scotland advertised his attraction to scientific mysteries and his commitment to their solution. He persuaded many that part of the neolithic and bronze age intellectual heritage could be extracted from the unwritten record.

  17. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008) (United States)

    Bregman, Joel


    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical phenomena. She was involved in outreach and education at many levels and throughout her career. She would give planetarium shows, popular science talks for the public, and would speak to local and national news agencies, where she would explain recent NASA science findings. Among other contributions to higher education, she created a course, "Naked Eye Astronomy" at the University of Michigan, which remains the most popular course that the department offers. She was an active member of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), where she was a frequent speaker as well as a mentor to students. Beth Brown was an inspiration to women and minorities in encouraging them to pursue careers in astronomy and physics. One could not find a finer roll model. She will be missed but not forgotten.

  18. Obituary: Kevin H. Prendergast, 1929-2004 (United States)

    Spiegel, Edward A.


    Kevin H. Prendergast, Emeritus Professor of Astronomy at Columbia University, died 8 September 2004 at the age of 75 from complications of lung cancer. He had been at Columbia for more than fifty years. I first met Kevin in the summer of 1955, during a brief visit to the Yerkes Observatory. I had gotten into a heated discussion about double stars with a fellow graduate student, who suggested that we seek arbitration from a postdoc who was just then passing by. That postdoc was Kevin Prendergast. Kevin went straight to the blackboard, unleashed a learned and insightful lecture on binary stars, and then continued on his way. He wasted no motion, then nor ever, in our long association. Kevin was not at the time particularly concerned with double stars, though he made two significant contributions to their study somewhat after our meeting. The first of these was an early discussion (1960) of the dynamics of gaseous streams in binary systems that made use of theory gleaned from a book on the gulf stream by Henry Stommel (himself a former astronomer). The second was the important suggestion, made with G.R. Burbidge, that X-rays from binary stars are produced when gas from one star falls onto a compact companion (1968). Kevin was a native of Brooklyn and, after a stint at Brooklyn Technical High School, he attended Columbia University for his undergraduate and graduate studies. He received the PhD in 1954 for an astrometry thesis under Jan Schilt. While attending Columbia, Kevin also studied at the Julliard School of Music, and he became a very accomplished musician. As a pianist, he was about as good as one can get and still be called an amateur, according to my musically knowledgeable friends. From Columbia, he went to the Yerkes Observatory for postdoctoral work with S. Chandrasekhar and developed an interest in MHD. His model of a magnetic star with a global force-free field holds an important place in the subject of stellar magnetism. The relativistic solution for a magnetized expanding sphere that he later developed has recently been published posthumously through the efforts of Donald Lynden-Bell (MNRAS 359, 725). By 1956, Kevin was an assistant professor at the University of Chicago and began teaching at the Yerkes Observatory. Norman Lebovitz, who was in one of his classes, has told me that often when the time came for Kevin's afternoon class, the students had to go and roust him out of bed so that he could give his lecture. Around then (1958) he produced another memorable paper, this one on the role of dissipation in the elastic tumbling of asteroids which led to a better understanding of their interesting light curves. This was one of seven papers that he published in the 1954-58 period, of which three were with Chandrasekhar. The productivity increased in 1959 when Kevin began a collaboration with the Burbidges on the determination and interpretation of rotation curves of galaxies. They produced well over twenty papers in the next eight years on this topic. Kevin spent 1961-62 at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton and 1962-63 at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies on a National Academy Fellowship. He returned to Columbia in 1963 as an associate professor. He was made full professor in 1966 and, when Lo Woltjer left to direct ESO in 1976, Kevin became Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, a position he held on two occasions for a total of seven years. In 1968, with R.H. Miller, Kevin began developing numerical schemes to study dynamics in disk galaxies. One of their main ideas was to discretize the phase space so as to remove the irreversibility found in many simulations of stellar dynamics. They also developed a gas dynamical procedure (``the beam scheme'') which made clever use of the moments of the discretized kinetic equation. With Kevin's student W.J. Quirk, they put together a simulation with gas and stars, and even introduced a star formation algorthim. They produced films of galactic evolution that were shown quite widely in colloquia and symposia. The films revealed phenomena of qualitative interest such as mergers, bridges, and tails, and the formation of bars. Similar results were also being obtained by Hohl around that time and both pieces of work were no doubt influential in shaping the thinking of people working in this field. One striking feature of the calculations was that spiral arms formed initially but were transient. To keep the spiral patterns from collapsing it seemed necessary to artificially heat the disks. Only later, when the existence of massive halos was recognized (by Ostriker and Peebles), could the true cause of stability be surmised. From the mid-seventies on, Kevin worked on topics in astrophysical fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, largely with students. Some of this work was published, but it has to be said that much of his best work was not. A good example of the latter is his three-part handwritten manuscript on the dynamics of barred spirals that he distributed to several people over thirty years ago. Many of his other unpublished calculations have been deposited in the Columbia Library, and there are no doubt several things of interest to be found among his papers. While one can only speculate on why so much of his work went unpublished, I find a remark by de Kooning quite helpful in thinking about it. In a review of book about the painter, Peter Schjeldahl reported that "He [de Kooning] made ...paintings...and destroyed nearly all of them, to his subsequent regret....He explained `I was so modest then that I was vain.'" When I accused Kevin of a similar mindset, he chuckled and said "You are right, but don't tell anyone." Kevin was widely read and he had a remarkable awareness ofliterature. He was especially devoted to the work of P.G. Wodehouse. He also loved the Marx Brothers and late in life discovered Zero Mostel of whom he became an instant fan. He was a sailor and a snorkler, and enjoyed trading quips with anyone who was worthy of his steel. He was, in short, a person worth knowing. Kevin is survived by his wife Jane, two daughters, Laura and Cathy, and a younger brother, Robert, an emeritus professor of medicine from Johns Hopkins who rowed too much.

  19. Obituary: Eugene Richard Tomer, 1932-2007 (United States)

    Dunkl, Charles F.


    Dr. Eugene R. Tomer passed away on 2 July 2007 at his home in San Francisco, California. The cause of death was cancer. Tomer was a consulting applied mathematician with a wide range of interests in dynamical astronomy, electromagnetic theory for use in communications, and computational methods of applied mathematics. He was a member of AAS, and the Society for Applied and Industrial Mathematics [SIAM]. With K. H. Prendergast, he co-wrote the influential paper "Self-consistent Models of Elliptical Galaxies," published in the Astronomical Journal 75 (1970), 674-679. This paper has been cited over eighty times. Tomer was born on 13 June 1932. He earned the Ph.D. in Mathematics at the University of California-Berkeley in 1978 (title of dissertation: On the C*-algebra of the Hermite Operator). In 1996 he and A. F. Peterson wrote "Meeting the Challenges Presented by Computational Electromagnetics," a publication of the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. This writer met Eugene at the 1992 Annual SIAM meeting in Los Angeles in connection with the Activity Group on Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions, which the writer chaired at the time. Eugene volunteered to edit the Newsletter of the group, which he did from July 1992 to July 1995. Thanks to his skills and efforts, the Newsletter became a carefully edited, professional publication. Eugene not only organized a Problems Column, attracting questions in pure and applied mathematics, but he also designed the logo for the group. He gave much time and effort to this service, in an era when copy had to be physically assembled and mailed to SIAM Headquarters. Eventually he felt he had done what he could for the Activity Group. He told me that he hoped the Group would get seriously involved with applications such as in astronomy, physics, and sciences that use special function solutions of differential equations. During Tomer's editorship, we communicated mostly by e-mail, our homes being far apart. He was a good friend to the Group and to me, as much as one can be over a separation of thousands of miles. As well, Eugene was an active amateur radio operator, much appreciated by his local amateur radio community, with call sign WI6X. He left behind family, friends, and one son.

  20. Obituary: Anne Barbara Underhill, 1920-2003 (United States)

    Roman, Nancy Grace


    Anne was born in Vancouver, British Columbia on 12 June 1920. Her parents were Frederic Clare Underhill, a civil engineer and Irene Anna (née Creery) Underhill. She had a twin brother and three younger brothers. As a young girl she was active in Girl Guides and graduated from high school winning the Lieutenant Governor's medal as one of the top students in the Province. She also excelled in high school sports. Her mother died when Anne was 18 and, while undertaking her university studies, Anne assisted in raising her younger brothers. Her twin brother was killed in Italy during World War II (1944), a loss that Anne felt deeply. Possibly because of fighting to get ahead in astronomy, a field overwhelming male when she started, she frequently appeared combative. At the University of British Columbia, Anne obtained a BA (honors) in Chemistry (1942), followed by a MA in 1944. After working for the NRC in Montreal for a year, she studied at the University of Toronto prior to entering the University of Chicago in 1946 to obtain her PhD. Her thesis was the first model computed for a multi-layered stellar atmosphere (1948). During this time she worked with Otto Struve, developing a lifetime interest in hot stars and the analysis of their high dispersion spectra. She received two fellowships from the University Women of Canada. She received a U.S. National Research Fellowship to work at the Copenhagen Observatory, and upon its completion, she returned to British Columbia to work at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory as a research scientist from 1949--1962. During this period she spent a year at Harvard University as a visiting professor and at Princeton where she used their advanced computer to write the first code for modeling stellar atmospheres. Anne was invited to the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) as a full professor in 1962. She was an excellent teacher, well liked by the students in her classes, and by the many individuals that she guided throughout her career. She tried conscientiously to learn Dutch with only moderate success. She started her lectures in Dutch but switched to English when she was excited. For a semester, she talked of black body radiation; the Dutch came out as ``black corpse radiation." The students enjoyed this so much that they never corrected her. While in Utrecht, she served briefly on the editorial board of the Astrophysical Journal. After Utrecht, Anne returned to North America to work with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt Maryland. The senior scientists at Goddard were looking for a competent astronomer who could help raise the scientific standards of the laboratory. Anne was successful in this aim, particularly in guiding and encouraging the younger staff. As project scientist for the International Ultraviolet Explorer, she contributed greatly to the success of that project. In 1969, Anne received an honorary degree from York University. The period as Goddard Lab Chief was trying for Anne and she was happy to accept a Senior Scientist position. She spent two years in Paris collaborating with Richard Thomas editing a series of books on astronomy. Of these, she wrote "O-Stars and Wolf Rayet Stars" in collaboration with Peter Conti, and "B Stars With and Without Emission Lines" in collaboration with Vera Doazan. Both books were well received. On return from Paris she continued scientific research until she retired in 1985. Upon retirement, Anne returned to Vancouver and became an honorary professor at the University of British Columbia. She had an office, library facilities and the stimulation of colleagues. She enjoyed helping and mentoring the women students and she was happy to get back to observing at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria. In 1985 she received the D.S. Beals award, given to a Canadian astronomer for outstanding achievement in research. She was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1985. She received a D.Sc. from the University of British Columbia in 1992. Anne was one of the world experts on hot stars who influenced many students as well as the entire field. Between 1945 and 1996 she published more than 200 papers in refereed journals or symposium proceedings in addition to books. Her legacy will be long lasting. The following quote from Giusa-Cayrel de Strobel, an acquaintance of 50 years, summarizes the impression she left. ``In writing this brief note, many meetings we attended together are coming in my memory. They evolved almost always in the same way: first, our joy of the encounter, then the appearing of a scientific disagreement between us, and afterwards, before parting, the reconciliation. Anne never held an argument against her opponent; some of the people she admired and liked most were those with whom she argued vehemently." Anne cared passionately about astronomy and defended her views vigorously both individually and at meetings. She had difficulty making friends but those who got beyond the surface found that she was a kind, generous, and caring person as well as good company. Anne was deeply committed to her religious faith and sang in choirs as long as she could. She loved hiking, traveling the world, and music. In 2002, her health began deteriorating and was further weakened by several small strokes. Anne died on 3 July 2003 at the age of 83. She is remembered fondly by her family, friends, and former colleagues.

  1. Obituary: Frank J. Low (1933-2009) (United States)

    McCarthy, Don


    Frank James Low was born on November 23, 1933, in Mobile, Alabama. He received his undergraduate degree in physics from Yale University in 1955, and his Ph.D. in physics from Rice University in 1959. He worked at Texas Instruments, NRAO, Rice University, and spent most of his career at The University of Arizona with Steward Observatory and the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. To honor his fundamental insight and innovations that revolutionized the fields of infrared and airborne astronomy, Frank received the Helen B. Warner Prize (1968), the Joseph Weber Award (2003), shared the Rumford Prize in physics (1986), the Karl Jansky Lectureship (2006), and the Bruce Medal (2006) for lifetime contributions in astronomy. This year the world celebrates the International Year of Astronomy, commemorating the accomplishments of Galileo. There are great parallels between Frank and Galileo. After developing a revolutionary low-temperature detector, Frank re-engineered and optimized telescopes for infrared performance. He not only oriented them to the heavens but also placed them there throughout Earth's atmosphere and to the Moon. He made fantastic new discoveries from the Sun throughout the Universe. He radically changed the way the entire world looks at the Universe and impacted generations of new scientists as well as the general public. Frank's level of innovation is stunning and diverse. Chopping and undersized secondary mirrors, cold baffling, cryogenic designs, "Low Dewars," Helium-3 systems, JFET amplifiers for the IRAS satellite, airborne astronomy, the silver-coated 28-inch survey telescope, the MMT, the 36-foot radio dish, Apollo 17 radiometer, television detector systems, infrared microscopes, and on and on. His insights enabled the IRAS and Spitzer missions and contributed to Spacelab2, KAO, SOFIA, NICMOS/HST, JWST, etc. He also established a small business (Infrared Laboratories Inc.) that for more than 40 years has supplied instrumentation to astronomers and semi-conductor industries around the world, in some cases literally giving it away. Frank applied his new tools to a wide variety of scientific fields. He measured the Sun's brightness at millimeter wavelengths, discovered the internal energy sources in Jupiter and Saturn, mapped the Milky Way in the far-infrared, discovered the Kleinmann-Low nebula of star formation in Orion, and investigated the infrared emission from active galaxies. He was especially excited about dust disks around stars such as HD 98800 and helped make the fist direct spatial measurements of circumstellar dust emission in Betelgeuse and non-spherical dusk structures around IRC +10216, VY CMa, etc. He helped initiate the first direct detection of low mass stellar companions to nearby stars. I first noticed Frank while in David Wilkinson's office at Princeton. Frank was pictured on the cover of an aviation magazine near the NASA Learjet and 12-inch telescope. That image of a new frontier attracted me to Arizona. As a graduate student, I wanted to be challenged by a great person. The pioneering nature of infrared astronomy caught my interest as did Frank's mapping-radiometer on Apollo 17, and then the opportunity to pioneer interferometry. For some reason, Frank took me on even though I was not the most talented student. Working with him was pure exploration and pioneering, always involving hands-on construction and observing. I was invigorated by his constant creativity and innovation as well as by his depth of insight not only in technical matters but also in how people think and behave. He continually provided new opportunities to learn and improve. His cutting insights and constant drive for optimization changed the way I think and how I approach life in general. Frank was a compassionate teacher and coach. He would console after defeat while urging on to the next level. He patiently taught me how to write meaningfully and concisely. He challenged me to write my first NSF proposals and scientific papers and guided me through the process. Like a good coach, Frank had a knack for finding flaws or weak points in my performance so, even when we disagreed, he was motivating me to improve my thinking and arguments for another round of discussion. He provided first-author opportunities when many professors might not. We swam and hiked together, mixed concrete and laid bricks, cut cardboard baffles for the 61-inch telescope, appeared live from the KPNO 4-meter telescope on "Good Morning America" after VB-8b, ate lunches at Eric's, and so on. I am honored to have worked with Frank, who in my mind has the stature of Galileo. The level of his accomplishments, combined with his deep enjoyment of life with a wonderful family, are amazing to me. I am happy to have opportunities to share his pioneering and insightful approach to life with new generations of students who need this perspective badly. I am proud to have been one of his students.

  2. Obituary: Harry W. Fulbright (1918-2009) (United States)

    Pipher, Judy; Forrest, Bill


    Harry W. Fulbright, Emeritus Professor in Physics at the University of Rochester, died May 16, 2009 at the age of 90. His distinguished career spanned many disciplines. During WWII, he worked on the Manhattan Project at Washington University and at Los Alamos for two years, and spent 4 years on the Princeton University faculty before joining the faculty at Rochester in 1950. Fulbright retired July 1, 1989, having spent years at Rochester as an experimental physicist who among other things renovated a 26-inch cyclotron, turning it into the first variable energy cyclotron used. It became the center of the department's low energy nuclear experimentation until another faculty member installed a Van de Graaf which replaced it. That cyclotron was later shipped to India where Fulbright helped install it for its second career. Although Fulbright concentrated on nuclear physics for most of his career, his interests turned to Astronomy in his later years. Fulbright spent the summer of 1986 helping to design and build equipment for a holographic determination of and improvement of the shape of the 140 ft. diameter Green Bank radio dish. He spent several weeks the next year at Green Bank, continuing the collaboration with Ron Maddalena and other staff members on the project, alternately making measurements and then panel adjustments. The result, according to observations made on standard sources, was a substantial improvement in antenna efficiency. The time required for an observation at 24 GHz was reduced by a factor of two or three. He participated in observations with that dish involving 12 GHz signals from geostationary communication satellites. Fulbright joined Bill Forrest and John Bally in VLA (B array) HI observations of regions near high velocity outflow star forming and evolved objects. Little, if any, HI emission was evident in these data. As the director of the Advanced Undergraduate Lab in Physics and Astronomy, Fulbright included astronomical experiments in the complement he developed over the 11 year period before he retired. Among other experiments, he retrofitted an existing spectrograph with a thermoelectrically cooled 2048 element linear CCD to use at the University's C.E.K. Mees Observatory. A simple sliding shutter built into the slit structure of the spectrograph allowed automatic computer-controlled cyclic background subtraction. In addition, the students did all computer programming required for device control, for monitoring and recording of data, and for wavelength calibration. Preliminary tests were made with the collaboration of Dave Meisel, SUNY Geneseo, then Associate Director of Mees. Several student senior theses utilized this instrument. With other students, Fulbright built a sensitive low-noise 21-cm receiver and Dicke Switch for a computer controlled 8-foot dish antenna (used originally for satellite work), which he mounted on the roof of the Rochester Physics building. Undergraduate students over a several year period joined him in designing, constructing and improving the electronics for 21-cm observations. They were able to map the Milky Way until a new radar at the airport put them out of the faint object business. After that they followed the radio emission of the Sun during almost a full solar cycle. In 1988 he helped two other students built a small, two-dimensional CCD camera intended for use at Mees, incorporating a small TI 211, 192x 165 pixels element, a thermoelectric cooler, and a mechanical shutter, with operation and data acquisition under computer control. Following his retirement in 1989 he continued to work with the Advanced Lab students for several years. Harry Fulbright was a brilliant and versatile experimentalist, and passed on these skills to the present generation. He is sorely missed by all in the Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy.

  3. Obituary: John J. Hillman, 1938-2006 (United States)

    Chanover, Nancy


    John J. Hillman, a dedicated NASA civil servant, spectroscopist, astrophysicist, planetary scientist, and mentor, died on February 12, 2006 of ocular melanoma at his home in Columbia, Maryland. His professional and personal interests were wide-reaching and varied, and he devoted his career to the advancement of our understanding of the beauty and wonder in the world around us. His love of nature, art, and science made him a true Renaissance man. John was born in Fort Jay, New York, on November 22, 1938, and was raised in Washington, D.C. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Physics from American University in 1967, 1970, and 1975, respectively. He began working at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, then in its infancy, in 1969, juggling a full-time position as a Research Physicist, the completion of his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and a young family. His background in molecular spectroscopy enabled him to apply his skills to numerous disciplines within NASA: infrared and radio astronomy; electronic, vibrational, and rotational structure of interstellar molecules; solar and stellar atmospheres; and planetary atmospheres. He published more than 70 journal papers in these disciplines. He was a frequent contributor to the Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, and possessed a rare ability to bridge the gap between laboratory and remote sensing spectroscopy, bringing scientists from different disciplines together to understand our Universe. The last fifteen years of John's career were devoted to the development of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) cameras. He championed this technology as a low-cost, low-power alternative to traditional imaging cameras for in situ or remotely sensed planetary exploration. It was within this context that I got to know John, and eventually worked closely with him on the demonstration and application of this technology for planetary science using ground-based telescopes in New Mexico, California, and Hawaii. John's interest in AOTF technology did not stop at planetary science: he cleverly applied this powerful tool to some of his other areas of interest, including art and history. Hyperspectral imaging, when applied to oil paintings, can reveal drawings underneath a "finished" work of art, and John was keen to learn more about his favorite artists by making spectral image cubes of their famous paintings. He also participated in an effort by the National Museum of American History to preserve the Star Spangled Banner flag that motivated Francis Scott Key to pen our national anthem. Perhaps John's most famous "observing run" was conducted at the Smithsonian, on the Mall in Washington, D.C., with an AOTF camera mounted on scaffolding in front of the flag. Spectral imaging revealed locations on the flag with signs of deterioration not visible to the unaided eye. In yet another example of John's amazing ability to bring together people from various disciplines, the team of people who worked on the flag project included planetary scientists, molecular spectroscopists, textile conservators, and agricultural scientists with expertise in the proteins of wool and cotton. John was deeply committed to the scientific community, as demonstrated by his numerous service contributions. He spent two terms at NASA Headquarters, once in 1983-1985 as a Discipline Scientist for Planetary Astronomy, and once in 1999-2001 as a Discipline Scientist for the Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Atmospheres Programs in NASA's Solar System Exploration Division. He also served as a frequent reviewer for journals in planetary science, astrophysics, and molecular spectroscopy and served on numerous review panels for NASA and Goddard Space Flight Center. Although John spent the vast majority of his career at a NASA center, he loved teaching and working with students. He was occasionally called upon to teach an astronomy course at the University of Maryland, which he thoroughly enjoyed, and for the last several years of his career he was a Co-Director of the College Park Scholars program

  4. Obituary: Ronald Eugene Pitts, 1949-2008 (United States)

    MacConnell, D. Jack


    Ronald Pitts, systems engineer in the Commanding Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute and long-time Computer Sciences Corporation employee, died suddenly of a stroke on 4 May 2008 at his home in Laurel, Maryland. He was a dedicated scientist-engineer, husband, father, volunteer, and cherished friend to many. Ron was born on 19 January 1949 in Tucson, Arizona, and was raised, along with his sister Suzanne, on his parents' turkey farm outside Tucson. He picked up practical knowledge from his father, Vernon, and became a competent amateur electrician and plumber, skills he kept honed and used throughout his life. His mother, Ruth (Stephens), was a nurse and taught him compassion and patience and encouraged his inquisitive mind. Ron attended public schools and enrolled at the University of Arizona, graduating with a B. S. in Astronomy in 1971. Being from a family of modest means, he put himself through school working summers and part-time at a large copper mine south of town. Ron enrolled in the graduate astronomy program at the Ohio State University [OSU] in the fall of 1971 where he was a first-year fellowship student. During his second and third years, he was the Perkins Assistant, taking spectra for the very exacting but appreciative Philip Keenan who once remarked to another faculty member that Ron was the best observer he ever had. Later, in 1980, Ron was co-author with Keenan on "Revised MK Spectral Types for G, K, and M stars" and again in 1985 in a study of supergiants in open clusters. He met his future wife, Patricia Moore, also a graduate student in the department, and they were wed in 1973. Ron was also partially supported during his early OSU years by an NSF grant to Robert Wing, writing parts of Wing's photometric reduction code and observing on the program at Kitt Peak and Flagstaff in the summer of 1974. Wing remembers him as being very competent and pleasant to work with. Ron's thesis topic was "Oscillator Strengths for Neutral Iron and Silicon" under the direction of Gerald Newsom, and he was awarded the PhD in 1979. Newson recalls his facility with instrumentation, designing new circuitry to solve problems with the shock tube and ferreting out sources of systematic errors, and that it was enjoyable to work with him. In the fall of 1979, Ron went to Ball State University where he taught undergraduate astronomy classes for four years. In the summer of 1983, Ron left academia for the position of IUE Resident Astronomer with Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC] at the Goddard Space Flight Center where he joined a small contingent of other Ohio State graduates. For the next eleven years, he supported guest observers, implemented work-arounds as the IUE gyroscopes failed, improved calibrations, and had several proposals accepted to obtain spectra of spectrophotometric standards and to observe upper-main-sequence stars in the Pleiades, a Per, and NGC 2244, work that he did with Nancy Remage Evans. Ron worked diligently on the software to combine the best IUE calibration with ground-based data of the hot cluster stars and to fit the temperature and gravity. He also became interested in advanced technology for lunar remote telescopes and co-authored several studies with Peter Chen and others. After their children were of school age, Ron's wife Pat also worked for CSC/IUE for part of this period. In October 1994, Ron transferred to the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, where he joined the science instrument commanding group under the direction of Vicki Balzano. His first task was helping to write the commanding software controlling the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to be installed in HST in February 1997, and he became the in-house expert on the workings of this complex instrument, in particular on the details of the time-tag mode. In time, he became familiar with all the on-board instruments and oversaw the approval of the instrument commanding before the weekly HST command loads were distributed to the Goddard Space Flight Center for uploading to the telescope. In recent years, Ron participated in developing the onboard Javascript code for commanding the James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Spectrograph operations. He also helped write special commanding to support some activities to follow the final HST servicing mission. His "behind-the-scenes" contributions to IUE, HST, and JWST helped and will help astronomers around the world obtain their data. Ron seemed knowledgeable about almost any subject and could talk engagingly and at length on politics, economics, a variety of technical topics, the history of the early Church, and science fiction, among others. He was one of those people who always appeared to be smiling. He, Pat, and their daughter Marie enjoyed singing in the Central Maryland Chorale, and he served his church as an elder, Sunday-school teacher, and choir member. Ron sat on various church committees, set up and maintained the computers, and devoted many hours to the upkeep of the building. After Hurricane Katrina, he went on two mission trips with church members to help victims in Mississippi. Once again, his carpentry, electrical, and plumbing skills made him a valuable team member. Ron is survived by his wife, Pat, a cartographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, their son Mark, a graduate student in astronomy at the University of Hawaii, and their daughter Marie, a graduate student in biology at the University of Maryland.

  5. Obituary Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) (United States)

    Koorts, W.


    In March this year, we celebrated the 40th anniversary of the official opening of SAAO Sutherland. On 8 April 2013 Margaret Thatcher passed away. You may wonder what is the connection between these two facts. Fewer and fewer people nowadays remember that Margaret Thatcher was present at the opening ceremony of the Sutherland Observatory on 15 March 1973, almost to the day, 40 years before her death.

  6. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor: An obituary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve, E-mail: [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)


    The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has exerted a peculiar attraction over nuclear engineers. Despite many unsuccessful attempts over half a century to develop it as a commercial power reactor, there is still a strong belief amongst many nuclear advocates that a highly successful HTGR technology will emerge. The most recent attempt to commercialize an HTGR design, the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), was abandoned in 2010 after 12 years of effort and the expenditure of a large amount of South African public money. This article reviews this latest attempt to commercialize an HTGR design and attempts to identify which issues have led to its failure and what lessons can be learnt from this experience. It concludes that any further attempts to develop HTGRs using Pebble Bed technology should only be undertaken if there is a clear understanding of why earlier attempts have failed and a high level of confidence that earlier problems have been overcome. It argues that the PBMR project has exposed serious weaknesses in accountability mechanisms for the expenditure of South African public money. - Research highlights: {yields} In this study we examine the reasons behind the failure of the South African PBMR programme. {yields} The study reviews the technical issues that have arisen and lessons for future reactor developments. {yields} The study also identifies weaknesses in the accountability mechanisms for public spending.

  7. Obituary: Henry Albers (1925-2009) (United States)

    Chromey, Fred


    Henry Albers, professor of astronomy at Vassar College for over thirty years, died March 29, 2009, in Fairhope, Alabama. For his work at Vassar, where he held the Maria Mitchell Chair, Albers received the first Maria Mitchell Women in Science Award for his inspiration of women astronomers. He said "In the final analysis it is the students who bring the joy into teaching." As a professional astronomer, Albers did observational work on Galactic structure in the southern Milky Way, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. In retirement, Albers published Maria Mitchell - A Life in Journals and Letters, the firsthand account of America's first woman astronomer. Albers's research was on photographic near-infrared spectroscopy of red giant stars in the southern Milky Way, some proper motion studies, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. A series of seven NSF grants supported his six trips to Chile to make spectroscopic observations, as well as his sabbatical collaborations at Minnesota, Leiden, and the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. Henry Albers arrived at Vassar in 1958, to find an astronomy program that had been recently absorbed by the physics department, and that was suffering neglect after the retirement of Maud Makemson. For the next 31 years, with incredible energy -- he sometimes taught seven courses a year -- he built the astronomy program into one double in size (from one to two tenure lines), whose th century facilities have been replaced with a st century observatory. For a remarkable stretch of 20-some-years, Albers and physicist Bob Stearns, with considerable grace, alternated chairmanship of the joint department of physics and astronomy. Henry Albers was a devoted citizen of Vassar College and an enthusiastic participant in the process of faculty governance at that institution. He would have been the first to concede that his enthusiasm was sometimes excessive, and that his contributions at faculty meetings occasionally failed to move the discussion forward. Before more than one meeting, he was known to make a note to himself on his copy of the agenda, which read, in large block letters: "shut up." Fortunately, Albers was seldom able to repress his concern for the College or his dedication to its improvement. He served on all major committees and most minor ones as well. For example, he chaired a committee that eventually got telephones in faculty offices, another that lobbied for establishment of an academic computing center, and another that constructed Vassar's system of post-tenure review of senior faculty. It was Henry Albers who introduced the motion on the floor of the faculty, which passed by a vote of 100 to 2, moving that Vassar College accept coeducation. Albers was a caring mentor and although fundamentally compassionate, had a somewhat prankish sense of humor - unfailingly directed at the most pompous targets in sight. Although deeply dedicated to the College, Albers had an admirable ability to disengage from his life at Vassar. He regularly spent college breaks as the resident astronomer on cruise ships. Every May, he would celebrate his last class by sharing a jug of wine in the faculty commons with his regular lunchtime group. After retiring in 1989, he continued his hobbies of gardening, painting, and choral singing, but also immediately began work as a math and science volunteer in the local public schools on Cape Cod. He completed his final scholarly project, his edition of the Letters and Journals of Maria Mitchell, in 2002.

  8. Obituary: Romuald Zalubas, 1911-2003 (United States)

    Reader, Joseph


    Romuald Zalubas, a long-time member of the Atomic Spectroscopy Group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, died of a stroke on June 27, 2003. Romuald was born in Pandelys, Lithuania in 1911. He studied mathematics and physics at the University of Kaunas, Lithuania, earning a master's degree there in 1936. He then became an assistant at the Astronomical Observatory of Vilnius and an inspector at the Trade Teacher's Institute. Near the end of the Second World War, with the coming communist takeover of Lithuania, he and his wife and young son fled to Germany, where he became director of a high school for Lithuanian refugees. In 1949 he emigrated to the U.S., first lecturing in mathematics and physics in Nazareth College in Rochester, N.Y. and then at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. In 1955 he was awarded a PhD Degree in astrophysics from Georgetown. His thesis was entitled "An Investigation of Faint Lines in the Solar Spectrum Between 5000 Å and 6000 Å." After completing his PhD degree, Romuald came to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). His research at NBS centered on the observation and analysis of complex atomic spectra. He measured and analyzed the spectra of neutral and singly ionized thorium, and helped establish standard wavelengths in these spectra that served to calibrate spectra of high-resolution spectrometers for many years. His research also included work on the analysis of neutral praseodymium and five-times ionized yttrium, as well as several data compilations. His experimental work entailed photographing spectra having thousands of lines with high-resolution spectrometers. Often the spectra were excited in a magnetic field. This provided information about the J-values and Landé g-values of the combining levels. When all of this information was completed, mainframe computers were used to try to break the code of the meaning of these data to deduce the energy levels that give rise to the spectra. This is a time consuming process that requires extreme patience as well as confidence that all of this work will lead to an understandable energy level structure for the atom. The investigation of a single atom might take two, three, or more years. Romus, as he was normally called, indeed had the personal attributes to be successful at this challenging enterprise. Of all his publications, Romus was probably best known for the major compilation "Atomic Energy Levels-The Rare Earth Elements," published in 1978 in collaboration with William Martin and Lucy Hagan. This 411 page volume completed the NBS series of four volumes on atomic energy levels. Charlotte Moore Sitterly published the first three volumes, Atomic Energy Levels as Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra, in 1949, 1952, and 1958. The rare earth volume contains energy level data for 66 different rare earth atoms and ions. Romus was a member of the American Astronomical Society, Sigma Xi, and the Lithuanian American Catholic Academy of Sciences. He was a fellow of the Optical Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He retired from NBS in 1981, but continued on as Guest Researcher working on data compilations until 1987. In the Atomic Spectroscopy Group, Romus was well known for his strong anticommunist views and his dry wit. He was generous in helping others with their research. He enjoyed mentoring summer students and giving fatherly advice to younger members of the Group. Romus was an expert at fabricating electrodeless discharge lamps, and made many lamps for himself and others as well. He donated quite a few of his lamps to other laboratories and observatories for use as a source of wavelength standards. Romus was especially proud of the new home in Silver Spring that he and his wife, Alexandra, and son, Paul, moved to in 1963. To him it signified how much he had achieved after coming to the U.S. with nearly nothing to his name. Most of his leisure time was spent on the plants and garden for this house. Much of the social life of the Atomic Spectroscopy Group at that time revolved around gatherings that he and Alexandra held in their home. Romus also took great pleasure in following the activities of his three grandchildren, Mark, Eugene, and Lara, with whom he was very close.

  9. Obituary: John Daniel Kraus, 1910-2004 (United States)

    Kraus, John D., Jr.; Marhefka, Ronald J.


    John Daniel Kraus, 94, of Delaware, Ohio, director of the Ohio State University "Big Ear" Radio Observatory, physicist, inventor, and environmentalist died 18 July 2004 at his home in Delaware, Ohio. He was born on 28 June 1910 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He received a Bachelor of Science in 1930, a Master of Science in 1931, and a PhD in physics in 1933 (at 23 years of age), all from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. During the 1930s at Michigan, he was involved in physics projects, antenna consulting, and in atomic-particle-accelerator research using the University of Michigan's premier cyclotron. Throughout the late 1920s and the 1930s, John was an avid radio amateur with call sign W8JK. He was back on the air in the 1970s. In 2001 the amateur radio magazine CQ named him to the inaugural class of its Amateur Radio Hall of Fame. He developed many widely used innovative antennas. The "8JK closely spaced array" and the "corner reflector" were among his early designs. Edwin H. Armstrong wrote John in July 1941 indicating in part, "I have read with interest your article in the Proceedings of the Institute on the corner reflector...Please let me congratulate you on a very fine piece of work." Perhaps John's most famous invention, and a product of his intuitive reasoning process, is the helical antenna, widely used in space communications, on global positioning satellites, and for other applications. During World War II, John was in Washington, DC as a civilian scientist with the U.S. Navy responsible for "degaussing" the electromagnetic fields of steel ships to make them safe from magnetic mines. He also worked on radar countermeasures at Harvard University's Radio Research Laboratory. He received the U.S. Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award for his war work. In 1946 he took a faculty position at Ohio State University, becoming professor in 1949, and retiring in 1980 as McDougal Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and Astronomy. Even so, he never retired. He was always working, researching, writing, and seeking new knowledge. He was active and vital to the end. Early on, John became fascinated by Karl Jansky's discoveries of radio noise from space and the potential to use radio waves rather than visible light to "see" the universe. He maintained contact with radio astronomy pioneer, Grote Reber. John pursued radio-astronomy research in parallel with textbook writing and his OSU teaching responsibilities. By 1953 he was observing with a 96 helix antenna and had produced one of the first maps of the radio sky. This was followed by his design and construction of the innovative, 110-meter, "Big Ear" Radio Telescope - a tiltable, flat reflector joined to a fixed, standing, paraboloidal reflector. Observations began in the mid-1960s. Interspersed with this work were radio observations of Jupiter, Mars, and Venus as well as of the ionized trails of the Sputniks and U.S. satellites. John and his radio astronomy team discovered some of the most distant known objects at the edge of the universe and produced one of the most complete surveys of the radio sky. As he stated, "The radio sky is no carbon copy of the visible; it is a new and different firmament." He was closely identified with efforts and activities related to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence or SETI. He edited and published the first magazine on the subject called Cosmic Search. The now famous "WOW!" signal, of possible extraterrestrial origin, was detected by "Big Ear" in 1977. He was the author of hundreds of technical articles and the holder of many patents. John was a dedicated educator and inspiring teacher, renown for providing plain English solutions to complicated problems. He was thesis advisor to 58 PhD and Master's candidates. His textbooks made complex subjects accessible to many readers. They have been widely used throughout the world and include "Antennas" (McGraw-Hill: 1950, 1988, 2002) and "Electromagnetics" (McGraw-Hill: 1953, 1973, 1984, 1992, 1999) and "Radio Astronomy" (McGraw-Hill: 1966; Cygnus-Quasar: 1986). They have appeared in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Russian, and Portuguese. He also wrote popular books, including the autobiographical "Big Ear" and "Big Ear Two" (Cygnus-Quasar: 1976, 1995), and the instructional "Our Cosmic Universe" (Cygnus-Quasar: 1980). His professional memberships included the American Astronomical Society, election to the National Academy of Engineering (1972), and Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He received the Centennial Medal (1984), the Edison Medal (1985), and the Heinrich Hertz Medal (1990) from the IEEE. The Antenna and Propagation Society of IEEE twice awarded him its Distinguished Achievement Award, the last in 2003. He was awarded the Sullivant Medal (1970) from the Ohio State University and the Outstanding Achievement Award (1981) from the University of Michigan. John and his wife, Alice Nelson Kraus, whom he married in 1941, were committed environmentalists. Alice and he donated the 80-acre Kraus Wilderness Preserve to the Ohio Wesleyan University in 1976. They also endowed scholarships to enhance environmental learning for students at Ohio Wesleyan and OSU. In addition, John was a passionate advocate of metrification in the USA. Predeceased in 2002 by his beloved wife, he is survived by two sons, John D. Kraus, Jr., and Nelson H. Kraus, and five grandchildren. His professional and personal papers are housed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory archives in Charlottesville, Virginia. John was viewed by many as a last living link to many of the astonishing scientific discoveries of the 20th century. He valued an open mind and direct physical insights and was of a by-gone era of hands-on invention, empirical testing, and observational research. Yet, he commanded an insightful grasp of the theory, which he could translate into thought provoking learning experiences for students and working engineers alike. In his epilogue to "Big Ear", John said, "I haven't discovered the ultimate truths of the universe but I have experienced the thrill and excitement of playing a small part in the adventure of exploring the astounding, baffling, stranger-than-fiction cosmos in which we dwell."

  10. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006 (United States)

    Seaquist, E. R.


    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy led him to introduce this subject area into the Toronto graduate research and teaching curriculum. In collaboration with the Department of Electrical Engineering, he established a radio astronomy observing site at the U of T's David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) in 1956. This was at a time when few astronomers took this subject seriously. The DDO work led to the precise determination of the absolute flux density of Cas A at 320 MHz, a radiometric standard as important today as it was when it was reported in 1963. On behalf of the University of Toronto, he subsequently participated in radio astronomy activity at the National Research Council's (NRC's) new Algonquin Radio Observatory in Algonquin Park. The radio astronomy program that Don established was an early stimulus for the first successful experiment in Very Long Baseline Interferometry in 1967, a collaboration among the University of Toronto, Queen's University, and NRC. As a teacher, Don was highly regarded by his students, whom he engaged with his characteristic wit and frequent anecdotes. His lectures always were well prepared and organized, and endowed with an underlying belief that the ideas and principles of physics were most easily understood by applying them first to the stars. As an innovative teacher, he was the first professor at Toronto to teach computer programming at the university, recognizing early that students would need such skills in their scientific careers. Similarly, he was a strong advocate for public outreach. He was featured in the Oscar-nominated short film "Universe" produced in 1960 by the National Film Board of Canada. He also was instrumental in the establishment of the McLaughlin Planetarium, which opened in Toronto in October 1968. In honor of his strong record in education, the U of T established an undergraduate scholarship in Don's name in 2003 to reward promising undergraduates in the astronomy program. In 1965, Don became Head of the Department and Director of the DDO, and continued in these positions for thirteen years. During this period, he presided over a major expans

  11. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.


    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluou

  12. Obituary: Lynne Karen Deutsch, 1954-2004 (United States)

    Sprague, Ann L.


    It is with deep sadness and regret that we note the passing of our dear friend and colleague Prof. Lynne K. Deutsch. Lynne died on 2 April 2004 after a protracted illness and lengthy battle with complications caused by the blood disease Polycythaemia Vera. Lynne was born in Chicago on 26 November 1956 to Victor and Ailsa Deutsch. She lived with her family in the town of Morton Grove, IL until she was 8 years old, when they moved to Beverly Hills, CA. She was an outgoing child who played basketball and excelled in her studies. She graduated from Beverly Hills High School at the age of 16 after completing all high school requirements in only three years. Lynne had a beautiful singing voice, and was in the chorus in high school and college. Lynne earned her first bachelor's degree in philosophy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1977. She then returned to Berkeley and received a second bachelor's degree, this time in physics, in 1981. She was a graduate student and teaching assistant at MIT and earned an MS in physics from MIT in 1983. Lynne then attended the astronomy graduate program at Harvard University, where she earned her MA in 1985 and PhD in 1990. During her degree studies she began crafting mid-infrared instrumentation. These instruments were destined to be used by a host of eager observers to discover, identify, and study many emissions from the Solar System, and galactic and extragalactic sources. Lynne was a National Research Council Post-doctoral Fellow at NASA Ames Research Center from 1990 - 1992, where she played an important role in the development of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/University of Arizona Mid-Infrared Array Camera (MIRAC), a well-known and much sought after instrument frequently used in studies of Mercury, Jupiter, the Moon, planetary nebulae, star formation regions, galactic center, young stellar objects, and extragalactic objects. After leaving NASA Ames Research Center, Lynne taught for several years (1993-96) at Smith College where she had a significant impact on undergraduate research, especially for women, whom she enjoyed mentoring. Lynne joined the faculty in the Astronomy Department of Boston University in 1996 where she taught instrumentation principles and techniques to undergraduate and graduate students. Over the course of her faculty career, she received numerous research grants and fellowships that were used to support her research, her students, and her postdoctoral associates. She was the principal investigator of Boston University's advanced technologies and instrumentation program MIRABU: A Mid-Infrared Array. As her health declined and the rigors of a full teaching schedule became unacceptably taxing, Lynne took a leave of absence from Boston University and returned to Harvard University and the Center for Astrophysics in 2001. There she became a very active member of the Infrared Group in the OIR Division and a member of the IRAC/Spitzer Space Telescope team. Her research in infrared astronomy covered many areas including star formation, planetary and protoplanetary nebulae, solar system objects, the interstellar medium and infrared-luminous galaxies. Her most recent research with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope concentrated on high-mass star formation and the related evolution of the interstellar medium. In her short life, Lynne made many devoted friends and colleagues and was active in encouraging school-age girls to pursue their interests in the sciences. In her short career, she published more than seventy-five articles. She was an outstanding observer and instrumentalist, whose promising career was tragically cut short. Lynne was also a devoted mother and wife, and, while still well, she found the time to be an active participant in her son's elementary school. She is very greatly missed by her family. She is survived by her husband Douglas Sondak, PhD and her son Reed Deutsch-Sondak who live in Acton, MA, and her parents and sister Judith who reside in California. Lynne will be forever missed by her family, friends, colleagues, and the astronomical community. Her contributions will continue to benefit the community for many years to come. We only wish she were here to share them with us. She will be remembered as a dear friend, colleague, accomplished scientist, and dedicated family member.

  13. Obituary: Lloyd V. Wallace (1927 - 2015) (United States)

    Born in 1927 in Detroit, Michigan, in humble circumstances, Lloyd developed an early interest in solar and planetary astronomy and was a protégé of Ralph Nichols, a physics professor at the University of Western Ontario. Later he moved back to the United States and obtained his Ph.D in Astronomy at the University of Michigan in 1957 under Leo Goldberg. It was while he was at the University of Michigan that he met and married his wife, Ruth. At various times in his early career, and as the result of a complex series of events, he held Canadian, British, and United States citizenships and even found time to become an expert professional electrician. On acquiring his degree he obtained a position with Joe Chamberlain at the Yerkes Observatory and began a lifetime association with Chamberlain and Don Hunten (then a visitor to Yerkes) in atmospheric and spectroscopic research. In 1962 they moved to Tucson where Chamberlain became the head of the Space Division at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, a unit set up by the first director, Aden Meinel, to apply advances in technology to astronomical research. Lloyd was hired as the principal experimenter in the observatory's sounding rocket program, which was set up by the National Science Foundation to provide staff and visitor access to the upper atmosphere for research purposes. With this program he supervised a series of 39 Aerobee rocket flights from the White Sands Missile range to investigate upper atmosphere emissions, aeronomic processes, and make astronomical observations over a period of about 10 years. He was also involved in the first attempts to establish a remotely controlled 50&rdquo telescope on Kitt Peak and efforts within the Division to create an Earth orbiting astronomical telescope. In parallel with these activities Lloyd conducted research which was largely focused on spectroscopic investigations. In the early days these included measurement of upper atmospheric emissions, particularly visual dayglow, the discovery of Raman lines in Uranus, Lightning spectrum, and auroral emissions. During this time he also pursued theoretical studies of resonant line transfer and some of the first modelling of the thermal structure of outer planet atmospheres. With the conclusion of the rocket program he turned his attention to high-resolution studies of the sun and cool stars and to long-term study of the variability of atmospheric pollutants (HCl, HF. CO2) over Kitt Peak. His solar and cool star studies led to the production of several high-resolution digital atlases extending from the UV to the thermal IR, and in addition, studies of line variability and the molecular content of sunspots. Lloyd was a very private and genuine person, but with a very sharp wit. He was highly productive with 135 published papers bearing his name.

  14. Obituary: Charles Latif Hyder, 1930-2004 (United States)

    White, Oran Richard


    My friend and colleague, Charles Hyder, was a true physicist with a sound intuitive grasp of fundamentals in modern physics and the underlying mathematics. I admired his knowledge of the history of modern physics and quantum mechanics when we discussed contemporary problems in interpreting solar observations. He had the ability to present his ideas clearly and persuasively to both students and his colleagues. His insatiable curiosity about life in general led him to consider the effects of nuclear weapons development on the human race. Appreciation of the biological effects of radioactive materials produced in the course of weapons and power reactor development led him to a more public career beyond traditional research. Charles Hyder was born April 18, 1930 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He graduated from Albuquerque High School and served in the Air Force during the Korean War. He received a BS and MS in physics from the University of New Mexico (1958, 1960) and a PhD in astrogeophysics at the University of Colorado (1964). His positions included the Department of Astronomy and Institute of Geophysics at UCLA (1964-65), Sacramento Peak Solar Observatory (1965-1970) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (1970-1977). He also taught at the University of New Mexico (1970-1977) and was active on the Solar Maximum Mission science team (1970-1977, 1980-1984). He was married twice with both marriages ending in divorce. He and his first wife Ann had three children (Paul, Roxanne and Querida) and he and his second wife Laurie had a son Niels. Charles Hyder's professional career in solar physics began in 1961 during his graduate studies at the Department of AstroGeophysics of the University of Colorado and continued until 1983 when he chose to follow his convictions to expose the threat of nuclear proliferation. His early research was in the study of the quantum mechanics of polarized light produced in the presence of magnetic fields. Application of this work to interpretation of solar spectra was a basic theme in fifty-one papers published between 1963 and 1983. Charles' interest in solar prominences and flares led him to study the physics of in-falling plasma in solar active regions and the production of the so-called "two ribbon" flares associated with active region prominences. His final work in solar physics was done on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) in collaboration with colleagues at Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center. After 1983, Charles' devoted his full energy to exposing the threat of nuclear weapons and reactor by-products in the biosphere. His was a very public crusade with a seven month fast in Lafayette Park, Washington D.C. and a vigorous opposition to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. His analysis emphasized the need to understand convection of "hot" containers of radioactive waste in the WIPP salt bed. He concluded that the containers would eventually emerge at the surface and be a biological threat. His greatest fear was that dispersal of plutonium in small amounts worldwide was inevitably leading to biological mutation and destruction of life as we know it. We all remember his imposing stature and the strength of his arguments in discussions of life, physics, and the dangers of radioactive materials dispersed on the Earth. He led an unconventional life where he truly reveled in learning and earnestly worked to make a difference.

  15. Obituary: Dr Dianne Johnson (1947-2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W


    It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Dr Dianne Johnson in May 2012. Dr Johnson was a pivotal and important figure in the field of Australian cultural astronomy and in the campaign for Aboriginal rights.

  16. Obituary: Hakki Ogelman (1940-2011) (United States)

    Orio, Marina


    Hakki Boran Ögelman died in Austin, Texas, on September 4, 2011, after battling esophageal cancer for several months. Hakki was born in Ankara, Turkey, on July 8, 1940, and was the son of Salehettin Ögelman, a lawyer, and Vedya Özlem Ögelman, a schoolteacher. He had a sister, older by three years, the late Esen Yerliçi. Soon after his birth, the family moved to Istanbul, where Hakki attended the Robert College from sixth grade and obtained an international baccalaureate at age 17. In the same year, he moved to the United States to further his education at DePaw University in Indiana, where he obtained a Bachelor's Degree in three years and developed a strong passion for physics. He was accepted as a graduate student in physics at Cornell University, where he was fortunate to have such professors as Hans Bethe and Ed Salpeter, among others. Hakki's advisor, Kenneth Greisen, had worked on the Manhattan Project and was a leading expert in the study of charged particles from space and gamma rays from astronomical sources. For his Ph.D., Hakki flew a balloon experiment to measure gamma rays at the highest energy, deriving from the radioactive decay of elementary particles from space. Hakki received his Ph.D. from Cornell in February of 1966. After a postdoctoral year working on gamma ray astrophysics at the University of Sydney in Australia, Hakki accepted a fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center where he became an expert on pulsars and wrote a series of articles published by Nature on astronomical sources of gamma rays. At age 30, Hakki declined the offer of a civil service position at NASA and left for Turkey, feeling he wanted to give back to his home country, which had given him a strong education and instilled in him core values. After a period in the military as an officer, he was offered a position at the Middle East Technical University (METU) of Ankara, an English speaking university. After becoming a full professor at METU and spending a sabbatical year back at Goddard, Hakki took leave from Ankara to help the development of a university in the rural area of Adana and became the Dean of Basic Sciences at Çukurova University. He established a group working on exploitation techniques of solar energy and planned for himself and his wife a solar house that was built on campus. Hakki was a member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences, served as a member of the Executive Science Board for the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey from 1976-1984, and represented Turkey on international science councils and co-operations. Turkey during those years was in turmoil, first apparently on the brink of a civil war and later governed by a strict military regime. Upsetting personal experiences convinced Hakki that Turkey had become too difficult for a free intellectual person, so he took a prolonged sabbatical at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching near Munich, where he had already spent several summers and kept in touch with an international and vibrant community of scientists working on high-energy astrophysics. What started as a sabbatical stretched into almost 8 years. From gamma rays he moved to lower energies, X-rays, and made several interesting discoveries first with EXOSAT, then with ROSAT, the second imaging telescope in X-rays. Hakki was broadly educated across many areas of physics, astronomy and science in general. He was very curious and an avid reader of science and non-science books and articles. Such broad horizons helped him think "outside the box." He was the first to observe novae as accreting and exploding white dwarfs in binary systems in X-rays, thereby observing the "naked white dwarf" to obtain clues on its mass, chemical composition and possible evolutionary path toward a supernova Ia explosion. Hakki's work on cooling neutron stars, pulsars and their nebulae (his main interest) was always innovative. One difficult riddle he hoped to solve was the relationship between the mass and radius of a neutron star in order to infer the equation of state of neutron stars and whether they contain exotic particles. He was particularly interested in the glitches of neutron stars (sudden small increases in the rotation speed) because these may be caused by transitions of vortices in the superfluid core of the star. Turkey recognized Hakki as an outstanding scientist, and he was awarded the Sedat Simavi Prize in 1988 and the Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council Prize in 1991. Eventually, Hakki returned to the U.S. where he felt that scientific life was most lively and interesting. He accepted a position as professor of physics at the University of Wisconsin in Madison at the beginning of 1991. Working with ROSAT, he made new discoveries related to neutron stars and novae. He mentored five successful graduate students and a post-doctoral associate, worked with countless collaborators, and was loved by his students in Wisconsin. He bought a house on Lake Monona in Madison because "being on water was important to him and reminded him of the Bosphorus." He visited Turkey for a long time every summer, worked with students and collaborators there, and was instrumental in establishing the Turkish National Observatory. In 1996, while he was at the peak of his career and his third son was just a year and a half old, Hakki's life was disrupted by a massive stroke. He became physically handicapped and had to slow his pace somewhat. He was able to go back to teaching and still carried on independent and original research, but he had to take time to rest after each activity. He taught at the University of Wisconsin until March of 2011, even after heart surgery a year earlier. Eventually, an aggressive form of cancer caught up with his energy and love of science and life. Hakki had been married three times, each marriage lasting for more than 10 years. He is survived by three sons and a daughter-in-law, Kenan Ögelman of Austin, Texas, Nedim and Laura Ögelman of Alexandria, Virginia, and Roberto Ögelman of Madison, Wisconsin, and two grandsons, Anders and Soren Ögelman, of Alexandria, Virginia. His family, friends and colleagues will miss Hakki's inquisitive spirit.

  17. Obituary: Michael John Seaton, 1923-2007 (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil; Nahar, Sultana


    Professor Michael John Seaton, hailed as the "Father of Atomic Astrophysics," passed away on May 29, 2007. He was one of the few Honorary Fellows of both the American Astronomical Society and the American Physical Society, so honored for his monumental contributions to both physics and astronomy. Mike Seaton was born on January 16, 1923 in Bristol, England. He attended Wallington County High School. But his leftist political activities, even at that stage, led to his expulsion, though he was eventually allowed to matriculate. He enlisted in the Royal Air Force as a navigator during the Second World War, and flew many dangerous missions. His legendary concentration and precision are reflected in the following anecdote. Once after a bombing mission his aircraft was lost in fog over the Alps. Seaton calculated the position and coordinates in flight to guide the aircraft. When the fog lifted, the crew found themselves flying perilously close to the mountains, but made it safely back. His associates often said, "A Seaton calculation is carried out as if his life depended on it." After the War he was admitted to University College London (UCL) as an undergraduate. Thereafter, he spent all of his professional career at UCL. Seaton received his Batchelor's degree in 1948, and his Ph.D. in 1951. His tenure at UCL coincided with the golden age of atomic astrophysics, for he was largely responsible for it. Seaton was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1967, and as President of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) in 1978. He was the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate from the Observatoire de Paris, an Honorary D.Sc. from the Queen's University of Belfast, the Gold Medal for Astronomy by the RAS, the Guthrie Medal by the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society Hughes award for lifetime work by the RAS, and several other prestigious awards. Nevertheless, as Alex Dalgarno recently remarked, Seaton was not part of the establishment because he chose not to be. Though rooted in the idealism of youth, Seaton's early leftist leanings cast a long shadow, including problems with United States immigration. However, he was later disillusioned with communist ideology, with a decisive break from it after the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956. Seaton's groundbreaking papers range over several areas of physics and astrophysics. He was the author of nearly 300 journal publications and many other articles. His pioneering research papers in physics include the non-hydrogenic treatment of photoionization, implementation of the coupled channel approximation, proton-impact excitation of ions, quantum defect theory (based on Seaton's theorem), a precise theory of dielectronic recombination (the Bell and Seaton theory), the widely used Percival-Seaton formula for polarization, and many other contributions. Seaton's works in astrophysics range from seminal papers on spectroscopic density diagnostics using forbidden lines (developed jointly with Donald Osterbrock), the Seaton extinction curve (the paper has well over 1,000 citations), central stars of planetary nebulae (PNe), early work on PNe using the then newly commissioned International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite, hydrogenic recombination spectra, radio recombination lines in masers, and several other topics. (In this context, a remarkable incident deserves mention. At the tragic death from a motorcycle accident of his graduate student, R. Harman, Seaton said to Harman's parents at the funeral that Harman was working on something important, and would be remembered for it. He is. The so called Harman-Seaton sequence on the H-R diagram refers to hot sub-dwarfs and nuclei of planetary nebulae.) For almost all of the last quarter century of his life, 1983-2007, Seaton led the Opacity Project (OP), an international team of about thirty atomic physicists and astrophysicists, to carry out highly accurate atomic calculations for radiative transition probabilities and photoionization cross sections that determine stellar opacities. The large-scale calculations revealed extensive features in photoionization such as resonances due to photoexcitation-of-core or PEC (as named by Seaton). The new opacities solved some outstanding problems and have been in use in some major astrophysical applications, recently by John Bahcall and others to explore discrepancies in solar elemental abundances from different models. A National Science Foundation reviewer once hailed the Opacity Project as the "crowning achievement of computational atomic physics." At an AAS meeting hosted by the Ohio State University in 1992, Seaton named a follow-up project "The Iron Project," focused particularly on the important Fe-peak elements, with many of the original members of the Opacity Project as participants. But Seaton himself remained preoccupied with improvements and applications of opacities. Seaton's most recent work was on radiative accelerations of elements in stars using the Opacity Project data and element diffusion in stellar interiors. Seaton continued to be highly active in research until his death at age 84, even writing large complex computer codes that now form the basis of an electronic database for opacities. There are precious few scientists who have his unique abilities that ranged from profound theoretical insights to mathematical formulations and highly technical computational developments. Mike Seaton was an immense source of inspiration to all who knew him. There is no doubt that his many students and collaborators, if ever paid a complement on their work, would surely reply: "I learnt the craft from a Master." Mike Seaton is survived by his wife Joy and their son Tony, and a son and daughter from his first marriage to Olive Singleton who passed away in 1958.

  18. Obituary: Dianne K. Prinz, 1938-2002 (United States)

    Cook, John William; Howard, Russell Alfred


    Dr. Dianne Kasnic Prinz died 12 October 2002 at the Hospice of Northern Virginia after a long struggle with lymphatic cancer. She worked for over 29 years until retirement at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC on sounding rocket, space shuttle, and satellite experiments to observe the Sun at ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Dianne Prinz was born 29 September 1938. She received her BS degree from the University of Pittsburgh in 1960, and a PhD in Physics from Johns Hopkins University in 1967, where she was a University Fellow 1960--1964 and a Gilman Fellow 1960--1963. She was a Research Associate in the Physics Department of the University of Maryland 1967--1971 and, from 1971 until her retirement in February 2001, she was a Research Physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). At the time of her retirement she was Head of the Solar Radiation Section, Solar Physics Branch, Space Science Division of the Naval Research Laboratory and was supervising the work of a team of scientists that was operating the SUSIM (Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance Monitor) experiment on the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft as well as reducing and analyzing the observations. Dianne was a member of the Washington Academy of Science (elected 1976 and Fellow 1987), served as Vice President of the National Capital Section of the Optical Society of America (1976), and received the Navy Award of Merit for Group Achievement (1985), the NASA Public Service Group Achievement Award (1987), and the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award (2001). Her professional memberships included the American Astronomical Society and its Solar Physics Division, the American Geophysical Union, and Sigma Xi. She had over 60 publications in her scientific bibliography. Early in her career at NRL, Dianne developed a Lyman alpha spectroheliograph sounding rocket payload. Launching at White Sands Missile Range in 1972, she obtained high spatial resolution (for that day) full disk solar images. Her published analysis was pioneering for the study of the Lyman alpha irradiance and established the range of brightness of solar active regions relative to the quiet disk. Dianne also had a keen interest in understanding how the upper atmosphere responds to changing solar conditions, a field of research now called ``space weather." Early in her career she collaborated with NRL scientists Robert Meier and Phillip Mange on the analysis of some of the first satellite remote sensing observations of the atmosphere and ionosphere. That work laid the foundation for many future NASA and DoD space weather programs, and throughout the years she continued to participate in the design of atmospheric remote sensing instruments that are flying in space today. In 1978 Dianne was selected by NASA to train as a Payload Specialist astronaut to operate the solar instruments that were to fly on the Spacelab 2 mission aboard the Space Shuttle. From a group of four in training (the others were Drs. J.D.-F. Bartoe, Loren Acton, and George Simon), Bartoe and Acton were finally selected and flew on the Spacelab 2 mission in 1985, when Dianne served as mission communicator with the Payload Specialists. She and Simon were due to fly on a planned follow-up second flight but the aftermath of the explosion of the Challenger Space Shuttle shortly afterward led to cancellation and the end of this phase of her career. In addition to the scientific aspects of her work, she made a substantial effort to communicate her enthusiasm to the public. After the Spacelab 2 mission she often gave presentations to adult and student audiences on her experiences, sometimes bringing along her flight suit. She received letters from all over the world from correspondents who had read of her role. Dianne was a member of the team at NRL that developed the requirements for a new instrument to accurately monitor, over many years, the solar ultraviolet irradiance, which was known to vary considerably and is a crucial input to many processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere. It was critical to overcome the challenge of maintaining the absolute calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer. The new instrument, called the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM), was flown first on an early Space Shuttle flight (STS-3) and next on the NASA Spacelab 2 mission, for which she had trained as an astronaut payload specialist. The SUSIM design was then revised for a long-term flight aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). After the launch in 1991 of the UARS SUSIM, she led the NRL team that ran the UARS SUSIM flight operations and developed the data analysis software. After the death of Guenter Brueckner, she became the Principal Investigator of UARS SUSIM and continued the operation, analysis, and publication of these critical scientific observations. To determine the SUSIM absolute calibration, careful studies were performed to separate the degradation of the instrument response from the true solar variability. Extensive work was necessary to model the degradation of the instrumental sensitivity with time, the stray light correction, the field-of-view correction, and the wavelength scale. Dianne managed these tasks and produced a long term, well-calibrated history of solar ultraviolet irradiances over the full activity levels of a solar cycle. Dianne grew up on a farm in southwestern Pennsylvania, the daughter of Joseph J. Kasnic, a steel worker and part-time farmer, and Anna M. Kosyrich Kasnic, a homemaker, part-time teacher and accomplished artist and musician. Diane will be remembered for her deep love of animals, whether her beloved horse Chesterfield or stray or hungry cats in her neighborhood. Her marriage to Dr. Gary Prinz ended in divorce. She is survived by her sister and brother. Diane had an early interest in science and, throughout her career, worked as an experimental physicist and designer of optical instrumentation. She was a pioneer in her interests in space science, and usually overcame the obstacles she encountered in her field and at a time when she was often the first woman in authority encountered by male co-workers. She had a no-nonsense attitude in her work relations, but inspired the friendship of colleagues through her genuine good will, competence, and utter lack of pretension.

  19. Obituary: John Louis Perdrix, 1926-2005 (United States)

    Orchiston, D. Wayne


    John Perdrix, astronomical historian and co-founder of the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, died on 27 June 2005. John Louis Perdrix was born in Adelaide, Australia, on 30 June 1926. After studying chemistry at Melbourne Technical College and working in industry, he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Minerals and Geochemistry. In 1974 the Division relocated to the Western Australian capital, Perth, and John spent the rest of his working life there involved in geochemical research. From his teenage years John had a passion for astronomy, which he fine-tuned through the Astronomical Society of Victoria and the Victorian Branch of the British Astronomical Association. He was very active in both groups, serving as President of the former and Secretary/Treasurer of the latter. He was also an FRAS, and a member of the AAS, the BAA parent body, and the IAU (Commission 41)?no mean feat for an Australian amateur astronomer. Throughout his life, he was a strong advocate of close amateur-professional relations. John's main research interest was history of astronomy, and over the years he wrote a succession of research papers, mainly about aspects of Australian astronomy. His well-researched and neatly-illustrated papers on the Melbourne Observatory and the Great Melbourne Telescope are classics, and when the Observatory's future was in the balance they played a key role in the State Government's decision to convert this unique facility into a museum precinct. To support his research activities, John built up an amazing library that developed its own distinctive personality and quickly took over his house and garage before invading commercial storage facilities! Apart from writing papers, John had an even greater passion for editing and publishing. From 1985 to 1997 he produced the Australian Journal of Astronomy, and in 1998 this was replaced by the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage (JAH2). Both journals appeared under the banner of his own publishing house, Astral Press, until 2005 when JAH2 was transferred to the Centre of Astronomy at James Cook University. When cancer was first diagnosed, this did not deter John, and he continued to pursue his astronomical and editorial interests. Early in 2005 the cancer was in remission and John decided to make one final overseas trip, a long-anticipated visit to St. Petersburg. It was while he was returning to Australia that the illness aggressively reappeared, and he was taken off the airplane at Dubai and died peacefully in Rashid Hospital three days later. He was just three days short of his seventy-ninth birthday. Always the consummate gentleman, John Perdrix had a keen sense of humor and was wonderful company. He will be greatly missed by all who knew him. Our condolences go to his six children, Louise, John, Timothy, Fleur, Lisa and Angella.

  20. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla (United States)

    Peña, H. José


    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from the Instituto de Astronomóa de Andalucóa, Spain. His participation was active and indispensable in international campaigns which were carried out to study short period pulsators with very complex sets of frequencies using an analysis of light curves. Thanks to his observations, which were quite reliable, the pulsational and astrophysical characteristics of a great number of them have been resolved. Also, during these investigations, many new pulsators were discovered, especially Delta Scuti stars. Salvador also dedicated many years to teaching. Beginning in 1972, he taught physics and chemistry at the Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades of the UNAM where he also developed programs, evaluated candidates for teaching posts and published books about his specialities. His loss, a product of the senseless violence of modern life in México City, is mourned by the Instituto de Astronomóa, UNAM, since he always tried to develop his activities with a high degree of professionalism and with great enthusiasm. Salvador, your colleagues and friends miss you and your memory will always remain with us.

  1. Obituary: Thomas Robert Metcalf, 1961-2007 (United States)

    Leka, K. D.


    The astronomy community lost a good friend when Tom Metcalf was killed in a skiing accident on Saturday, 7 July 2007, in the mountains near Boulder, Colorado. Tom was widely known for prolific work on solar magnetic fields, hard-X-ray imaging of solar flares, and spectral line diagnostics. He was often characterized as "one of the nicest guys in science." Born October 5, 1961 in Cheverly, Maryland, to Fred and Marilyn, Thomas R. Metcalf joined his sister, Karen, two years his elder, in a close family that loved sailing, inquisitiveness, and the natural world. Sibling rivalry (usually a Tonka truck intruding on Barbie's sub-table "castle") melted when Tom and Karen collaborated on elaborately engineered room-sized blanket-forts. Tom confidently signed up at age of three to crew for his family's sailboat; when the family moved to California in 1966, as Tom's father took a Professor of Mathematics position at the University of California Riverside, Tom's love for sailing was well-established. Week-long cruises or short trips in the harbor were all fun; when school friends came aboard, it was even better--if "only slightly too crowded" from the adults' points of view. Tom's introduction to astronomy began one cold, very clear, December night in the early 1970s, on a family camping trip to Death Valley. The "Sidewalk Astronomers of San Francisco" had lined the sidewalk near the visitors' center with all sorts of telescopes for public viewing. Soon after, Tom and his boyhood friend Jim O'Linger were building their own scopes, attending "Amateur Telescope Makers" conferences, and Tom was setting up his scope on a sidewalk for public viewing. In 1986, Tom set up his telescope on the bluffs above Dana Point Harbor, and gave numerous strangers a stunning view of Halley's Comet. His interest in physics and mathematics became evident during Tom's last years in high school (Poly High in Riverside), and as a senior he qualified to take freshman Physics at the University of California-Riverside (UCR). Computers entered Tom's life then as well: In a 1970s example of technological generation-gapping, he learned to program his father's new desktop computer. Soon, he was exploiting UCR's time-shared machines for that honorable endeavor, writing computer games. Those "great games that Metcalf wrote" brought Tom's father quite a reputation amongst the undergraduates. Tom earned his B.A. in Physics from the University of California-San Diego (UCSD) in 1983. He continued at his alma mater for graduate school in 1984, and joined the "solar group" there headed by Dr. Richard C. Canfield. After earning an M.S. in Physics in 1985, Tom moved to the Institute for Astronomy (IfA) of the University of Hawai`I, with Dr. Canfield's group, in 1986. Tom completed his Ph.D. through UCSD in 1990, "Flare Heating and Ionization of the Low Solar Chromosphere", then stayed at the IfA as first a Post-Doctoral Fellow and then Associate Astronomer. While at the IfA, his participation in Mees Solar Observatory operations and Yohkoh mission support developed along two themes: the observation, analysis, and interpretation of solar magnetic fields, and hard X-ray imaging of solar flares. Tom was a key member of the group that demonstrated the hemispheric "handedness" trend in the twist of solar active region magnetic fields. He applied his considerable mathematical expertise to the application of a "pixon" algorithm for hard X-ray image reconstruction. To this day, this approach remains the algorithm of choice for the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager [RHESSI) mission, on which he was a Co-Investigator. Tom moved to the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL) of Palo Alto, California, in 1996, once again sharing an office with Dr. Jean-Pierre Wülser, his old office-mate from the IfA. During his tenure at LMSAL, Tom became a Co-Investigator on several space experiments: the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on the Japanese Hinode mission, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). During this time Tom continued work on interpreting solar magnetic fields, specifically the pioneering use of the Na-D2 spectral line to map the solar chromospheric magnetic field. In 2005, Tom joined the growing solar group at NorthWest Research Associates' (NWRA) division in Boulder, Colorado. Tom was an integral part of efforts comparing algorithms for magnetic field data analysis and coronal diagnostics afforded by the spectacular new data from Hinode. Of note were his work on 180∘ disambiguation algorithms for vector magnetic-field data and non-linear force-free extrapolation methods for modeling the coronal magnetic field. Tom's professional interests were so wide and varied that colleagues who survive him are continually uncovering projects to try to bring to closure. Every meeting brings new heartfelt condolences and shy inquiries, "...if you don't mind, Tom had some data for me . . . could you . . . ???" He developed a navigation package using Hewlett-Packard calculators, still used by many sailors. Tom's IfA-vintage hurricane-tracking website still sees visitation spikes when major storms threaten. At the time of his death, Tom had 77 publications with easily over one hundred colleagues, including his father. Tom represented NWRA/Colorado Research Associates at the recently formed "Boulder Solar Alliance"; through it, a new National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates program was funded, and many Boulder-area research groups, including NWRA, hosted students in its 2007 inaugural summer. Tom was routinely teased as a "closet granola-head" by friends and family; as he moved inland his interests switched to mountain bike riding, rock climbing, and year-round skiing. Tom would eagerly join in any new adventure that sounded interesting. He was an avid bike commuter who relished the challenge of learning to ride in snow and ice. He recycled everything. Tom is survived by his daughters Shanon Brower, Alyssa Metcalf, and Keri Metcalf to whom he was a devoted father, their mother Janet Biggs, his parents Fred and Marilyn Metcalf, and his sister Karen (Metcalf) Swartz. A vast array of friends, colleagues, and extended family will also sorely miss him. To honor Tom's long-standing support for young researchers in solar physics, Tom's family and the Solar Physics Division of the AAS have established a travel fund for young scientists, to which contributions are most welcome: The Thomas Metcalf SPD Travel Fund American Astronomical Society 2000 Florida Ave., NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20009-1231, USA Thomas_Metcalf_SPD_Travel_Fund.cfm

  2. Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, 1929-2007 (United States)

    Snodgrass, Herschel B.


    It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years. He was the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific research papers and a book, Solar and Stellar Activity Cycles (1994), published by Cambridge University Press. He died suddenly of a heart attack, at his home in Glebe, Australia, in the early morning of 11 November 2007. Peter was an organizer of, and participant in, many international conferences and workshops. He traveled extensively, holding visiting appointments at the University of Colorado (JILA), at Cambridge University, at the College de France (Paris), and at the California Institute of Technology [CalTech]. Most of his work was in the field of solar physics, but he also did some work on the philosophy of science and on tides. Peter came from a line of mathematicians. His father, Robert Wilson, immigrated to Australia from Glasgow in 1911, and became a mathematics teacher at Scotch College, a private school in Melbourne. There his name was changed to 'Bill' because 'Bob' was already taken." Peter's enjoyment of this story as characteristic of Australian academia (as any fan of Monty Python would understand) is indicative of his infectious sense of humor. In a similar vein, he claimed ancestry traced back to the eighteenth-century Scottish mathematician Alexander Wilson, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow. That Wilson is famous in the solar physics community for his discovery, known as the "Wilson Effect," of the photospheric depressions associated with sunspots. Peter himself could not resist writing a paper on this subject, and was delighted when the bait was taken by some less-informed colleagues who chided him for "naming an effect after himself." "Bill" Wilson married Naomi Christian, a Melbourne native, and together they had three children. Peter was the eldest; he was born on 17 October 1929. He attended Scotch College, where his father taught, and went on to the University of Melbourne where he eventually earned an M. Sc. in experimental physics. This was not his cup of tea, however, and he first endeavored to follow in his father's footsteps, taking short-term appointments teaching mathematics at the secondary-school level abroad, in England, and in Scotland. After a few years Peter returned to Melbourne and took a post at Scotch College following his father's retirement. He soon decided, however, that teaching young boys in a private school was not his cup of tea either, and in 1959 he secured a position in applied mathematics at the University of Sydney. He had just married his first wife, Margaret, and they moved north together to start their family. Peter flourished at the University of Sydney, but his advancement in rank was hampered by the lack of a Ph. D. The problem was solved by Ron Giovanelli, Chief of the Division of Physics at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization [CSIRO], an astrophysicist whose interest lay in the transfer of radiation through the outer layers in the Sun. Giovanelli took Peter on as a thesis student. This both earned him the needed Ph. D. and started him on his research career in solar physics. He now began to move up the academic ladder at Sydney. To satisfy his love of adventure, Peter was also able to take a series of visiting positions in the United States, working with Dick Thomas and others at JILA and Sacramento Peak Observatory (National Solar Observatory) in New Mexico. During this time he created a framework for further collaborations that became known as the Sydney-Boulder Astrophysics Association [SBAA]. In 1971 Peter was appointed Professor and Chair of the Department of Applied Mathematics at Sydney, and for the next two decades he worked hard to strengthen this department. He was very successful in this endeavor; he had a reputation for fairness and honesty and was well liked. Under his leadership the department grew in both size and quality. Peter fostered a group of outstanding students, including Chris Cannon, David Rees, and Lawrence Cram. One of his proudest accomplishments was to recruit several women onto the faculty and to increase the number of female students. One of these, Nalini Joshi, is presently Head of School. After Peter resigned as Chair, he went on to several other positions associated with the governance of the University, including the Academic Senate, the Governing Council of the Women's College, and the Board of Trustees. Peter and his first wife were divorced in 1982, after their two children, Sally and Michael, had grown up and left home. A few years later he met and married Geraldine Barnes, a Senior Lecturer in the English Department. This proved to be a fabulous match; they supported each other's academic pursuits, attended each other's conferences, enjoyed a rich social life centered around the university, and traveled extensively together. Their marriage helped both of them refocus their careers. Geraldine steadily advanced in rank, and is now Head of the School of Letters, Arts and the Media. Peter became one of the chief organizers of a series of workshops focused on the solar activity cycle. The first solar cycle workshop was held in 1986 at CalTech's Big Bear Solar Observatory [BBSO], and it was at this meeting that I first met Peter. There were three subsequent meetings, roughly a year apart, held at the University of Sydney, at Stanford's Fallen Leaf Lake in the Sierras, and at Sacramento Peak Observatory, and these were very successful in bringing together the main players in this research field. My subsequent association with Peter involved several trips back and forth between Portland (Oregon), Boulder, and Sydney and collaborations on about a dozen controversial research papers. Together with Peter Fox and Pat McIntosh, we became the solar-physics "gang of four." A dinner in Sydney with Geraldine, Peter, and their friends always meant liberal amounts of fine Australian wine, lively conversations on every imaginable topic (except physics), much laughter, and a deliciously endless meal. A weekend at their beach house in Killcare was even better, featuring long walks on the golden-sand beach and in the nearby bush. Kookaburras, Currawongs, and Rainbow Lorikeets frequented the outdoor deck, and the bush teemed with large and fascinating spiders. Back in Sydney, short-term visitors enjoyed lodgings and excellent breakfasts at the University of Sydney's Women's College, with Peter on the Council. Peter was a man of many interests. He was an expert sailor, a small-plane pilot who took colleagues and friends on adventurous flights, and a lover of sports. He was a skier, a hiker, and a good tennis player who disdained proper form but usually won the point. In 1994, one day after his 65th birthday, Peter suffered a serious stroke. Recovery from this was extremely difficult, painful, and slow; he did, however, recover to a remarkable degree. He had to learn to walk all over again and his vocal chords were partially paralyzed, but after several years of determined work, Peter was able to play a little tennis and squash, and he could bowl and hike. During the last decade of his life he traveled to Easter Island, to the Galapagos, and to the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Peter continued to take pleasure in his research to the end, in collaboration with close colleagues who were always among his closest friends. Among these was Chris Durrant, who had been Head of the School of Mathematics and Statistics from 1994 to 1998. They were writing a series of papers on the mechanism of the Sun's polar field reversals. I was looking forward to joining them this coming summer. My last visit with Peter was in Phoenix, Arizona, where Geraldine was participating in a conference. We hiked into the Superstition Mountains, and I remember him walking slowly, being careful of his balance, but going the whole distance with pride and in good spirits. Peter was a truly remarkable man with, as Geraldine has put it, "a genuine gift for leadership and the encouragement of team spirit." He was a creative and productive scientist with a tremendous life force, a great sense of adventure, and a warm heart. My own collaborations with him were a joy. His death is a sad loss to all who knew him, and he will be sorely missed, but Peter R. Wilson lived life to the fullest and gave his best to the world. We should be glad for him. At the end of his (unpublished) autobiography, where he describes his recovery from the stroke, he writes: "So as I forecast in 1994, I have continued to 'soldier on', and must admit that a miracle has indeed occurred, at least 80%; I wouldn't have missed the past ten years for anything. Who knows what the inevitable advance of old age may hold, but I cannot complain that I have been 'short changed' in any way."

  3. Obituary: Robert E. Fried, 1930-2003 (United States)

    Mannery, Edward J.; Szkody, Paula


    Professionals and friends knew him as Captain Bob; he was the captain of his airplane, Birdie, and of his observatory, Braeside. He was a man of many talents, and he incorporated those talents into his two main passions in life: flying planes and doing astronomical research. Bob was born on December 14, 1930 in St. Paul, Minnesota to parents Dr. Louis and Emily Fried. His interest in astronomy began after he moved to Atlanta in the late 1950's as a pilot for Delta Airlines. It was there he joined the Atlanta Astronomy Club in 1960 and went on to become its President and also the President of the Astronomical League. Wanting a larger and better telescope than the usual department store variety, he took the advice of Patrick Moore, who suggested he build one himself. So he did. He obtained a military blank for a 16-inch Cassegrain and ground and polished the optics while the heavy parts were machined in the Delta Airlines shops after hours. His observatory protruded from the roof of his home and featured a modified silo dome, while the observer's controls were reminiscent of an airplane cockpit. When it became obvious that the Atlanta climate offered little support for serious Astronomy, Bob moved his family and observatory to a higher, clearer site in the Rockies. There he built a new dome on Flagstaff Mountain near Boulder. Subsequent to meeting and conspiring with fellow enthusiast Edward Mannery, who became his lifelong collaborator, Bob upgraded his system for digital photometry and began to obtain magnitudes to a few percent accuracy. After grumbling about the windy and cloudy weather of the Rockies, Bob tried a site near Lowell Observatory and then finally settled on the best home for Braeside in 1976, a short walk through the pines from the US Naval Observatory. He ultimately created a building he dubbed "The Monastery" after Mt. Wilson, that housed a bedroom, darkroom, electronics shop, machine shop, library and telescope control console and upgraded his detectors to a CCD system in 1995. It was with this Observatory that he ultimately realized his dream of a computer automated observation system that would run unattended until sunrise. His web page stated the Mission of Braeside Observatory as "To make available through collaboration, research data requested by members of the astronomical community worldwide." It was Bob's ability to produce long strings of high quality data that led him to become known, mostly by word of mouth, to professional astronomers around the world, first in the variable star community and then in other fields as well. The high quality of his observations and his ability and interest in close binary stars (cataclysmic variables) led him to be one of the first people contacted when observations were needed simultaneous with spacecraft data for multi-wavelength coverage or just for follow-up observations on some peculiar object that had been discovered. His ability to set up his program, let it run and close up automatically meant he could accomplish observations and yet sleep through the night. Captain Bob could be counted on to deliver the data fully reduced the morning after the observations, even though the space data might be months in arriving. ADS lists 117 publications from Bob, on topics that started with eclipsing binaries and expanded to ultimately include RS Cvn, RcrB, RR Lyr, Delta Scuti stars, as well as X-ray transients and his special love, cataclysmic variables. But he also worked on variable extragalactic sources, including Seyferts, BL Lacs, and Blazars. In June 1997, he attended the13th North American Workshop on Cataclysmic Variables in Teton Park, to the delight of members of the community who could finally meet the person who had made so many contributions to their programs. However, this obsession did not go without cost to his family. His dedication to observations and his equipment meant many missed dinners and family gatherings and was a source of much family ribbing. In order to insure Braeside would continue to operate long after he could not be present, Bob and his wife, Marian, donated his observatory and adjacent home to the Arizona Sate University astronomy department for student use. In the last years of his life, he made sure everything worked for the students who used it in the early evening hours and then he continued on with his own research programs in the later half of the night and on weekends. His interest in students was not limited to those using his own telescope, although many visited and used his observatory from as far away as New York. Bob made an effort to work with students in other schools. He helped Flagstaff High School to build their own observatory on their grounds and worked with students from other states. Besides his night observing programs, Bob continued with his love and expertise in flying during the day. He donated his plane and time for volunteer mercy missions with Angel Flight and Flights for Life, flying patients to hospitals and medical supplies where they were needed. It was on one of these missions that Birdie went down about 40 miles north of Phoenix on November 13, 2003. The cause of the plane crash was not clear but the outcome was certain: the world had lost an admired, professional amateur astronomer and humanitarian. He is survived by his wife, Marian, his sister Louise, and his three daughters, Leslie, Sara and Amy, as well as stepchildren, grandchildren and many students he mentored. The stories told, and the pictures shown, at his Memorial at Lowell Observatory summarized a free-spirited and dedicated individual who lived life fully, joyfully and generously. His sense of humor, and spirited camaraderie will be missed as much as his observations.

  4. Obituary: David Fulmer Bender, 1913-2004 (United States)

    Miller, Sylvia L.


    David Fulmer Bender died in San Diego, California, on 13 September 2004, at the age of 91. His heart stopped suddenly while he was dancing. His pioneering work in establishing comprehensive, computer-accessible ephemerides of asteroids and comets found many applications, including the first-ever visit to an asteroid, Gaspra, by an interplanetary spacecraft. Dave was born in Reno, Nevada, on 10 February 1913, to Homer Charles Bender and Susan Bowers Bender. The family moved to Spokane, Washington, while Dave was very young. His father was a civil engineer and a graduate of MIT, who helped design bridges and dams throughout the Northwest, including the Grand Coolie Dam. Dave had a brother, Phillip (now deceased), who was one year younger. Advancing rapidly in the Spokane school system, Dave finished high school when he was 15 years old. At 16 he moved to Pasadena, California, and began his studies at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In addition to pursuing his course work, he was active in track and football, a tendency toward physical exercise that stayed with him for the rest of his life. It was probably during these years that Dave heard a lecture by Albert Einstein, as mentioned to colleagues many years later. Dave received a BS degree in physics in 1933, an MS in 1934, and a PhD in 1937, all from Caltech. His dissertation was entitled, "The Index of Refraction of Air in the Photographic Infrared." During his sophomore year he found his way to Pomona College in Claremont, California, where he met his future wife, Elizabeth Boyden at a social gathering. They were married in 1935. Dave's academic career spanned the years from 1937 to 1970, initially at Louisiana State University, Vanderbilt University, and then Fisk. As a life-long pacifist and conscientious objector, Dave served alternate duty during World War II. In 1946 he joined the faculty of the physics department at Whittier College in California, where he became the department chair and remained until 1970. Here Dave's strong personal interest in the students became evident. During each year's spring break, he and Beth led a car caravan of interested astronomy and physics students to Death Valley for primitive camping, exploring the desert, studying the stars, and shooting off rockets. Beth organized all the food and Dave cooked the breakfasts, with French toast being his specialty. This tradition was so popular that many students returned year after year, long after having left the college. Dave enjoyed leading the astronomy club at Whittier College, and also participated in a municipal astronomy club. In the sixties, in addition to his job at the college, Dave worked part time at the Space Science Laboratory of North American Aviation (later North American Rockwell and now Boeing). Dave co-authored, with Gary Mc Cue and others, several papers on orbital rendezvous techniques, a capability of prime interest to the Apollo program. Soon apparent, however, was Dave's interest in the hundreds of asteroids whose orbits were known at the time. In his spare time he punched their orbital elements into computer cards and initiated a long career of searching for opportunities for spacecraft to flyby or rendezvous with one of these minor planets. He learned enough Russian to read books important at the time on the subject of asteroid orbits. In 1966 he had enough data to publish a paper on some possible asteroid encounters by human missions to Mars. Through conferences of the American Astronautical Society, Dave became acquainted with Roger Bourke, the group supervisor of the Advanced Projects Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which is managed by Caltech for NASA. In 1970, Dave retired from Whittier College and began working full time for Roger at JPL. JPL was still working on missions to the inner planets and was starting to develop missions to the outer planets. Roger understood the potential of having Dave pursue his interest in the small bodies and of having him create a comprehensive set of ephemerides that would be available for the Advanced Projects Group to use for mission planning purposes. Dave worked with Phil Roberts, Carl Sauer, and others who were creating mission design software at the time to ensure that the asteroid file would be compatible with these computer programs. Dave, himself, authored many papers documenting trajectories he discovered to various asteroids, comets, and Lagrange points, along with the search techniques he used. He also documented surveys of opportunities, some for use with low-thrust propulsion as well as the more common chemical propulsion. Along with Raymond Jurgens, Dave published opportunities for radar astronomers to view asteroids passing close to the Earth. Dave did not restrict his investigations to small bodies. He also published papers on Venus missions, lunar swingby techniques, Jupiter gravity assist trajectories to Kuiper belt objects, and multibody-assist trajectories for missions to Jupiter's satellite Europa (the latter two in the 1990s!). Brian Marsden recalls that in1980 Dave visited him at the new facilities of the Minor Planet Center in Massachusetts and left with a box of new computer cards punched with the orbital elements of the 2000 asteroids known at that time. Colleagues at JPL remember how excited he was when he returned from that trip. As more asteroids were discovered, he would add their orbital elements to the file. Because of Dave's pioneering work in making the asteroid orbits accessible for mission studies before most people cared about these bodies, he can be credited in part for the mission Galileo's close flyby of both Gaspra (in 1991) and Ida (in 1993), along with the discovery of Dactyl, the first confirmed asteroid satellite. Dave eventually passed the responsibility of maintaining the small body file to Donald Yeomans and Ravenel (Ray) Wimberly at JPL. Now called DASTCOM, it includes elements for over 260,000 bodies, most of them asteroids. Dave retired from JPL in 1987. At a party in his honor, Eleanor Helin, a JPL colleague and persistent asteroid hunter, announced that an asteroid that she and, then student, Schelte (Bobby) Bus, had discovered in 1978 at Palomar would henceforth bear Dave's name. Dave was devoted to Beth. They participated in many activities together that strengthened their relationship. He wrote her love poems, sometimes quoting from The Prophet by Kahlil Gibran. Beth passed away in 1990. Dave lived another fourteen years, continuing an active life. He is survived by his son and daughter-in-law, Robert and Leta Bender of Jamul, California, his daughter, Susan Rodrigues, of Tucson, Arizona, and three grandchildren. Dave is remembered as a visionary, whose enthusiasm for space mission design was unstoppable; as someone who was still jogging and playing softball in his seventies; as a modest, kind, and generous human being; and as a caregiver who genuinely believed that the most important thing in life is love. How fitting it would be for a space vehicle to visit asteroid "2725 David Bender" one day. How pleased the mission planners would be to find in their research that the namesake of the object of their interest was a pioneer in their field of endeavor.

  5. Obituary: Walter Alexander Feibelman, 1930-2004 (United States)

    Oergerle, William


    Walter Alexander Feibelman, 79, an astronomer who discovered the E-ring of Saturn, died of a heart attack 19 November 2004 at his home at Riderwood Village in Silver Spring, Maryland. Walter was born 30 October 1925 in Berlin, Germany to Bernard and Dora Feibelman. He came to the United States with his parents in 1941. They were some of the last German Jews to flee Nazi Germany. Years later, he reported his experiences in an account contributed to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. As a youth, he worked at a cleaning shop and as a soda jerk before taking a course in tool and die making. He worked at the Abbey Photo Corp. in New York and in a model-making firm, where he constructed models of aircraft for use in identification courses by the Army Air Forces. After high school, he attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology and received his BS degree in 1956. Until 1969, he was a research scientist at the University of Pittsburgh. While working as an assistant research professor in physics and astronomy at the University of Pittsburgh in 1967, he examined a photo of Saturn taken a year earlier at the university's Allegheny Observatory. The E-ring -- unlike the bright main rings, A, B, C, D and F -- is faint and not easily spotted. He paired his observation with calculations and announced his discovery, which remained unconfirmed until the Pioneer 11 flyby in 1979. Walter joined the Optical Astronomy Division of Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt in 1969, and worked there until 2002, when he became an emeritus astronomer at NASA. He became associated with the International Ultraviolet Explorer project, and worked on developing detectors for the orbiting observatory's spectrograph. The project turned out to be one of NASA's most successful observatories, operating from 1978 to 1996. In his scientific career, he published more than 200 refereed articles, mainly on hot stars and planetary nebulae. He also wrote papers in the fields of photography, spectroscopy, physics, telescopes, and railroading. His awards included a special achievement award from NASA in 1986, a Presidential Certificate of Recognition on National Immigrants Day in 1987, and a NASA Certificate of Outstanding Performance in 1990. Walter was fascinated with steam locomotives. He documented in photographs the end of the steam era in western Pennsylvania, and published an illustrated study of those giant locomotives in a book, "Rails to Pittsburgh", in 1979. From the New York Central Railroad, he purchased the shop blueprints of its famous "Niagara" locomotive. He scaled those plans and machined more than 1,100 individual parts from brass, which he assembled over several years into a 31-inch model of a Niagara that sat on O-gauge track. He loved classical music, and made an extensive collection of videos of famous performances, which he showed in well-attended weekly gatherings at Riderwood. He presented his 200th program to listeners the night before he died. He was preceded in death by his wife, Lola King Feibelman. Survivors include a sister, Miriam Feibelman of Jerusalem.

  6. Obituary: Robert Fleischer, 1918-2001 (United States)

    Boyce, Peter Bradford; Saffell, Mary E.


    Robert Fleischer was born 20 August 1918 to Leon and Rose Fleischer in Flushing, NY. He was educated at Harvard, receiving his BS in 1940, MA in 1947, and PhD in 1949. He specialized in geophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. Fleischer joined the faculty at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute advancing from Assistant to Full professor in 1958. As Director of the RPI Observatory, Fleischer attempted to bring modern astronomy to the institutions in the Albany area by procuring the funds to build a radio telescope. He left for the National Science Foundation (NSF) before the observatory was completed. It is a testament to his character that without his enormous energy, organizational, and fundraising abilities, the radio telescope project languished after he left. Fleischer joined the NSF in 1962 as the Program Director for Solar-Terrestrial Research. He was the government-wide Coordinator for the International Quiet Sun Years, and coordinated the 1966 South American Eclipse expeditions. Thereafter, he was appointed Deputy Head of the Office of International Science Activities. Fleischer is most notably remembered as the head of the Astronomy Section at the National Science Foundation. He brought astronomy into its own at NSF and involved the community in a major way through use of advisory committees. He was dedicated to helping the astronomical community understand the funding system, the political environment, and the various factors in how money is allocated. Fleischer truly believed in the concept that scientists should be making the important decisions about their field. He was instrumental in injecting science into the oversight of the National Observatories. Relations with the community say a lot about the man, the complexities of his character, and the forces that drove him. Fleischer was passionate in his beliefs and in his devotion to doing the best for astronomy. His strong approach and belief in himself served him well in many ways, but caused him grief from time to time. Fleischer wrestled with the issue of how to assemble a committee of busy people who had not thought about the problems at hand, provide them with enough background to enable them to comment effectively, and structure any discussion so as to provide effective advice to the agency. Yet, he had a strong sense that NSF, having the broad overview of the situation and a better understanding of the politics of funding, was in a better position to make major decisions than any group of scientists that might be assembled. This ultimately led to confrontation with the astronomical community. Fleischer was also of the opinion that perhaps the most important advice a committee can give comes, not from the official pronouncements but, from the informal communication which happens when any group of people get together---the one-on-one discussions over coffee, the brief comments heard around the table, and even the general sense of body language. He stressed this to the staff before each meeting. Ironically, his zeal to run an effective meeting made him less receptive to the informal, and even some of the formal, communications from the Committee. Preparation for meetings of the NSF Astronomy Advisory Committee was intense. The agenda was structured so as to present a maximum amount of information to the Committee. Once the agenda was set, the meetings followed them strictly. As chairman of the Advisory Committee, Fleischer ran the meeting with an iron hand, sometimes cutting off discussion that the Committee might have felt valuable, adding to the sense of the Committee's frustration. As a consequence, the meetings actually had a negative effect on the community. Although Fleischer was a strong believer in helping and encouraging his staff, and arranged for the entire staff of the Astronomy Section to attend both internal and off-site management training courses, his tendency toward an autocratic personal style was unsettling. Pressures from the community and within NSF eventually led to his being transferred from the Astronomy Section in 1975. Shortly thereafter, Fleischer retired from the government and established his own firm, The Greylock Center, an educational management consulting group that specialized in helping educational institutions in understanding how to deal with the federal government. In this, he was eminently successful. His knowledge of procedures, the timing of the federal budget cycle, and the various factors that are important in making funding decisions were a major asset in his work. And, he thrived on educating newcomers about dealing with the federal bureaucracy. He eventually closed his consulting business in 1984 and retired to a farm in Keedysville, Maryland, where he raised Angus cattle with his third wife, Marie. Fleischer passed away 14 September 2001 in Raleigh, NC, where he was doing his best to cope with Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Obituary: Ronald N. Bracewell, 1921-2007 (United States)

    Petrosian, Vahé


    Ronald N. Bracewell, Professor Emeritus (since 1991) of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, and a true renaissance man of science, died of a heart attack on 12 August 2007 at his home. Ron Bracewell was born in Sydney, Australia, on 22 July 1921, one of the two sons of Cecil and Valerie Bracewell. He graduated from the University of Sydney in 1941 and received his doctorate degree in physics from Cambridge University in 1949. During World War II, Ron worked in the Australian National Radar Establishment, where he designed and developed microwave radar equipment. Like several other World War II radar scientists, after the war he used this experience to pioneer the new field of radio astronomy. With J. L. Pawsey, in 1955 he published the first comprehensive textbook in this field entitled, Radio Astronomy. Bracewell joined the Stanford Electrical Engineering faculty in 1955, and from 1974 on he held the first prestigious Lewis Terman professorship. He was awarded the Outstanding Service Award of the department in 1984. In 1988, he was named an officer of the Order of Australia--the Australian equivalent of Order of the British Empire. Soon after his arrival at Stanford, Bracewell designed and began building a solar spectroheliograph, consisting of thirty-two dish antennas in the form of a cross. This was completed in 1961 and provided daily maps of the Sun for more than a decade encompassing more than one solar activity cycle of eleven years. These maps were useful in predicting magnetic storms caused by solar activity and were used by NASA during the first landing on the Moon. In 1971 he started the building of a five-element radio interferometer, for observation of extragalactic radio sources, with the novel design of unequal spacing that gave the resolution of a ten-element array. Both telescopes are now dismantled. The common characteristics of these and other projects were that they were all built in-house with a limited budget, often a small fraction of what a national laboratory would spend on a comparable project. As a result they provided an excellent arena for training future radio astronomers. Many prominent radio astronomers were indeed trained by Bracewell as graduate students or postdoctoral researchers. An excellent example is the often-forgotten, simple-but-elegant experiment of the first detection of the dipole (or the so-called 24-hour) anisotropy of the then-recently discovered cosmic microwave background radiation. This was done by installing a small horn microwave antenna on top of the Durand building at Stanford, which scanned the sky once every 24 hours as the Earth rotated around its axis. The result of this experiment, incorporated in Dave Conklin's Ph.D. thesis, was instrumental in establishing the Big Bang origin of this radiation and provided the first measurement of the velocity of the Earth (and our Solar System and Galaxy) with respect to the fundamental rest frame of the universe defined by this radiation. The techniques and mathematical algorithms that Ron developed for radio interferometry have been applied to medical imaging such as X-ray tomography for detecting tumors. Bracewell, not directly involved with such experiments, often acted as a consultant to medical practitioners. Another outcome of Bracewell's research was a book published first in 1965 titled, The Fourier Transform and its Applications, which has become the gold standard of this subject and can be found in the personal libraries of many astronomers, engineers, physicists, and medical researchers. Many years ago, before an observing run at Kitt Peak, I needed to refer to this book. I looked for it in the shelves of the library at the National Optical Astronomical Observatory in Tucson, Arizona, but could not find it. The librarian informed me that the book had been signed out. I told her that this is a very useful book, and they should have more than one copy. She agreed and said that there were indeed eleven copies; all were in use by the resident astronomers. A further interest of Ron was the discovery of and possible contact with extraterrestrial intelligent life. Early in his career he speculated on practical means of contacting "superior galactic communities," and in 1960 he suggested that the best way might be to send satellites into orbit around thousands of planetary systems within one-hundred light years of the Solar System, with the purpose of detecting radio signals that such communities are likely to produce. These ideas were further expounded in 1974 in a monograph entitled, "The Galactic Club." A more concrete and related contribution of Ron Bracewell was the method he suggested for the detection of extra-solar planets. A modified version of this method is planned for the detection of small planets from space platforms. Another passion, deeply rooted in his early-life experimenting with nature in rural Sydney, was Ron's love of anything arboreal. Soon after his arrival at Stanford, he began the classification of trees on campus and later he taught a course entitled "I Dig Trees." In 2005, he published a book entitled Trees of Stanford and its Environs, a 300-page volume cataloging 350 species of trees. With his highly curious mind and keen sense of observation, Ron always had a new puzzle or a problem at hand to engage everyone at every encounter. He posed them with a sense of humor and a mischievous twinkle in his eyes. He was highly sought out as a resident professor at Stanford's overseas campuses and was invited to be the presiding pundit or guru in many leisure and educational tours conducted by the university. In our annual Astronomy holiday parties Ron conversed with our post-doctoral fellows and visitors from different countries in their native tongues and charmed faculty and students alike with his anecdotes and stories. In other words Ron was the life of the party. With his charm and gentle persuasion, Ron was instrumental in convincing Mr. James T. Bunyan, a life-long researcher at Stanford, to establish the annual Bunyan lecture series. His repeated recounting of his encounters with Mr. Bunyan remained interesting and amusing. Up to his last day you could find Ron in his office or in the corridors of the David Packard Electrical Engineering Building interacting with students and faculty. He continued to be an active member of the astronomy community at Stanford up to the end. Professor Bracewell is survived by his wife of 54 years, Helen; by a son, Mark, of San Jose California; a daughter, Wendy, of London, England; a brother, Mark, of Melbourne, Australia; and two grandchildren. I would like to thank emeritus professors Peter Sturrock, Anthony Fraser-Smith, and Von Eshleman for valuable advice and suggestions. The photograph is courtesy of Linda Cicero.

  8. Obituary: Leonard Searle (1930-2010) (United States)

    Preston, George


    Leonard Searle, Astronomer and Director Emeritus of Carnegie Observatories, died at his home on July 2, 2010, in Pasadena, CA, in the midst of a busy retirement that followed a long, distinguished scientific career. Searle was born on October 23, 1930, in the London suburb of Mitcham to parents of modest means. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from University of Saint Andrews in Scotland, and his PhD from Princeton University, where he met his future wife, Eleanor Millard. They were married in Princeton in 1952. Eleanor, his lifelong companion, was a distinguished medieval historian who joined the Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences at Caltech as professor in 1979. She died in 1999. Leonard joined the faculty at University of Toronto in 1953, resigning that position in 1960 to become a Senior Research Fellow at Caltech, where he worked with Jesse Greenstein and Wallace Sargent on the chemical compositions of stars. The Caltech appointment marked the beginning of a fruitful association with Sargent, with whom he published 25 papers. In 1963 Searle left Caltech to join the faculty of the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia. Then in 1968 he returned to Pasadena to join the staff of Carnegie Observatories, his final academic home. Several themes punctuate Searle's academic career. One of the most persistent was the abundance of helium in the very early universe, a quantity whose numerical value is of great importance for cosmology. He pursued this topic with Sargent, first in the study of old evolved "horizontal branch" stars. Later, convinced that such stars could not provide a satisfactory answer, he and Sargent turned to certain small galaxies which provided more reliable estimates of the important helium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio. In the pursuit of this answer they devised the "simple model" of chemical evolution, a formalism used by astronomers to this day. He worked with the Dutch astronomer Piet van der Kruit to construct successful models of certain spiral galaxies by careful measurements of surface brightness, and later he worked with colleagues in Pasadena to derive the abundances of chemical elements in primordial stars of our Milky Way Galaxy. His most successful venture was the formulation of a scheme for the assembly of the Milky Way Galaxy from "primordial fragments." This work, which he undertook with then-Carnegie Fellow Robert Zinn, has withstood the test of time. It has been quoted more than 1000 times since it was published in 1978. Searle accepted the Directorship of Carnegie Observatories in 1989 at a signal time in its history. Under his leadership an initial plan to build a single 8.4 meter telescope evolved finally into the construction of two 6.5 meter telescopes, operated since 2000 by a 5-institution consortium at Carnegie's Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Searle's vital contribution to the Magellan project was his shrewd ability to hire good experts, and then to delegate authority in ways that invited their fruitful participation. All the while, Searle managed to maintain the Observatories' tradition of academic excellence, even as it was plunging into a new world of big-telescope technology. He pursued a visiting scholars program, and he used the important telescope time-allocation process to promote the intellectual growth of Carnegie scientists. His sympathy for the plight of financially strapped Eastern European astronomers took the form of support for the Polish OGLE telescope, to this day a shining success story at Carnegie's Las Campanas Observatory. Following retirement in 1996, Searle continued to follow the progress of the Observatories by frequent contact with his colleagues of many years. He and Eleanor wintered in Pasadena, and during hot Pasadena summers they escaped to their home at Somerset in the south of England. Searle maintained an avid interest in both British and American politics. He has no surviving relatives.

  9. Obituary: Elisabetta (Betty) Pierazzo (1963-2011) (United States)

    Sykes, Mark


    Elisabetta Pierazzo, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute, died at her home in Tucson, Arizona, on May 15. She was 47. Betty was an expert in the area of impact modeling throughout the solar system, as well as an expert on the astrobiological and environmental effects of impacts on Earth and Mars. Her work ranged widely, from providing detailed insights into the Chicxulub impact that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs to putting constraints on the thickness of the ice shell of Jupiter's moon Europa. She was interested in the rise of life and explored the delivery of organics to planets and Europa by comets as well as the creation of subsurface hydrothermal systems by impacts that may have been favorable sites for life on Mars. She was also an expert on Meteor Crater in Arizona and made several appearances on national and international broadcasts of programs including National Geographic specials, explaining the formation of this well-known structure. Betty was innovative, rigorous and systematic in her approach to science. She recognized the need for benchmarking and validating the different complex numerical codes to model impact and explosion cratering, organizing and leading a community effort to accomplish this major task. In addition to her science, Betty passionately promoted science education and public outreach. She took time away from her successful research career to teach undergraduates at the University of Arizona, she developed interactive websites and impact rock and meteorite kits for classroom use, as well as created professional development workshops for elementary and middle school science teachers. Betty arrived in the United States in 1989 from Italy and the following year attended graduate school at the Department of Planetary Sciences at the University of Arizona. She handled the difficulties of living in a foreign country by opening her house and her kitchen to others. She received her Ph.D. in 1997. The quality of her graduate work was recognized by the University of Arizona with the Gerard P. Kuiper Memorial Award. She continued at the University of Arizona as a Research Associate, and in 2002 joined the Planetary Science Institute as a Research Scientist. She was promoted to Senior Scientist in 2007. Betty was an active member of the planetary community. She served on numerous NASA review panels, was an associate editor of Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, reviewed papers for numerous scientific journals, served as organizer of workshops and meetings on impact cratering held around the world, and was an organizer of the 2007 Meteoritical Society Meeting held in Tucson, Arizona. Betty was noted for the intensity with which she approached both life and work. Whether it was in the office, the classroom, on the volleyball court, the soccer field, or dance floor, her enthusiasm and joy in the activity was irresistible. She was cherished by very many people for her staunch friendship and support. She inspired countless people as a colleague, teacher, mentor and friend. Her life was even more brightened with her marriage to Keith Powell in 2007. Over the past six months, Betty battled a rare form of cancer. She dealt with it aggressively, and never let it overwhelm her. She was always looking towards the future. In the last week of her life, in the midst of chemotherapy, she was grading class papers, working on research papers, writing reviews and preparing education proposals with her colleagues, all the while finding time to spend precious moments with her family and friends. She was ultimately and suddenly struck down by a pulmonary embolism. Her loss is great to all those who knew her and worked with her. Hers is a great loss to the Planetary Science Institute and to our profession. We are grateful to her husband, Keith, and to her family for the time she did have with us.

  10. Obituary: Maurice M. Shapiro, 1915-2008 (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.


    Maurice Shapiro was an outstanding scientist and educator whose contributions spanned a range of fields: He was the leader of the "Water Effects" group (study of underwater explosions) within the Los Alamos Ordnance Division in the Manhattan project during World War II; he witnessed the Trinity test and there "shared a blanket with Hans Bethe." Shapiro understood the nature of the new weapons and helped to form the Association of Los Alamos Scientists [ALAS] to lobby for a civilian atomic-energy commission. (He was chair of ALAS in 1946.) He also worked at Oak Ridge on design of a power reactor just after the war (similar to those used in naval vessels). In 1949 Shapiro joined the Naval Research Laboratory's nuclear physics division, where he started a new program in high-energy physics and cosmic rays, his primary interest throughout his life. In 1977, he founded the International School of Cosmic-Ray Astrophysics in Erice, Italy, where many outstanding scientists in the field were students at early stages of their career. He served as director of this school until his death. Shapiro was interested in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays and the role of high energy neutrinos and their detection. He played a major role in starting the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy. Maury, so of J. Simon Werner and Miriam Rivka, was born in Jerusalem on 13 November 1915. His father never returned home from World War I, and his mother married Rabbi Osher Shapiro two years later. The family migrated to Chicago, Illinois, during the early 1920s. Maury's given name was Moishe Mendel Werner. The only father he knew was Rabbi Shapiro, hence the origin of the name we know him by. His parents had planned a theological career for him; however, Maury opted for the study of Physics at the University of Chicago. He did his Ph.D. with Arthur Compton (1942) using early emulsions exposed at Mount Evans--both emulsions on glass plates and stripped emulsions--to study cosmic-ray induced stars. Maury wrote definitive reviews on the emulsion technique (use of high-density visual detectors) in 1941 in Reviews of Modern Physics and then an article entitled "Nuclear Emulsions" in the Handbuch der Physik of 1958. He did many experimental investigations related to cosmic rays and particle properties after the war when he joined NRL. Using emulsion-chamber techniques and high-altitude exposures, Maury measured and verified saturation of relativistic rise in ionization, a measurement of helium and proton flux at high rigidity, and accurate measurements of secondary-to-primary ratio (Li, Be, B/CNO); with his colleagues he did one of the best measurements of neutral pion life time. He also did important measurements of properties of heavy baryons. My association with Maury started when I joined University of Maryland's High Energy group in 1961, a time when Maury had a very active group working in particle physics and cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions and was starting a bubble-chamber group. (Some of the members were Bernard Hildebrand, Bert Stiller, Rein Silberberg, C. H. Tsao, and Robert Glasser.) There was active interaction between George Snow (University of Maryland) and the NRL group, both studying properties of high-energy particles with nuclear emulsions and bubble chambers. I was a consultant with the NRL group for some ten years. In 1960s, Maury investigated the ramifications and limitations of supernova theories for the origin of cosmic rays and discussed the production of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays from these sources. He was one of the active members of the DUMAND project to study high-energy neutrinos. With Rein Silberberg he explored the capabilities of such a project. Maury's group made seminal contributions on quantitatively exploring isotope ratios (using isotopes to determine the time lag between explosion and acceleration in supernova sources--to suggest the importance of FIP in injection), the detailed analysis of the so- called Slab-model, and re-acceleration of cosmic rays (Shapiro, Silberberg, and Tsao in Cosmology, Fusion and other Matters, edited by Fred Reines, 1972). When he became emeritus, Maury was still very active both in research and in running the Erice School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics (after 1982). He was interested in having a base of operations for the school. He approached me asking whether Maryland would be a possibility. I was delighted and suggested a Visiting professorship to be able to continue his work (without having to move out of the Washington, DC, area). Thus started Maury's association with Maryland which continued until his death. Maury was not only an outstanding scientist, but he was a true gentleman and a good friend. He was an ambassador for the field of Cosmic Rays. His friendly personality, always warm and kind to students and colleagues, was quite infectious. Maury contributed to both experimental and theoretical investigations of cosmic rays and their central role in connecting many diverse disciplines in particle physics, astrophysics, geophysics, acoustical physics. He was outstanding scientist and was greatly concerned about world peace and human affairs. Maury passed away on 27 February 2008, at the age of 92, in Alexandria, Virginia. Four years prior to his death he was still swimming in the Mediterranean during the Cosmic Ray School sessions at Erice. He is survived by his wife, Ruth Auslander, and children Joel N. Shapiro, Elana Ashley, Raquel T. Kislinger, Mark and Bonnie Auslander, Beth Kessler, Lionel Ames, and Naomi Mirvis and grand children.

  11. Obituary: Franklyn M. Branley, 1915-2002 (United States)

    Franklin, Kenneth L.


    Franklyn Mansfield Branley was born in New Rochelle, New York, 5 June 1915, and died of natural causes in Brunswick, Maine, on 5 May 2002, just one month before his 87th birthday. He will be remembered by the hundreds of grateful students he so skillfully introduced to astronomy. Franklyn Branleys parents were Ella Lockwood and Percival Branley. Mr. Branley was a veteran of the Spanish American war and an insurance salesman for Metropolitan Life. Frank's mother died during a flu epidemic when he was only a few years old. At that time, his sister was taken in by the Lockwood family and he and his two brothers were sent to live with a farm family near Newburgh, New York. His father visited them there on the weekends. Because he contracted polio at a young age, he did not participate in sports except for swimming. He was an avid stamp collector. After graduating from the New Paltz Normal School (now SUNY), he married his college sweetheart, Margaret Lemon, who became a grade school teacher for a while. After he retired, he and Peg moved from New Jersey to Sag Harbor, New York. When they were both in their eighties, they moved to Thornton Oaks, a retirement community in Brunswick, Maine. His life had been devoted to education, chiefly writing books that make science accessible to, and fun for, children at the grade school level. There are about 200 of his books in print, or available in school libraries or on the shelves of now grown youngsters who have saved them for their children. His last, published posthumously in fall 2002, ``Mission to Mars," has a forward by Neil Armstrong. Frank and his publishers have been able to engage top-flight illustrators with the imagination to envision his concepts. Each one is only about 30 pages, with few words on a page. Thus, each book lights a candle against the cursed darkness. Branley joined the staff of the American Museum-Hayden Planetarium in September 1956, to run the Planetariums education program. He came from the New Jersey State Teachers College where he was teaching teachers how to teach science, and had been a guest lecturer at the Hayden for several months. Frank continued his own education while working at the Planetarium, gaining a Masters degree from New York University, and his Ed. D. from Columbia Teachers College. I joined the Hayden staff two weeks after Frank. Many of our friends and professional colleagues are aware of the confusion caused by the coincidence of our arrival and the similarity of our names. Frank did not appreciate it when the payroll department took my deductions from his check. About five years ago, a librarian I met in our travels wanted to know if I still wrote books. Evidently, the confusion persists. On Friday, 4 October 1957, the Russian satellite, Sputnik, was sent into orbit, surprising the world, and embarrassing our science establishment in the midst of the International Geophysical Year. CBS producers Vern Diamond and Don Hewitt were at the Planetarium on Saturday to plan a Sunday nationwide broadcast concerning this event. Branley and I were the only staff members available for the hour-long show. Richard C. Hottlet was at the Planetarium, and Douglas Edwards was in the CBS studio. It went well. In 1959, Chairman Joseph Miles Chamberlain, then Education Officer of the AAS, Frank Edmondson, AAS Treasurer, and Frank Branley met at the nearby Alden Hotel for lunch. When they had finished, the Society's Visiting Professor program was born. Branley, assisted by his secretary Barbara Harrison, administered the program for several years. The first four in the stable were Harlow Shapley, Seth Nicholson, Frank Edmondson, and Gibson Reaves. This highly successful program is now named for Harlow Shapley. In 1968, he took the reins of the Hayden as Chairman until he retired in 1972. During that time, we went to taped public shows, but shows for schools continued to be live. The use of tapes for the shows allowed much tighter control over their scientific content, and for more uniformity in their presentation. Gone, however, were ``the live lecturers and their live mistakes," as someone complained. This was also the period when we changed from a Zeiss Model 4 star projector to a Zeiss Model 6. This entailed a major renovation of the Sky Theater. Branley also transformed the room with the ceiling model of the Copernican solar system into another theater using eleven screens with 22 slide projectors. This involved a very complex control system taking several months to perfect. During his whole tenure at the Hayden, Branley organized many workshops for the teachers of the Metropolitan New York area. These were very well conceived and received. Not only did the teachers get useful instruction from professional astronomers, they were also entertained with a behind-the-scenes look at the Planetarium, and could see how the shows were put on. Many brought their classes to see the shows, a welcome occurrence, because all our income came solely from the box office. Perhaps Frank Branley's greatest direct impact on astronomy, and even the Society, was a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation for 13 years. It was a two-week summer adventure for top-level high school students with a strong interest in science, especially astronomy. They arrived from all over the country, but we never knew quite where they were staying. Every morning, there were at least two concentrated lectures by top astronomers and other specialists. In the afternoon, astronomy graduate students, also from around the country, gave a continuing course in astronomy. The students were either reinforced in their interest in astronomy, or they found out it was not for them. Either outcome was good, as it came early in their lives. The program must have been well respected, for the NSF seldom financed anything like this for more than about three years. At his death, he was survived by his wife, Margaret, a sister Marion Gray, daughter Mary Jane Day, four grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. Another daughter, Sandra Kay Bridges, died in 1985.

  12. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002 (United States)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale


    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physi