WorldWideScience

Sample records for curing rainbow blindness

  1. A Simple Text File for Curing Rainbow Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylo, Robert; Tomlin, Marilyn; Seager, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of a simple text file to work with large, multi-component thermal models that present a post-processing challenge. This complexity is due to temperatures for many components, with varying requirements, need to be examined and that false color temperature maps, or rainbows, provide a qualitative assessment of results.

  2. Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2014-08-21

    It has been possible to use viral-mediated gene therapy to transform dichromatic (red-green color-blind) primates to trichromatic. Even though the third cone type was added after the end of developmental critical periods, treated animals acquired red-green color vision. What happened in the treated animals may represent a recapitulation of the evolution of trichromacy, which seems to have evolved with the acquisition of a third cone type without the need for subsequent modification to the circuitry. Some transgenic mice in which a third cone type was added also acquired trichromacy. However, compared with treated primates, red-green color vision in mice is poor, indicating large differences between mice and monkeys in their ability to take advantage of the new input. These results have implications for understanding the limits and opportunities for using gene therapy to treat vision disorders caused by defects in cone function. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Channelrhodopsins provide a breakthrough insight into strategies for curing blindness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiroshi Tomita; Eriko Sugano; Hitomi Isago; Makoto Tamai

    2009-12-01

    Photoreceptor cells are the only retinal neurons that can absorb photons. Their degeneration due to some diseases or injuries leads to blindness. Retinal prostheses electrically stimulating surviving retinal cells and evoking a pseudo light sensation have been investigated over the past decade for restoring vision. Currently, a gene therapy approach is under development. Channelrhodopsin-2 derived from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a microbial-type rhodopsin. Its specific characteristic is that it functions as a light-driven cation-selective channel. It has been reported that the channelrhodopsin-2 transforms inner light-insensitive retinal neurons to light-sensitive neurons. Herein, we introduce new strategies for restoring vision by using channelrhodopsins and discuss the properties of adeno-associated virus vectors widely used in gene therapy.

  4. Supernumerary rainbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Mikolaj; Sawicki, Pawel

    2000-01-01

    Late in the afternoon of July 19, 1999, we were able to photograph some very unusual rainbows in the sky over Boulder, Colorado. The picture here shows a primary rainbow, a fainter secondary bow above it, and several pastel-shaded rainbows inside the primary one. While we think we counted as many as four concurrent rainbows in that afternoon, only three of them show up in developed prints.

  5. Curing water scarcity blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, M

    1991-01-01

    Natural resources experts, ecologists and agricultural specialists from temperate zones have a peculiar bias when addressing the problems of the drought-prone Sahel region of Africa. These limited viewpoints are evident in use of the term "decertification," rather than climate-related vulnerability; the project-related approach of mere technological challenge; the notion that water can be found for temporary relief. Even the Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development of 1987 limited its discussion of the problem to food distribution rather than increasing food production. A World Bank proposal suggested food rationing and pricing schemes. It is vital to realize that the problem is that of a climate with an immense evaporative demand and a wide annual variability in rainfall. Therefore intermittent droughts and famines are a constant feature. Provision of dry technologies such as light tractors and fertilizer will not produce sustainable increases in crop yields. Population growth, lifestyle and land use in the aggregate will determine whether development of the area is sustainable. Rather than the current approach of increased use of natural resources and non-sustainable technology, sustainable use of available natural resources, development of human resources, and reduction of waste are essential.

  6. The analysis of prevention and cure the blind for 20 years in sanlin community of pudong new area%浦东新区三林社区防盲治盲20年分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋惠芳; 金美华; 张文权; 孙伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the two or three grade hospitals how to cooperate with the community health service center to create the blindness prevention model community,and reduce the prevalence of blindness.Methods:Department of Ophthalmology of two or three grade hospital,eye protection center cooperated with Sanlin community health service center to carry out the work of prevention and cure blindness,the intervention objects were residents in sanlin community of pudong new area.Results:The prevention and cure for blind showed that,sustainable development of the work of prevention and cure for blindness can reduce the prevalence of blindness.2014 survey shows that DR and macular degeneration had gradually become important causes of blindness.Conclusion:Department of Ophthalmology of two or three grade hospital,eye protection center cooperated with community health service center to carry out the work of prevention and cure blindness can promote the prevention of blindness and penetration depth,and reverse the increasing trend.%目的:探讨城市二、三级医院如何与社区卫生服务中心合作,创建防盲治盲模范社区,降低盲目患病率。方法:城市二、三级医院眼科,眼病防治中心与三林社区卫生服务中心合作,开展防盲治盲工作,干预对象为浦东新区三林社区居民。结果:防盲治盲项目评价表明,持续开展防盲治盲工作可降低盲目的患病率。2014年的调查表明,糖尿病视网膜病变(DR)和黄斑病变已逐步成为致盲的重要原因。结论:城市二、三级医院眼科、眼防中心、社区卫生服务中心与防盲治盲工作密切结合,可促进防盲治盲工作的深入和普及,逆转盲人增加的趋势。

  7. Introduction of a Natural Therapy: Rainbow Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-jian; CUI Yi-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Rainbow Medicine is a set of natural therapy founded by Mr. Onoda Janryou, the Council Director of Japanese KENKODOJO YUWA association. The doctrine of this therapy is to advocate nature and emphasize giving people a benign stimulation to enhance human body's natural cure ability, so as to reach the purpose of preventing and treating disease.

  8. Nonsingular Rainbow Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Adel; Majumder, Barun

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study FRW cosmologies in the context of gravity rainbow. We discuss the general conditions for having a nonsingular FRW cosmology in gravity rainbow. We propose that gravity rainbow functions can be fixed using two known modified dispersion relation (MDR), which have been proposed in literature. The first MDR was introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [9] and the second was introduced by Magueijo and Smolin in [23]. Studying these FRW-like cosmologies, after fixing the gravity rainbow functions, leads to nonsingular solutions which can be expressed in exact forms.

  9. Nonsingular rainbow universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Farag [Center for Theoretical Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: aawad@zewailcity.edu.eg, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we study FRW cosmologies in the context of gravity rainbow. We discuss the general conditions for having a nonsingular FRW cosmology in gravity rainbow. We propose that gravity rainbow functions can be fixed using two known modified dispersion relation (MDR), which have been proposed in literature. The first MDR was introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [9] and the second was introduced by Magueijo and Smolin in [24]. Studying these FRW-like cosmologies, after fixing the gravity rainbow functions, leads to nonsingular solutions which can be expressed in exact forms.

  10. Classification of Rainbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter; Ricard, Jean; Barckicke, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Rainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = taken from the CNRM in Toulouse after a summer storm (Jean Ricard)

  11. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Possible EVERY DOLLAR SAVES LIVES. Donate Now Vascular Cures innovates patient-centered research, catalyzes breakthrough collaborations and empowers people in their vascular health journey. what is vascular disease PATIENTS see ...

  12. Rainbow holography and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, N. G.; Ivanov, Vladimir S.

    1993-09-01

    The general equations of the rainbow holography are deduced. Their analysis makes it possible to offer different methods of the rainbow holographic images production. A new way of using the rainbow holograms as optical elements for effective color illuminating of transparent, specular, and polished objects is proposed. Application fields are the advertising industry, shop windows design, etc.

  13. Non-blind watermarking of network flows

    CERN Document Server

    Houmansadr, Amir; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    Linking network flows is an important problem in intrusion detection as well as anonymity. Passive traffic analysis can link flows but requires long periods of observation to reduce errors. Active traffic analysis, also known as flow watermarking, allows for better precision and is more scalable. Previous flow watermarks introduce significant delays to the traffic flow as a side effect of using a blind detection scheme; this enables attacks that detect and remove the watermark, while at the same time slowing down legitimate traffic. We propose the first non-blind approach for flow watermarking, called RAINBOW, that improves watermark invisibility by inserting delays hundreds of times smaller than previous blind watermarks, hence reduces the watermark interference on network flows. We derive and analyze the optimum detectors for RAINBOW as well as the passive traffic analysis under different traffic models by using hypothesis testing. Comparing the detection performance of RAINBOW and the passive approach we o...

  14. 77 FR 14011 - Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC, Rainbow West Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC, Rainbow West Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for... Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), 16 USA 8242-3(h), Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC (Rainbow Ranch) and Rainbow West Wind, LLC (Rainbow West) (collectively, Petitioners) filed a petition requesting the Federal...

  15. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  16. UNDER THE RAINBOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Because the colors are radiant after the rain,when Nature shows herself at her very best,when total harmony blesses the union of earth and sky.Thanks to the rainbow,gleaming after the Autumn rain.but mainly because the colors that develop from Autumn onwards,becoming denser all through the Winter,are not necessarily quite as one imagined.

  17. Determining vaccination frequency in farmed rainbow trout using Vibrio anguillarum O1 specific serum antibody measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holten-Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. STUDY DESIGN: Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were compared with the vaccine status of the fish (vaccinated/unvaccinated as evaluated through visual examination. RESULTS: Repeated immunisation with the experimental vaccine lead to increasing levels of specific serum antibodies in the vaccinated rainbow trout. The farmed rainbow trout responded with high antibody levels to a single injection with the commercial vaccine. However, the diversity in responses was more pronounced in the farmed fish. Primary visual examinations for vaccine status in rainbow trout from the commercial farm revealed a large pool of unvaccinated specimens (vaccination failure rate=20% among the otherwise vaccinated fish. Through serum analyses using the ELISA in a blinded set-up it was possible to separate samples collected from the farmed rainbow trout into vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. CONCLUSIONS: Much attention has been devoted to development of new and more effective vaccines. Here we present a case from a Danish rainbow trout farm indicating that attention should also be directed to the vaccination procedure in

  18. Lessons learned from gene therapy for color blindness in primates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NEITZ, J

    2014-01-01

    Color blindness is the most common genetic disorder. The possibility of curing color blindness using gene therapy was explored by adding a third type of cone pigment to dichromatic retinas of squirrel monkeys...

  19. Starobinsky Model in Rainbow Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Channuie, Phongpichit

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study Starobinsky model of inflation in the context of gravity's rainbow theory. We propose that gravity rainbow functions can be written in the power-law form of the Hubble parameter. We present a detailed derivation of the spectral index of curvature perturbation and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and compare the predictions of our models with Planck 2015 data. We discover, by taking $N_{k}=70$ e-folds and requiring our predictions to agree with the Planck data at the one sigma confidence level, the rainbow parameter would satisfy $\\lambda\\lesssim 1.0$.

  20. Optimal Composite Curing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Paul; Guerin, Daniel

    The Optimal Composite Curing System (OCCS) is an intelligent control system which incorporates heat transfer and resin kinetic models coupled with expert knowledge. It controls the curing of epoxy impregnated composites, preventing part overheating while maintaining maximum cure heatup rate. This results in a significant reduction in total cure time over standard methods. The system uses a cure process model, operating in real-time, to determine optimal cure profiles for tool/part configurations of varying thermal characteristics. These profiles indicate the heating and cooling necessary to insure a complete cure of each part in the autoclave in the minimum amount of time. The system coordinates these profiles to determine an optimal cure profile for a batch of thermally variant parts. Using process specified rules for proper autoclave operation, OCCS automatically controls the cure process, implementing the prescribed cure while monitoring the operation of the autoclave equipment.

  1. Gravity's Rainbow and Traversable Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Garattini, Remo

    2015-01-01

    In the context of Gravity's Rainbow, we compute the graviton one-loop contribution to a classical energy in a traversable wormhole background, by considering the equation of state $p_{r} = \\omega\\rho$. The investigation is evaluated by means of a variational approach with Gaussian trial wave functionals. However, instead of using a regularization/renormalization process, we use the distortion induced by Gravity's Rainbow to handle the divergences.

  2. Cure of Helicobacter pylori-positive active duodenal ulcer patients: a double-blind, multicentre, 12-month study comparing a two-week dual vs a one-week triple therapy. GISU (Interdisciplinary Group for Ulcer Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, F; Battaglia, F; Dal Bò, N; Leandro, G; Benedetti, E; Bottona, E; Caroli, A; Costan-Biedo, F; De Bastiani, R; Germanà, B; Andrea Grassi, S; Madia, D; Marcon, V; Marin, R; Monica, F; Olivieri, P; Orzes, N; Pilotto, A; Ronzani, G; Saggioro, A; Tafner, G

    2000-03-01

    To compare a two-week dual therapy to a one-week triple therapy for the healing of duodenal ulcer and the eradication of the Helicobacter pylori infection. A total of 165 patients with active duodenal ulcer were enrolled in the study. At entry, endoscopy, clinical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Histology and the rapid urease test were used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients received either lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g bid for two weeks (two-week, dual therapy) or lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxycillin 1 g plus tinidazole 500 mg bid for one week plus lansoprazole qd for an additional week (one-week, triple therapy). Two and twelve months after cessation of therapy, endoscopy and clinical assessments were repeated. Duodenal ulcer healing and Helicobacter pylori eradication were both significantly greater (p<0.0001) in the triple therapy group (healing: 98.6%; Helicobacter pylori cure rate: 72.6%) than in the dual therapy group (healing: 77.3%; Helicobacter pylori cure rate: 33.3%). Ulcers healed more frequently in Helicobacter pyloricured than in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients (94.9% vs. 77.2%; p<0.0022). After one year, Helicobacter pylori eradication was re-confirmed in 46/58 patients previously treated with the triple therapy and in 10/40 patients treated with the dual therapy [p<0.0001]. Only three duodenal ulcer relapses were observed throughout follow-up: all were in Helicobacter pylori-not cured patients. Triple therapy was more effective than dual both in curing Helicobacter pylori infection and healing active duodenal ulcers. The speed of ulcer healing obtained after only 7 days of antibiotics and 14 days of proton pump inhibitors confirmed that longer periods of anti ulcer therapy were not necessary. Helicobacter pylori -not cured patients had more slowly healing ulcers which were more apt to relapse when left untreated.

  3. Multi Band Gap High Efficiency Converter (RAINBOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, I.; Lewis, C.; Phillips, W.; Shields, V.; Stella, P.

    1997-01-01

    The RAINBOW multi band gap system represents a unique combination of solar cells, concentrators and beam splitters. RAINBOW is a flexible system which can readily expand as new high efficiency components are developed.

  4. Vaidya Spacetime for Galileon Gravity's Rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Prabir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze Vaidya spacetime with an energy dependent metric in Galileon gravity's rainbow. This will be done using the rainbow functions which are motivated from the results obtained in loop quantum gravity approach and non-commutative geometry. We will investigate the Gravitational collapse in this Galileon gravity's rainbow. We will discuss the behavior of singularities formed from the gravitational collapse in this rainbow deformed Galileon gravity.

  5. The Rainbow Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Buick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    The world is full of color, from the blue ocean and the yellow daffodils and sunflowers in green carpeted meadows to the majestic purple mountains in the distance and brightly hued coral reefs off the edges of tropical coasts. But what is color, exactly? Why do we see things in different colors? Do we all see the same colors? Like the surface of our planet, the sky above us offers us an endless palette of color, a visual feast for the eyes. Besides atmospheric phenomena such as sunsets and rainbows, there are the many varied worlds of the Solar System, which we can spy through our telescopes, with their subtle colorings of beige and blue and green. Faraway star systems have suns that come in shades ranging from red and yellow to blue and white. Scientists even often use "false colors" to enhance the features of images they take of structures, such as the rings of Saturn and Jupiter’s clouds. This book, with its clear explanations of what makes the sky such a colorful place and in its great wealth of picture...

  6. Rainbow Particle Imaging Velocimetry

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Jinhui

    2017-04-27

    Despite significant recent progress, dense, time-resolved imaging of complex, non-stationary 3D flow velocities remains an elusive goal. This work tackles this problem by extending an established 2D method, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, to three dimensions by encoding depth into color. The encoding is achieved by illuminating the flow volume with a continuum of light planes (a “rainbow”), such that each depth corresponds to a specific wavelength of light. A diffractive component in the camera optics ensures that all planes are in focus simultaneously. With this setup, a single color camera is sufficient to track 3D trajectories of particles by combining 2D spatial and 1D color information. For reconstruction, this thesis derives an image formation model for recovering stationary 3D particle positions. 3D velocity estimation is achieved with a variant of 3D optical flow that accounts for both physical constraints as well as the rainbow image formation model. The proposed method is evaluated by both simulations and an experimental prototype setup.

  7. Rainbow's stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo [Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Dalmine, Bergamo (Italy); I.N.F.N.-sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Mandanici, Gianluca [Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Dalmine, Bergamo (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    In recent years, a growing interest in the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck-scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by gravity's rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-time could support the existence of different compact stars. (orig.)

  8. Curing Behavior of Epoxy Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianying; CONG Peiliang; WU Shaopeng; CHENG Songbo

    2009-01-01

    The curing process of epoxy asphalt was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)spectroscopy.Effect of curing temperature on viscosity of epoxy asphalt,and changes of mechanical properties with curing time were investigated.The evolution of concentration of epoxy band was followed as a function of the applied curing process.The experimental results indicate that the curing reaction rate of epoxy asphalt is invariable before 70 min at 120℃,and it decreases when curing time exceeds 70 min.The viscosity of epoxy asphalt increases slowly with curing time at initial curing stage.But it increases quickly after initial curing stage and the initial curing time decreases as the curing temperature increases.The tensile strength increases slowly at incipient curing stage and increases rapidly when curing time is form 20 min to 70 min.The elongation at break shows a decrease with curing time,but it exceeds 200%after cured.

  9. Radiation curing of epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Lawrence W.; Singh, Ajit

    The literature on radiation polymerization of epoxy compounds has been reviewed to assess the potential use of radiation for curing these industrially important monomers. Chemical curing of epoxies may proceed by either cationic or anionic mechanisms depending on the nature of the curing agent, but most epoxies polymerize by cationic mechanisms under the influence of high-energy radiation. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of epoxy compounds is inhibited by trace quantities of water because of proton transfer from the chain-propagating epoxy cation to water. Several different methods with potential for obtaining high molecular weight polymers by curing epoxies with high-energy radiation have been studied. Polymeric products with epoxy-like properties have been produced by radiation curing of epoxy oligomers with terminal acrylate groups and mixtures of epoxies with vinyl monomers. Both of these types of resin have good potential for industrial-scale curing by radiation treatment.

  10. The Curing Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achiev...... from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. The Concrete Curing Meter is designed for simple and reliable monitoring of water loss from a wet surface of fresh concrete. This new measuring technique has been tested with several prototypes of the Curing Meter....

  11. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  12. The Curing Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achiev...... from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. The Concrete Curing Meter is designed for simple and reliable monitoring of water loss from a wet surface of fresh concrete. This new measuring technique has been tested with several prototypes of the Curing Meter.......Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achieve...... an optimal development of properties in the hardening concrete – so-called "moisture curing". Proper moisture curing is vital to concrete but laborious to accomplish and difficult to control at the construction site with present methods. This paper concerns a new method for site measurement of evaporation...

  13. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  14. Thermodynamics of black holes in rainbow gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Ritwick

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black holes under the influence of rainbow gravity. In the metric of Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom and Reissner-Nordstrom-de-Sitter black hole surrounded by quintessence, we consider a rainbow function and derive the existence of remnant and critical masses of a black hole. Using the Hawking temperature relation we derive the heat capacity and the entropy of the rainbow gravity inspired black holes and closely study the relation between entropy and area of the horizon for different values of n of the rainbow function.

  15. Fighting blindness with microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-06

    There is no approved cure for blindness caused by degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. However, there has been encouraging progress with attempts to restore vision using microelectronic retinal implant devices. Yet many questions remain to be addressed. Where is the best location to implant multielectrode arrays? How can spatial and temporal resolution be improved? What are the best ways to ensure the safety and longevity of these devices? Will color vision be possible? This Perspective discusses the current state of the art of retinal implants and attempts to address some of the outstanding questions.

  16. Gravitational Collapse in Gravity's Rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed Farag; Majumder, Barun; Mistry, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the gravitational collapse in the framework of gravity's rainbow. We will demonstrate that the position of the horizon for a particle inside the black hole depends on the energy of that particle. It will also be observe that the position of the horizon for a particle falling radially into the black hole also depends on its energy. Thus, it is possible for a particle coming from outside to interact with a particle inside the black, and take some information outside the black hole. This is because for both these particles the position of horizon is different. So, even though the particle from inside the black hole is in its own horizon, it is not in the horizon of the particle coming from outside. Thus, we will demonstrate that in gravity's rainbow information can get out of a black hole.

  17. Mechanism of nuclear rainbow scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Full text: Nuclear rainbow phenomenon has been widely observed in light heavy ion scattering such as {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0, {sup 16} 0 + {sup 12} C and {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C and great progress has been made experimentally and theoretically especially in the nineties. The nuclear rainbow has been understood quite often in analogy to meteorological rainbow caused by scattering of light from water droplets, because they are both considered to be a refractive phenomenon. Traditionally nuclear rain- bow has been explained by the far side component of the scattering amplitudes in the presence of a strong attractive force: The observed Airy structure in the angular distributions has been understood by the interference between it's two sub amplitudes in analogy to the interference of two refractive waves in meteorological rainbow, although it was not easy to theoretically extract its components separately. By studying the {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0 scattering measured at Strasbourg, we have theoretically succeeded in extracting the sub amplitudes of the far side scattering in a rigorous but easy way: the sub amplitudes are obtained by decomposing the calculated scattering amplitude into its internal wave and barrier wave components. It is found that the Airy structure observed in the angular distributions in the E L = 75-145 MeV is caused by the interference between the far side internal-wave and far side barrier-wave. The minima in the 90-excitation function, which has been interpreted to be the passage of the Airy elephants, can also be explained as the interference between the far side internal- wave and barrier-wave. It is noted that although the internal wave is a refracted wave the barrier wave is a reflected wave, which does not feel the attractive potential in the very internal region. This means that the nuclear Airy structure is caused by the interference between the refractive wave and reflective wave. This finding is very different from the traditional

  18. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Assaniousssi, Mehdi; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we describe a general mechanism for emergence of a rainbow metric from a quantum cosmological model. This idea is based on QFT on a quantum space-time. Under general assumptions, we discover that the quantum space-time on which the field propagates can be replaced by a classical space-time, whose metric depends explicitly on the energy of the field: as shown by an analysis of dispersion relations, quanta of different energy propagate on different metrics, similar to photons in a refractive material (hence the name "rainbow" used in the literature). In deriving this result, we do not consider any specific theory of quantum gravity: the qualitative behavior of high-energy particles on quantum space-time relies only on the assumption that the quantum space-time is described by a wave-function $\\Psi_o$ in a Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}_G$.

  19. C-CURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — C-CURE system manages certain aspects of the access control system, including collecting employee and contractor names and photographs. The Office of Security uses...

  20. Curing of Concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and pipes illustrate defects frequently caused by improper curing. Proper ... because in such pastes the layers of hydrated ... *3) When cement hydrates the solid products occupy a volume equal to the sum of volumes of anhydrous cement and.

  1. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  2. Free-fall Frame Rainbow Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Jun; Yang, Haitang

    2016-01-01

    Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. To incorporate DSR into general relativity, one could use "Gravity's rainbow", where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. In this scenario, one could rewrite the rainbow metric $g_{\\mu\

  3. Three-Rainbow Coloring of Split Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉梅; 刘婷婷

    2015-01-01

    After a necessary condition is given, 3-rainbow coloring of split graphs with time complexity O(m) is obtained by constructive method. The number of corresponding colors is at most 2 or 3 more than the minimum num-ber of colors needed in a 3-rainbow coloring.

  4. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  5. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  6. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  7. Rainbow Rindler metric and Unruh effect

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Gaurav; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    The energy of a particle moving on a spacetime, in principle, can affect the background metric. The modifications to it depend on the ratio of energy of the particle and the Planck energy, known as rainbow gravity. Here we find the explicit expressions for the coordinate transformations from rainbow Minkowski spacetime to accelerated frame. The corresponding metric is also obtained which we call as rainbow-Rindler metric. So far we are aware of, no body has done it in a concrete manner. Here this is found from the first principle and hence all the parameters are properly identified. The advantage of this is that the calculated Unruh temperature is compatible with the Hawking temperature of the rainbow black hole horizon, obtained earlier. Since the accelerated frame has several importance in revealing various properties of gravity, we believe that the present result will not only fill that gap, but also help to explore different aspects of rainbow gravity paradigm.

  8. FABRICATION AND PROPERTIES OF ANTIFERROELECTRIC RAINBOW ACTUATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new type of large-displacement actuator called reduced and internally biased oxide wafer (RAINBOW) is fabricated by chemical reduction of Pb(Sn, Zr, Ti)O3(PSZT) antiferroelectric ceramics and its properties are investigated. It is found that PSZT is easily reduced and the optimal conditions for producing RAINBOW samples are determined to be 870 ℃ for 2~3 h. The antiferroelectricsferroelectrics phase transitions occur at lower field strength in RAINBOW actuators compared with normal PSZT actuators. Large axial displacements are also obtained from the RAINBOW actuator by application of electric fields exceeding the phase switching level. However, the field-induced displacement of the RAINBOW actuator is dependent on the manner of applying load on the samples.

  9. A Proposal for Testing Gravity's Rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity predict modifications of the energy-momentum dispersion relation. Magueijo and Smolin incorporated the modified dispersion relation (MDR) with the general theory of relativity to yield a theory of gravity's rainbow. In this paper, we investigate the Schwarzschild metric in the context of gravity's rainbow. We investigate rainbow functions from three known modified dispersion relations that were introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:hep-th/9605211, arXiv:0806.0339v2 [gr-qc], arXiv:astro-ph/9712103] and by Magueijo-Smolin in [arXiv:hep-th/0112090]. We study the effect of the rainbow functions on the deflection of light, photon time delay, gravitational red-shift, time dilation, and the weak equivalence principle. We compare our results with experiments to obtain upper bounds on the parameters of the rainbow functions.

  10. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  11. Radiation curing in the eighties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrancken, A. (UCB, Drogenbos (Belgium). Chemical Specialities Div.)

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; what is radiation curing; history; radiation curable resins (with properties of products); ultraviolet and electron beam curing; photoinitiation and the ultraviolet light curing process; electron beam curing (initiation; electron beam accelerators); end uses (graphic arts; wood finishing; paper upgrading; adhesives; metal finishing; electronic chemical; floor coatings).

  12. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  13. Storying Ubuntu as a rainbow nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonke Buqa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is often referred to as the �Rainbow Nation�. This term was coined by Desmond Tutu during the advent of democracy in the country. Tutu stated: �They tried to make us one colour: purple. We say we are the rainbow people! We are the new people of the new South Africa!� This article seeks to answer the question as to whether the Rainbow Nation is a true reflection of Ubuntu in South Africa or whether it is just idealism.

  14. A New Way to Demonstrate the Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov; Nikolov, Stefan Nikolaev

    2016-11-01

    The rainbow is a beautiful optical phenomenon that has fascinated humankind since antiquity. It is caused by a huge number of water droplets in the atmosphere illuminated by the Sun. Many noted physicists have contributed to the explanation of the rainbow. The wave theory of the rainbow was developed by George Airy, and modern descriptions are based on Mie scattering as developed by Gustav Mie. For educational purposes the simpler theory by Descartes, which is based solely on geometrical optics and is much more accessible, is used.

  15. Curing the queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, Maartje Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we study several problems related to the management of healthcare and the cure of disease. In each chapter a hospital capacity distribution problem is analyzed using techniques from operations research, also known as mathematical decision theory. The problems considered are insp

  16. Blind Masseurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Guan Enming and his wife Hao Dejuan, a blind couple, vowed to "never become a burden for society." The couple retired from the QJngdao Massotherapy Hospital in 1992, and thereafter opened a private clinic with assistance from their

  17. Hiccups: causes and cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J H

    1985-12-01

    Hiccups result from a wide variety of conditions that act on the supraspinal hiccup center or that stimulate or disinhibit the limbs of its reflex arc. While scores of hiccup remedies have been reported over the centuries, no single "cure" stands out as being the most effective. Measures that stimulate the uvula or pharynx or disrupt diaphragmatic (respiratory) rhythm are simple to use and often help to speed the end of a bout of otherwise benign, self-limited hiccups. Such manueuvers may also terminate persistent hiccups. Drug therapy usually becomes necessary for more intractable hiccups; chlorpromazine and metoclopramide being two of the most widely employed agents for this purpose. Physical disruption of the phrenic nerve, hypnosis, and acupuncture are other modes of therapy that have been used in severe cases. Because so many reports of hiccup "cures" are based on anecdotal experience rather than controlled clinical studies, I review the available treatments to provide a rational approach for the management of hiccups.

  18. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  19. Breaking GSM with rainbow Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998 the GSM security has been academically broken but no real attack has ever been done until in 2008 when two engineers of Pico Computing (FPGA manufacture) revealed that they could break the GSM encryption in 30 seconds with 200'000$ hardware and precomputed rainbow tables. Since then the hardware was either available for rich people only or was confiscated by government agencies. So Chris Paget and Karsten Nohl decided to react and do the same thing but in a distributed open source form (on torrent). This way everybody could "enjoy" breaking GSM security and operators will be forced to upgrade the GSM protocol that is being used by more than 4 billion users and that is more than 20 years old.

  20. Intermediate inflation from rainbow gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to dualize theories based on deformed dispersion relations and Einstein gravity so as to map them into theories with trivial dispersion relations and rainbow gravity. This often leads to "dual inflation" without the usual breaking of the strong energy condition. We identify the dispersion relations in the original frame which map into "intermediate" inflationary models. These turn out to be particularly simple: power-laws modulated by powers of a logarithm. The fluctuations predicted by these scenarios are near, but not exactly scale-invariant, with a red running spectral index. These dispersion relations deserve further study within the context of quantum gravity and the phenomenon of dimensional reduction in the ultraviolet.

  1. Vaidya spacetime for Galileon gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudra, Prabir, E-mail: prudra.math@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Asutosh College, Kolkata, 700 026 (India); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we analyze Vaidya spacetime with an energy dependent metric in Galileon gravity's rainbow. This will be done using the rainbow functions which are motivated from the results obtained in loop quantum gravity approach and noncommutative geometry. We will investigate the Gravitational collapse in this Galileon gravity's rainbow. We will discuss the behavior of singularities formed from the gravitational collapse in this rainbow deformed Galileon gravity.

  2. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  3. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  4. Branes in Gravity's Rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashour, Amani [Damascus University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Benha University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Hammad, Faycal [Bishop' s University, Physics Department and STAR Research Cluster, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Champlain College-Lennoxville, Physics Department, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of black p-branes (BB) in the context of Gravity's Rainbow. We investigate this using rainbow functions that have been motivated from loop quantum gravity and κ-Minkowski non-commutative spacetime. Then for the sake of comparison, we examine a couple of other rainbow functions that have also appeared in the literature. We show that, for consistency, Gravity's Rainbow imposes a constraint on the minimum mass of the BB, a constraint that we interpret here as implying the existence of a black p-brane remnant. This interpretation is supported by the computation of the black p-brane's heat capacity that shows that the latter vanishes when the Schwarzschild radius takes on a value that is bigger than its extremal limit. We found that the same conclusion is reached for the third version of rainbow functions treated here but not with the second one for which only standard black p-brane thermodynamics is recovered. (orig.)

  5. Simulating rainbows in their atmospheric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Gedzelman, Stanley

    2008-12-01

    Light and color of geometric optics rainbows are simulated in their atmospheric environment. Sunlight passes through a molecular atmosphere with ozone and an aerosol layer near the ground to strike a cuboidal rain shaft below an overhanging cuboidal cloud. The rainbows are treated as singly scattered sunbeams that are depleted as they pass through the atmosphere and rain shaft. They appear in a setting illuminated by scattered light from behind the observer, from the background beyond the rain shaft, and from the rain shaft. In dark backgrounds the primary and secondary bows first become visible when the optical thickness of rain shafts tau(R) congruent with 0.0003 and tau(R) congruent with 0.003, respectively. The bows are brightest and most colorful for 0.1rainbow are so pronounced that rainbows remain bright and colorful for optically thick rain shafts seen against dark backgrounds, but the bows appear washed out or vanish as the background brightens or where the rain shaft is shaded by an overhanging cloud. Rainbows also redden as the Sun approaches the horizon.

  6. Analysis of the Perfect Table Fuzzy Rainbow Tradeoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Il Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptanalytic time memory tradeoff algorithms are tools for inverting one-way functions, and they are used in practice to recover passwords that restrict access to digital documents. This work provides an accurate complexity analysis of the perfect table fuzzy rainbow tradeoff algorithm. Based on the analysis results, we show that the lesser known fuzzy rainbow tradeoff performs better than the original rainbow tradeoff, which is widely believed to be the best tradeoff algorithm. The fuzzy rainbow tradeoff can attain higher online efficiency than the rainbow tradeoff and do so at a lower precomputation cost.

  7. Constraints on rainbow gravity functions from black hole thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black holes in the framework of rainbow gravity. By considering rainbow functions in the metric of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black holes, remnant and critical masses are found to exist. Demanding the universality of logarithmic corrections to the semi-classical area law for the entropy leads to constraining the form of the rainbow functions. The mass output and the radiation rate for these constrained form of rainbow functions have been computed for different values of the rainbow parameter $\\eta$ and have striking similarity to those derived from the generalized uncertainty principle.

  8. Modeling HIV Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  9. Rainbow gravity and scale-invariant fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, Joao

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine a recently proposed scenario where the deformed dispersion relations associated with a flow of the spectral dimension to a UV value of 2 leads to a scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations, without the need for inflation. In that scenario Einstein gravity was assumed. The theory displays a wavelength-dependent speed of light but by transforming to a suitable "rainbow frame" this feature can be removed, at the expense of modifying gravity. We find that the ensuing rainbow gravity theory is such that gravity switches off at high energy (or at least leads to a universal conformal coupling). This explains why the fluctuations are scale-invariant on all scales: there is no horizon scale as such. For dispersion relations that do not lead to exact scale invariance we find instead esoteric inflation in the rainbow frame. We argue that these results shed light on the behaviour of gravity under the phenomenon of dimensional reduction.

  10. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire DSU/SERAC, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gerard Grehan [UMR 6614 CORIA, Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires Site Universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l' universite BP 12, 76 801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex, (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm{sup 3}. The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  11. Three dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: exact solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Panahiyan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results with dilaton gravity, on one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity with gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.

  12. Controversies in HIV cure research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Rowena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy significantly reduces HIV viral burden and prolongs life, but does not cure HIV infection. The major scientific barrier to a cure is thought to be the persistence of the virus in cellular and/or anatomical reservoirs. Discussion Most efforts to date, including pharmaco, immuno or gene therapy, have failed to cure patients, with the notable exception of a stem cell transplant recipient commonly known as the Berlin patient. This case has revived interest in the potential to cure HIV infection and has highlighted the need to resolve critical questions in the basic, pre-clinical and clinical research spheres as they pertain specifically to efforts to eradicate HIV from the body of an infected person (a sterilizing cure or at least render the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy obsolete (functional cure. This paper describes ongoing debates in each of these research spheres as they were presented and discussed at a satellite session that took place at the 6th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention in Rome in July 2011. Summary The resolution of these debates may have important implications for the search for a cure, the most efficient ways to identify and test promising interventions, and ultimately the availability of such a cure to diverse groups of HIV patients around the world.

  13. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.

    2005-01-01

    hydration and strength development, reduced autogenous shrinkage and cracking, reduced permeability, and increased durability. The impact of internal curing begins immediately with the initial hydration of the cement, with benefits that are observed at ages as early as two days. Internal curing...

  14. Rainbow metric formalism and Relative Locality

    CERN Document Server

    Loret, Niccoló

    2015-01-01

    This proceeding is based on a talk prepared for the XIII Marcell Grossmann meeting. We summarise some results of work in progress in collaboration with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia about momentum dependent (Rainbow) metrics in a Relative Locality framework and we show that this formalism is equivalent to the Hamiltonian formalization of Relative Locality obtained in arXiv:1102.4637.

  15. CURING EFFICIENCY OF DUAL-CURE RESIN CEMENT UNDER ZIRCONIA WITH TWO DIFFERENT LIGHT CURING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar GÜLTEKİN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. Materials and Methods: 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm were prepared. For each group (n=12 resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96. The values of depth of cure (in mm and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN were evaluated for each specimen. Results: The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (p<0.05.At 100μm and 300 μm depth, the LED unit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (p<0.05. At 500 μm depth, the difference between the VHN values of LED and QTH groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Light curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.

  16. The effect of light curing units, curing time, and veneering materials on resin cement microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Ozakar Ilday

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Light-curing units, curing time, and veneering materials are important factors for achieving adequate dual cure resin composite microhardness. High-intensity light and longer curing times resulted in the highest microhardness values.

  17. Towards an HIV cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Deeks

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the challenge of delivering complex, expensive and potentially harmful antiretroviral therapy (ART on a global level, there is intense interest in the development of short-term, well-tolerated regimens that allow individuals to interrupt therapy indefinitely without experiencing a rebound in viremia. This so-called “cure” or “remission” might be due to complete eradication of all replication-competent HIV during ART or durable host-mediated control of persistent virus in absence of ART. Recent heroic interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant and very early initiation of antiretroviral therapy suggest that dramatic reductions in the reservoir size can be achieved, but that complete eradication will be difficult if not impossible to achieve. Most attempts to stimulate effective host-mediated control of HIV have failed. It is likely that for a true cure to be achieved, both approaches – reductions in the reservoir size and durable immune surveillance – will be needed, a state that is similar to that observed in “elite” controllers and post-treatment controllers. The implications for recent advances and setbacks in achieving HIV remission for future research priorities will be discussed.

  18. Phase rainbow refractometry for accurate droplet variation characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-10-15

    We developed a one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer for the accurate trans-dimensional measurements of droplet size on the micrometer scale as well as the tiny droplet diameter variations at the nanoscale. The dependence of the phase shift of the rainbow ripple structures on the droplet variations is revealed. The phase-shifting rainbow image is recorded by a telecentric one-dimensional rainbow imaging system. Experiments on the evaporating monodispersed droplet stream show that the phase rainbow refractometer can measure the tiny droplet diameter changes down to tens of nanometers. This one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer is capable of measuring the droplet refractive index and diameter, as well as variations.

  19. Hardness Results for Total Rainbow Connection of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lily

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A total-colored path is total rainbow if both its edges and internal vertices have distinct colors. The total rainbow connection number of a connected graph G, denoted by trc(G, is the smallest number of colors that are needed in a total-coloring of G in order to make G total rainbow connected, that is, any two vertices of G are connected by a total rainbow path. In this paper, we study the computational complexity of total rainbow connection of graphs. We show that deciding whether a given total-coloring of a graph G makes it total rainbow connected is NP-Complete. We also prove that given a graph G, deciding whether trc(G = 3 is NP-Complete.

  20. Towards a 'cure' for IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    To discuss a cure for IBD, one should first define the concept 'a cure'. If it is intended as the general restoration of health, this is already possible, as many current therapies do a good job in inducing long periods of remission in Crohn's disease, and colectomy can technically cure ulcerative colitis. If it is more strictly defined as the complete and permanent elimination of the cause, predisposing and permissive factors, reinstatement of normal microbial ecology and restoration of mucosal immune homeostasis, then a cure for IBD is out of reach, at least for now. Regardless of the definition, major strides have been made in attempting to cure IBD by addressing the key components of its pathogenesis: the environment (exposome), the genetic makeup (genome), the gut microbiota (microbiome) and the immune system (immunome). However, the isolated modulation of each component is insufficient to provide a cure, and different requirements may be needed depending on the stage of the disease and each patient subset. To achieve a cure, one key approach is currently missing: the integration of knowledge from all the pathogenic components. We continue to learn more and more about each component using traditional 'canonical' systems, which allow the accumulation of data without taking into consideration the other components. We are still not studying the 'omes' of IBD, we should be using 'omics' technologies that can generate a more global vision of IBD pathogenesis on which to base novel, multiple pathway-integrated therapies. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Curing efficacy of light emitting diodes of dental curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyd Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of quartz tungsten halogen (QTH and light emitting diode (LED curing lights on polymerization of resin composite. Materials and Methods. A hybrid resin composite was used to prepare samples which were cured using two QTH and ten LED light curing sources. Twelve groups, each containing ten samples, were prepared using each light source. The cured depth of the resin was determined using ISO 4049 method and Vickers hardness values were determined at 1.0 mm intervals. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results. Data analysis demonstrated a significant difference between light sources for depth of cure. At 1.0 mm below the surface all the tested light sources and at 2.0-mm intervals all light sources except two (Optilux 501 and LEDemetron I and at 3.0-mm intervals only two light sources (PenCure and LEDemetron II could produce hardness values higher than 80% of superficial layer values. Conclusion. This study showed that a variety of LED light sources used in the present study are as effective as the high-intensity QTH lights in polymerization of resin composite.

  2. Novel techniques for concrete curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes (HSC/HPC) are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are taken. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to ensure good performance of concrete. Curing by both external (conventional......) and internal methods is reviewed and analyzed, among other methods of mitigating shrinkage and cracking of concrete. The focus is on the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage of low water to binder ratio (w/b) concrete by means of internal curing. The concepts of internal curing are based on using lightweight...... aggregate, superabsorbent polymers or water-soluble chemicals, which reduce water evaporation (so called "internal sealing"). These concepts have been intensively researched in the 90s, but still are not widespread among contractors and concrete suppliers. The differences between conventional methods...

  3. Correlation of cure monitoring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. S.; Mopsik, F. I.; Hunston, D. L.

    Six different composite matrix or neat resin cure-monitoring methods are presently used to follow the cure process in a model epoxy system, and the results obtained are compared. Differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity monitoring, the ultrasonic shear wave propagation technique, dielectric spectrometry, and two different fluorescence intensity techniques are compared with a view to common traits and differences. Dielectric fluorescence and ultrasonic measurement techniques are noted to be applicable to on-line process monitoring.

  4. Curing units' ability to cure restorative composites and dual-cured composite cements under composite overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Sun; Cho, Yong-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Noh, Byng-Duk

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of using conventional low-power density QTH (LQTH) units, high-power density QTH (HQTH) units, argon (Ar) laser and Plasma arc curing (PAC) units for curing dual-cured resin cements and restorative resin composites under a pre-cured resin composite overlay. The microhardness of the two types of restorative resins (Z100 and Tetric Ceram) and a dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II) were measured after they were light cured for 60 seconds in a 2 mm Teflon mold. The recorded microhardness was determined to be the optimum microhard-ness (OM). Either one of the two types of restorative resins (Z100, Tetric Ceram) or the dual cured resin cement (Variolink II) were placed under a 1.5-mm thick and 8 mm diameter pre-cured Targis (Vivadent/Ivoclar AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) overlay. The specimens that were prepared for each material were divided into four groups depending upon the curing units used (HQTH, PAC, Laser or LQTH) and were further subdi-vided into subgroups according to light curing time. The curing times used were 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds for HQTH; 12, 24, 36 and 48 seconds for the PAC unit; 15, 30, 45 and 60 for the Laser and 60, 120 or 180 seconds for the LQTH unit. Fifteen specimens were assigned to each sub- group. The microhardness of the upper and and lower composite surfaces under the Targis overlay were measured using an Optidur Vickers hardness-measuring instrument (Göttfert Feinwerktechnik GmbH, Buchen, Germany). In each material, for each group, a three-way ANOVA with Tukey was used at the 0.05 level of significance to compare the microhardnesses of the upper and lower composite surfaces and the previously measured OM of the material. From the OM of each material, 80% OM was calculated and the time required for the microhardness of the upper and lower surface of the specimen to reach 100% and 80% of OM was determined. In Z100 and Tetric Ceram, when the composites were light cured for 120 seconds using the HQTH lamp

  5. Truly trapped rainbow by utilizing nonreciprocal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a "trapped rainbow" has generated considerable interest for optical data storage and processing. It aims to trap different frequency components of the wave packet at different positions permanently. However, all the previously proposed structures cannot truly achieve this effect, due to the difficulties in suppressing the reflection caused by strong intermodal coupling and distinguishing different frequency components simultaneously. In this article, we found a physical mechanism to achieve a truly "trapped rainbow" storage of electromagnetic wave. We utilize nonreciprocal waveguides under a tapered magnetic field to achieve this and such a trapping effect is stable even under fabrication disorders. We also observe hot spots and relatively long duration time of the trapped wave around critical positions through frequency domain and time domain simulations. The physical mechanism we found has a variety of potential applications ranging from wave harvesting and storage to nonlinearity enhancement...

  6. Rainbow net analysis of VAXcluster system availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Allen M., Jr.; Schoenfelder, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    A system modeling technique, Rainbow Nets, is used to evaluate the availability and mean-time-to-interrupt of the VAXcluster. These results are compared to the exact analytic results showing that reasonable accuracy is achieved through simulation. The complexity of the Rainbow Net does not increase as the number of processors increases, but remains constant, unlike a Markov model which expands exponentially. The constancy is achieved by using tokens with identity attributes (items) that can have additional attributes associated with them (features) which can exist in multiple states. The time to perform the simulation increases, but this is a polynomial increase rather than exponential. There is no restriction on distributions used for transition firing times, allowing real situations to be modeled more accurately by choosing the distribution which best fits the system performance and eliminating the need for simplifying assumptions.

  7. Red rainbows at sunset/sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The rainbow model deveeloped at CEPAL is based on the Airy theory. The outputs show that a pure red rainbow could only observed from a hill or a mountain when the sun is below the horizon. When the sun is on the horizon, there should be a juxtaposition of a red band on the outside and of a yellow band on the inside (upper figures). However, observers report pure red bows at sea level (lower left figure). In these rare cases, it is possible to still see the sun after it has set. As sunlight passes through more and more dense atmosphere at sunset the light slows and bends closer and closer toward the normal. When the eye traces the light ray it appears to be higher in the sky (lower right figure).

  8. Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Xu

    2014-11-13

    We numerically realize the acoustic rainbow trapping effect by tapping an air waveguide with space-coiling metamaterials. Due to the high refractive-index of the space-coiling metamaterials, our device is more compact compared to the reported trapped-rainbow devices. A numerical model utilizing effective parameters is also calculated, whose results are consistent well with the direct numerical simulation of space-coiling structure. Moreover, such device with the capability of dropping different frequency components of a broadband incident temporal acoustic signal into different channels can function as an acoustic wavelength division de-multiplexer. These results may have potential applications in acoustic device design such as an acoustic filter and an artificial cochlea.

  9. Quantum rainbow scattering at tunable velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Strebel, M; Ruff, B; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M

    2012-01-01

    Elastic scattering cross sections are measured for lithium atoms colliding with rare gas atoms and SF6 molecules at tunable relative velocities down to ~50 m/s. Our scattering apparatus combines a velocity-tunable molecular beam with a magneto-optic trap that provides an ultracold cloud of lithium atoms as a scattering target. Comparison with theory reveals the quantum nature of the collision dynamics in the studied regime, including both rainbows as well as orbiting resonances.

  10. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Esposito Corcione

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness.

  11. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, Carola Esposito; Freuli, Fabrizio; Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2014-09-22

    The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness.

  12. Natural vibration dynamics of Rainbow Bridge, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Wood, J. R.; Doyle, S.; Stanfield, E.; White, B.

    2015-12-01

    We measured resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, one of the world's longest rock spans, during a field experiment recording ambient vibration data. Measurements were generated over 20 hours on March 23-24, 2015 using two broadband three-component seismometers placed on the bridge, and compared to concurrent data from nearby reference stations 20 and 220 m distant. We identified seven distinct modes of vibration for Rainbow Bridge between 1 and 6 Hz. Data for each resonant frequency was then analyzed to determine the frequency-dependent polarization vector in an attempt to clarify mode shapes; e.g. the fundamental mode represents out-of-plane horizontal flexure. We compared experimental data to results of 3D numerical modal analysis, using a new photogrammetric model of Rainbow Bridge generated in this study imported into COMSOL Multiphysics. Results compare well with measured data for seven of the first eight modeled modes, matching vibrational frequencies and polarization orientations generally within 10%. Only predicted mode 6 was not explicitly apparent in our experimental data. Large site-to-reference spectral ratios resolved from experimental data indicate high amplification on the bridge as compared to nearby bedrock.

  13. Preparation and Structure of Rainbow Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xing

    2003-01-01

    Rainbow piezoelectric ceramics are a new type of stress-biased, oxide-reduced composite ferroelectric ceramics, which have a special dome structure. The have shown excellent properties such as ultra-high displacement under an applied electric field and enhanced load-bearing capability. In this article, their manufacture,structures and properties were discussed in detail by combining experiments and theory analysis. The resuts show that the optimal conditions for producing Rainbow samples from PLZT ceramics were determined to be 900℃ for 1 to 1.5 hours. A number of different phases have been found in the reduced layer of Rainbow ceramics by XRD analyses . The phases found include metallic lead and other oxide phases , such cs PbO , ZrO2 and TiO2 . The original PLZT phase was not observed. The reduced layer was transgranularly fractured while the unreduced ceramic was intergranularly fractured. Two kinds of fracture types can be seen at the interface , which denotes the different degrees of reduction. It is shown that the Pb grains ( about 0.2 μm ) constitute a continuous phase in the reduced layer, which accounts for the good electrical condnctivity.

  14. Formation of chromosome aberrations in androgenetic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocalewicz, K; Dobosz, S; Kuzminski, H; Goryczko, K

    2009-12-01

    Residues of maternal nuclear DNA in the form of chromosome fragments were observed in the healthy and morphologically normal androgenetic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A hypothetical model for formation of chromosome re-arrangements caused by the incomplete maternal nuclear DNA inactivation in the androgenetic rainbow trout was proposed in the present paper.

  15. Rainbows in nature: recent advances in observation and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haußmann, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    This topical review presents an overview of the common and less common observations of rainbows in natural rainfall, and the theoretical concepts that have been developed for their explanation. Mainly throughout the last 20 years, many new and intriguing effects have been photographed or documented for the first time, such as higher-order (tertiary, quaternary, etc) and twinned rainbows, as well as rainbows generated by nearby artificial light sources. In order to provide a sound explanation, the inclusion of natural non-spherical (i.e. oblate) raindrop shapes as well as natural broad polydisperse raindrop distributions into the classical rainbow theory (Lorenz-Mie and Debye scattering) is outlined. Thus, the article provides a condensed up-to-date synopsis complementing classical textbooks and earlier reviews on the physics of rainbows. It is intended to serve both active sky observers as well as physics teachers who want to keep up with current developments in the field.

  16. Beyond the Rainbow: Retrieval Practice Leads to Better Spelling than Does Rainbow Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Wardlow, Liane; Pan, Steven C.; Zepeda, Cristina; Heyman, Gail D.; Dunlosky, John; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we compared the effectiveness of rainbow writing and retrieval practice, two common methods of spelling instruction. In experiment 1 (n = 14), second graders completed 2 days of spelling practice, followed by spelling tests 1 day and 5 weeks later. A repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that spelling accuracy…

  17. Beyond the Rainbow: Retrieval Practice Leads to Better Spelling than Does Rainbow Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Wardlow, Liane; Pan, Steven C.; Zepeda, Cristina; Heyman, Gail D.; Dunlosky, John; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we compared the effectiveness of rainbow writing and retrieval practice, two common methods of spelling instruction. In experiment 1 (n = 14), second graders completed 2 days of spelling practice, followed by spelling tests 1 day and 5 weeks later. A repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that spelling accuracy…

  18. Curing efficiency of various types of light-curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiotis, Chris; Kakaboura, Afrodite; Loukidis, Michalis; Vougiouklakis, George

    2004-02-01

    This study compared monomer conversion (DC), the per cent linear polymerization shrinkage (%LS), the wall-to-wall contraction pattern (per cent of peripheral opening, %DM, and maximal marginal gap, MG) and depth of cure (DOC), of a hybrid resin composite (Spectrum TPH) exposed to different types of light-curing units and exposure modes (Virtuoso-PAC, Elipar TriLight-QTH, and FreeLight-LED). The QTH and LED units were used in two curing modes: the exponential ramp and the continuous output modes. Monomer conversion was investigated by micro Multiple Internal Reflection (MIR)-Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and %LS was measured by the deflective disc method. The wall-to-wall contraction method used a cylindrical cavity model in extracted human teeth. The per cent debonded margins relative to the cavity periphery (%DM) and the width of maximum gap (MG) was evaluated. The DOC was determined using Vickers microhardness measurements (200 g load, 20 s) at the top surface (H0), at 2 mm (H2) and at 4 mm (H4) depths, and the results expressed as H2/H0 and H4/H0 ratios. Significantly lower %DC and %LS values were provided by PAC and LED units. No differences were found in %DM among the curing units and PAC exhibited the highest MG. No significant differences were noted among light-curing groups in terms of H2/H0 microhardness values. The QTH, operated in exponential mode, resulted in the highest H4/H0 value. The exponential mode of the QTH demonstrated superior performance for the total of the characteristics evaluated.

  19. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per

    1993-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  20. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  1. Glory 'in the shadow of the rainbow'

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, M; Hussein, M S; Takigawa, N

    1999-01-01

    We show that the angular distribution of the nuclear scattering amplitude behaves like the zeroth-order Bessel function with a fixed frequency at extremely forward angles even if there exists no genuine forward glory scattering. A semiclassical interpretation of this behaviour is provided in terms of the effect of scattering in the shadow of the nuclear rainbow. We also argue that the bombarding energy dependence of the amplitude of the sum-of-difference cross section at very small angles provides a possibility to judge whether genuine forward nuclear glory scattering is taking place or not.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: rainbow trout [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oncorhynchus_mykiss_L.png Oncorhynchus_my...kiss_NL.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_S.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+my...kiss&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+my...kiss&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=NS ...

  3. Reversed rainbow with a nonlocal metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Tiago A., E-mail: tiago.morgado@co.it.pt; Marcos, João S.; Silveirinha, Mário G., E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt [Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Coimbra, 3030 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, João T. [CST AG, Bad Nauheimer Strasse 19, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Costa, Jorge R. [Instituto de Telecomunicações and Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Carlos A. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, and Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-29

    One of the intriguing potentials of metamaterials is the possibility to realize a nonlocal electromagnetic reaction, such that the effective medium response at a given point is fundamentally entangled with the macroscopic field distribution at long distances. Here, it is experimentally and numerically verified that a microwave nonlocal metamaterial formed by crossed metallic wires enables a low-loss broadband anomalous material response such that the refractive index decreases with frequency. Notably, it is shown that an electromagnetic beam refracted by our metamaterial prism creates a reversed microwave rainbow.

  4. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  5. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  6. Blind system identification

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meriam, Karim; Qui, Wanzhi; Hua, Yingbo

    1997-01-01

    Blind system identification (BSI) is a fundamental signal processing technology aimed at retrieving a system's unknown information from its output only. This technology has a wide range of possible applications such as mobile communications, speech reverberation cancellation, and blind image restoration. This paper reviews a number of recently developed concepts and techniques for BSI, which include the concept of blind system identifiability in a deterministic framework, the blind techniques...

  7. Susan G. Komen for the Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Event Komen Race for the Cure Susan G. Komen 3 Day Find Local Events Fundraise Fundraise ... 2016 Search Events Friday, September 22, 2017 Susan G. Komen Italia Race for the Cure® - Bologna Bologna, ...

  8. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  9. Rapid Development of the Radiation Curing Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Radiation curing is an advanced material surface treatment technology using ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electronic beams (EB). With the greater attention paid to environ mentel protection in recent years ,radiation curing has developed rapidly.

  10. Techniques for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Pietro, Lura

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the internal...

  11. "Unusual Rainbow and White Rainbow" A new auroral candidate in oriental historical sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Miyahara, Hiroko; Kataoka, Ryuho

    2016-01-01

    Solar activity has been recorded as auroras or sunspots in various historical sources. These records are of much importance for investigating both long-term solar activities and extremely intense solar flares. In previous studies, they were recorded as "vapor," "cloud," or "light," especially in oriental historical sources; however, the terminology was not discussed adequately and is still quite vague. In this paper, we suggest the possibility of "unusual rainbow" and "white rainbow" as candidates of historical auroras in oriental historical sources and examine if it is probable. This discovery will help us to make more comprehensive historical auroral catalogues and require us to add these terms to auroral candidates in oriental historical sources.

  12. Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir [University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes. (orig.)

  13. Remnant for all black objects due to gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag; Faizal, Mir; Khalil, Mohammed M.

    2015-05-01

    We argue that a remnant is formed for all black objects in gravity's rainbow. This will be based on the observation that a remnant depends critically on the structure of the rainbow functions, and this dependence is a model independent phenomena. We thus propose general relations for the modified temperature and entropy of all black objects in gravity's rainbow. We explicitly check this to be the case for Kerr, Kerr-Newman-dS, charged-AdS, and higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes. We also try to argue that a remnant should form for black saturn in gravity's rainbow. This work extends our previous results on remnants of Schwarzschild black holes [1] and black rings [2].

  14. Remnant for all black objects due to gravity's rainbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farag Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a remnant is formed for all black objects in gravity's rainbow. This will be based on the observation that a remnant depends critically on the structure of the rainbow functions, and this dependence is a model independent phenomena. We thus propose general relations for the modified temperature and entropy of all black objects in gravity's rainbow. We explicitly check this to be the case for Kerr, Kerr–Newman-dS, charged-AdS, and higher dimensional Kerr–AdS black holes. We also try to argue that a remnant should form for black saturn in gravity's rainbow. This work extends our previous results on remnants of Schwarzschild black holes [1] and black rings [2].

  15. Challenge models for RTFS in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    forms of stress have shown to be reproducible. Bath challenge is more appropriate for vaccine testing, since natural transmission of infection is imitated and is also more suitable due to the small size of the fry. A bath-model using H2O2 as a stressor is currently being tested on 1.4g rainbow trout fry......The fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the main causes of mortality in fry of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonid fish. The disease following infection is often called bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in USA and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS...... of infection. The overall goal is also to examine gene expression and location of transcription products in rainbow trout fry, in order to optimize vaccination or immune-stimulation. The presentation will focus on previous experimental models and the experimental design of the current model as well...

  16. Rainbows in channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Nešković, Nebojša; Ćosić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the effects, modeling, latest results, and nanotechnology applications of rainbows that appear during channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes. The authors begin with a brief review of the optical and particle rainbow effects followed by a detailed description of crystal rainbows, which appear in ion channeling in crystals, and their modeling using catastrophe theory. The effects of spatial and angular focusing of channeled ions are described, with special attention given to the applications of the former effect to subatomic microscopy. The results of a thorough study of the recent high-resolution channeling experiments performed with protons of energies between 2.0 and 0.7 MeV and a 55 nm thick silicon crystal are also provided. This study opens up the potential for accurate analysis of very thin crystals. Also presented are recent results related to rainbows occurring in proton transmission through carbon nanotubes, and a detailed quantum consideration of the transmissio...

  17. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  18. Freud's psychoanalysis: a moral cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-08-01

    That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  19. From HCV To HBV Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinazi, Raymond F; Asselah, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people are chronically infected with HCV and 350 million are chronically infected with HBV worldwide. It is estimated that more than one million patients die from complications related to chronic viral hepatitis, mainly HCC which is one of the most frequent cancers in many countries, especially Africa, the Middle East and Asia. HCV drug development has been impressive, and this revolution led to several direct-acting antiviral agents achieving an HCV cure after only 6-12 weeks. This progress could theorically lead to HCV global elimination making HCV and its consequences a rarity. HBV research and development programs can learn from the HCV experience, to achieve an HBV functional or sterilizing cure. This review will summarize key steps which have been realized for an HCV cure, and discuss the next steps to achieve for an HCV elimination. And also, how this HCV revolution has inspired scientists and clinicians to achieve the same for HBV.

  20. Graphs with 4-Rainbow Index 3 and n − 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xueliang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a nontrivial connected graph with an edge-coloring c : E(G → {1, 2, . . . , q}, q ∈ ℕ, where adjacent edges may be colored the same. A tree T in G is called a rainbow tree if no two edges of T receive the same color. For a vertex set S ⊆ V (G, a tree that connects S in G is called an S-tree. The minimum number of colors that are needed in an edge-coloring of G such that there is a rainbow S-tree for every set S of k vertices of V (G is called the k-rainbow index of G, denoted by rxk(G. Notice that a lower bound and an upper bound of the k-rainbow index of a graph with order n is k − 1 and n − 1, respectively. Chartrand et al. got that the k-rainbow index of a tree with order n is n − 1 and the k-rainbow index of a unicyclic graph with order n is n − 1 or n − 2. Li and Sun raised the open problem of characterizing the graphs of order n with rxk(G = n − 1 for k ≥ 3. In early papers we characterized the graphs of order n with 3-rainbow index 2 and n − 1. In this paper, we focus on k = 4, and characterize the graphs of order n with 4-rainbow index 3 and n − 1, respectively.

  1. A Feminist’s Life Journey in The Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静静

    2014-01-01

    In The Rainbow by D.H.Lawrence, Ursula is a new female image with strong self-consciousness who will never subdue to men. Born with the rebellious spirit of her grandmother and mother at their youth, Ursula strives to avoid the fatal influence of the male-dominant ideology and to achieve her self-fulfillment in the society. Finally, she finds her own rainbow which symbolizes the promising future of complete emancipation.

  2. A Feminist’s Life Journey in The Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静静

    2014-01-01

    In The Rainbow by D.H.Lawrence,Ursula is a new female image with strong self-consciousness who will never subdue to men.Born with the rebellious spirit of her grandmother and mother at their youth,Ursula strives to avoid the fatal influence of the male-dominant ideology and to achieve her selffulfillment in the society.Finally,she finds her own rainbow which symbolizes the promising future of complete emancipation.

  3. Free-fall frame black hole in gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2016-09-01

    Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. To incorporate DSR into general relativity, one could use "gravity's rainbow," where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. In this scenario, one could rewrite the rainbow metric gμ ν(E ) in terms of some orthonormal frame fields and use the modified equivalence principle to determine the energy dependence of gμ ν(E ) . Obviously, the form of gμ ν(E ) depends on the choice of the orthonormal frame. For a static black hole, there are two natural orthonormal frames: the static one hovering above it and the freely falling one along geodesics. The cases with the static orthonormal frame have been extensively studied by many authors. The aim of this paper is to investigate properties of rainbow black holes in the scenario with the free-fall orthonormal frame. We first derive the metric of rainbow black holes and their Hawking temperatures in this free-fall scenario. Then, the thermodynamics of a rainbow Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Finally, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a Schwarzschild rainbow black hole in this free-fall scenario.

  4. Composite cure monitoring with Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Kerry T.; Corona-Bittick, Kelli; Dorr, Donald J.

    1998-03-01

    Residual stress is induced in fiber composite materials during the cure process because the thermal expansion coefficient of the fiber is generally much lower than that of the polymer matrix. The two materials are 'locked' together at the cure temperature. Then, as they cool, the matrix attempts to contract more than the fiber leading to tension in the matrix and compression in the fiber. This can lead to the formation of microcracks parallel to the fibers in thick composite piles or yarns. The magnitude of residual stress can be reduced by modifying the cure cycle; however, optimizing the cure cycle requires a complete understanding of the state of cure throughout the composite. This is a complex problem -- especially in thick composites. Pilot studies have been performed placing Bragg gratin sensors in glass fabric preforms and monitoring the response of the grating during resin infusion and cure. The typical response shows the initial thermal expansion of the Bragg grating, a rapid contraction of the grating as the resin gels, slower contraction during cure, and thermal contraction at the composite thermal expansion coefficient during cool down. This data is then sued with micromechanical models of the fiber/matrix interaction during cure to establish material parameters for cure simulation. Once verified, these cure simulation methods will be used to optimize tooling design and cure cycles in composite components.

  5. Determination of benzocaine in rainbow trout plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Jeffery A.; Coleman, K.S.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, William H.

    1996-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for analysis of benzocaine (BZ), a proposed fish anesthetic, in rainbow trout plasma, Mean recoveries of BZ from plasma samples fortified at 44-10 100 ng/mL were 96-100%. The method detection limit is 10 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation is 37 ng/mL. Acetylation of BZ occurs in whole blood after storage at room temperature (i.e., 21 degrees C) for 10 min. However, no acetylation of BZ was detected in plasma samples held at room temperature for 4 h, Mean method precision for plasma samples with incurred BZ residue is similar to that for fortified samples in the same concentration range (relative standard deviations of 0.9 and 1.2%, respectively).

  6. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: anisotropic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Assanioussi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter $\\beta$ in the modified dispersion relation of the modes. Hence inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [arXiv:1412.6000], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.

  7. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: Anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter β in the modified dispersion relation of the modes, hence, inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015), 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.10.043], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.

  8. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  9. Homosexual Identity in Alex Sanchez's 'Rainbow Trilogy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Vidyastria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at describing 1 stages of homosexual identity development in three main characters in the Rainbow Trilogy using Cass model, 2 factors influencing the development of homosexual identity using D Augellis theory, and 3 forms of victimization towards homosexuals experienced by the main characters using theories of D Augelli and Rivers. Queer studies was applied to describe and analyze the data in forms of words, phrases, sentences, statements, dialogues as well as monologues in the Rainbow Trilogy, recording thoughts and actions by the characters in accordance with the research focus. As a result, the research finds out that the three novels describe clearly all stages of Cass model of homosexual identity development in Jason and Kyle, including their identity confusions, comparisons, acceptances, tolerances, prides and syntheses. In Nelson, only one stage that can be identified as Nelson is described as one whose sexual identity has been formed. The research also reveals how factors of personal subjectivity and action, interactive intimacy and sociohistorical connection are connected to each others and also influencing the homosexual identity developments of the main characters. Besides, the research also shows that various kinds of victimization occur to Jason, Kyle and Nelson. Normative victimizations made to feel different are experienced by Nelson and Kyle. Family stressor and prejudices in connection to AIDS are experienced by the three characters. Victimization of direct attacks in forms of verbal and physical abuses are experienced by Kyle and Nelson. Lastly, the research finds out that Nelson is the only character experiencing sexual abuse. It occurs in form of undesired comments oriented to a sexual violence.

  10. Decreased Cure and Increased Recurrence Rates for Clostridium difficile Infection Caused by the Epidemic C. difficile BI Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Petrella, Laurica A.; Sambol, Susan P.; Cheknis, Adam; Nagaro, Kristin; Kean, Yin; Sears, Pamela S.; Babakhani, Farah; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N.

    2012-01-01

    In 2 large, prospective, randomized, blinded trials of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin, the Clostridum difficile infection clinical cure rate was lower and the recurrence rate was higher for patients infected with the BI C. difficile strain than those infected with non-BI strains.

  11. Cure-A-Phobia感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乔

    2015-01-01

    爵士乐源于二十世纪的非洲黑人音乐,被公认为欧洲现代流行音乐的开端,随着二十一世纪多元化文化的不断呈现,爵士乐在我国也愈来愈受到关注.特别是在各艺术类院校,相关爵士乐教学及演出活动也越来越多.本文在此将对瑞典爵士乐队Cure-A-Phobia的一场音乐会略抒己见.

  12. Introgression and susceptibility to disease in a wild population of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currens, K.P.; Hemmingsen, A.R.; French, R.A.; Buchanan, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.; Li, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    We examined susceptibility of wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Metolius River, a tributary of the Deschutes River, Oregon, to genetic introgression and ceratomyxosis as a result of stocking nonnative hatchery rainbow trout. Ceratomyxa shasta, an enzootic myxosporean parasite that can be lethal to nonnative hatchery rainbow trout, might have been limiting the interbreeding of hatchery and wild rainbow trout in the river. However, rainbow trout from the Metolius River had allozyme frequencies intermediate between those of wild and hatchery fish at LDH-B2* and sSOD-1*, two diagnostic genetic loci that allow the inland subspecies of rainbow trout to be distinguished from hatchery strains of coastal origin. They also had notable frequencies of ADA-1*85, an allele documented in hatchery rainbow trout but rarely seen in wild populations. We also found that rainbow trout in the Metolius River averaged 138.9 scales in the lateral series, intermediate between the counts for 9 coastal or nonnative hatchery populations, which always had fewer than 140 scales, and 10 inland populations, which always had more than 140 scales. Disease challenges revealed that rainbow trout from the Metolius River had much greater susceptibility to C. shasta than rainbow trout from the Deschutes River, which have genetic resistance to the lethal disease. Based on these data, we concluded that introgression with nonnative hatchery rainbow trout has reduced the abilities of wild rainbow trout in the Metolius River to survive when conditions for ceratomyxosis infection occur.

  13. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity... Corporation (Rainbow) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico... received an application from Rainbow for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  14. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity... Corporation (Rainbow) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to... Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order No. EA-296 authorizing Rainbow to transmit electric energy from...

  15. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

    1992-01-01

    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  16. Interfacial Properties of Electron Beam Cured Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, C.C.

    1999-12-30

    The objectives of the CRADA are to: Confirm that fiber-resin adhesion is responsible for the observed poor shear properties; Determine the mechanism(s) responsible for poor adhesion between carbon fibers and epoxy resins after e-beam curing; Develop and evaluate resin systems and fiber treatments to improve the properties of e-beam cured, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites; and Develop refined methods for processing e-beam cured, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites.

  17. Microwave Cure of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    高谷, 政広; 田平, 英敏; 岡本, 忠

    2006-01-01

    [Synopsis] Phenol-formaldehyde resin has been used as a versatile material for adhesives and coatings of a wide range of adherends because of its excellent performance in water- resistance, strength against abrasion, and so on. However, it has a drawback of slow rate of cure and relevant emission of formaldehyde gas after bonding. We studied the curing performance under irradiation of microwave for the purpose of looking for a way of accelerating the cure rate of phenol formaldehyde resin. Th...

  18. Electron Beam Curing of Advanced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental concept of electron beam method and the application in cure of composites are elaborated in this paper. The components of electron beam curing system are introduced. The mechanisms of interaction between electron beam and polymer matrix composites are presented. Recent studies reported including work of authors themselves on electron beam curing of composites are also discussed. Moreover, the authors believe that it is necessary to do the basic research about understanding how electron beam affects cured network and the mechanical/physical properties of the composites, for establishing a quantitative or semi-quantitative formulation.

  19. Ontogenetic taurine biosynthesis ability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2015-07-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) plays important roles in multiple physiological processes including osmoregulation, bile salt conjugation and membrane protection. It is known that taurine biosynthesis varies in different fish species. However, its ontogenetic regulation has not been clear. In the present study, we found that the hepatic concentrations of taurine increased marginally with rainbow trout growth. The mRNA expression, protein levels and enzyme activities of key enzymes involved in taurine biosynthesis, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), were analyzed. Our results showed that the mRNA levels and protein abundances of CSD increased dramatically with the development of rainbow trout stages while the enzyme activities showed a slight improvement. However, the expression and activities of CDO decreased with rainbow trout growth. These results provide valuable information on defining the exact supplementation of taurine in diets for different stages of rainbow trout and give new insights into elucidating the regulation of taurine metabolism in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The k-Rainbow Bondage Number of a Digraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjadi Jafar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Let D = (V,A be a finite and simple digraph. A k-rainbow dominating function (kRDF of a digraph D is a function f from the vertex set V to the set of all subsets of the set {1, 2, . . . , k} such that for any vertex v ∈ V with f(v = Ø the condition ∪u∈N−(v f(u = {1, 2, . . . , k} is fulfilled, where N−(v is the set of in-neighbors of v. The weight of a kRDF f is the value w(f = ∑v∈V |f(v|. The k-rainbow domination number of a digraph D, denoted by γrk(D, is the minimum weight of a kRDF of D. The k-rainbow bondage number brk(D of a digraph D with maximum in-degree at least two, is the minimum cardinality of all sets A′ ⊆ A for which γrk(D−A′ > γrk(D. In this paper, we establish some bounds for the k-rainbow bondage number and determine the k-rainbow bondage number of several classes of digraphs.

  1. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  2. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  3. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  4. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  5. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  6. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  7. Curing efficiency of three light emitting diode units at different curing profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Reduction of exposure time to 6 s with high-intensity curing light seemed to be clinically acceptable and should be recommended. Curing of metal brackets with single exposure from buccal side showed lower shear bond strength values.

  8. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  9. Prevention is better than cure

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure.   This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...

  10. Hepatitis C, stigma and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Rui Tato; Barreira, David Pires

    2013-10-28

    The infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important global chronic viral infections worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 3% of the world population, about 170-200 million people. Great part of the infections are asymptomatic, the patient can be a chronic carrier for decades without knowing it. The most severe consequences of the chronic infection are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which appears in 20%-40% of the patients, leading to hepatic failure and death. The HCV was discovered 25 years ago in 1989, is a RNA virus and classified by the World Health Organization as an oncogenic one. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most important cancers, the fifth worldwide in terms of mortality. It has been increasing in the Ocidental world, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is not only a liver disease and a cause of cirrhosis, but also a mental, psychological, familiar, and social disease. The stigma that the infected person sometimes carries is tremendous having multiple consequences. The main cause is lack of adequate information, even in the health professionals setting. But, besides the "drama" of being infected, health professionals, family, society and the infected patients, must be aware of the chance of real cure and total and definitive elimination of the virus. The treatment for hepatitis C has begun in the last 80's with a percentage of cure of 6%. Step by step the efficacy of the therapy for hepatitis C is rapidly increasing and nowadays with the very new medications, the so called Direct Antiviral Agents-DAAs of new generation, is around 80%-90%.

  11. Curing Mechanism of Condensed Polynuclear Aromatic Resin and Thermal Stability of Cured Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shibin; Sun Qiqian; Wang Yuwei; Wu Mingbo; Zhang Zailong

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the thermal stability of condensed polynuclear aromatic (COPNA) resin synthesized from vacuum residue, 1,4-benzenedimethanol was added to cure COPNA resin. The curing mechanism was investigated by pro-ton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, solid carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy. Microstructures of the uncured and the cured COPNA resins were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The thermal stability of COPNA resins before and after curing was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis. The element composition of the cured COPNA resin heated at different temperatures was analyzed by an element analyzer. The results showed that the uncured COPNA resin reacted with the cross-linking agent during the cur-ing process, and the curing mechanism was conifrmed to be the electrophilic substitution reaction. Compared with the un-cured COPNA resin, the cured COPNA resin had a smooth surface, well-ordered and streamlined sheet structure with more crystalline solids, better molecular arrangement and orientation. The weight loss process of the uncured and cured COPNA resins was divided into three stages. Carbon residue of the cured COPNA resin was 41.65%at 600℃, which was much higher than 25.02%of the uncured COPNA resin, which indicated that the cured COPNA resin had higher thermal stability.

  12. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible.

  13. Thermodynamic instability of nonlinearly charged black holes in gravity's rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, S H; Panah, B Eslam; Momennia, M

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the violation of Lorentz invariancy in quantum gravity, we study black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow in the context of Einstein gravity coupled with various models of nonlinear electrodynamics. We regard an energy dependent spacetime and obtain related metric functions and electric fields. We show that there is an essential singularity at the origin which is covered with an event horizon. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamical quantities and examine the validity of the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of rainbow functions. Finally we investigate thermal stability conditions for these black hole solutions in context of canonical ensemble. We show that although there is not physical small black hole, large black holes are physical and enjoy thermal stability in gravity's rainbow.

  14. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, J; Weigand, B

    2007-04-10

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

  15. F(R) gravity's rainbow and their Einstein counterpart

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S; Momennia, M

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by UV completion of general relativity with a modification of a geometry at high energy scale, it is expected to have an energy dependent geometry. In this paper, we introduce charged black hole solutions with power Maxwell invariant source in the context of gravity's rainbow. In addition, we investigate two classes of F(R) gravity's rainbow solutions. At first, we study energy dependent F(R) gravity without energy momentum tensor, and then we obtain F(R) gravity's rainbow in the presence of conformally invariant Maxwell source. We study geometrical properties of the mentioned solutions and compare their results. We also give some related comments regarding to thermodynamical behavior of the obtained solutions and discuss thermal stability of the solutions.

  16. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  17. Cure-WISE: HETDEX Data Reduction with Astro-WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigula, J. M.; Drory, N.; Fabricius, M.; Landriau, M.; Montesano, F.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Cornell, M. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX, Hill et al. 2012b) is a blind spectroscopic survey to map the evolution of dark energy using Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshifts 1.9currently receives a wide-field upgrade (Hill et al. 2012a) to accomodate the spectrographs and to provide the needed field of view. Over the projected five year run of the survey we expect to obtain approximately 170 GB of data each night. For the data reduction we developed the Cure pipeline, to automatically find and calibrate the observed spectra, subtract the sky background, and detect and classify different types of sources. Cure employs rigorous statistical methods and complete pixel-level error propagation throughout the reduction process to ensure Poisson-limited performance and meaningful significance values. To automate the reduction of the whole dataset we implemented the Cure pipeline in the Astro-WISE framework. This integration provides for HETDEX a database backend with complete dependency tracking of the various reduction steps, automated checks, and a searchable interface to the detected sources and user management. It can be used to create various web interfaces for data access and quality control. Astro-WISE allows us to reduce the data from all the IFUs in parallel on a compute cluster. This cluster allows us to reduce the observed data in quasi real time and still have excess capacity for rerunning parts of the reduction. Finally, the Astro-WISE interface will be used to provide access to reduced data products to the general community.

  18. Multicolor Electrochromics: Rainbow-Like Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesanco, Yolanda; Viñuales, Ana; Palenzuela, Jesús; Odriozola, Ibon; Cabañero, Germán; Rodriguez, Javier; Tena-Zaera, Ramón

    2016-06-15

    Stimuli-responsive reversible coloration-change materials represent a highly demanded type of smart systems useful for a wide variety of applications, with a significant growing interest in multicolor abilities. In particular, electrochromic materials have received a great deal of attention due to their versatility and broad range of industrial uses. However, most of the existing electrochromic technologies provide a single coloration, while achieving multiple colors based on simple approaches remains a challenge. The present article reports on PVA gel-based electrochromic devices, containing a single viologen, providing a colorless and two different well-defined colored states. The successful fabrication of a device, based on two viologens (multi-EC gel) with a simple architecture (glass/TCO/multi-EC gel/TCO/glass), with five different multiswitchable colors based on four-zoned electrodes (rainbow-like ECD) is also demonstrated. This novel easy-to-make multichromic system represents a significant breakthrough toward the generation of full-color devices, expanding the potential of electrochromic technology.

  19. Dental resin cure monitoring by inherent fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Zhou, Jack X.; Li, Qingxiong; Wang, Sean X.

    2008-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the inherent fluorescence of a dental composite resin can be utilized to monitor the curing status, i.e. degree of conversion of the resin. The method does not require any sample preparation and is potentially very fast for real time cure monitoring. The method is verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis.

  20. 7 CFR 29.6010 - Cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured. 29.6010 Section 29.6010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6010 Cured. Tobacco dried of its sap by either natural or...

  1. Exposure to ceftobiprole is associated with microbiological eradication and clinical cure in patients with nosocomial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A E; Punt, N; Mouton, J W

    2014-05-01

    The percentage of the dosing interval that the non-protein-bound plasma concentration is above the MIC (%fT>MIC) for cephalosporins has been shown to correlate with microbiological outcomes in preclinical studies. However, clinical data are scarce. Using data from a randomized double-blind phase 3 clinical trial, we explored the relationship of ceftobiprole exposure with microbiological and clinical outcomes in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. The individual ceftobiprole exposure was determined for different pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) indices using individual pharmacokinetic data and a previously published population model. The MICs used in the analysis were the highest MICs for any bacterium cultured at baseline or the end of treatment (EOT). Outcomes were microbiological cure at EOT and clinical cure at test of cure (TOC). Multiple logistic regression (MLR) and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were applied to determine the relationships among exposure, patient characteristics, and outcomes. MLR indicated that the %fT>MIC of ceftobiprole was the best predictor for both microbiological eradication and clinical cure. CART analysis showed a breakpoint value of 51.1% (n = 159; P = 0.0024) for clinical cure, whereas it was 62.2% (n = 251; P ceftobiprole. The %fT>MIC required to result in a favorable clinical outcome is >51% of the dosing interval, which is in line with the values found for microbiological eradication, the comparator ceftazidime, and preclinical models.

  2. Rainbow refractometry on particles with radial refractive index gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saengkaew, Sawitree [CNRS/Universite et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6614/CORIA, BP12, 76 800, Saint Etienne du Rouvray CEDEX (France); Chulalongkorn University, Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Vanisri, Hathaichanok; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut [Chulalongkorn University, Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Biscos, Yves; Garcia, Nicolas; Lavergne, Gerard [ONERA/DMAE, Toulouse (France); Mees, Loic; Gouesbet, Gerard; Grehan, Gerard [CNRS/Universite et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6614/CORIA, BP12, 76 800, Saint Etienne du Rouvray CEDEX (France)

    2007-10-15

    The rainbow refractrometry, under its different configurations (classical and global), is an attractive technique to extract information from droplets in evaporation such as diameter and temperature. Recently a new processing strategy has been developed which increases dramatically the size and refractive index measurements accuracy for homogeneous droplets. Nevertheless, for mono component as well as for multicomponent droplets, the presence of temperature and/or of concentration gradients induce the presence of a gradient of refractive index which affects the interpretation of the recorded signals. In this publication, the effect of radial gradient on rainbow measurements with a high accuracy never reached previously is quantified. (orig.)

  3. Three-dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: Exact solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Hendi, Seyed; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Panahiyan, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results into dilaton gravity, on the one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity and gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three-dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions, which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.

  4. Three-dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: Exact solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Hendi, Seyed; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Panahiyan, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results into dilaton gravity, on the one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity and gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three-dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions, which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.

  5. Refractive effects in 9Be scattering and nuclear rainbow ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchler, G. R.; Fulmer, C. B.; Auble, R. L.; Ball, J. B.; Bertrand, F. E.; Erb, K. A.; Gross, E. E.; Hensley, D. C.

    1983-08-01

    Data for the elastic scattering of 9Be on 12C and 16O at 158 MeV provide evidence of refractive effects that allow the optical potentials to be determined with little ambiguity. The real potentials are deep. Large angle data indicate dominance of negative-angle scattering from the far side of the target nucleus. The analysis also implies a residual rainbow phenomenon, contrary to what has been seen previously in heavy-ion scattering. We suggest this be called a rainbow ghost. Operated by Union Carbide Corporation under contract W-7405-eng-26 with the US Department of Energy.

  6. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  7. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...

  8. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  9. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  10. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  11. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the stomach) and operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  12. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with night blindness often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a ... certain drugs Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa

  13. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  14. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  15. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  16. Curing efficiency of modern LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencz, Adam; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports claim that modern light-emitting diode (LED) curing units improve curing efficiency by increasing the units' irradiance. In this context also, short polymerisation times up to 5 s are proposed. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the curing efficiency of modern LED curing units by assessing their effect on two different composite materials and by varying the irradiation time. A nano- and a micro-hybrid resin-based composite (RBC) were polymerised for 5, 10 and 20 s with three commercial and a Prototype LED unit (Elipar™ S10). Cylindrical specimens (6 mm in depth, 4 mm in diameter) were prepared in three increments, each 2-mm thick, and were consecutively cured. Degree of cure was measured for 20 min in real time at the bottom of the samples, starting with the photoinitiation. The micro-mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, E and Vickers hardness, HV) were measured as a function of depth, in 100-μm steps, on the above described samples stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test, t test and partial eta-squared statistics. In descending order of the strength of their effect, the type of RBC, depth, polymerisation time and curing unit were significant factors affecting the micro-mechanical parameters (p surface, a minimum of 20 s of irradiation is necessary for an adequate polymerisation 2 mm beyond the surface.

  17. Ischemic jejunal stenosis and blind loop syndrome after blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, P; Rendall, M; Hoskins, E O; Missen, G A; Sladen, G E

    1987-02-01

    One month after suffering blunt abdominal trauma a patient developed severe steatorrhea and profound weight loss in association with an ischemic distal jejunal stricture and blind loop syndrome. Evidence for a partial mesenteric tear was found at resection of the stricture, which resulted in complete cure.

  18. Genomic analysis of the rainbow trout response to crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. One such set of traits is the physiological responses of rainbow trout to the stresses of the aquaculture environment. Typical stresso...

  19. The Stylistic Analysis of an Extract from The Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕

    2012-01-01

      This paper makes a detailed stylistic analysis of an extract from The Rainbow by Lawrence based on lexical features, grammatical features and figure of speech. Through the analysis, a better aesthetic appreciation and deeper understanding of the novel will be achieved.

  20. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    CERN Document Server

    El-Bennich, B; Paracha, M A; de Melo, J P B C

    2013-01-01

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  1. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can u...

  2. The Vertex-Rainbow Index of A Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yaping

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The k-rainbow index rxk(G of a connected graph G was introduced by Chartrand, Okamoto and Zhang in 2010. As a natural counterpart of the k-rainbow index, we introduce the concept of k-vertex-rainbow index rvxk(G in this paper. In this paper, sharp upper and lower bounds of rvxk(G are given for a connected graph G of order n, that is, 0 ≤ rvxk(G ≤ n − 2. We obtain Nordhaus-Gaddum results for 3-vertex-rainbow index of a graph G of order n, and show that rvx3(G + rvx3(Ḡ = 4 for n = 4 and 2 ≤ rvx3(G + rvx3(Ḡ ≤ n − 1 for n ≥ 5. Let t(n, k, ℓ denote the minimal size of a connected graph G of order n with rvxk(G ≤ ℓ, where 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ n − 2 and 2 ≤ k ≤ n. Upper and lower bounds on t(n, k, ℓ are also obtained.

  3. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  4. Teaching the Absorption of Light Colours Using an Artificial Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light colours by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment colours. The light colours composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…

  5. Critical Mass of Gauge Boson in Rainbow QED3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hong-Tao; HU Fei; SUN Wei-Min; ZONG Hong-Shi

    2005-01-01

    In three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED3) with a massive gauge boson, we investigate the coupled Dyson-Schwinger equations for the fermion and photon propagators in the rainbow approximation, and obtain the critical gauge boson mass for various numbers of the fermion flavors. A comparision with the previous results is presented.

  6. Rainbow: a framework for analysing computer-mediated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Michael; Andriessen, J.E.B.; Lund, Kristine; Amelsvoort, M.A.A. van; Quignard, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for analysing when and how students engage in a specific form of interactive knowledge elaboration in CSCL environments: broadening and deepening understanding of a space of debate. The framework is termed “Rainbow,” as it comprises seven principal analytical

  7. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo 01506-000 SP (Brazil); Paracha, M. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo 01506-000 SP, Brazil and Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-11

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  8. Dermoscopy of Kaposi's sarcoma: areas exhibiting the multicoloured 'rainbow pattern'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S C-S; Ke, C-L K; Lee, C-H; Wu, C-S; Chen, G-S; Cheng, S-T

    2009-10-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumour characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells and endothelial cells to form closely arranged slit-like vascular spaces. Currently, the definitive diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma relies on histology. The dermoscopic features of Kaposi's sarcoma are not clearly defined in the scientific literature. We seek to evaluate the dermoscopic features of Kaposi's sarcoma and compare them with other vascular tumours. One hundred forty-one lesions from seven patients with histologically proven Kaposi's sarcoma were evaluated using polarized light dermoscopy for the presence of various dermoscopic features. Twenty patients with other vascular tumours were also examined. Dermoscopic examination revealed bluish-reddish coloration (84% of lesions), multicoloured areas showing various colours of the rainbow spectrum (36%), scaly surface (29%), and small brown globules (15%). The 'rainbow pattern' was found in six out of seven patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and was not observed in other vascular tumours. In addition, there was an absence of dermoscopic features specific for other vascular and non-vascular skin tumours, such as well-defined lacunae or structured vascular pattern, in most of the Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. The most frequent dermoscopic patterns in Kaposi's sarcoma were found to be bluish-reddish coloration, the 'rainbow pattern', and scaly surface. The rainbow pattern is a dermoscopic feature which has not been previously described. We propose that dermoscopy, as an adjunct to clinical examination, may enhance accuracy in the preoperative diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.

  9. Genetics of growth reaction norms in farmed rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Mulder, H.A.; Gjerde, B.; Koskinen, H.; Lillehammer, M.; Kause, A.

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when

  10. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  11. Rainbow Visibility: How One Catholic University Responded to Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn A.

    2002-01-01

    When intolerance of gays and lesbians at the University of San Diego became a problem, a group of students, staff, and faculty decided to do something about it. The result was a project called Rainbow Visibility that works on many forms to educate the campus community. (Author)

  12. One-step microwave foaming and curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Process that combines microwave foaming and curing of polyimide precursors in single step produces fire-resistant foam slabs of much larger volume than has previously been possible. By adding selected conductive fillers to powder precursors and by using high-power microwave oven, foam slabs with dimensions in excess of 61 by 61 by 7.6 cm are made. Typical foaming and curing and curing time is 35 minutes in microwave oven with additional 1 to 2 hour postcure in conventional oven.

  13. Acceleration of curing of resin composite at the bottom surface using slow-start curing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Morigami, Makoto; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two slow-start curing methods on acceleration of the curing of resin composite specimens at the bottom surface. The light-cured resin composite was polymerized using one of three curing techniques: (1) 600 mW/cm(2) for 60 s, (2) 270 mW/cm(2) for 10 s+0-s interval+600 mW/cm(2) for 50 s, and (3) 270 mW/cm(2) for 10 s+5-s interval+600 mW/cm(2) for 50 s. After light curing, Knoop hardness number was measured at the top and bottom surfaces of the resin specimens. The slow-start curing method with the 5-s interval caused greater acceleration of curing of the resin composite at the bottom surface of the specimens than the slow-start curing method with the 0-s interval. The light-cured resin composite, which had increased contrast ratios during polymerization, showed acceleration of curing at the bottom surface.

  14. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  15. More on the initial singularity problem in gravity's rainbow cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadi, M.; Nozari, K.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2016-12-01

    Using a one-dimensional minisuperspace model with a dimensionless ratio E/E_{Pl}, we study the initial singularity problem at the quantum level for the closed rainbow cosmology with a homogeneous, isotropic classical space-time background. We derive the classical Hamiltonian within the framework of Schutz's formalism for an ideal fluid with a cosmological constant. We characterize the behavior of the system at the early stages of the universe evolution through analyzing the relevant shapes for the potential sector of the classical Hamiltonian for various matter sources, each separately modified by two rainbow functions. We show that for both rainbow universe models presented here, there is the possibility of eliminating the initial singularity by forming a potential barrier and static universe for a non-zero value of the scale factor. We investigate their quantum stability and show that for an energy-dependent space-time geometry with energies comparable with the Planck energy, the non-zero value of the scale factor may be stable. It is shown that under certain constraints the rainbow universe model filled with an exotic matter as a domain wall fluid plus a cosmological constant can result in a non-singular harmonic universe. In addition, we demonstrate that the harmonically oscillating universe with respect to the scale factor is sensitive to E/E_{Pl} and that at high energies it may become stable quantum mechanically. Through a Schrödinger-Wheeler-De Witt equation obtained from the quantization of the classical Hamiltonian, we also extract the wave packet of the universe with a focus on the early stages of the evolution. The resulting wave packet supports the existence of a bouncing non-singular universe within the context of gravity's rainbow proposal.

  16. Light-cured resin for post patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmeier, M D; Grasso, J E

    1992-09-01

    A method of using light-cured acrylic resin as an alternative to the use of chemically-cured acrylic resins with elastomeric impressions for direct post patterns is presented. The GC Unifast LC acrylic resin is a powder/liquid type resin cured by exposure to visible light. The polymerization process has four stages before final curing: slurry, stringy, dough-like (plastic), and rubber-like (elastic). Advantages over current direct and indirect procedures include ease of manipulation of the material and no change in laboratory handling procedures. While in the dough-like state, the material can be contoured. In the rubber-like state, it is flexible to disengage from minor undercut areas.

  17. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  18. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Karalidi, T; Hovenier, J W

    2012-01-01

    Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in the planetary signal by covering liquid water clouds. Here, we investigate the strength of the rainbow feature for exoplanets that have liquid and icy water clouds in their atmosphere, and calculate the rainbow feature for a realistic cloud coverage of Earth. We calculate flux and polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by horizontally and vertically inhomogeneous Earth--like exoplanets, covered by patchy clouds consisting of liquid water droplets or water ice crystals. The planetary surfaces are black. On a planet with a significant coverage of liquid water clouds only, the total flux signal shows a weak rainbow feature. Any coverage of the liquid water clouds by ice clouds, however, dampens the rainbow fea...

  19. Effect of cure cycle on curing process and hardness for epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate and analyze the temperature and degree of cure field of epoxy casting part during cure process. The present model based on general finite element software ABAQUS is verified by literature example and experimental data. The numerical results show good agreement with literature example and measured data, and are even more accurate than the simulation of literature. After modeling successfully, the influence of temperature cure cycle ramps have on the temperature and degree of cure gradient is investigated. Moreover, the effect of non-uniform temperature and degree of cure field within epoxy casting part on hardness is demonstrated. The present model provides an accurate and novel method that allows further insight into the process of cure for epoxy resin.

  20. EVALUATION OF DIELECTRIC CURING MONITORING INVESTIGATING LIGHT-CURING DENTAL FILLING COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Steinhaus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation of a dielectric analysis (DEA method monitoring the curing behaviour of a light curing dental filling material in real-time. The evaluation is to extract the influence of light intensity on the photo-curing process of dental composite filling materials. The intensity change is obtained by measuring the curing process at different sample depth. It could be shown that increasing sample thickness, and therefore exponentially decreasing light intensity, causes a proportional decrease in the initial curing rate. Nevertheless, the results give rise to the assumption that lower illumination intensities over a long period cause higher overall conversion, and thus better mechanical properties. This would allow for predictions of the impact of different curing-rates on the final mechanical properties.

  1. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  2. Entropy spectrum of charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity's rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Panah, Behzad Eslam

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the significant interests in massive gravity's rainbow and also BTZ black holes, we apply the formalism introduced by Jiang and Han in order to investigate the quantization of the entropy of black holes. We show that the entropy of BTZ black holes in massive gravity's rainbow is quantized with equally spaced spectra and it depends on the value of the parameters of this black hole such as; massive parameters, electrical charge, the cosmological constant and also rainbow functions.

  3. Comparative study on compressive strength of Self cured SCC and Normally cured SCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Akanksha A. Patil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curing is the process of maintaining proper moisture content particularly within 28 days to promote optimum cement hydration immediately after placement. Self-compacting concrete is made up of admixture i.e. superplasticizer. In recent years, self-compacting concrete (SCC has gained wide use for placement in congested reinforced concrete structures with difficult casting conditions. Also various curing methods are adopted in the construction industry especially for vertical structures, inaccessible areas s.a. high rise buildings, water scarce areas etc. In such structures conventional curing is not practically possible in most of the cases. But we need efficient curing which improves the strength and durability of concrete. In the present work, comparison of compressive strength of normally cured SCC and SCC cured with self curing material i.e. wax based, white pigmented, membrane forming concrete curing compound has been done. This study is investigating that weather the use of self curing compound is economical or not in remote areas of water without compromising with the compressive strength of concrete.

  4. Cure fraction estimation from the mixture cure models for grouped survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbing; Tiwari, Ram C; Cronin, Kathleen A; Feuer, Eric J

    2004-06-15

    Mixture cure models are usually used to model failure time data with long-term survivors. These models have been applied to grouped survival data. The models provide simultaneous estimates of the proportion of the patients cured from disease and the distribution of the survival times for uncured patients (latency distribution). However, a crucial issue with mixture cure models is the identifiability of the cure fraction and parameters of kernel distribution. Cure fraction estimates can be quite sensitive to the choice of latency distributions and length of follow-up time. In this paper, sensitivity of parameter estimates under semi-parametric model and several most commonly used parametric models, namely lognormal, loglogistic, Weibull and generalized Gamma distributions, is explored. The cure fraction estimates from the model with generalized Gamma distribution is found to be quite robust. A simulation study was carried out to examine the effect of follow-up time and latency distribution specification on cure fraction estimation. The cure models with generalized Gamma latency distribution are applied to the population-based survival data for several cancer sites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Several cautions on the general use of cure model are advised.

  5. Reassessment of the predatory effects of rainbow smelt on ciscoes in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jared T.; Jones, Michael L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from small lakes suggests that predation on larval ciscoes Coregonus artedi by nonnative rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax can lead to cisco suppression or extirpation. However, evidence from larger lakes has led to equivocal conclusions. In this study, we examine the potential predation effects of rainbow smelt in two adjacent but contrasting embayments in Lake Superior (Thunder and Black bays, Ontario). During May 2006, we sampled the ichthyoplankton, pelagic fish communities, and diet composition of rainbow smelt in both bays. Using acoustics and midwater trawling, we estimated rainbow smelt densities to be 476 ± 34/ha (mean ± SE) in Thunder Bay and 3,435 ± 460/ha in Black Bay. We used a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of cisco larvae consumed by rainbow smelt. Our results suggest that predation by rainbow smelt accounts for 15–52% and 37–100% of the mortality of larval ciscoes in Thunder and Black bays, respectively, depending on the predator feeding rate and the scale of predator–prey overlap. We also examined the sensitivity of past conclusions (based on 1974 field collections) to assumptions of temporal overlap between rainbow smelt and larval ciscoes and estimates of rainbow smelt abundance derived from bottom trawl samples. After adjusting these parameters to reflect current understanding, we found that the previous predation estimates may have been conservative. We conclude that rainbow smelt may have been a more important contributor to the demise and slow recovery of ciscoes in Lake Superior than previously thought.

  6. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  7. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  8. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  9. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written By: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  10. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  11. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  12. HEAT-RESISTANT COMPOSITES CURED BY ELECTRON BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wen Bao; Yang Li; Xiang-bao Chen; Feng-mei Li

    2001-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) curing of composites has many advantages. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute polyimide composites used in aeronautical engines. In this paper, the effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the composites cured by EB could meet the specifications of aeronautical engines at 250°C.

  13. Ecological factors affecting Rainbow Smelt recruitment in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1976-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy P.; Taylor, William W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are native to northeastern Atlantic and Pacific–Arctic drainages and have been widely introduced throughout North America. In the Great Lakes region, Rainbow Smelt are known predators and competitors of native fish and a primary prey species in pelagic food webs. Despite their widespread distribution, importance as a prey species, and potential to negatively interact with native fish species, there is limited information concerning stock–recruitment relationships for Rainbow Smelt. To better understand recruitment mechanisms, we evaluated potential ecological factors determining recruitment dynamics for Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron using data from bottom trawl catches. We specifically evaluated influence of stock size, environmental factors (water temperature, lake levels, and precipitation), and salmonine predation on the production of age-0 recruits from 1976 to 2010. Rainbow Smelt recruitment was negatively related to stock size exceeding 10 kg/ha, indicating that compensatory, density-dependent mortality from cannibalism or intraspecific competition was an important factor related to the production of age-0 recruits. Recruitment was positively related to spring precipitation suggesting that the amount of stream-spawning habitat as determined by precipitation was important for the production of strong Rainbow Smelt recruitment. Additionally, density of age-0 Rainbow Smelt was positively related to Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush abundance. However, spawning stock biomass of Rainbow Smelt, which declined substantially from 1989 to 2010, was negatively associated with Lake Trout catch per effort suggesting predation was an important factor related to the decline of age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron. As such, we found that recruitment of Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron was regulated by competition with or cannibalism by older conspecifics, spring precipitation influencing stream spawning habitats, and predation by Lake Trout on

  14. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (<600 mm TL) consumed primarily centrarchids and Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, and Rainbow Trout contributed less than 10% to their annual energy consumption. In contrast, larger Northern Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  15. Testing experimental subunit furunculosis vaccines for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... trout with subunit vaccines containing protein antigens that were selected based on an in silico antigen discovery approach. Thus, the proteome of AS strain A449 was analyzed by an antigen discovery platform and its proteins consequently ranked by their predicted ability to evoke protective immune...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...

  16. Bethe–Salpeter studies of mesons beyond rainbow-ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams R.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the masses of light mesons from a coupled system of Dyson–Schwinger and Bethe– Salpeter equations. We explicitly take into account dominant non-Abelian and sub-leading Abelian contributions to the dressed quark-gluon vertex. We also include unquenching effects in the form of hadronic resonance contributions via the back-reaction of pions. We construct the corresponding Bethe–Salpeter kernel that satisfies the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity. Our numerical treatment fully includes all momentum dependencies with all equations solved completely in the complex plane. This approach goes well beyond the rainbow-ladder approximation and permits us to investigate the relative impact of different corrections beyond rainbow-ladder on the properties of mesons. We find that sub-leading Abelian corrections are further dynamically suppressed, and that our results supersede early qualitative predictions with significantly simpler truncation schemes.

  17. Rainbow Solfege: new perspective for color theory and music education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Virginia C.

    2002-06-01

    The Rainbow Solfege System is an innovative, interdisciplinary music teaching method that illustrates in living color the linear and vertical energy of melodic movement and harmonic progressions: a synthesis of color, shape, sound and language. The system is rooted in proven pedagogical practice, while providing a fresh approach to educational methodology. Rainbow Solfege is based upon principles of tertian harmony and concepts of tonality in music and is analogous to color theory and shape theory in art. The pedagogy is holistic in design involving a variety of learning modes - visual, aural and kinesthetic - and is an effective learning tool for all ages and stages. Educational uses run the gamut from teaching musical concepts and color/shape theory for very young children to applications in college level music theory and analysis courses. With consistent application, particularly in early childhood, the method has potential for increasing musical, artistic and linguistic abilities for life.

  18. Sedimentology of a wreck: the Rainbow Warrior revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abigail M; Kregting, Louise; Fern, Sophie; Fraser, Ceridwen I

    2011-11-01

    The wreck of the Rainbow Warrior, a 40-m ship sunk on 12 December 1987 in Matauri Bay (34° 59' S, 173° 56' E), Cavalli Islands, northeastern New Zealand, offers an opportunity to investigate the impact of artificial substrate on temperate carbonate sedimentation. Surface sediment samples showed no significant textural or compositional difference between sediments near the wreck and those far from it. The large and diverse carbonate-producing community resident on the wreck (dominated by bryozoans, corals and sponges) has not had a measurable influence on adjacent bottom sediments (dominated by bivalves and barnacles), even after 21 years. It is likely that carbonate production on the Rainbow Warrior is insufficient to leave any sedimentary record over the potential lifetime of the wreck on the seafloor, which informs our understanding of the long-term impacts of shipwrecks (and other artificial substrata) on the local benthic environment in shallow temperate ecosystems.

  19. Gravity's rainbow: a bridge between LQC and DSR

    CERN Document Server

    Gorji, M A; Vakili, B

    2016-01-01

    The doubly special relativity (DSR) theories are investigated in order to take into account an observer-independent length scale in special relativity framework. It is widely believed that any quantum theory of gravity would reduce to a DSR model at the flat limit when purely gravitational and quantum mechanical effects are negligible. Gravity's rainbow is a simple generalization of DSR theories to incorporate gravity. In this paper, we show that the effective Friedmann equations that are suggested by loop quantum cosmology (LQC) can be exactly reobtained in rainbow cosmology setup. The deformed geometry of LQC then completely fixes the modified dispersion relation and results in unique DSR model. In comparison with standard LQC scenario where only the geometry is modified, both of the geometry and matter parts get modifications in our setup. In this respect, we find that the total number of microstates for the universe is finite which suggests the statistical origin for the energy and entropy density bounds....

  20. Gravity's rainbow: A bridge between LQC and DSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, M. A.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2017-02-01

    The doubly special relativity (DSR) theories are constructed in order to take into account an observer-independent length scale in special relativity framework. Gravity's rainbow is a simple generalization of DSR theories to incorporate gravity. In this paper, we show that the effective Friedmann equations that are suggested by loop quantum cosmology (LQC) can be exactly reobtained in rainbow cosmology setup. The deformed geometry of LQC then fixes the modified dispersion relation and results in a unique DSR model. In comparison with standard LQC scenario where only the geometry is modified, both geometry and matter parts get modified in our setup. In this respect, we show that the total number of microstates for the universe is finite which suggests the statistical origin of the energy and entropy density bounds. These results explicitly show that the DSR theories are appropriate candidates for the flat limit of loop quantum gravity.

  1. Gravity's rainbow: A bridge between LQC and DSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Gorji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The doubly special relativity (DSR theories are constructed in order to take into account an observer-independent length scale in special relativity framework. Gravity's rainbow is a simple generalization of DSR theories to incorporate gravity. In this paper, we show that the effective Friedmann equations that are suggested by loop quantum cosmology (LQC can be exactly reobtained in rainbow cosmology setup. The deformed geometry of LQC then fixes the modified dispersion relation and results in a unique DSR model. In comparison with standard LQC scenario where only the geometry is modified, both geometry and matter parts get modified in our setup. In this respect, we show that the total number of microstates for the universe is finite which suggests the statistical origin of the energy and entropy density bounds. These results explicitly show that the DSR theories are appropriate candidates for the flat limit of loop quantum gravity.

  2. Compositional Effects on Electromechanical Degradation of RAINBOW Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausch, David E.; Wise, Stephanie A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of ceramic composition on the electromechanical displacement degradation of RAINBOW (Reduced and Internally Biased Oxide Wafer) actuators was investigated. RAINBOWs were fabricated from commercially available PZT-5H and PZT-5A piezoelectric disks as well as from tape cast PLZT piezoelectric 7/65/35 and electrostrictive 9/65/35 compositions. Displacement properties were measured at low electric fields (10 to 13 kV/cm) under loads of 0 to 500 g, and displacement degradation as a function of time was observed over 107 cycles. The PZT-5A and PLZT 9/65/35 compositions exhibited minimal decrease in displacement when load was applied. Furthermore, these compositions retained approximately 65 percent of their initial displacement after 10(exp 7) cycles under a load of 300 g. PZT-5H and PLZT 7/65/35 degraded completely under these conditions.

  3. Robotics and medicine: A scientific rainbow in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S; Dany, A; Anand, B; Vandana, S; Maheswaran, T; Rajkumar, E

    2015-08-01

    The journey of robotics is a real wonder and astonishingly can be considered as a scientific rainbow showering surprising priceless power in the era of future technologies. The astonishing seven technologies discussed in this paper are da Vinci Robotic surgical system and sperm sorters for infertility, Veebot for blood investigation, Hanako the robotic dental patient for simulating the dental patient and helping a trainee dentist, RP-7 robot who is around-the-clock physician connecting the physician and patient, Robot for Interactive Body Assistance (RIBA) who is a RIBA serving as a nurse, Bushbot serving as a brilliant surgeon, and Virtibot helping in virtual autopsy. Thus, robotics in medicine is a budding field contributing a great lot to human life from before birth to afterlife in seven forms thus gracefully portraying a scientific rainbow in hospital environment.

  4. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  5. Assessment of Curing Efficiency and Effect of Moist Curing on Performance of Fly Ash Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meili; QIAN Jueshi; WANG Lixia; XU Shanshan; JIA Xingwen; FAN Yunyan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of compressive strength,water permeability and electrical resistance of near-surface layer concrete with different fly ash contents to curing conditions. It is shown that the sensitivity to curing condition and fly ash content descends in the following order: difference between internal and surface resistivity (ρ)at 28 days, water permeability and compressive strength; both of longer duration of moist curing and use of fly ash in concrete enhanced the water penetration resistance. It is indicated that the resistivity difference p at 28 days can reflect accurately the curing history of fly ash concrete regardless of mix proportions; and use of fly ash in concrete requires longer moist curing duration.

  6. Growth performance, fillet quality, and reproductive maturity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cultured to 5 kilograms within freshwater recirculating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout are commonly cultured within aquaculture systems to one pound or less and marketed as pan-sized fillets. Production of larger rainbow trout provides a distinguishable product. Research that describes the growth performance and fillet quality of large rainbow trout is limited, particula...

  7. Preservation of salted and smoked rainbow trout by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiszer, W. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Nuclear Technique in Agriculture); Zabielski, J. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Nuclear Technique in Agriculture); Magnuski, T. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Nuclear Technique in Agriculture)

    1993-01-01

    The benefits of radiation treatment of ready-to-eat rainbow trout fillets manifest through the extention of lag period of bacterial regrowth during storage. The shelf-life of the fillets, which is declared by the producer as 14 days, may be doubled. No significant decrease in eating quality due to the treatment was found. The dose of 2 kGy combined with the smoking, salting, vacuum packaging and storage in 2 -3 C is satisfactory to achieve the goal. (orig.)

  8. A second generation genetic map for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahr Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps characterizing the inheritance patterns of traits and markers have been developed for a wide range of species and used to study questions in biomedicine, agriculture, ecology and evolutionary biology. The status of rainbow trout genetic maps has progressed significantly over the last decade due to interest in this species in aquaculture and sport fisheries, and as a model research organism for studies related to carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. We constructed a second generation genetic map for rainbow trout using microsatellite markers to facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci for traits affecting aquaculture production efficiency and the extraction of comparative information from the genome sequences of model fish species. Results A genetic map ordering 1124 microsatellite loci spanning a sex-averaged distance of 2927.10 cM (Kosambi and having 2.6 cM resolution was constructed by genotyping 10 parents and 150 offspring from the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA reference family mapping panel. Microsatellite markers, representing pairs of loci resulting from an evolutionarily recent whole genome duplication event, identified 180 duplicated regions within the rainbow trout genome. Microsatellites associated with genes through expressed sequence tags or bacterial artificial chromosomes produced comparative assignments with tetraodon, zebrafish, fugu, and medaka resulting in assignments of homology for 199 loci. Conclusion The second generation NCCCWA genetic map provides an increased microsatellite marker density and quantifies differences in recombination rate between the sexes in outbred populations. It has the potential to integrate with cytogenetic and other physical maps, identifying paralogous regions of the rainbow trout genome arising from the evolutionarily recent genome duplication event, and

  9. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...

  10. Rainbow technique for multi-parameter measurement of absorbing cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feihu Song; Chuanlong Xu; Shimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Rainbow refractometry is widely used to measure the radius and real part of refractive index of a cylinder.However,studies on the detection of imaginary part of the refractive index with rainbow technique were scarce.This paper presents a new method for simultaneously measuring the radius,real and imaginary part of the refractive index of a cylinder,on the basis of the Airy theory and the Bouguer theory.The rainbows produced by the illuminated cylinder at a capillary exit are captured by a CCD camera in a labscale system,and then processed by the proposed method.Experimental results showed that the radius,real and imaginary part of the refractive index can be accurately determined when the SNR (signal to noise ratio) of the ripple structure is sufficiently high.However,the SNR of the ripple structure gradually decreases with decreasing scattering intensity of the cylinder,leading to larger measurement errors of the radius and real part of the refractive index.The relative error of the imaginary part of the refractive index derived from the measurement errors of the radius and real part of the refractive index,is less than 3.4%.

  11. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-02-25

    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat(®) SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat(®) SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60 °C or 60 °C/75% RH for 24 h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat(®) SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60 °C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with 1) high flexibility of coating, 2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, 3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and 4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified.

  12. Prevent and cure disuse bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Webster S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Anabolic agents like parathyroid hormone and postagladin E-like substances were studied in dogs and rats to determine their effectiveness in the prevention and cure of bone loss due to immobilization. It was determined that postagladin E2 administration prevented immobilization while at the same time it added extra bone in a dose responsive manner. Although bone mass returns, poor trabecular architecture remains after normal ambulation recovery from immobilization. Disuse related bone loss and poor trabecular architecture were cured by post-immobilization postagladin E2 treatment.

  13. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  14. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Hovenier, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in

  15. 78 FR 64283 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel RAINBOW'S END; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel RAINBOW'S END... of the vessel RAINBOW'S END is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``1 day to 2 week cruising... electronic form of all comments received into any of our dockets by the name of the individual submitting the...

  16. Estrogenic effect of propylparaben (propylhydroxybenzoate) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after exposure via food and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Andersen, Dorthe N; Pedersen, Knud L

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effect of propylparaben was investigated in a rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss test system. Propylparaben was administered orally to sexually immature rainbow trout every second day for up to 10 days in doses between 7 and 1830 mg kg(-1) 2 d(-1) and in the water at 50 and 225 micr...

  17. Effects of adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG in rainbow trout injection vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection...

  18. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Hovenier, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in

  19. Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), a New Threat of Cultured Rainbow Trout in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    province, north of Iran, reported unusually high losses of reared rainbow trout fry with average weight of 560 mg. same mortality were reported from 4 other farms in fryes under 1 gram weight in 2010. Clinical signs included darkening, exophthalmia, distended abdomen, fecal cast and a spiral swimming...... rainbow trout fry in Iran....

  20. DAN IDENTIFIKASI PATOGEN POTENSIAL YANG MENGINFEKSI IKAN RAINBOW (Melanotaenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia sp. di Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias selalu terjadi kematian secara bertahap mulai calon induk hingga proses pemijahan. Hal ini terjadi berulang kali sehingga ketersediaan induk Melanotaenia sp. sangat terancam. Ikan ini berasal dari Papua yang diperoleh mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginventarisir dan mengidentifikasi berbagai patogen (parasit, jamur, bakteri potensial yang menginfeksi ikan rainbow yang dipelihara di dalam akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm dengan sistem aliran air stagnan. Tiga jenis rainbow yang dipelihara yaitu: rainbow Sungai Salawati, asal Sungai Sawiat, dan asal Danau Kurumoi. Setiap ikan masing-masing berjumlah 100 ekor dipelihara di akuarium dengan penambahan batu karang dan tanpa penambahan karang (kontrol ke dalam akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya berupa jentik nyamuk dan cacing rambut beku setiap pagi dan sore hari. Sampling dilakukan secara random sebulan sekali dan secara unrandom setiap ada kejadian ikan sakit. Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sebagai berikut: ikan berenang di permukaan dan menggosok-gosokkan badan di dinding akuarium, nafsu makan berkurang, gerakan berputar-putar, warna memudar menjadi putih, penekanan warna hitam pada sirip punggung dan perut meningkat, pendarahan pada perut, lendir berlebihan dan sangat berbau, serta sisik berdiri/terbuka. Diagnosa dan deteksi penyakit awal berupa pengamatan parasit baik ektoparasit maupun endoparasit, pengamatan dan isolasi jamur pada media selektif jamur, dan isolasi bakteri dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis patogen yang menginfeksi ketiga jenis ikan rainbow. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji histologi dan analisa DNA beberapa patogen. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh patogen berupa parasit (Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., dan Trichodina sp. dan bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter sp

  1. Unconditionally verifiable blind computation

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output and computation remain private. Recently the authors together with Broadbent proposed a universal unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. In this paper we extend the BQC protocol presented in [Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi, FOCS 2009 p517] with new functionality allowing blind computational basis m...

  2. Blind Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Salvail, Louis

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input. Say Alice wants Bob to compute some well-known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The setting is quantum, the security is unconditional, the eavesdropper is as malicious as can be. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.

  3. Curing kinetics of visible light curing dental resin composites investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Strength of Geopolymer Cement Curing at Ambient Temperature by Non-Oven Curing Approaches: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanachai, Pitiwat; Suwan, Teewara

    2017-06-01

    At the present day, a concept of environmentally friendly construction materials has been intensively studying to reduce the amount of releasing greenhouse gases. Geopolymer is one of the cementitious binders which can be produced by utilising pozzolanic wastes (e.g. fly ash or furnace slag) and also receiving much more attention as a low-CO2 emission material. However, to achieve excellent mechanical properties, heat curing process is needed to apply to geopolymer cement in a range of temperature around 40 to 90°C. To consume less oven-curing energy and be more convenience in practical work, the study on geopolymer curing at ambient temperature (around 20 to 25°C) is therefore widely investigated. In this paper, a core review of factors and approaches for non-oven curing geopolymer has been summarised. The performance, in term of strength, of each non-oven curing method, is also presented and analysed. The main aim of this review paper is to gather the latest study of ambient temperature curing geopolymer and to enlarge a feasibility of non-oven curing geopolymer development. Also, to extend the directions of research work, some approaches or techniques can be combined or applied to the specific properties for in-field applications and embankment stabilization by using soil-cement column.

  5. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  6. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  7. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Bai, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process.

  8. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  9. Onychomycosis does not always require systemic treatment for cure: a trial using topical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Shiela Fallon; Chan, Yuin C; Chan, Yiong H; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2013-01-01

    Standard teaching dictates that systemic therapy is required for treatment of onychomycosis. It is unknown whether topical antifungal therapy is effective for pediatric nail infections. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study was conducted in the Pediatric Dermatology Research Unit at Rady Children's Hospital to determine whether topical antifungal therapy is efficacious for pediatric onychomycosis. Forty patients ages 2 to 16 years with nonmatrix onychomycosis were randomized 1:3 to ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle lacquer. Ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle was applied daily for 32 weeks, with weekly removal of the lacquer and mechanical trimming. Those with poor response were crossed over to active drug at week 12. Thirty-seven patients completed the 32-week study, and follow-up data were collected 1 year after completion of the study from 24 patients. Mycologic cure, effective treatment, and complete cure were assessed, as well as adverse events and effect on quality of life. Mycologic cure was 70% in the treated group and 20% in the vehicle arm (p = 0.03) at week 12. At end of the study (week 32), 77% of treated patients achieved mycologic cure and 71% effective treatment, compared with 22% of the control group. Ninety-two percent of those who were cured and followed for 1 year remained clear. Topical antifungal lacquer (ciclopirox) can be an effective option for children with nonmatrix onychomycosis. Pediatric onychomycosis does not always require systemic therapy and responds better to topical therapy than does adult disease.

  10. Mechanical characterization and modeling of curing thermosets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van 't Hof, C.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical shrinkage and simultaneous build-up of mechanical properties in curing thermosets leads to the build-up of residual stresses and strains. Depending on the constraints these may cause interface failure, dimensional inaccuracy or failure in the thermoset or its surrounding structure. The pre

  11. Creep measurements on curing epoxy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Charlotte; Szabo, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The chemical curing of a stoichiometric mixture of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a 1,3-bis-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexane is studied.Creep experiments are combined with measurements in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) to determine the change in bulk viscosity due to network formation....

  12. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realiz...

  13. Creep measurements on curing epoxy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Charlotte; Szabo, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The chemical curing of a stoichiometric mixture of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a 1,3-bis-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexane is studied.Creep experiments are combined with measurements in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) to determine the change in bulk viscosity due to network formation....

  14. Is adding a new class of cones to the retina sufficient to cure color-blindness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Frans W.; Brenner, Eli

    2015-01-01

    New genetic methods have made it possible to substitute cone pigments in the retinas of adult nonhuman primates. Doing so influences the animals' visual abilities, demonstrating that the gene therapy was effective. However, we argue that no studies conducted so far have unambiguously demonstrated

  15. Consumptive water use to feed humanity – curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions – representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities – the paper exemplifies 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  16. Is adding a new class of cones to the retina sufficient to cure color-blindness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Frans W.; Brenner, Eli

    2015-01-01

    New genetic methods have made it possible to substitute cone pigments in the retinas of adult nonhuman primates. Doing so influences the animals' visual abilities, demonstrating that the gene therapy was effective. However, we argue that no studies conducted so far have unambiguously demonstrated th

  17. Talking Cure Models: A Framework of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christopher; Benecke, Cord; Gumz, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Psychotherapy is commonly described as a “talking cure,” a treatment method that operates through linguistic action and interaction. The operative specifics of therapeutic language use, however, are insufficiently understood, mainly due to a multitude of disparate approaches that advance different notions of what “talking” means and what “cure” implies in the respective context. Accordingly, a clarification of the basic theoretical structure of “talking cure models,” i.e., models that describe therapeutic processes with a focus on language use, is a desideratum of language-oriented psychotherapy research. Against this background the present paper suggests a theoretical framework of analysis which distinguishes four basic components of “talking cure models”: (1) a foundational theory (which suggests how linguistic activity can affect and transform human experience), (2) an experiential problem state (which defines the problem or pathology of the patient), (3) a curative linguistic activity (which defines linguistic activities that are supposed to effectuate a curative transformation of the experiential problem state), and (4) a change mechanism (which defines the processes and effects involved in such transformations). The purpose of the framework is to establish a terminological foundation that allows for systematically reconstructing basic properties and operative mechanisms of “talking cure models.” To demonstrate the applicability and utility of the framework, five distinct “talking cure models” which spell out the details of curative “talking” processes in terms of (1) catharsis, (2) symbolization, (3) narrative, (4) metaphor, and (5) neurocognitive inhibition are introduced and discussed in terms of the framework components. In summary, we hope that our framework will prove useful for the objective of clarifying the theoretical underpinnings of language-oriented psychotherapy research and help to establish a more comprehensive

  18. COMPARISON OF THE E44 EPOXY RESINS IN DIFFERENT CONTENTS OF CURING AGENT BY MICROWAVE AND THERMAL CURING METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental principle of microwave heating, and based on the advantages of microwave heating, use maleic anhydride as curing agent.The technology of microwave curing E44 epoxy resins is investigated,the mechanical properties of cured epoxy resin samples in different contents of curing agent by microwave and thermal curing methods are measured respectively, and then some experimental results for which are obtained.At last, this paper analyses why microwave curing can improve mechanical property of epoxy resin.

  19. Bond strength of a light-cured and two auto-cured glass ionomer liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtan, J R; Nystrom, G P; Olin, P S; Rudney, J; Douglas, W H

    1990-10-01

    Ninety-nine extracted human molar teeth were used in this study comparing the shear bond strengths on dentine of one light-cured and two auto-cured polyalkenoate (glass ionomer) cements. Bond strength can be influenced by differences in tooth structure. A balanced-incomplete block design (Hull and Nie, 1981) was used to reduce variation attributable to such differences. Cements were applied to paired dentine surfaces in combinations such that 66 tooth sides were treated with each material. A light-cured dentinal adhesive and composite resin restorative material were then placed and shear bond strength testing was conducted exactly 24 h after the completion of each specimen. Mean forces (MPa) for the three materials were compared using an appropriate analysis of variance model (balanced-incomplete-blocks) The shear bond strengths (MPa) of the light-cured liner (Espe, Seefeld/Oberbay, FRG) was 4.71 +/- 1.16. Vitrabond showed the greatest variance of all three materials tested, however this material's average bond strength was greater than the maximum achieved for the other materials. Student-Newman-Keuls comparison of means showed that all cements differed significantly from each other (alpha = 0.05). It is concluded that the light-cured glass ionomer liner exhibited significantly better shear bond strength performance than the two auto-cured glass ionomers tested.

  20. Thermal and Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Molding Compounds Cured with Thermal Latency Accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chean-Cheng Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics and mechanisms of a biphenyl type epoxy molding compounds (EMCs with thermal latency organophosphine accelerators were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Although the use of triphenylphosphine-1,4-benzoquinone (TPP-BQ and triphenylphosphine (TPP catalysts in biphenyl type EMCs exhibited autocatalytic mechanisms, thermal latency was higher in the TPP-BQ catalyst in EMCs than in the TPP catalyst in EMCs. Analyses of thermal characteristics indicated that TPP-BQ is inactive at low temperatures. At high temperatures, however, TPP-BQ increases the curing rate of EMC in dynamic and isothermal curing experiments. The reaction of EMCs with the TPP-BQ latent catalyst also had a higher temperature sensitivity compared to the reaction of EMCs with TPP catalyst. In resin transfer molding, EMCs containing the TPP-BQ thermal latency accelerator are least active at a low temperature. Consequently, EMCs have a low melt viscosity before gelation, and the resins and filler are evenly mixed in the kneading process. Additionally, flowability is increased before the EMCs form a network structure in the molding process. The proposed kinetic model adequately describes curing behavior in EMCs cured with two different organophosphine catalysts up to the rubber state in the progress of curing.

  1. Effect of curing on clinical retention. A 7-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    Objective: To evaluate in a prospective evaluation the retention of Class V compomer and hybrid resin composite restorations placed with a 1-step self etch system and cured with continuous, soft-start and pulse-delay curing. Methods: 139 Class V restorations were placed and cured at random in 60...... subjects with a compomer (Dyract AP;68) or resin composite (Tetric Ceram:67) and cured for 40s with continuous, soft-start and pulse-delay modes. The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria yearly during 7 years. Results: Of 135 restorations evaluated at 7 years, 29 were lost, 17...... compomer (25%) and 12 Tetric Ceram (18%). The cumulative loss rates for the compomer and resin composite restorations cured with the three curing modes were. continuous cure: 26.1%/18.2%, soft-start: 22.7%/19.0%, pulse delay: 26.1%/16.7%. No statistical difference were seen between the curing modes...

  2. INTRODUCTION Curing is holding fruits at temperatures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the. EFFECT OF CURING ON THE SHELF LIFE OF AMBERSWEET ORANGES ... Alternaria citri. Incidence was lowest in fruits cured in the shade to 7% weight loss. .... Period of Storage (Weeks)/ Incidence of Decay (%). (% Wt. loss). 1.

  3. Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163513.html Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots ... 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ingesting high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a "natural cure" or cleansing agent may ...

  4. [Dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Okamoto, F; Ogata, K; Sato, T

    1989-02-01

    Recently, microwave-cured denture base resin was developed, and the resin solved the problem of internal porosity which had been generated by curing the conventional denture base resins with microwave irradiation. In this study, the dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin was compared with that of other denture base resins, such as pour-type resin, heat-cured resin and heat-shock resin. From the experiment, the following results were obtained. 1. Dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin was better than that of heat-cured resin and heat-shock resin, and was similar to that of pour-type resin. 2. Dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin by slow cooling method and rapid cooling method was almost the same. Those findings suggest that microwave-cured denture base resin is valuable in clinic.

  5. Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Gastric Cancer data from 76 patients received adjuvant CRT and 125 receiving ... Keywords: Cure Fraction Model, Gastric Cancer, flexible Model, AIC, Mean time to cure. 1.0 Introduction ..... finish cancer registry. Int J Cancer ...

  6. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  7. Effect of electric barrier on passage and physical condition of juvenile and adult rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shaw, Amy; Smuckall, Matthew; Kapperman, Kevin; Reyes, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electric barriers can inhibit passage and injure fish. Few data exist on electric barrier parameters that minimize these impacts and on how body size affects susceptibility, especially to nontarget fish species. The goal of this study was to determine electric barrier voltage and pulse-width settings that inhibit passage of larger bodied rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (215–410 mm fork length) while allowing passage of smaller bodied juvenile rainbow trout (52–126 mm) in a static laboratory setting. We exposed rainbow trout to 30-Hz pulsed-direct current voltage gradients (0.00–0.45 V cm−1) and pulse widths (0.0–0.7 ms) and recorded their movement, injury incidence, and mortality. No settings tested allowed all juveniles to pass while impeding all adult passage. Juvenile and adult rainbow trout avoided the barrier at higher pulse widths, and fewer rainbow trout passed the barrier at 0.7-ms pulse width compared to 0.1 ms and when the barrier was turned off. We found no effect of voltage gradient on fish passage. No mortality occurred, and we observed external bruising in 5 (7%) juvenile rainbow trout and 15 (21%) adult rainbow trout. This study may aid managers in selecting barrier settings that allow for increased juvenile passage.

  8. Curing lights for orthodontic bonding: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    Light cure of resin-based adhesives is the mainstay of orthodontic bonding. In recent years, alternatives to conventional halogen lights offering reduced curing time and the potential for lower attachment failure rates have emerged. The relative merits of curing lights in current use, including halogen-based lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and plasma arc lights, have not been analyzed systematically. In this study, we reviewed randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials to assess the risks of attachment failure and bonding time in orthodontic patients in whom brackets were cured with halogen lights, LEDs, or plasma arc systems. Multiple electronic database searches were undertaken, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL. Language restrictions were not applied. Unpublished literature was searched on ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register, Pro-Quest Dissertation Abstracts, and Thesis database. Search terms included randomized controlled trial, controlled clinical trial, random allocation, double blind method, single blind method, orthodontics, LED, halogen, bond, and bracket. Authors of primary studies were contacted as required, and reference lists of the included studies were screened. Randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials directly comparing conventional halogen lights, LEDs, or plasma arc systems involving patients with full arch, fixed, or bonded orthodontic appliances (not banded) with follow-up periods of a minimum of 6 months were included. Using predefined forms, 2 authors undertook independent extraction of articles; disagreements were resolved by discussion. The assessment of the risk of bias of the randomized controlled trials was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria; 2 were excluded because of high risk of bias. In the comparison of bond failure risk with halogen lights and plasma arc lights, 1851 brackets

  9. Histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Gerald R.

    1979-01-01

    The histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) was studied in frozen tissue sections of rainbow trout both in yearling and adult fish. Age of fish had relatively little effect upon the results. The most intense LAN color production was in epithelial cells of midgut, pyloric ceca, hindgut, and in some segments of kidney tubules. Lower levels of LAN were evident in liver cells of Kupffer, and still lower or slight levels of LAN activity were found in blood cells, muscle, nerve, connective tissue, gonad, and pancreas. The results indicate that LAN might be useful in assessing histotoxicity to LAN-rich areas of the body.

  10. Particle propagation and effective space-time in gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Mandanici, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results obtained in our previous study on gravity’s rainbow, we determine the quantum corrections to the space-time metric for the Schwarzschild and the de Sitter background, respectively. We analyze how quantum fluctuations alter these metrics, inducing modifications on the propagation of test particles. Significantly enough, we find that quantum corrections can become relevant not only for particles approaching the Planck energy but, due to the one-loop contribution, even for low-energy particles as far as Planckian length scales are considered. We briefly compare our results with others obtained in similar studies and with the recent experimental OPERA announcement of superluminal neutrino propagation.

  11. Particle propagation and effective space-time in Gravity's Rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Garattini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the results obtained in a our previous study on Gravity's Rainbow, we determine the quantum corrections to the space-time metric for the Schwarzschild and the de Sitter background, respectively. We analyze how quantum fluctuations alter these metrics inducing modifications on the propagation of test particles. Significantly enough we find that quantum corrections can become relevant not only for particles approaching the Planck energy but, due to the one loop contribution, even for low-energy particles as far as Planckian length scales are considered. We briefly compare our results with others obtained in similar studies and with the recent experimental OPERA announcement of superluminal neutrino propagation.

  12. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  13. Hawking radiation from gravity's rainbow via gravitational anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Xiao-Xiong; Yang Shu-Zheng; Chen De-You

    2008-01-01

    Based on the anomaly cancellation method,initiated by Robinson and Wilczek,we investigates Hawking radiation from the modified Schwarzschild black hole from gravity's rainbow from the anomaly point of view.Unlike the general Schwarzschild space-time,the metric of this black hole depends on the energies of probes.The obtained result shows to restore the underlying general covariance at the quantum level in the effective field,the covariant compensating flux of energy-momentum tensor,which is related to the energies of the probes,should precisely equal to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature.

  14. Gaussian Weighted Trajectory Method IV: No Rainbow Effect in Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Bonnet

    2009-01-01

    The Gaussian weighted trajectory method (GWTM) is a practical implementation of classical S matrix theory (CSMT) in the random phase approximation, CSMT being the first and simplest semi-classical approach of molecular collisions, developped in the early seventies.Though very close in spirit to the purely classical description, GWTM accounts to some extent for the quantization of the different degrees-of-freedom involved in the processes.While CSMT may give diverging final state distributions, in relation to the rainbow effect of elastic scattering theory, GWTM has never led to such a mathematical catastrophe. The goal of the present note is to explain this finding.

  15. Techniques and materials for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal water curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and selfdesiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the i...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6002 - Air-cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air-cured. 29.6002 Section 29.6002 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6002 Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric...

  17. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke and...

  18. Curing Reaction Model of Epoxy Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Leilei; WANG Yaqi; SHEN Jialin

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the strength developing law of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a curing reaction model of the epoxy asphalt binder was proposed based upon the thermokinetic analysis.Given some assumptions,the model was developed by applying the Kissinger law as well as Arrhenius equation,and the differential scanning calorimetry was performed for estimating the model parameters.To monitor the strength development of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a strength test program was employed and then results were compared to those produced from the proposed model.The comparative evaluation shows that a good consistency exists between the outputs from test program and the proposed model,indicating that the proposed model can be used effectively for simulating the curing reaction process for the epoxy asphalt binder and predicting the strength development for the epoxy asphalt mixture.

  19. Contactless optoelectronic technique for monitoring epoxy cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, A; Buonocore, V; Breglio, G; Calabrò, A; Giordano, M; Cutolo, A; Nicolais, L

    2000-03-01

    We describe a novel noninvasive optical technique to monitor the refractive-index variation in an epoxy-based resin that is due to the polymerization process. This kind of resin is widely used in polymer matrix composites. It is well known that the process of fabricating a thermoset-based composite involves mass and heat transfer coupled with irreversible chemical reactions that induce physical changes. To improve the quality and the reliability of these materials, monitoring the cure and optimization of the manufacturing process are of key importance. We discuss the basic operating principles of an optical system based on angle deflection measurements and present typical cure-monitoring results obtained from optical characterization. The method provides a flexible, high-sensitivity, material-independent, low-cost, noninvasive tool for monitoring real-time refractive-index variation.

  20. Cure of HCV related liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L; Benhamou, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic liver injury and can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV can also interact with the immune system to cause several HCV related disorders including essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, dermatitis, glomerulonephritis and lymphoma. A strong association between HCV and diabetes mellitus also exists. These extrahepatic features may lead to increased fatigue and a reduced quality of life. It is now possible to cure most patients with chronic HCV using oral antiviral therapy. Many of these HCV-related disorders and symptoms can be cured when HCV is eradicated. However, some patients may have irreversible injury to extrahepatic sites, cirrhosis that cannot resolve, an increased risk for HCC, persistent fatigue and a reduced quality of life, despite achieving sustained virological response.

  1. Alternative cancer cures: "unproven" or "disproven"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Oncology has always coexisted with therapies offered outside of conventional cancer treatment centers and based on theories not found in biomedicine. These alternative cancer cures have often been described as "unproven," suggesting that appropriate clinical trials have not been conducted and that the therapeutic value of the treatment is unknown. Contrary to much popular and scientific writing, many alternative cancer treatments have been investigated in good quality clinical trials, and they have been shown to be ineffective. In this article, clinical trial data on a number of alternative cancer cures including Livingston-Wheeler, Di Bella Multitherapy, antineoplastons, vitamin C, hydrazine sulfate, Laetrile, and psychotherapy are reviewed. The label "unproven" is inappropriate for such therapies; it is time to assert that many alternative cancer therapies have been "disproven."

  2. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  3. Light-Curing Adhesive Repair Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Ronald; Haight, Andrea Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Adhesive tapes, the adhesive resins of which can be cured (and thereby rigidized) by exposure to ultraviolet and/or visible light, are being developed as repair patch materials. The tapes, including their resin components, consist entirely of solid, low-outgassing, nonhazardous or minimally hazardous materials. They can be used in air or in vacuum and can be cured rapidly, even at temperatures as low as -20 C. Although these tapes were originally intended for use in repairing structures in outer space, they can also be used on Earth for quickly repairing a wide variety of structures. They can be expected to be especially useful in situations in which it is necessary to rigidize tapes after wrapping them around or pressing them onto the parts to be repaired.

  4. Fast curing ethylene vinyl acetate films with dual curing agent towards application as encapsulation materials for photovoltaic modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W-H. Ruan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To speed up curing of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA films as encapsulation materials for photovoltaic modules, a dual curing agent of benzoyl peroxide (BPO and butylperoxy 2-ethylhexyl carbonate (TBEC was introduced in this work. The experimental results indicated that for the weight ratio of BPO/TBEC of 0.6/2.4, over 80% gel content of EVA was yielded after curing at 130°C for 12 min. Compared with the case of single curing agent, the present one obviously operated at much lower temperature with faster rate. By carefully studying the influence of curing agent proportion and curing conditions on gel content of EVA films, as well as rheology and curing kinetics, the mechanism involved was analyzed and verified. The results are believed to be useful for developing new curing system of EVA encapsulation films with improved processability.

  5. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D. M.; Hovenier, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Aims: Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in the planetary signal by covering liquid water clouds. Here, we investigate the strength of the rainbow feature for exoplanets that have liquid and icy water clouds in their atmosphere, and calculate the rainbow feature for a realistic cloud coverage of Earth. Methods: We calculate flux and polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by horizontally and vertically inhomogeneous Earth-like exoplanets, covered by patchy clouds consisting of liquid water droplets or water ice crystals. The planetary surfaces are black. Results: On a planet with a significant coverage of liquid water clouds only, the total flux signal shows a weak rainbow feature. Any coverage of the liquid water clouds by ice clouds, however, dampens the rainbow feature in the total flux, and thus the discovery of liquid water in the atmosphere. On the other hand, detecting the primary rainbow in the polarization signal of exoplanets appears to be a powerful tool for detecting liquid water in exoplanetary atmospheres, even when these clouds are partially covered by ice clouds. In particular, liquid water clouds covering as little as 10-20% of the planetary surface, with more than half of these covered by ice clouds, still create a polarized rainbow feature in the planetary signal. Indeed, calculations of flux and polarization signals of an exoplanet with a realistic Earth-like cloud coverage, show a strong polarized rainbow feature.

  6. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  7. Photothermal Monitoring Of Curing Of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared radiometry (TRIR) adapted to monitoring curing of some polymers in production. Proposal part of continuing effort to perfect production of hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene for use in liners of solid-fuel rocket motors. Applicable to monitoring changing states of many other materials in process. TRIR, non-contact technique implemented with remotely situated equipment and better suited to use in production.

  8. Using Sex to Cure the Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P C Rocha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversification of prokaryotes is accelerated by their ability to acquire DNA from other genomes. However, the underlying processes also facilitate genome infection by costly mobile genetic elements. The discovery that cells can uptake DNA by natural transformation was instrumental to the birth of molecular biology nearly a century ago. Surprisingly, a new study shows that this mechanism could efficiently cure the genome of mobile elements acquired through previous sexual exchanges.

  9. Sage Gene Expression Profiles Characterizing Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    therapies to improve breast cancer cure frequency. Down Regulation of VEGF in MTCL Cells. RNA interference has been a powerful genetic tool to study...Science 296, 550 (2002). 100. D. A. Rubinson et al., Nat Genet 33, 401 (2003). 101. E. Devroe, P. A. Silver, BMC Biotechnol 2 (2002). 102. J. P...double- plotted along the estrous cycle. Double plotting of rhythmic patterns is a standard chronobiological technique that allows visualization of

  10. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm{sup -1}. The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network.

  11. An investigation on the effect of light cure and self cure composite resins on bonding strength of light cure glass ionomer to dentin (In-vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahlavan A

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Composite reins have recently become popular for posterior teeth restorations. Gap"nformation and subsequent microleakage are of the complications resulting from such restorations. One of the"ntechniques to overcome polymerization shrinkage of composite resins is sandwich technique (application of"nglass ionomer as a base beneath the composite resin. Since polymerization patterns in two types of composite"nresins (light cure and self cure differ from each other, various effects on the bond strength between glass"nionomer and dentin are expected."nPurpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of self- cure and light- cure composite"nresins in sandwich technique on the bond strength of light cure glass ionomer and dentin."nMaterials and Methods: 40 extracted human premolars were selected and divided into four groups:"nGroup 1: Light cure glass ionomer of 1mm thickness was placed on dentin."nGroup 2: 1mm thickness of light cure glass ionomer plus a mass of self cure composite resin of 2mm"nthickness were placed."nGroup 3: 1mm thickness of light cure glass ionomer plus light cure composite resin as two separate 1mm layer"nwere placed."nGroup 4: 1mm thickness of light cure glass ionomer with 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by two"nseparate layers of light cure composite resin of 1 mm thickness were placed."nSEM was used to determine gap size ai Gl- dentin and Gi- composite interlaces. The findings were analyzed"nby ANOVA and t-student tests."nResults: Groups 1 and 2 showed no gap at Gl-dentm interface and also cracks were not observed in all these"nspecimens. In group 3, there was gap between light cure GI and light cure composite resin and cracks were"nseen in GI, too. Group 4 showed gap at both interfaces and more cracks were seen in GI. Groups I and 2"nshowed the least gap formation and group 4 showed the most. Statistically significant difference was found"nbetween groups 3, 4 and group 1 (control, 2."nConclusion: Base

  12. Deaf, blind or deaf-blind: Is touch enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Cecchetto, Carlo; Pisoni, Alberto; Bolognini, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    When someone looses one type of sensory input, s/he may compensate by using the sensory information conveyed by other senses. To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on the type of sensory loss, we investigated the effects of deafness and blindness on temporal and spatial tactile tasks in deaf, blind and deaf-blind people. Deaf and deaf-blind people performed the spatial tactile task better than the temporal one, while blind and controls showed the opposite pattern. Deaf and deaf-blind participants were impaired in temporal discrimination as compared to controls, while deaf-blind individuals outperformed blind participants in the spatial tactile task. Overall, sensory-deprived participants did not show an enhanced tactile performance. We speculate that discriminative touch is not so relevant in humans, while social touch is. Probably, more complex tactile tasks would have revealed an increased performance in sensory-deprived people.

  13. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management

  14. Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Mori, Koh-Ichiro; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In general, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from marine fish species in European waters (genotypes GIb, GII and GIII) are non- to low virulent in rainbow trout. However, a VHSV isolation was made in 2007 from a disease outbreak in sea farmed rainbow trout in Norway. The isolate, named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has attracted attention to assess which of the viral genome/proteins might be associated with the virulence in rainbow trout....

  15. Estrogen receptor mRNA in mineralized tissues of rainbow trout: calcium mobilization by estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; Lehane, D B; Pakdel, F; Valotaire, Y; Graham, R; Russell, R G; Henderson, I W

    1997-07-07

    RT-PCR was undertaken on total RNA extracts from bone and scales of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The rainbow trout estrogen receptor (ER)-specific primers used amplified a single product of expected size from each tissue which, using Southern blotting, strongly hybridized with a 32P-labelled rtER probe under stringent conditions. These data provide the first in vivo evidence of ER mRNA in bone and scale tissues of rainbow trout and suggest that the effects of estrogen observed in this study (increased bone mineral and decreased scale mineral contents, respectively) may be mediated directly through ER.

  16. Color-coordinate system from a 13th-century account of rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Hannah E; Anderson, Philip S; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Fosbury, Robert A E; Gasper, Giles E M; Laven, Philip; McLeish, Tom C B; Panti, Cecilia; Tanner, Brian K

    2014-04-01

    We present a new analysis of Robert Grosseteste's account of color in his treatise De iride (On the Rainbow), dating from the early 13th century. The work explores color within the 3D framework set out in Grosseteste's De colore [see J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29, A346 (2012)], but now links the axes of variation to observable properties of rainbows. We combine a modern understanding of the physics of rainbows and of human color perception to resolve the linguistic ambiguities of the medieval text and to interpret Grosseteste's key terms.

  17. The structure of rainbow-free colorings for linear equations on three variables in Zp

    OpenAIRE

    Huicochea, Mario; Montejano, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Let p be a prime number and Zp be the cyclic group of order p. A coloring of Zp is called rainbow-free with respect to a certain equation, if it contains no rainbow solution of the same, that is, a solution whose elements have pairwise distinct colors. In this paper we describe the structure of rainbow-free 3-colorings of Zp with respect to all linear equations on three variables. Consequently, we determine those linear equations on three variables for which every 3-coloring (with nonempty co...

  18. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  19. Accurate Cure Modeling for Isothermal Processing of Fast Curing Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bernath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work a holistic approach for the characterization and mathematical modeling of the reaction kinetics of a fast epoxy resin is shown. Major composite manufacturing processes like resin transfer molding involve isothermal curing at temperatures far below the ultimate glass transition temperature. Hence, premature vitrification occurs during curing and consequently has to be taken into account by the kinetic model. In order to show the benefit of using a complex kinetic model, the Kamal-Malkin kinetic model is compared to the Grindling kinetic model in terms of prediction quality for isothermal processing. From the selected models, only the Grindling kinetic is capable of taking into account vitrification. Non-isothermal, isothermal and combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements are conducted and processed for subsequent use for model parametrization. In order to demonstrate which DSC measurements are vital for proper cure modeling, both models are fitted to varying sets of measurements. Special attention is given to the evaluation of isothermal DSC measurements which are subject to deviations arising from unrecorded cross-linking prior to the beginning of the measurement as well as from physical aging effects. It is found that isothermal measurements are vital for accurate modeling of isothermal cure and cannot be neglected. Accurate cure predictions are achieved using the Grindling kinetic model.

  20. Post-cure depth of cure of bulk fill dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrahlah, A; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the post-cure depth of cure of bulk fill resin composites through using Vickers hardness profiles (VHN). Five bulk fill composite materials were examined: Tetric EvoCeram(®) Bulk Fill, X-tra base, Venus(®) Bulk Fill, Filtek™ Bulk Fill, SonicFill™. Three specimens of each material type were prepared in stainless steel molds which contained a slot of dimensions (15 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm), and a top plate. The molds were irradiated from one end. All specimens were stored at 37°C for 24h, before measurement. The Vickers hardness was measured as a function of depth of material, at 0.3mm intervals. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA using Tukey post hoc tests (α=0.05). The maximum VHN ranged from 37.8 to 77.4, whilst the VHN at 80% of max.VHN ranged from 30.4 to 61.9. The depth corresponding to 80% of max.VHN, ranged from 4.14 to 5.03 mm. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between materials for all parameters tested. SonicFill exhibited the highest VHN (presin composites can be cured to an acceptable post-cure depth, according to the manufacturers' claims. SonicFill and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill had the greatest depth of cure among the composites examined. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Justifications Shape Ethical Blind Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous se

  2. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build relationships and become the eventual basis for language learning. As the child who is deaf-blind becomes ... those near them, deaf-blindness fosters opportunities for learning and mutual ... M. (Eds.), (1993). Second edition. A model service delivery system for persons ...

  3. Status and opportunities for genomics research with rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgaard, G.H.; Bailey, G.S.; Williams, D.; Buhler, D.R.; Kaattari, S.L.; Ristow, S.S.; Hansen, J.D.; Winton, J.R.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Nagler, J.J.; Walsh, P.J.; Vijayan, M.M.; Devlin, R.H.; Hardy, R.W.; Overturf, K.E.; Young, W.P.; Robison, B.D.; Rexroad, C.; Palti, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most widely studied of model fish species. Extensive basic biological information has been collected for this species, which because of their large size relative to other model fish species are particularly suitable for studies requiring ample quantities of specific cells and tissue types. Rainbow trout have been widely utilized for research in carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. They are distinctive in having evolved from a relatively recent tetraploid event, resulting in a high incidence of duplicated genes. Natural populations are available and have been well characterized for chromosomal, protein, molecular and quantitative genetic variation. Their ease of culture, and experimental and aquacultural significance has led to the development of clonal lines and the widespread application of transgenic technology to this species. Numerous microsatellites have been isolated and two relatively detailed genetic maps have been developed. Extensive sequencing of expressed sequence tags has begun and four BAC libraries have been developed. The development and analysis of additional genomic sequence data will provide distinctive opportunities to address problems in areas such as evolution of the immune system and duplicate genes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B Cárcamo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S to Patagonia (55°S. The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limari rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045, polymorphism (13.9% and allele per locus (1.19 are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.

  5. Chromosome rearrangements and survival of androgenetic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocalewicz, K; Dobosz, S; Kuzminski, H; Nowosad, J; Goryczko, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify the impact of spontaneous and X-radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements on survival rate of androgenetic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Various doses of X irradiation (50, 150, 250, 350 Gy) were used for inactivation of nuclear DNA in oocytes. After the irradiation, eggs were inseminated with normal sperm from 4 males derived from a strain characterized by Robertsonian rearrangements and length polymorphism of the Y chromosome. The haploid zygotes were exposed to a high hydrostatic pressure (7000 psi) to duplicate the paternal DNA. Neither Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism nor the Y chromosome morphology impaired the viability of the androgenetic embryos and alevins. Moreover, survival of eyed embryos of the androgenetic rainbow trout increased significantly with increasing doses of oocyte X irradiation. After 6 months of rearing, only specimens from the 250 and 350 Gy variants survived. The number of fingerlings with remnants of the maternal genome in the forms of chromosome fragments was higher in the 250 Gy group. Intraindividual variation of chromosome fragment number was observed, and some individuals exhibited haploid/diploid mosaicism and body malformations. Individuals irradiated with less than 250 Gy died, presumably because of the conflict between intact paternally derived chromosomes and the residues of maternal genome in the form of chromosome fragments.

  6. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panya Sae-Lim

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW, defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE and production environment (PE, and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584 was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE or -0.08 (intercept at BE, suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl was negative (-0.41 to -0.33 indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable.

  7. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable. PMID:26267268

  8. Induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout exposed to ciprofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J H; Kostecki, P T; Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    1990-07-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), average body weight of 450 g, were treated with 15, 25, or 35 mg/kg of ciprofibrate via intraperitoneal injection every other day for 2 to 3 weeks. The effects on hepatic peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, polypeptide PPA-80, catalase, and liver weight were measured. The treatment of trout with ciprofibrate showed significant dose-related increases in peroxisomal acyl-CoA activity, polypeptide PPA-80, and catalase after 3 weeks of exposure. Peroxisomal oxidase activity showed a significant (p = 0.0008) increase (78%) at 35 mg/kg and a marginal (p = 0.1) increase (27%) at 25 mg/kg after 3 weeks of exposure. Densitometric analysis of polypeptide PPA-80 and catalase showed increases up to 48 and 236% at 35 mg/kg, respectively. Morphometric analysis on livers of trout administered 35 mg/kg for 3 weeks showed a 2.3-fold increase of peroxisomal volume density, as compared to control. This study demonstrates the induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout administered ciprofibrate, a known peroxisome proliferator in rodents.

  9. Gravity's Rainbow induces topology change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo [Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, Facolta di Ingegneria, Dalmine, Bergamo (Italy); I.N.F.N.-sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we explore the possibility that quantum fluctuations induce a topology change, in the context of Gravity's Rainbow. A semiclassical approach is adopted, where the graviton one-loop contribution to a classical energy in a background spacetime is computed through a variational approach with Gaussian trial wave functionals. The energy density of the graviton one-loop contribution, or equivalently the background spacetime, is then let to evolve, and consequently the classical energy is determined. More specifically, the background metric is fixed to be Minkowskian in the equation governing the quantum fluctuations, which behaves essentially as a backreaction equation, and the quantum fluctuations are let to evolve; the classical energy, which depends on the evolved metric functions, is then evaluated. Analyzing this procedure, a natural ultraviolet cutoff is obtained, which forbids the presence of an interior spacetime region, and this may result in a multiply connected spacetime. Thus, in the context of Gravity's Rainbow, this process may be interpreted as a change in topology, and in principle it results in the presence of a planckian wormhole. (orig.)

  10. Silver nanoparticles stimulate glycogenolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarsky, Andrey; Labarre, Justine; Trudeau, Vance L; Moon, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are found in many consumer products yet their biological effects on non-target aquatic organisms are yet to be fully understood. This research aimed to investigate the effects of AgNPs on cell signaling in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. We focused on the β-adrenoreceptor (AR), which mediates glycogenolysis, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), which mediates gluconeogenesis. These two receptors have been extensively studied in trout hepatocytes due to their key roles during the stress response to increase glucose availability (among other things), allowing the organisms to cope with the stressor. We show for the first time that AgNPs at a concentration of 1 μg/mL did not interfere with the function of either the β-AR or the GCR systems in rainbow trout hepatocytes, but at the concentration of 10 μg/mL AgNPs stimulated glycogenolysis which was apparently receptor-independent. This study suggests that AgNPs could affect hormone-regulated cell signaling pathways at a concentration of 10 μg/mL.

  11. Energy Conversion Efficiency of Rainbow Shape Piezoelectric Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiangjian; CHEN Renwen; ZHU Liya

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of the rainbow shape piezoelectric transducer,an analysis model of energy conversion efficiency is established based on the elastic mechanics theory and piezoelectricity theory.It can be found that the energy conversion efficiency of the rainbow shape piezoelectric transducer mainly depends on its shape parameters and material properties from the analysis model.Simulation results show that there is an optimal length ratio to generate maximum energy conversion efficiency and the optimal length ratios and energy conversion efficiencies of beryllium bronze substrate transducer and steel substrate transducer are (0.65,2.21%) and (0.65,1.64%) respectively.The optimal thickness ratios and energy conversion efficiencies of beryllium bronze substrate transducer and steel substrate transducer are (1.16,2.56%) and (1.49,1.57%) respectively.With the increase of width ratio and initial curvature radius,both the energy conversion efficiencies decrease.Moreover,beryllium bronze flexible substrate transducer is superior to the steel flexible substrate transducer.

  12. Cure mechanisms in materials for use in esthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Yub; Bagheri, Rafat; Kim, Young K; Kim, Kyo-Han; Burrow, Michael F

    2012-02-01

    The current paper reviews the curing mechanisms found in resin-based materials used in dentistry. Historical aspects of dental products and the associated curing mechanisms are reviewed. In comparison with common industrial procedures, curing methods employed for dental materials are relatively limited because of the need to polymerize quickly in the oral cavity at an ambient temperature. Heat-cure and self-cure dental resins utilize benzoyl peroxide initiator alone with a tertiary amine co-initiator. At present, most dental restorative composites use a camphorquinone-amine complex initiation, visible light-cure, one-component systems, although alternative photoinitiators have been researched and developed. A multiple curing mode in a dual-cure material is a complex combination of various initiation systems. The use of aryl sulfinic acid sodium salt to overcome adverse chemical interactions between simplified adhesives and self- or dual-cure composites is based on another self-cure polymerization mechanism, sulfinic acid-initiated polymerization, proposed by Hagger in 1948. The sodium salt of aryl sulfinic acid reacts with an acidic monomer in simplified adhesives, and is believed to produce radicals. Clinically, it is important to try to optimize the degree of conversion of resin-based materials using proper manipulation and adequate light-curing techniques to ensure the best outcome for materials used to restore teeth.

  13. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  14. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  15. CURING OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES USING MICROWAVE RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING (RTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. YUSOFF

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.

  16. Cure shrinkage effects in epoxy and polycyanate matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, G.P.

    1995-12-22

    A relatively new advanced composite matrix, polycyanate ester, was evaluated for cure shrinkage. The chemical cure shrinkage of composites is difficult to model but a number of clever experimental techniques are available to the investigator. In this work the method of curing a prepreg layup on top of a previously cured laminate of identical ply composition is utilized. The polymeric matrices used in advanced composites have been primarily epoxies and therefore a common system of this type, Fiberite 3501-6, was used as a base case material. Three polycyanate matrix systems were selected for the study. These are: Fiberite 954-2A, YLA RS-3, and Bryte Technology BTCy-1. The first three of these systems were unidirectional prepreg with carbon fiber reinforcement. The Bryte Technology material was reinforced with E-glass fabric. The technique used to evaluate cure shrinkage results in distortion of the flatness of an otherwise symmetric laminate. The first laminate is cured in a conventional fashion. An identical layup is cured on this first laminate. During the second cure all constituents are exposed to the same thermal cycles. However, only the new portion of the laminate will experience volumetric changes associate with matrix cure. The additional strain of cure shrinkage results in an unsymmetric distribution of residual stresses and an associated warpage of the laminate. The baseline material, Fiberite 3501-6, exhibited cure shrinkage that was in accordance with expectations. Cure strains were {minus}4.5E-04. The YLA RS-3 material had cure strains somewhat lower at {minus}3.2E-04. The Fiberite 954-2A cure strain was {minus}1.5E-04 that is 70% lower than the baseline material. The glass fabric material with the Bryte BTCy-1 matrix did not result in meaningful results because the processing methods were not fully compatible with the material.

  17. CURING KINETICS AND PROPERTIES OF ACRYLIC RESIN CURED WITH AZIRIDINE CROSSLINKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xie; Zong-hui Liu; De-qing Wei

    2002-01-01

    A kind of aziridine crosslinkers was synthesized and used to crosslink acrylate copolymers. The crosslinking properties and curing kinetics of the resin were studied. It was found that with the increase of the content of crosslinker in the emulsion, the mechanical properties and solvent resistance of the resin will be apparently improved, but its glass transition temperature (Tg) is very low. The lowest amount of crosslinker used in the acrylic resin emulsion is 0.25%. Curing kinetics studied by DSC show that this curing reaction occurs readily because the apparent activation energy of the reaction is low(65.1 KJ/mol). These results demonstrate that the aziridine crosslinker is indeed a low temperature crosslinking agent and can be used at room temperature.

  18. Experimental Study on the Curing Effect of Dredged Sediments with Three Types of Curing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment solidification technology is widely used to dispose dredged sediment, three types of curing agents were used in this study to solidified the dredged sediment from shallows in Nantong with three types of curing agents: JY, ZL and FJ. The results showed that the optimal additive amounts of these three curing agents were 140g JY, 16g ZL, 2.0g FJ per 1000g of the dredged sediment respectively, their 28d USC were up to 2.48 MPa, 2.96 MPa and 3.00 MPa. JY has obvious early strength effect, which of FJ is not that obvious, but the later-stage strength of sediment solidified by FJ are relatively higher.

  19. Curing Study of Epoxy/clay Nanocomposite by a New Aromatic Diamine Functional Curing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Saadati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The curing behavior of an epoxy/clay nanocomposite system composed of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA epoxy resin with a new aromatic diamine curing agent and organically modified clay was investigated. Epoxy/clay nanocomposite samples were prepared by mixing DGEBA, different percentages of nanoclay (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9% and 4-(4-(2,6-diphenylpyridin-4-ylphenoxybenzene-1,3-diamine (DAP. The optimum ratio of the epoxy/clay nanocomposite system (3% was investigated by total enthalpy of the curing reaction from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC thermograms. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and rate constant were obtained from DSC data.

  20. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture environmental stressors such as handling, overcrowding, sub-optimal water quality parameters and social interactions negatively impact growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, disease resistance, flesh quality and reproductive performance in rainbow trout. To identify QTL affecting response...

  1. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding stress responses is essential for improving animal welfare and increasing agriculture production efficiency. Previously, we reported microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting plasma cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout. Our main objectives...

  2. Remnant for all black objects due to gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: afarag@zewailcity.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    We argue that a remnant is formed for all black objects in gravity's rainbow. This will be based on the observation that a remnant depends critically on the structure of the rainbow functions, and this dependence is a model independent phenomena. We thus propose general relations for the modified temperature and entropy of all black objects in gravity's rainbow. We explicitly check this to be the case for Kerr, Kerr–Newman-dS, charged-AdS, and higher dimensional Kerr–AdS black holes. We also try to argue that a remnant should form for black saturn in gravity's rainbow. This work extends our previous results on remnants of Schwarzschild black holes and black rings.

  3. BRANCHIAL ELIMINATION OF SUPERHYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The branchial elimination of pentachloroethane and four congeneric polychlorinated bephenyls by rainbow trout was measured using a fish respirometer-metabolism chamber and an adsorption resin column. Branchial elimination was characterized by calculating a set of apparent in vivo...

  4. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Kania, Per Walter; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2017-01-01

    The protective effect in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of an experimental subunit vaccine targeting antigens in the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis has been evaluated and compared to effects elicited by a classical parasite homogenate vaccine. Three recombinant parasite proteins (two ...

  5. Bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared at Danish freshwater farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout....... psychrophilum isolates showed resistance to oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline. No antibiotic resistant isolates were found among Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida.......During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout...... of fry and larger fish. All isolates of F. psychrophilum showed proteolytic activities; however, a few isolates, belonging to serotype Fp(T) did not degrade elastin and were not associated with mortality. Increasing resistance problems to oxytetracycline were demonstrated. More than half of the F...

  6. Feeding periodicity, diet composition, and food consumption of subyearling rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Although winter is a critically important period for stream salmonids, aspects of the ecology of several species are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined the diel feeding ecology of subyearling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during winter in a central New York stream. Rainbow trout diet was significantly different during each 4-h interval and also differed from the drift and benthos. Feeding was significantly greater during darkness (i.e. 20:00 h – 04:00 h) than during daylight hours (i.e. 08:00 h – 16:00 h), peaking at 20:00 h. Daily food consumption (1.9 mg) and daily ration (3.4 %) during winter were substantially lower than previously reported for subyearling rainbow trout in the same stream during summer. These findings provide important new insights into the winter feeding ecology of juvenile rainbow trout in streams.

  7. Estrogenic Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential estrogenic activity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was determined using separate screening and dose response studies with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results of this study indicate that some PFAAs may act as estrogens in fish.

  8. Thermodynamics and Phase transition of Schwarzschild black hole in Gravity's Rainbow

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhong-Wen; Li, Hui-Ling; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The Planck length and Planck energy should be taken as invariant scales are in agreement with various theories of quantum gravity. In this scenario, the original general relativity can be changed to the so-called gravity's rainbow which produces significant modifications to the black holes' evolution. In this paper, using two kinds of rainbow functions, we investigate the thermodynamics and the phase transition of Schwarzschild black hole in the context of gravity's rainbow theory. Firstly, with the help of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, we calculate the modified Hawking temperature. Then, based on this modification, we derive the local temperature, free energy and other thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Finally, the critical behavior, the thermodynamic stability and phase transition of the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole are analyzed. It turns out that our results are different from the those of Hawking-Page phase transition. Meanwhile, it is found that there are many similarities and...

  9. Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity's rainbow with (AdS asymptote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hendi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity's rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity's rainbow. Considering the Lovelock gravity's rainbow coupled to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions. We compute conserved and thermodynamic quantities of these black holes (such as temperature, entropy, electric potential, charge and mass and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. In order to study the thermal stability in canonical ensemble, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix and show in what regions there are thermally stable phases for black holes. Also, we discuss the dependence of thermodynamic behavior and thermal stability of black holes on rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the critical behavior of black holes in the extended phase space and study their interesting properties.

  10. Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity's rainbow with (A)dS asymptote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Dehghani, Ali; Faizal, Mir

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity's rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity's rainbow. Considering the Lovelock gravity's rainbow coupled to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions. We compute conserved and thermodynamic quantities of these black holes (such as temperature, entropy, electric potential, charge and mass) and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. In order to study the thermal stability in canonical ensemble, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix and show in what regions there are thermally stable phases for black holes. Also, we discuss the dependence of thermodynamic behavior and thermal stability of black holes on rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the critical behavior of black holes in the extended phase space and study their interesting properties.

  11. Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity's rainbow with (A)dS asymptote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, Seyed Hossein, E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, Ali, E-mail: ali.dehghani.phys@gmail.com [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity's rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity's rainbow. Considering the Lovelock gravity's rainbow coupled to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions. We compute conserved and thermodynamic quantities of these black holes (such as temperature, entropy, electric potential, charge and mass) and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. In order to study the thermal stability in canonical ensemble, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix and show in what regions there are thermally stable phases for black holes. Also, we discuss the dependence of thermodynamic behavior and thermal stability of black holes on rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the critical behavior of black holes in the extended phase space and study their interesting properties.

  12. Improving a self-curing dental resin by eliminating oxygen, hydroquinone and water from its curing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keh, En-Sheng; Hayakawa, Iwao; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Akihiko; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2002-12-01

    Self-curing dental resins are always manipulated in the presence of curing inhibitory factors such as oxygen, hydroquinone, water and another contaminants such as saliva and blood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of eliminating these curing inhibitory factors on resin properties. Several clinically relevant characteristics of an experimental resin cured in the absence of inhibitory factors (purified group) were determined and compared with the resin cured conventionally (control group). The purified group showed a significantly shorter induction period and higher reaction exotherm. It also showed significantly higher tensile strength and lower strain to failure. With regard to the amount of residual monomer, fracture toughness and fatigue strength the improvements were not significant. These findings suggest that the polymerization outcomes and mechanical properties of the purified group resin can be improved in general. Dental clinicians should pay attention to the storage and curing environments while manipulating the self-curing resin.

  13. Rainbow pattern in Kaposi's sarcoma under polarized dermoscopy: a dermoscopic pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S-T; Ke, C-L K; Lee, C-H; Wu, C-S; Chen, G-S; Hu, S C-S

    2009-04-01

    We found previously that the features of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) under polarized dermoscopy are characterized by a bluish-reddish coloration, a scaly surface, small brown globules and, most distinctively, the multicoloured 'rainbow pattern'. To evaluate the significance of the rainbow pattern on dermoscopy as a diagnostic feature in KS, and to demonstrate that it is associated with the unique vascular structure of the tumour. More than 100 lesions from seven patients with histologically proven KS were examined with polarized light dermoscopy. Sixty-three patients with various other cutaneous vascular and nonvascular tumours were also examined. KS lesions exhibiting the rainbow pattern and KS lesions lacking the rainbow pattern on dermoscopy were excised, and dermoscopic features were compared with histopathological structures. The dermoscopic patterns of other vascular tumours were also compared with histological features. In addition, the changes in dermoscopic features and histological structures were assessed before and after surgical therapy in one patient with KS. On the basis of evaluations with polarized dermoscopy, the rainbow pattern was found to be a highly specific dermoscopic feature for KS. Histology of KS lesions showing the rainbow pattern under polarized light dermoscopy demonstrated a vascular lumen-rich pattern of closely arranged 'back-to-back' vascular structures, whereas histology of KS lesions without the rainbow pattern showed a vascular lumen-poor pattern with vascular lumina separated further apart by intervening stromal and cellular tissue. Other vascular tumours did not exhibit the rainbow pattern and were characterized histologically by variably sized vascular structures separated by substantial amounts of stromal and cellular tissue. In one patient with KS, disappearance of the rainbow pattern was associated with obliteration of the vascular structure following surgical ablation therapy. The rainbow pattern in KS is associated with the

  14. Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Burton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  15. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) culture water recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Sánchez O; Wilmer Sanguino O.; Ariel Gómez C.; Roberto García C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tu...

  16. Mutation in a sex-determinig gene in rainbow trout: detection and genetic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the acknowledged sex-determining system is genetic sex determination (GSD) with female homogamety (_XX-_XY). Subsequently, mitotic gynogens are all expected to be females. Unexpected maleness was fortuitously observed in a mitotic gynogenetic family of rainbow trout (13 males out of 27). An equal ratio of males and females suggested the possible segregation of some Mendelian sex-influencing factor. In order to perform a comprehensive analysis of the inh...

  17. Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Mori, Koh-ichiro; Olesen, Niels J

    2016-01-08

    In general, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from marine fish species in European waters (genotypes GIb, GII and GIII) are non- to low virulent in rainbow trout. However, a VHSV isolation was made in 2007 from a disease outbreak in sea farmed rainbow trout in Norway. The isolate, named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has attracted attention to assess which of the viral genome/proteins might be associated with the virulence in rainbow trout. In this study, we describe the difference of virulence in rainbow trout between the NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 isolates as representatives of virulent and non-virulent GIII isolates, respectively. Rainbow trout were bath challenged with VHSV NO-2007-50-385 for 1 and 6 h, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 5 and 35%, respectively. No mortality was observed in the rainbow trout groups immersed with the genotype III VHSV isolate 4p168 for 1 and 6 h. The viral titre in organs from fish challenged with NO-2007-50-385 for 6 h increased more rapidly than those exposed for 1 h. By in vitro studies it was demonstrated that the final titres of VHSV DK-3592B (GI), NO-2007-50-385 and 4p168 inoculated on EPC cells were very similar, whereas when inoculated on the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2 the titre of the non-virulent 4p168 isolate was 3-4 logs below the two other VHSV isolates. Based on a comparative analysis of the entire genome of the genotype III isolates, we suggest that substitutions of amino acids in positions 118-123 of the nucleo-protein are candidates for being related to virulence of VHSV GIII in rainbow trout.

  18. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.

    2001-08-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

  19. The cure for employee malaise--motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K M; Dawson, S N

    1991-01-01

    Although working conditions, hours, pay, and advancement opportunities are better now than in the 1950s--the "golden age" of American business--today's workers are significantly less satisfied. Why? The authors believe the cause of this malaise is lack of motivation. This article examines several techniques to cure employee malaise and discusses the long-term benefits of these techniques, which include empowerment, recognition, career development, the Pygmalion effect, incentives, and rewards. By making a commitment to these motivational techniques, managers will boost the morale and enthusiasm of their employees and their organization. This motivational process is not quick and easy; developing your employees is an ongoing process.

  20. Metabolic surgery - cure for type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zeve,Jorge Luiz de Mattos; Tomaz, Carlos Alberto Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with several organs damage and failure. It is the most common cause of blindness, amputation and kidney failure in western adults, besides increase the risk of coronary disease and stroke with high mortality of patients. The association of type 2 diabetes with obesity is really significant. Obese diabetic patients had a better glucose control after bariatric surgery even prior to...

  1. Cure behavior of epoxy polymers used in microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweeplengsangsuke, Jantrawan

    2000-10-01

    Underfill resins are used to reduce solder fatigue in flip-chip assemblies. Both underfilling and curing processes are critical to achieve reliable finished products. This study included two main themes; the development of processing diagrams for commercial underfill resins and the fundamental understanding of cure kinetics and evolution of cure stresses in model epoxies. A variety of techniques have been used to characterize the fundamental phenomena involved in the processing of underfill resins. The flow behavior, cure kinetics, cure stresses, outgassing phenomena and void formation of underfill resins were studied. Processing diagrams for underfill resins were developed by mapping fundamental phenomena involved to provide a guideline for underfilling and curing steps. With these processing diagrams one should be able to design his underfilling and curing process with scientific approach. Two commercial underfill resins, which were evaluated as part of a SEMATECH program, where shown to possess significantly different processing characteristics. However, the appropriate explanation could not be made without knowing the proprietary chemistry of the systems. Therefore, model epoxies were formulated. Three different systems were investigated; amine, imidazole, and anhydride curing agent systems. With the known chemistry, the reaction kinetics and developed cure stress can be explained more clearly. Vitrification, which severely retards the rate of reaction, was found in amine (N-aminoethylpiperazine) and anhydride (Hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride) cured systems when the cure temperatures were lower than the glass transition temperature (T g) of fully cured samples; however, imidazole(2-ethyl-4-methyl-imidazole) did not show vitrification when it was cured at 20 degrees below the T g of fully cured sample due to the large exotherms. Interestingly for imidazole system, the higher cure temperature exhibited a lower Tg. This could possibly be explained by the

  2. Mechanical modeling of stress generation during cure of encapsulating resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Chambers, R.S.; Guess, T.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Plazek, D.J.; Bero, C. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a numerical model for calculating stresses generated during cure of shrinking encapsulating resins. Mechanical modeling of polymer encapsulated electronic devices usually focuses on stress generated during cooling after cure. The stress developed during cure, due to shrinkage of the encapsulant, is normally neglected. That assumption is valid if both the shear and bulk moduli of the encapsulant at the cure temperature are negligible with respect to the moduli at lower temperatures. Our measurements on a model epoxy encapsulant show that the shear modulus during cure, varying from 0 to 6 MPa, is at least 100 times smaller than that at ambient temperature. In contrast, the bulk modulus at the cure temperature is only 2.5 times smaller. Since the bulk modulus during cure cannot be neglected, significant stress can be produced if volume shrinkage is constrained by a stiff mold or embedded elements. In fact, mechanical failure of encapsulating materials during cure has been evident in some of our experiments. Using measurements of shear and bulk moduli plus volume shrinkage as inputs to a finite element model, we have successfully predicted the shrinkage strains and stresses developed during cure of a model epoxy resin inside a cylindrical tube. Consideration of cure shrinkage stress has led to a process modification that appears to reduce mechanical failures in a real encapsulated device. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Critical parameters for electron beam curing of cationic epoxies and property comparison of electron beam cured cationic epoxies versus thermal cured resins and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology; Havens, S.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Lopata, V.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1997-01-16

    Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding.

  4. Existence of inelastic supernumerary nuclear rainbow in 16O+12C scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Ogloblin, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The existence of a supernumerary nuclear rainbow in inelastic scattering is reported. This is done by studying inelastic 16O scattering from 12C, exciting the 2+ (4.44 MeV) state of 12C and elastic scattering at the incident energies in the range 124-200 MeV, using the coupled channels method. An extended double folding potential is used. This is derived from realistic wave functions for 12C and 16O calculated with a microscopic α cluster model and a finite-range density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. Excitations to the 2+ (4.44 MeV), 3- (9.64 MeV), and 4+ (14.08 MeV) states of 12C, and the 3- (6.13 MeV) and 2+ (6.92 MeV) states of 16O are included in the coupled channels calculations. The emergence of the supernumerary bow is understood by the properties of both the Luneburg-lens-like potential in the internal region and diffuse attraction in the outer region. The existence of a supernumerary rainbow for inelastic scattering in addition to the existence of a dynamically created secondary rainbow and a dynamically refracted primary rainbow for elastic scattering, which are not observed in meteorological rainbows, further deepens the understanding of nuclear rainbows.

  5. Rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves in chirped phononic crystal plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu

    2017-01-05

    The rainbow trapping effect has been demonstrated in electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this study, rainbow trapping of ultrasonic guided waves is achieved in chirped phononic crystal plates that spatially modulate the dispersion, group velocity, and stopband. The rainbow trapping is related to the progressively slowing group velocity, and the extremely low group velocity near the lower boundary of a stopband that gradually varies in chirped phononic crystal plates. As guided waves propagate along the phononic crystal plate, waves gradually slow down and finally stop forward propagating. The energy of guided waves is concentrated at the low velocity region near the stopband. Moreover, the guided wave energy of different frequencies is concentrated at different locations, which manifests as rainbow guided waves. We believe implementing the rainbow trapping will open new paradigms for guiding and focusing of guided waves. Moreover, the rainbow guided waves with energy concentration and spatial separation of frequencies may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation, spatial wave filtering, energy harvesting, and acoustofluidics.

  6. The rainbow as interactive art: modeling the Elaisson Beauty installation at SFMOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang

    2008-12-01

    The rainbow has had an important role in religion, art, and science. Recently, artists have attempted to create indoor rainbow displays as interactive exhibitions of art, but based, nonetheless, on the principles of the scattering behavior of raindrops and the experience of experiment. Motivated by recently viewing the Beauty, 1993, installation at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA), we describe here a modeling program to explain the diversity of rainbow phenomena one can see visually in the gallery. The most significant impression gleaned in the museum is the acute spatial dependence of rainbow form on the viewing position in the presence of a local divergent light source (i.e., a floodlamp), in stark contrast to the unchangeable natural rainbow produced by an unimaginably distant Sun. This represents a case of the local (divergent) versus solar (parallel) light ray source distinction in atmospheric optical displays, which is one of a handful of anthropogenic versus natural situations responsible for optics displays that have been so far described. Through geometrical optics and Airy's theory simulations we show a rich relationship between the locally produced rainbow phenomena and the chamber equipment geometry and viewing position.

  7. Comparison of rainbow smelt age estimates from fin rays and otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M.G.; Maloy, A.P.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, although nonnative, are an important component of the offshore food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In Lake Ontario, we estimate ages of rainbow smelt annually to study population dynamics such as year-class strength and age-specific growth and mortality. Since the early 1980s, we have used pectoral fin rays to estimate rainbow smelt ages, but the sectioning and mounting of fin rays are time and labor intensive. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of using otoliths rather than fin rays to estimate rainbow smelt ages. Three readers interpreted the ages of 172 rainbow smelt (60-198 mm total length) based on thin sections of pectoral fin rays, whole otoliths with no preparation, and whole otoliths that had been cleared for 1 month in a 70:30 ethanol : glycerin solution. Bias was lower and precision was greater for fin rays than for otoliths; these results were consistent for comparisons within readers (first and second readings by one individual; three readers were used) and between readers (one reading for each reader within a pair). Both otolith methods appeared to misclassify age-1 rainbow smelt. Fin ray ages had the highest precision and provided the best approximation of age estimates inferred from the Lake Ontario population's length frequency distribution and from our understanding of this population. ?? American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. Influence of curing protocol on selected properties of light-curing polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewaele, Magali; Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on degree of conversion (DC), volume contraction (C), elastic modulus (E), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with each other....

  9. Heavy metal content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos from main production areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the influence of growing conditions on heavy metal content in virginia (flue cured and burley (air cured tobacco type. Moreover, some of these metals could appear in the tobacco cigarette smoke. This fact may cause negative consequences for cigarette consumers. Examinations were carried out in five various production areas, for each tobacco type, during two years, 1998 and 1999; those were extreme years for production.Considering the results, it can be concluded: The most important factor for heavy metal content in tobacco leaves are weather conditions especially the amount of rainfall, since there is a direct correlation between the rainfall and size of roots, a dominant vegetation organ. It is inevitable that the metals content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos grown at different experimental lots, is still below the legally prescribed values. Tobacco leaves from Šabac production area have a little higher metal content than tobacco grown in other production areas, because a larger amount of copper was found. The metal content in plants can increase because of its absorption from soil, atmosphere, or mineral fertilizers and pesticides, and, what is very important, the content of metals can be high due to the vicinity of large industrial centers.

  10. CURE: Clean use of reactor energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Radiation curing of carbon fibre composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.; Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M. A.; Pitarresi, G.; Tumino, D.; Przbytniak, G.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy/carbon fibre reinforced composites were produced by means of e-beam irradiation through a pulsed 10 MeV electron beam accelerator. The matrix consisted of a difunctional epoxy monomer (DGEBA) and an initiator of cationic polymerisation, while the reinforcement was a unidirectional high modulus carbon fibre fabric. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was carried out in order to determine the cross-linking degree. The analysis pointed out a nonuniformity in the cross-linking degree of the e-beam cured panels, with the formation of clusters at low Tg (glass transition temperature) and clusters at high Tg. An out-of-mould post irradiation thermal treatment on e-beam cured samples provides a higher uniformity in the network although some slight degradation effects. Mode I delamination fracture toughness and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ISS) were also investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Short Beam Shear tests, respectively. Results from this mechanical characterisation allowed to correlate fracture toughness of the bulk matrix resin, cross-linking density and fibre/matrix interaction to the delamination fracture behaviour of the fibre reinforced material.

  12. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  13. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  14. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  15. Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of oral metronidazole and tinidazole in treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Indu M; Basavareddy, Asha; Mukherjee, Deepali; Meher, Bikash Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral metronidazole and tinidazole in patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using Amsel's criteria. This was a randomized double-blind study, conducted by the Departments of Pharmacology and Gynecology of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients diagnosed with BV received either tablet metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 5 days or tablet tinidazole 500 mg once daily + one placebo for 5 days and instructed to come for follow-up at the 1(st) week and 4(th) week. They were categorized as cured, partially cured, and not cured based on Amsel's criteria at the end of the study and compared between two groups using Chi-square test. A total 120 women were enrolled in the study, of which 114 completed the study. The treatment arms were comparable. The cure rate with low-dose tinidazole was significantly more compared to metronidazole at 4(th) week (P = 0.0013), but not at 1(st) week (P = 0.242). The adverse drug reactions were less with tinidazole compared to metronidazole. Tinidazole at lower dose offers a better efficacy than metronidazole in long-term cure rates and in preventing relapses with better side effect profile.

  16. In situ cure monitoring of advanced fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Graham R.; Crosby, Peter A.; Fernando, Gerard F.; France, Chris M.; Spooncer, Ronald C.; Waters, David N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of in-situ cure monitoring and cure modelling by three methods: (a) evanescent wave spectroscopy, (b) refractive index change, (c) near- infrared spectroscopy. Optical fibers were embedded into aerospace epoxy resins during the manufacturing process of the composite. The cure characteristics were then tracked in real- time during the processing of the material via evanescent wave interaction. This technique is based upon monitoring of characteristic infrared absorption bands of the resin system to find the concentration of the epoxy and amine hardener as a function of cure time. Hence this technique is suitable for on-line process monitoring and optimization. Results obtained from the optical fiber sensors were used to model the curing behavior of the resin system. The results were compared with near-infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry experiments carried out under similar conditions. The feasibility of utilizing refractive index changes to monitor the extent of cure has also been demonstrated.

  17. Photoacoustic monitoring of inhomogeneous curing processes in polystyrene emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutierrez-Juarez, G.; Rodriguez-Vizcaino, J.M.; Varela-Nsjera, J.B.; Rodriguez-Palencia, J.M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J.J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Antigua Carretera a Progreso, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2002-07-07

    The time evolution of the inhomogeneous curing process of polystyrene emulsions is studied using a variant of the conventional photoacoustic (PA) technique. The thermal effusivity, as a function of time, is determined in order to monitor the sintering process of a styrene emulsion in different steps of the manufacturing procedure. PA measurements of thermal effusivity show a sigmoidal growth as a function of time during the curing process. The parameterization of these curves permits the determination of the characteristic curing time and velocity of the process. A decreasing of the curing time and an increasing curing velocity for the final steps of the manufacturing process are observed. The feasibility of our approach and its potentiality for the characterization of other curing process are discussed. (author)

  18. Amplification of rainbow trout microsatellites in Brachymystax lenok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z Y; Zhang, Y Y; Shi, L Y; Bai, Q L; Jin, S B; Mou, Z B

    2008-11-01

    Brachymystax lenok is a cold freshwater fish accustomed to inhabit relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen and clean upper streams. Here we present 13 polymorphic microsatellite primer pairs from rainbow trout to amplify in 32 B. lenok individuals from Ussuri River of China. The number of alleles ranged from two to seven with an average of 3.9 per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0625 to 0.9677. One locus showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These 13 loci will provide a good basis for investigation of B. lenok population structure and genetic diversity in different distribution region. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Rainbow radiating single-crystal Ag nanowire nanoantenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taejoon; Choi, Wonjun; Yoon, Ilsun; Lee, Hyoban; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, Q-Han; Kim, Bongsoo

    2012-05-09

    Optical antennas interface an object with optical radiation and boost the absorption and emission of light by the objects through the antenna modes. It has been much desired to enhance both excitation and emission processes of the quantum emitters as well as to interface multiwavelength channels for many nano-optical applications. Here we report the experimental implementation of an optical antenna operating in the full visible range via surface plasmon currents induced in a defect-free single-crystalline Ag nanowire (NW). With its atomically flat surface, the long Ag NW reliably establishes multiple plasmonic resonances and produces a unique rainbow antenna radiation in the Fresnel region. Detailed antenna radiation properties, such as radiating near-field patterns and polarization states, were experimentally examined and precisely analyzed by numerical simulations and antenna theory. The multiresonant Ag NW nanoantenna will find superb applications in nano-optical spectroscopy, high-resolution nanoimaging, photovoltaics, and nonlinear signal conversion.

  20. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post......-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3......, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least...

  1. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a......Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  2. Ontogeny of melanophore photosensitivity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Chi Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Migratory species experience morphological and physiological changes during transitions between different life stages. In particular, modification of sensory systems is critical for animals to adapt to new environments. For example, to prepare for entry into seawater, salmonids undergo smoltification with dramatic changes in ultraviolet photoreceptors and polarized vision, which are important for orientation and foraging behaviours. Extraretinal organs are also involved in photoreception; however, the ontogenetic development of extraretinal photoreceptors is not well known, especially in migratory species. Here, we investigated whether rainbow trout dermal photoreceptors, melanophores, undergo change in spectral sensitivity during smoltification and which candidate molecules may account for this ontogenetic alteration. Our results showed that, contrary to parr melanophores which are insensitive to light, smolt melanophores displayed chromatic photoresponses with the emergence of cryptochrome and melanopsin expression. We suggest that these modifications may benefit the active foraging behaviour of smolts and enable adaptation to variable environments.

  3. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between host and pathogen, as in the case of fish pathogenic viruses, represent interesting models for analyses of the relationships between structure and function of the teleost immune system. Two salmonid rhabdoviruses, IHNV and VHSV, have received special attention due to their oc......Interactions between host and pathogen, as in the case of fish pathogenic viruses, represent interesting models for analyses of the relationships between structure and function of the teleost immune system. Two salmonid rhabdoviruses, IHNV and VHSV, have received special attention due...... to their occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised...

  4. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  5. The curing process of layered silicate/epoxy nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    The industrial methods of processing polymeric thermoset matrix nanocomposites require a good knowledge of the matrix curing process. The dispersion of nanoparticles in the matrix effects the curing process due to the interaction between nanoparticles and the matrix at the atomic level, especially when the nanoparticles have been treated with a surfactant agent ( alquilammonium) that is in competition with the reactive groups of the hardener. This thesis investigates the curing process o...

  6. Central melatonin binding sites in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B; Hannah, L T; Randall, C F; Bromage, N; Williams, L M

    1994-10-01

    A combination of in vitro autoradiography and membrane homogenate receptor assays has been used to localize and characterized 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites in the brain of the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Specific 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding, defined as that displaced by 1 microM melatonin, increased linearly with increasing protein concentration in membrane homogenates of whole trout brain. Specific binding was both time and temperature dependent and reversible in the presence of 1 microM melatonin. Binding was saturable at between 100-150 pM 2-[125I]iodomelatonin and Scatchard analysis of saturation isotherms revealed a dissociation constant (Kd) of 15.00 +/- 0.95 pM and a maximum receptor number (Bmax) of 42.35 +/- 2.70 fm/mg protein (n = 16). Addition of 10(-4) M GTP gamma S (an analogue of guanosine triphosphate) to saturation isotherms apparently reduced the Bmax by 75% on average with no apparent change in the affinity of the binding. Scatchard analysis of saturation isotherms generated from whole brain membrane homogenates of trout kept on long days (15 hr light:9 hr dark) and killed either during the midlight or middark phase showed no significant differences in either the Kd or the Bmax of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding, although a robust rhythm in melatonin concentration was confirmed in these fish. Displacement of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding with increasing concentrations of competing ligands gave an order of potency of 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > 5-HT. Localization of specific central 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding in the rainbow trout showed high levels of binding associated with neuronal areas involved in the processing of visual signals, particularly the optic tectum and nucleus rotundus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Rainbow trout can discriminate between feeds with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, I; Cuvier, A; Gondouin, E; Olsen, R E; Ruohonen, K; Kaushik, S; Boujard, T

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of present two-choice trials was to examine the capacity of groups of juvenile rainbow trout to differentiate between two isolipidic diets containing distinct oils and to detect an eventual preference. The choice was offered by means of two self-feeders per tank. One feeder distributed a standard diet with fish oil (FO), the other a diet containing vegetable oil, either rich in linolenic acid (linseed oil, LO), linoleic acid (sunflower oil, SO), or oleic acid (rapeseed oil, RO). Each 15-day preference test was preceded by a 15-day adaptation period during which both feeders distributed the same diet. The tests were followed by a 10- to 15-day validation period in order to confirm that feeder solicitations were steered by the characteristics of the diets. Preferences were expressed as relative changes in feed demands for a specific feeder. Averaged over all groups, the preference tests demonstrated the capacity of rainbow trout to discriminate between a diet with FO and a diet containing vegetable oil, and indicated a general preference for the diet with FO over the other diets irrespective of whether they received the diet with fish oil (Experiment 1) or with vegetable oil (Experiment 2) prior to the preference test. The tests also indicated a difference in the extent of relative avoidance of each of the three vegetable oil diets. Diet LO was the most avoided, as indicated by the 37-39% decrease in demands for the feeder with diet LO (P0.05). The avoidance of diet SO at the end of the preference test was 30% (P>0.05) after an initially higher avoidance of 43% (Poil diets were compensated by increased demands for diet FO. Hence, changes in diet selection had no effect on total feed or energy intakes, measured as the sum of both selections.

  8. Simple pendulum for blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.

    2017-09-01

    Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.

  9. Curing Methods and Their Effects on The Strength of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Nuruddeen Usman; Muhammad Nura Isa

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of arguments on which method of curing concrete gives good strength. These different opinions results into this study, which aim at investigating the effects of different curing methods on the strength of concrete. Laboratory test was employed for this study. Normal concretes were prepared using specified mix ratio of 1:2:4 and 1:3:6. The cubes tested for compressive strength at 3, 7, 21, and 28 days of curing respectively using four curing methods namely immersion...

  10. Optical fibre grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggy, S. J.; Chehura, E.; James, S. W.; Tatam, R. P.

    2007-06-01

    The use of fibre grating refractometers as a means of monitoring the cure of a UV-cured epoxy resin is presented. The wavelength shift of the attenuation bands of a long period grating and the spectral response of a tilted fibre Bragg grating sensor were measured simultaneously during the cure of the resin and compared with measurements made using a fibre optic Fresnel-based refractometer. The results showed a good correlation (6 × 10-3 rius) and illustrate the potential of the techniques for non-invasive composite material cure monitoring.

  11. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  12. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  13. Blindness in children: a worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the causes of childhood blindness are avoidable, being either preventable or treatable. Only three per cent of the world's blind population are children. However, because children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them, the number of ‘blind person years’ resulting from blindness starting in childhood is second only to cataract. Controlling blindness in children is a priority of VISION 20203,4; however, as its causes differ from that of blindness in adults, different strategies, personnel, infrastructure, and equipment are required to combat it. There is also a greater urgency when managing children, as delays in treatment can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye.

  14. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...

  15. Light-cured calcium hydroxide vs formocresol in human primary molar pulpotomies: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurn, Derek; Seale, N Sue

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare light-cured calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) with diluted formocresol (FC) for its success as a primary molar pulpotomy medicament Selection criteria included at least 2 matching, asymptomatic, contralateral primary molars requiring vital pulpotomies. Matched teeth in each patient were randomized to receive either Ca(OH)2 or FC as a pulpotomy medicament. All teeth were restored with prefabricated metal crowns. Twenty patients (34 pairs of teeth) were followed clinically and radiographically for > or =1 year. Two blinded, standardized, and calibrated examiners evaluated and scored each radiograph for signs of pathology, based upon a modified scale previously proposed. Findings were grouped in: (a) 0 - 6; (b) 7 - 12; and (c) 13 - 24 month intervals. Radiographic scoring favored the FC group of the 7- to 12- and 13- to 24-month intervals (Pformocresol as a pulpotomy agent.

  16. Brane polarization is no cure for tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Anti-M2 and anti-D3 branes placed in regions with charges dissolved in fluxes have a tachyon in their near-horizon region, which causes these branes to repel each other. If the branes are on the Coulomb branch this tachyon gives rise to a runaway behavior, but when the branes are polarized into five-branes this tachyon only appears to lower the energy of the polarized branes, without affecting its stability. We analyze brane polarization in the presence of a brane-brane-repelling tachyon and show that when the branes are polarized along the direction of the tachyon the polarized shell is unstable. This implies that tachyons cannot be cured by brane polarization and indicates that, at least in a certain regime of parameters, anti-D3 branes polarized into NS5 branes at the bottom of the Klebanov-Strassler solution have an instability.

  17. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  18. Helicobacter pylori: Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its rediscovery 10 years ago, Helicobacter pylori has reshaped our thinking about the course of peptic ulcer disease. Our approach to the patient with a duodenal ulcer has become one of attempting eradication therapy at the time of first diagnosis, in the hope of curing the ulcer disease. Gastric and duodenal ulceration are only two of the manifestations of this chronic antral infection; other complications of H pylori include gastritis, gastric cancer and possible maltomas. Therapy of H pylori infection is complicated and involves dual therapy with an antibiotic plus a protein pump inhibitor, such as omeprazole 20 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1 g bid for two weeks, triple or quadruple therapy with bismuth, two antibiotics and an H2-receptor antagonist. Vaccination against H pylori is on the far horizon.

  19. Geochemical and microbial export from the Rainbow vent-site, 36N Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, A. M.; German, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    We present results from a detailed investigation of the physical, chemical and microbial fluxes away from the Rainbow hydrothermal field 36N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Physical oceanographic studies (Thurnherr and Richards, JGR, 2001; Thurnherr et al. JPO, 2002) have used in situ CTD and optical back-scatter data, combined with lowered-ADCP measurements and long-term current meter records to investigate circulation through this section of the MAR rift-valley and to determine fluxes of plume particulate material away from the Rainbow vent-site. Using the continuous optical back-scatter data-set from a SeaTech LSS light scattering sensor mounted on our BRIDGET deep-tow vehicle and combining that data with analyses for (e.g.) TDMn and CH4 in discrete water-bottle samples collected during the BRIDGET tow-yos we can now construct integrated geochemical fluxes through the Rainbow hydrothermal plume. From the integrated LSS-anomaly flux across the sill NE of the Rainbow vent-site we estimate total Mn and methane fluxes which approach 1 mol/second being discharged through the non-buoyant hydrothermal plume. The fluxes calculated by this approach require discharge of the well-characterised Rainbow end-member fluids (Douville et al., Chem Geol., 2002) at a rate of >400 Litres per second. In addition to dissolved chemical export fluxes, particulate Fe and associated trace metal fluxes can also be calculated. Further, the Rainbow plume is characterised by high microbial concentrations (3 x background) the majority of which are also particle-attached. Molecular microbial analyses of samples of these particle-attached microbes have revealed that the majority of clones produced through PCR are archaeal in nature (bacteria typically dominate in the open ocean). In particular, group II marine archaea (euryarchaeota) are especially abundant, notably methanogens, consistent with the high dissolved methane fluxes associated with the Rainbow hydrothermal plume.

  20. Curing of epoxy matrix composite in stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela

    Large structures for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories are needed for next stage of space exploitation. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the polymerization technology of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment. The polymerisation process is proposed for the material exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, space plasma, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The stratospheric flight experiments are directed to an investigation of the curing polymer matrix under the stratospheric conditions on. The unique combination of low atmospheric pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short wavelength UV and diurnal temperature variations associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. The first flight experiment with uncured composites was a part of the NASA scientific balloon flight program realised at the NASA stratospheric balloon station in Alice Springs, Australia. A flight cassette installed on payload was lifted with a “zero-pressure” stratospheric balloon filled with Helium. Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provided the launch, flight telemetry and landing of the balloon and payload. A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed 3 days in the stratosphere (40 km altitude). The second flight experiment was realised in South Australia in 2012, when the cassette was exposed in 27 km altitude. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the space irradiations are responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The first prepreg in the world was cured successfully in stratosphere. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

  1. Stratospheric experiments on curing of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.

  2. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  3. Cure Kinetics of DGEBA with Hyperbranched Poly(3-hydroxyphenyl) Phosphate as Curing Agent Studied by Non-isothermal DSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The cure kinetics of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A(DGEBA) with hyperbranched poly(3-hydroxyphenyl) phosphate(HHPP) as the curing agent was investigated by means of non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) at various heating rates. The results were compared with the corresponding results by using 1,3-dihydroxybenzene(DHB) as a model compound. The results show that HHPP can enhance the cure reaction of DGEBA, resulting in the decrease of the peak temperature of the curing curve as well as the decrease of the activation energy because of the flexible -P-O- groups in the backbone of HHPP. However, both the activation energy of the cured polymer and the peak temperature of the curing curve are increased with DHB as a curing agent. The cure kinetics of the DGEBA/HHPP system was calculated by using the isoconversional method given by Málek. It was found that the two-parameter autocatalytic model(esták-Berggren equation) is the most adequate one to describe the cure kinetics of the studied system at various heating rates. The obtained non-isothermal DSC curves from the experimental data show the results being accordant with those theoretically calculated.

  4. The effect of curing time and curing method on microleakge of conservative adhesive resin restorations: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Using the conservative adhesive resin restoration (CAR in uncooperative children lead to numerous problems because of being time consuming. The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage of conservative adhesive resin restoration under separate curing and co-curing.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 intact premolar teeth were collected and 120 vertical grooves were prepared on them. Then the teeth were divided into four groups: group 1, separated curing of bonding agent, flowable composite and sealant; group 2, co-curing of all materials for 60 seconds; group 3,co-curing of all materials for 40 seconds and group 4, co-curing of all materials for 20 seconds. Then the specimens were thermocycled and immersed in basic fuchsin solution. The teeth were sectioned horizontally and dye penetration was evaluated with stereomicroscope. Date were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test.Results: Mean value of dye penetration in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 1.53±0.6, 2.06±0.6, 2.5±0.7 and 3.53±0.6, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between group 1 and the other groups (P=0.0001.Conclusion: Considering the problems caused by microleakage in conservative resin adhesive restorations, co-curing method should not be used. In the case of using co-curing method, 60 second curing time is suggested for sufficient polymerization.

  5. Influence of curing tip distance on resin composite Knoop hardness number, using three different light curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Danilo Biazzetto de Menezes; de Almeida, Janaina Bertoncelo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Simonides

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the influence of curing tip distance on the Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) of a resin composite when using three different light curing units: (1) a halogen light (XL 1500 curing unit-3M), (2) a "softstart-polymerization" (Elipar Trilight curing in an exponential mode-ESPE) and (3) a PAC (Apolo 95E curing unit-DMD). The resin composite, Filtek Z250 (3M), was cured by these curing units at three light-tip distances from the resin composite: 0 mm, 6 mm and 12 mm. The resin composite specimens were flattened to their middle portion and submitted to 18 KHN measurements perspecimen. The results showed that for the Elipar Trilight unit, the hardness of the resin composite decreased as the light tip distance increased. The XL 1500 unit presented a significant decrease in hardness as the depth of cure of the resin composite increased. Apolo 95E caused a decrease in the resin composite hardness values when the depth of cure and light tip distance increased.

  6. Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Elif; Hickel, Reinhard; Bolay, Sükran; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite films of ca. 170 μm in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent; RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and a dual-cured luting resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent). The composites were cured by using a LED-unit (Bluephase®, Ivoclar Vivadent) with three different curing times (10, 20, and 30 s) under two ceramics (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent; IPS Empress® CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) of different thicknesses (0, 0.75, and 2 mm). Forty-five groups were included, each containing six thin films. The samples were stored after curing for 24 h at 37°C by maintaining moisture conditions with distilled water. Micromechanical properties of the composites were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). For each sample, ten indentations were made, thus totalizing 60 measurements per group. Micromechanical properties of the luting resins were statistically analyzed (SPSS 17.0). Significant differences were observed between the micromechanical properties of the luting resins (p mechanical properties compared to the light-cured luting resins. The effect of luting resin type on the micromechanical properties of the luting resins was higher than the effect of curing time, ceramic type and ceramic thickness respectively (*The values of reference without ceramics for 30 s curing time).

  7. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; Passos, Sheila Pestana; Encarnação, Monalisa Olga Lessa da; Santos Junior,Gildo Coelho; Bottino, Marco Antonio [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    p. 110-115 OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC) photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal) disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light source. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light sourc...

  8. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH light source. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED. The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED. For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. CONCLUSION: Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  10. Evaluasi Mutu dan Penerimaan Panelis terhadap Rainbow Cake yang Dibuat dari Tepung Terigu dan Pati Sagu Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Riau is one of the sago starch-producing province in Indonesia. Nowadays, sago starch has been utilized to produce various types of tradisional foods. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of rainbow cake produced by the addition of 30% sago starch and rainbow cake using 100% wheat flour and to evaluate panelist acceptance of these rainbow cakes. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two treatments and eight replications thus obtained 16 experimental units. The treatments were TS1 (100% wheat and 0%sago starch and TS2 (70% wheat flour and 30%sago starch. The parameters observed were moisture, ash, sucrose and fat contents as well as panelist acceptance test. The results of this study indicated that rainbow cake of TS1 treatment (100% wheat flour and 0%sago starch had no significant difference with rainbow cake of TS2 treatment (70% wheat flour and 30% sago starch in case of ash and sucrose contents, but had significant effect on moisture and fat contents of rainbow cake. Based on the panelist acceptance test, the rainbow cake made from 70% wheat flour and sago starch 30% could be accepted by panelists similar to commercial rainbow cake.

  11. Detection of virus level in tissues of rainbow trout, Oncoryhinchus mykiss in clinical stage of viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Farzad; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In order to detecting VHS virus titer in various tissues in clinical stage of VHS disease, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to virus by bath. The experiments were carried out with 140 fish obtained from rainbow trout farm. The fish were divided into two equal groups in 120 Liter t...

  12. The effects of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the use of spatial resources and behavior of rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro A. Rincón; Gary D. Grossman

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and rosyside dace (Clinostomus fitnduloides) exhibit substantial overlap in microhabitat use in Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. We conducted a replicated experiment in an artificial stream to assess the effects of both the presence of rainbow trout and dace density on: 1) microhabitat use, 2...

  13. Serum amyloid a gene expression and immunohistochemical localization in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected by Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    of SAA in serum and tissues (head kidney, liver and spleen) of rainbow trout. Rainbow trout fry (87 days post hatch) infected with Yersinia ruckeri showed a significant up-regulation of the SAA gene at 72 h post infection with further increase at 96 h post infection. Non-significant up-regulations were...

  14. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of the intestinal microbial community of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, I.; Spanggaard, Bettina; Appel, K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To identify the dominant culturable and nonculturable microbiota of rainbow trout intestine.Methods and Results: Microbial density of rainbow trout intestine was estimated by direct microscopic counts (4('),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) and by culturing on tryptone soya agar (TSA...

  16. Oil adjuvant elevates protection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus my-kiss) following injection vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection compared to the tradit...

  17. Cure Behaviors of epoxy resin initiated by methylanilinium slats as latent cationic curing agent.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J.; Kim, T.J.; Lee, C.J.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejeon (Korea); Park, J.K.; Shin, J.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    The effect of novel N-crotyl-N, N-dimethyl-4-methylanilinium hexafluoroantimonate (CMH) curing agent as a thermal latent initiator on thermal behaviors, rheological properties, and thermal stability of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy cationic system was investigated. From DSC measurements of DGEBA/CMH system, it was shown that this system exhibits an excellent thermal latent characteristic at a given temperature. The conversion and conversion rate of DGEBA/CMH system increased with increasing the concentration of initiator, due to high activity of CMH. Rheological properties of the system were investigated under isothermal condition using a rheometer. The gelation time was obtained from the analysis of storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and damping factor (tan {delta}). As a result, the reduction of gelation time was affected by high curing temperature and concentration of CMH, resulting in high degree of network formation in cationic polymerization, due to difference of activity. The thermal stability of the cured epoxy resin was discussed in terms of the activation energy for decomposition and thermal factors determined from TGA measurements. (author). 29 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. ACID RESISTANCE OF FLYASH BASED GEOPOLYMER MORTAR UNDER AMBIENT CURING AND HEAT CURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sreevidya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Experimental study was conducted to assess the Acid resistance of flyash based geopolymer mortar specimens of size 50x50x50mm with a ratio of flyash to sand as 1:3.The ratio between solution(Sodiumhydroxide and Sodium silicate solution to flyash were 0.376,0.386,0.396 and 0.416. After casting the specimens were subjected to both ambient curing and heat curing. In heat curing the specimens were kept continuously at 60oC for 24 hrs. Durability of specimens was assessed by immersing them in 5% of sulfuric acid and 5%hydrochloric acid for a period of 14 weeks. Evaluation of its resistance in terms of change in weight, compressive strength and visual appearance at regular intervals was carried out. After exposure in the acid solutions for 14 weeks, the samples showed very low weight loss. Results obtained from the present study indicate that Geopolymers are highly resistance to sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.

  19. Curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Renhe; Wang Yanmin; Zhang Baoping

    2014-01-01

    To study the curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester, three esters were chosen to react with three systems - alkaline phenolic resin, potassium hydroxide aqueous solution containing phenol, and potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The variations of pH, heat release and gel pH during the reactions were monitored and measured. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermal gravity analysis (TG) techniques were used to characterize the curing reaction. It was found that organic ester is only partial y hydrolyzed and resin can be cured through organic ester hydrolysis process as wel as the reaction with redundant organic ester. The sequential curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin cured by organic ester was identified as fol ows: a portion of organic ester is firstly hydrolyzed owing to the effect of the strong alkaline; the gel is then formed after the pH decreases to about 10.8-10.88, meanwhile, the redundant organic ester (i.e. non-hydrolysis ester) starts the curing reaction with the resin. It has also been found that the curing rate depends on the hydrolysis velocity of organic ester. The faster the hydrolysis speed of the ester, the faster the curing rate of the resin.

  20. Shortest exposure time possible with LED curing lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busemann, I.; Lipke, C.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Willershausen, B.; Ernst, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the shortest exposure time of different light emitting diode (LED)-curing devices for different resin composites in a clinically relevant laboratory model. METHODS: Nine LED curing devices (Bluephase, Bluephase 16i, Bluephase G2, Bluephase 20i/Ivoclar Vivadent, DEMI/sds Kerr,

  1. Improved method facilitates debulking and curing of phenolic impregnated asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, P.

    1966-01-01

    Workpieces covered with phenolic impregnated asbestos tape and then wrapped with a specified thickness of nylon yarn under pressure, are debulked and cured in a standard oven. This method of debulking and curing is used in the fabrication of ablative chambers for the Gemini and Apollo attitude control engines.

  2. Shortest exposure time possible with LED curing lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busemann, I.; Lipke, C.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Willershausen, B.; Ernst, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the shortest exposure time of different light emitting diode (LED)-curing devices for different resin composites in a clinically relevant laboratory model. METHODS: Nine LED curing devices (Bluephase, Bluephase 16i, Bluephase G2, Bluephase 20i/Ivoclar Vivadent, DEMI/sds Kerr,

  3. Isothermal epoxy-cure monitoring using nonlinear ultrasonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koissin, V.; Demcenko, A.; Korneev, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal curing of LY 1564SP resin in an aluminium-adhesive-aluminium laminate is investigated, using a nonlinear ultrasonic immersion technique, to prove its applicability for this type of dynamic material transformation. For verification and comparison, epoxy-cure kinetics and rheological behavi

  4. Heterochrony and the development of the escape response: prehatching movements in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Alice C; Liu, Corina; Swanson, Brook O

    2007-10-01

    Teleost fishes produce coordinated escape responses (C-starts) at hatching. This implies that essential swimming morphologies and motor behaviors develop during the incubation interval while the embryo is in the chorion. We examined prehatching motor behaviors in rainbow trout Oncorhycus mykiss (considered morphologically mature at hatching) and compared this species with zebrafish Danio rerio (considered morphologically immature) and assessed two hypotheses concerning the development of escape behavior. (1) Escape behavior is associated with the formation of key elements of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems; thus, the escape response appears early in ontogeny, when these elements form. (2) Escape behavior is not directly associated with the formation of underlying morphological elements; instead, it appears at hatching (i.e. when needed). We find that rainbow trout, like zebrafish, respond to touch early in the incubation interval, but do not demonstrate a complete C-start (including the second, propulsive stage) until shortly before hatching. At hatching, rainbow trout and zebrafish are similar in the degree of development of the chondocranium, paired fins and visceral arches (which comprise the larval jaw and gill support); however, rainbow trout have incipient rays in their unpaired fins (dorsal, anal and caudal), whereas zebrafish retain the embryonic fin fold. Although rainbow trout are more mature in axial swimming morphology at hatching, the essential neural and musculoskeletal systems that produce a coordinated escape response are functional at hatching in both species. This finding supports the evolutionary hypothesis that an effective escape response is critical for the survival of newly hatched teleost fishes.

  5. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  6. Development of various curing effect of nominal strength Geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumaravel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer concrete is an innovative method and is produced by complete elimination of ordinary Portland cement byproduced in fly ash. This study on different condition of curing in geopolymer concrete suitable for curing at ambient and heat-cured condition of temperature will widen its application to concrete structures. Low lime fly ash is used as the base material, which is reacted by alkaline solution and additional use of ground granulated blast furnace slag. Workability of fresh concrete and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete was investigated. The curing effect of geopolymer concrete is steam, hot air and ambient cubes specimens are tested in different days. Results are compared for various curing and strength of concrete.

  7. STUDY ON THE POST-CURE KINETICS OF EPOXY RESIN IRRADIATED BY AN ELECTRON BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wen Bao; Ye Li; Xiang-yu Zhong; Xiang-bao Chen; Feng-mei Li

    2004-01-01

    The post-cure kinetics of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resin initiated by diaryiodinium was investigated.The post-cure reaction fits first order reaction kinetics. The reaction rate constant increases with increasing treatment temperature of post-cure. The reaction rate of post-cure is much lower than the rate of its reaction on electron beam treatment.

  8. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  9. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J G; Andersen, E W; Ersbøll, B K; Nielsen, M E

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least partially due to the low temperature of about 8.5 °C during the first 100 days. The inflammation phase lasted more than 14 days, and the genes relating to production and remodeling of new extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibited a delayed but prolonged upregulation starting 1-2 weeks post-wounding and lasting until at least 100 days post-wounding. The gene expression patterns and histology reveal limited capacity for muscle regeneration in rainbow trout, and muscle texture analyses one year after wound infliction confirm that wounds heal with fibrosis. At 100 dpw epidermis had fully regenerated, and dermis partially regenerated. Scales had not regenerated even after one year. CD163 is a marker of "wound healing"-type M2c macrophages in mammals. M2 macrophage markers are as yet poorly described in fish. The pattern of CD163 expression in the present study is consistent with the expected timing of presence of M2c macrophages in the wound. CD163 may thus potentially prove a valuable marker of M2 macrophages - or a subset hereof - in fish. We subjected a group of fish to

  10. Serotonin-induced brain glycogenolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Mancebo, María J; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the serotonin-mediated control of cerebral glycogen levels in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of serotonin (5-HT) to normoglycemic trout (time and dose response) decreased glycogen levels in the brain and increased brain glycogen phosphorylase activity (time response). In hypoglycemic fish (that had been fasted for 5 and 10 days), there was a time-dependent decrease in brain glycogen levels; under these conditions, i.c.v. administration of 5-HT also reduced the brain glycogen content in fish that had been fasted for 5 days. In fish with local cerebral hypoglycemia (induced by 2-DG administration), the glycogen levels decreased and, as above, i.c.v. administration of 5-HT also lowered the glycogen content. In hyperglycemic fish, 5-HT did not affect glycogen levels. Administration of receptor agonists 5-HT1A (8-OH-DPAT), 5-HT1B (anpirtoline and CP93129) or 5-HT2 (α-m-5-HT) decreased the brain glycogen levels. This effect was antagonized by the administration of receptor antagonists 5-HT1A (WAY100135 and NAN190), 5-HT1B (NAS181) and 5-HT2B/C (SB206553). Administration of the receptor agonists (±)-DOI (5-HT2A/2C), m-CPP (5-HT2B/2C), BW723C86 (5-HT2B) and WAY 161503 (5-HT2C) led to decreases in the levels of brain glycogen. We found that 5-HT is involved in the modulation of brain glycogen homeostasis in the rainbow trout, causing a glycogenolytic effect when fish are in a normoglycemic or hypoglycemic state, but not when they are in a hyperglycemic state. 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5HT2B and 5-HT2C-like receptors appeared to be involved in the glycogenolytic action of 5-HT, although the effect mediated by 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B was apparently stronger.

  11. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Karshmer, Arthur I.; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  12. Computer Reader for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Optacon II uses the same basic technique of converting printed information into a tactile image as did Optacon. Optacon II can also be connected directly to a personal computer, which opens up a new range of job opportunities for the blind. Optacon II is not limited to reading printed words, it can convert any graphic image viewed by the camera. Optacon II demands extensive training for blind operators. TSI provides 60-hour training courses at its Mountain View headquarters and at training centers around the world. TeleSensory discontinued production of the Optacon as of December 1996.

  13. Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Qiuhong; Connor, Thomas B; Kuchenbecker, James A; Mauck, Matthew C; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2009-10-08

    Red-green colour blindness, which results from the absence of either the long- (L) or the middle- (M) wavelength-sensitive visual photopigments, is the most common single locus genetic disorder. Here we explore the possibility of curing colour blindness using gene therapy in experiments on adult monkeys that had been colour blind since birth. A third type of cone pigment was added to dichromatic retinas, providing the receptoral basis for trichromatic colour vision. This opened a new avenue to explore the requirements for establishing the neural circuits for a new dimension of colour sensation. Classic visual deprivation experiments have led to the expectation that neural connections established during development would not appropriately process an input that was not present from birth. Therefore, it was believed that the treatment of congenital vision disorders would be ineffective unless administered to the very young. However, here we show that the addition of a third opsin in adult red-green colour-deficient primates was sufficient to produce trichromatic colour vision behaviour. Thus, trichromacy can arise from a single addition of a third cone class and it does not require an early developmental process. This provides a positive outlook for the potential of gene therapy to cure adult vision disorders.

  14. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...... disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were...

  15. Occurrence and morphogenetic characteristics of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from a rainbow trout farm (Lake Ladoga, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieshko, Evgeny; Barskaya, Yulia; Parshukov, Aleksey; Lumme, Jaakko; Khlunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Gyrodactylus parasite infected juveniles on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) from a fish farm in Lake Ladoga were investigated. The observed cases of infection in fish featured a high prevalence, when almost all of the fish were infected. However, if an outbreak of the monogenean infection is observed in spring, the intensity of the infection may be low, and when the infection occurs in the ice-covered period (late autumn - winter), the number of parasites on the fins of a single fish may exceed 3000 specimens. Molecular identification of the parasite demonstrated that the infecting clone was identical with rainbow trout specific strain of Gyrodactylus salaris RBT widely spread in Northern Europe, but a small proportion of the parasites were the hybrid clone Gyrodactylus pomeraniae x G. lavareti. Morphological variations of hooks and other opisthaptor parts in the monogenean Gyrodactylus depending on the intensity of infection in rainbow trout were demonstrated.

  16. Dietary effects of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Sakineh; Teimouri, Mahdi; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (n=180; 101±8 g) were randomly divided into fifteen 300 L fiberglass tanks in triplicates for a period of ten weeks. The RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, total protein and albumin levels increased significantly in the groups supplemented with S. platensis. Dietary inclusion of S. platensis had no significant effects on hematocrit, cholesterol, triglyceride and lactate of the blood. HDL-cholesterol was larger in rainbow trout fed 10% S. platensis in comparison with the other diets, whereas LDL-cholesterol significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. Cortisol and glucose significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. The present results demonstrate that inclusion of 10% S. platensis can be introduced as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout diets.

  17. Hawking, fiducial, and free-fall temperature of black hole on gravity's rainbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    On gravity's rainbow, the energy of test particles deforms the geometry of a black hole in such a way that the corresponding Hawking temperature is expected to be modified. It means that the fiducial and free-fall temperatures on the black hole background should also be modified according to deformation of the geometry. In this work, the probing energy of test particles is assumed as the average energy of the Hawking particle in order to study the particle back reaction of the geometry by using the advantage of gravity's rainbow. We shall obtain the modified fiducial and free-fall temperatures, respectively. The behaviors of these two temperatures on the horizon tell us that black hole complementarity is still well defined on gravity's rainbow. (orig.)

  18. Use of an annular chamber for testing thermal preference of westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T.E.; Bear, E.A.; Zale, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Remaining populations of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in western North America are primarily confined to cold headwaters whereas nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) predominate in warmer, lower elevation stream sections historically occupied by westslope cutthroat trout. We tested whether differing thermal preferences could account for the spatial segregation observed in the field. Thermal preferences of age-1 westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout (125 to 150 mm total length) were assessed in the laboratory using a modified annular preference chamber at acclimation temperatures of 10, 12, 14, and 16??C Final preferred temperature of westslope cutthroat trout (14.9??C) was similar to that of rainbow trout (14.8??C) when tested in a thermal gradient of 11-17??C The high degree of overlap in thermal preference indicates the two species have similar thermal niches and a high potential for competition. We suggest several modifications to the annular preference chamber to improve performance in future studies.

  19. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited

  20. Nearly scale-invariant power spectrum and quantum cosmological perturbations in the gravity's rainbow scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    We propose the gravity's rainbow scenario as a possible alternative of the inflation paradigm to account for the flatness and horizon problems. We focus on studying the cosmological scalar perturbations which are seeded by the quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The scalar power spectrum is expected to be nearly scale-invariant. We estimate the rainbow index $\\lambda$ and energy scale $M$ in the gravity's rainbow scenario by analyzing the Planck temperature and WMAP polarization datasets. The constraints on them are given by $\\lambda=2.933\\pm0.012$ and $\\ln (10^5M/M_p)= -0.401^{+0.457}_{-0.451}$ at the $68\\%$ confidence level.

  1. THz near-field spectral encoding imaging using a rainbow metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghee; Choi, Hyun Joo; Son, Jaehyeon; Park, Hyun-Sung; Ahn, Jaewook; Min, Bumki

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a fast image acquisition technique in the terahertz range via spectral encoding using a metasurface. The metasurface is composed of spatially varying units of mesh filters that exhibit bandpass features. Each mesh filter is arranged such that the centre frequencies of the mesh filters are proportional to their position within the metasurface, similar to a rainbow. For imaging, the object is placed in front of the rainbow metasurface, and the image is reconstructed by measuring the transmitted broadband THz pulses through both the metasurface and the object. The 1D image information regarding the object is linearly mapped into the spectrum of the transmitted wave of the rainbow metasurface. Thus, 2D images can be successfully reconstructed using simple 1D data acquisition processes.

  2. Use of DNA vaccination for determination of onset of adaptive immunity in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Lorenzen, Ellen; Kjær, Torben Egil

    2013-01-01

    that intramuscular injection of the DNA vaccine encoding the viral glycoprotein G induced protective immunity to VHS in rainbow trout fry of 0.5g.However, the vaccine is known to induce both innate and adaptive protection. The present work therefore aimed at determination of which type of protection the DNA vaccine...... to innate cross-reactive antiviral mechanisms of shorter duration. The critical size for induction of an adaptive immune response in rainbow trout to this type of vaccination thus appears to be between 0.25 and 0.5g. This work was supported by the “DAFINET” grant from the Danish Council for Strategic...... the duration and nature of the protective immunity induced by the vaccines in the fish. The present work aimed at determination of the smallest size at which specific immunity could be induced in rainbow trout fry by DNA vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Earlier experiments revealed...

  3. Quantum primary rainbows in transmission of positrons through very short carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, M.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to a quantum mechanical consideration of the transmission of positrons of a kinetic energy of 1 MeV through very short (11, 9) single-wall chiral carbon nanotubes. The nanotube lengths are between 50 and 320 nm. The transmission process is determined by the rainbow effects. The interaction potential of a positron and the nanotube is deduced from the Molire's interaction potential of the positron and a nanotube atom using the continuum approximation. We solve numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and calculate the spatial and angular distributions of transmitted positrons. The initial positron beam is assumed to be an ensemble of non-interacting Gaussian wave packets. We generate the spatial and angular distributions using the computer simulation method. The examination is focused on the spatial and angular primary rainbows. It begins with an analysis of the corresponding classical rainbows, and continues with a detailed investigation of the amplitudes and phases of the wave functions of transmitted positrons. These analyses enable one to identify the principal and supernumerary primary rainbows appearing in the spatial and angular distributions. They also result in a detailed explanation of the way of their generation, which includes the effects of wrinkling of each wave packet during its deflection from the nanotube wall, and of its concentration just before a virtual barrier lying close to the corresponding classical rainbow. The wrinkling of the wave packets occurs due to their internal focusing. In addition, the wave packets wrinkle in a mutually coordinated way. This explanation may induce new theoretical and experimental investigations of quantum rainbows occurring in various atomic collision processes.

  4. Quantum primary rainbows in transmission of positrons through very short carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ćosić, M., E-mail: mcosic@vinca.rs; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.

    2016-04-15

    This paper is devoted to a quantum mechanical consideration of the transmission of positrons of a kinetic energy of 1 MeV through very short (11, 9) single-wall chiral carbon nanotubes. The nanotube lengths are between 50 and 320 nm. The transmission process is determined by the rainbow effects. The interaction potential of a positron and the nanotube is deduced from the Molire’s interaction potential of the positron and a nanotube atom using the continuum approximation. We solve numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and calculate the spatial and angular distributions of transmitted positrons. The initial positron beam is assumed to be an ensemble of non-interacting Gaussian wave packets. We generate the spatial and angular distributions using the computer simulation method. The examination is focused on the spatial and angular primary rainbows. It begins with an analysis of the corresponding classical rainbows, and continues with a detailed investigation of the amplitudes and phases of the wave functions of transmitted positrons. These analyses enable one to identify the principal and supernumerary primary rainbows appearing in the spatial and angular distributions. They also result in a detailed explanation of the way of their generation, which includes the effects of wrinkling of each wave packet during its deflection from the nanotube wall, and of its concentration just before a virtual barrier lying close to the corresponding classical rainbow. The wrinkling of the wave packets occurs due to their internal focusing. In addition, the wave packets wrinkle in a mutually coordinated way. This explanation may induce new theoretical and experimental investigations of quantum rainbows occurring in various atomic collision processes.

  5. Characterisation of a low pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris from rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Larsen, Thomas B; Jørgensen, Louise G; Bresciani, José; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-18

    Gyrodactylus salaris was isolated from rainbow trout in a Danish freshwater trout farm, and a laboratory population of this particular parasite form was established on rainbow trout. Challenge infections were performed using different salmonid strains and species, including East Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (from the Danish River Skjernå), Baltic salmon S. salar (from the Swedish River Ume Alv) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (from the Danish rainbow trout farm Fousing). These were compared to infection studies on the Norwegian Laerdalselva parasite form kept under exactly the same conditions in the laboratory. The Danish G. salaris form had low virulence towards both Atlantic and Baltic salmon, whereas rainbow trout proved susceptible to the parasite. The Danish G. salaris form was able to maintain a very low infection on East Atlantic salmon, but not on the Baltic salmon, which eliminated the infection within 2 wk. Rainbow trout developed infection intensities ranging up to several hundred parasites per host. The host colonization patterns of the parasite differed clearly from those of previous studies on microhabitats of the Norwegian form of G. salaris. A comparative study on morphological characters (opisthaptoral hard parts) from the Danish parasite form and Norwegian G. salaris showed no significant differences. Selected genes comprising internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS), ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) regions were cloned and sequenced. Five sequenced ITS clones from 5 individuals of the Danish strain consistently revealed a single base substitution compared to ITS sequences from all other known species and strains of Gyrodactylus. Mitochondrial COI gene sequences demonstrated that the Danish G. salaris form is closely similar to the Laerdalselva parasite form found in Norway. The IGS sequences were highly variable, but very similar to those obtained from German isolates of G. salaris.

  6. Cure kinetics and chemorheology of EPDM/graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahbakhsh, Ahmad [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh, E-mail: s.mazinani@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalaee, Mohammad Reza [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharif, Farhad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene oxide content and dispersion as effective parameters on cure kinetics. • Graphene oxide as an effective controlling factor of crosslink density. • Interaction of graphene oxide with curing system (ZnO) during curing process. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of graphene oxide on cure behavior of ethylene–propylene–diene rubber (EPDM) nanocomposite is studied. In this regard, the cure kinetics of nanocomposite is studied employing different empirical methods. The required activation energy of nth-order cure process shows about 160 kJ/mol increments upon 5 phr graphene oxide loading compared to 1 phr graphene oxide loading. However, the required activation energy is significantly reduced followed by incorporation of graphene oxide in nanocomposites compared to neat EPDM sample. Furthermore, the effect of graphene oxide on structural properties of nanocomposites during the cure process is studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry techniques. As the results show, graphene oxide interestingly affects the structure of zinc oxide during the vulcanization process. This behavior could be probably related to high tendency of zinc oxide to react with oxidized surface of graphene oxide.

  7. Development of a resin curing model for UV nanoimprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2005-10-01

    UV nanoimprint lithography uses UV light as an energy source. It is performed at room temperature and low pressure, and has its own merits as compared to thermal nanoimprint. In this paper, a measurement system was developed to measure the degree of resin curing in UV nanoimprint to improve our understanding of the resin solidification phenomenon. A curing model was then established based on the measurement results. The measurement system measured the degree of cure in real time and was composed of a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system, a UV light source, and an optical guide. Also, new UV-curable resins that had low viscosity values were developed for the UV nanoimprint process, and imprint tests using these resins were performed successfully. The curing model considered the UV irradiation time, power, and curing temperature, which are important parameters in the UV nanoimprint process. The degree of cure had an exponential relation to UV irradiation time, power, and temperature; thus, the curing model was expressed as an exponential function of the UV irradiation time, power, and temperature. The developed model was verified for various UV-curable resins.

  8. Composite depth of cure using four polymerization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Janolio de Camargo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The light-curing technique is relevant to reduce the degree of polymerization shrinkage, improving clinical and esthetic success of composite resin restorations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro the effect of four light-curing techniques on depth of cure of a composite resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten specimens of a composite resin were made in cylindrical cavities prepared in PVC plates (3.0 X 7.0 mm for each light-curing technique. Four photoactivation methods were investigated: stepped, ramped, pulse-delay and traditional. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and polished for microhardness measurements (kg/mm², which were made at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mm from the irradiated surface. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: The effect of factors studied (curing method and distance from the surface and the interaction of these factors was statistically significant (p<0.05. The traditional method of cure provided higher microhardness values (69.6 ± 2.5 than the stepped (63.5 ± 3.1 and pulsed (63.9 ± 3.2 methods at all depths evaluated, but it did not differ from the ramped method (66.7± 4.4 at 0.1 and 1.0 mm of depth. CONCLUSION: All techniques employed provided satisfactory cure of the composite resin up to the depth of 2.0 mm from the irradiated surface.

  9. A 'cure' for Down syndrome: what do parents want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A; Lohn, Z; Austin, J C; Hippman, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent advancements in molecular genetics raise the possibility that therapeutics or a 'cure' for Down syndrome (DS) may become available. However, there are no data regarding how parents of children with DS perceive the possibility of mitigating specific manifestations such as the intellectual disability (ID) associated with DS, or curing the condition entirely. To explore these issues, we distributed a questionnaire to members of the Lower Mainland Down Syndrome Society in British Columbia, Canada. Questionnaires were completed by 101 parents (response rate=41%). A majority (61%) viewed the possibility of reversing ID in DS positively, but only 41% said that they would 'cure' their child of DS if it were possible. Twenty-seven percent of respondents said they would not 'cure' their child, and 32% were unsure if they would 'cure' their child. The most commonly cited motivation for opting for a 'cure' was to increase their child's independence. However, parental attitudes' towards a 'cure' for DS were complex, affected by ethical issues, perceived societal values, and pragmatic factors such as the age of the individual and long-term care-giving burden. These findings could be used by healthcare professionals supporting families who include a member with DS and to direct future research.

  10. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  11. Variation of Resin Properties Through the Thickness of Cured Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    It is the purpose of this work to gain knowledge of the glassy materials used as matrices in composites and to study the homogeneity resulting from the curing process. An attempt is made to link the glass transition quantitatively with the presence of a given material. Expoxy resins containing various amounts of hardener (TGDDM/DDS system) were cured in a muffle furnace at 473 K for seven hours. The glass transition temperature, T sub g versus weight minus percent of hardener in the epoxy resin were measured. A limit was rapidly reached in T sub g at only two percent hardener. Thus, the glass transition of the fully cured epoxy-amine matrix seems not much different from the epoxide-epoxide cure. The T sub g versus cure-time for the epoxide-epoxide reaction was also studied. My 720 was cured by itself in an oil bath at 473 K for different lengths of time. The T sub g was found to increase exponentially with the cure time, and a maximum T sub g of about 450 K was reached after eleven hours. The reaction was found to be inhibited by running the sample under argon.

  12. Development of Geopolymer Concrete with Different Curing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Nuruddin Nuruddin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues resulted from cement production have become a major concern today. To develop a sustainable future it is encouraged to limit the use of this construction material that can affect the environment. Cement replacement material was proposed to partially replace cement portion in concrete. Geopolymer is a part of inorganic polymer material that has similar bonding function like cement in concrete. It consists of alkaline solutions and geological source material. Alkaline liquids used in this research are 8 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 solutions, while source materials are fly ash and microwave incinerated rice husk ash (MIRHA. Three different curing regimes, namely hot gunny curing, ambient curing, and external exposure curing, were applied to obtain suitable method that was suitable with cast in situ application. Geopolymer concrete samples were tested on their compressive strength and microstructure properties. It was found that external exposure curing had the highest compressive strength compared to other two curing methods. Scanning electron microscopy analysis also showed better improvement in interfacial transition zone for concrete sample with external exposure curing.

  13. Metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene by Shasta rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, H.C.; Elmarakaby, S.A.; Steward, R.; Maslanka, R.; Shappell, N.; Kumar, S. [State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Devanaboyina, U.; Gupta, R.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In contrast to several mammalian species, Shasta strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), is resistant to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). In order to understand the mechanism underlying this resistance, the authors have investigated the in vitro metabolism of AAF by trout liver and examined the formation of AAF-DNA adducts in the liver of Shasta trout treated with AAF. The major AAF metabolites produced by trout liver microsomes were 7-hydroxy-AAF and 5-hydroxy-AAF which accounted for more than 95% of the total AAF metabolites. N-hydroxy-AAF was a minor metabolite representing about 1% of total AAF metabolites. The levels of N-hydroxy-AAF sulfotransferase and N-hydroxy-AAF acyltransferase, the cytosolic enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxy-AAF to reactive intermediates capable of binding to cellular macromolecules were extremely low in trout liver. AAF exhibited a low degree of binding to the liver DNA of trout treated with 15 mg AAF/kg body wt. The total AAF-DNA adduct level reached a maximum 24 hours after treatment, persisted until 11 days and declined to nearly 20% of the maximum level after 18 days. N-deoxyguanosin-8-yl-2-aminofluorene was the major AAF-DNA adduct in the trout liver. The ability of trout liver to form relatively large amounts of detoxification products of AAF with little formation of activation products may partly explain the resistance of Shasta trout to AAF-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. DNA vaccination of small rainbow trout fry against VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Lorenzen, Ellen; Kjær, Torben Egil;

    2012-01-01

    Small rainbow trout fry were DNA vaccinated by intramuscular injection at 0.25g and other fish later at 0.5g. Vaccine groups included pcDNA3-vhsG, heterologous vaccine (pcDNA3-ihnG), empty vector (pcDNA3) and unhandled fish. Fry vaccinated at 0.25g were challenged with VHSV by immersion at 3wpv, 11......wpv and 21wpv. The challenge at 3wpv was started 1wpv, however as no mortality was observed, the fish were re-challenged 3wpv using a modified setup. Fry vaccinated at 0.5g were challenged with VHSV by immersion at11wpv. By early challenge (3wpv) of fish vaccinated at 0.25g both homologous...... and heterologous challenge (5% mortality). At 11 wpv an unspecific protection with 30 % mortality was observed. At 21 wpv protection against VHSV had dropped further (50 % mortality). Protection against IHNV was better (10 % mortality) but equal for both homologous and heterologous vaccines confirming previous...

  15. Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C nuclear rainbow scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, S

    2015-01-01

    The Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for $^{16}$O using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at $E_L$=132, 281 and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum at around $\\theta$=76$^\\circ$ in the angular distribution at $E_L$=132 MeV is assigned as the second order Airy minimum $A2$ in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order $A3$. The Airy minima in the 90$^\\circ$ excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O and $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C cluster structure in the low energy region around $E_{c.m.}$=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted ...

  16. A Light-Weight Rainbow Signature Scheme for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the wireless sensor network (WSN is limited by power, computation capability and storage resources, it is difficult for the existed cryptographic schemes which are based on the traditional symmetric or public key cryptography to adapt to these restrictions. Till  now, most studies are based on the Elliptic Digital Signature  Algorithm (ECDSA, however, which have heavy energy consumption and cost much verification time, they are still  not suitable for the WSN. Thus it is necessary to find a new cryptography to provide the security for the WSN. In this  paper, firstly, we propose a light-weight rainbow signature (LWRS scheme based on Shamir's minus method, and the performances of it has been evaluated with respect to the memory and computation time. Secondly, by choosing the proper number of variables, we use the scheme between the nodes or between the WSN and the business platform of the internet of things. Meanwhile, we set up the layer of the LWRS the same as that of the cluster WSN. That is, the ordinary node has the lowest energy and corresponds to the first layer of the LWRS scheme. Finally, we give the security analysis of the LWRS scheme. More specifically speaking, by choosing the appropriate number of oil-vinegar variables, our scheme can resist general attacks, rank reduction attacks and oil-vinegar attacks, etc.

  17. Changes on degree of conversion of dual-cure luting light-cured with blue LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandéca, M. C.; El-Mowafy, O.; Saade, E. G.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2009-05-01

    The indirect adhesive procedures constitute recently a substantial portion of contemporary esthetic restorative treatments. The resin cements have been used to bond tooth substrate and restorative materials. Due to recently introduction of the self-bonding resin luting cement based on a new monomer, filler and initiation technology has become important to study the degree of conversion of these new materials. In the present work the polymerization reaction and the filler content of dual-cured dental resin cements were studied by means of infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Twenty specimens were made in a metallic mold (8 mm diameter × 1 mm thick) from each of 2 cements, Panavia® F2.0 (Kuraray) and RelyX™ Unicem Applicap (3M/ESPE). Each specimen was cured with blue LED with power density of 500 mW/cm2 for 30 s. Immediately after curing, 24 and 48 h, and 7 days DC was determined. For each time interval 5 specimens were pulverized, pressed with KBr and analyzed with FT-IR. The TG measurements were performed in Netzsch TG 209 under oxygen atmosphere and heating rate of 10°C/min from 25 to 700°C. A two-way ANOVA showed DC (%) mean values statistically significance differences between two cements ( p 0.05). The Relx-Y™ Unicem mean values were significantly higher than Panavia® F 2.0. The degree of conversion means values increasing with the storage time and the filler content showed similar for both resin cements.

  18. The Blind Learning Aptitude Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, T. Ernest

    A Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT) was developed on the basis of sense of touch rather than on conventional experience, fine sensory discrimination, or verbal competency. From a pool of about 350 items, most of them used in testing intelligence in the sighted, a pool of 94 was selected and embossed after the manner of braille. A residual pool…

  19. The Blind as "Ordinary People".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    1978-01-01

    Based on a paper presented at the 1977 Western Social Science Association Meeting in Denver, Colorado, the article reports on a study that compared major demographic features of a sample of 70 legally blind adults with the sighted adult sample studied in the 1975 National Opinion Research Center General Social Survey. (Author/DLS)

  20. Visual Product Identification for Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutarth Majithia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is developed to make the life of blind people easy. This is a camera based system to scan the barcode behind the image and read the description of the product with the help of Id stored in the barcode. This is very beneficial in case of finding out the description of packaged goods to the blind people and thus helping them in deciding to purchase a product or not especially which are packaged. This is because it becomes very difficult for the blind people to distinguish between the packaged goods. In order to use this system, all the user needs to do is capture the image on the product in the mobile phone which then resolves the barcode which means it scans the image to find out the Id stored. Thus this application really benefits blind and visually impaired people and thus making their work of identifying products easy. This is very easy to use and affordable as it requires a scanner to scan the barcode and a camera phone to take the picture of the image containing the barcode. This is now easy to implement as most of the mobile phones today have the required resolution in order to scan the barcode to identify the Id stored in it and read out the product description. This project can be implemented in any shopping mall, supermarket, Book stores, Medical stores etc.

  1. Characterization of serum amyloid A (SAA) in rainbow trout using a new monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walter; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    against a recombinant peptide of rainbow trout SAA was characterized using Western blot, dot blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. SAA association with high density lipoprotein (HDL) complicated band identification in Western blot, but delipidization of the SAA-HDL isolate highly increased the quality...... of reaction in the western blot. Rainbow trout fry (87 days post hatch) infected with Yersinia ruckeri showed a significant up-regulation of the SAA gene at 72 h post infection with an increase until 96 h post infection. Non-significant up-regulations were seen at earlier time points i.e. 4 and 24 h...

  2. Welfare aspects of stocking density in farmed rainbow trout, assessed by behavioural and physiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline

    to detrimentally affect welfare in rainbow trout. Several studies have endeavoured to make specific recommendations for maximum stocking density limits for rainbow trout. However, wide discrepancies exist, highlighting the fact that it has been a challenge to identify density limits that promote optimal welfare...... were investigated. At this density of 140 kg m–3, the lower oxygen consumption rates and lower quantity of scale loss collected from the tanks suggested reduced levels of social hierarchy related aggressive encounters. Higher brain serotonergic activity in the brain stem of individuals held...

  3. Influence of Initial Pulse Chirp on Rainbow-Like Supercontinuum Generation from Filamentation in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zuo-Qiang; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Zhe; LU Xin; JIN Zhan; ZHONG Jia-Yong; LIU Yun-Quan; WANG Zhao-Hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supercontinuum (SC) generation from laser filamentation in air is found to depend strongly on the pulse duration.Rainbow-like SC generation is observed only for a pulse of appropriate negative chirp that agrees with the predictions put forward by Golubtsov et al. [Quantum Electron. 33 (2003) 525]. The conversion efficiency of an 800-nm laser light to rainbow-like SC is found to be the highest for 257fs pulses with an initial negative chirp.A larger chirp will lead to ffiamentation surviving at longer distance.

  4. Paternal Association of Increased Susceptibility to Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaastrup, P.; Hørlyck, Viggo; Olesen, Niels Jørgen;

    1991-01-01

    Farming of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe is hampered by unacceptably heavy losses due to the severe infectious disease viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Strain-dependent variation of VHS resistance exists. A long-term breeding programme to increase VHS resistance in rainbow...... trout has been started in Denmark. This programme will be based on experimental VHS challenge of the parental fish (n = 84) as well as their normal and gynogenetic offspring (16 fullsib F1 groups). We found a paternal influence on the average VHS resistance of the offspring; partial regression...

  5. A New Furunculosis Challenge Method for Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy in Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    in fish farms where tail biting and therefore bacterial expo- sure to tail fin ulcers is widespread. By use of a multi-needle device ten epidermal perforations were introduced in the dorsal part of the tail fin of anaesthetized rainbow trout (vaccinated or naive). Subsequently 100 μL (3.4 × 108 colony-forming...... for rainbow trout and have applied it for evaluation of furunculosis vaccine efficacy. The method reveals development of systemic immunity in fish as live bacteria are introduced in the tail fin epidermis distant from the vaccine injection site (peritoneal cavity). This method seeks to mimic natural infection...

  6. Reproducible methods for experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were done in order to achieve a reproducible method that can be used to infect rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causal agent of coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome. The main method investigated was intraperitoneal injection......, and this method was tested using isolates with different elastin- degrading profiles and representing different serotypes. Injecting trout, average weight 1 g, with 10(4) CFU (colony- forming units) per fish caused cumulative mortalities around 60 to 70%. The virulent strains belonged to certain serotypes...

  7. Identifying potential virulence determinants in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Scott; Collet, Bertrand; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2009-01-01

    We identified viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates classified within Genotype Ib which are genetically similar (>99.4% glycoprotein amino acid identity) yet, based on their isolation history, were suspected to differ in virulence in juvenile rainbow trout. The virulence of an isol......We identified viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates classified within Genotype Ib which are genetically similar (>99.4% glycoprotein amino acid identity) yet, based on their isolation history, were suspected to differ in virulence in juvenile rainbow trout. The virulence...... the same experimental infection routes (...

  8. First isolation of Pseudocohnilembus persalinus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) from freshwater-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon R M; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; LaPatra, Scott E

    2010-10-01

    Ciliated protists were isolated from the ovarian fluid of apparently healthy adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) maintained in freshwater. The organism was identified as Pseudocohnilembus persalinus based on morphometric and morphological analysis of silver-stained specimens obtained from culture and on analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequence of this organism also was characterized. This ciliate has been reported previously as free living only in saline environments and as an endosymbiont in a marine teleost, the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A cyst-like stage may have facilitated the novel occurrence of this organism as an endosymbiont in rainbow trout.

  9. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout.

  10. Evaluation of angler effort and harvest of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Lake Scanewa, Washington, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A creel evaluation was conducted in Lake Scanewa, a reservoir on the Cowlitz River, to monitor catch rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and determine if the trout fishery was having negative impacts on juvenile anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the system. The trout fishery, which is supported by releases of 20,000 fish (2 fish per pound) per year from June to August, was developed to mitigate for the construction of the Cowlitz Falls Dam in 1994. The trout fishery has a target catch rate of at least 0.50 fish per hour. Interviews with 1,214 anglers during the creel evaluation found that most anglers targeted rainbow trout (52 percent) or Chinook and coho salmon (48 percent). The interviewed anglers caught a total of 1,866 fish, most of which were rainbow trout (1,213 fish; 78 percent) or coho salmon (311 fish; 20 percent). We estimated that anglers spent 17,365 hours fishing in Lake Scanewa from June to November 2010. Catch rates for boat anglers (1.39 fish per hour) exceeded the 0.50 fish per hour target, whereas catch rates for shore anglers (0.35 fish per hour) fell short of the goal. The combined catch rates for all trout anglers in the reservoir were 0.96 fish per hour. We estimated that anglers harvested 7,584 (95 percent confidence interval = 2,795-12,372 fish) rainbow trout during the study period and boat anglers caught more fish than shore anglers (5,975 and 1,609 fish, respectively). This estimate suggests that more than 12,000 of the 20,000 rainbow trout released into Lake Scanewa during 2010 were not harvested, and could negatively impact juvenile salmon in the reservoir through predation or competition. We examined 1,236 stomach samples from rainbow trout and found that 2.1 percent (26 fish) of these samples contained juvenile fish. Large trout (greater than 300 millimeters) had a higher incidence of predation than small trout (less than 300 millimeters; 8.50 and 0.06 percent, respectively). A total of 39 fish were found in rainbow

  11. Bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared at Danish freshwater farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout....... psychrophilum isolates showed resistance to oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline. No antibiotic resistant isolates were found among Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida....... fry syndrome/coldwater disease were recorded. Infections caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum occurred most frequently, but only one outbreak of enteric redmouth disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and one of furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida were recorded during the monitoring...

  12. Experimental observation of internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  14. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  15. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  16. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  18. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  19. Partially Blind Signatures Based on Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Niu, Hui-Fang

    2012-12-01

    In a partially blind signature scheme, the signer explicitly includes pre-agreed common information in the blind signature, which can improve the availability and performance. We present a new partially blind signature scheme based on fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyze the security of this scheme, and show it is not possible to forge valid partially blind signatures. Moreover, the comparisons between this scheme and those based on public-key cryptography are also discussed.

  20. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  1. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.

  2. Measuring Vapors To Monitor the State of Cure of a Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed noninvasive method of monitoring the cure path and the state of cure of an epoxy or other resin involves measurement of the concentration( s) of one or more compound(s) in the vaporous effluent emitted during the curing process. The method is based on the following general ideas: (1) The concentrations of the effluent compounds in the vicinity of the curing resin are approximately proportional to the instantaneous rate of curing. (2) As curing proceeds at a given temperature, subsequent decreases in the concentrations are indicative of approaching completion of cure; that is, the lower are the concentrations, the more nearly complete is the cure.

  3. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  4. Experimental infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from European marine and farmed fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Slierendrecht, W.J.; King, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection with various isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was examined. A total of 8 experiments with rainbow trout ranging from 0.6 to 6.2 g was conducted for 139 isolates originating from wild marine fishes in Europ......The susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection with various isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was examined. A total of 8 experiments with rainbow trout ranging from 0.6 to 6.2 g was conducted for 139 isolates originating from wild marine fishes...... in European waters (115 isolates), farmed turbot from Scotland and Ireland (2 isolates), and farmed rainbow trout (22 isolates). The isolates were tested by immersion and/or intraperitoneal injection either as pooled or single isolates. The isolates from wild marine fishes did not cause mortality by immersion...... while some of the isolates caused mortality when injected. All VHSV isolates from farmed rainbow trout caused significant mortality by immersion. Currently, pathogenicity trials are the only way to differentiate VHSV isolates from wild marine fishes and farmed rainbow trout. The 2 farmed turbot isolates...

  5. The effect of curing light and chemical catalyst on the degree of conversion of two dual cured resin luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different curing lights and chemical catalysts on the degree of conversion of resin luting cements. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens of RelyX ARC or Panavia F of diameter 5 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared and the respective chemical catalyst (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus or ED Primer) was added. The specimens were light-cured using different curing units (an argon ion laser, an LED or a quartz-tungsten-halogen light) through shade A2 composite disks of diameter 10 mm and thickness 2 mm. After 24 h of dry storage at 37°C, the degree of conversion of the resin luting cements was measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used, with p ≤ 0.05. Panavia F when used without catalyst and cured using the LED or the argon ion laser showed degree of conversion values significantly lower than RelyX ARC, with and without catalyst, and cured with any of the light sources. Therefore, the degree of conversion of Panavia F with ED Primer cured with the quartz-tungsten-halogen light was significantly different from that of RelyX ARC regardless of the use of the chemical catalyst and light curing source. In conclusion, RelyX ARC can be cured satisfactorily with the argon ion laser, LED or quartz-tungsten-halogen light with or without a chemical catalyst. To obtain a satisfactory degree of conversion, Panavia F luting cement should be used with ED Primer and cured with halogen light.

  6. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  7. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  8. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  9. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  10. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  11. Comparative Study of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Manufactured Under Pulsed Microwave Curing and Thermal Oven Curing

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shi; Bai, Yun; Li, H.; Xu, D. L.; Basheer, P. A. Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) manufactured with thermal oven curing and pulsed microwave curing methods. Fly ash activated by 8M NaOH solution at a liquid to solid ratio of 0.3 was cured by thermal oven at 85°C and domestic microwave oven, respectively. Apart from compressive strength test, the temperature profiles of AAFA samples were captured by thermal camera. Reaction products of AAFA were characterised with XRD, FTIR and TG/DTG, while the microstructure of AAFA ...

  12. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  13. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  14. Curing of Epoxy Resin Induced by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yubin; ZHANG Zuoguang

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of curing of epoxy resin induced by femtosecond laser beam was explored through choosing different initiators . Absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to analyze the structure of epoxy resin systems after irradiation with a femtosecond laser beam. The experimental results show that the epoxy resin systems containing diaryliodonium salts can be cured by irradiation of Jemtosecond laser pulse, while the systems containing benzoin can not be cured. It is found that diaryliodonium salts decompose under the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse through multi ( two ) -photon absorption, initiating the ring-opening polymerization of epoxy resin. And the appearance of cured area has a sheet structure consisting of many tiny lamellar structures.

  15. Cure monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves in wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T; Lowe, M; Cawley, P

    2003-09-01

    The possibility of using ultrasonic guided waves for monitoring the cure process of epoxy resins is investigated. The two techniques presented use a wire waveguide which is partly embedded in the resin. The first technique is based on the measurement of attenuation due to leakage of bulk waves into the resin surrounding the waveguide. The second technique measures the reflection of the guided wave that occurs at the point where the waveguide enters the resin. Both the attenuation and the reflection coefficient change significantly during cure, and the numerical methods to relate these to the material properties of the curing resin are presented in this paper. The results from the modeling are experimentally verified and show good agreement. The applicability of each testing method is discussed, and typical cure-monitoring curves are presented.

  16. effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-09

    Sep 9, 2013 ... Objective: To determine the characteristics of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics in Nairobi and ... generation which has dogged the new generation of. LEDs without ..... Knezevic A, Tarle Z, Meniga A, Sutalo J, Pichler G.

  17. Cure monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves in wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T.; Lowe, M.; Cawley, P.

    2003-09-01

    The possibility of using ultrasonic guided waves for monitoring the cure process of epoxy resins is investigated. The two techniques presented use a wire waveguide which is partly embedded in the resin. The first technique is based on the measurement of attenuation due to leakage of bulk waves into the resin surrounding the waveguide. The second technique measures the reflection of the guided wave that occurs at the point where the waveguide enters the resin. Both the attenuation and the reflection coefficient change significantly during cure, and the numerical methods to relate these to the material properties of the curing resin are presented in this paper. The results from the modeling are experimentally verified and show good agreement. The applicability of each testing method is discussed, and typical cure-monitoring curves are presented.

  18. Editorial: Short-course adjuvant trastuzumab will increase cure rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: Short-course adjuvant trastuzumab will increase cure rates in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. ... Journal Home > Vol 107, No 8 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get ... from 32 Countries:.

  19. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION; CURE ELECTROCOAGULATION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...

  20. Chemistry and technology of Cured and Smoked Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Mathur

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the chemistry and technology of cured and smoked meat products are reviewed. Various factors physical, chemical and microbiological affecting water holding capacity of cured meats and cured colour formation and its stability during storage are discussed. Methods of preparation of various types of cured and smoked meat products have been briefly described. Developments in the use of synthetic casings and skinless sausages have been mentioned. Smoke constituents, their role and physico-chemical aspects of mechanism and functions of smoking are discussed. Advancements in the methods of smoke generation, conventional smoking and some kilns, electrostatic smoking and smoking by use of liquid smokes have been described. Some of the methods of preparation of liquid smokes are also given.

  1. effect of light intensity on the cure characteristics of photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-05

    May 5, 2012 ... Design: A laboratory based cross sectional study. Setting: Public and ... set out to determine the light intensity emitted by light curing units ... polymerised with it. MATERIAL AND METHODS ..... J. of Oral Rehab. 2005; 32:.

  2. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture.

  3. Development of hard materials by radiation curing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salleh, N.G. E-mail: nik_ghazali@mint.gov.my; Glaesel, H.J.; Mehnert, R

    2002-03-01

    For studying nanoglobular modification effects in radiation cured polymeric composites, we prepared polymerization active silico-organic nanoparticles. With their polymerization active ligands, these nanoparticles form crosslinks by modifying the viscoelastic properties in radiation cured polymeric nanocomposites. In this process, there was a polymerization activity imparted to the particle surfaces of nanopowders, thus applying the physico-chemical modification scheme of a heterogeneous copolymerization to novel scratch and abrasion resistant coatings. By varying the nanoparticle-monomer formulation and the curing method, additional property can be achieved. In this works, we also investigated the influence of various factors such as addition of photoinitiators and other additives into the formulations. The coating materials were applied to the substrate by using different type of coaters. These materials were cured by ultraviolet light and electron beam irradiation. Properties of coatings were characterized using Universal scratch tester and Taber abrasion tester.

  4. In-situ cure monitoring of epoxy resin systems

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Graham

    1998-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis describes the work carried out at Brunel University to develop novel optical fibre sensors capable of monitoring the cure state of an epoxy/amine resin system. The sensors were of simple construction, consisting of an optical fibre from which the silicone cladding layer had been removed over a short length. This stripped length was embedded into the curing resin system. The sensor...

  5. Some electroanalytical investigations into the cure chemistry of industrial sealants

    OpenAIRE

    Raftery, Declan Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This thesis represents a study of the cure chemistry of three contrasting adhesive technologies, applying a range of analytical approaches to gain further insight into the complex chemistry of adhesives. An introduction is given in chapter one into the general chemistry of adhesives and their analysis, with particular emphasis on anaerobic adhesives and the crucial role played by transition metals in the cure chemistry. In order to elucidate the role played by tertiary amines and saccahri...

  6. Cure Characteristics of Tricyanate Ester High Temperature Composite Resins (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    isothermal DSC data were analyzed via the Kissinger [17], Ozawa [18], and Friedman [19] methods, as described in the recent analysis of dicyanate ester...7 present the graphical analysis that underlies the Kissinger [17], Ozawa [18], and Friedman [19] methods, respectively, of non-isothermal DSC cure...where β is the heating rate and Tp the absolute temperature at the peak cure rate, is proportional to the activation energy. For the Ozawa method

  7. The Prevention and Cure of Cervical Vertebra Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    CERVICAL vertebra problems are common and usually occur in middleaged and elderly people, especially those who often bend over. The symptoms patients might encounter are dizziness, headache, neck and shoulder pain and numbness, and even viscera trouble. The following exercises are a simple and convenient way to prevent and cure cervical vertebra problems. If you continue doing the exercises, you can prevent and cure them. Here are the exercises step by step:

  8. On the Consistency of the Ladder Approximation and the Rainbow Approximation of Dyson-Schwinger Equation of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, L; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2006-01-01

    We study the consistency of the ladder approximation and the rainbow approximation of the Dyson-Schwinger equation of QCD. By considering the non-Abelian property of QCD, we show that the QED-type Ward-Takahashi identity is not required for the rainbow-ladder approximation of QCD. It indicates that there does not exists any internal inconsistency in the usual rainbow-ladder approximation of QCD. In addition, we propose an modified ladder approximation which guarantees the Slavnov-Taylor identity for the quark-gluon vertex omitting the ghost effect in the approximation.

  9. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    was compared in naturally and experimentally (intraperitoneal injections) infected fry by use of immunohistochemistry. This study showed that F. psychrophilus could be detected in paraffin-wax-embedded tissue of rainbow trout fry by immunohistochemistry. The principal immunohistochemical findings in naturally......An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium...

  10. CURING PROCESS OF PHOTOPOLYMER RESIN BOND DIAMOND TOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Tao; PENG Wei; YAO Chunyan

    2007-01-01

    Analytical simulation and corresponding proof-test are adopted to study the principle of the curing process of photopolymer resin diamond tools. The influence of the diamond as abrasives in photopolymer resin owing to the absorptivity of the diamond for the UV light on the photopolymer resin curing process is discussed. Based on the above, a kind of diamond tool-dicing blade is selected to analyze the curing process of photopolymer bond diamond tools. An analytical model of curing process is developed and a correlation curve between the depth of polymerization of the photopolymer resin diamond tools and the exposure time to represent the curing process of photopolymer bond dicing blade. A test is done to proof-test the validity of the analytical model and the correlation curve. The simulated data fit the experimental results, which demonstrates the analytical models and numerical algorithm are of high reliability. The analytical simulation method could possibly be used to optimize the curing cycle and improve the quality of the photopolymers resin bond diamond tools.

  11. Characterization of dental composite curing kinetics using dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Gray, Elaine M.; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.; Sakaguchi, Ron L.

    2009-02-01

    Polymer resin composites are a class of widely used restorative dental materials that undergo a complex polymerization curing process that has been the subject of substantial research. This study uses speckle correlation methods based on dynamic light scattering as a tool to monitor the rate and extent of dental composite polymerization during and after photo-curing. Thin disc-shaped samples (composite consisting of 50:50 BisGMA/TEGDMA resin, quartz silica filler particles, and camphorquinone as photo-initiator. A 633 nm HeNe laser beam was used to probe the top surface of the sample via a backscattered speckle pattern, while the bottom surface was illuminated with a halogen curing lamp (peak wavelength=470nm) to initiate the polymerization reaction. The speckle patterns were recorded with a CCD camera, and stored as a 'speckle cube' for post processing. Correlation values of the intensity fluctuation were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis for pairs of subsequent speckle images and then ensemble averaged. Results show a sharp decrease in correlation at the onset of curing, indicating a large amount of double bond conversion and movement within the composite. Correlation values then quickly increase, eventually reaching a plateau near unity, indicating cessation of molecular rearrangement. The kinetic behavior demonstrated by our correlation curves are in good agreement with curing data found in the literature, and demonstrate the usefulness of this technique for monitoring dental composite curing.

  12. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  13. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.

  14. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  15. BLIND SERBIAN RULERS AND FAMOUS PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available History and medicine were an integral part of life-being of blind serbian acters. One of the main actors was half-blind serbian ruler, Stefan of Decani and whose name was associated with first ophthalmologic hospital and precursor of the eye`s injuries care. After, national reputation as Stefan Blind Righteous, ruler of the Serbian despot between 1458. and 1459. (member of Brankovic`s dinasty, and he was blinded by eye injuries burns. The famous national was also Filip Visnjic, as blind minstrel and authentic creator of serbian folk traditions, with sequels as a child, by bilateral infective panuveitis.

  16. Stress does not inhibit induced vitellogenesis in juvenile rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, A.R.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a widely used biomarker for xenoestrogen exposure in male fishes. In female fishes Vtg can be negatively affected by stress independent of declines in estrogen. However, few data are available on the effect of stress in male fish abnormally producing Vtg, such as when exposed to xenoestrogens. The objective for these studies was to determine the effects of stress on fish forced to produce Vtg. Three weeks prior to the experiment immature juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were acclimated to the experimental tanks and fed a maintenance ration. We induced Vtg synthesis by injecting 17??-estradiol (E2) 7 days prior to experimentation. Treatments in duplicate tanks were: (1) no stressor; (2) stressor; (3) E 2; (4) E2 and stressor. Plasma was collected at time = 0 for baseline measurements from eight fish per tank and Vtg was significantly elevated in treated fish compared to uninjected controls. Water was drained from the stressor tanks then refilled to a level that just covered the backs of the fish. Eight fish were sampled again at 4 and 9 h, and 1, 7, and 14 days of continuous stress. Stressor tanks were refilled with water to pre-stress levels and the fish were sampled after another 2 weeks. Cortisol was significantly elevated from the unstressed fish at 4 h; however, plasma Vtg in the E 2-stimulated fish was not affected by the stressor at any timepoint. These results indicate that fish capture procedures employed in the field or caging experiments likely do not lead to false negative results when plasma Vtg is used as a biomarker for xenoestrogen exposure. It also suggests that the energetic load induced by stress is insufficient to cause a reduction in Vtg, during a continuous E2 administration, at least within the timepoints examined in this study. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  17. An H1 histone gene from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, J; Connor, W; Winkfein, R J; Dixon, G H

    A 1.7-kbp DNA region from the 10.2-kb cluster containing the five rainbow trout histone genes has been subcloned in pBR322 and completely sequenced. It contains a trout histone H1 gene together with its 5' and 3' flanking sequences. This H1 gene codes for a H1 variant different from the major trout testis H1 previously sequenced by Macleod et al. (1977). Northern blots of total RNA from trout testis, kidney, and liver indicate that this H1 gene is expressed in all three tissues but that the level of H1 mRNA is much higher in testis than in other tissues. The lack of heterogeneity in the sizes and 5' initiation sites of trout H1 mRNAs is surprising in view of the substantial heterogeneity of H1 variant proteins observed previously. The coding sequence of the H1 gene shows strong evidence of repeated partial duplications of a hexapeptide motif of the form Ala.Ala.Ala.Lys.Lys.Pro and of a pentapeptide phosphorylation-site sequence, Lys.Ser.Pro.Lys.Lys, during its evolution. Comparisons are drawn between this gene and the coding sequences of other vertebrate H1 genes from chicken and Xenopus, and a strong homology is seen in the region of amino acids 22-101, which form the hydrophobic "head" of the H1 molecule. The 5' and 3' regulatory signals in the trout H1 are also compared with those of H1 genes from other sequences.

  18. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  19. [Cortical plasticity in blind individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-zhen; Zhu, Si-quan

    2008-10-01

    The cognitive mechanisms and functional brain imaging research on blind individuals provide special information for exploring the plasticity of the developing human brain. This paper focuses on five aspects of recent progress in this field: (1) the behavior compensation of the blind; (2) the influence of early visual deprivation and later visual deprivation on cross-modal reorganization; (3) the relationship between the complexity of task requirement and cross-modal reorganization; (4) the relationship between the sensitive periods of the visual system and the time course of cross-modal reorganization; (5) the neural mechanisms of cross-modal reorganization. These findings contribute greatly to the theoretical basis of the rehabilitation of individuals with perceptual deficits.

  20. Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylén, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid...