Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller
The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite/ascorba...
Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller
The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite...... observed depending on whether S. xylosus or S. carnosus were used as starter culture. In particular the effects of nitrate was much more predominant in the sausages made with S. carnosus than S. xylosus....
Vicky Lilge Kawski
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical quality of colonial salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients as potential enhancers of quality products. Salamis were produced according to three treatments: (A Control: 0.1% curing salt; (B rosemary: 0.05% curing salt + 0.5% rosemary extract (RE; and (C RE+celery: 0.14% Veg 503 + 0.27% Veg 504 (sea salt plus celery, nitrate and nitrite supplies, respectively + 0.5% of RE. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05 among the three treatments for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, ether extract (EE and gross energy (GE. Sensory analysis was performed by applying the preference test and multiple comparison between the three treatments. Salamis added with vegetable-based curing ingredients were sensory equivalent to conventional level of curing salts. Vegetable extracts allowed the development of the sensory features of salami and did not interfere in the fermentation process. Results suggested that the extracts can serve as effective natural curing ingredients for the ripening process and cured meat color as well as adequate shelf-life replacing the commercial curing salts in meat and meat products. After 30 days of ripening, salami from the control treatment (conventional levels of nitrite and nitrate and the treatments with added vegetable-based curing ingredients and low nitrite and nitrate content (RE and RE + celery were equivalent in sensory quality.
Glass, Kathleen A; McDonnell, Lindsey M; Von Tayson, Roxanne; Wanless, Brandon; Badvela, Mani
Listeria monocytogenes growth can be controlled on ready-to-eat meats through the incorporation of antimicrobial ingredients into the formulation or by postlethality kill steps. However, alternate approaches are needed to provide options that reduce sodium content but maintain protection against pathogen growth in meats after slicing. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition of L. monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in high-moisture, cured turkey stored at 4 or 7°C. Six formulations of sliced, cured (120 ppm of NaNO2 ), deli-style turkey were tested, including control without antimicrobials, 3.2% lactate-diacetate blend (LD), 0.4% of a liquid propionate-benzoate-containing ingredient, or 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of a liquid propionate-containing ingredient. Products were inoculated with 5 log CFU L. monocytogenes per 100-g package (3 log CFU/ml rinsate), vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4 or 7°C for up to 12 weeks; and populations were enumerated by plating on modified Oxford agar. As expected, the control without antimicrobials supported rapid growth, with >2 log average per ml rinsate increase within 4 weeks of storage at 4°C, whereas growth was observed at 6 weeks for the LD treatment. For both replicate trials, all treatments that contained liquid propionate or propionate-benzoate limited L. monocytogenes growth to an increase of 1-log increase) was observed in individual samples for all propionate-containing treatments at weeks 10, 11, and 12. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew more rapidly when products were stored at 7°C, but trends in relative inhibition were similar to those observed at 4°C. These results verify that propionate-based ingredients inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes on sliced, high-moisture, cured turkey and can be considered as an alternative to reduce sodium-based salts while maintaining food safety.
Full Text Available Dendeng is Indonesian dried meat product that used spices rich in antioxidant component as ingredient. In addition, commercial dendeng usually use saltpeter (nitrate/nitrite salt as curing ingredient to inhibit rancidity and to produce stable red color. The aims of this study were to investigate composition of spices and saltpeter added, characteristic, total phenolic, and antioxidant activity of commercial dendeng. This research was conducted through interview with some dendeng producers to get information about saltpeter adding and spices composition used in their products. Then the interview results were verified by laboratory analysis. The results showed that spices and saltpeter adding from some producers varied. The saltpeter added in curing process produced inconsistent red color on commercial dendeng in this investigation. Total phenolic of dendeng from producers ranged from 42.47 to 102.0 mg GAE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 36.51 to 95.49 mg GAE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity against DPPH ranged from 79.35 to 379.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 94.30 to 559.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity of raw dendeng was influenced by phenolic content about 87.2%, but in fried dendeng was only 59.0%. In conclusion, dendeng has a significant antioxidant activity, even after frying, and saltpeter addition was not effective to maintain stable red color in dendeng products.
Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller
Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The numbers of surviving Staphylococcus xylosus, lactic acid bacteria......, pH, free fatty acids and residual amounts of nitrite and nitrate were measured. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the chemical and bacterial data were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that numbers of surviving Staphylococcus...... of glucose and Pediococcus pentosaceus. On the other hand pH was increased by addition of nitrate. The pH-lowering effect of glucose was small when temperature was low. The residual levels of nitrite and nitrate were increased by addition of nitrate, but then increased and decreased, respectively...
Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna
To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the
Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte
Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...... was significantly affected by the different factors. High fermentation temperature and nitrite content increased the amount, while high contents of salt, nitrate, glucose and P. pentosaceus lowered the amount of free amino acids. In general, temperature and nitrate had the greatest influence. It was shown...
Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller
Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The odour of the sausages was evaluated by a quantitative descriptive...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour...
Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna
To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activity of allicin against planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) for pure allicin were identical...
Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.
Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence
Deuri, Deepshikha; Hazarika, Pragati; Singh, Tarun Pal; Chhangte, Lalchamliani; Singh, Parminder; Talukder, Suman
The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C) for 15 days. Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min), T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min). Cooking yield was significantly higher (pproduct) could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost.
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C for 15 days. Materials and Methods: Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min, T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min. Results: Cooking yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 for the T-4. The pH of T-3 and T-4 samples was significantly higher (p<0.05 on day 15. The tyrosine value of all the samples increased significantly (p<0.05 among the different days of analysis. Thiobarbituric acid value was significantly (p<0.05 lower in T-3 sample both at the beginning and at the end of storage period. In microbiological profile, total plate count was lower in T-3 and T-4 than T-1 and T-2. However, Escherichia coli count was negative for T-3 and T-4 samples throughout the storage period. Among sensory attributes, T-3 and T-4 samples registered superior scores for color, flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Furthermore, Vawksa rep (smoked pork product could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost.
McMurtrie, K E; Kerth, C R; Bratcher, C L; Curtis, P A; Smith, B
Beef inside round roasts (n=144) were cut from rounds obtained from both forage-finished cattle (n=72) and commercially-sourced beef (n=72). Roasts were portioned to weigh 0.45-0.68kg each. Each roast was then randomly assigned one of the following treatments: control, injected-no cure, or injected-cured. Additionally, roasts were assigned a serving temperature (hot or cold) and storage treatments (0d or 28d post cooking). Roasts from forage-fed beef had a more red interior color and higher shear values, and also retained more brine than commercially-sourced beef (P<0.05). Curing roasts improved TBARS values in roasts served hot and significantly reduced sensory warmed-over and grassy flavors (P<0.05). Marinating forage-finished beef roasts significantly improves tenderness and flavor characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
King, Amanda M; Glass, Kathleen A; Milkowski, Andrew L; Sindelar, Jeffrey J
The antimicrobial impact of purified and natural sources of both nitrite and ascorbate were evaluated against Clostridium perfringens during the postthermal processing cooling period of deli-style turkey breast. The objective of phase I was to assess comparable concentrations of nitrite (0 or 100 ppm) and ascorbate (0 or 547 ppm) from both purified and natural sources. Phase II was conducted to investigate concentrations of nitrite (50, 75, or 100 ppm) from cultured celery juice powder and ascorbate (0, 250, or 500 ppm) from cherry powder to simulate alternative curing formulations. Ground turkey breast (75% moisture, 1.2% salt, pH 6.2) treatments were inoculated with C. perfringens spores (three-strain mixture) to yield 2.5 log CFU/g. Individual 50-g portions were vacuum packaged, cooked to 71.1°C, and chilled from 54.4 to 26.7°C in 5 h and from 26.7 to 7.2°C in 10 additional hours. Triplicate samples were assayed for growth of C. perfringens at predetermined intervals by plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar; experiments were replicated three times. In phase I, uncured, purified nitrite, and natural nitrite treatments without ascorbate had 5.3-, 4.2-, and 4.4-log increases in C. perfringens, respectively, at 15 h, but <1-log increase was observed at the end of chilling in treatments containing 100 ppm of nitrite and 547 ppm of ascorbate from either source. In phase II, 0, 50, 75, and 100 ppm of nitrite and 50 ppm of nitrite plus 250 ppm of ascorbate supported 4.5-, 3.9-, 3.5-, 2.2-, and 1.5-log increases in C. perfringens, respectively. In contrast, <1-log increase was observed after 15 h in the remaining phase II treatments supplemented with 50 ppm of nitrite and 500 ppm of ascorbate or ≥75 ppm of nitrite and ≥250 ppm of ascorbate. These results confirm that equivalent concentrations of nitrite, regardless of the source, provide similar inhibition of C. perfringens during chilling and that ascorbate enhances the antimicrobial effect of nitrite on C
McDonnell, Lindsey M; Glass, Kathleen A; Sindelar, Jeffrey J
The objective of this study was to identify ingredients that inhibit Listeria monocytogenes in natural, organic, or clean-label ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. Fourteen ingredients were screened in uncured (no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added), traditional-cured (156 ppm of purified sodium nitrite), cultured (alternative cured, natural nitrate source, and Staphylococcus carnosus), or preconverted (alternative cured, natural nitrite source) turkey slurries. Slurries were cooked, cooled, inoculated to yield 3 log CFU/ml L. monocytogenes, stored at 4°C, and tested weekly for 4 weeks. Three antimicrobial ingredients, 1.5 % vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend, 2.5 % buffered vinegar, and 3.0 % cultured sugar-vinegar blend, were incorporated into alternative-cured ham and uncured roast beef and deli-style turkey breast. Controls included all three meat products without antimicrobial ingredients and a traditional-cured ham with 2.8 % sodium lactate-diacetate. Cooked, sliced products were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, vacuum packed, and stored at 4 or 7°C, for up to 12 weeks. For control products without antimicrobial agents stored at 4°C, a 2-log L. monocytogenes increase was observed at 2 weeks for ham and turkey and at 4 weeks for roast beef. Growth (>1-log increase) in the sodium lactate-diacetate was delayed until week 6. Compared with the control, the addition of either vinegar-lemon-cherry powder blend or buffered vinegar delayed L. monocytogenes growth for an additional 2 weeks, while the addition of cultured sugar-vinegar blend delayed growth for an additional 4 weeks for both ham and turkey. The greatest L. monocytogenes delay was observed in roast beef containing any of the three antimicrobial ingredients, with no growth detected through 12 weeks at 4°C for all the treatments. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew substantially faster in products stored at 7°C than at 4°C. These data suggest that antimicrobial ingredients from a natural source
In the beginning of the seventies the two types of radiation sources applied in industrial processes, electron radiation and UV, had been given rather optimistic forecasts. While UV could succeed in the field of panel and film coating, electron radiation curing seems to gain success in quite new fields of manufacturing. The listing of the suggested applications of radiation curing and a comparison of both advantages and disadvantages of this technology are followed by a number of case studies emphasizing the features of these processes and giving some examplary calculations. The data used for the calculations should provide an easy calculation of individual manufacturing costs if special production parameters, investment or energy costs are employed. (Author)
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results i...
Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the
Maruyama, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Tadashi.
A process for the rapid curing of an electrophoretically applied coating with either compositions of aqueous dispersion or aqueous coating compositions thereof is provided by irradiating with ionizing radiations. The process comprises the steps of (a) neutralizing an aqueous alkyd resin with a base, in which the alkyd resin contains a conjugated unsaturated fatty acid or oil as one of its constituents, (b) dispersing the neutralized resin in water, (c) applying to an electroconductive material the varnishes of the dispersed composition or the dispersed coating composition, and (d) irradiating the coatings with ionizing radiations so as to harden them. The alkyd resins have an acid value of 30 to 100 and the bases are equivalent to 0.7 to 1.2. the process is suitable for coil coating. In examples, a semi-esterified product of acid value 54 was diluted with 440 parts of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and 110 parts of butanol. Next, they were neutralized with 87 parts of dimethyl amino ethanol. Thereafter, they were mixed with 1,013 parts of water to produce an aqueous dispersion of alkyd resin varnish at a concentration of 40%. To 325 parts of the varnish were added 1.3 parts of cobalt naphthenate- 60% toluene solution and then 675 parts of water to produce water soluble varnish containing 13% of a nonvolatile substance. The varnish was applied by electrophoresis for 10 seconds. The time required for the irradiation was about 1 second. The total radiation dose was 3 Mrad of electron beams at an acceleration energy of 300 kV and 25 mA of current. (Iwakiri, K.)
Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.
Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.
... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...
Swinkels, J. M.; Cox, P.; Schukken, Y. H.; Lam, T. J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X
Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial
Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard
During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.
A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years
The contents of this book are: Areas of Application of UV Curing; Areas of Application of EB Curing; Laser Curing of Acrylic Coatings; A User's View of the Application of Radiation Curable Materials; Radiation Curable Offset Inks: A Technical and Marketing Overview; and UV Curable Screen Printing Inks
The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the ...
Djordjevic, B. Boro
Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites applied to large structures require inexpensive cure process control. This paper reports on work to develop simple ultrasonic NDE sensors suitable for manufacturing and in-field use. This sensor is designed around a short wave-guide ultrasonic probe that is embedded in composite for in-situ cure monitoring applications. The sensor measures changes in resin density and sound velocity during cure and can be quantitatively calibrated for determination of the final cure. The cure monitoring is based on acoustic impedance variance across a material interface and can be utilized over the full cure cycle change of the resin in the composite. Significant advantage of this method is the simplicity of the measurement, low cost of the wave-guide probe and the adaptability of the sensor configuration to various composite-processing environments
Spranley, Thomas J; Winkler, Mark; Dagate, John; Oncale, David; Strother, Elizabeth
This study sought to reveal the potential heat generated by a light-emitting diode (LED) curing light, which has generally been considered to be relatively cool. It is likely that similarly designed curing lights will produce a similar level of heat and have the potential to cause damage to soft tissue.
Garnett, J.L.; Loo-Teck Ng; Visay Viengkhou
Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations
Pantůček, Roman; Sedláček, Ivo; Indráková, Adéla; Vrbovská, Veronika; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Kovařovic, Vojtěch; Švec, Pavel; Králová, Stanislava; Krištofová, Lucie; Kekláková, Jana; Petráš, Petr; Doškař, Jiří
Two Gram-stain-positive, coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains were isolated from abiotic sources, stone fragments and sandy soil in James Ross Island, Antarctica. Here we describe properties of novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that has near identical 16S rRNA gene sequence to Staphylococcus saprophyticus However, compared to S. saprophyticus and the next closest relatives, the new species demonstrates considerable phylogenetic distance at whole genome level, average nucleotide identity globalized world to their geographically distant relative from the extreme Antarctic environment. Although this new species was not exposed to the pressure of antibiotic treatment in human or veterinary practice, mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance genes were found in the genome. The presented genomic characteristics elucidate the evolutionary relationships in the Staphylococcus genus with a special focus on antimicrobial resistance, pathogenicity and survival traits. Genes encoded on mobile genetic elements were arranged in unique combinations but retained conserved locations for the integration of mobile genetic elements. These findings point to enormous plasticity of the staphylococcal pangenome shaped by horizontal gene transfer. Thus S. edaphicus can act not only as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance in a natural environment, but also as a mediator for the spread and evolution of resistance genes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Electron beam curing (EBC) type paint is paint that is specially prepared so that it can be cured and dried by electron beam irradiation. Electron beam irradiation achieves hardly any curing and drying of ordinary normal-temperature drying type paint or heat-drying type paint. The main type of paint in which an electron beam produces a curing reaction is one in which a radical polymerization reaction takes place under irradiation. The use of this EBC painting - drying system has been considered for a variety of fields since it has a number of special features such as the fact that the paint dries instantaneously, no heat is applied and no solvent is used. (Author)
The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; what is radiation curing; history; radiation curable resins (with properties of products); ultraviolet and electron beam curing; photoinitiation and the ultraviolet light curing process; electron beam curing (initiation; electron beam accelerators); end uses (graphic arts; wood finishing; paper upgrading; adhesives; metal finishing; electronic chemical; floor coatings). (U.K.)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...
Active ingredients in EPA-registered insect repellents include catnip oil, oil of citronella, DEET, IR 3535, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and 2-undecanone. Find fact sheets and pesticide regulatory information.
Full Text Available Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate and limited understanding of contexts in which such contracts pay off. Our paper provides an extensive review of literature and research streams in ingredient branding, adding knowledge to theory and help for companies that need to establish and maintain a competitive advantage, by differentiating their offer on the markets they act on, in a globalized economy.
Pietrocola, Giampiero; Nobile, Giulia; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro
Neutrophils, complement system and skin collectively represent the main elements of the innate immune system, the first line of defense of the host against many common microorganisms. Bacterial pathogens have evolved strategies to counteract all these defense activities. Specifically, Staphylococcus aureus , a major human pathogen, secretes a variety of immune evasion molecules including proteases, which cleave components of the innate immune system or disrupt the integrity of extracellular matrix and intercellular connections of tissues. Additionally, S. aureus secretes proteins that can activate host zymogens which, in turn, target specific defense components. Secreted proteins can also inhibit the anti-bacterial function of neutrophils or complement system proteases, potentiating S. aureus chances of survival. Here, we review the current understanding of these proteases and modulators of host proteases in the functioning of innate immunity and describe the importance of these mechanisms in the pathology of staphylococcal diseases.
surface coats, weak concrete blocks, leaky conduits and pipes illustrate defects frequently caused by improper curing .... Furthermore, water lost internally by self desiccation has to be replaced by water from outside, i.e. ... Other methods for preventing loss of moisture involve the use of liquid seal coat, or tight covers such as ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Hydrotalcite - The Clay that Cures. N Bejoy. General Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 57-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0057-0061. Author Affiliations.
Electron beam curing of paints and allied materials is discussed. Examples of applications are: silicone papers; painting of metal; bonding of flake adhesives; bonding of grinding media (binders); paints for external uses; painting shaped parts; bi-reactive painting systems. An example is given of the calculation of the cost of irradiation. (U.K.)
pathogens that can cause mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus is probably the most lethal agent because it causes chronic and deep infection in the mammary glands that is extremely difficult to be cured. The present study was to detect some of the virulence factors in the S. aureus isolated from 360 mastitis milk samples in ...
Ergün, Gülfem; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic Nagas, Isil
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of light curing distance on the cytotoxicity of five resin composites cured with three high-power light curing units. Study design: Seven cylindrical discs of each material (Grandio ®, Voco; Filtek ? Z250, 3M ESPE; Clearfil ? AP-X, Kuraray Co. Ltd.; Aelite ? LS, Bisco Inc. and Simile ®, Pentron) were cured. For curing, soft-up mode of quartz-tungsten-halogen, exponential mode of light emitting diode for 20 s, and ramp-curing m...
Balamurugan, P; Praveen Krishna, V; Bharath, D; Lavanya, Raajaraam; Vairaprakash, Pothiappan; Adline Princy, S
Staphylococcus aureus is a widely acknowledged Gram-positive pathogen for forming biofilm and virulence gene expressions by quorum sensing (QS), a cell to cell communication process. The quorum regulator SarA of S. aureus up-regulates the expression of many virulence factors including biofilm formation to mediate pathogenesis and evasion of the host immune system in the late phases of growth. Thus, inhibiting the production or blocking SarA protein might influence the down-regulation of biofilm and virulence factors. In this context, here we have synthesized 2-[(Methylamino)methyl]phenol, which was specifically targeted toward the quorum regulator SarA through in silico approach in our previous study. The molecule has been evaluated in vitro to validate its antibiofilm activity against clinical S. aureus strains. In addition, antivirulence properties of the inhibitor were confirmed with the observation of a significant reduction in the expression of representative virulence genes like fnbA, hla and hld that are governed under S. aureus QS. Interestingly, the SarA targeted inhibitor showed negligible antimicrobial activity and markedly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of conventional antibiotics when used in combination making it a more attractive lead for further clinical tests.
Arduino, Jean Marie; Kaye, Keith S; Reed, Shelby D; Peter, Senaka A; Sexton, Daniel J; Chen, Luke F; Hardy, N Chantelle; Tong, Steven Yc; Smugar, Steven S; Fowler, Vance G; Anderson, Deverick J
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common and most important pathogen following knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. Understanding the epidemiology of invasive S. aureus infections is important to quantify this serious complication. This nested retrospective cohort analysis included adult patients who had undergone insertion of knee or hip prostheses with clean or clean-contaminated wound class at 11 hospitals between 2003-2006. Invasive S. aureus infections, non-superficial incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) and blood stream infections (BSIs), were prospectively identified following each procedure. Prevalence rates, per 100 procedures, were estimated. 13,719 prosthetic knee (62%) and hip (38%) insertion procedures were performed. Of 92 invasive S. aureus infections identified, SSIs were more common (80%) than SSI and BSI (10%) or BSI alone (10%). The rate of invasive S. aureus infection/100 procedures was 0.57 [95% CI: 0.43-0.73] for knee insertion and 0.83 [95% CI: 0.61-1.08] for hip insertion. More than half (53%) were methicillin-resistant. Median time-to-onset of infection was 34 and 26 days for knee and hip insertion, respectively. Infection was associated with higher National Healthcare Safety Network risk index (p ≤ 0.0001). Post-operative invasive S. aureus infections were rare, but difficult-to-treat methicillin-resistant infections were relatively common. Optimizing preventative efforts may greatly reduce the healthcare burden associated with S. aureus infections.
This third part of an article on the electron beam curing of paints covers the following aspects: inertising equipment; working without inert gas; increase in temperature when irradiating; irradiating plants; laboratory plants; plant operating from coil to coil; plant for shaped parts; possible applications; decorative films, paper, PVC; packaging material; metallisation of paper films; film bonding; strengthening of flock; coating; pressure sensitive adhesives. (U.K.)
The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...
Ergun, Gulfem; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic-Nagas, Isil
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of light curing distance on the cytotoxicity of five resin composites cured with three high-power light curing units. Seven cylindrical discs of each material (Grandio®, Voco; Filtek™ Z250, 3M ESPE; Clearfil™ AP-X, Kuraray Co. Ltd.; Aelite™ LS, Bisco Inc. and Simile®, Pentron) were cured. For curing, soft-up mode of quartz-tungsten-halogen, exponential mode of light emitting diode for 20 s, and ramp-curing mode of plasma arc light curing units for 6 s were used. The curing tip distances were determined as 2 and 9 mm and controlled via the use of metal rings. After ageing the samples for 24 and 72 hours in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12), cytotoxicity of the extracts to cultured fibroblasts (L 929) was measured by using MTT (tetrazolium salt 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The degree of cytotoxicity for each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells in a pure culture medium. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance. The type of resin composite (p light curing unit (p curing tip distance (p light emitting diode and plasma arc light curing units were used (p=0.184, F=1.448). The results of this study suggest that the light curing units and resin composites should be harmonized to one another and the curing distance between the tip of the light curing unit and the restoration surface should be as close as possible in order to achieve maximal biocompatibility.
Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang
A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.
Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.
The concept of internal concrete curing is steadily progressing from the laboratory to field practice. In terminology currently being considered by ACI Committee 308, Curing Concrete, “internal curing refers to the process by which the hydration of cement occurs because of the availability...... of additional internal water that is not part of the mixing water.” The additional internal water is typically supplied by using relatively small amounts of saturated, lightweight, fine aggregates (LWA) or superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles in the concrete. Benefits of internal curing include increased...... hydration and strength development, reduced autogenous shrinkage and cracking, reduced permeability, and increased durability. The impact of internal curing begins immediately with the initial hydration of the cement, with benefits that are observed at ages as early as two days. Internal curing...
Radiation curing is a branch of radiation processing. It has developed significantly and its annual growth rate exceeds 10% in the nineteen eighties. Several products were manufactured by radiation curing, such as magnetic media, release coating, floor tile, printing flates, optical fiber, electronics, lithography and pressure sensitive adhesives etc. The chemistry of radiation curing is often considered ahead. The safe handling of UV/EB curable material, the regulation of industial and the patent protection for development in radiation curing were introduced. The equipment and processes of this field have got progress recently
Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede
It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes (HSC/HPC) are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are taken. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to ensure good performance of concrete. Curing by both external (convention...... of external curing and novel methods of internal curing are described. It is stressed that proper curing is a key factor to achieve durable concrete.......It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes (HSC/HPC) are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are taken. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to ensure good performance of concrete. Curing by both external (conventional......) and internal methods is reviewed and analyzed, among other methods of mitigating shrinkage and cracking of concrete. The focus is on the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage of low water to binder ratio (w/b) concrete by means of internal curing. The concepts of internal curing are based on using lightweight...
The kombucha (or Manchurian) mushroom has numerous claims of "significant" health improvements, yet there is no research or any basic evidence to back up the claims. According to folklore, the kombucha is a super immune booster that can fight many ailments, including AIDS, cancer, arthritis, constipation, and more. However, there is concern about the safety of kombucha, which is not really a mushroom but a yeast culture. Since the culture must grow at room temperature for seven to ten days, contamination and growth of other organisms can take place. The tea's original ingredients include caffeine and large amounts of sugar. These may account for the increased energy some individuals have claimed. Some stories state miraculous results. Other accounts mention no improvement in general well-being.
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the following...
Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.
Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.
Brocklebank, J T; Meadow, S R
Two boys, aged 11 and 13, had involuntary, unstoppable, and complete emptying of the bladder on laughter. In one the wetting occurred only when standing and in company, but in the other occurred regardless of posture or company. One boy had a strong family history of wetting including a grandmother who had giggle micturition as a teenager. The symptoms had been present for between 1 and 2 years. However, unlike cases previously reported, each boy was cured--one within 6 weeks and the other within 6 months. It is not clear how much of the success was due to the general sympathetic and confidence-building measures used, advice about posture, or to the drug propantheline. PMID:7212764
Nurcan Ozakar Ilday
Conclusion: Light-curing units, curing time, and veneering materials are important factors for achieving adequate dual cure resin composite microhardness. High-intensity light and longer curing times resulted in the highest microhardness values.
Gultekin, Pınar; Pak Tunc, Elif; Ongul, Deger; Turp, Volkan; Bultan, Ozgur; Karataslı, Burcin
Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were prepared. For each group (n=12) resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED) or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT) light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96). The values of depth of cure (in mm) and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN) were evaluated for each specimen. The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (punit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (pLight curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.
Full Text Available Purpose: Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. Materials and Methods: 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm were prepared. For each group (n=12 resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96. The values of depth of cure (in mm and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN were evaluated for each specimen. Results: The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (p<0.05.At 100μm and 300 μm depth, the LED unit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (p<0.05. At 500 μm depth, the difference between the VHN values of LED and QTH groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Light curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.
The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described
The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.
It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained
The electron beam irradiation curing of coatings has been technically feasible for over a decade. A brief description of the process is presented. The progress in this field has been astonishingly slow in comparison with the use of UV lamps as radiation source. The primary reason for this has been the great advantage in terms of capital cost of the UV curing lines and their ready adaptability to low or high production rates. A literature survey is given concerning basic and applied research in the electron curing area, patents, economics and existing installations around the world. (author)
Gopala krishna sastry, K. V. S.; manoj kumar, Putturu
Concrete is recognised as a versatile construction material globally. Properties of concrete depend upon, to a greater extent, the hydration of cement and microstructure of hydrated cement. Congenial atmosphere would aid the hydration of cement and hence curing of concrete becomes essential, till a major portion of the hydration process is completed. But in areas of water inadequacy and concreting works at considerable heights, curing is problematic. Self-Curing or Internal Curing technique overcomes these problems. It supplies redundant moisture, for more than sufficient hydration of cement and diminish self-desiccation. Self-Curing agents substantially help in the conservation of water in concrete, by bringing down the evaporation during the hydration of Concrete. The present study focuses on the impact of self-curing agents such as Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG), Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) and Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) on the concrete mix of M25 grade (reference mix). The effect of these agents on strength properties of Concrete such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength was observed on a comparative basis which revealed that PEG 4000 was the most effective among all the agents.
Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.
The contents are advantages of radiation processes - a solvent-free system, less energy consumative, higher production rate, processability at ambient temperature; electron beams vs. ultraviolet curing; applications -broad spectrum of markets use radiation curable materials
Esposito Corcione, Carola; Freuli, Fabrizio; Frigione, Mariaenrica
The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness. PMID:28788215
Corcione, Carola Esposito; Freuli, Fabrizio; Frigione, Mariaenrica
The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness.
Carola Esposito Corcione
Full Text Available The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness.
Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was
Summary Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to enrich
Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to
Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)
The Henkel technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation was motivated by (1) a desire to cure at a single temperature for ease of manufacture and (2) a desire to keep the cure temperature low (to minimize residual stress build-up associated with the cooldown from the cure temperature to room temperature) without excessively limiting the cure reaction due to vitrification (i.e., material glass transition temperature, Tg, exceeding cure temperature).
A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state
Fujioka, S.; Fujikawa, Z.
Electron beam curing (EBC) method, by which hardened coating film is obtained by polymerizing and cross-linking paint with electron beam, has finally reached industrialized stage. While about seven items such as short curing time, high efficiency of energy consumption, and homogeneous curing are enumerated as the advantages of EBC method, it has limitations of the isolation requirement from air needing the injection of inert gas, and considerable amount of initial investment. In the electron accelerators employed in EBC method, the accelerating voltage is 250 to 750 kV, and the tube current is several tens of mA to 200 mA. As an example of EBC applications, EBC ''Erio'' steel sheet was developed by the cooperative research of Nippon Steel Corp., Dai-Nippon Printing Co. and Toray Industries, Inc. It is a high-class pre-coated metal product made from galvanized steel sheets, and the flat sheets with cured coating are sold, and final products are fabricated by being worked in various shapes in users. It seems necessary to develop the paint which enables to raise added value by adopting the EBC method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.
Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta
The aim of this study was to investigate micromechanical properties of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes including light curing through glass ceramic materials. Vickers hardness (VH) and indentation modulus (Y HU) of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA were measured after 1 week of storage (37 °C, 100 % humidity). The resin cements were tested following self-curing or light curing with the second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit Elipar FreeLight 2 in Standard Mode (1,545 mW/cm(2)) or with the third-generation LED curing unit VALO in High Power Mode (1,869 mW/cm(2)) or in XtraPower Mode (3,505 mW/cm(2)). Light curing was performed directly or through glass ceramic discs of 1.5 or 3 mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. VH and Y HU were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). RelyX Unicem 2 Automix resulted in the highest VH and Y HU followed by BeautiCem SA, BisCem, SpeedCEM, and finally Panavia F2.0. Self-curing of RelyX Unicem 2 Automix and SpeedCEM lowered VH and Y HU compared to light curing whereas self-curing of Panavia F2.0, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA led to similar or significantly higher VH and Y HU compared to light curing. Generally, direct light curing resulted in similar or lower VH and Y HU compared to light curing through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. Light curing through 3-mm-thick discs of IPS e.max CAD generally reduced VH and Y HU for all resin cements except SpeedCEM, which was the least affected by light curing through ceramic discs. The resin cements responded heterogeneously to changes in curing mode. The applied irradiances and light curing times adequately cured the resin cements even through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. When light curing resin cements through thick glass ceramic restorations, clinicians should consider to prolong the light curing times even with LED curing units providing high
... also is possible that a person cured of Cushing disease might not recover their previous mental strength, including ... impairments in patients with long-term cure of Cushing’s disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95 (6), ...
This paper describes electron beam processors and related technologies for curing applications to facilitate those industrial personals who are trying to understand and evaluate the applicability and benefits of radiation curing to their products. 4 tabs., 10 figs
Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Pietro, Lura
This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the internal...
Piñón, Victor; Santiago, Freddie; Vogelsberg, Ashten; Davenport, Amelia; Cramer, Neil
Although many optical-quality glass materials are available for use in optical systems, the range of polymeric materials is limited. Polymeric materials have some advantages over glass when it comes to large-scale manufacturing and production. In smaller scale systems, they offer a reduction in weight when compared to glass counterparts. This is especially important when designing optical systems meant to be carried by hand. We aimed to expand the availability of polymeric materials by exploring both crown-like and flint-like polymers. In addition, rapid and facile production was also a goal. By using UV-cured thiolene-based polymers, we were able to produce optical materials within seconds. This enabled the rapid screening of a variety of polymers from which we down-selected to produce optical flats and lenses. We will discuss problems with production and mitigation strategies in using UV-cured polymers for optical components. Using UV-cured polymers present a different set of problems than traditional injection-molded polymers, and these issues are discussed in detail. Using these produced optics, we integrated them into a modified direct view optical system, with the end goal being the development of drop-in replacements for glass components. This optical production strategy shows promise for use in lab-scale systems, where low-cost methods and flexibility are of paramount importance.
That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)
Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M
Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.
Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)
The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.
Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of...
Inman, Christina A.
The Polymers Branch of the Materials Division is dedicated to the development of high-performance for a variety of applications. Areas of significant interest include high- temperature polymers, low density, and high strength insulating materials, conductive polymers, and high density polymer electrolytes. This summer our group is working diligently on a photo-curing project. There is interest in the medical community feel the need for a new and improved balloon that will be used for angioplasty (a form of heart surgery). This product should maintain flexibility but add many other properties. Like possibly further processability and resistance to infection. Our group intends on coming up with this product by using photo-enolization (or simply, photo-curing) by Diels-Alder trapping. The main objective was to synthesize a series of new polymers by Diels-Alder cycloaddition of photoenols with more elastomeric properties. Our group was responsible for performing the proper photo-curing techniques of the polymers with diacrylates and bismaleimides, synthesizing novel monomers, and evaluating experimental results. We attempted to use a diacrylate to synthesize the polymer because of previous research done within the Polymers Branch here at NASA. Most acrylates are commercially available, have more elastometric properties than a typical rigid aromatic structure has and they contain ethylene oxides in the middle of their structure that create extensive flexibility. The problem we encountered with the acrylates is that they photo chemically and thermally self polymerize and create diradicals at low temperatures; these constraints caused a lot of unnecessary side reactions. We want to promote solely, diketone polymerization because this type of polymerization has the ability to cause very elastic polymers. We chose to direct our attention towards the usage of maleimides because they are known for eliminating these unnecessary side reactions.
Calixto, L. R.; Lima, D. M.; Queiroz, R. S.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Andrade, M. F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the polymerization effectiveness of a composite resin (Z-250) utilizing microhardness testing. In total, 80 samples with thicknesses of 2 and 4 mm were made, which were photoactivated by a conventional halogen light-curing unit, and light-curing units based on LED. The samples were stored in water distilled for 24 h at 37°C. The Vickers microhardness was performed by the MMT-3 microhardness tester. The microhardness means obtained were as follows: G1, 72.88; G2, 69.35; G3, 67.66; G4, 69.71; G5, 70.95; G6, 75.19; G7, 72.96; and G8, 71.62. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance (ANOVA’s test), adopting a significance level of 5%. The results showed that, in general, there were no statistical differences between the halogen and LED light-curing units used with the same parameters.
Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai
Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781
Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo
Full Text Available Homemade salamis may have their food safety guaranteed by means of the addition of curing salt and starter cultures, without loosing their traditional manufacturing recipes brought to Brazil by the Italian immigration in the early 20th century. In this work, the influence of curing salt and of a starter culture, composed of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus, over the sensory and microbiological characteristics of Italian type salamis, containing 3% lactose and 0.5% saccharose, was evaluated. The starter culture and the curing salt inhibited the development of Staphylococcus aureus and of coliforms, and the salamis added with curing salt presented better color attributes.Os salames produzidos artesanalmente podem ter sua segurança alimentar garantida pela adição de sal de cura e de culturas iniciadoras sem perda das receitas tradicionais trazidas pela imigração italiana do início do século vinte. Neste trabalho, a partir da produção de salames com 3% de lactose e 0,5% de sacarose, avaliou-se a influência do sal de cura e da cultura iniciadora, composta de Lactobacillus e Staphylococcus, sobre as características sensoriais e microbiológicas dos salames. A cultura iniciadora e o sal de cura inibiram o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e de coliformes totais, sendo que os salames adicionados de sal de cura apresentaram uma melhor coloração.
Tocco, Jack Ume
Northern Nigeria has one of the highest levels of HIV prevalence among societies that are predominantly Muslim. In the last decade the region has experienced marked expansion of religiously-oriented healing practices following the formal adoption of Islamic sharia law. Since 2005, international funding has also made antiretroviral therapy (ART) more widely available throughout Nigeria. This study uses ethnographic data collected in Kano, northern Nigeria's largest city, to examine Muslims' perspectives on HIV treatment in the context of popular health beliefs and expanding therapeutic options. The research found that passages from classical Islamic texts are regularly cited by both HIV/AIDS practitioners and patients, especially when talking about the supposition that Allah sends a cure to humankind for every disease. Some religious scholar-practitioners (malamai) working in the Islamic traditions of prophetic medicine insist that HIV can be completely cured given sufficient faith in the supernatural power of the Quran; others claim that the natural ingredients prescribed in Islamic texts can cure HIV. Such assertions contradict the mainstream biomedical position that, with the proper therapeutic regimen, infection with HIV can be managed as a chronic illness, although not cured. Thus, these assertions constitute a challenge to the increasing therapeutic hegemony of antiretroviralbased care in Nigeria. Without falsifying the proposition that a divine cure for HIV exists, many Muslim patients on ART, and the predominantly Muslim biomedical staff who treat them, express scepticism about whether the cure has yet to be revealed to humans. These findings suggest that despite recent efforts in Nigeria to assert a unified Islamic perspective on HIV and AIDS, substantive disagreements persist over the causes, treatments and curability of the disease. The healing systems in which practitioners and patients operate influence how they interpret Islamic texts concerning the
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content...
...) Establishments may interchange the identity of two kinds of poultry (e.g., chicken and turkey, chicken meat and turkey meat) used in a product formulation without changing the product's ingredient statement or product... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...
Wolla, Scott A.
Is there a recipe for economic growth? Perhaps some Miracle-Gro for the economy? If only it were that easy. While the exact recipe is a mystery, economists have identified some of the key ingredients. This month’s newsletter discusses the role that economic institutions play in fostering long-term economic growth.
The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...
... ingredients such as fruits, nuts, chives or other vegetables used or blended with cottage cheese shall be... cottage cheese may first be soaked for 15 to 20 minutes in a cold 25 to 50 ppm chlorine solution to appreciably reduce the bacterial population. After soaking, the vegetables shall be drained and used soon...
DuPont, J.G.; Goodwin, P.A.
A process for making radiation cured silicone rubber articles is disclosed wherein a hydroxyl-terminated polysilaxane having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, optionally modified by mixing with up to 85% of an end-stopped silicone rubber, is mixed with from about 10 to about 70 parts per hundred of rubber of a finely divided silica filler with a particle size in the reinforcing range and other inert fillers as determined by desired final properties; the composition so prepared is formed into the desired shape at room temperature; the article so formed is precured to improve the mechanical properties of the material with which it is made by exposure to ammonia gas, ammonium hydroxide, or to the vapors or solutions of a volatile amine at room temperature; and the precured article is irradiated with high energy electrons or gamma radiation to effect a permanent cure of the material from which the article is formed
Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne
ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.
高谷, 政広; 田平, 英敏; 岡本, 忠
[Synopsis] Phenol-formaldehyde resin has been used as a versatile material for adhesives and coatings of a wide range of adherends because of its excellent performance in water- resistance, strength against abrasion, and so on. However, it has a drawback of slow rate of cure and relevant emission of formaldehyde gas after bonding. We studied the curing performance under irradiation of microwave for the purpose of looking for a way of accelerating the cure rate of phenol formaldehyde resin. Th...
Wilson, N H F
The present paper details the history of the introduction of visible light curing into dentistry. This history provides an excellent example of 'out of the box', lateral thinking translation of innovative scientific technology into dentistry. Visible light curing is an important UK contribution to the recent history and current practice of dentistry, with several million visible light curing procedures being carried out globally on a daily basis.
Hilmy, N.; Danu, S.
The most application of UV curing of surface coating in Indonesia are on fancy plywood, furniture and wood flooring industry. Other application are on papers, printing ink/labelling, printed circuit board/PCB and dental materials. At present, application of EB curing coating is still in a pilot plant scale due to the high cost of production. Limited number of application of EB curing by using low energy electron beam machine are on wood panels, ceramics and marbles. This paper describes the market and the problem faced by the largest user of radiation curing systems such as the secondary process plywood, furniture and paper industries
Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller
fermented under modern production conditions (high temperature, addition of glucose, nitrite, Pediococcus pentosaceus) in contrast to 'old-fashioned' sausages (added nitrate and fermented at low temperature) are likely to contain higher amounts of volatile acids, but lower levels of ethyl esters, certain...
Conclusions: Reduction of exposure time to 6 s with high-intensity curing light seemed to be clinically acceptable and should be recommended. Curing of metal brackets with single exposure from buccal side showed lower shear bond strength values.
Bañón, S; Cayuela, J M; Granados, M V; Garrido, M D
Several parameters (sodium chloride, moisture, intramuscular fat, total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, white precipitates, free tyrosine, L* a* b* values and acceptability) related with proteolysis during the curing were compared in dry-cured hams manufactured from refrigerated and frozen/thawed raw material. Pre-cure freezing increased the proteolysis levels significantly (pmeat, although it does not significantly affect the sensory quality of the dry-cured ham.
Wiggins, Kim M; Hartung, Martin; Althoff, Olaf; Wastian, Christine; Mitra, Sumita B
BACKGROUND; Recent technological advances have resulted in the marketing of high-powered, or HP, battery-operated light-emitting diode, or LED, dental curing lights. The authors examine the curing efficiency and peak polymerization temperature, or Tp, of a new HP LED curing light. The authors studied four visible light-curing, or VLC, units: HP LED (A), first-generation LED (B), conventional halogen (C) and high-intensity halogen (D). They determined the depth of cure, or DOC; adhesion; and Tp of three types of VLC resin-based composites after exposure to each light. The exposure times for units A and D were one-half those for units B and C. The power density of unit A was 1,000 milliwatts per square centimeter, which was comparable to that of unit D with turbo charge. The DOC and adhesion attained for all three resin-based composites after being light cured by unit A for a 10-second exposure time were equivalent to those after being light cured by unit D for a 10-second exposure time and to those after being light cured by units B and C for 20-second exposure times. The resin-based composites light cured by unit A attained significantly lower Tps than did those light cured by unit D at equivalent cure, or exposure, times and by unit C at twice the cure time. The authors found that Unit A effectively cured the resin-based composites at one-half the cure time of units B and C and at the same time as unit D, while maintaining low Tp. The battery-operated HP LED curing light might be an effective, time-saving alternative for clinicians to use in light curing resin-based composites.
Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure. This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...
Lecomte, J; Lemli, J; Marganne, M H; Melard, M
The 12th of July 1635, Jan van Beverwyck wrote a letter from Dordrecht to his esteemed friend Luis Nunez, in Antwerp. He asked him for indications about the cure of kidney stones of which he was suffering. He had just passed two calculi very painfully. Nunez answered on July 31. His letter summarized his own experience with this disease. In such cases, temperate diuretics and emollients are well indicated: ingestion of light decoctions of Malva and Viola, Caerefolium and Parieteria as well as Marshmallow syrup. No purge and no 'chemicals'. However, the best remedy was drinking Spa water. Usually the best way to absorb it is to come to the springs, in the Ardennes, part of the independent Principality of Liège. However, considering the horrors of the war (the Thirty Years War) endangering the country, van Beverwyck would be wise to drink imported water during 40 or 50 days, while staying home quietly, in Dordrecht. The letter points out the importance of provoked diuresis in the treatment of kidney stones. On the other hand the letter is an illustration of the continuing contacts between the United Provinces and the Spanish territories and of the commercial traffic between Antwerp, Dordrecht and Spa. The exported water was bottled from many 'pouhons'. It was acid, ferruginous, sulfurous and saturated with carbon dioxide; no pathogen germs, at least at the spring. Nunez quoted the large number of his patients cured with Spa water in Antwerp. This is an illustration of its commercial expansion even during this critical period.
Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.
Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.
Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.
Full Text Available The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies.
Translating Genomic Discoveries to Cure Ultrahypermutant Mismatch Repair Deficient Brain Tumours. Malignant brain tumours are the most common cause of death among children with cancer, but there is no known cure. This project will advance research in this important field. Inherited mutations and childhood cancer.
Ben Bruno Policicchio
Full Text Available The HIV-1/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unabated worldwide and no vaccine exists within our grasp. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART has been developed, but ART cannot clear the virus from the infected patient. A cure for HIV-1 is badly needed to stop both the spread of the virus in human populations and disease progression in infected individuals. A safe and effective cure strategy for HIV infection will require multiple tools and appropriate animal models are tools that are central to cure research. An ideal animal model should recapitulate the essential aspects of HIV pathogenesis and associated immune responses, while permitting invasive studies, thus allowing a thorough evaluation of strategies aimed at reducing the size of the reservoir (functional cure or eliminating the reservoir altogether (sterilizing cure. Since there is no perfect animal model for cure research, multiple models have been tailored and tested to address specific quintessential questions of virus persistence and eradication. The development of new nonhuman primate and mouse models, along with a certain interest in the feline model, have the potential to fuel cure research. In this review, we highlight the major animal models currently utilized for cure research and the contributions of each model to this goal.
Policicchio, Benjamin B; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian
The HIV-1/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unabated worldwide, and no vaccine exists within our grasp. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been developed, but ART cannot clear the virus from the infected patient. A cure for HIV-1 is badly needed to stop both the spread of the virus in human populations and disease progression in infected individuals. A safe and effective cure strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will require multiple tools, and appropriate animal models are tools that are central to cure research. An ideal animal model should recapitulate the essential aspects of HIV pathogenesis and associated immune responses, while permitting invasive studies, thus allowing a thorough evaluation of strategies aimed at reducing the size of the reservoir (functional cure) or eliminating the reservoir altogether (sterilizing cure). Since there is no perfect animal model for cure research, multiple models have been tailored and tested to address specific quintessential questions of virus persistence and eradication. The development of new non-human primate and mouse models, along with a certain interest in the feline model, has the potential to fuel cure research. In this review, we highlight the major animal models currently utilized for cure research and the contributions of each model to this goal.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured. 29.6010 Section 29.6010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6010 Cured. Tobacco dried of its sap by either natural or artificial...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vasoconstrictor active ingredients. 346.12 Section 346.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Vasoconstrictor active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following when...
... § 349.10 may be combined with any single ophthalmic vasoconstrictor active ingredient identified in... vasoconstrictor identified in § 349.18. (d) Any single ophthalmic astringent active ingredient identified in § 349.10 may be combined with any single ophthalmic vasoconstrictor active ingredient identified in § 349...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than 10...
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Dec 1, 2015 ... derived from therapy. This study was intended at determining the flexible Parametric Cure Fraction. Model for Gastric cancer Data. Suitability of four parametric mixture cure models were considered namely; Log Normal (LN) cure fraction model, Log Logistic (LL) cure fraction model, Weibull (W) cure fraction ...
Tevell, S; Hellmark, B; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Å; Söderquist, B
Further knowledge about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may facilitate interpretation of microbiological findings and improve treatment algorithms. Staphylococcus capitis is a CoNS with documented potential for both human disease and nosocomial spread. As data on orthopaedic infections are scarce, our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PJIs caused by S. capitis. This retrospective cohort study included three centres and 21 patients with significant growth of S. capitis during revision surgery for PJI between 2005 and 2014. Clinical data were extracted and further microbiological characterisation of the S. capitis isolates was performed. Multidrug-resistant (≥3 antibiotic groups) S. capitis was detected in 28.6 % of isolates, methicillin resistance in 38.1 % and fluoroquinolone resistance in 14.3 %; no isolates were rifampin-resistant. Heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate resistance was detected in 38.1 %. Biofilm-forming ability was common. All episodes were either early post-interventional or chronic, and there were no haematogenous infections. Ten patients experienced monomicrobial infections. Among patients available for evaluation, 86 % of chronic infections and 70 % of early post-interventional infections achieved clinical cure; 90 % of monomicrobial infections remained infection-free. Genetic fingerprinting with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab®) displayed clustering of isolates, suggesting that nosocomial spread might be present. Staphylococcus capitis has the potential to cause PJIs, with infection most likely being contracted during surgery or in the early postoperative period. As S. capitis might be an emerging nosocomial pathogen, surveillance of the prevalence of PJIs caused by S. capitis could be recommended.
Wood, Karen H.; Orwoll, Robert A.; Young, Philip R.; Jensen, Brian J.; McNair, Harold M.
The ability to process high performance polymers into quality, void-free composites has been significantly advanced using oligomers terminated with reactive groups which cure or crosslink at elevated temperature without the evolution of volatile byproducts. Several matrix resin systems of considerable interest to the aerospace community utilize phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) technology to achieve this advantage. The present paper addresses the cure chemistry of PETI oligomers. The thermal cure of a low molecular weight model compound was studied using a variety of analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The studies indicate an extremely complex cure process. Many stable products were isolated and this paper reports current work on identification of those products. The intent of this research is to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of the cured PETI engineering materials so that performance and durability can be more fully assessed.
Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood
Radiation curing of coatings of wood based products is expanding and being used for curing of coatings of table tops, parquet, wood panel, furniture, curtain railing, etc. UV curing of over print varnish is still the main application of UV curing in printing industry. However, curing of printing ink has also been extended in the printing of CD and VCD in addition to other printing such as paper, magazine, label on bottles, metal-can, etc. In the electronic industry, the manufacturer of printed circuit board is still the main consumer of UV curable resins. On the other hand, low energy electron beam machine is used mainly for cross-linking of heat shrink films
Li Fengmei; Bao Jianwen; Chen Xiangbao; Bao Huaying; Wang Huiliang
The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated
Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)
A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.
Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio
The inhibitory effect of enterocin AS-48 against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in various types of bakery ingredients. Antibacterial activity greatly depended on the food substrate, ranging from complete inactivation of S. aureus in liquid caramel (in which the bacterium survived poorly) to no significant inhibition (as in vanilla or chocolate creams). Significant reductions of viable counts in the range of 1.8 to 2.7 log units (P cream stored at temperatures of 10 or 22 degrees C. Given the very low activity detected in chocolate substrates, enterocin AS-48 was tested in combination with other antimicrobials. Bactericidal activity increased markedly for the combinations of AS-48 and 0.1% eugenol (v/v), 0.5% 2-nitropropanol (v/v), or 3% Nisaplin (w/v). Enterocin AS-48 could be applied in combination with other antimicrobials for preservation of bakery ingredients against S. aureus.
He, Yongxi; Li, Yingguang; Li, Nanya; Hao, Xiaozhong
Curing rate is the variation rate of degree of cure with time, which is a crucial issue in the curing process of composite structures since it has a significant influence on the generation of voids and residual stresses. In this paper, an online monitoring method of degree of cure was presented based on refractive index measurement. The influence of cure and temperature variation on the refractive index of composite was separated in real time with a step-temperature refractive index separation method. Non-isothermal microwave curing process of carbon fiber/epoxy composite was monitored, and the degree of cure was obtained with a low measurement error of ±1.5% compared with that determined by off-line DSC measurement. The online monitoring method is a promising technology for smart manufacturing of composite structures.
Li, X.; Xu, L. Y.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.
Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that optimum extraction condition of active ingredients extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii were described as follows: ethanol concentrations of sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction; the active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus sp, Serratia sp and MIC was 0.125g/mL, 0.0625g/mL, 0.125g/mL and 0.125g/mL. The active constituent of Siraitia grosvenorii has obvious anti-bacteria effect on the spoilage bacteria isolated from Sauced pork head meat and can be used as a new natural food preservation to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.
Li, Xiao; Xu, Lingyi; Cui, Yuqian; Pang, Meixia; Wang, Fang; Qi, Jinghua
Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that kaempferol was the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi whose optimum extraction condition for ethanol concentrations were sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction.; the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus, Proteus, Bacillus, Serratia and MIC was 0.5 g/mL,0.5 g/mL,0.0313 g/mL and 0.0625 g/mL. The active constituent of Cacumen Platycladi is kaempferol which has obvious anti-bacteria effect and can be used to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.
Kumar, C N Vijaya; Gururaj, M; Paul, Joseph
To evaluate the curing depth and compressive strength of dental composite using halogen light curing unit and light emitting diode light curing unit. Eighty cylindrical composite specimens were prepared using posterior composite P60(3M). Forty specimens, out of which 20 samples (group A) cured with halogen light and 20 samples (group B) cured using light emitting diode (LED) light were checked for curing depth according to ISO 4049. Remaining 40 samples out of which 20 samples (group I) cured using halogen light and 20 samples (group II) cured using LED light were checked for compressive strength using Instron universal testing machine. Twenty samples (group A) cured with halogen light showed better curing depth than 20 samples (group B) cured with LED light. Twenty samples (group I) cured with halogen light showed almost similar results as 20 samples (group II) cured with LED light for compressive strength. Halogen light commonly used to cure composite resin have greater depth of cure, when compared to LED light, while both the lights produced compressive strength which is almost similar. Lower depth of cure with the LED unit, compared to the QTH unit, is associated with different light scattering due to differences in spectral emission. LED technology differs from QTH by the spectral emission that favorably matches the absorption spectrum of camphorquinone.
Baker, Richard R; Pereira da Silva, José R; Smith, Graham
This is the second part of a study in which the effects of adding a range of ingredients to tobacco on the chemistry of cigarette mainstream smoke are assessed. The examination of smoke chemistry has concentrated on those constituents in smoke that regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada believe to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. In this part of the study the effects of 29 casing ingredients and three humectants have been assessed at the maximum levels typically used on cigarettes by British American Tobacco. This brings the total number of ingredients assessed in Parts I and II of this study to 482. The casing ingredients were added at levels of up to 68 mg on the cigarettes. Their effects on smoke constituents were generally larger than the effects of flavouring ingredients, which were added at parts per million levels. Many of the casing ingredient mixtures either had no statistically significant effect on the level of the analytes investigated in smoke relative to a control cigarette, or they produced decreases of up to 44% in some cases. Those analytes that were increased in smoke are highlighted in this paper. The largest increases were for formaldehyde levels, up to 26 microg (73%) in one case, observed from casing mixtures containing sugar. This is most likely due to the generation of formaldehyde by pyrolysis of sugars. Occasional small increases were also observed for other analytes. However, the statistical significance of many of these increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical method was taken into account. The significance and possible reasons for the increases are discussed.
The stigma of leprosy is a real phenomenon in many people's lives that affects their physical, psychological, social and economical well-being. There are many causes for this damaging image of leprosy. There is no one easy answer to dispelling this image; it is something that has to be done in partnership with communities and patients. Many papers document the effects of stigma, but few discuss or trial solutions. Education and media campaigns counteract false beliefs about leprosy and raise awareness of new advances in the field. Leprosy care is increasingly provided in an integrated setting showing patients and their communities that leprosy is not a disease apart. Physical and socio-economic rehabilitation is worthwhile in restoring self worth and status in the community and helps patients to find employment. Group counselling can allow those with leprosy to talk about their feelings and experiences to empower one another. Gradually attitudes towards leprosy are changing, but there is still much to be done if the underlying menace of stigma is to be dealt with. We as health professionals must be prepared to make the first move and give that first touch. Certainly more research is needed. In the highly endemic countries the road to elimination may yet be long. Perhaps with effort we will one day be able not only to treat the disease, but also to cure the stigma of leprosy, and make that road an easier one.
Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito
Abstract We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat‐stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate‐related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine‐5′‐monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose‐dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. PMID:27169902
Matawie, A.M.; Sadek, E.M.
Low molecular weight epoxy resin based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was synthesized and mixed at constant percentages with natural rubber. The rubber epoxy system was cured with various types of curing agents such as ethylene diamine, maleic anhydride as well as the prepared resole phenol formaldehyde. A study of the photo-induced crosslinking of the prepared elastic adhesives and film samples was carried out by exposure to ultraviolet lamp (300 w) for 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Samples containing ethylene diamine were cured at 25 + - 1 deg. C. for 24 h while samples containing maleic anhydride or resole phenol formaldehyde resins were thermally cured at 150-170 deg. C. for 10 min. Cured adhesive compositions were tested mechanically and physically and evaluated as wood adhesives. While hardness, chemical resistance as well as heat stability of the prepared cured film sample were investigated. The obtained data indicate that the highest epoxy resin content and the presence of resole phenol formaldehyde resin in composition improve the tensile strength and adhesion properties on wood. While their cured film sample have the best hardness properties, chemical resistance and heat stability. (author)
Staphylococcus hyicus demonstrated characteristic bacteriolytic activities towards a Micrococcus luteus reference strain. This lytic activity was demonstrated on medium containing M. luteus cells as large zones of transparency around the culture streak. Smaller zones of transparency were observed with Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and some strains of Staphylococcus aureus but not with other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. The distribution and extent of the...
van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.
Full text: UV and EB are complementary techniques in radiation curing. In the proposed paper, a brief review of both fields will be given. This will include principles of the process, the chemistry of the systems including monomers/oligomers/polymers used, additives required where necessary such as photoinitiators for UV, flow aids, adhesion promoters and the like. The types of equipment used in such processes will also be discussed including low energy electron beam utilisation and excimer curing. The advantages and disadvantages of both techniques will be examined. Mechanistic aspects of both curing systems will be discussed. Applications of the technology including developments in the banknote printing field will be summarised
Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)
Gutiérrez, Carolina; Madrid, Nadia P; Moreno, Santiago
Antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the life expectancy in HIV-infected people, but it cannot cure the disease by itself. Several barriers have been identified for the cure of HIV infection, including a reservoir of latently infected cells, persistent viral replication in tissues, and anatomical sanctuaries. The main strategy proposed for the cure of HIV consists on the administration of drugs that, through the reactivation of latent HIV, would eliminate the cell reservoir. Ongoing clinical trials have shown the proof of concept, but the efficacy of these drugs in decreasing the reservoir size has not been proved so far.
Pan, Xin; Zhang, Alice; Henderson, Gail E; Rennie, Stuart; Liu, Chuncheng; Cai, Weiping; Wu, Feng; Tucker, Joseph D
Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been used by some people living with HIV (PLHIV) in an attempt to cure HIV. This article reviews the main factors influencing their decision to choose TCAM to cure HIV and discusses implications for HIV cure research. Those who decide to pursue traditional, complementary, and alternative medical cures may be influenced by the health system, cultural, and social dynamics, and their own individual beliefs and preferences. These same factors may impact participation in HIV cure research. People who search for traditional, complementary, and alternative medical cures may face special challenges as they are recruited, consented, and retained within HIV cure research studies. To address these potential challenges, we have suggested solutions focusing on culturally tailored communication and education, formative social science research, and community partnerships with key stakeholders. The social conditions that have promoted traditional, complementary and alternative medical cures will likely impact how PLHIV participate and experience HIV remission trials. Despite the potential challenges, it will be crucial to involve those who have previously sought out traditional cures for HIV in HIV cure research.
Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana
The aim of this work was to analyze Toxoplasma gondii in raw hams by mouse bioassay and to evaluate the effect of curing on the viability of the parasite to assess the risk of infection from eating dry-cured ham. After a serology study of 1200 pigs in Aragón (Spain), forty-one naturally infected pigs with different serological titers against T. gondii were selected. Two cured periods (9 and 12 months) were evaluated as well as the influence of the physicochemical composition of hams on T. gondii survival. Although the parasite burden was low, a high number of seropositive pigs with Toxoplasma tissues cysts in raw hams were found (31.6%). Viability of T. gondii was influenced by the curing, with statistically significant differences between fresh and cured hams (p hams cured for 9 months compared to those cured for 12 months. However, this period of curing resulted in the reduction but not in a complete elimination of the risk. Thus, from a public health point of view, under the conditions of this study it is safer to consume dry-cured ham with periods of curing higher than 12 months. Analysis of physicochemical results did not identify any variable with significant influence on the presence and viability of T. gondii in cured ham, but loss of viability of T. gondii was observed in hams with a lower fat content. Further research is required to validate combinations of salts concentration and time of curing that can be used as preventive measures in the HACCP system of dry-cured ham industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burdock, George A; Wang, Wendan
Naturally sourced food ingredients have been the beneficiary of legal, regulatory and consumer preference as the result of a widely shared assumption of safety. However, the natural substances consumed in modernity may have little to do with the historically consumed part of the plant or even the plant itself. Further, our initial impression of a safe plant derivative may well be false as the result of the use of different growth conditions or, changes in harvesting and processing conditions that may have brought about a higher level of toxic constituents. Despite the variability of plant constituents, manufacturers' standards are set according to the content of commercially desirable properties, rather than presence of potentially toxic constituents. Why then, after all the potential reservations regarding naturals, is there such an enmity toward synthetic chemicals (including single chemical fermentation products), which have been tested in a systematic manner for potential toxic effects and whose composition is well known as the result of consistent manufacturing techniques and analytical controls? The authors will describe the paradigms used for natural products safety review and compare them with the safety criteria required for an "artificial" food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) cure of OoA or autoclave prepreg materials allows the manufacture of large composite structures without the expensive and...
The paper reviews problems of the post-harvest losses in cured fish. The importance of this commodity in the tropics and existing methods of its handling, processing, storage and distribution are discussed...
The Radtech Asia'95 Radiation Curing Conference was held in November, 20-24, 1995 in Guilin, China. The subjects include chemistry, application, Measurement and Equipment, and Material modification. Out of 86 titles, some 30 papers are in INIS scope
Saunders, C.B.; Dickson, L.W.; Singh, A.
Radiation polymerization has helped us understand polymer chemistry, and is also playing an increasing role in the field of practical applications. Radiation curing has a present market share of about 5% of the total market for curing of polymers and composites and the annual growth rate of the radiation curing market is ≥20% per year. Advantages of radiation curing over thermal or chemical curing methods include: improved control of the curing rate, reduced curing times, curing at ambient temperatures, curing without the need for chemical initiators, and complete (100%) curing with minimal toxic chemical emissions. Radiation treatment may also be used to effect crosslinking and grafting of polymer and composite materials. The major advantage in these cases is the ability to process products in their final shape. Cable insulation, automotive and aircraft components, and improved construction materials are some of the current and near-future industrial applications of radiation curing and crosslinking. 19 refs
Full Text Available A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate and analyze the temperature and degree of cure field of epoxy casting part during cure process. The present model based on general finite element software ABAQUS is verified by literature example and experimental data. The numerical results show good agreement with literature example and measured data, and are even more accurate than the simulation of literature. After modeling successfully, the influence of temperature cure cycle ramps have on the temperature and degree of cure gradient is investigated. Moreover, the effect of non-uniform temperature and degree of cure field within epoxy casting part on hardness is demonstrated. The present model provides an accurate and novel method that allows further insight into the process of cure for epoxy resin.
Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas
The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An
Parkins, J.C.; Teesdale, D.H.
Development over the past ten years of radiation curable coating and lacquer systems and the means of curing them has led to new products in the packaging, flooring, furniture and other industries. Solventless lacquer systems formulated with acrylates and other resins enable high levels of durability, scuff resistance and gloss to be achieved. Ultra violet and electron beam radiation curing are used, the choice depending on the nature of the coating, the product and the scale of the operation. (author)
Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur
This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology
Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca
The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the s......The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge...... consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts...
W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)
textabstractThis thesis describes the development. application and validation of straindifferentiating DNA probes for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a system. that yields a binary output. By comparing the differential hybridization of these DNA probes to staphylococcal
Viengkhou, V.; Ng, L.
Full text: Detailed studies on the accelerative effect of novel additives in radiation grafting and curing using acrylated monomer/oligomer systems have been performed in the presence of ionising radiation and UV as sources. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is used as typical monomer for these grafting studies in the presence of the additives with model backbone polymers, cellulose and propropylene. Additives which have been found to accelerate these grafting processes are: mineral acid, occlusion compounds like urea, thermal initiators and photoinitiators as well as multifunctional monomers such as multifunctional acrylates. The results from irradiation with gamma rays have also been compared with irradiation from a 90W UV lamp. The role of the above additives in accelerating the analogous process of radiation curing has been investigated. Acrylated urethanes, epoxies and polyesters are used as oligomers together with acrylated monomers in this work with uv lamps of 300 watts/inch as radiation source. In the UV curing process bonding between film and substrate is usually due to physical forces. In the present work the presence of additives are shown to influence the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure thus affecting the nature of the bonding of the cured film. The conditions under which concurrent grafting with UV can occur will be examined. A mechanism for accelerative effect of these additives in both grafting and curing processes has been proposed involving radiation effects and partitioning phenomena
Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert
UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.
Full Text Available Out-of-autoclave prepreg typically needs a long cure cycle to guarantee good properties as the result of low processing pressure applied. It is essential to reduce the manufacturing time, achieve real cost reduction, and take full advantage of out-of-autoclave process. The focus of this paper is to reduce the cure cycle time and production cost while maintaining high laminate quality. A rapidly cured out-of-autoclave resin and relative prepreg were independently developed. To determine a suitable rapid cure procedure for the developed prepreg, the effect of heating rate, initial cure temperature, dwelling time, and post-cure time on the final laminate quality were evaluated and the factors were then optimized. As a result, a rapid cure procedure was determined. The results showed that the resin infiltration could be completed at the end of the initial cure stage and no obvious void could be seen in the laminate at this time. The laminate could achieve good internal quality using the optimized cure procedure. The mechanical test results showed that the laminates had a fiber volume fraction of 59–60% with a final glass transition temperature of 205 °C and excellent mechanical strength especially the flexural properties.
Nurcan Ozakar Ilday; Yusuf Ziya Bayindir; Funda Bayindir; Aysel Gurpinar
Background/purpose: Several factors may affects microhardness of resin cement under veneering materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different veneering materials, light-curing units and curing times (20/3, 40/6) on the microhardness of dual-cured resin cement. Materials and methods: We pressed dual-cured resin cement specimens (Clearfil SA cement, 5 mm diameter, 1 mm thick) between two microscopic glass slides covered with transparent polystyrene matrix strips to r...
Leal, A.S.C.; Araujo, C.J. de; Silva, S.M.L.
The effect of curing agent kind, curing conditions, and the incorporation of small amount of organoclay on the thermal properties of DGEBA epoxy resin was evaluated in order to develop an epoxy system for application as matrix in active composites (composites whose dispersed phase consists of shape memory alloy wires).The DGEBA resin was prepared using three amine derivatives as hardeners (TETA, DETA and DDS) under varied curing conditions, in the absence and presence of organoclay. Epoxy systems were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. According to results, the cured epoxy systems at elevated temperatures (DETA and DDS) showed higher glass transition temperature (T g ) and thermal stability values than the system cured at low temperature (TETA). In addition, when the post-cure treatment was used, the increases were superior. When 1 phr of organoclay was incorporated in DETA and DDS cured epoxy systems and post-cured, either the increase in the T g or thermal stability values were more significant, especially for the system cured with DDS. Hence, the epoxy/DDS/organoclay system (exfoliated nanocomposite) is the most appropriate to be used as matrix in the preparation of active composites since this matrix is thermally stable in the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy working range whose phase transformation occurs between 70-80 deg C. (author)
Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Huang, Wenhai; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Jun; Luo, Shihua; Zhang, Changqing; Rahaman, Mohamed N
Osteomyelitis (bone infection) is often difficult to cure. The commonly-used treatment of surgical debridement to remove the infected bone combined with prolonged systemic and local antibiotic treatment has limitations. In the present study, an injectable borate bioactive glass cement was developed as a carrier for the antibiotic vancomycin, characterized in vitro, and evaluated for its capacity to cure osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. The cement (initial setting time = 5.8 ± 0.6 min; compressive strength = 25.6 ± 0.3 MPa) released vancomycin over ~25 days in phosphate-buffered saline, during which time the borate glass converted to hydroxyapatite (HA). When implanted in rabbit tibial defects infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced osteomyelitis, the vancomycin-loaded cement converted to HA and supported new bone formation in the defects within 8 weeks. Osteomyelitis was cured in 87 % of the defects implanted with the vancomycin-loaded borate glass cement, compared to 71 % for the defects implanted with vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate cement. The injectable borate bioactive glass cement developed in this study is a promising treatment for curing osteomyelitis and for regenerating bone in the defects following cure of the infection.
Terezinha Feitosa Machado
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%, beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%, sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10% and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2% evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%, the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH.
Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P.; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH. PMID:25242961
Conclusion: S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics .
, especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid after spirulina supplementation. Therefore, spirulina could be a promising functional ingredient in broiler chicken nutrition. Keywords: Poultry, microalgae, performance, meat ...
Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W
Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999–2000 (n=57 and 2004 (n=116. Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00–2.48, injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88–33.49, community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02–1.92, and symptom duration ≥48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22–3.61. Uncomplicated disease was associated with the presence of a central line (0.69, 0.55–0.88 and prompt removal of a primary focus (0.71, 0.57–0.90. Neither methicillin resistance nor genetic lineage was associated with complicated disease, but methicillin resistance was associated with higher mortality. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that clinical rather than microbial factors are the major determinants of SAB outcome and underscores the importance of early treatment.
Bodrumlu, E; Koçak, M M; Hazar Bodrumlu, E; Ozcan, S; Koçak, S
Polymerization ability of light-curing devices can affect the light-cured material hardness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the hardness of three temporary filling materials that had been light-cured by either a light emitting diode (LED) or a halogen light-curing unit. The temporary filling materials, First Fill, Voco Clip and Bioplic, were placed in wells in a Teflon plate. The 24 specimens of each material were divided into two groups (N.=12/group) for photo-activation by either of the two light-curing units. The LED or halogen device was applied for 40s to the top surface of each specimen. A Knoop hardness test was performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen, with five measurements per specimen. The highest hardness values for both the LED and halogen treated groups were observed for First Fill and the lowest values were for Voco Clip in top and bottom surfaces. The hardness obtained for the three materials with the halogen unit were significantly higher than the values obtained with the LED unit in both surfaces (Plight-cured temporary material exhibited the highest hardness values on the top and bottom surfaces than Voco Clip and Bioplic temporary materials. The hardness of light-cured temporary filling materials can be affected by the type of light-curing unit.
This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber
Kim, Gap-Don; Go, Gwang-Woong; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Eun-Young; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul
The aim of this study is to evaluate the availability of salted and fermented fish (SFF) including salted and fermented anchovy (SFA) and shrimp (SFS) as a marinade of beef jerky. In curing solutions, half (SFA 1 and SFS 1) or whole (SFA 2 and SFS 2) salt-water was replaced with SFF juices. Higher water activity (aw) was found in the beef jerky cured with SFFs than the control (C) (p< 0.05). The SFFs had the effect of causing a decrease in hardness and an increase in cohesiveness (p<0.05). Among the treatment samples, springiness was the highest in SFA2 and SFS2 (p<0.05) and the lowest values of Warner-Bratzler shear force were found in SFA1 and SFA2 (p<0.05). The SFFs also had the effect of increasing the flavor of the sensory properties; however, color measurements from both the instrumental surface color (L*, a*, b*, chroma, and hue angle) and color of sensory evaluation were decreased by addition of SFFs (p<0.05). Therefore, we conclude the SFFs can improve the texture and sensory properties of the beef jerky. In particular, the SFS is a good ingredient for the curing solution. However, studies are still needed on improving the aw, pH, and surface color of the beef jerky to apply the SFFs for making beef jerky.
Bosse Née Danz, Ramona; Müller, Anne; Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Agnes; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen
Cured raw hams are a valuable and popular group of meat products. The consumption and international trade have increased during the last years, therefore new technologies to accelerate the production process and to increase product quality and safety are needed. In the current review, an overview of European protected cured raw hams is presented. Furthermore, traditional methods for cured raw ham production together with recent advantages in the techniques for pretreatment (trimming, blade tenderization, and freeze-thawing), curing/salting (tumbling, vacuum impregnation, pulsed pressure, ultrasound, pulsed electric fields, simultaneous thawing/salting), drying/ripening (Quick-Dry-Slice-process, oil drop application, high temperature short time process) and postprocessing (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging, high hydrostatic pressure, high pressure carbon dioxide, high pressure carbon dioxide with ultrasound) are described. Moreover, application techniques and effects of protective cultures and starter cultures, such as molds, yeasts, coagulase-negative staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria, on cured raw ham quality and safety are reviewed.
Kropka, Jamie Michael; Stavig, Mark E.; Jaramillo, Rex
When thermosetting polymers are used to bond or encapsulate electrical, mechanical or optical assemblies, residual stress, which often affects the performance and/or reliability of these devices, develops within the structure. The Thin-Disk-on-Cylinder structural response test is demonstrated as a powerful tool to design epoxy encapsulant cure schedules to reduce residual stress, even when all the details of the material evolution during cure are not explicitly known. The test's ability to (1) distinguish between cohesive and adhesive failure modes and (2) demonstrate methodologies to eliminate failure and reduce residual stress, make choices of cure schedules that optimize stress in the encapsulant unambiguous. For the 828/DEA/GMB material in the Thin-Disk-on-Cylinder geometry, the stress associated with cure is significant and outweighs that associated with cool down from the final cure temperature to room temperature (for measured lid strain, Scure I > I I e+h erma * II) * The difference between the final cure temperature and 1 1 -- the temperature at which the material gels, Tf-T ge i, was demonstrated to be a primary factor in determining the residual stress associated with cure. Increasing T f -T ge i leads to a reduction in cure stress that is described as being associated with balancing some of the 828/DEA/GMB cure shrinkage with thermal expansion. The ability to tune residual stress associated with cure by controlling T f -T ge i would be anticipated to translate to other thermosetting encapsulation materials, but the times and temperatures appropriate for a given material may vary widely.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...
Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.
Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients
Rodriguez Illera, M.
Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous
Bauer, F.; Flyunt, R.; Czihal, K.; Ernst, H.; Naumov, S.; Buchmeiser, M. R.
To improve the surface hardness of radiation cured acrylate coatings, both silica nanoparticles and alumina particles with a few microns in size have been embedded into acrylate formulations. Regular mixing of nanoparticles into acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification of nanoparticles using trialkoxysilanes, which provide an interface between the two dissimilar materials. Nanoparticles modified by methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MEMO) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO), both having polymerisation-active groups, may be crosslinked with the acrylate resin. UV curing of the nanocomposites revealed an unexpected lower reactivity of the vinyl groups of VTMO modified silica compared to MEMO grafted on silica. For VTMO modification, DFT calculations showed a decrease of Mulliken atomic charge for the olefinic carbons pointing to a lower reactivity. For UV cured nano/microhybrid composites, a significant improvement of abrasion resistance was obtained.
Bauer, F. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig D-04318 (Germany)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Flyunt, R.; Czihal, K. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig D-04318 (Germany); Ernst, H. [University of Leipzig, Department of Experimental Physics I, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Naumov, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig D-04318 (Germany); Buchmeiser, M.R. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig D-04318 (Germany); University of Leipzig, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany)
To improve the surface hardness of radiation cured acrylate coatings, both silica nanoparticles and alumina particles with a few microns in size have been embedded into acrylate formulations. Regular mixing of nanoparticles into acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification of nanoparticles using trialkoxysilanes, which provide an interface between the two dissimilar materials. Nanoparticles modified by methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MEMO) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO), both having polymerisation-active groups, may be crosslinked with the acrylate resin. UV curing of the nanocomposites revealed an unexpected lower reactivity of the vinyl groups of VTMO modified silica compared to MEMO grafted on silica. For VTMO modification, DFT calculations showed a decrease of Mulliken atomic charge for the olefinic carbons pointing to a lower reactivity. For UV cured nano/microhybrid composites, a significant improvement of abrasion resistance was obtained.
Machado, L.D.B.; Rotta, A.C.; Petrie, I.
In August 2006, an agreement between the Rad tech International North America and the ATBCR, the Brazillian Technical Association for Radiation cure, turns ATCBR into RadTech South America. This new institution starts with already 10 years of history and pioneering technical experience and achievements in UV and EB radiation cure. Both RadTech institutions have asserted a whole cooperation and information exchange to continue with the initial ATBCR compromise in promoting UV and EB curing technology and to make it available to professionals, enterprise and other organizations. The RadTech South America has it's headquarter at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from whom also gets sponsorship. (Author)
In conclusion, the common sense is that candiaemia or candidiasis is most likely the misdiagnosed sexually transmitted Staphylococcus disease, which is of significant human clinical health issue. Keywords: Candidasis, candidaemia, clinical infectious diseases, sexually transmissible infections, Staphylococcus ...
1299, p<0.05) and Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent and more resistant in inpatients. There is a higher risk of acquiring drug resistant staphylococcus aureus infection in ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...
Isolates of coagulase positive S. aureus resistance to 10 antimicrobials was determined by disc diffusion method. Staphylococcus .... Table 1: Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase positive Staphylococcus. aureus isolates from chickens in Maiduguri,. Nigeria. Antimicrobials .... on Danish poultry and pig farms. Preventive.
Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman; Rida, Anak Tajau; Mek Zah Salleh; Rosley Che Ismail
Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)
Woods, R.; Garnett, J.; Loo Teck Ng
Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied
Steinemann, Anne C.
Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects
Wattanachai, Pitiwat; Suwan, Teewara
At the present day, a concept of environmentally friendly construction materials has been intensively studying to reduce the amount of releasing greenhouse gases. Geopolymer is one of the cementitious binders which can be produced by utilising pozzolanic wastes (e.g. fly ash or furnace slag) and also receiving much more attention as a low-CO2 emission material. However, to achieve excellent mechanical properties, heat curing process is needed to apply to geopolymer cement in a range of temperature around 40 to 90°C. To consume less oven-curing energy and be more convenience in practical work, the study on geopolymer curing at ambient temperature (around 20 to 25°C) is therefore widely investigated. In this paper, a core review of factors and approaches for non-oven curing geopolymer has been summarised. The performance, in term of strength, of each non-oven curing method, is also presented and analysed. The main aim of this review paper is to gather the latest study of ambient temperature curing geopolymer and to enlarge a feasibility of non-oven curing geopolymer development. Also, to extend the directions of research work, some approaches or techniques can be combined or applied to the specific properties for in-field applications and embankment stabilization by using soil-cement column.
Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.
In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel
The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheolog- ical (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...
Tan Boon Yeow; Gan Seng Neon
Amino resins are the most popularly used cross-linking agents for thermosetting coatings. The most common amino resins are those derived from melamine, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine and formaldehyde. They are attractive for developing high performance and low cost coatings to improve performances of other film-forming resins with reactive functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxylic, and amide groups. Alkyds modified with melamine are mainly used in industrial baking enamels for metal surfaces. Short-oil alkyds containing 38-45% phthalic anhydride and a high proportion of hydroxyl values in the alkyd resins render good compatibility with melamine-formaldehyde resins. However, the actual mechanisms and pathways of the curing reactions involved are still not fully understood. This paper describes three palm oil alkyds, synthesized with high hydroxyl values. Clear coating enamels were made by mixing 4 parts; of alkyd resin with 1 part of a methylated melamine resin. The complex curing reactions of the clear enamel can be illustrated qualitatively by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to set suitable curing temperatures without degradation. The dry hard time with various curing temperatures was examined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to follow the changes in functional group concentrations as a function of time and temperature. (author)
frequency is due to the hopping of charge carriers (Papa- thanassiou 2002). 5. Conclusions. Magnetoactive composites containing nickel in poly- chloroprene and nitrile matrices have been prepared. The cure characteristics reveal that the processability and flexibility of the matrix is not affected much even up to a maximum ...
Martin, Steven C.; Hubert, Manfred; Tam, Robin
Varying the intensity of illumination used to cure photoactivated adhesives has been applied in medical and dental applications to improve the performance of polymer materials. For example, it has been observed that dental polymer composite materials express reduced shrinkage, important for durability of non-amalgam restorations, by introducing a phased time-intensity cure schedule. This work identified that curing conditions could influence the final properties of materials, and suggested the possibility of extending the characteristics that could be influenced beyond shrinkage to humidity resistance, Tg, outgassing and other important material properties. Obviously, these results have important ramifications for the photonic industry, with current efforts focused on improved manufacturing techniques. Improvement in low cost packaging solutions, including adhesives, will have to be made to bring the component cost down to address the needs of Metro and similar markets. However, there are perceived problems with the widespread use of adhesives, the most prevalent of these involving long term durability of the bond. Devices are typically aligned to sub-micron precision using active feedback and then must be locked in position to maintain performance. In contrast to traditional fastening methods, adhesive bonding is a highly attractive option due to the ease of deployment, lower equipment costs, and improved flexibility. Moreover, using methods analogous to those employed in dental applications, materials properties of photonic adhesives may be tailored using a programmed cure approach.
Whitaker, Leighton C., Ed.; Pollard, Jeffrey W., Ed.
This volume offers 14 papers on the types, sources, and possible cures of violence on college campuses from prominent workers in higher education. Following a preface the titles are: (1) "Conceptualizing Campus Violence: Definitions, Underlying Factors, and Effects" by Mary L. Roark; (2) "Administrative Perspectives on Disruptive…
Kammer, Charlotte; Szabo, Peter
The chemical curing of a stoichiometric mixture of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a 1,3-bis-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexane is studied.Creep experiments are combined with measurements in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) to determine the change in bulk viscosity due to network formation....
The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheological (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...
Electron-beam (e-beam) induced polymerization of epoxy resins proceeds via cationic mechanism in presence of suitable photoinitiator. Despite good thermal properties and significant processing advantages, epoxy-based composites manufactured using e-beam curing suffer from low compressive strength, poor ...
Rodrigues, Francisca; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, M Helena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
Currently, there is a great tendency in cosmetic area to use natural extracts. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the most abundant solid by-product generated during roasting of coffee processing. To evaluate different CS extracts as promising cosmetic ingredients, regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic CS extracts were obtained by an environmentally friendly procedure considering costs and pollution. Extracts were characterized for total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antimicrobial activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). The TPC of extracts was 18.33-35.25 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of material on a dry basis (mg GAE/g db). The TFC of extracts was 1.08-2.47 µg cathechin equivalents per g dry material (µg CE/g db). The antioxidant activity was high, with values ranging between 95.95 and 216.40 µmol Fe(2+)/g for aqueous and alcoholic samples, respectively. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts display antibacterial activity. The MIC varied from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for Gram-positive, and from 31.3 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-negative. Extracts did not affect in vitro cell viability, with values near 100% in all concentrations tested. RESULTS seem show that CS is a safe source of natural antioxidants with antifungal and antibacterial activity and no cytotoxicity, with potential usefulness for cosmetic applications.
Full Text Available Infectious diseases have been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality because of the widespread antibacterial resistance due to existing drugs. Thus, the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents, especially from natural resources is important to promote the human health. This research aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of som jawa (Talinum paniculatum (Jacq. Gaertn. standardized extract thus their application into cream. Extraction was done by remaceration method, then followed by phytochemical investigation to obtain the active ingredients inside extract. The result of this research showed that both som jawa standardized extract and their formula cream had antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus. This formula cream was potential as alternative herbal medicine for skin infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne
Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...
Deurenberg, Ruud H; Stobberingh, Ellen E
A broad variety of infections, ranging from minor infections of the skin to post-operative wound infections can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The adaptive power of S. aureus to antibiotics leaded, in the early 1960s, to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The cause of
Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang
Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)
Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; Chung, M.
Electron curing of fiber-reinforced composites to produce materials with good mechanical properties has been demonstrated by the authors' work, and by Aerospatiale. The attractions of this technology are the technical and processing advantages offered over thermal curing, and the projected cost benefits. Though the work so far has focused on the higher value composites for the aircraft and aerospace industries, the technology can also be used to produce composites for the higher volume industries, such as transportation and automotive
Balkenhol, Markus; Mautner, Meike Christina; Ferger, Paul; Wöstmann, Bernd
This study aimed to investigate the flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (FM) of provisional crown and bridge materials at different storage times after mixing using materials with different curing mechanisms (dual-curing vs. self-curing). FS and FM of four proprietary materials (Trim, Luxatemp AM Plus, Luxatemp AM Plus Solar and Cool Temp Natural) were tested in a 3-point bending test according to EN ISO 4049:2000 at various times after mixing (37 degrees C dry/water) including thermocycling (5000x, 5-55 degrees C). Mean values of all measurements were calculated and subjected to the Games-Howell test (p=0.05) as well as a regression analysis (p=0.05). A two-way ANOVA (p=0.05) was used to identify the influence of the curing mechanism and chemical nature of the materials used. FS ranged between 11.1 and 24.0 MPa and FM between 82.5 and 548.2 MPa for all tested materials except for the dual-curing material (FS: 82.4 MPa; FM: 2060 MPa) 10 min after mixing. The r2-values, describing the goodness-of-fit of the regression curve for the relation between the mechanical properties and storage time, ranged from 0.701 to 0.979 for the composite based materials and 0.671 to 0.685 for the methacrylate resin. The chemical nature and curing mechanism significantly influenced (p<0.001) the mechanical properties, however, the influence of the curing mechanism disappeared at progressive points in time after mixing comparing Luxatemp AM Plus versus Luxatemp AM Plus Solar. FS and FM significantly depend on the time after mixing. Composite resin based materials are preferred versus methacrylate resins due to more favourable mechanical properties. If a high mechanical strength is indispensable directly after fabrication, a dual-curing provisional material is recommended.
van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla
subjects with a compomer (Dyract AP;68) or resin composite (Tetric Ceram:67) and cured for 40s with continuous, soft-start and pulse-delay modes. The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria yearly during 7 years. Results: Of 135 restorations evaluated at 7 years, 29 were lost, 17...... compomer (25%) and 12 Tetric Ceram (18%). The cumulative loss rates for the compomer and resin composite restorations cured with the three curing modes were. continuous cure: 26.1%/18.2%, soft-start: 22.7%/19.0%, pulse delay: 26.1%/16.7%. No statistical difference were seen between the curing modes......Objective: To evaluate in a prospective evaluation the retention of Class V compomer and hybrid resin composite restorations placed with a 1-step self etch system and cured with continuous, soft-start and pulse-delay curing. Methods: 139 Class V restorations were placed and cured at random in 60...
Full Text Available The cure kinetics and mechanisms of a biphenyl type epoxy molding compounds (EMCs with thermal latency organophosphine accelerators were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Although the use of triphenylphosphine-1,4-benzoquinone (TPP-BQ and triphenylphosphine (TPP catalysts in biphenyl type EMCs exhibited autocatalytic mechanisms, thermal latency was higher in the TPP-BQ catalyst in EMCs than in the TPP catalyst in EMCs. Analyses of thermal characteristics indicated that TPP-BQ is inactive at low temperatures. At high temperatures, however, TPP-BQ increases the curing rate of EMC in dynamic and isothermal curing experiments. The reaction of EMCs with the TPP-BQ latent catalyst also had a higher temperature sensitivity compared to the reaction of EMCs with TPP catalyst. In resin transfer molding, EMCs containing the TPP-BQ thermal latency accelerator are least active at a low temperature. Consequently, EMCs have a low melt viscosity before gelation, and the resins and filler are evenly mixed in the kneading process. Additionally, flowability is increased before the EMCs form a network structure in the molding process. The proposed kinetic model adequately describes curing behavior in EMCs cured with two different organophosphine catalysts up to the rubber state in the progress of curing.
Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal
Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical.
Ali, Sheikh Mohammod
This study combines cure kinetics modelling and thermal and ultrasonic cure monitoring to characterize the cure state of a complex commercial modified epoxy thermosetting system of industrial importance containing two epoxies, diethylene triamine hardener, external catalyst, aliphatic reactive diluent, and mica. Both catalyst and reactive diluent in the formulation of two epoxy resin mixture keep this complex system odd from others and to some extent a new one to report cure kinetics to the b...
Janke, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.
Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro
This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal water curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and selfdesiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price...... of the internal curing water is in the approximate range 0.1–1 e/kg....
Lourtet-Hascoët, J; Bicart-See, A; Félicé, M P; Giordano, G; Bonnet, E
The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to compare these to the characteristics of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A retrospective multicentre study including all consecutive cases of S. lugdunensis PJI (2000-2014) was performed. Eighty-eight cases of staphylococcal PJI were recorded: 28 due to S. lugdunensis, 30 to S. aureus, and 30 to S. epidermidis, as identified by Vitek 2 or API Staph (bioMérieux). Clinical symptoms were more often reported in the S. lugdunensis group, and the median delay between surgery and infection was shorter for the S. lugdunensis group than for the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, the S. lugdunensis strains were susceptible to antibiotics and 61% of the patients could be treated with levofloxacin + rifampicin. The outcome of the PJI was favourable for 89% of patients with S. lugdunensis, 83% with S. aureus, and 97% with S. epidermidis. S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics . Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
... contains 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate). (b) Aluminum sulfate, 46 to 63 percent (the concentration... following within the specified concentration established for each ingredient: (a) Aluminum acetate, 0.13 to...
... ingredients to prepare an aluminum acetate solution. Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate may be combined with calcium acetate monohydrate in powder or tablet form to provide a 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate...
Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T
In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha...
... § 720.8(a) of this chapter, in lieu of label declaration of identity the phrase “and other ingredients... brand designation, and no trade name or brand designation not common to all such products appears in the...
Staphylococcus aureus. The research method used a completely randomized design in four kinds of hand sanitizer and three repetitions. Data processed manually and using analysis of variance (ANOVA and followed by Post-Hoc test with Tukey HSD and also Independent T-Test.The results showed that the ingredients of hand sanitizer can reduce the growth of Staphylococcus aureus significantly. The differences on the percentage reduction of colonies in 30 seconds ranged between 57,65%-72,45%, while the range in 1 minute was 67,88%-82,65%. The analysis was also showed a real difference to the experiment, the combination of the experiment and the time of the experiment with significance value of p <0.05. Based on the result, hand sanitizers can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus effectively at 1 minute instead of 30 seconds. Hand sanitizer containing alcohol 70% and triclosan 0.05% has the better ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.Keywords: ingredients, hand sanitizer, Staphylococcus aureus
... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and... in the following chart: Type of cured pork product Minimum meat PFF percentage 1 Product name and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured pork products. 319.104 Section...
Optics, electronics and display industries are now the driving forces for the Japanese radiation curing technology. The purpose of this paper is to overview the newly developed radiation curing technology in Japan, in particular, its industrial applications, and to present the market figures in radiation curing applications, which were surveyed by RadTech Japan in 2002 afresh. (author)
May 5, 2012 ... of material factors on the variables being measured. Light curing units in the sampled clinics were used to cure the composite specimens, which were all cylindrical. The one for micro-hardness evaluation measured eight millimetres in diameter and three millimetres in height while the other for depth of cure.
Full Text Available Phenolic resins are synthetic low molecular weight thermoset resins which are polymerized and cured to higher molecular weights by condensation method. These resins have high weathering resistance, high oxidative thermal properties and good chemical resistance. Phenolic resins can be cured thermally or by acid curing. The most common method of curing phenolic resin is by thermal curing that takes place in the range of 130-180oC. At room temperature, however, phenolic resins are cured by acid catalysts. In this paper, room temperature curing of resol phenolic resin by para toluene sulphonic acid has been investigated. The acid quantity has been determined for room temperature curing of two types of resols to achieve a reasonable hardness and gelation time. Temperature curing and thermal stability of respective resins have been investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. A glass-phenolic composite plate has been prepared and cured by these two methods. The results show that the optimum amount of acid is 20% by weight. Optimum mechanical properties, chemical resistance and thermal properties have been achieved for acid cured system. The hot cured resin, however, has better properties.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke and...
AIC, mean time to cure), variance and cure fraction (c) were used to determine the flexible Parametric Cure Fraction Model among the considered models. Gastric Cancer data from 76 patients received adjuvant CRT and 125 receiving resection (surgery) alone were used to confirm the suitability of the models. The data was ...
The aim of this paper is to study the influence of curing time on the microstructure and mechanical strength development of alkali activated binders based on vitreous calcium aluminosilicate (VCAS). Mechanical strength of alkali activated mortars cured at 65 °C was assessed for different curing times (4–168 h) using 10 ...
Hanna, Josh; Bian, Jiang; Hogan, William R
In previous work, we built the Drug Ontology (DrOn) to support comparative effectiveness research use cases. Here, we have updated our representation of ingredients to include both active ingredients (and their strengths) and excipients. Our update had three primary lines of work: 1) analysing and extracting excipients, 2) analysing and extracting strength information for active ingredients, and 3) representing the binding of active ingredients to cytochrome P450 isoenzymes as substrates and inhibitors of those enzymes. To properly differentiate between excipients and active ingredients, we conducted an ontological analysis of the roles that various ingredients, including excipients, have in drug products. We used the value specification model of the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations to represent strengths of active ingredients and then analyzed RxNorm to extract excipient and strength information and modeled them according to the results of our analysis. We also analyzed and defined dispositions of molecules used in aggregate as active ingredients to bind cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Our analysis of excipients led to 17 new classes representing the various roles that excipients can bear. We then extracted excipients from RxNorm and added them to DrOn for branded drugs. We found excipients for 5,743 branded drugs, covering ~27% of the 21,191 branded drugs in DrOn. Our analysis of active ingredients resulted in another new class, active ingredient role. We also extracted strengths for all types of tablets, capsules, and caplets, resulting in strengths for 5,782 drug forms, covering ~41% of the 14,035 total drug forms and accounting for ~97 % of the 5,970 tablets, capsules, and caplets in DrOn. We represented binding-as-substrate and binding-as-inhibitor dispositions to two cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP2C19 and CYP2D6) and linked these dispositions to 65 compounds. It is now possible to query DrOn automatically for all drug products that contain active
Bernhardt, P; Forssell-Aronsson, E
Targeted radionuclide therapy of disseminated tumor disease involves many factors that will affect the therapeutic outcome. For optimization of such therapy, it is important to know how these factors affect the therapeutic outcome. In this paper, the metastatic cure probability (MCP) model is described. The MCP model is a valuable tool for analyses of the various factors influencing the metastatic cure. The factors discussed are: 1) the physical parameters (the energy and range of emitted particles, absorbed dose-distributions, and cross-irradiation of tumors from the surrounding normal tissue) and 2) the biological parameters (radiosensitivity of tumors, tumor distributions, tumor growth rate, metastasis formation rate, variable tumor activity concentration and non-homogeneous tumor activity distributions).
Nablo, S.V.; Fletcher, P.M.
This paper reviews the more important features of electron curing pertaining to environmental protection and conservation. The high electrical conversion efficiencies of these devices measured at output power levels to 200 kilowatts are reviewed with attention to energy transport to the product. The comparative energetics of free radical initiated addition chemistry with that of the more conventional condensation polymerized systems are presented. Some details of recent studies of the repulpability and de-inkability of electron cured products are presented with mill scale trials showing successful recycling with up to 75 % EB processed material in the waste. The ability of energetic electrons to effectively replace toxic chemicals such as H 2 O 2 and ethylene oxide in product sterilization will be presented with a discussion of the regulatory aspects of this process for medical device applications. (author)
Allred, Ronald; Haight, Andrea Hoyt
Adhesive tapes, the adhesive resins of which can be cured (and thereby rigidized) by exposure to ultraviolet and/or visible light, are being developed as repair patch materials. The tapes, including their resin components, consist entirely of solid, low-outgassing, nonhazardous or minimally hazardous materials. They can be used in air or in vacuum and can be cured rapidly, even at temperatures as low as -20 C. Although these tapes were originally intended for use in repairing structures in outer space, they can also be used on Earth for quickly repairing a wide variety of structures. They can be expected to be especially useful in situations in which it is necessary to rigidize tapes after wrapping them around or pressing them onto the parts to be repaired.
Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S
Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.
Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil
Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm -1 . The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network
Li, Xin; Pongprueksa, Pong; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan
To evaluate the curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBC) using micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRaman). Four bulk-fill RBCs were compared to a conventional RBC. RBC blocks were light-cured using a polywave LED light-curing unit. The 24-h degree of conversion (DC) was mapped along a longitudinal cross-section using μRaman. Curing profiles were constructed and 'effective' (>90% of maximum DC) curing parameters were calculated. A statistical linear mixed effects model was constructed to analyze the relative effect of the different curing parameters. Curing efficiency differed widely with the flowable bulk-fill RBCs presenting a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the fibre-reinforced RBC, which on its turn revealed a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the full-depth bulk-fill and conventional (control) RBC. A decrease in 'effective' curing depth within the light beam was found in the same order. Only the flowable bulk-fill RBCs were able to cure 'effectively' at a 4-mm depth for the whole specimen width (up to 4mm outside the light beam). All curing parameters were found to statistically influence the statistical model and thus the curing profile, except for the beam inhomogeneity (regarding the position of the 410-nm versus that of 470-nm LEDs) that did not significantly affect the model for all RBCs tested. Most of the bulk-fill RBCs could be cured up to at least a 4-mm depth, thereby validating the respective manufacturer's recommendations. According to the curing profiles, the orientation and position of the light guide is less critical for the bulk-fill RBCs than for the conventional RBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niessl, Julia; Baxter, Amy E; Kaufmann, Daniel E
The long-lived HIV reservoir remains a major obstacle for an HIV cure. Current techniques to analyze this reservoir are generally population-based. We highlight recent developments in methods visualizing HIV, which offer a different, complementary view, and provide indispensable information for cure strategy development. Recent advances in fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques enabled key developments in reservoir visualization. Flow cytometric detection of HIV mRNAs, concurrently with proteins, provides a high-throughput approach to study the reservoir on a single-cell level. On a tissue level, key spatial information can be obtained detecting viral RNA and DNA in situ by fluorescence microscopy. At total-body level, advancements in non-invasive immuno-positron emission tomography (PET) detection of HIV proteins may allow an encompassing view of HIV reservoir sites. HIV imaging approaches provide important, complementary information regarding the size, phenotype, and localization of the HIV reservoir. Visualizing the reservoir may contribute to the design, assessment, and monitoring of HIV cure strategies in vitro and in vivo.
Bao Jianwen; Li Yang; Li Fengmei
There are many advantages in the EB-curing process of composites. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute for polyimide composites used in aeronautical engine. The effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The experiment result shows that the mechanical property of the composites cured by EB could meet the needs of the aeronautical engine in 250degC. (author)
Full Text Available In this work a holistic approach for the characterization and mathematical modeling of the reaction kinetics of a fast epoxy resin is shown. Major composite manufacturing processes like resin transfer molding involve isothermal curing at temperatures far below the ultimate glass transition temperature. Hence, premature vitrification occurs during curing and consequently has to be taken into account by the kinetic model. In order to show the benefit of using a complex kinetic model, the Kamal-Malkin kinetic model is compared to the Grindling kinetic model in terms of prediction quality for isothermal processing. From the selected models, only the Grindling kinetic is capable of taking into account vitrification. Non-isothermal, isothermal and combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements are conducted and processed for subsequent use for model parametrization. In order to demonstrate which DSC measurements are vital for proper cure modeling, both models are fitted to varying sets of measurements. Special attention is given to the evaluation of isothermal DSC measurements which are subject to deviations arising from unrecorded cross-linking prior to the beginning of the measurement as well as from physical aging effects. It is found that isothermal measurements are vital for accurate modeling of isothermal cure and cannot be neglected. Accurate cure predictions are achieved using the Grindling kinetic model.
Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.
Peng, Yingwei; Taylor, Jeremy M G
Model diagnosis, an important issue in statistical modeling, has not yet been addressed adequately for cure models. We focus on mixture cure models in this work and propose some residual-based methods to examine the fit of the mixture cure model, particularly the fit of the latency part of the mixture cure model. The new methods extend the classical residual-based methods to the mixture cure model. Numerical work shows that the proposed methods are capable of detecting lack-of-fit of a mixture cure model, particularly in the latency part, such as outliers, improper covariate functional form, or nonproportionality in hazards if the proportional hazards assumption is employed in the latency part. The methods are illustrated with two real data sets that were previously analyzed with mixture cure models. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.
Pace, Matthew; Frater, John
HIV is a devastating disease affecting millions of people worldwide despite the advent of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, ART does not result in a cure and has to be taken for life. Accordingly, researchers are turning towards cure efforts, particularly in the light of two patients whose HIV has been seemingly eradicated. Numerous approaches and strategies have been considered for curing HIV, but no scalable and safe solution has yet been reached. With newly discovered difficulties in measuring the HIV reservoir, the main barrier to a cure, the only true test of cure is to stop ART and see whether the virus becomes detectable. However, it is possible that this treatment interruption may be associated with certain risks for patients. Here, we compare the current major approaches and recent advances for curing HIV, as well as discuss ways of evaluating HIV cure and the safety concerns involved.
Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge
Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and
Karina De Carli Loureiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry matter. Ten adult dogs were distributed in double Latin block squares (5x5 with five treatments and five periods, totalling ten repetitions per treatment. The residue sirloin steak presented the highest levels of essential (414.2g kg-1 of dry matter and non-essential (399.0g kg-1 of dry matter amino acids in tested ingredients. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter - ADCDM (907g kg-1, ADCOM (930g kg-1, ADCCP (841g kg-1, ADCAEE (954g kg-1 values, and DE (5069kcal kg-1 and ME (4781kcal kg-1 values between testicle, residue sirloin steak, and liver. The trachea presented lower digestibility and energy values (digestible and metabolizable than the other ingredients. This lower trachea digestibility resulted in higher faecal volume for natural and dry matter (P0.05 in faecal score between ingredients. Ingredients tested in this study can be used in feeds for adult dogs; however, their nutritional levels and digestibility values should be considered for correct diet balance.
Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.
Arnau, J; Serra, X; Comaposada, J; Gou, P; Garriga, M
Dry-cured meat products are well-known for their unique sensory characteristics. However, the traditional process is very time consuming. The process can be shortened especially by accelerating the drying period, which is the most time consuming. This paper deals with some technological, safety and sensorial aspects for producing fermented sausages and dry-cured hams when the process time is shortened. Different techniques, such as temperature increase and thickness reduction, and the effects of some ingredients and additives are discussed. A Quick-Dry-Slice process based on a continuous system that combines both convective and vacuum drying could accelerate the drying of slices after the desired pH is reached in fermented sausages. There are safety concerns when processes are shortened, but possible additional hurdles, such as the introduction of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures and high-pressure treatments at the end of the process, could reduce them. Methods to speed up the development of typical colour, texture and flavour and their limitations are also discussed.
Loos, A. C.; Dara, P. H.
Temperature gradients are significant during cure of large area, thick-section composites. Such temperature gradients result in nonuniformly cured parts with high void contents, poor ply compaction, and variations in the fiber/resin distribution. A model was developed to determine the temperature distribution in thick-section autoclave cured composites. Using the model, long with temperature measurements obtained from the thick-section composites, the effects of various processing parameters on the thermal response of the composites were examined. A one-dimensional heat transfer model was constructed for the composite-tool assembly. The governing differential equations and associated boundary conditions describing one-dimensional unsteady heat-conduction in the composite, tool plate, and pressure plate are given. Solution of the thermal model was obtained using an implicit finite difference technique.
Lee, Jung-Won; Cha, Hyun-Suk
PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through ceramic restorations with 3 different thicknesses. Curing efficiency was evaluated by determining the surface microhardness (VHN) of the resin specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four kinds of resin materials were used. Z350 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z350: A2 Shade), Z250 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z250: A2 Shade) and Variolink® II (VL: Ivoclar vivadent, base: transparent) either with or without a self-curing catalyst (VLC: Ivoclar vivadent, catalyst: low viscosity/transparent) were filled into the silicone mold (10 mm diameter, 1 mm thick). They were cured through ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press MO-0 ingot ivoclar vivadent, 10 mm diameter, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thicknesses) by LED light-curing units for 20 and 40 seconds. Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHNs) were measured on the bottom surfaces by a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a 3- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The thickness of ceramic disc increased, the VHNs of all four resin types were decreased (Plight cured for 40 seconds were significantly higher than that of LED for 20 seconds in all four resin materials (Pcuring time resulted higher VHN values of all resin materials. The use of a catalyst produced a greater hardness with all polymerization methods. Restorative resin materials (Z350, Z250) showed higher VHN values than resin cement materials (VL, VLC). PMID:22053242
Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu
Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease.
Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé
The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
West, Ryan; Rousseau, Dérick
Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed nonfat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites. In confections with a high dispersed phase volume fraction, fat crystallization may be hindered due to reduced triacyglycerol mobility, confinement, and increased tortuosity. This is further complicated in systems with slow crystallizing fats such as palm oil whose crystallization is exceptionally sensitive to composition and processing. This review breaks down the physical chemistry of fat-based confections and discusses the impact of different nonfat ingredients towards fat crystallization and rheology. The behavior of palm oil is further highlighted as it is becoming increasingly popular as a confectionery ingredient. Lastly, ingredient-ingredient interactions and their role in fat crystallization are described along with force spectroscopy as a novel tool to characterize such phenomena. Force spectroscopy utilizes atomic force microscopy to measure intermolecular forces as a function of distance but remains largely unexplored in the area of food science.
Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta
The aim of this study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes with a second- and a third-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit. Additionally, irradiance of both light curing units was measured at increasing distances and through discs of two glass ceramics for computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Irradiance and spectra of the Elipar FreeLight 2 (Standard Mode (SM)) and of the VALO light curing unit (High Power Mode (HPM) and Xtra Power Mode (XPM)) were measured with a MARC radiometer. Irradiance was measured at increasing distances (control) and through discs (1.5 to 6 mm thickness) of IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD. DC of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA was measured with an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer when self-cured (negative control) or light cured in SM for 40 s, HPM for 32 s, or XPM for 18 s. Light curing was performed directly (positive control) or through discs of either 1.5- or 3-mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. DC was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). Maximum irradiances were 1,545 mW/cm(2) (SM), 2,179 mW/cm(2) (HPM), and 4,156 mW/cm(2) (XPM), and all irradiances decreased by >80 % through discs of 1.5 mm, ≥95 % through 3 mm, and up to >99 % through 6 mm. Generally, self-curing resulted in the lowest DC. For some cements, direct light curing did not result in higher DC compared to when light cured through ceramic discs. For other cements, light curing through ceramic discs of 3 mm generally reduced DC. Light curing was favourable for dual-curing cements. Some cements were more susceptible to variations in curing mode than others. When light curing a given cement, the higher irradiances of the third-generation LED curing unit resulted in similar DC compared to the second-generation one, though at shorter
Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.
The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world's largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide
Clarke, Angus John; Abdala Sheikh, Ana Paula
The reversal of the Rett syndrome disease process in the Mecp2 mouse model of Guy et al. (2007) has motivated families and researchers to work on this condition. The reversibility in adult mice suggests that there is potentially much to be gained from rational treatments applied to patients of any age. However, it may be difficult to strike the right balance between enthusiasm on the one hand and realism on the other. One effect of this has been a fragmentation of the "Rett syndrome community" with some groups giving priority to work aimed at a cure while fewer resources are devoted to medical or therapy-based interventions to enhance the quality of life of affected patients or provide support for their families.Several possible therapeutic approaches are under development that, it is claimed and hoped, may lead to a "cure" for patients with Rett syndrome. While all have a rationale, there are potential obstacles to each being both safe and effective. Furthermore, any strategy that succeeded in restoring normal levels of MECP2 gene expression throughout the brain carries potential pitfalls, so that it will be of crucial importance to introduce any clinical trials of such therapies with great care.Expectations of families for a radical, rational treatment should not be inflated beyond a cautious optimism. This is particularly because affected patients with us now may not be able to reap the full benefits of a "cure". Thus, interventions aimed at enhancing the quality of life of affected patients should not be forgone and their importance should not be minimised.
Anandan, S.; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Huo, Z.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Apetre, N.; Iyyer, N.
Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used in high-performance aerospace applications as they are resistant to fatigue, corrosion free and possess high specific strength. The mechanical properties of these composite components depend on the degree of cure and residual stresses developed during the curing process. While these parameters are difficult to determine experimentally in large and complex parts, they can be simulated using numerical models in a cost-effective manner. These simulations can be used to develop cure cycles and change processing parameters to obtain high-quality parts. In the current work, a numerical model was built in Comsol MultiPhysics to simulate the cure behavior of a carbon/epoxy prepreg system (IM7/Cycom 5320-1). A thermal spike was observed in thick laminates when the recommended cure cycle was used. The cure cycle was modified to reduce the thermal spike and maintain the degree of cure at the laminate center. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the effect of air flow in the oven, post cure cycles and cure temperatures on the thermal spike and the resultant degree of cure in the laminate.
Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K.; Lopata, V.J.
Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding
Pietro, Lura; Bentz, Dale P.; Lange, David A.
water absorption, but they release a greater percentage of their absorbed water at the equilibrium relative humidity of practical interest in early-age concrete, above 90%. Additionally, early-age properties of mortars with different contents of saturated pumice were investigated: a reference mix......A novel concept in internal curing of High Performance Concrete is based on dispersing very small, saturated lightweight aggregates (LWA) in the concrete, containing sufficient water to counteract self-desiccation. With this approach, the amount of water in the LWA can be minimized, thus...... is saturation of the particles, which can be achieved only by immersion in boiling water or by vacuum saturation....
Douek, Daniel C
Achieving cure of HIV infection requires eliminating all replication-competent virus from the reservoir of latently infected cells or completely inhibiting infected cells from emerging from latency. Strategies include very early use of antiretroviral therapy; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; "shock-and-kill" approaches; immune therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors; gene therapy, including use of CC chemokine receptor 5-modified CD4+ T cells; and broadly neutralizing antibody therapy. Success is likely to require a combination of approaches. This article summarizes a presentation by Daniel C. Douek, MD, PhD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in Berkeley, California, in May 2017.
Dawson, K M; Dawson, S N
Although working conditions, hours, pay, and advancement opportunities are better now than in the 1950s--the "golden age" of American business--today's workers are significantly less satisfied. Why? The authors believe the cause of this malaise is lack of motivation. This article examines several techniques to cure employee malaise and discusses the long-term benefits of these techniques, which include empowerment, recognition, career development, the Pygmalion effect, incentives, and rewards. By making a commitment to these motivational techniques, managers will boost the morale and enthusiasm of their employees and their organization. This motivational process is not quick and easy; developing your employees is an ongoing process.
Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is an integral part of Asian culture and cuisine. It has been used in traditional medicine since centuries. A myriad of health benefits have been attributed to it. Curcumin, the most biologically active curcuminoid in turmeric, is being investigated in pre-clinical and clinical trials for its role in disease prevention and cure. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial effects. We review the chemistry of this plant, its cultural relevance in Indian skin care, and its uses in dermatology.
In much of Thailand animistic curing practices have lost ground to great tradition herbal medicine and modern scientific medicine as more people achieve literacy. Especially in urbanizing areas, Buddhist and Muslim Thais hold in the highest esteem traditional curers whose knowledge derives from patient experimentation and the study of ancient texts. However, among Malay-speaking Muslims in south Thailand, the most respected therapeutic knowledge is revelatory in nature. Southern Muslim curers are generally mystics or spirit-mediums whose direct channels of communication with the supernatural convey remedies for afflictions but also provide guidelines for maintaining sociocultural separatism.
Deng Lili; Zhang Jianxiong; Tang Wansheng; Zhang Wei
This study aims at figuring out the crucial topological ingredients which affect the outcomes of the ultimatum game located on different networks, encompassing the regular network, the random network, the small-world network, and the scale-free network. With the aid of random interchanging algorithm, we investigate the relations between the outcomes of the ultimatum game and some topological ingredients, including the average range, the clustering coefficient and the heterogeneity, and so forth. It is found that for the regular, random and small-work networks, the average range and the clustering coefficient have evident impacts on the ultimatum game, while for the scale-free network, the original degree heterogeneity and the underlying rich-club characterizations are the mainly important topological ingredients that influence the outcomes of ultimatum game substantially.
Full Text Available Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.
Eudy, Anne E; Gordon, Lindsay L; Hockaday, Brandon C; Lee, Daniel A; Lee, Vivianne; Luu, Daniel; Martinez, Carlos A; Ambrose, Peter J
Published evidence on common ingredients of "energy drinks" and other dietary supplements widely used by consumers in hopes of enhancing athletic performance is reviewed. Preworkout products- unregulated dietary supplements- typically contain "proprietary blends" of multiple ingredients, including caffeine, dimethylamylamine, creatine, arginine, β-alanine, taurine, and phosphates. While some dietary supplement labels instruct consumers to seek the advice of a health care professional before using the products, the labels usually do not disclose all ingredients or their precise amounts, and evidence to support the purported performance-enhancing benefits is generally lacking. There is limited evidence to support the use of some preworkout supplement ingredients. For example, in one small placebo-controlled study (n = 12), the use of the energy drink Red Bull (containing caffeine and taurine) 40 minutes before a simulated cycling time trial appeared to provide a meaningful ergogenic benefit; in another small study (n = 12), the use of a similar caffeine-containing product (Redline) by strength-trained athletes was found to improve reaction time, energy, and mental focus relative to placebo use. However, published evidence on the use of the other ingredients listed above is scant, inconclusive, or conflicting. Adverse effects reported in association with preworkout supplements include gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac arrhythmia, blood pressure increases, and potential effects on lipids and blood glucose. Although evidence exists to support the performance-enhancement efficacy of some preworkout ingredients as standalone agents, published data on combination products are scant, inconclusive, or conflicting. The safety of these products may be compromised if users consume larger-than-recommended amounts or use more than one product.
Lindberg, Anders; Peutzfeldt, Anne; van Dijken, Jan W V
This in vitro study compared the depth of cure obtained with six quartz tungsten halogen and light-emitting diode curing units at different exposure times and light tip-resin composite distances. Resin composite specimens (Tetric Ceram, A3; diameter 4 mm, height 6 mm) were exposed from 0-, 3-, and 6-mm distance. The curing units (200-700 mW/cm2) were used for standard (20 and 40 s), pulse-delay mode (initial exposure of 3 s at 200 mW/cm2, followed by a resting period of 3 min and a final exposure of 10 or 30 s at 600 mW/cm2), or soft-start curing (40 s; exponential ramping). Curing depth was determined by measurement of Wallace hardness for each half millimeter starting at 0.5 mm from the top surface. For each specimen, a mean H(W) value was calculated from the H(W) values determined at the depths of 2.0 mm and less (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm, respectively). The depth of cure for each specimen was found by determining the greatest depth before an H(W) value exceeding the minimal H(W) value by 25% occurred. For all curing units, an increase in exposure time led to significantly higher depth of cure. Increasing the light tip-resin composite distance significantly reduced the depth of cure. With a light tip-resin composite distance of 6 mm, median values of depth of cure varied between 2.0 and 3.5 mm following a 20-s (or 3+10 s) exposure and between 3.0 and 4.5 mm following a 40-s (or 3+30 s) exposure. The composite situated above the depth of cure value cured equally well with all curing units. At both exposure times, Luxomax resulted in the significantly lowest depth of cure, and Astralis 7 yielded significantly higher depth. At both exposure times, a significant linear correlation was found between the determined power densities of the curing units and the pooled depth of cure values obtained. It seems that for the resin composite tested, the recommended exposure time of 40 s per 2-mm increment may be reduced to 20 s, or that increments may be increased from 2 to 3
Lin, Po-Chang; Wang, Bruce C M; Kim, Richard; Magyar, Andrew; Lai, Chung-Chih; Yang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Yhu-Chering
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is associated with higher resource utilization, increased hospital stays, and mortality. We present a health economics model to understand the impact of using linezolid as the first-line treatment of MRSA NP in Taiwan. We developed a cost-effectiveness model to estimate the costs and clinical outcomes of using linezolid 600 mg b.i.d. versus vancomycin 15 mg/kg b.i.d. as the first-line treatment of MRSA NP in Taiwan. The model is a decision-analytic analysis in which a MRSA-confirmed patient is simulated to utilize one of the treatments, using data from a clinical trial. Within each treatment arm, the patient can or cannot achieve clinical cure. Regardless of whether the clinical cure was achieved or not, the patient may or may not have experienced an adverse event. The per-protocol results for clinical cure were 57.6% and 46.6% for linezolid and vancomycin, respectively. The total cost of linezolid was $376 more per patient than that of vancomycin. Drug costs were higher for linezolid than for vancomycin ($1108 vs. $233), and hospitalization costs were lower ($4998 vs. $5496). With higher cost and higher cure rates for linezolid, the incremental cost per cure was $3421. This study projects linezolid to have higher drug costs, lower hospital costs, and higher overall costs compared with vancomycin. This is balanced against the higher clinical cure rate for linezolid. Depending on the willingness to pay for clinical cure, linezolid could be cost effective as the first-line treatment of NP in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness of five different resin composites at different irradiation distances (2 mm and 9 mm) by using three light curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light emitting diodes and plasma arc). Methods: A total of 210 disc-shaped samples (2 mm height and 6 mm diameter) were prepared from different resin composites (Simile, Aelite Aesthetic Enamel, Clearfil AP-X, Grandio caps and Filtek Z250). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen, light emitting diode and plasma arc curing units at two irradiation distances (2 mm and 9 mm). Then the samples (n=7/per group) were stored dry in dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin composite layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV). Data were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that the resin composite groups, the type of the light curing units and the irradiation distances have significant effects on the microhardness values (P<.05). Conclusions: Light curing unit and irradiation distance are important factors to be considered for obtaining adequate microhardness of different resin composite groups. PMID:20922164
Dewaele, Magali; Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on degree of conversion (DC), volume contraction (C), elastic modulus (E), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with each other....
Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene
There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet......-chemical dietary fibre (DF) analytical method compared with conventional analytical methods of crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). We expect the DF method to provide detailed and useful information concerning the nutritional properties of feed ingredients for horses....
Bruze, M; Dahlquist, I; Fregert, S; Gruvberger, B; Persson, K
The preservative Kathon CG is a commercial preparation, consisting of 2 active ingredients and other components. 28 patients with contact allergy to Kathon CG participated in a study in which patch testing was performed with serial dilutions, and with 5 chromatographically separated fractions. All reacted to fraction IV, and 2 patients also to fraction II. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry identified fraction II and IV to be the active ingredients; 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one.
Park, Dae-Hun; Jung, Dae Hyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Sung Han; Park, Kyung Mok
Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as t...
Rich, Zachary Clarke; Liu, Chuncheng; Ma, Qingyan; Hu, Fengyu; Cai, Weiping; Tang, Xiaoping; Tucker, Joseph David
There are over 100 clinical trials worldwide focused on developing an HIV cure. Research participants will assume substantial individual risks while receiving little or no individual benefit. Physicians will have important dual roles of leading HIV cure research studies and guiding patient expectations. Many low and middle-income nations have started HIV cure trials, including China. The goal of this study was to better understand physician attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of HIV cure research within the context of China. We conducted a quantitative and qualitative evidence review of published literature on physician perceptions of HIV cure in China. Quantitative survey data revealed that physicians rarely believed HIV was curable, but this perception may be more common compared to other countries. Qualitative data showed that inconsistent terminology used among physicians may contribute to the perception of HIV as curable. The belief that HIV is curable among some physicians in China may be related to the influence of traditional Chinese medicine beliefs. Rather than seeking elimination of pathogens, traditional Chinese medicine aims to achieve harmony between organs and a vital life force. In this context, HIV infection can be seen as a temporary state of imbalance rather than an irreversible change. There is a wide range of physician perceptions about HIV cure in China. Conflicting information about HIV cure from physicians and other sources could thwart the progress of HIV cure research. Enhancing patient-physician communication about ongoing HIV cure research trials will be important for developing an HIV cure.
This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs
Rodríguez-Muñoz, Jesús; Moreno, Santiago
The disadvantages of the long-term administration of antiretroviral therapy as well as the huge number of affected persons have placed the cure of HIV as a primary goal of Public Health. HIV may persist in the organism by at least four mechanisms: a latently infected cellular reservoir, the persistent replication of HIV in spite of ART, anatomic sanctuaries, and the immune dysfunction. Several strategies directed against these mechanisms have been developed. With all this, a complete eradication of HIV has been achieved in a patient using the transplantation of haemopoietic stem cells that were resistant to HIV-infection, and there are examples of functional cure either spontaneously (elite controllers) or after antiretroviral therapy (post-treatment controllers). However, no strategies have been successful in reducing the reservoir size, nor in achieving constant, uniform remissions. The failure of isolated strategies makes it likely that the combination of several of them may be the future solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Bromwich, Danielle; Millum, Joseph R
Trials with highly unfavourable risk-benefit ratios for participants, like HIV cure trials, raise questions about the quality of the consent of research participants. Why, it may be asked, would a person with HIV who is doing well on antiretroviral therapy be willing to jeopardise his health by enrolling in such a trial? We distinguish three concerns: first, how information is communicated to potential participants; second, participants' motivations for enrolling in potentially high risk research with no prospect of direct benefit; and third, participants' understanding of the details of the trials in which they enrol. We argue that the communication concern is relevant to the validity of informed consent and the quality of decision making, that the motivation concern does not identify a genuine problem with either the validity of consent or the quality of decision making and that the understanding concern may not be relevant to the validity of consent but is relevant to the quality of decision making. In doing so, we derive guidance points for researchers recruiting and enrolling participants into their HIV cure trials, as well as the research ethics committees reviewing proposed studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hayes, Brian S.
As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.
This paper presents the results of a joint Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study that considered the feasibility of treating radioactive waste before disposal to reduce the inventory of long-lived radionuclides, making the waste more suitable for geologic disposal. The treatment considered here is one in which waste would be chemically separated so that long-lived radionuclides can be treated using specific processes appropriate for the nuclide. The technical feasibility of enhancing repository performance by this type of treatment is considered in this report. A joint Westinghouse Hanford-PNL study group developed a concept called the Clean Use of Reactor Energy (CURE), and evaluated the potential of current technology to reduce the long-lived radionuclide content in waste from the nuclear power industry. The CURE process consists of three components: chemical separation of elements that have significant quantities of long-lived radioisotopes in the waste, exposure in a neutron flux to transmute the radioisotopes to stable nuclides, and packaging of radionuclides that cannot be transmuted easily for storage or geologic disposal. 76 refs., 32 figs., 24 tabs.
Afridi, Faisal Iqbal; Zeb, Mubarak; Hussain, Arif; Farooqi, Badar Jahan; Murtuza, Ghulam
To determine the frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species by phenotypic D-test. Observational study. Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Consecutive clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were collected and identified by conventional microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inducible clindamycin resistance was carried out by performing D-test using CLSI criteria. Methicillin resistance was detected by using Cefoxitin disk as a surrogate marker. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version-17. A total of 667 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were obtained during the study period. In these isolates, 177 (26.5%) were Staphylococcus aureus, and 490 (73.5%) were coagulase negative Staphylococci. The total frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus species was 120/667 (18%). Frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase negative Staphylococci group and Staphylococcus aureus group were 18.57% and 16.38% respectively. Median age of patients in D-test positive group was 19.5 (1 - 54) years. The frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus species may differ in different hospital setup. Clinical microbiology laboratories should implement testing simple and effective D-test on all Staphylococcus species. D-test positive isolates should be reported clindamycin resistant to decrease treatment failure.
Afridi, F. I.; Zeb, M.; Farooqi, B. J.; Murtaza, G.; Hussain, A.
Objective: To determine the frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species by phenotypic D-test. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: Consecutive clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were collected and identified by conventional microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inducible clindamycin resistance was carried out by performing D-test using CLSI criteria. Methicillin resistance was detected by using Cefoxitin disk as a surrogate marker. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version-17. Results: A total of 667 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were obtained during the study period. In these isolates, 177 (26.5%) were Staphylococcus aureus, and 490 (73.5%) were coagulase negative Staphylococci. The total frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus species was 120/667 (18%). Frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase negative Staphylococci group and Staphylococcus aureus group were 18.57% and 16.38% respectively. Median age of patients in D-test positive group was 19.5 (1 - 54) years. Conclusion: The frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus species may differ in different hospital setup. Clinical microbiology laboratories should implement testing simple and effective D-test on all Staphylococcus species. D-test positive isolates should be reported clindamycin resistant to decrease treatment failure. (author)
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...
To assess the occurrence of MRSA among camels in Kano abattoir, a total of 300 nasal swabs were collected from camels at the lairage in Kano abattoir, Kano state, Nigeria to isolate and biochemically characterize Staphylococcus aureus and confirm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among isolates using ...
Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.
The thesis reports studies of cure kinetics and the glass transition temperature advancements of three commercial epoxy resin systems: MY 750 / HY 5922 (Vantico), MTM 44 -1 (ACG) and 8552 (Hexcel Composites). This investigation was conducted with the utilisation of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Temperature Modulated DSC (TMDSC). Appropriate phenomenological cure kinetics models were built to predict the degree of cure as a function of temperature/time profile. ...
Masud, Abdullah; Tu, Wanzhu; Yu, Zhangsheng
Failure-time data with cured patients are common in clinical studies. Data from these studies are typically analyzed with cure rate models. Variable selection methods have not been well developed for cure rate models. In this research, we propose two least absolute shrinkage and selection operators based methods, for variable selection in mixture and promotion time cure models with parametric or nonparametric baseline hazards. We conduct an extensive simulation study to assess the operating characteristics of the proposed methods. We illustrate the use of the methods using data from a study of childhood wheezing. © The Author(s) 2016.
Peterson, V.K.; Ray, A.
Cs + diffusivity through ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples was investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Secondary Ion Mass-Spectrometry (SIMS). Intrinsic diffusivities were calculated using modified diffusion equations. The intrinsic diffusivities of Cs + through OPC and cemented clinoptilolite samples cured at 25 deg C, 60 deg C and 150 deg C were compared. As expected, Cs + diffusivity was found to increase with increasing cure temperature of OPC. Cs + diffusivity through cemented clinoptilolite also varied with cure temperature. The addition of clinoptilolite to OPC reduced Cs + diffusivity through the sample, and this effect was more pronounced at greater cure temperatures
Othus, Megan; Bansal, Aasthaa; Koepl, Lisel; Wagner, Samuel; Ramsey, Scott
Economic evaluations often measure an intervention effect with mean overall survival (OS). Emerging types of cancer treatments offer the possibility of being "cured" in that patients can become long-term survivors whose risk of death is the same as that of a disease-free person. Describing cured and noncured patients with one shared mean value may provide a biased assessment of a therapy with a cured proportion. The purpose of this article is to explain how to incorporate the heterogeneity from cured patients into health economic evaluation. We analyzed clinical trial data from patients with advanced melanoma treated with ipilimumab (Ipi; n = 137) versus glycoprotein 100 (gp100; n = 136) with statistical methodology for mixture cure models. Both cured and noncured patients were subject to background mortality not related to cancer. When ignoring cured proportions, we found that patients treated with Ipi had an estimated mean OS that was 8 months longer than that of patients treated with gp100. Cure model analysis showed that the cured proportion drove this difference, with 21% cured on Ipi versus 6% cured on gp100. The mean OS among the noncured cohort patients was 10 and 9 months with Ipi and gp100, respectively. The mean OS among cured patients was 26 years on both arms. When ignoring cured proportions, we found that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) when comparing Ipi with gp100 was $324,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) (95% confidence interval $254,000-$600,000). With a mixture cure model, the ICER when comparing Ipi with gp100 was $113,000/QALY (95% confidence interval $101,000-$154,000). This analysis supports using cure modeling in health economic evaluation in advanced melanoma. When a proportion of patients may be long-term survivors, using cure models may reduce bias in OS estimates and provide more accurate estimates of health economic measures, including QALYs and ICERs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics
Saunders, C.; Lopata, V.; Barnard, J.; Stepanik, T.
Acsion is exploiting several emerging electron beam EB applications ranging from composite curing and repair to viscose manufacturing. EB curing of composite structures offers several advantages: significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; improvements in material handling; and reduced overall manufacturing costs compared to thermal curing. The aerospace industry is developing EB technology in all of their market sectors, including military aviation and space products. Some specific products include cryogenic fuel tanks, improved canopy frames for jet aircraft, and the all-composite military aircraft. This paper discusses each of these opportunities. (author)
Smith, A. C.
Mass spectrometer analysis of gases evolved from polymer materials during a cure cycle can provide a wealth of information useful for studying cure properties and procedures. In this paper data is presented for two materials to support the feasibility of using mass spectrometer gas analysis techniques to enhance the knowledge of autoclave curing of composite materials and provide additional information for process control evaluation. It is expected that this technique will also be useful in working out the details involved in determining the proper cure cycle for new or experimental materials.
Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE...
Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more-and-more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.
Commonly utilized feed ingredients for culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda were collected over a period of six months (January - June 2010) and evaluated for their nutritive composition through proximate analysis. Most of the fish feed ...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembling and combining mix ingredients. 58.634 Section 58.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...
Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...
Keywords. Scomber mackerel; allergy; seafood; PCR; genus identification. RESEARCH NOTE. PCR-based detection of allergenic mackerel ingredients in seafood. FUTOSHI ARANISHI 1,* and TAKANE OKIMOTO 1,2. 1Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Miyazaki University,. Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.
The use of antibiotics in human or veterinary therapy is followed by the appearance of bacteria resistance to these antibiotics. This is a serious problem because of the direct impact on therapeutic possibilities. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of a probiotic feed ingredient (Starter) on the growth performance of ...
Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.
The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs
Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T
-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other...
Nearly half of U.S. adults report taking dietary supplements (DS). A single serving of a DS may contain amounts of nutrients or other bioactive compounds that exceed their concentration in foods. During the manufacturing of DS, ingredients may be added in amounts exceeding the label claims in orde...
Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…
Biovailability of the antisalmonellal active ingredients contained in Allium sativum bulbs. D Gatsing, R Aliyu, GI Adoga, Félicité M Tchouanguep. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...
Sample at various stages and contact surfaces were obtained during akara processing from three locations in Maiduguri metropolis. The locations were Hausari, Mairi and Wulari. Samples of the ingredients and swabs of contact surfaces were taken. Total aerobic plate count, coliform count, taphylococcal count and ...
Smith, Gerald F.
Reports the results of a study of active ingredients of creativity techniques, devices that promote idea generation, through an analysis of 172 idea-generation methods which identified three types of idea-generation devices--strategies, tactics, and enablers. These devices were organized into meaningful categories comprising a formulary of active…
Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced animal models. ... Although therapeutic approaches are widely available, preventive regimens are limited. Numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal ... gastric ulcer. Key words: Herbal Medicines, Gastric ulcer, Prevention, Animal models, Alcohol ...
Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.
In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,
Objective: To review the current understanding of the mechanism of action of cathinone, the active ingredient of khat. Data source: Published experimental studies on the nature and action and effect of cathinone on the central nervous system both in animals and humans. Data extraction: Data was taken from work ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 352.20 Section 352.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effective date was stayed until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the text is set forth as...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 352...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 333.320 Section 333.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Note: At 75 FR 9776, Mar. 4, 2010, § 333.320 was revised, effective Mar. 4, 2011. For the convenience...
... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with... designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English (e.g... rules on nomenclature, such as those found in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and shall...
Kuang, S S; Oliveira, J C; Crean, A M
Microencapsulation has been developed by the pharmaceutical industry as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. In drug delivery systems microencapsulation is used to improve the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimize drug side effects, and mask the bitter taste of drug substances. The application of microencapsulation has been extended to the food industry, typically for controlling the release of flavorings and the production of foods containing functional ingredients (e.g. probiotics and bioactive ingredients). Compared to the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry has lower profit margins and therefore the criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are more stringent. The type of microcapsule (reservoir and matrix systems) produced and its resultant release properties are dependent on the microencapsulation technology, in addition to the physicochemical properties of the core and the shell materials. This review discusses the factors that affect the release of bioactive ingredients from microcapsules produced by different microencapsulation technologies. The key criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are also discussed. Two of the most common physical microencapsulation technologies used in pharmaceutical processing, fluidized-bed coating, and extrusion-spheronization are explained to highlight how they might be adapted to the microencapsulation of functional bioactive ingredients in the food industry.
This article identifies corporate social responsibility (CSR) as one of the missing ingredients in the recipe for a successful land reform programme. The article introduces CSR and discusses the business case for CSR; identifies its benefits; considers its possible limitations; and examines the major drivers behind the notion.
Full Text Available A novel trifunctional epoxy resin 4-(3, 3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2, 4, 4-trimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-1, 3-benzenediol glycidyl (shorted as TMBPBTH-EPOXY was synthesized in our lab to improve thermal performance. Its curing behavior and performance were studied by using 4, 4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS as hardener with the mass ratio of 100:41 of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS. The curing activation energy was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to be 64.0 kJ/mol estimated by Kissinger’s method and 68.7 kJ/mol estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method respectively. Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of cured compounds. It was found that when curing temperature was lower than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature increased with the rise of curing temperature and curing time. On the other hand, when the curing temperature was higher than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature went down instead with the increase of curing time that might be the over-crosslinking of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS hardener. The glass transition temperature (Tg of cured TMBPBTH-EPOXY/DDS compound determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is 290.1°C.
Bohra, Pavan Kumar; Ganesh, P R; Reddy, Madan Mohan; Ebenezar, A V Rajesh; Sivakumar, G
To evaluate the colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins under simulated oral conditions with different colorants. Three different brands of heat cure acrylic resin and two rapid cure auto polymerizing acrylic resin of commercial products such as Trevelon Heat Cure (THC), DPI Heat cure (DHC), Pyrax Heat Cure (PHC), DPI Cold cure (DCC) and Acralyn-R-Cold cure (ACC) have been evaluated for discoloration and colour variation on subjecting it to three different, commonly employed food colorants such as Erythrosine, Tartarizine and Sunset yellow. In order to simulate the oral condition the food colorants were diluted with artificial saliva to the samples taken up for the study. These were further kept in an incubator at 37°C ± 1°C. The UV-visible spectrophotometer has been utilized to evaluate the study on the basis of CIE L* a* b* system. The prepared samples for standard evaluation have been grouped as control group, which has been tested with a white as standard, which is applicable for testing the colour variants. The least colour changes was found to be with Sunset Yellow showing AE* value of 3.55 with heat cure acrylic resin branded as PHC material and the highest colour absorption with Tartarizine showing AE* value of 12.43 in rapid cure autopolymerzing acrylic resin material branded as ACC material. ACC which is a self cure acrylic resin shows a higher colour variation to the tartarizine food coloration. There were not much of discoloration values shown on the denture base resins as the food colorants are of organic azodyes.
Future perceptions of the value of curative therapies will likely reflect debates happening today about preferences for funding of preventive versus treatment programs, as well as funding orphan drugs. Little is known about how society will value curative therapies versus standard treatments, and the significant role of a host of psychological factors compared to overarching concerns about opportunity costs will likely lead to significant tension between payers and the public. More research to clarify societal preferences and healthcare goals in regards to curative therapies and in light of the potential for significant opportunity costs will be required. Given what we know about preferences for the funding of prevention and treatment measures, we should expect that cures will not be held to a different measure.
Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.
Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.
Full Text Available Since its rediscovery 10 years ago, Helicobacter pylori has reshaped our thinking about the course of peptic ulcer disease. Our approach to the patient with a duodenal ulcer has become one of attempting eradication therapy at the time of first diagnosis, in the hope of curing the ulcer disease. Gastric and duodenal ulceration are only two of the manifestations of this chronic antral infection; other complications of H pylori include gastritis, gastric cancer and possible maltomas. Therapy of H pylori infection is complicated and involves dual therapy with an antibiotic plus a protein pump inhibitor, such as omeprazole 20 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1 g bid for two weeks, triple or quadruple therapy with bismuth, two antibiotics and an H2-receptor antagonist. Vaccination against H pylori is on the far horizon.
Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized...... with wet lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures with different degree of saturation and different particle size of the lightweight aggregates were studied and compared to normal weight concrete. Autogenous deformations, selfinduced stresses in fully restrained conditions, elastic...... modulus and compressive strength were measured. Early-age expansion of the mixtures was greater the higher the degree of the saturation of the lightweight aggregates and the finer their particle size. The elastic properties and the earlyage expansion of the lightweight aggregate concrete were calculated...
Seto, J.; Arakawa, S.; Ishimoto, C.; Miyashita, M.; Nagai, T.; Noguchi, T.; Shibata, A.
The electron-beam curing process of acrylic oligomers, with and without γ-Fe 2 O 3 pigment filler and blended linear polymer, was investigated in terms of molecular structure and reaction mechanism. The polymerized fraction of trimethylolpropane-triacrylate (TMPTA) oligomers increases with increasing total dose, and is independent of the dose rate. Since the reaction rate is linearly dependent on the dose rate, the reaction mechanism involves monomolecular termination. The reaction rate does not depend on the number of functional groups of the oligomer at low doses, but above 0.3 Mrad the rate is slower for oligomers of higher functionality. A gel is formed more readily upon curing of a polyfunctional than a monofunctional oligomer, especially at high conversion to polymer; the resulting loss of flexibility of the polymer chains slows the reaction. Decrease of the molecular weight per functional group results in lower conversion; this is also due to the loss of chain flexibility, which is indicated as well by a higher glass-transition temperature. Modification of the acrylate oligomers with urethane results in more effective cross-linking reactions because of the more rigid molecular chains. Addition of γ-Fe 2 O 3 pigment reduces the reaction rate very little, but has the effect of providing added structural integrity, as indicated by the decrease of solvent-extractable material and the improvement of anti-abrasion properties. However, the flexibility of the coating and its adhesion to a PET base film are diminished. To increase the flexibility, linear polyvinylchloride and/or polyurethane were added to the acrylic oligomers. Final conversion to polymer was nearly 100 percent, and a higher elastic modulus and better antiabrasion properties were realized
Chudinov, Viacheslav; Kondyurin, Alexey; Svistkov, Alexander L.; Efremov, Denis; Demin, Anton; Terpugov, Viktor; Rusakov, Sergey
Future space exploration requires a large light-weight structure for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories and other constructions. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of polymerization of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment on Erath orbit. In orbit, the material is exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, plasma of free space due to cosmic rays, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The development of appropriate polymer matrix composites requires an understanding of the chemical processes of polymer matrix curing under the specific free space conditions to be encountered. The goal of the stratospheric flight experiment is an investigation of the effect of the stratospheric conditions on the uncured polymer matrix of the composite material. The unique combination of low residual pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short-wave UV component, cosmic rays and other aspects associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. We have done the stratospheric flight experiments with uncured composites (prepreg). A balloon with payload equipped with heater, temperature/pressure/irradiation sensors, microprocessor, carrying the samples of uncured prepreg has been launched to stratosphere of 25-30 km altitude. After the flight, the samples have been tested with FTIR, gel-fraction, tensile test and DMA. The effect of cosmic radiation has been observed. The composite was successfully cured during the stratospheric flight. The study was supported by RFBR grants 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011.
Lisziewicz, Julianna; Tőke, Enikő R
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) successfully suppresses HIV replication. However, daily and lifelong treatment is necessary to manage patient illness because cART neither eradicates infected cells from reservoirs nor reconstitutes HIV-specific immunity that could kill infected cells. Toward the cure of HIV, different nanomedicine classes have been developed with the following disease-modifying properties: to eradicate the virus by activation of latently infected CD4+ T-cells and reservoirs flushing; to kill the infected cells in the reservoirs by boosting of HIV-specific T cells; and to prevent infection by the use of microbicides with improved epithelial penetration and drug half-life. Preclinical and clinical trials consistently demonstrated that DermaVir, the most advanced nanomedicine, induces long-lasting memory T-cell responses and reduces viral load in comparison with placebo. DermaVir and the nanomedicine pipelines have the potential to improve the health of HIV-infected people at lower costs, to decrease antiretroviral drug exposure, and to contribute to the cure of HIV/AIDS. Despite the leaps and bounds in the development of antiretroviral therapy, HIV remains a significant public health challenge. In this review, applications of nanomedicine- based technologies are discussed in the context of HIV treatment, including virus elimination by activation of latently infected CD4+ T-cells; infected cell elimination in the reservoirs by boosting HIV-specific T cells, and by preventing infection by the use of microbicides with improved epithelial penetration and drug half-life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product containing...
SANTOS, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; PASSOS, Sheila Pestana; da ENCARNAÇÃO, Monalisa Olga Lessa; SANTOS, Gildo Coelho; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio
Objective This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC) photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal) disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light source. Material and Methods Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s) were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN) was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. Results Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH) and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED). The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH) and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED). For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. Conclusions Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values. PMID:20485920
Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH light source. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED. The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED. For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. CONCLUSION: Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values.
Bagis, Bora; Bagis, Yildirim; Ertas, Ertan; Ustaomer, Seda
The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat generation of three different types of light curing units. Temperature increases were recorded from a distance of 1 mm from a thermocouple to the tip of three different types of light curing units including one quartz-tungsten halogen (QTH), one plasma arc (PAC), and one light emitting diode (LED) unit. An experimental model was designed to fix the 1 mm distance between the tip of the light curing units and the thermocouple wire. Temperature changes were recorded in 10 second intervals up to 40 seconds. (10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds). Temperature measurements were repeated three times for every light curing unit after a one hour standby period. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni Test. The highest temperature rises (54.4+/-1.65 degrees C) occurred during activation of a PAC light curing unit for every test period (p<.05). The least temperature increase (11.8+/-1.3 degrees C) occurred with a LED curing unit for each tested period except for the measurement of the temperature rise using the QTH curing unit at the tenth second interval (p<.05). These results indicate the choice of light activation unit and curing time is important when polymerizing light activated resin based restorations to avoid any thermal damage to the pulp.
Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Okuda, Jyunya; Kitami, Toshiaki; Matsubara, Yoshio
The authors have studied the preparation and the function of intelligent drug release membranes by UV curing. Temperature responsive fragrance release membranes were prepared by UV curing process and the release functions were investigated as the function of thickness and composition of membrane. Microscopic observations were used to prove the postulated release mechanism
... the requirements for structural lightweight concrete. The developed compressive strength and pull-out strength under both site curing conditions were relatively lower than full water curing condition but still were higher than minimum requirement as per standard. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.
Background: Modern dental composite restorations are wholly dependent on the use of Visible Light Curing devices. The characteristics of these devices may influence the quality of composite resin restorations. Objective: To determine the characteristics of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics in Nairobi and their effect ...
Objective: To determine the light intensity emitted by light curing units (LCUs) and its effect on the cure characteristics of composites polymerised with it. Design: A laboratory based cross sectional study. Setting: Public and private dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Results: Thirty five (42.17%) LCUs produced light of intensity ...
The bridges and highways are being constructed inlarge number all around the globe using. UHPC, there is ... The properties of UHPC are different from high performance concrete and normal concrete. The curing ... ture, elimination of coarse aggregate, microstructure enhancement by heat curing, addition of steel fibres for ...
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology Yola, Nigeria. aEmail: email@example.com (corresponding author). Abstract. Different curing methods are .... ing materials are commonly used for concrete curing.  stated that as hydration progresses, the amount of water in mortar pores reduces and.
Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Sakata, Shoei; Tougou, Kazuhide; Hara, Takamichi; Matsubara, Yoshio
Intelligent membranes for pH and temperature-responsive drug releases were developed by coating and curing of polymer-drug composite film with electrolyte or N-isopropyl acrylamide curable mixture. It was proved that those intelligent membranes showed the stimule-sensitive and responsive release functions and could be produced efficiently by radiation curing processing with a conveyer system
Bhi, S. T.; Hansen, R. Scott; Wilson, Brian A.; Calius, Emilo P.; Springer, George S.
The rate of cure and viscosity were measured for Hercules HBRF-55 resin. The rate of cure was measured by differential scanning calorimetry, while the viscosity was measured by a parallel disk and plate type apparatus. The data were fitted to analytic expressions to make them suitable for use in numerical calculations.
Busemann, I.; Lipke, C.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Willershausen, B.; Ernst, C.P.
PURPOSE: To investigate the shortest exposure time of different light emitting diode (LED)-curing devices for different resin composites in a clinically relevant laboratory model. METHODS: Nine LED curing devices (Bluephase, Bluephase 16i, Bluephase G2, Bluephase 20i/Ivoclar Vivadent, DEMI/sds Kerr,
Power, Jennifer; Fileborn, Bianca; Dowsett, Gary W; Lucke, Jayne; Brown, Graham; Ellard, Jeanne; Lewin, Sharon R; Tucker, Joseph D; Slavin, Sean; Sugarman, Jeremy; Hill, Sophie
While still in its early stages, recent scientific research towards a cure for HIV has generated widespread media interest. The aim of this paper was to explore the ways in which this research has been represented in Australian print and online media and discuss implications of this. A search of databases from four selected media outlets was conducted to identify published articles that directly discussed HIV cure research. Content analysis was used to explore the discursive framing of HIV cure research and identify the presence or absence of people living with HIV in articles. In total, 95 articles were identified that had been published in print or online between 2007 and 2015. Media reports tended to focus on research breakthroughs or the future potential of HIV cure research, rather than more immediate implications of research findings. While not inaccurate, this focus often implied the field of HIV cure research was more advanced than was generally the case. There was a notable absence of commentary from people living with HIV or community advocates in media reporting. Media reporting may generate unrealistic expectations of HIV cure research. This raises ethical concerns that media reporting may inadvertently contribute to therapeutic or curative misconceptions among potential participants in HIV cure-related trials. To address this, scientists, HIV advocates and people living with HIV will need to work collaboratively to engage with reporters and media outlets to provide more consistent input and guidance into reporting about research towards a cure for HIV.
Sulphur, peroxide and mixed sulphur/peroxide curing systems were introduced in cross-linking of rubber matrices. The aim was to investigate the influence of curing system composition on ... types of rubber compounds with incorporated untraditional fillers as .... ment is based on the analysis of time dependence of thermal.
Tomalia et al.5 Though curing kinetics of bisphenol-A based epoxy resin with 1st to 4th generations of den- dritic poly(amido-amine) with different amines were studied by DSC,6 but performance of the thermosets was not reported. Thus a detail and systematic study on curing at room temperature of a hyperbranched epoxy.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.
After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed.
Full Text Available Geopolymer concrete is an innovative method and is produced by complete elimination of ordinary Portland cement byproduced in fly ash. This study on different condition of curing in geopolymer concrete suitable for curing at ambient and heat-cured condition of temperature will widen its application to concrete structures. Low lime fly ash is used as the base material, which is reacted by alkaline solution and additional use of ground granulated blast furnace slag. Workability of fresh concrete and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete was investigated. The curing effect of geopolymer concrete is steam, hot air and ambient cubes specimens are tested in different days. Results are compared for various curing and strength of concrete.
Cillo, Anthony R; Mellors, John W
Strategies to achieve a cure for HIV-1 infection can be broadly classified into three categories: eradication cure (elimination of all viral reservoirs), functional cure (immune control without reservoir eradication), or a hybrid cure (reservoir reduction with improved immune control). The many HIV-1 cure strategies being investigated include modification of host cells to resist HIV-1, engineered T cells to eliminate HIV-infected cells, broadly HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, and therapeutic vaccination, but the 'kick and kill' strategy to expose latent HIV-1 with latency reversing agents (LRAs) and kill the exposed cells through immune effector functions is currently the most actively pursued. It is unknown, however, whether LRAs can deplete viral reservoirs in vivo or whether current LRAs are sufficiently safe for clinical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the sister group, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the sister group to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius) are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus group has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal transfer in pathogenesis. PMID
Hafeez, Amira; Munir, Tehmina; Rehman, Sabahat; Najeeb, Sara; Gilani, Mehreen; Latif, Mahwish; Ansari, Maliha; Saad, Nadia
To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Quasi-experimental study. Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30 μg) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was ≤ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 °C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Gan, J K; Yap, A U; Cheong, J W; Arista, N; Tan, Cbk
This study compared the effectiveness of cure of bulk-fill composites using polywave light-emitting diode (LED; with various curing modes), monowave LED, and conventional halogen curing lights. The bulk-fill composites evaluated were Tetric N-Ceram bulk-fill (TNC), which contained a novel germanium photoinitiator (Ivocerin), and Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR). The composites were placed into black polyvinyl molds with cylindrical recesses of 4-mm height and 3-mm diameter and photopolymerized as follows: Bluephase N Polywave High (NH), 1200 mW/cm 2 (10 seconds); Bluephase N Polywave Low (NL), 650 mW/cm 2 (18.5 seconds); Bluephase N Polywave soft-start (NS), 0-650 mW/cm 2 (5 seconds) → 1200 mW/cm 2 (10 seconds); Bluephase N Monowave (NM), 800 mW/cm 2 (15 seconds); QHL75 (QH), 550 mW/cm 2 (21.8 seconds). Total energy output was fixed at 12,000 mJ/cm 2 for all lights/modes, with the exception of NS. The cured specimens were stored in a light-proof container at 37°C for 24 hours, and hardness (Knoop Hardness Number) of the top and bottom surfaces of the specimens was determined using a Knoop microhardness tester (n=6). Hardness data and bottom-to-top hardness ratios were subjected to statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance/Scheffe's post hoc test at a significance level of 0.05. Hardness ratios ranged from 38.43% ± 5.19% to 49.25% ± 6.38% for TNC and 50.67% ± 1.54% to 67.62% ± 6.96% for SDR. For both bulk-fill composites, the highest hardness ratios were obtained with NM and lowest hardness ratios with NL. While no significant difference in hardness ratios was observed between curing lights/modes for TNC, the hardness ratio obtained with NM was significantly higher than the hardness ratio obtained for NL for SDR.
Tak, Onjen; Altintas, Subutay Han; Ozturk, Nilgun; Usumez, Aslihan
The purpose of this study was to determine colour changes in a composite cured with tungsten-halogen, light-emitting diode (LED) or a plasma arc after 5 years. Five specimens 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were prepared using Hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite for each test group. The corresponding specimens were cured with a tungsten-halogen curing light, a LED unit or with a plasma arc. Specimens were stored in light-proof boxes for 5 years after the curing procedure to avoid further exposure to light and stored in 37 degrees C in 100% humidity. Colorimetric values of the specimens immediately after curing and after 5 years were measured using colorimeter. The DeltaE*( ab ) values varied significantly depending on the curing unit used (p Curing time did not affect the colour changes of the specimens (p = 0.4). The results of this study suggest that composite materials undergo measurable changes due to the curing unit exposure.
This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing
The FFDCA provides both exclusive use and data compensation protections for data that inert ingredient manufacturers submit to EPA to establish or maintain tolerances or tolerance exemptions for these ingredients. Find information about these protections.
Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jul 31, 2012 ... Key word: Commensal, resistance genes, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. INTRODUCTION ...... of antibiotic-resistant commensal bacteria in samples from agricultural, city, and national park environments evaluated by standard culture and real-time PCR methods. Can.
岡田, 英俊; 石田, 喜紀; 野口, 博志; 長山, 克也; オカダ, ヒデトシ; イシダ, ヨシキ; ノグチ, ヒロシ; ナガヤマ, カツヤ; Hidetoshi, OKADA; Yoshiki, ISHIDA; Hiroshi, NOGUCHI; Katsuya, NAGAYAMA
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of curing light units and exposure conditions on the prperties of the polymerization of a lightcured resin composite. Lightfil was used as a resin composite. The curing light units used were a JETLITE, as a halogen lamp curing light source (HAL), a MICROWAVE, as a xenon lamp curing light source (XEN), and a AQUABLUE, as a light-emitting diode curing light source (LED). Each curing light unit was used to cure the resin composite with the i...
Terrence Timothy Evan Lusida
Full Text Available Infection of Staphylococcus epidermidis is still a common problem in many hospitals. Factor determining biofilm formation makes it harder for atibiotics to cure the infection. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa, a well known traditional medicine plant, is a potential candidate as a drug againts infectious disease. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract from Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx againts the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Assessment for antibacterial effect is performed using broth diffusion method. The extract is made by maceration of the calyx of Roselle in 96% ethanol. Extracts with concentration of 125, 62.5, 31.25, 15.63, 7.81, 3.90, 1.95, 0.97, 0.48, 0.24 mg/mL are added into separated Mueller-Hinton broths (MHB, which have already been inoculated by Staphylococcus epidermidis. As for bacterial growth control, we used MHB with bacterial inoculation, while sterility control we used mixture of extract and MHB. Then from each broth, the solutions are added into separated nutrition agar plates. Replications are done three times. Clarity and bacterial growth are observed after 24 hours of incubation. However, clarity cannot be observed in 36 broth, but bacterial growth is observed on the plate for concentration 0.97, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL. Therefore Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC cannot be determined because the extract’s color interfere the observation. While minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, the last concentration before the concentration where the bacteria are still viable, is 1.95 mg/mL. Based on the result of the research, the Roselle calyx ethanol extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa through dilution method with a concentration of 1.95 mg / mL can kill Staphylococcus epidermidis and in order to find MIC in collored and turbid solution (before being incubated in incubator, we can consider using agar dilution methode or microdilution methode.
Gabadage, Kamal; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Campbell, John; Luby, Christopher
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen of dairy cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of infected cattle results in variable cure rates. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in the modulation of host innate immune responses and the regulation of mammary epithelial regeneration, indicating that EGF may be useful as a treatment for mastitis. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant bovine EGF (rbEGF) for the treatment of S aureus intramammary infection (IMI) using an ovine model. Each ewe was experimentally infected with S aureus in both udder halves. One udder half of each ewe received one of two treatments: EGF (n=13) or pirlimycin (n=13). The contralateral udder half of each ewe received sterile saline as a control. The bacteriological cure rate following rbEGF was significantly lower (15 per cent) than that attained with pirlimycin hydrochloride (61 per cent) and did not differ from that following treatment with sterile saline. Cure rates following treatment with rbEGF were not significantly different to those following sterile saline. Given that EGF is associated with modulation of host immunity and wound healing, future studies into EGF should not focus on whether EGF increases cure rates of S aureus IMI.
Matos, J; Cardoso, C; Bandarra, N M; Afonso, C
Microalgae are very interesting and valuable natural sources of highly valuable bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, enzymes and fibre. Due to their potential, microalgae have become some of the most promising and innovative sources of new food and functional products. Moreover, microalgae can be used as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foods and, thus, to favourably affect human health by improving the well-being and quality of life, but also by curtailing disease and illness risks. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health benefits associated with the consumption of microalgae, bioactive compounds, functional ingredients, and health foods.
Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I
Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.
Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar.
The strategic planning process initiated by the Pew Foundation through the Pritchard Report became a major preoccupation of all of the 31 faculties of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada. It is proposed that, in order to be successful in the strategic planning process, three determinants related to perception, to personality, and to psychosocial behavior are necessary ingredients. First, the professional program should evolve in a team-spirited milieu which can inspire future veterinarians to work in teams. Second, all channels of communication should be kept open. Third, passion and enthusiasm should be the prevailing and all-encompassing characteristics of faculty endeavors. Team-spirit, communication and enthusiasm are the essential ingredients which will be needed to confront the challenges facing the profession, to look towards the future with tremendous hope, and to embrace the 21st century with eagerness.
Full Text Available Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR, which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials.
Tolve, Roberta; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio; Zhang, Zhibing
Many nutritional experts and food scientists are interested in developing functional foods containing bioactive agents and many of these health-promoting ingredients may benefit from nano/micro-encapsulation technology. Encapsulation has been proven useful to improve the physical and the chemical stability of bioactive agents, as well as their bioavailability and efficacy, enabling their incorporation into a wide range of formulations aimed to functional food production. There are several reviews concerning nano/micro-encapsulation techniques, but none are focused on the incorporation of the bioactive agents into food matrices. The aim of this paper was to investigate the development of microencapsulated food, taking into account the different bioactive ingredients, the variety of processes, techniques and coating materials that can be used for this purpose.
Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%
Michaela P Trudeau
Full Text Available Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV, Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV, and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days for PEDV (P < 0.06 as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001 were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days and TGEV (42.00 days. There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01 and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02. There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01. In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients.
The strategic planning process initiated by the Pew Foundation through the Pritchard Report became a major preoccupation of all of the 31 faculties of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada. It is proposed that, in order to be successful in the strategic planning process, three determinants related to perception, to personality, and to psychosocial behavior are necessary ingredients. First, the professional program should evolve in a team-spirited milieu which can inspire future ...
Full Text Available Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10% they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.
Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826
Gouri Kumar Dash*, Nur Anis Amira Mohd Anas and Shahnaz Majeed
The use of lipsticks has gained considerable importance in recent years and several cosmetic industries have geared up their marketing with different shades of colors to meet the demands of women. Many lipsticks often contain synthetic chemicals that are known to cause serious side effects upon prolonged use. In the present study, we have made an attempt to formulate lipsticks that contained only natural ingredients using extracts of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, juice of the roots o...
Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Alkan, M.; Kucukbayrak, S.
Highlights: • Isolation methods have an intrinsic weakness. • Isolated ingredients contain no ignorable inorganics in different forms. • The first study dealing with the mineral phases in isolated lignin and holocellulose. - Abstract: The complex structure of biomass materials can be studied by means of a number of different techniques. Of which, chemical isolation of macromolecular biomass ingredients such as lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose, and then characterization of each isolated ingredient has been a common practice. However, the isolated individual ingredients have always been regarded as pure materials, and so far potential inorganic impurities resulting from the parent biomass have not been considered. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the determination of inorganics, if any, in the isolated parts of biomass. For this, two different biomass species such as hybrid poplar wood and apricot stones have been subjected to sequential isolation procedures of ASTM D1105, Wise’s Chlorite Method, and van Soest’s Method. The isolated holocellulose (hemicellulose + cellulose), lignin, and extractives-free bulk were then characterized mineralogically by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques, and the results were compared with those for the parent biomass species. It was found that the isolated holocelluloses and lignins are not just ash-free and they have ash contents up to 2.2% and 4.0%, respectively. Also, various minerals including potassium chloride, several phosphate minerals, and alumina silicates were found to survive after chemical treatments applied during isolation. In addition, several heavy metals were also detected. These results reveal that minerals cannot be eliminated entirely because of the natures of the chemicals used, and they unavoidably remain in the isolated macromolecules
A uniform diet was compounded from ingredients certified to be apparently pesticide residue-free. This diet was partitioned into 5 sub-diets. The first partition A had no residue, serving as control, while B, C, D, and E had 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% inclusion of the Actellic 2% dust, respectively. A total of 20 rabbits of mixed ...
Samples (25 mg) of each milled ingredient were measured in duplicate into rimless pyrex test tubes (l2 X 150 mm). One of each pair of tubes was for the analysis for all the amino acids except cystine and tryptophan. To this tube, 6 mol dm -t - hydrochloric acid (3 cm.r) was added. The mixture was frozen in an acetone/dry ice.
The semimembranous muscle from singed beef carcass was trimmed of all visible bones and connective tissue. The meat was sliced into thin sheet of 0.15 – 0.3cm thick and between 5.0 – 9.0 cm long. The experiment comprised of five treatments. Treatment one (T1) In served as the control, with all ingredients present ...
Tagami, Atsuko; Takahashi, Rena; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the curing condition (i.e., the curing mode and restoration thickness) on the tensile bond strength of a dual-cure resin cement applied to dentin. Indirect composite resin disks (1, 2, and 3mm in thickness) were prepared. The irradiance of a halogen light curing unit through each disk was measured by a curing radiometer. A measurement was also taken for the condition with no disk. Following this, two dual-cure resin cements, Panavia F2.0 and Panavia V5, were polymerized in either dual-cure mode or self-cure mode to bond the composite resin disk to the flat dentin surface. The specimens were sectioned and subjected to a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test after 24h of water storage. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed with multiple comparisons by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). The irradiance values [mW/cm 2 ] measured through indirect composite resin disks were 600 (0mm), 200 (1mm), 90 (2mm), and not detected (3mm). Two-way ANOVA indicated that both the curing condition and the type of resin cement affected the μTBS (pPanavia V5 bonded to dentin were significantly higher than those of Panavia F2.0 bonded to dentin (pPanavia V5, showed higher dentin bonding than Panavia F2.0 in both dual- and self-cure modes. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, H; Kazama, Re; Asai, T; Kanaya, F; Ishizaki, H; Fukushima, M; Okiji, T
This study aimed to evaluate the ability of high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) and other curing units to cure dual-cured resin cement through ceramic material. A halogen curing unit (Jetlite 3000, Morita), a second-generation LED curing unit (Demi, Kerr), and two high-intensity LED curing units (PenCure 2000, Morita; Valo, Ultradent) were tested. Feldspathic ceramic plates (VITABLOCS Mark II, A3; Vita Zahnfabrik) with thicknesses of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm were prepared. Dual-cured resin cement samples (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray Noritake Dental) were irradiated directly or through one of the ceramic plates for different periods (5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds for the high-intensity LED units and 20, 40, 60, or 80 seconds for the others). The Knoop hardness test was used to determine the level of photopolymerization that had been induced in the resin cement. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's post-hoc test to identify test-control (maximum irradiation without a ceramic plate) differences for each curing unit (presin cement through a ceramic plate resulted in decreased KHN values compared with direct irradiation. When the irradiation period was extended, only the LED units were able to achieve similar KHN values to those observed under direct irradiation in the presence of plates ≥2.0-mm thick. High-intensity LED units require a shorter irradiation period than halogen and second-generation LED curing units to obtain KHN values similar to those observed during direct irradiation.
Bai, Meng-Yi; Chou, Tz-Chong; Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yu, Wen-Chun
The use of an electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nonwoven mat that is coated with a layer of chitosan (CS) containing active ingredient [tea tree oil (TTO)] represents an effective strategy for producing functional dressings. CS-coated porous PCL nonwoven mat (CS3/PCLNM) with various concentrations of active ingredients were produced and investigated. In vitro, active ingredient-containing CS3/PCLNM is effective in inhibiting the formation of nitrite and the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Both active ingredient TTO and CS have been proven to reach their maximum amount of releases within 24 h of contact with water-based environment. In vivo, full-thickness skin removal (1.2 cm × 1.2 cm) was performed on the back of the C57BL6/J mice in noninfected and infected animal models. Four groups of functional dressings were tested in this work including Tegderm™, PCLNM, CS3/PCLNM, and 100 μL TTO-CS3/PCLNM. After 7 days post-treatment, the bacterial levels were found to be significantly lower in both CS3/PCLNM and 100 μL TTO-CS3/PCLNM-treated groups than in the control group (81.6 ± 18.1% and 93.7 ± 9.57% of reductions in the bacterial load in the pus relative to the control group, respectively). Additionally, based on the histological analyses, the 100 μL TTO-CS3/PCLNM-treated group outperformed all other groups in wound healing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi; Berson, Diane
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by cutaneous hypersensitivity. There are many therapeutic options available for the treatment of rosacea, but none are curative. Since the pathogenesis of rosacea remains elusive, it is not surprising that no single treatment is paramount and that many patients find therapies unsatisfactory or even exacerbating. Treatments are prescribed to work in concert with each other in order to ameliorate the common clinical manifestations, which include: papules and pustules, telangiectasias, erythema, gland hypertrophy, and ocular disease. The most validated topical therapies include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Many other topical therapies, such as calcineurin inhibitors, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical corticosteroids, and permethrin have demonstrated varying degrees of success. Due to the inconsistent results of the aforementioned therapies patients are increasingly turning to alternative products containing natural ingredients or botanicals to ease inflammation and remit disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the management of rosacea, but some important considerations regarding the natural ingredients with clinical data will be discussed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana
New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Proctor Enola K
Full Text Available Abstract Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research.
The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro. It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.
A composition for oral delivery of one or more active ingredients in the form of a lipid nano-micro-delivery system comprising a lipid nano-micro-structure comprising at least one lipid and at least one active ingredient, said at least one active ingredient being immobilized in said lipid nano...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...
... and other articles used in preparation of products. 318.6 Section 318.6 Animals and Animal Products... ingredients and other articles used in preparation of products. (a) All ingredients and other articles used in... products. (11) (12) Ingredients for use in any product may not bear or contain any pesticide chemical or...
M.F. Nuruddin Nuruddin
Full Text Available Environmental issues resulted from cement production have become a major concern today. To develop a sustainable future it is encouraged to limit the use of this construction material that can affect the environment. Cement replacement material was proposed to partially replace cement portion in concrete. Geopolymer is a part of inorganic polymer material that has similar bonding function like cement in concrete. It consists of alkaline solutions and geological source material. Alkaline liquids used in this research are 8 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 solutions, while source materials are fly ash and microwave incinerated rice husk ash (MIRHA. Three different curing regimes, namely hot gunny curing, ambient curing, and external exposure curing, were applied to obtain suitable method that was suitable with cast in situ application. Geopolymer concrete samples were tested on their compressive strength and microstructure properties. It was found that external exposure curing had the highest compressive strength compared to other two curing methods. Scanning electron microscopy analysis also showed better improvement in interfacial transition zone for concrete sample with external exposure curing.
Nassar, Hani M; Ajaj, Reem; Hasanain, Fatin
The light intensity of a light-curing unit is a crucial factor that affects the clinical longevity of resin composites. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of light-curing units in use at a local governmental dental school for curing conventional and bulk-fill resin materials. A total of 166 light-curing units at three locations were examined, and the brand, type, clinic location, diameter of curing tip, tip cleanliness (using a visual score), and the output (in mW/cm 2 using a digital radiometer) were recorded. Only 23.5% of the units examined had clean tips, with the graduate student clinical area containing the highest percentage of clean tips. Further, tips with poor cleanliness score values were associated with significantly lower output intensities. A small percentage (9.4%) of units was capable of producing intensities higher than 1,200 mW/cm 2 and lower than 600 mW/cm 2 (7.6%). The majority of the low intensity units were located in the undergraduate student area, which also contained the highest number of units with intensities between 900 and 1,200 mW/cm 2 . The output of all the units in service was satisfactory for curing conventional resin composites, and most units were capable of curing bulk-fill resin materials.
Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.
Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.
Full Text Available Recent experimental results showed that the Tg of cured resin scarcely decreased and the impact strength of resins increased by over 50% when a tetrafunctional epoxy named N,N,N',N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (TGDDE was introduced to an appropriate flexible chain from a dimer fatty acid (DFA. In order to understand the reason for this phenomenon, the modification and the chemical structure of the prepolymer together with the curing reaction and the viscoelasticity of the cured resins were studied in detail in the present work. The results indicated that the modification would help the prepolymer improve its molecular mobility. As a result, the resins could be further cured, resulting in the cross-linking density increasing. This is because the curing efficiency was increased, but the tetrafunctional epoxy was not cured completely due to its large steric hindrance. Moreover, the flexibility of some parts of the networks was improved, which was beneficial for the toughness of the cured resins. Therefore, the toughness of the tetrafunctional resin was improved with little influence on the thermal properties when the epoxies were modified with an appropriate content of DFA.
Chaivaranont, W.; Evans, J. P.; Liu, Y.
During extreme summer conditions in Australia, bushfire can become an uncontrollable natural hazard. Various factors, such as geographical and meteorological parameters greatly influence the magnitude of bushfire. In a grassland fire, there is an important factor that affects the severity of fire called the degree of curing. Degree of curing is a percentage measurement of the proportion of dead material in grassland where a 100% curing indicates a totally dead grass field. It is usually assumed constant due to the cost and difficulty in obtaining accurate field observations.To examine the importance of curing, the Phoenix RapidFire fire spread model was used to observe the magnitude and direction of grassland fire spread due to variations in the degree of curing. Idealised experiments and experiments based on 3 past fire events in Australia were conducted, where the 100 by 200 km study area is considered to be all grassland. In the idealised experiments, homogeneous curing data in various patterns were used along with extreme climate data and prescribed topography. In the past fire event experiments, satellite-derived estimated curing data, observed climate data from the nearest weather stations, and real elevation maps were used. A remotely sensed burned area map (MODIS MCD64A1 product) is also used to compare the simulated burned area of past fire events with the satellite observation.The results from both experiments showed that: 1) the rate of spread of grassland fire is significantly impeded when curing is below 75%, 2) topography has insignificant effect on fire spread direction and speed, 3) wind and curing both influence the direction and speed of spread, and 4) the model can only recreate the burned area in one out of three of the past fire events due to various causes including the fact that all past events used here were not exclusively grassland fire.
Carlos Andrés Rodríguez
Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evolución y mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia de Staphylococcus aureus a vancomicina. Fuente de los datos. Se consultó la base de datos MEDLINE y se seleccionaron artículos tipo reportes de caso, estudios bioquímicos, de microscopía electrónica y biología molecular pertinentes. Síntesis. Después de casi 40 años de eficacia ininterrumpida de la vancomicina, en 1997 se reportaron los primeros casos de fracaso terapéutico debido a cepas de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia intermedia, denominadas VISA (concentración inhibitoria mínima, CIM, 8 a 16 ?g/ml, así como a cepas con resistencia heterogénea hVISA (CIM global = 4 ?g/ml, pero con subpoblaciones VISA, en las cuales la resistencia está mediada por engrosamiento de la pared celular y disminución de su entrecruzamiento, lo que afecta la llegada del antibiótico al blanco principal, los monómeros del peptidoglicano en la membrana plasmática. En 2002 se aisló la primera de las 3 cepas reportadas hasta la fecha con resistencia total al antibiótico, denominadas VRSA (CIM>32 ?g/ml, en las que se encontró el transposón Tn1546 proveniente de Enterococcus spp, responsable del reemplazo de la terminación D-Ala-D-Ala por D-Ala-Dlactato en los precursores de la pared celular con pérdida de la afinidad por el glicopéptido. Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es una realidad en S. aureus, mediada en el caso de VISA por alteraciones en la pared celular que atrapan el antibiótico antes de llegar al sitio de acción, y en el caso de VRSA, por transferencia desde Enterococcus spp. de genes que llevan a la modificación del blanco molecular.
Bandéca, M. C.; El-Mowafy, O.; Saade, E. G.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.
The indirect adhesive procedures constitute recently a substantial portion of contemporary esthetic restorative treatments. The resin cements have been used to bond tooth substrate and restorative materials. Due to recently introduction of the self-bonding resin luting cement based on a new monomer, filler and initiation technology has become important to study the degree of conversion of these new materials. In the present work the polymerization reaction and the filler content of dual-cured dental resin cements were studied by means of infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Twenty specimens were made in a metallic mold (8 mm diameter × 1 mm thick) from each of 2 cements, Panavia® F2.0 (Kuraray) and RelyX™ Unicem Applicap (3M/ESPE). Each specimen was cured with blue LED with power density of 500 mW/cm2 for 30 s. Immediately after curing, 24 and 48 h, and 7 days DC was determined. For each time interval 5 specimens were pulverized, pressed with KBr and analyzed with FT-IR. The TG measurements were performed in Netzsch TG 209 under oxygen atmosphere and heating rate of 10°C/min from 25 to 700°C. A two-way ANOVA showed DC (%) mean values statistically significance differences between two cements ( p cements ( p > 0.05). The Relx-Y™ Unicem mean values were significantly higher than Panavia® F 2.0. The degree of conversion means values increasing with the storage time and the filler content showed similar for both resin cements.
Consisting of a matrix phase of epoxy resin and reinforcement phase of high performance synthetic fiber, advanced composites have a number of engineering merits, such as high specific strength and specific modulus, light weight, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance and dimensional stability, etc. Advanced composites have been applied in aerospace/aircraft industry, military industry, high pressure vessels, automobile industry and sports apparatus. Nowadays, advanced composites are produced by electron beam curing, an environment-friendly technology with greater safety and energy efficiency than conventional curing techniques. This paper gives a review on progresses of electron beam cured advanced composites. (authors)
Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede
Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....
dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva
Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. PMID:26912749
Dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; Dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia
Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia
Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification.
Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller
of air. Volatiles produced by the cultures were collected during growth, identified and quantified. The data were analysed by partial least squares regression. The results showed that oxygen in general had more influence on the aroma producing capacity of Staphylococcus xylosus than of Staphylococcus...
Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda
Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.
Full Text Available Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42. Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.
Ilie, Nicoleta; Simon, Alexander
Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing them with two conventional, also dual-cured, resin cements. Four different curing procedures were applied: auto-polymerisation (dark curing) and light curing (LED unit, Freelight 2, 20 s) by applying the unit directly on the samples' surface, at a distance of 5 and 10 mm. Twenty minutes after curing, the samples were stored for 1 week at 37°C in a water-saturated atmosphere. The micro-mechanical properties-Vickers hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and elastic/plastic deformation-were measured. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and partial eta-squared statistics (p micro-mechanical properties was measured, whereas the influence of the curing procedure and type of cement-conventional or self-adhesive-was generally low. The influence of light on the polymerisation process was material dependent, with four different behaviour patterns to be distinguished. As a material category, significantly higher micro-mechanical properties were measured for the conventional compared to the self-adhesive resin cements, although this difference was low. Within the self-adhesive resin cements group, the variation in micro-mechanical properties was high. The selection of suitable resin cements should be done by considering, besides its adhesive properties, its micro-mechanical properties and curing behaviour also.
Vandenbulcke, Jeroen D E; Marks, Luc A M; Martens, Luc C; Verbeeck, Ronald M H
To compare the depth of cure (DoC) of a colored polyacid-modified composite resin (PAM-C) with a traditional PAM-C and a fine hybrid composite resin using different light-curing units and different radiant energies. The DoC of the PAM-C Twinky Star (Voco, all shades), the PAM-C Glasiosite (Voco), and the composite resin Z100 (3M ESPE) shades A2 and A4 was determined using a penetrometer test method. The materials were cured in bulk using a halogen-based unit (Elipar Trilight, E = 18 J/cm2 and E = 32 J/cm2; 3M ESPE) and an LED curing unit (Elipar Freelight 2, E = 20 J/cm2; 3M ESPE) in split stainless steel molds. Immediately after curing, the height (mm) of the cured material was measured and taken as the DoC. Ranking of means was performed by Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test, and statistically significant differences among mean values were detected with ANOVA. Mean DoC for all materials and shades varied as follows: 4.705 to 8.870 mm (E = 32 J/cm2); 3.672 to 8.050 mm (E = 20 J/cm2); and 4.090 to 7.357 mm (E = 18 J/cm2). Two-way ANOVA revealed that the DoC depended significantly (P curing device. Moreover, there was a significant interaction (P curing device with the highest energy density exhibited the highest curing depths.
Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Raszewski, Zbigniew; Jałbrzykowski, Marek
The purpose of this study was to test the influence of a barbituric acid derivative acting as a catalyst and small amounts of pyrolytic silica in acrylic resins on color stability, solubility and sorption of a composite. A series of two-component powder/liquid resin systems were prepared. Monomer-like mixtures (bis-GMA, TEGDMA, tertiary amine 60/40) and a quartz powder with additions of various silica and barbituric acid derivatives were used. Temperature of the material during polymerization was measured with the use of a thermometer. In addition, the material's flexural and compressive strength, sorption and solubility were tested pursuant to ISO4049:2009. The powder-based acrylic composition in a liquid mixed immediately before use, after an addition of a 0.5% barbituric acid derivative, has a lower temperature during the polymerization process (a reduction from 43°C to 37°C), whereas color stability over time is improved, with ΔE=1.81 for samples of powder mixtures containing between 0.45% of BPO and 0.15% of barbituric acid derivatives. For silanized quartz powder with 0.55% BPO and 0.1% BA+0.5% Aerosil R711, the obtained sorption value was 4.57±0.22μg/mm 3 , whereas solubility was 1.60±0.32μg/mm 3 . New catalytic system with barbituric acid derivative, improves color stability for samples stored at room condition and under light of high intensity. A two-phase composite (bis GMA TEGDMA/Quartz), with a new catalytic system with barbituric acid derivatives, has a lower self-cured temperature. Adding a small quantity of hydrophobic silica (0.5%) has a significant influence, with reduced sorption and solubility of the material. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Nutrition, 200 C Street, SW, Washington, DC 20204, or the Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and... accordance with 21 CFR 184.1979c To bind meat pieces Restructured meat food products, whole muscle meat cuts... preserve color during storage Cured pork and beef cuts, cured poultry, cured comminuted poultry and meat...
Saini, Rajesh; Kotian, Ravindra; Madhyastha, Prashanthi; Srikant, N
The objective of this study was to compare the sorption and solubility of heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins in different solutions. One heat-cure acrylic resin (Trevalon) and one self-cure acrylic resin (Rapid Repair) were studied. Five groups of square-shaped specimens (20 mm × 20 mm × 2 mm) were prepared for each acrylic resin and then immersed in five solutions: distilled water, artificial saliva, denture cleansing solution, distilled water, and denture cleaning solution for 12 h alternatively, artificial saliva and denture cleaning solution for 12 h alternatively at 37 ± 2°C, and tested sorption and solubility by weight gain/loss method, respectively, after 1, 6, and 11 weeks. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey's test. Water sorption mean values varied from 17.5 ± 0.88 to 27.25 ± 1.04 μg/mm 3 for heat cure and from 12.75 ± 0.55 to 19.75 ± 1.04 μg/mm 3 for self-cure in the different solutions after different interval periods of 1, 6, and 11 weeks. These values were statistically significant (Psolubility mean values varied from 0.25 ± 0.55 to 1.5 ± 0.55 μg/mm 3 for heat cure and from 1.5 ± 0.55 to 6.5 ± 0.55 μg/mm 3 for self-cure in the different solutions after different interval periods of 1, 6, and 11 weeks. These values were statistically not significant (P > 0.05). There was no linear correlation between sorption and solubility values. Overall, analysis of results showed the maximum sorption value in denture cleansing solution followed by alternative soaking in distilled water and artificial saliva. Least sorption was observed with artificial saliva followed by distilled water. Both heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins showed varying water sorption and solubility. The results of both water sorption and solubility showed compliance with the International Standards Organization specification. No correlation was found between water sorption and solubility. Artificial saliva solution is a
Full Text Available The curing reaction for the mixtures of alkyd resins based on ricinoleic acid, phthalic anhydride and three polyols (glycerin, trimethylolpropane or ethoxylated pentaerythritol with two different commercial melamine resins was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The curing kinetics analysis was performed using the isoconversional methods (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Friedman. Isoconversional methods were carried out with three heating rates (5, 10 and 20°C/min in a scanning temperature range from 40 to 250°C. It was found that the curing activation energy of resin mixtures is influenced by alkyd and melamine resin type due to the catalytic effect of hydroxyl group on the reactions. The dependence of apparent curing degree on time, which was obtained by mathematical transformations of dynamic DSC data using Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method, describes well the isothermal DSC experiments.
Russick, Edward M.; Rand, Peter B.
An epoxy foam comprising a plurality of resins, a plurality of curing agents, at least one blowing agent, at least one surfactant and optionally at least one filler and the process for making. Preferred is an epoxy foam comprising two resins of different reactivities, two curing agents, a blowing agent, a surfactant, and a filler. According to the present invention, an epoxy foam is prepared with tailorable reactivity, exotherm, and pore size by a process of admixing a plurality of resins with a plurality of curing agents, a surfactant and blowing agent, whereby a foamable mixture is formed and heating said foamable mixture at a temperature greater than the boiling temperature of the blowing agent whereby said mixture is foamed and cured.
Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) has issued an amended safety assessment of 7 Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. A common name for this plant is St John wort. These ingredients function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and antimicrobial agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the H perforatum-derived ingredients. Because formulators may use more than 1 botanical ingredient in a formulation, caution was urged to avoid levels of toxicological concern for constituent chemicals and impurities. The Panel concluded that H perforatum-derived ingredients were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2014.
Buggy, Stephen J.; Chehura, Edmon; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.
The use of fibre grating refractometers as a means of monitoring the cure of a UVcured epoxy resin is presented. The wavelength shift of the attenuation bands of a long period grating and the spectral response of a tilted fibre Bragg grating sensor were measured simultaneously during the cure of the resin and compared with measurements made using a fibre optic Fresnel based refractometer. The results showed a good correlation (6 x 10 -3 rius) and illustrate the potential of ...
Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.
Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor...
Several advantages are offered by electron beam curing. A formidably hard and stain resistant paint film which is difficult to obtain by heat curing paint is developed. As a result, a unique new prepainted steel is produced. Four technologies are involved: development high-quality paint, selection of optimum electron beam processor, technology to control electron beam processing atmosphere and secondary X-ray shield technology. These technologies are described in detail. (A.J.)
McCusker, Neil; Bailey, Clare; Robinson, Stephen; Patel, Naresh; Sandy, Jonathan R; Ireland, Anthony J
Light curing has become increasingly popular for orthodontic bonding, partly as a result of improvements in light-curing unit technology and higher light intensities. The aim of this study was to determine orthodontists' knowledge of dental light-curing units, their safety aspects, and the possible effects on color perception. Questionnaires were administered to 120 specialists or trainees to assess their knowledge of light curing and safety issues. In addition, 15 orthodontists and 15 nonorthodontists were asked to complete the Farnsworth Munsell 100 hue test to assess color perception. One hundred four questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 86.6%. Light-emitting diode lights were the most popular (73.4%), followed by quartz-halogen (9.2%) and plasma lights (5.5%); 11.9% were unsure of the type of light used, 84% did not know the intensity, and 67% did not know the wavelength of the lights. Although most used safety equipment-eg, paddles-7% used no safety measures. Seventy-six percent were either unsure or took no precautions during light curing for staff or patients who had previous cataract surgery, and up to 99% were either unsure or took no precautions during light curing for staff or patients taking photosensitizing medications. With the Farnsworth Munsell test, 28 participants had average color discrimination, with 2 demonstrating superior discrimination. There were no differences between the orthodontists and the controls, or between men and women. Orthodontists' knowledge of dental light-curing units and hazards is poor. Although potential risks are associated with the long-term use of these light-curing units, no effect on color discrimination was detected. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jovičić Mirjana C.
Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.
Furnham, A.; Ritchie, W.; Lay, A.
BACKGROUND: This study used attitude statement and vignette methodology to examine a mixed British sample’s belies about the causes and consequences of depression. AIMS: To test whether the group would recognise both vignettes with having depression and that the favoured cure would be Psychotherapy/Talking Cure. METHOD: In all, 320 adults completed a two-part questionnaire. In the first part, they were given two vignettes describing a 30-year-old female and a 45-year-old male...
Nishitsuji, D. A.
The competition among industries in the current globalization system has required a systematic cost reduction without affecting the quality of the final product. This fact has encouraged the use of new technologies application on productive process, especially on polymeric composites, to assure the competitiveness. The possibility of producing a new type of carbon fiber reinforced composite by radiation process with excellent thermal and mechanical properties, has been researched since 90's and it can be a potential application in aerospace, marine and automobile industries. The polymeric composites cured by thermal process (furnace or autoclave) are an example of long curing cycles, which requires time and energy consumption. Electron beam curing technology allows the process at room temperature and reduces curing time; consequently, it becomes the main difference of this technology over thermal curing process. The aim of this work was to study electron beam curable epoxy formulation for filament winding process, as well as to investigate the electron beam curing process parameters using a DC 1500/25 - Job 188 Dynamitron model linear accelerator as radiation source, with 0.5 to 1.5 MeV, 0.1 to 25 mA and 60 to 120 cm scanning electron beam. The resin system consists of commercial epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A - DGEBA) and cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoantimonate) and the polymerization carried out at room temperature with controlled dose rate. Thermal post cure took part of the process to improve the degree of cure and glass transition temperature (Tg) similar to thermal curable resin properties
Trudeau, Michaela P; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Goyal, Sagar M
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days) for PEDV (P TGEV (42.00 days). There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01) and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients.
Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming
Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Lionetto, Francesca; Maffezzoli, Alfonso
The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA) for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing. PMID:28788306
Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.
Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S
In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.
Huyghe, Jon; Magdalena, Sips; Vandekerckhove, Linos
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to date remains one of the most notorious viruses mankind has ever faced. Despite enormous investments in HIV research for more than 30 years an effective cure for HIV has been elusive. Areas covered: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses active viral replication, but is not able to eliminate the virus completely due to stable integration of HIV inside the host genome of infected cells and the establishment of a latent reservoir, that is insensitive to cART. Nevertheless, this latent HIV reservoir is fully capable to refuel viral replication when treatment is stopped, creating a major obstacle towards a cure for HIV. Several gene therapy approaches ranging from the generation of HIV resistant CD4 + T cells to the eradication of HIV infected cells by immune cell engineering are currently under pre-clinical and clinical investigation and may present a promising road to a cure. In this review, we focus on the status and the prospects of gene therapy strategies to cure/eradicate HIV. Expert commentary: Recent advances in gene therapy for oncology and infectious diseases indicate that gene therapy may be a feasible and very potent cure strategy, and therefore a potential game changer in the search for an effective HIV cure.
Hu, Kuan; Zhang, Lin; Chang, Xinlong; Wang, Chao
Aiming at shortcomings of depending on experiences and inferior computation accuracy brought by using linear interpolation to calculate fixed pressure burning temperature, a new method using iteration was put forward. Moreover, the optimization model to calculate equilibrium ingredients was formulated based on the new method, and sequential quadric programming method rather than Lagrange multiplier was used to compute the model. At last, a numerical example was given to validate the method in this paper. Results make show that more perfect outcomes can be achieved through the method in this paper than classical method.
Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim
Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté....... Furthermore, the research looks at the possible determinants of acceptance of various enrichments of these foods, mainly focusing on factors such as respondents' present and intended eating behaviour, lifestyle-related habits (i.e. smoking, exercising, drinking), and expected outcomes of consuming the food...
Bueno, J.H.F.; Oliveira, A.G. de; Toledo Salgado, P.E. de
Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)
Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard
Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...... and tabletability, creating significant processability difficulties on a production scale. However, such a habit can be adapted to the needs of downstream processing. To this end, we modified the needle-like crystal habit of the model API 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). This study reports processability assessment...
McGuinness, Will A.; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R.
The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus during the modern antibiotic era has been delineated by distinct strain emergence events, many of which include acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The relative high burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthcare and community settings is a major concern worldwide. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis, remains a drug of choice for treatment of severe MRSA infections. S. aureus strains exhibiting increased resistance to vancomycin, known as vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) (MIC = 4-8 µg/mL), were discovered in the 1990s. The molecular basis of resistance in VISA is polygenic and involves stepwise mutations in genes encoding molecules predominantly involved in cell envelope biosynthesis. S. aureus isolates with complete resistance to vancomycin (MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) are termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)—they were first reported in the U.S. in 2002. Resistance in VRSA is conferred by the vanA gene and operon, which is present on a plasmid. Although treatment of VRSA infections is challenging, the total number of human VRSA infections to date is limited (14 in the U.S.). By comparison, the burden of VISA is relatively high and the molecular mechanisms of resistance are less well-defined. VISA are associated with persistent infections, vancomycin treatment failure, and poor clinical outcomes. Here, we review in brief progress made toward understanding the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms underlying vancomycin resistance. PMID:28656013
Leroy, Sabine; Vermassen, Aurore; Ras, Geoffrey; Talon, Régine
Staphylococcus xylosus belongs to the vast group of coagulase-negative staphylococci. It is frequently isolated from meat products, either fermented or salted and dried, and is commonly used as starter cultures in sausage manufacturing. Analysis of the S. xylosus genome together with expression in situ in a meat model revealed that this bacterium is well adapted to meat substrates, being able to use diverse substrates as sources of carbon and energy and different sources of nitrogen. It is well-equipped with genes involved in osmotic, oxidative/nitrosative, and acidic stress responses. It is responsible for the development of the typical colour of cured meat products via its nitrate reductase activity. It contributes to sensorial properties, mainly by the the catabolism of pyruvate and amino acids resulting in odorous compounds and by the limiting of the oxidation of fatty acids, thereby avoiding rancidity.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus xylosus belongs to the vast group of coagulase-negative staphylococci. It is frequently isolated from meat products, either fermented or salted and dried, and is commonly used as starter cultures in sausage manufacturing. Analysis of the S. xylosus genome together with expression in situ in a meat model revealed that this bacterium is well adapted to meat substrates, being able to use diverse substrates as sources of carbon and energy and different sources of nitrogen. It is well-equipped with genes involved in osmotic, oxidative/nitrosative, and acidic stress responses. It is responsible for the development of the typical colour of cured meat products via its nitrate reductase activity. It contributes to sensorial properties, mainly by the the catabolism of pyruvate and amino acids resulting in odorous compounds and by the limiting of the oxidation of fatty acids, thereby avoiding rancidity.
He, Ping; Li, Feng-Jie; Li, Lian-da; Li, Yi-Kui
Safety issues of traditional Chinese medicine injections has been heated debate. There are two diametrically opposed views: it should be used reasonable and developed healthily or be forbidden to use. Some people have many misunderstandings and prejudices about the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Compared with western medicine,traditional Chinese medicine has its own particularity. Traditional Chinese medicine has complex components. Its research and clinical application is different from western medicine. Adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections are related to many factors,such as a large number of irrational use,blind use of traditional Chinese medicine injections and western medicine injections,counterfeit and substandard drugs,incorrect methods of intravenous infusion,toxicity of supplementary materials,drug ingredients. Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients. The purposeful, targeted, organized and planned systematic research of traditional Chinese medicine injections should be strengthened,especially the safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Strengthen supervision and control of rational drug use.Strengthen the examination and approval,supervision and management of all aspects to ensure the safety of patients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV-curable oligomers are increasingly being used in various industries because they can be applied rapidly and have excellent physical properties. Ultraviolet polymerization is used for manufacturing such oligomers. Reactive diluents, which are employed during the secondary curing of UV-curable oligomers, can help elucidate the curing behaviors of these oligomers. In this study, poly (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA was used as the reactive diluent for UV-curable oligomers. Photodifferential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC and shrinkage measurements revealed that the curing behavior of the polymers was dependent on the size and number of molecules of PEGDMA. The effect of the small-size PEGDMA on curing behavior was greater than that of the larger molecules. Further, in most cases, the use of a larger amount of PEGDMA resulted in lower reactivity.
Sánchez Mainar, María; Leroy, Frédéric
The cured colour of European raw fermented meats is usually achieved by nitrate-into-nitrite reduction by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), subsequently generating nitric oxide to form the relatively stable nitrosomyoglobin pigment. The present study aimed at comparing this classical curing procedure, based on nitrate reductase activity, with a potential alternative colour formation mechanism, based on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, under different acidification profiles. To this end, meat models with and without added nitrate were fermented with cultures of an acidifying strain (Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494) and either a nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus carnosus strain or a rare NOS-positive CNS strain (Staphylococcus haemolyticus G110), or by relying on the background microbiota. Satisfactory colour was obtained in the models prepared with added nitrate and S. carnosus. In the presence of nitrate but absence of added CNS, however, cured colour was only obtained when L. sakei CTC 494 was also omitted. This was ascribed to the pH dependency of the emerging CNS background microbiota, selecting for nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus equorum strains at mild acidification conditions but for Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains with poor colour formation capability when the pH decrease was more rapid. This reliance of colour formation on the composition of the background microbiota was further explored by a side experiment, demonstrating the heterogeneity in nitrate reduction of a set of 88 CNS strains from different species. Finally, in all batches prepared with S. haemolyticus G110, colour generation failed as the strain was systematically outcompeted by the background microbiota, even when imposing milder acidification profiles. Thus, when aiming at colour formation through CNS metabolism, technological processing can severely interfere with the composition and functionality of the meat-associated CNS communities, for both nitrate reductase and NOS activities
D'Arcangelo, Camillo; De Angelis, Francesco; Vadini, Mirco; Carluccio, Fabio; Vitalone, Laura Merla; D'Amario, Maurizio
To assess the microhardness of three resin composites employed in the adhesive luting of indirect composite restorations and examine the influence of the overlay material and thickness as well as the curing time on polymerization rate. Three commercially available resin composites were selected: Enamel Plus HRI (Micerium) (ENA), Saremco ELS (Saremco Dental) (SAR), Esthet-X HD (Dentsply/DeTrey) (EST-X). Post-polymerized cylinders of 6 different thicknesses were produced and used as overlays: 2 mm, 3 mm, 3.5 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. Two-mm-thick disks were produced and employed as underlays. A standardized amount of composite paste was placed between the underlay and the overlay surfaces which were maintained at a fixed distance of 0.5 mm. Light curing of the luting composite layer was performed through the overlays for 40, 80, or 120 s. For each specimen, the composite to be cured, the cured overlay, and the underlay were made out of the same batch of resin composite. All specimens were assigned to three experimental groups on the basis of the resin composite used, and to subgroups on the basis of the overlay thickness and the curing time, resulting in 54 experimental subgroups (n = 5). Forty-five additional specimens, 15 for each material under investigation, were produced and subjected to 40, 80, or 120 s of light curing using a microscope glass as an overlay; they were assigned to 9 control subgroups (n = 5). Three Vicker's hardness (VH) indentations were performed on each specimen. Means and standard deviations were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using 3-way ANOVA. Within the same material, VH values lower than 55% of control were not considered acceptable. The used material, the overlay thickness, and the curing time significantly influenced VH values. In the ENA group, acceptable hardness values were achieved with 3.5-mm or thinner overlays after 120 or 80 s curing time (VH 41.75 and 39.32, respectively), and with 2-mm overlays after 40 s (VH 54
Hoernig, K J; Donovan, D M; Pithua, P; Williams, F; Middleton, J R
This study evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant lysostaphin fused to a protein transduction domain (rLYS-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diagonal mammary quarters approximately 45d before dry off. Staphylococcus aureus-infected mammary quarters of cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups at dry off: (1) 279mg of rLYS-PTD in 50mL of vehicle (n=11 cows; 22 quarters) or (2) 50mL of vehicle solution (n=11 cows; 22 quarters) by intramammary infusion. All cows were followed for 30d postpartum to determine cure rates using bacteriologic culture, somatic cell counts, and clinical mastitis scores. No cures were recorded in either the treatment or control groups. Milk somatic cell count, bacterial colony counts, and mastitis scores did not significantly differ between treatment groups. In conclusion, rLYS-PTD was not an effective dry-cow therapeutic for chronic, subclinical Staph. aureus mastitis at the tested dose and formulation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jun 1, 2014 ... STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ASSOCIATED NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN. SPECIALIST HOSPITAL GOMBE ... nosocomial E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Results showed that loss of ... In some instances, instead of preventing transmission, hospital use disinfectants have ...
Full Text Available Dewasa ini penggunaan material komposit sudah sangat berkembang. Komposisi dari komposit juga sudah sangat beragam, namun penelitian tentang komposit Polyester – Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM dengan variasi temperatur curing dan post-curing untuk karakteristik tekan masih sangat terbatas. Keunggulan yang dimiliki HGM antara lain memberikan bobot yang ringan, konduktivitas termal rendah, dan ketahanan terhadap tegangan kompresi yang tinggi. Komposit Polyester-HGM dapat diaplikasikan antara lain pada bemper atau body kendaraan sehingga dapat mereduksi berat total kendaraan dan meningkatkan efisiensi kendaraan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mencampurkan polyester resin dan HGM. Spesimen uji tekan dibuat dengan dimensi sesuai ASTM D-695 dengan variasi fraksi volume HGM 10% hingga 17%. Spesimen menerima tiga perlakuan yang berbeda yaitu: (1 Spesimen I di-curing pada temperatur kamar (± 27°C ditahan selama 24 jam; (2 Spesimen II di-curing pada temperatur kamar (±27°C ditahan selama 24 jam lalu post-curing pada temperatur 90°C selama 5 jam; dan (3 Spesimen III di-curing pada temperatur 90°C ditahan selama 24 jam. Untuk mempelajari perbedaan sifat mekanik yang terjadi, dilakukan pengujian tekan. Pada penelitian ini dapat diketahui bahwa kekuatan tekan dan ketangguhan maksimum terjadi pada komposit dengan fraksi volume HGM 17%. Semakin tinggi temperatur curing akan meningkatkan nilai kekuatan tekan dan ketangguhan dari komposit polyester-HGM. Hal ini terjadi karena komposit yang di-curing pada temperatur tinggi memiliki ikatan crosslink lebih banyak sehingga ikatan polyester dan HGM lebih kuat dan nilai kekuatan tekan pada komposit akan meningkat.
Regev, A; Weinberger, M; Fishman, M; Samra, Z; Pitlik, S D
Two patients with rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of a lower extremity due to Staphylococcus aureus as a single pathogen are described. In both patients the portal of entry was attributed to needle puncture (intra-articular injection and intravenous catheter, respectively), followed by bacteremia. Necrotizing fasciitis occurred in a site remote from the needle puncture, suggesting metastatic infection. One patient developed toxic shock syndrome and the other a sunburn-like rash and erythematous mucosae with strawberry tongue. One patient died, and the other required above-knee amputation due to secondary infectious complications. Staphylococcus aureus may mimic the presentation of invasive group A streptococcal infections. A history of needle puncture should alert the physician to the possibility of Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O
BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...
Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. "Light-emitting diode" light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm(2) and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm(2). The "quartz-tungsten-halogen" LCU (400 mW/cm(2)) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity.
Rastelli, A. N. S.; Jacomassi, D. P.; Bagnato, V. S.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increase during the polymerization process through the use of three different light-curing units with different irradiation times. One argon laser (Innova, Coherent), one halogen (Optilight 501, Demetron), and one blue LED (LEC 1000, MM Optics) LCU with 500 mW/cm2 during 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s of irradiation times were used in this study. The composite resin used was a microhybrid Filtek Z-250 (3M/ESPE) at color A2. The samples were made in a metallic mold 2 mm in thickness and 4 mm in diameter and previously light-cured during 40 s. A thermocouple (Model 120 202 EAJ, Fenwal Electronic, Milford, MA, USA) was introduced in the composite resin to measure the temperature increase during the curing process. The highest temperature increase was recorded with a Curing Light 2500 halogen LCU (5 and 31°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively), while the lowest temperature increase was recorded for the Innova LCU based on an argon laser (2 and 11°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively). The temperature recorded for LCU based on a blue LED was 3 and 22°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively. There was a quantifiable amount of heat generated during the visible light curing of a composite resin. The amount of heat generated was influenced by the characteristics of the light-curing units used and the irradiation times.
Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Sadeghian, Soheila; Freckelton, Virginia; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Ghanatir, Elham; Zarnaghash, Najmeh
The aim of this study is to compare the microleakage of Class II dental composite resin restorations which have been cured by three different LED (light emitting diode) light curing modes compared to control samples cured by QTH (quartz tungsten halogen) light curing units (LCUs), to determine the most effective light curing unit and mode of curing. In this experimental study, class II cavities were prepared on 100 sound human premolars which have been extracted for orthodontic treatment. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups; three experimental and one control group of 25 teeth each. Experimental groups were cured by either conventional, pulse-delay, or ramped curing modes of LED. The control group was cured for 20 seconds by QTH. The restorations were thermocycled (1000 times, between 5 and 55°C, for 5 seconds dwell time), dyed, sectioned mesio-distally and viewed under stereo-microscope (40×) magnification. Teeth were then scored on a 0 to 4 scale based on the amount of microleakage. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test.No significant difference was demonstrated between the different LCUs (light curing units), or modes of curing, at the enamel side (p > 0.05). At the dentin side, all modes of LED curing could significantly reduce microleakage (p curing improves marginal integrity and seal. High intense curing endangers those aims. Comparison between the three LED mode cured composite resin restorations and QTH curing showed LED curing in all modes is more effective than QTH for reducing microleakage. Both LED and QTH almost completely eliminate the microleakage on the enamel side, however none of them absolutely eliminated microleakage on the dentin side.
Davies, Olubanke; Fox, Julie
Abstract A cure for HIV is not near, yet publicity surrounding the possibility of cure is high. We present the case of an individual with acute HIV who delayed antiretroviral therapy due to misinformed expectations of availability of cure treatments. Researchers and the media need to be mindful of prematurely raising hope of a cure.
Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.
Full Text Available Green coffee has a high content of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid has been known to be useful for lowering blood sugar levels and has been widely used to lose weight. But the benefit of green coffee as an antibacterial has not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of green coffee on gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Salmonella enteritidis. The method used to test antibacterial activity of green coffee beans extract against bacteria S.aureus and S.enteritidis by disc diffusion method. Green coffee beans extract was divided into 4 concentration of 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, negative control DMSO and positive control is gentamicin disk 10µg/disk and Identification of active ingredients found in green coffee beans extract using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS method. The data obtained were analyzed using Two Way ANOVA test with confidence level p <0,05. Based on the data obtained and the results obtained the highest inhibitory zone in the treatment concentration of 20% is 26.20 mm, and the average of the lowest inhibition zone in the DMSO treatment of 6.00 mm. The average inhibition zone of green coffee extract activity against Staphylococcus aureus was 22.73 mm much higher than the activity of green coffee extract to Salmonella enteritidis of 16.67 mm.
Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E
This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.
Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.
Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A
Skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients is necessary for consumers' protection and occupational hazard identification. There are currently very few available alternative methods that can assist in the evaluation of complex mixtures. Chemical methods can provide essential information in a timely manner and thus help to reduce the need for in vivo testing, and they can complement and facilitate targeted in vitro assays. In the present work, the applicability of the high-throughput screening with dansyl cysteamine (DCYA) method for the systematic evaluation of skin sensitization of complex botanicals was explored. Botanical ingredients of four unrelated plant species were obtained and tested with the high-throughput fluorescence method at three concentrations. To illustrate the minimal matrix effects of the tested extracts on the developed method, the least DCYA-reactive extract (Rosa canina) was spiked with known sensitizers at different concentrations. The data obtained from the four plant extracts and the spiking experiments with known sensitizers, suggest that the high-throughput screening-DCYA method can be successfully applied for estimating the skin sensitization potential of complex botanical matrices. This is the first report of an attempt to develop a versatile in chemico method for the rapid detection of reactive skin sensitizers in complex botanical extracts, which could complement the battery of existing validated, non-animal methods. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dave, R I; Shah, N P
The present investigation studied the effects of cysteine, whey powder, whey protein concentrate, acid casein hydrolysates, or tryptone on the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and bifidobacteria. Changes in pH, titratable acidity, redox potential, and viability of bacteria were monitored during 24 h of fermentation and refrigerated storage (4 degrees C) of yogurt for 35 d. The incubation time that was needed to reach pH 4.5 was considerably affected by the added ingredients. Also, the drop in pH or the increase in acidity and redox potential was dependent on the added ingredients. The addition of cysteine, whey protein concentrate, acid casein hydrolysates, or tryptone improved the viability of bifidobacteria to a variable extent, but whey powder failed to improve their viability. The morphology of S. thermophilus, as shown by electron microscopy, was affected by cysteine at 500 mg/L, possibly as a result of reduced redox potential. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and amino acid analyses suggested that the nitrogen source in the form of peptides and amino acids improved the viability of bifidobacteria in yogurt made with a commercial ABT (Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria, and Streptococcus thermophilus) starter culture, which showed a dramatic decline in the counts of this organism in previous studies.
Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade
Full Text Available Spray chilling technology (also known as spray cooling and spray congealing technology has been widely studied and used in the pharmaceutical field. In the food industry, this technique is gaining interest and can become useful because functional food formulations can be developed. Spray chilling is a fat-based system, which involves the addition of the component of interest to a molten lipid carrier, and the resulting mixture is fed through an atomiser nozzle. When the nebulised material is put into contact with the environment, which is cooled below the melting point of the matrix material, the vehicle solidifies (due to heat exchange between the molten material and cold air, and solid lipid microparticles are formed at the same time. This technology is fat based, and lipid carriers, such as wax and oil (e.g. palm oil, beeswax, cocoa butter, and kernel oil can be used. This encapsulation technique can potentially change the functionality, reduce the hygroscopicity, mask taste or odour, change solubility, and provide physical protection in addition to allowing the controlled release of these ingredients. This low-cost technology is relatively simple to apply and scale up, and it does not require the use of organic solvents and the application of high temperatures in the process. Therefore, spray chilling encapsulation may facilitate the development and production of functional and enriched foods as it may solve some technological problems associated with the use of certain ingredients, such as those that have high reactivity and low stability.
Filipa B. Pimentel
Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%, benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%, benzophenone-3 (83%, octocrylène and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%, PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%, octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%, octyl dimethyl PABA (75%, bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%. These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value.
Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.
Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol (HXT is a phenolic compound drawn from the olive tree and its leaves as a by-product obtained from the manufacturing of olive oil. It is considered the most powerful antioxidant compound after gallic acid and one of the most powerful antioxidant compounds between phenolic compounds from olive tree followed by oleuropein, caffeic and tyrosol. Due to its molecular structure, its regular consumption has several beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and as a protector of skin and eyes, etc. For these reasons, the use of HXT extract is a good strategy for use in meat products to replace synthetics additives. However, this extract has a strong odour and flavour, so it is necessary to previously treat this compound in order to not alter the organoleptic quality of the meat product when is added as ingredient. The present review exposes the health benefits provided by HXT consumption and the latest research about its use on meat. In addition, new trends about the application of HXT in the list of ingredients of healthier meat products will be discussed.
Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera
With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.
DE Faria Filho
Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.
Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Stahnke, Louise Heller
Degradation of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine into branched flavour compounds by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus was studied using resting cell cultures added to a defined reaction medium under different environmental conditions relevant to sausage fermentation....
Chopra, Anish; Gulati, Dhiraj; Woldenberg, Nina; Singh, Mamta
Staphylococcus Lugdunensis is a rare but potentially aggressive pathogen in the family of coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS). It can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial skin to fulminant infections like endocarditis. Both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been documented in the English literature. Eight cases of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been described so far. We present the ninth case of pacemaker lead and first case of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research progress of microwave curing on epoxy resin and its composites was summarized on the basis of introducing the principle of microwave curing technology and its advantages. The paper focused on the effect of microwave curing on the curing rate of epoxy resin and its composites as well as the mechanical and thermal properties of cured products. Two suitable composite systems for wave curing of powder-strengthened epoxy and fiber-strengthened epoxy and a few key technological problems for industrial application are introduced. The application prospect of microwave curing on epoxy resin and its composites was also presented.
Morales-Partera, Ángela M; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Jurado-Martos, Francisco; Astorga, Rafael J; Huerta, Belén; Luque, Inmaculada; Tarradas, Carmen; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime
The safety of ready-to-eat products such as cured pork loins must be guaranteed by the food industry. In the present study, the efficacy of the dry curing process of pork loins obtained from free-range pigs in the reduction of three of the most important foodborne pathogens is analysed. A total of 28 pork loin segments, with an average weight of 0.57±0.12kg, were divided into four groups with three being inoculated by immersion with 7logCFU/ml of either Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli or Listeria innocua and the last one inoculated by immersion with sterile medium (control group). The loin segments were treated with a seasoning mixture of curing agents and spices, packed in a synthetic sausage casing and cured for 64days. Microbiological analysis, pH and water activity (a w ) were assessed at four stages. The values of pH and a w decreased with curing time as expected. S. Typhimurium and C. coli dropped significantly (3.28 and 2.14 log units, respectively), but limited reduction of L. innocua (0.84 log unit) was observed along the curing process. In our study, three factors were considered critical: the initial concentration of the bacteria, the progressive reduction of pH and the reduction of a w values. Our results encourage performing periodic analysis at different stages of the manufacturing of dry cured pork loins to ensure the absence of the three evaluated foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Thomas A.; Bartels, Mette D.; Hogh, Silje V.
Staphylococcus argenteus (S. argenteus) is a newly identified Staphylococcus species that has been misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and is clinically relevant. We identified 25 S. argenteus genomes in our collection of whole genome sequenced S. aureus. These genomes were compare...
Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; Bolzoni, L; Cozzolino, P; Pierantoni, M; Brindani, F; Bellotti, P; Renzi, M; Pongolini, S
The inactivation of Salmonella during curing of Italian traditional pork salami was investigated. A total of 150 batches of ground raw meat (GRM) used for salami manufacturing by four producers were tested for Salmonella by real-time PCR followed by ISO 6579 cultural confirmation and MPN enumeration. Salami produced with Salmonella positive GRMs were re-tested at the end of their curing period. Aw, pH and NaCl content were also measured. Detection of Salmonella was performed testing both 25 and 50g of the samples. By Real-Time PCR 37% of the GRMs resulted positive, but cultural detection of Salmonella was obtained in 14% of the samples only. Salmonella enumeration ranged from 31 MPN/g to Salmonella in 100% of all positive samples, vs. 62% of ISO-25g. Salami made of the contaminated GRMs were 29% Salmonella-positive, as most batches of salami produced with Salmonella-positive GRMs resulted negative after regular curing (20-48days). Overall, 13% of salami produced with Salmonella-contaminated GRMs were positive. They belonged to six batches, which turned out negative after prolonged curing ranging between 49 and 86days. Salmonella enumeration in salami ranged from 8.7 MPN/g to Salmonella in cured salami (p value: >0.05). The most common Salmonella serovars in GRMs were Derby (52%), Typhimurium monophasic variant 4, (Barbuti et al., 1993), 12:i:- (19%) and Stanley (10%). Salmonella Derby (56%), London, Branderup, Panama (13%, respectively) and Goldcoast (6%) were most frequent in cured salami. The study showed negative correlation between real-time CT values and cultural confirmation of Salmonella, as well as the importance of sample size for Salmonella detection. Among considered factors with possible effect on the occurrence of Salmonella in salami, statistical analysis revealed a role for aw in salami and for Salmonella load in GRMs, while pH and NaCl content did not significantly affect the probability of finding Salmonella in dry-cured salami in the context of
Magrinyà, Núria; Bou, Ricard; Rius, Núria; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc
This research evaluates the effects of adding a tocopherol mix (0 or 200 mg/kg), two nitrite sources (sodium nitrite or a nitrate-rich vegetable concentrate) and the use of Staphylococcus carnosus together with fermentation types that varied in temperature (12 h at 4 ℃ or 16 ℃) on different quality parameters and acceptability of cooked cured sausages after vacuum packing and storage at 4 ℃ for 120 days. In the presence of S. carnosus, residual nitrate and nitrite levels were reduced. Sausages containing vegetable concentrates and without S. carnosus resulted in higher amounts of residual nitrate and lower curing efficiency. The lowest values in redness and acceptability were observed in those sausages without starter cultures. The addition of tocopherols had no effect on oxidative status and susceptibility to oxidation. However, the highest amount of hydroperoxides was related with nitrite decreased formation. Overall, vegetable concentrates can be used as curing agents if fermentation with a nitrate-reducing starter culture is allowed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Li, J; Zhao, Q-H; Huang, K-C; Li, Z-Q; Zhang, L-Y; Qin, D-Y; Pan, F; Huang, W-X
This study aims to explore the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection by using meta-analysis method. Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, CNKI and Wanfang database were comprehensively searched to obtain the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on linezolid and vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA infections. We extracted features and information of included studies and selected appropriate effect models based on the heterogeneity test results. The funnel plot was used to analyze publication bias. A total of seven RCTs including 5376 cases met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that the clinical cure rate of linezolid group was higher than that of vancomycin group after treatment (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.33-2.59, pMRSA clearance rate, and test of cure (TOC) MRSA clearance rate of linezolid were superior to those of vancomycin. Based on the combined analysis of randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of linezolid should be better than that of vancomycin in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA, but conclusions still need to be further validated by more well-designed RCTs of a large sample.
Zambrano-Arjona, M. A.; Medina-Esquivel, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.
Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.
Goyal, Amit; Hurkadle, Jyothikiran; Magegowda, Shivalinga; Bhatia, Pankaj
Because of their wide field of applications, light-curing units are now indispensable for orthodontists and general dentists; thus, it is important to be familiar with the various types of light-curing units, their history, specifications, advantages, and disadvantages. For this review, a search of the PubMed database (from 1966 to March 2010) was conducted using the search term "curing lights orthodontics". Eligibility of the selected studies was determined by reading the abstracts of articles identified by the search. All the articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected, and the articles collected. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also hand searched for any applicable studies that might have been missed in the database searches. When selecting curing lights for an office, many variables need to be considered. Armed with knowledge about each curing-light category, orthodontists can evaluate their unique practice style and select the appropriate light/lights. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; van Duinen, Raimond N B; Feilzer, Albert J
The primary objective of the study was to assess the influence of externally applied 'command' set applications on the mechanical properties of several commercially available conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Four different restorative GICs cements (Fuji IX FAST, Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Quick, Ketac Molar) were cured using three different methods, e.g. standard curing conditions (SC), ultrasonic excitation (UC) and by an external heat source (HC). The compressive strength of these samples was measured and the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. A standard thermocouple (K-type) measured the temperature in GIC during curing. In general all experiments showed an increase in strength going from SC, UC to HC. Especially, the compressive strength of Fuji IX FAST and Ketac Molar increased by UC and HC compared to the SC values. The compressive strength of Fuji IX FAST as a function of time showed an increase in strength during 28d. There was a clear relationship between the temperature in the sample (SC
Forbes, B A; Schaberg, D R
The ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to transfer antimicrobial resistance to Staphylococcus aureus was tested by mixed culture on filter membranes. Two of six clinical isolates examined were able to transfer resistance to S. aureus strains 879R4RF, RN450RF, and UM1385RF. Subsequent S.aureus transconjugants resulting from matings with S. epidermidis donors were able to serve as donors to other S. aureus strains at similar frequencies. Cell-free and mitomycin C-induced filtrates of donors ...
SYAFITRI, Utami; SARTONO, Bagus; GOOS, Peter
Mixture experiments usually involve various constraints on the proportions of the ingredients of the mixture under study. In this paper, inspired by the fact that the available stock of certain ingredients is often limited, we focus on a new type of constraint, which we refer to as an ingredient availability constraint. This type of constraint substantially complicates the search for optimal designs for mixture experiments. One difficulty, for instance, is that the optimal number of experimen...
The aim of this research was to characterise the nutrient composition and protein profile of a range of intact and hydrolysed rice protein ingredients, to benchmark their physicochemical properties against those of selected commercial dairy protein ingredients, and to develop tailored solutions for understanding, predicting, modifying and controlling their functionality in food systems. The rice protein ingredients studied had protein contents in the range 32-78%, and lower levels of calcium ...
ISSN 2315-6201). Suleiman/Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2013). 11(1): 51-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v11i1.8. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus from chickens in Maiduguri,Nigeria. A Suleiman.
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in nosocomial infections. Up to 30% of UCI related infections are caused by S. aureus. In this thesis we explore both clinical and molecular aspects of patient-to-patient transmission of S. aureus. We performed a European ICU study exploring infection
May 1, 2013 ... analysis was performed to identify proteins involved in chromate stress response of Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from a fly ash dumping site. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two dimensional (2D) electrophoresis gels revealed several proteins.
Staphylococci species resistant to chromate were previously isolated from a fly ash dumping site. To further understand the mechanisms developed by these bacteria to tolerate chromate, a proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins involved in chromate stress response of Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated ...
Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it is the main bacterial organism responsible for diseases caused by exotoxin production and direct invasion with systemic dissemination. In poultry, S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, ...
Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus. aureus are of great concern to the food industry, especially in foods stored under refrigerated conditions where, unlike most food-borne pathogens are able to multiply. This investigation was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of some spice ...
Genetic fingerprinting of 18 different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Nigeria using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was carried out. Ten out of 100 Operon primers showed polymorphism among the isolates tested generating 88 bands, 51 of which were polymorphic with sizes ranging between 200 and ...
Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter
Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...
The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance
Thompson, N E; Bergdoll, M S; Pattee, P A
The factor in normal sera primarily responsible for the enhancement of transfection (and transformation) of Staphylococcus aureus was identified as fibronectin. Serum samples which were depleted of fibronectin by affinity chromatography showed a marked decrease in enhancing activity. Fibronectin isolated from sera of several animal species demonstrated enhancing activity.
The methicillin disc diffusion method for the detection of methicillin resistance and the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility tests, were used. The MRSA prevalence rate was 34.7% (51/147) of all Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Forty-five isolates were associated with infections and 6 were colonizing strains.
Vonk, A. G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confined to healthcare centres for decades. However, MRSA infections are increasingly seen in young healthy individuals with no exposure to healthcare centres. These community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains differ from
N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)
textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA), resistant to all antibiotics including Vancomycin, has been reported in Japan, USA, Canada and Brazil. Hence, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of Vancomycin resistant or intermediate S.aureus in Karachi. A total of 850 ...
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading overall cause otf nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to β lactam antibiotics. This study was carried out to study the current resistant/susceptibility pattern of S. aureus to β lactam antibiotics and prevalence of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the studied population.
Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos mÃ©dicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007). Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 11/9/2007.
Antimicrobial resistance has become a great public health problem worldwide and multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been widely reported. Methods: The presence or absence of methicillin resistance gene (mecA) in 48 clinical wound isolates of S. aureus was examined by the polymerase chain reaction ...
We use the molecular techniques of PCR and PFGE to identify MRSA from clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus causing infections among hospitalized patients in Benin-City, Nigeria. A total of 36 isolates were obtained from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between July-September, 2007. The MRSA strains ...
Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui
INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...
This trend is on the increase consequently there is prolong hospital stay, increased hospital bills, and increased morbidity and mortality. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents such as the â- lactam antibiotics has contributed to the emergence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA); which has become ...
Ciprofloxacinis often considered drug of first choice in the treatment of bacterial keratitis.Most of the ocular infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study set to compare the efficacy of ciprofloxacin on these two microorganisms in vitro. The “agar well diffusion” and the 10-fold ...
Background: Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus constitute significant epidemiologic problems. Defining an outbreak requires the use of rapid and highly discriminatory epidemiologic methods to determine the epidemic strains involved in such outbreak. Study design: A ...
Staphylococcus species, Acinetobacter species and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are of particular importance as they sometimes reside as flora on the intact skin and nasal passages of man and farm animals. Studies around the globe have shown them as “friends and foes” especially in immunocompromised individuals ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of. S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...
Zheng, Zhilan; Stewart, Philip S.
Rifampin penetrated biofilms formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis but failed to effectively kill the bacteria. Penetration was demonstrated by a simple diffusion cell bioassay and by transmission electron microscopic observation of antibiotic-affected cells at the distal edge of the biofilm.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...
Full Text Available Food allergens have appeared in the last two decades as a concealed form of threat which significantly endangers public health, and their labelling on food products, drinks, and non pre-packed gastro-products is clearly defined with legal regulations. In practice, the chemical risk management is faced with several unexpected problems. Some of them are declarations or statements about allergenic ingredients, where a nutritional allergen that the food contains is labelled with an unusual name, or similar products from different manufacturers where one is safe and the other contains allergens. A hospitality facility which deals with production and distribution of unpackaged foods should, in addition to a developed HACCP concept and standardized recipes for food preparation, prepare a detailed, precise, and clearly defined plan for management of chemical risks.
Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela
Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.
Wang Lei; Yan Jian; Fu, Peter P.; Parekh, Karishma A.; Yu Hongtao
The photomutagenicity of the popular skin conditioning agents azulene and guaiazulene were tested in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102. Following irradiation with UVA and/or visible light, both azulene and guaiazulene exhibited mutagenicity 4-5-fold higher than the spontaneous background mutation. In contrary, naphthalene, a structural isomer of azulene, was not photomutagenic under the same conditions. Azulene was photomutagenic when irradiated with UVA light alone, visible light alone, or a combination of UVA and visible light. Azulene and guaiazulene are not mutagenic when the experiment is conducted with the exclusion of light. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when using cosmetic products with azulene/guaiazulene as ingredients since after applying these products on the skin, exposure to sunlight is inevitable
Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun
Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.
Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S
Filipe dos Santos Cipriano
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein, and amino acids in protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles. A test was conducted with six protein ingredients: meat and bone meal, fish meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal. Three repetitions were used for each tested ingredient. A reference feed was used with 430 g kg−1 crude protein and 19.63 kJ g−1 gross energy. The test feeds consisted of the replacement of 30% of the reference feeds with the test ingredients. Chromium oxide was added to the feeds at 1 g kg−1 as an external marker. Eighteen juveniles with an average weight of 235±36 g were used. The best apparent digestibility coefficients of protein were found for fish meal, followed by the poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meal. However, except for gluten, all the tested ingredients presented protein digestibilities above 0.70. The crude energy apparent digestibility coefficient was higher for animal ingredients, above 0.75, than for vegetable ingredients, which presented values below 0.60. Pirarucu efficiently uses the protein from the tested ingredients, regardless of origin. However, it has a preferential ability to use the energy from animal ingredients.
Policastro, Peggy; Smith, Zach; Chapman, Gretchen
This study examined effects of an order form intervention on choice of healthy ingredients among college students ordering submarine sandwiches (subs). Over eight weekly sub-nights, college students submitted 9765 orders. The order form format was manipulated in one condition making the healthier selections more salient. Main outcome measures were selection of ingredients. Multi-level logistic regression, chi square, and analysis of variance were used to examine the effect of experimental conditions on selection of ingredients. The health-salient form increased selection of healthier and decreased selection of unhealthy ingredients. The manipulation increased fiber, decreased sodium, but did not impact calorie/fat levels of the subs served.
The size and mass of modern space constructions (antenna, space satellite, space station or space base) sent to the Earth orbit are limited by capacity of a launch vehicle. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of the polymerization of fiber-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied in free space. The experimental and theoretical investigations on the curing process in high vacuum, space plasma and temperature variations indicate that the curing process can be realized under free space conditions. The curing process is sensitive to conditions of free space environment and to composition of polymer matrix. The selected compositions provide a bubble-free polymer matrix with crosslinking effect under the space irradiations. The results of laboratory experiments and stratospheric flight experiments are discussed. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, ESA, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.
Ali, M.A.; Akhtar, F.; Idriss Ali, K.M.
A number of formulations were developed with urethane diacrylate oligomers in combination with several reactive diluent monomers of different functionalities in the presence of certain co-diluent co-monomers. Thin polymer films were prepared with these formulated solutions using either electron beam (EB) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the radiation cured films were studied and correlated with the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the homopolymer of diluents and co-diluents. Tensile properties (strength and elongation) were almost double with the UV-cured films than those of the EB-cured films of the similar formulation. Thermal behavior was also found to be different in these two systems. The co-monomers played significant role to produce more shape recovery films than the oligomer/diluent system. The co-diluents also induced shape recovery character in the film whose Tg values are lower than 0 degree C. This is unique
Low energy electron accelerators are recognized as one of the advanced curing means of converting processes for films and papers. In the last three years the price of the accelerator equipment has been greatly reduced. The targeted application areas are mainly processes of curing inks, coatings, and adhesives to make packaging materials. The operating cost analyses were made for electron beam (EB) processes over the conventional ones without EB. Then three new proposals for cost reduction of EB processes are introduced. Also being developed are new EB chemistries such as coatings, laminating adhesives and inks. EB processes give instantaneous cure and EB chemistries are basically non solvent causing less VOC emission to the environment. These developments of both equipment and chemistries might have a potential to change conventional packaging film industries. (author)
Balbzioui, I.; Hasiaoui, B.; Barbier, G.; L'hostis, G.; Laurent, F.; Ibrahim, A.; Durand, B.
In order to reduce the time and the cost of manufacturing composite, UV curing technology combined with automated tape placement process (ATL) based on reverse approach by working with a fixed head was studied in this article. First, a brief description of the developed head placement is presented. Mechanical properties are then evaluated by varying process parameters, including compaction force and tape placement speed. Finally, a parametric study is carried out to identify suitable materials and process parameters to manufacture a photo composite material with high mechanical performances. The obtained results show that UV curing is a very good alternative for thermal polymerization because of its fast cure speed due to less dependency on temperature.
B. P. Patel
Full Text Available A castor oil, an agricultural product, is an unsaturated material. Hence the castor oil is brominated by bromine liquid. The brominated castor oil (BCO was then reacted with excess of aliphatic diamines viz; ethylene diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and 1,6-hexane diamine. The resultant amino functionalized castor oil (ACO samples were then characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral study and number of amino groups. All the three ACO samples were then employed for the curing of commercial Brominated epoxy resin. The curing of epoxy resin by ACO was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and based on the DSC study their glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were fabricated. The cured samples (i.e. unreinforced were also subjected to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were also evaluated.
The physical properties of UV-cured materials are substantially affected by the lamp systems used to cure them. The development of the intended properties, whether a varnish, an ink, or an adhesive, can depend on how well these lamp factors are designed and managed. The four key factors of UV exposure are: UV irradiance (or intensity), spectral distribution (wavelengths) of UV, effective energy (time-integrated UV irradiance), and infrared radiation. Inks and varnishes will exhibit very different response to peak irradiance or energy, as well as to different UV spectra. The ability to identify the various lamp characteristics and match them to the optical properties of the curable materials, widens the range in which UV curing is a faster, more efficient production process. This paper explores the reasons for clearly identifying these factors for process optimization
Imami, Nesrina; Herasimtschuk, Anna A
Immunotherapy in the context of treated HIV-1 infection aims to improve immune responses to achieve better control of the virus. To date, multifaceted immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to reduce immune activation and increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, further to the effects of antiretroviral therapy alone, in addition to improving HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. While sterilizing cure of HIV-1 would involve elimination of all replication-competent virus, a functional cure in which the host has long-lasting control of viral replication may be more feasible. In this commentary, we discuss novel strategies aimed at targeting the latent viral reservoir with cure of HIV-1 infection being the ultimate goal, an achievement that would have considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection.
Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor; Hazuda, Daria J; Haynes, Barton F
Research toward a cure for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has joined prevention and treatment efforts in the global public health agenda. A major approach to HIV eradication envisions antiretroviral suppression, paired with targeted therapies to enforce the expression of viral antigen from quiescent HIV-1 genomes, and immunotherapies to clear latent infection. These strategies are targeted to lead to viral eradication--a cure for AIDS. Paired testing of latency reversal and clearance strategies has begun, but additional obstacles to HIV eradication may emerge. Nevertheless, there is reason for optimism that advances in long-acting antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention strategies will contribute to efforts in HIV cure research and that the implementation of these efforts will synergize to markedly blunt the effect of the HIV pandemic on society. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available This study presents curing temperature influences to behaviors of geopolymer concrete. The concrete was fly ash based, with the ratio of fly ash to alkaline activator was 65%:35%. Ratio coarse aggregate to fine aggregate was 60%:40%, ratios Na2SiO3/NaOH were 1.5:2 and 2.5. A polycarboxilate superplasticizer with ratio was 2% to fly ash weight. Form of the test specimens were cylinder with diameter of 10 cm and 20 cm high. Steam curing conducted were at 40°C, 60°C and 80°C for 24 hours. The control specimens were treated at normal moist curing. Tests conducted were compressive strength, tensile strength, porosity and elasticity modulus. The results indicated that at the elevated temperature the compressive strength increases as well as tensile strength but decreases the closed porosity of specimens. The elasticity modulus had a similar tendency.
Brzostowski, A.; Pietrzak, M.
The effects of dose rate of γ 60 Co radiation, heat removal conditions and construction of polyester-epoxy compositions on the curing conditions of the latter were investigated. It was found that the optimum dose rate was within 0.1x10 4 Gy/h and 0.6x10 4 Gy/h for the following composition: 100 parts by weight of polyester resin, 10 to 15 parts by weight of an unsaturated epoxy resin and 100 parts by weight of silicon dioxide. The mixture was well cooled during the curing process. Curing is completed after the absorption of a dose from 0.3x10 4 Gy to 0.45x10 4 Gy. (author)
Asmatulu, Eylem; Usta, Aybala; Alzahrani, Naif; Patil, Vinay; Vanderwall, Adeesha
Many of the sunscreens are used during the hot summer time to protect the skin surface. However, some of ingredients in the sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate and synthetic fragrances including parabens, phthalates and synthetic musk may disrupt the cells on the skin and create harmful effects to human body. Natural oils may be considered for substitution of harmful ingredients in sunscreens. Many natural oils (e.g., macadamia oil, sesame oil, almond oil and olive oil) have UV protective property and on top of that they have natural essences. Among the natural oils, olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Olive oil is used or substituted for cleanser, moisturizer, antibacterial agent and massage reliever for muscle fatigue. It is known that sun protection factor (SPF) of olive oil is around eight. There has been relatively little scientific work performed on the effect of olive oil on the skin as sunscreen. With nanoencapsulation technique, UV light protection of the olive oil can be extended which will provide better coverage for the skin throughout the day. In the present study, natural olive oil was incorporated with DI water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS) and sonicated using probe sonicators. Sonication time, and concentrations of olive oil, DI water and surfactant were investigated in detail. The produced nanoemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is believed that the nanoencupsulation of olive oil could provide better skin protection by slow releasing and deeper penetration of the nanoemulsion on skin surface. Undergraduate engineering students were involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This experience based learning will likely enhance the students' skills and interest in the scientific and engineering studies.