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Sample records for curing epilepsy progress

  1. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. Results: We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Conclusions: Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized. PMID:24384641

  2. Novel therapeutic approaches for disease-modification of epileptogenesis for curing epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clossen, Bryan L; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the recent advances in epileptogenesis and novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention of epilepsy, with a special emphasis on the pharmacological basis of disease-modification of epileptogenesis for curing epilepsy. Here we assess animal studies and human clinical trials of epilepsy spanning 1982-2016. Epilepsy arises from a number of neuronal factors that trigger epileptogenesis, which is the process by which a brain shifts from a normal physiologic state to an epileptic condition. The events precipitating these changes can be of diverse origin, including traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular damage, infections, chemical neurotoxicity, and emergency seizure conditions such as status epilepticus. Expectedly, the molecular and system mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are not well defined or understood. To date, there is no approved therapy for the prevention of epilepsy. Epigenetic dysregulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration appear to trigger epileptogenesis. Targeted drugs are being identified that can truly prevent the development of epilepsy in at-risk people. The promising agents include rapamycin, COX-2 inhibitors, TRK inhibitors, epigenetic modulators, JAK-STAT inhibitors, and neurosteroids. Recent evidence suggests that neurosteroids may play a role in modulating epileptogenesis. A number of promising drugs are under investigation for the prevention or modification of epileptogenesis to halt the development of epilepsy. Some drugs in development appear rational for preventing epilepsy because they target the initial trigger or related signaling pathways as the brain becomes progressively more prone to seizures. Additional research into the target validity and clinical investigation is essential to make new frontiers in curing epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  4. SURGERY: Can This Be a Cure for Epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous articles have discussed patients with intractable epilepsy who have benefited from epilepsy surgery to remove or disconnect the area of the brain that propagates their seizures. Another group of people who may benefit from epilepsy surgery is those who have generalized seizures--seizures where there is no clear onset in the brain. These…

  5. Year of progress for radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesrobian, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    New developments in ultraviolet and electron beam curing of inks and coatings are reviewed. Current installations of radiation systems are noted. An assessment is presented on raw and intermediate materials availability. Current outlook on such problems as toxicity (FDA and OSHA), residual volatiles, materials cost, adhesion and flow-out of coatings is discussed. The future potential for radiation curing systems is contrasted with that of other systems, in view of EPA requirements

  6. Autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy due to impaired ceramide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Striano, Pasquale; Italiano, Domenico; Calarese, Tiziana; Gasparini, Sara; Vanni, Nicola; Fruscione, Floriana; Genton, Pierre; Zara, Federico

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy due to impaired ceramide synthesis is an extremely rare condition, so far reported in a single family of Algerian origin presenting an unusual, severe form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy characterized by myoclonus, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and moderate to severe cognitive impairment, with probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Disease onset was between 6 and 16 years of age. Genetic study allowed to identify a homozygous nonsynonymous mutation in CERS1, the gene encoding ceramide synthase 1, a transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes the biosynthesis of C18-ceramides. The mutation decreased C18-ceramide levels. In addition, downregulation of CerS1 in neuroblastoma cell line showed activation of ER stress response and induction of proapoptotic pathways. This observation demonstrates that impairment of ceramide biosynthesis underlies neurodegeneration in humans.

  7. Radiation curing technology progress and its industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukachi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Optics, electronics and display industries are now the driving forces for the Japanese radiation curing technology. The purpose of this paper is to overview the newly developed radiation curing technology in Japan, in particular, its industrial applications, and to present the market figures in radiation curing applications, which were surveyed by RadTech Japan in 2002 afresh. (author)

  8. Reduced ceramide synthase 2 activity causes progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Mai-Britt; Olsen, Anne S B; Neess, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    between genes involved in SL metabolism and epilepsy. METHODS: We used quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzymatic assays to determine the mRNA, protein, and activity levels of ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2) in fiibroblasts isolated from parental control subjects and from a patient diagnosed...... with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME). Mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to examine the effects of reduced CERS2 activity on cellular lipid composition and plasma membrane functions. RESULTS: We identify a novel 27 kb heterozygous deletion including the CERS2 gene in a proband diagnosed...... with PME. Compared to parental controls, levels of CERS2 mRNA, protein, and activity were reduced by ˜50% in fibroblasts isolated from this proband, resulting in significantly reduced levels of ceramides and sphingomyelins containing the very long-chain fatty acids C24:0 and C26:0. The change in SL...

  9. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies: definitive and still undetermined causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Silvana; Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-02-04

    To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized.

  10. Impairment of ceramide synthesis causes a novel progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Nicola; Fruscione, Floriana; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Striano, Pasquale; Robbiano, Angela; Traverso, Monica; Sander, Thomas; Falace, Antonio; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Bramanti, Placido; Bielawski, Jacek; Fassio, Anna; Minetti, Carlo; Genton, Pierre; Zara, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Alterations of sphingolipid metabolism are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. We identified a homozygous nonsynonymous mutation in CERS1, the gene encoding ceramide synthase 1, in 4 siblings affected by a progressive disorder with myoclonic epilepsy and dementia. CerS1, a transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes the biosynthesis of C18-ceramides. We demonstrated that the mutation decreases C18-ceramide levels. In addition, we showed that downregulation of CerS1 in a neuroblastoma cell line triggers ER stress response and induces proapoptotic pathways. This study demonstrates that impairment of ceramide biosynthesis underlies neurodegeneration in humans. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  11. Spinal muscular atrophy associated with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu, Haluk; Melki, Judith

    2016-09-01

    A rare syndrome characterized by lower motor neuron disease associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, referred to as "spinal muscular atrophy associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy" (SMA-PME), has been described in childhood and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. SMA-PME is caused by mutation in the ASAH1 gene encoding acid ceramidase. Ceramide and the metabolites participate in various cellular events as lipid mediators. The catabolism of ceramide in mammals occurs in lysosomes through the activity of ceramidase. Three different ceramidases (acid, neutral and alkaline) have been identified and appear to play distinct roles in sphingolipid metabolism. The enzymatic activity of acid ceramidase is deficient in two rare inherited disorders; Farber disease and SMA-PME. Farber disease is a very rare and severe autosomal recessive condition with a distinct clinical phenotype. The marked difference in disease manifestations may explain why Farber and SMA-PME diseases were not previously suspected to be allelic conditions. The precise molecular mechanism underlying the phenotypic differences remains to be clarified. Recently, a condition with mutation in CERS1, the gene encoding ceramide synthase 1, has been identified as a novel form of PME. This finding underlies the essential role of enzymes regulating either the synthesis (CERS1) or degradation (ASAH1) of ceramide, and the link between defects in ceramide metabolism and PME.

  12. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epilepsia What Is Epilepsy? Epilepsy comes from a Greek word meaning "to hold or seize," and people ... for epilepsy than somebody whose family has no history of seizures. How Can Doctors Help? If a ...

  13. Common comorbidity of epilepsy: a review of new progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of medical and neurologic disorders occurs more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population and constitutes somatic comorbidity. Common examples include migraine, depression, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, sleep disorder, cognitive damage, developmental abnormality and so on. There are more interesting clinical features in some special types of patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECT, temporal epilepsy and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The association between epilepsy and other conditions can be due to a variety of interacting genetic, biologic structural, functional, pharmacological and environmental factors. Co-existence of other disorders in a person with epilepsy can complicate diagnosis, induce adverse prognostic implications and attenuate health?related quality of life. Therefore, recognition and management of comorbidity of epilepsy may facilitate the treatment of epilepsy. In this article, we review recent pathophysiologic and clinical studies to elucidate the etiology, mechanisms, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of common comorbidity of epilepsy.

  14. Occipital epilepsy versus progressive myoclonic epilepsy in a patient with continuous occipital spikes and photosensitivity in electroencephalogram: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yudan; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Chang; Shi, Mingchao; Sun, Li

    2018-04-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is rare epilepsy syndrome. Although EEG is a useful neurophysiological technique in the evaluation of epilepsy, few EEG abnormalities have been described in PME. So, how to use EEG hints to establish the suspected diagnosis of PME as soon as possible should be addressed. We presented a case with refractory myoclonic seizures, and progressive neurological deterioration, diagnosed as PME and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis disease by gene testing. The patient manifested with a significant regression in her speech ability and motor balance. The mini-mental state examination showed poor scores of 15/30. The magnetic resonance imaging showed diffused atrophy. Her EEG showed slow background with continuous occipital small spikes and photosensitivity. The following genetic testing with mutation in CLN6 confirmed the diagnosis and excluded the occipital epilepsy. Our case showed rare manifestations and special EEG features of PME, which may be confused with occipital epilepsy or photosensitive epilepsy. Thus, if the continuous occipital spikes and photosensitivity were presented in a patient with refractory seizures and developmental regression, PME should be considered.

  15. Prospects of success of radon cures in patients with progressive sclerodermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenke, R.; Brenke, A.

    1989-01-01

    Physiotherapy and spa-therapy occupy a high value in the treatment of the progressive sclerodermia. On the basis of 59 radon cures at Bad Brambach in patients with this disease is shown that a success of the cure lasting for a long time is to be expected particularly in patients with a relatively bad initial situation. Above all an amelioration of the subjective condition as well as the movability of the joints is achieved. The necessity of repeated cures for selected patients at an interval of 1 to 2 years is discussed. There was no evidence concerning a possibly specific radon effect. (author)

  16. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems. Other Organizations Epilepsy Foundation National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Questions Questions to Ask Your Doctor What causes epilepsy? What are symptoms other than seizures? What should ...

  17. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters ... may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, ...

  18. Part Two: Surgery--Can This Be a Cure for Epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    In the first installment of this series (Exceptional Parent Magazine, May 2010), the author discussed epilepsy surgery performed in persons whose areas of brain abnormality were initially deemed to be too extensive to safely perform a resection of the involved area. The process leading to surgical remediation for seizures is an involved one, but…

  19. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eventually become less frequent or disappear altogether. What Causes Epilepsy? This's no clear-cut answer to why people ... epilepsy. Often doctors can't pinpoint the exact cause of a person's epilepsy. But scientists do know that some things can ...

  20. Epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Kjær, Troels W

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy affects around 33,000 people in Denmark. The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. Diagnostic evaluation includes EEG and often long-term video-EEG monitoring to ensure the diagnosis and clas......-sification. More than two thirds of patients with epilepsy can obtain complete seizure control. The remainders, counting around 12.000 patients in Denmark, having medical refractory epilepsy should be considered for other treatment options; epilepsy surgery or other non-pharmacological treatment....

  1. Progress of radiation curing technology and its industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Ukachi

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese industry has grown with annual growth rate 108%. Electric parts and devices industry strongly promoted Japanese economy. UV/EB curing market in Japan enjoyed its steady growth with an annual growth rate 107%. By realizing the advantages of good performance and high functionality, the UV/EB curing technology has expanded its application field especially in leading edge industries, such as electric parts and devices, FPDs, Optical fibers and cables, optical recording media, and their fabrication and manufacturing. This paper summarizes the Japanese UV/EB market situation and overviews the latest progress of UV/EB technology. (Author)

  2. Epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Kjær, Troels W

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy affects around 33,000 people in Denmark. The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. Diagnostic evaluation includes EEG and often long-term video-EEG monitoring to ensure the diagnosis and cl...

  3. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life-threatening and disabling, to ones that are much more benign. In epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle ...

  4. A mutation in the Golgi Qb-SNARE gene GOSR2 causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy with early ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbett, M.; Schwake, M.; Bahlo, M.; Dibbens, L.M.; Lin, M.; Gandolfo, L.C.; Vears, D.F.; O'Sullivan, J.D.; Robertson, T.; Bayly, M.A.; Gardner, A.E.; Vlaar, A.M.M.; Korenke, G.C.; Bloem, B.R.; Coo, I.F.M. de; Verhagen, J.M.; Lehesjoki, A.E.; Gecz, J.; Berkovic, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of predominantly recessive disorders that present with action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, and progressive neurological decline. Many PMEs have similar clinical presentations yet are genetically heterogeneous, making accurate diagnosis

  5. A recurrent de novo mutation in KCNC1 causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muona, M.; Berkovic, S. F.; Dibbens, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of rare, inherited disorders manifesting with action myoclonus, tonicclonic seizures and ataxia. We sequenced the exomes of 84 unrelated individuals with PME of unknown cause and molecularly solved 26 cases (31%). Remarkably, a recurrent de novo...

  6. Young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy and progressive focal cortical atrophy — What is the diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of disease progression in drug-refractory epilepsy is poorly understood. We report the case of a young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy that progressed rapidly as evidenced by the development of progressive focal cortical atrophy. She underwent biopsy that showed perinatal ischemia and a prominent inflammatory response, including T-cell infiltration and microglial activation. There was no consensus reached on the final diagnosis although the hypothesis of dual pathology (adult variant of Rasmussen's encephalitis and perinatal stroke was considered. The possible role of inflammation in the progression of epilepsy caused by a “static” lesion (perinatal stroke is discussed.

  7. Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), are emerging as realistic tools for seizure control. Numerous open-label trials and a few recent randomized controlled trials suggest the capacity of both techniques to suppress seizures. Additionally, specialized TMS protocols aimed to map cortical function and to measure cortical excitability may have realistic roles as diagnostic tools in epilepsy. As the prevalence of drug-resistant epilepsy has not changed in recent years, TMS and tDCS offer noninvasive and nonpharmacological options to improve control of intractable seizures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress in coating and radiation curing of metal and plastic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayenknecht, H.

    1983-01-01

    The manyfold problems with one or multi-layered coatings on metal and plastic surfaces as adhesion and coat compound are the reasons for a rather slow progress of industrial applications of both radiation curing technologies (UV and EBC). Important reasons for this seemed to result from the fact that the manyfold offers of radiation sources were not optimum adapted to the chemistry of the coating materials. It was pointed out that tensions due to film contraction during polymerization process are the main reasons for insufficient adhesion. This presentation is an attempt to clarify both points of view

  9. Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, H.G. [University Hospital, Dep. of Neurology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    PET has added valuable information to our knowledge of the human epilepsies. The most important observations have been the identification of localized regions of interictal cerebral dysfunction in patients with partial epilepsy, revealed with PET as local hypometabolism, hypoperfusion, or (in one study) enhanced {mu}opiate receptor binding. The following general conclusions about the anatomy of epilepsy can be drawn from interictal PET studies: (1) interictal neuronal dysfunction is not limited to the site of ictal onset, nor to brain areas immediately adjacent to structural damage, (2) temporal lobe dysfunction is most commonly encountered, usually in association with primary epileptogenic lesions in mesial temporal structures, but also on occasion with lateral temporal or extratemporal epileptogenic lesions which preferentially propagate to mesial temporal structures to give rise to complex partial seizures. It is now accepted that interictal {sup 18}F-FDG PET correctly lateralises the primarily epileptic temporal lobe in approximately 70% of patients. As a consequence of inclusion of PET into the UCLA presurgical evaluation protocol, Engel et al. were able to operate on 28% of the patients without using invasive methods, (3) local isolated neocortical dysfunction associated with simple partial seizures is only rarely revealed by PET, (4) remote interictal cerebral dysfunction associated with complex partial seizures is not necessarily limited to the involved TL, since contralateral temporal, extemporal neocortical and cerebral dysfunction may also be seen, (5) a variety of anatomical patterns of interictal cerebral dysfunction occur in secondary generalized epilepsies, which may be related to symptoms and signs, (6) no diffuse or localized interictal cerebral dysfunction has been identified by PET in patients with primary generalized childhood absence seizures. (author) 29 refs.

  10. Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Frost, J.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important. Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18(F)FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18(F)FDG studies. Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.95 references.

  11. Epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.; Frost, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important. Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18[F]FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18[F]FDG studies. Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.95 references

  12. A meta-analysis on progressive atrophy in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciagli, Lorenzo; Bernasconi, Andrea; Wiebe, Samuel; Koepp, Matthias J.; Bernasconi, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. Results: We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles. Forty-two articles met the inclusion criteria for quantitative evaluation. We observed a predominance of cross-sectional studies, use of different clinical indices of progression, and high heterogeneity in age-control procedures. Meta-analysis of 18/1 cross-sectional/longitudinal studies on hippocampal atrophy (n = 979 patients) yielded a pooled effect size of r = −0.42 for ipsilateral atrophy related to epilepsy duration (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.51 to −0.32; p 80% of articles reported duration-related progression in extratemporal cortical and subcortical regions. Detailed analysis of study design features yielded low to moderate levels of evidence for progressive atrophy across studies, mainly due to dominance of cross-sectional over longitudinal investigations, use of diverse measures of seizure estimates, and absence of consistent age control procedures. Conclusions: While the neuroimaging literature is overall suggestive of progressive atrophy in drug-resistant TLE, published studies have employed rather weak designs to directly demonstrate it. Longitudinal multicohort studies are needed to unequivocally differentiate aging from disease progression. PMID:28687722

  13. Evaluating Chagas disease progression and cure through blood-derived biomarkers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; López, Manuel Carlos; Angheben, Andrea; Izquierdo, Luis; Ribeiro, Isabela; Pinazo, Maria-Jesús; Gascon, Joaquim; Muñoz, José

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the usefulness of various types of blood-derived biomarkers that are currently being studied to predict the progression of Chagas disease in patients with the indeterminate form, to assess the efficacy of antiparasitic drugs and to identify early cardiac and gastrointestinal damage. The authors used a search strategy based on MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Register for systematic review, EmBase, Global Health and LILACS databases. Out of 1716 screened articles, only 166 articles were eligible for final inclusion. The authors classified the biomarkers according to their biochemical structure and primary biological activity in four groups: i) markers of inflammation and cellular injury, ii) metabolic biomakers, iii) prothrombotic biomarkers and iv) markers derived from specific antigens of the parasite. Several potential biomarkers might have clinical potential for the detection of early cardiopathy. Such capacity is imperative in order to detect high-risk patients who require intensive monitoring and earlier therapy. Prospective studies with longer follow-ups are needed for the appraisal of biomarkers assessing clinical or microbiological cure after therapy. At the same time, studies evaluating more than one biomarker are useful to compare the efficacy among them given the lack of a recognized gold standard.

  14. Hereditary epilepsy syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Brouwer, OF

    This paper reviews the present knowledge on the genetics of the epilepsies. Main clinical features, gene localization and pattern of inheritance of the idiopathic epilepsies, the progressive myoclonus epilepsies, and some other genetic disorders often associated with epilepsy, are described. (C)

  15. Progressive contralateral hippocampal atrophy following surgery for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cameron A; Gross, Donald W; Wheatley, B Matt; Beaulieu, Christian; Sankar, Tejas

    2016-09-01

    Determine the extent and time course of volumetric changes in the contralateral hippocampus following surgery for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Serial T1-weighted MRI brain scans were obtained in 26 TLE patients pre- and post-temporal lobe epilepsy surgery as well as in 12 control subjects of similar age. Patients underwent either anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) or selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Blinded, manual hippocampal volumetry (head, body, and tail) was performed in two groups: 1) two scan group [ATL (n=6); SAH (n=10)], imaged pre-surgery and on average at 5.4 years post-surgery; and 2) longitudinal group [ATL (n=8); SAH (n=2)] imaged pre-surgery and on post-operative day 1, 2, 3, 6, 60, 120 and a delayed time point (average 2.4 years). In the two scan group, there was atrophy by 12% of the unresected contralateral hippocampus (p<0.001), with atrophy being most pronounced (27%) in the hippocampal body (p<0.001) with no significant differences seen for the hippocampal head or tail. In the longitudinal group, significant atrophy was also observed for the whole hippocampus and the body with atrophy seen as early as post-operative day #1 which progressed significantly over the first post-operative week (1.3%/day and 3.0%./day, respectively) before stabilizing over the long-term to a 13% reduction in total volume. There was no significant difference in atrophy compared by surgical approach (ATL vs. SAH; p=0.94) or side (p=0.31); however, atrophy was significantly more pronounced in patients with ongoing post-operative seizures (hippocampal body, p=0.019; whole hippocampus, p=0.048). There were no detectable post-operative neuropsychological deficits attributable to contralateral hippocampal atrophy. Significant contralateral hippocampal atrophy occurs following TLE surgery, which begins immediately and progresses over the first post-operative week. The observation that seizure free patients had significantly less atrophy of the

  16. Comparative Physiological and Molecular Analyses of Two Contrasting Flue-Cured Tobacco Genotypes under Progressive Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental factor that limits crop growth and productivity. Flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum is one of the most important commercial crops worldwide and its productivity is vulnerable to drought. However, comparative analyses of physiological, biochemical and gene expression changes in flue-cured tobacco varieties differing in drought tolerance under long-term drought stress are scarce. In this study, drought stress responses of two flue-cured tobacco varieties, LJ851 and JX6007, were comparatively studied at the physiological and transcriptional levels. After exposing to progressive drought stress, the drought-tolerant LJ851 showed less growth inhibition and chlorophyll reduction than the drought-sensitive JX6007. Moreover, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lower levels of H2O2, Malondialdehyde (MDA, and electrolyte leakage after drought stress were found in LJ851 when compared with JX6007. Further analysis showed that LJ851 plants had much less reductions than the JX6007 in the net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance during drought stress; indicating that LJ851 had better photosynthetic performance than JX6007 during drought. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis revealed that LJ851 exhibited significantly increased transcripts of several categories of drought-responsive genes in leaves and roots under drought conditions. Together, these results indicated that LJ851 was more drought-tolerant than JX6007 as evidenced by better photosynthetic performance, more powerful antioxidant system, and higher expression of stress defense genes during drought stress. This study will be valuable for the development of novel flue-cured tobacco varieties with improved drought tolerance by exploitation of natural genetic variations in the future.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: familial focal epilepsy with variable foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with FFEVF have developed psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia ), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... 5 links) American Epilepsy Society Brain Foundation (Australia) CURE: Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy Epilepsy Foundation ...

  18. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes: from isolated epilepsy to encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Mütze, Ulrike; Helbig, Katherine L; Polster, Tilman; Albrecht, Beate; Bernbeck, Ulrich; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Biskup, Saskia; Burglen, Lydie; Denecke, Jonas; Heron, Bénédicte; Heyne, Henrike O; Hoffmann, Georg F; Hornemann, Frauke; Matsushige, Takeshi; Matsuura, Ryuki; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Korenke, G Christoph; Kuechler, Alma; Lämmer, Constanze; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Mignot, Cyril; Ruf, Susanne; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Stamberger, Hannah; Pisano, Tiziana; Tohyama, Jun; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Werckx, Wendy; Wickert, Julia; Mari, Francesco; Verbeek, Nienke E; Møller, Rikke S; Koeleman, Bobby; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Dobyns, William B; Battaglia, Domenica; Lemke, Johannes R; Kutsche, Kerstin; Guerrini, Renzo

    2017-09-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel. The recurrent three-amino acid duplication p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) occurred in five patients. Our patient cohort exhibited a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, comprising six patients with mild to moderate intellectual disability, with or without epilepsy and behavioural disorders, and 14 patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy, of which 13 had severe neurodevelopmental impairment and four died in early childhood. Imaging studies suggested that the severity of neurological impairment and epilepsy correlates with that of structural abnormalities as well as the mutation type and location. Out of seven patients harbouring mutations outside the α/β spectrin heterodimerization domain, four had normal brain imaging and three exhibited moderately progressive brain and/or cerebellar atrophy. Twelve of 13 patients with mutations located within the spectrin heterodimer contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/βII aggregates and αII spectrin in the insoluble protein fraction were observed in fibroblasts derived from patients with the mutations p.(Glu2207del), p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) and p.(Arg2308_Met2309dup

  19. [Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Drulović, J; Stojsavljević, N; Veskov, R; Ivanus, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce-as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque. The medical science from Babylonian period presumed that epileptic manifestations are the consequence of the demonic or ill spiritual actions. There existed an attitude that at the beginning of an epileptic attack the patient was possessed by a demon (the Akkadic, i.e., Babylonian verb "sibtu" denoting epilepsy, had the meaning "to seize" or "to be obsessed"); at the end of the clonic phase the demon departed from the body. Different demons were responsible for different forms of epilepsy such as nocturnal and children epilepsy, absence epilepsy and pure convulsions, simple and complex automatisms, and gelastic epilepsy. Thus, the doctors from the period of Babylon aside from making primordial classification of epilepsies, knew about their clinical picture (prodromal symptoms and aura, Jackson's epilepsy. Todd's paralysis), postictal phenomena and intericatl emotional instability; provocative factors were also known (sleep deprivation, emotions, as well as alcohol, albeit in a negative sense-as a cure for epilepsy). There is no doubt than in the period of Babylon the clinical picture of serial fits and its progress to status epilepticus were clearly recognized and

  20. Glycogen Phosphomonoester Distribution in Mouse Models of the Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy, Lafora Disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Contreras, Christopher J.; Segvich, Dyann M.; Heiss, Christian; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Roach, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that acts as an energy reserve in many cell types. Glycogen contains trace amounts of covalent phosphate, in the range of 1 phosphate per 500–2000 glucose residues depending on the source. The function, if any, is unknown, but in at least one genetic disease, the progressive myoclonic epilepsy Lafora disease, excessive phosphorylation of glycogen has been implicated in the pathology by disturbing glycogen structure. Some 90% of Lafora cases are attributed to mutations of the EPM2A or EPM2B genes, and mice with either gene disrupted accumulate hyperphosphorylated glycogen. It is, therefore, of importance to understand the chemistry of glycogen phosphorylation. Rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen contained covalent phosphate as monoesters of C2, C3, and C6 carbons of glucose residues based on analyses of phospho-oligosaccharides by NMR. Furthermore, using a sensitive assay for glucose 6-P in hydrolysates of glycogen coupled with measurement of total phosphate, we determined the proportion of C6 phosphorylation in rabbit muscle glycogen to be ∼20%. C6 phosphorylation also accounted for ∼20% of the covalent phosphate in wild type mouse muscle glycogen. Glycogen phosphorylation in Epm2a−/− and Epm2b−/− mice was increased 8- and 4-fold compared with wild type mice, but the proportion of C6 phosphorylation remained unchanged at ∼20%. Therefore, our results suggest that C2, C3, and/or C6 phosphate could all contribute to abnormal glycogen structure or to Lafora disease. PMID:25416783

  1. Probiotics in Curing Allergic and Inflammatory Conditions - Research Progress and Futuristic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Latheef, Shyma K; Munjal, Ashok K; Khandia, Rekha; Samad, Hari A; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Joshi, Sunil K

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics constitute the viable and beneficial microbes, which offer a dietary means to sustain the balance of gastro-intestinal (GI) microflora. Owing to their multiple health benefits, these have recently gained wide attention among researchers for exploring their potential in safeguarding the health of humans and animals. Probiotics could also modulate host-immune responses, thereby help in counteracting the immunological dysfunctions. Probiotics can inhibit the systemic invasion of pathogens entering through the GI mucosa/ oral cavity and have been found to possess effective prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various infectious pathogens as well as non-infectious diseases and disorders. The present review expedites the role of probiotics in curing the ailments related to allergic and inflammatory disease conditions. A thorough reviewing of the literature and patents available on probiotics and their role in countering inflammation and allergy was conducted using authentic published resources available on Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct and other scientific databases. The information retrieved has been compiled and analysed pertaining to the theme of the study. Various micro-organisms have been evaluated for their probiotic efficacy, among these, the lactic acid bacteria viz. Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. have extensively been studied and widely exploited. In the current post-globalized era of self and complementary medicines, the concept of probiotics and their therapeutic as well as prophylactic usage is gaining wide acceptance. As more and more bacterial strains are being proven for their pronounced influence on down regulation of immune regulation, atopic, inflammatory conditions, the use of probiotics is getting increased especially in the developed countries where such indications are high in prevalence. Apart from usage in immune related disorders, probiotics have been found to be effective in treating pouchitis

  2. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera.

  3. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski-Karell V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Koski-Karell,1,2 Paul E Farmer,2–4 Benito Isaac,5 Elizabeth M Campa,5 Loune Viaud,5 Paul C Namphy,6 Ralph Ternier,5 Louise C Ivers2–4 1Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, and University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Partners In Health, 3Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Zanmi Lasante, Cange, 6Direction Nationale de l'Eau Potable et de l'Assainissement, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Abstract: Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge, policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of

  4. Concomitant fractional anisotropy and volumetric abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy: cross-sectional evidence for progressive neurologic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon S Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and associated hippocampal sclerosis (TLEhs there are brain abnormalities extending beyond the presumed epileptogenic zone as revealed separately in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies. However, little is known about the relation between macroscopic atrophy (revealed by volumetric MRI and microstructural degeneration (inferred by DTI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For 62 patients with unilateral TLEhs and 68 healthy controls, we determined volumes and mean fractional anisotropy (FA of ipsilateral and contralateral brain structures from T1-weighted and DTI data, respectively. We report significant volume atrophy and FA alterations of temporal lobe, subcortical and callosal regions, which were more diffuse and bilateral in patients with left TLEhs relative to right TLEhs. We observed significant relationships between volume loss and mean FA, particularly of the thalamus and putamen bilaterally. When corrected for age, duration of epilepsy was significantly correlated with FA loss of an anatomically plausible route - including ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus and temporal lobe white matter, the thalamus bilaterally, and posterior regions of the corpus callosum that contain temporal lobe fibres - that may be suggestive of progressive brain degeneration in response to recurrent seizures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic TLEhs is associated with interrelated DTI-derived and volume-derived brain degenerative abnormalities that are influenced by the duration of the disorder and the side of seizure onset. This work confirms previously contradictory findings by employing multi-modal imaging techniques in parallel in a large sample of patients.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... Epilepsy Society Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) GeneReviews (1 link) Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe ...

  6. Photoacoustic Imaging of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    using simulation and phantom experiments; (4) To test and validate the PAT system using a well established animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy ...and evaluation (3) Software Development (4) Animal experiments (5) Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (6) Analysis of the images from the in vivo...details please see the progress report of the third year of the project. 5. Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Task 6) During months 37-48 of this

  7. Epigenetic Histone Deacetylation Inhibition Prevents the Development and Persistence of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sandesh D; Clossen, Bryan L; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by repeated unprovoked seizures. Currently, no drug therapy exists for curing epilepsy or disease modification in people at risk. Despite several emerging mechanisms, there have been few studies of epigenetic signaling in epileptogenesis, the process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic because of precipitating factors. Here, we report a novel role of histone deacetylation as a critical epigenetic mechanism in epileptogenesis. Experiments were conducted using the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate in the hippocampus kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a classic model heavily used to approve drugs for treatment of epilepsy. Daily treatment with butyrate significantly inhibited HDAC activity and retarded the development of limbic epileptogenesis without affecting after-discharge signal. HDAC inhibition markedly impaired the persistence of seizure expression many weeks after epilepsy development. Moreover, subchronic HDAC inhibition for 2 weeks resulted in a striking retardation of epileptogenesis. HDAC inhibition, unexpectedly, also showed erasure of the epileptogenic state in epileptic animals. Finally, butyrate-treated animals exhibited a powerful reduction in mossy fiber sprouting, a morphologic index of epileptogenesis. Together these results underscore that HDAC inhibition prevents the development of TLE, indicating HDAC's critical signaling role in epileptogenesis. These findings, therefore, envisage a unique novel therapy for preventing or curing epilepsy by targeting the epigenetic HDAC pathway. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Epilepsy: Is there hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Guerreiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a highly prevalent chronic neurologic disorder and leads to social, behavioural, health and economic consequences. 'Treatment gap' varies from 10 per cent in developed countries to 75 per cent in low-income countries. Stigma and discrimination related to epilepsy are prevalent worldwide. Electroencephalography (EEG is considered the most important tool for evaluating the patient with epilepsy. Video-EEG monitoring is an important tool for confirming the seizure type and estimating the epileptogenic zone in the brain. Neuroimaging evaluation is important to determine the aetiology of the epilepsies. Genetic testing has increased the probability of identifying the causes of some types of epilepsies. Epilepsy can be treated in an affordable way with low-cost medications. Refractory epilepsies occur in approximately one-third of recently diagnosed patients with epilepsy. For this group of patients, there are options of surgical treatment, diets and neurostimulation to improve seizure control and quality of life. In poorly organized societies, there is a lack of prioritization of epilepsy in national health policies, limited resources for trained personnel and a shortage of basic antiepileptic medications. There is evidence of improvement in the understanding of epilepsy and a clear progress in the management of epileptic seizures in recent times.

  9. Christianity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, K; Jędrzejczak, J

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic seizures have been known from time immemorial. Throughout the ages, however, ideas concerning the aetiology and treatment of epilepsy have changed considerably. Epilepsy is mentioned many times in the Pentateuch, where it is portrayed as a mysterious condition, whose symptoms, course and contingencies evade rational laws and explanations. In the Middle Ages, the accepted view which prevailed in social consciousness was that patients with epilepsy were possessed by Satan and other impure spirits. One common method of treatment of epileptic seizures was to submit the patient to cruel exorcisms. Patients were frequently injured in the process and some of them even died. Our understanding of epilepsy and its social consequences has improved considerably within the last century. The most significant progress as far as diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is concerned took place in the last four decades of the twentieth century. Although we now know much more about epilepsy than we used to, this knowledge is still insufficiently popularized.

  10. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.; Loo-Teck Ng; Visay Viengkhou

    1998-01-01

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  11. Incidence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and Predictors of Progression Among Asian Indians: 10-Year Follow-up of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Shanthi Rani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Sudha, Vasudevan; Divya Nair, Haridas; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Subhashini, Sivasankaran; Binu, Valsalakumari Sreekumarannair; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-08-01

    There are few data on the incidence rates of diabetes and prediabetes (dysglycemia) in Asian Indians. This article presents the incidence of diabetes and prediabetes and the predictors of progression in a population-based Asian Indian cohort. Data on progression to diabetes and prediabetes from 1,376 individuals, a subset of 2,207 of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) cohort (phase 3) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes at baseline, who were followed for a median of 9.1 years (11,629 person-years), are presented. During follow-up, 534 died and 1,077 with NGT and 299 with prediabetes at baseline were reinvestigated in a 10-year follow-up study. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed based on the American Diabetes Association criteria. Incidence rates were calculated and predictors of progression to prediabetes and/or diabetes were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. The incidence rates of diabetes, prediabetes, and "any dysglycemia" were 22.2, 29.5, and 51.7 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Among those with NGT, 19.4% converted to diabetes and 25.7% to prediabetes, giving an overall conversion rate to dysglycemia of 45.1%. Among those with prediabetes, 58.9% converted to diabetes. Predictors of progression to dysglycemia were advancing age, family history of diabetes, 2-h plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low HDL cholesterol, and physical inactivity. Asian Indians have one of the highest incidence rates of diabetes, with rapid conversion from normoglycemia to dysglycemia. Public health interventions should target modifiable risk factors to slow down the diabetes epidemic in this population. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. The situation of radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weixiu

    1988-01-01

    Radiation curing is a branch of radiation processing. It has developed significantly and its annual growth rate exceeds 10% in the nineteen eighties. Several products were manufactured by radiation curing, such as magnetic media, release coating, floor tile, printing flates, optical fiber, electronics, lithography and pressure sensitive adhesives etc. The chemistry of radiation curing is often considered ahead. The safe handling of UV/EB curable material, the regulation of industial and the patent protection for development in radiation curing were introduced. The equipment and processes of this field have got progress recently

  13. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  14. A sub-threshold dose of pilocarpine increases glutamine synthetase in reactive astrocytes and enhances the progression of amygdaloid-kindling epilepsy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Liu; Deng, Da-Ping; Pan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Chao-Yun; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Chen, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Yu-Xia; Li, Shu-Cui; Bai, Xian-Yong; Zhu, Wei

    2016-03-02

    The prognosis of patients exposed to a sub-threshold dose of a proconvulsant is difficult to establish. In this study, we investigated the effect of a single sub-threshold dose of the proconvulsant pilocarpine (PILO) on the progression of seizures that were subsequently induced by daily electrical stimulation (kindling) of the amygdaloid formation. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were each implanted with an electrode in the right basolateral amygdala and an indwelling cannula in the right ventricle. The animals were randomized into groups and were administered one of the following treatments: saline, PILO, saline+L-α-aminoadipic acid (L-AAA; one dosage tested), PILO+L-AAA, or PILO+L-methionine sulfoximine (three dosages tested). Amygdaloid stimulation and electroencephalography were performed once daily. We performed immunohistochemistry and western blot for glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase (GS). We also assayed the enzymic activity of GS in discrete brain regions. An intraperitoneal injection of a sub-threshold PILO dose enhanced the progression of amygdaloid-kindling seizures and was accompanied by an increase in reactive-astrocyte and GS (content and activity) in the hippocampus and piriform cortex. L-AAA and L-methionine sulfoximine, inhibitors of astrocytic and GS function, respectively, abolished the effect of PILO on amygdaloid-kindling seizures. We conclude that one sub-threshold dose of a proconvulsant may enhance the progression of subsequent epilepsy and astrocytic GS may play a role in this phenomenon. Thus, a future therapy for epilepsy could be inhibition of astrocytes and/or GS.

  15. Haiti’s progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation’s 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government’s capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors – not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners’ capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  16. Epilepsy - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the one before it. Some children have a strange sensation before a seizure. Sensations may be tingling, ... Prognosis) Most children with epilepsy live a normal life. Certain types of childhood epilepsy go away or ...

  17. Curing the Epilepsies: The Promise of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, people experience a type of seizure called status epilepticus, defined as seizures that last for more than ... seizures that recur without recovery of consciousness. Prolonged status epilepticus can damage the brain and may be life- ...

  18. Genomic variation in myeloma: design, content, and initial application of the Bank On A Cure SNP Panel to detect associations with progression-free survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Gang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have engaged in an international program designated the Bank On A Cure, which has established DNA banks from multiple cooperative and institutional clinical trials, and a platform for examining the association of genetic variations with disease risk and outcomes in multiple myeloma. We describe the development and content of a novel custom SNP panel that contains 3404 SNPs in 983 genes, representing cellular functions and pathways that may influence disease severity at diagnosis, toxicity, progression or other treatment outcomes. A systematic search of national databases was used to identify non-synonymous coding SNPs and SNPs within transcriptional regulatory regions. To explore SNP associations with PFS we compared SNP profiles of short term (less than 1 year, n = 70 versus long term progression-free survivors (greater than 3 years, n = 73 in two phase III clinical trials. Results Quality controls were established, demonstrating an accurate and robust screening panel for genetic variations, and some initial racial comparisons of allelic variation were done. A variety of analytical approaches, including machine learning tools for data mining and recursive partitioning analyses, demonstrated predictive value of the SNP panel in survival. While the entire SNP panel showed genotype predictive association with PFS, some SNP subsets were identified within drug response, cellular signaling and cell cycle genes. Conclusion A targeted gene approach was undertaken to develop an SNP panel that can test for associations with clinical outcomes in myeloma. The initial analysis provided some predictive power, demonstrating that genetic variations in the myeloma patient population may influence PFS.

  19. How do we make models that are useful in understanding partial epilepsies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David A

    2014-01-01

    The goals of constructing epilepsy models are (1) to develop approaches to prophylaxis of epileptogenesis following cortical injury; (2) to devise selective treatments for established epilepsies based on underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; and (3) use of a disease (epilepsy) model to explore brain molecular, cellular and circuit properties. Modeling a particular epilepsy syndrome requires detailed knowledge of key clinical phenomenology and results of human experiments that can be addressed in critically designed laboratory protocols. Contributions to understanding mechanisms and treatment of neurological disorders has often come from research not focused on a specific disease-relevant issue. Much of the foundation for current research in epilepsy falls into this category. Too strict a definition of the relevance of an experimental model to progress in preventing or curing epilepsy may, in the long run, slow progress. Inadequate exploration of the experimental target and basic laboratory results in a given model can lead to a failed effort and false negative or positive results. Models should be chosen based on the specific issues to be addressed rather than on convenience of use. Multiple variables including maturational age, species and strain, lesion type, severity and location, latency from injury to experiment and genetic background will affect results. A number of key issues in clinical and basic research in partial epilepsies remain to be addressed including the mechanisms active during the latent period following injury, susceptibility factors that predispose to epileptogenesis, injury - induced adaptive versus maladaptive changes, mechanisms of pharmaco-resistance and strategies to deal with multiple pathophysiological processes occurring in parallel.

  20. Radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendrinsky, J.

    1987-04-01

    In the beginning of the seventies the two types of radiation sources applied in industrial processes, electron radiation and UV, had been given rather optimistic forecasts. While UV could succeed in the field of panel and film coating, electron radiation curing seems to gain success in quite new fields of manufacturing. The listing of the suggested applications of radiation curing and a comparison of both advantages and disadvantages of this technology are followed by a number of case studies emphasizing the features of these processes and giving some examplary calculations. The data used for the calculations should provide an easy calculation of individual manufacturing costs if special production parameters, investment or energy costs are employed. (Author)

  1. The irradiation curing of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, T.

    1974-01-01

    The electron beam irradiation curing of coatings has been technically feasible for over a decade. A brief description of the process is presented. The progress in this field has been astonishingly slow in comparison with the use of UV lamps as radiation source. The primary reason for this has been the great advantage in terms of capital cost of the UV curing lines and their ready adaptability to low or high production rates. A literature survey is given concerning basic and applied research in the electron curing area, patents, economics and existing installations around the world. (author)

  2. Cognitive impairments in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kostylev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments in epilepsy are a current problem in neurology. The basis of the idea on the pathogenesis of higher nervous system dysfunctions is the interaction of a few factors that include the form and duration of the disease, gender differences, and the impact of antiepileptic therapy. The role of interattack epileptiform changes in the development of cognitive deficit in adults and epileptic encephalopathies in children is discussed. Up-to-date neurophysiological and neuroimaging diagnostic methods allow the detection of new features in the course and progression of higher nervous system dysfunctions in epilepsy.

  3. Targeting Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abilities of people with epilepsy, fear seizures, or lack knowledge about seizure first aid or are not comfortable ... they help eliminate barriers to care, such as lack of transportation or ... both English- and Spanish-speaking adults with epilepsy. Researchers are ...

  4. Epilepsie aktuell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Hüelsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.

    2016-01-01

    of the consensus statements “IVETF consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals” and “IVETF’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs” in German language to inform German veterinarians and professional...... circles about new knowledge and innovations in these fields. In the first part of the article, it is explained, why a new classification system of epilepsy and a common language to describe the disease is necessary. The proposals of the IVETF regarding the classification system and the terminology...... Richtlinien zur Klassifikation und Empfehlungen zu allen Aspekten der Epilepsie bei Hund und Katze in englischer Sprache publiziert (IVETF, 2015a, b). Im vorliegenden Artikel werden die Inhalte der Konsenspapiere „IVETF consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion...

  5. 3D texture analysis reveals imperceptible MRI textural alterations in the thalamus and putamen in progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1, EPM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Suoranta

    Full Text Available Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1 is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young onset age, myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. At the time of diagnosis, the visual assessment of the brain MRI is usually normal, with no major changes found later. Therefore, we utilized texture analysis (TA to characterize and classify the underlying properties of the affected brain tissue by means of 3D texture features. Sixteen genetically verified patients with EPM1 and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. TA was performed upon 3D volumes of interest that were placed bilaterally in the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Compared to the healthy controls, EPM1 patients had significant textural differences especially in the thalamus and right putamen. The most significantly differing texture features included parameters that measure the complexity and heterogeneity of the tissue, such as the co-occurrence matrix-based entropy and angular second moment, and also the run-length matrix-based parameters of gray-level non-uniformity, short run emphasis and long run emphasis. This study demonstrates the usability of 3D TA for extracting additional information from MR images. Textural alterations which suggest complex, coarse and heterogeneous appearance were found bilaterally in the thalamus, supporting the previous literature on thalamic pathology in EPM1. The observed putamenal involvement is a novel finding. Our results encourage further studies on the clinical applications, feasibility, reproducibility and reliability of 3D TA.

  6. Long-term outcome of medically treated epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, M; Schmidt, D

    2017-01-01

    To review the long-term outcome of epilepsy in population-based studies. Analysis of population-based studies. About two of three patients with new-onset epilepsy will, in the long run, enter five-year terminal remission. Chances for remission are best for those with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy. It is unclear whether the seizure outcome has improved over the last several decades. Social outcome, however, may have become better because of the improved level of knowledge on and public attitudes toward people with epilepsy, and possibly fewer prejudices at home, daycare, school, military and labor market. While we still do not have a cure for epilepsy for all patients, relief of the medical and social consequences is available for many and hope is on the horizon for people with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parkinson’s Disease and Cryptogenic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Y. Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is an uncommon comorbidity of Parkinson’s disease (PD and has been considered not directly associated with PD. We present five patients (3 men and 2 women; ages 49–85 who had concomitant PD and cryptogenic epilepsy. Although rare, epilepsy can coexist with PD and their coexistence may influence the progression of PD. While this may be a chance association, an evolving understanding of the neurophysiological basis of either disease may suggest a mechanistic association.

  8. Epilepsy - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or antiepileptic drugs), may reduce the number of future seizures: These drugs are taken by mouth. Which ... 23986299 . Wiebe S. The epilepsies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. Functional assays for the assessment of the pathogenicity of variants of GOSR2, an ER-to-Golgi SNARE involved in progressive myoclonus epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn M. Völker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs are inherited disorders characterized by myoclonus, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and ataxia. One of the genes that is associated with PME is the ER-to-Golgi Qb-SNARE GOSR2, which forms a SNARE complex with syntaxin-5, Bet1 and Sec22b. Most PME patients are homo­zygous for a p.Gly144Trp mutation and develop similar clinical presentations. Recently, a patient who was compound heterozygous for p.Gly144Trp and a previously unseen p.Lys164del mutation was identified. Because this patient presented with a milder disease phenotype, we hypothesized that the p.Lys164del mutation may be less severe compared to p.Gly144Trp. To characterize the effect of the p.Gly144Trp and p.Lys164del mutations, both of which are present in the SNARE motif of GOSR2, we examined the corresponding mutations in the yeast ortholog Bos1. Yeasts expressing the orthologous mutants in Bos1 showed impaired growth, suggesting a partial loss of function, which was more severe for the Bos1 p.Gly176Trp mutation. Using anisotropy and gel filtration, we report that Bos1 p.Gly176Trp and p.Arg196del are capable of complex formation, but with partly reduced activity. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations showed that the hydrophobic core, which triggers SNARE complex formation, is compromised due to the glycine-to-tryptophan substitution in both GOSR2 and Bos1. In contrast, the deletion of residue p.Lys164 (or p.Arg196del in Bos1 interferes with the formation of hydrogen bonds between GOSR2 and syntaxin-5. Despite these perturbations, all SNARE complexes stayed intact during longer simulations. Thus, our data suggest that the milder course of disease in compound heterozygous PME is due to less severe impairment of the SNARE function.

  10. Preventing cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Kees P J

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments are common in children with epilepsy. They may already be present before the onset of epilepsy or occur – and even progress – during its course. Many variables contribute to cognitive dysfunction. Those that can be targeted to prevent (further) cognitive

  11. Novel approaches to epilepsy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kokaia, Merab

    2013-01-01

    The aim of epilepsy treatment is to achieve complete seizure freedom. Nonetheless, numerous side effects and seizure resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affecting about 30-40% of all patients are main unmet needs in today's epileptology. For this reason, novel approaches to treat epilepsy......, and inhibitory neurotransmitters. We also address new molecular-genetic approaches utilizing optogenetic technology. The therapeutic strategies presented herein are predominately aimed toward treatment of partial/focal epilepsies, but could also be envisaged for targeting key seizure propagation areas...... are highly needed. Herein, we highlight recent progress in stem-cell-based and gene transfer-based therapies in epilepsy according to findings in animal models and address their potential clinical application. Multiple therapeutic targets are described, including neuropeptides, neurotrophic factors...

  12. Mirror Focus in a Patient with Intractable Occipital Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy....

  13. Complex single gene disorders and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, Aine

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders, often associated with significant comorbidity, such as intellectual disability and skin disorder. The genetic underpinnings of many epilepsies are still being elucidated, and we expect further advances over the coming 5 years, as genetic technology improves and prices fall for whole exome and whole genome sequencing. At present, there are several well-characterized complex epilepsies associated with single gene disorders; we review some of these here. They include well-recognized syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis complex, epilepsy associated with Rett syndrome, some of the progressive myoclonic epilepsies, and novel disorders such as epilepsy associated with mutations in the PCDH 19 gene. These disorders are important in informing genetic testing to confirm a diagnosis and to permit better understanding of the variability in phenotype-genotype correlation.

  14. [Epilepsy treatment in Serbian medieval monastery hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić-Tasić, Slobodanka; Pantović, Mihailo; Jović, Nebojsa; Ravanić, Dragan; Obradović, Dejan; Sretenović, Srdjan; Pantović, Maja; Pantović, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Emperor John III Ducas Vatatzes (ruled from 1222-1254) and his son Theodore II Lascaris (ruled from 1254-1258) both suffered from epilepsy. On his journeys to Nicaea, St Sava visited emperors Theodore I Lascaris (ruled from 1204-1222) and John II Vatatzes, who richly rewarded him, which was probably of crucial importance for the foundation of hospitals in the Monastery of Hilandar and the Monastery of Studenica These hospitals had special departments for the treatment of patints with epilepsy. According to researches conducted up-to-date, these departments are considered to be the oldest institutions for epilepsy treatment. Monastery hospitals in the West served primarily as a shelter for the poor and patients with chronic incurable diseases. The development of Serbian monastery hospitals was a long process and it included institutions that lasted for a long time (for over two centuries) in which, among others, those affected by epilepsy were cured.

  15. Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskiniemi, M.; Van Vleymen, B.; Hakamies, L.; Lamusuo, S.; Taalas, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three daily dosage regimens of oral piracetam in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.
METHODS—Twenty patients (12 men, eight women), aged 17-43 years, with classical Unverricht-Lundborg disease were enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of crossover design in which the effects of daily doses of 9.6 g, 16.8 g, and 24 g piracetam, given in two divided doses, were compared with placebo. The crossover design was such that patients received placebo and two of the three dosage regimens of piracetam, each for two weeks, for a total treatment period of six weeks and thus without wash out between each treatment phase. The primary outcome measure was a sum score representing the adjusted total of the ratings of six components of a myoclonus rating scale in which stimulus sensitivity, motor impairment, functional disability, handwriting, and global assessments by investigators and patients were scored. Sequential clinical assessments were made by the same neurologist in the same environment at the same time of day.
RESULTS—Treatment with 24 g/day piracetam produced significant and clinically relevant improvement in the primary outcome measure of mean sum score (p=0.005) and in the means of its subtests of motor impairment (p=0.02), functional disability (p=0.003), and in global assessments by both investigator (p=0.002) and patient (p=0.01). Significant improvement in functional disability was also found with daily doses of 9.6 g and 16.8 g. The dose-effect relation was linear and significant. More patients showed clinically relevant improvement with the highest dosage and, in individual patients, increasing the dose improved response. Piracetam was well tolerated and adverse effects were few, mild, and transient.
CONCLUSIONS—This study provides further evidence that piracetam is an effective and safe medication in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease. In addition

  16. Managing Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person’s healthcare provider, and family and friends. What parents or caregivers can do Talk with your child’s heath care ... management resources for people with epilepsy and their caregivers. Learn more on our Find Support page . What can I do to keep my seizures in ...

  17. The methods of PET cerebral imaging in focus localizing of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xia; Wang Xuemei

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a very complicate and synthetic disease which influence patients intelligence and daily life acutely. But the cure rate of epilepsy is much low. One of the results is precise localization of disease which result in epilepsy. Today the main methods are electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and PET cerebral imaging. PET cerebral imaging can locate epileptic foci of epilepsy from the brain organization metabolism, blood, the bio-chemical, function and oxygen consume, the chemistry pass quality and nerve receptor. It raises the rate of checking the epileptic foci and indicates a direction for the next treatments of epilepsy. (authors)

  18. Radiation curing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Areas of Application of UV Curing; Areas of Application of EB Curing; Laser Curing of Acrylic Coatings; A User's View of the Application of Radiation Curable Materials; Radiation Curable Offset Inks: A Technical and Marketing Overview; and UV Curable Screen Printing Inks

  19. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  20. Abdominal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, N.; Razzaq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal epilepsy (AE) is a rather uncommon clinical entity in children that might create diagnostic confusion especially when it lacks the typical manifestations of an epileptic seizure. We report the case of a young boy having apparently unexplained episodes of paroxysmal abdominal symptoms with no other suggestion of an underlying epileptic disorder. The case also explains how the clinical presentation can be misleading unless a high index of suspicion is maintained to reach the ultimate diagnosis. (author)

  1. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  2. Mirror focus in a patient with intractable occipital lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae Kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-06-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy. We have observed occipital lobe epilepsy with mirror focus. Before epilepsy surgery, the subject's seizure onset zone was observed in the left occipital area by ictal studies. Her seizures abated for 10 months after the resection of left occipital epileptogenic focus, but recurred then. The recurred seizures were originated from the right occipital area which was in the homotopic contralateral area. This case can be an evidence that occipital lobe epilepsy may have mirror foci, even though each occipital lobe has any direct interhemispheric callosal connections between them.

  3. Epilepsy priorities in Europe: A report of the ILAE-IBE Epilepsy Advocacy Europe Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulac, Michel; de Boer, Hanneke; Elger, Christian; Glynn, Mike; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Little, Ann; Mifsud, Janet; Perucca, Emilio; Pitkänen, Asla; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The European Forum on Epilepsy Research (ERF2013), which took place in Dublin, Ireland, on May 26-29, 2013, was designed to appraise epilepsy research priorities in Europe through consultation with clinical and basic scientists as well as representatives of lay organizations and health care providers. The ultimate goal was to provide a platform to improve the lives of persons with epilepsy by influencing the political agenda of the EU. The Forum highlighted the epidemiologic, medical, and social importance of epilepsy in Europe, and addressed three separate but closely related concepts. First, possibilities were explored as to how the stigma and social burden associated with epilepsy could be reduced through targeted initiatives at EU national and regional levels. Second, ways to ensure optimal standards of care throughout Europe were specifically discussed. Finally, a need for further funding in epilepsy research within the European Horizon 2020 funding programme was communicated to politicians and policymakers participating to the forum. Research topics discussed specifically included (1) epilepsy in the developing brain; (2) novel targets for innovative diagnostics and treatment of epilepsy; (3) what is required for prevention and cure of epilepsy; and (4) epilepsy and comorbidities, with a special focus on aging and mental health. This report provides a summary of recommendations that emerged at ERF2013 about how to (1) strengthen epilepsy research, (2) reduce the treatment gap, and (3) reduce the burden and stigma associated with epilepsy. Half of the 6 million European citizens with epilepsy feel stigmatized and experience social exclusion, stressing the need for funding trans-European awareness campaigns and monitoring their impact on stigma, in line with the global commitment of the European Commission and with the recommendations made in the 2011 Written Declaration on Epilepsy. Epilepsy care has high rates of misdiagnosis and considerable variability in

  4. Radiation curing: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The science and technology of radiation curing have progressed substantially within the last 20 years. Nevertheless, radiation-curable compositions typically command relatively small shares in many of their competitive markets. This situation signifies that potential advantages of radiation curing are not generally perceived to overcome their limitations. An important objective of this book is to address this issue, within the scope of the subjects offered, by providing the present state of knowledge and by identifying the directions and challenges for future studies. The first chapter introduces radiation curing. Chapter 2 offers the first systematic presentation of inorganic and organometallic photoinitiators. Chapters 3 and 4 present the analytical techniques of photocalorimetry and real-time infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Recent advances in resin technology are offered in Chapters 5 and 6, which constitute the first comprehensive accounts of (meth)acrylated silicones and vinyl ethers, respectively. Radiation-curable coatings, printing inks, and adhesives are discussed in Chapters 7-9, respectively. Chapter 10 offers a discussion on photopolymer imaging systems

  5. Epilepsy through the ages: An artistic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Rizvi, Syed; Téllez-Zenteno, Jose Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The historical allure of epilepsy transcends academic circles and serves as fascinating critique of the state of the times-its values, judgments, mythos, and people. Immortalized and laid bare in artistic renderings of epilepsy are societal truths, at times both disparately grandiose and grotesque. During the middle ages and Renaissance, the European discourse on epilepsy assumed religious fervor. Epilepsy was considered a demonic machination and its cure an act of divine intercession. A similar theme is found in the artistic depiction of epilepsy from the Inca and Aztec civilizations of that time. After the 19th century drew to a close, the ascendency of empiricism coincided with waning creative interest in epilepsy, with few paintings or pieces to capture insightful perspectives on the illness. In this paper, we review the relationship between art and epilepsy and present two contemporary paintings that convey current western perceptions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. C-CURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — C-CURE system manages certain aspects of the access control system, including collecting employee and contractor names and photographs. The Office of Security uses...

  7. Listening to Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunquell, Phillip J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses what epilepsy is and what it is not, defines types of epileptic seizures, identifies epilepsy syndromes, discusses antiepileptic drugs, describes seizure surgery, and examines issues of quality of life. (JDD)

  8. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  9. Neurostimulation as a promising epilepsy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yicong; Wang, Yuping

    2017-12-01

    The revolution in theory, swift technological developments, and invention of new devices have driven tremendous progress in neurostimulation as a third-line treatment for epilepsy. Over the past decades, neurostimulation took its place in the field of epilepsy as an advanced treatment technique and opened up a new world. Numerous animal studies have proven the physical efficacy of stimulation of the brain and peripheral nerves. Based on this optimistic fundamental research, new advanced techniques are being explored in clinical practice. Over the past century, drawing on the benefits brought about by vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy, various new neurostimulation modalities have been developed to control seizures. Clinical studies including case reports, case series, and clinical trials have been booming in the past several years. This article gives a comprehensive review of most of these clinical studies. In addition to highlighting the advantages of neurostimulation for the treatment of epilepsy, concerns with this modality and future development directions are also discussed. The biggest advantage of neurostimulation over pharmacological treatments for epilepsy is the modulation of the epilepsy network by delivering stimuli at a specific target or the "hub." Conversely, however, a lack of knowledge of epilepsy networks and the mechanisms of neurostimulation may hinder further development. Therefore, theoretical research on the mechanism of epileptogenesis and epilepsy networks is needed in the future. Within the multiple modalities of neuromodulation, the final choice should be made after full discussion with a multidisciplinary team at a presurgical conference. Furthermore, the establishment of a neurostimulation system with standardized parameters and rigorous guidelines is another important issue. To achieve this goal, a worldwide collaboration of epilepsy centers is also suggested in the future.

  10. Knowledge about epilepsy among teachers and epileptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Valls Tosetti

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available 223 epileptics patients and their families and 136 teachers from public and private schools were submitted to similar questionnaires related to inheritance, transmission, cure, complilcation rates, care during seizures, need for information on the disease, habits, comparison with other diseases and to the educational and social performances of epileptics. Cure and complication nates accounted for the main differences between those populations. Epileptics could recognize a bigger number of complications but still expected to be cured from the disease. The majority of teachers and patients have never been informed about epilepsy and this finding was related to the big number of equivocal answers obtained from them. Put together, the data showed that social and educational performance of epileptic patients could be disturbed by medical and social parameters. Some, of them could be improved by an educational program towards these aspects of epilepsy.

  11. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Filipa; Monteiro, José Paulo; Fonseca, Maria José; Robalo, Conceição; Simões, Mário Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal ...

  12. BAD knockout provides metabolic seizure resistance in a genetic model of epilepsy with sudden unexplained death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jeannine; Burnham, Veronica; Tedoldi, Meghan; Danial, Nika N; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic alteration, either through the ketogenic diet (KD) or by genetic alteration of the BAD protein, can produce seizure protection in acute chemoconvulsant models of epilepsy. To assess the seizure-protective role of knocking out (KO) the Bad gene in a chronic epilepsy model, we used the Kcna1 -/- model of epilepsy, which displays progressively increased seizure severity and recapitulates the early death seen in sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Beginning on postnatal day 24 (P24), we continuously video monitored Kcna1 -/- and Kcna1 -/- Bad -/- double knockout mice to assess survival and seizure severity. We found that Kcna1 -/- Bad -/- mice outlived Kcna1 -/- mice by approximately 2 weeks. Kcna1 -/- Bad -/- mice also spent significantly less time in seizure than Kcna1 -/- mice on P24 and the day of death, showing that BadKO provides seizure resistance in a genetic model of chronic epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Epilepsy awareness, knowledge and attitudes among secondary school teachers in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujisić Slavica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Epilepsy is associated with numerous misconceptions due to its dramatic manifestation and poor knowledge among the public. The aim of this study was to assess epilepsy awareness, knowledge and attitudes among secondary school teachers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey by sending a simple self-administered questionnaire to all secondary schools in Podgorica, Montenegro. The questionnaire contained 16 questions regarding epilepsy awareness, knowledge and attitudes, first aid attitudes, as well as demographic and teaching experience data. Results. We analyzed 219 questionnaires. Almost all teachers had heard or read about epilepsy, 57.5% of whom knew someone with epilepsy; 21% had a pupil with epilepsy in their class; more than 50% had witnessed a seizure, with 25% of them linking epilepsy to a central nervous disturbance. Over 60% of teachers chose convulsions/shaking to be a major feature of an epileptic attack. Forty percent of teachers thought epilepsy could be cured. Almost 80% thought people with epilepsy should get married and have children, but only one third would marry a person with epilepsy. Over 13% would object to their child playing with another child with epilepsy, and more than 50% would object if their child married a person with epilepsy. About 35% of teachers suggested putting something in a person’s mouth during attack to prevent tongue injury and asphyxiation. Conclusion. Awareness and understanding of epilepsy among teachers were satisfactory, but the results also revealed negative attitudes. Teachers need further education about epilepsy to increase seizure recognition and first aid management, reduce stigma, and intensify acceptance of people with epilepsy.

  14. CURING OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES USING MICROWAVE RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING (RTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. YUSOFF

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.

  15. Radiation curing - a personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter briefly introduces radiation curing from the personal perspective of the author. Topics covered in this chapter include characteristic features of radiation curing, photoinitiated polymerization -- ultraviolet (UV) curing, and general principles of electron beam (EB) curing. 57 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Radiation curing in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrancken, A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; what is radiation curing; history; radiation curable resins (with properties of products); ultraviolet and electron beam curing; photoinitiation and the ultraviolet light curing process; electron beam curing (initiation; electron beam accelerators); end uses (graphic arts; wood finishing; paper upgrading; adhesives; metal finishing; electronic chemical; floor coatings). (U.K.)

  17. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.; Garnett, J.; Loo Teck Ng

    1999-01-01

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  18. Basic knowledge of epilepsy among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamkao, Siriporn; Tiamkao, Somsak; Auevitchayapat, Narong; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Chaiyakum, Aporanee; Jitpimolmard, Suthipun; Phuttharak, Warinthorn; Phunikhom, Kutcharin; Saengsuwan M, Jiamjit; Vannaprasaht, Suda

    2007-11-01

    The medical students' knowledge about basic medical neuroscience in the preclinical level may be fragmented and incomplete. Evaluate the knowledge of students prior to a lecture on epilepsy in clinical level. One hundred ten fourth-year medical students' knowledge was accessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The presented results revealed that 91.8% of respondents knew that epilepsy arose from a transient dysfunction in the brain. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCs) were the most common type (91.5%) they knew and absence seizures were the least common type (33.6%) they knew. All of them knew that eating pork and punishment of gods did not cause epilepsy. However 50% thought that genetics was a cause and 80.3% did not know that stroke and sleep deprivation (92.7%) cause epilepsy. About treatment and prognosis, only 28.2% of respondents thought epilepsy can be cured and patients should take antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for seizure free 2-5 years (48.2%), life long (33.6%). They knew that the patients should be prohibited from driving (80%), working on machinery (74.5%), and (27.3%) avoid drinking. However, they knew that the patients could marry (100%), get pregnant (98.2%), and lactate (91.9%). Regarding the first aid management, 50.9% of them recommended that placing a piece of wood between the teeth during a seizure and perform chest compressions (20.0%). Means knowledge scores is about 60%, the highest score is the definition of epilepsy (90.2%) and the lowest is type of seizure (43%). The findings indicated that lecturers should review aspects ofpathophysiology and emphasize on type of seizure, cause, consequences, and prognosis including first-aid management.

  19. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  20. Ego functions in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...... than 15 years when the disease began. The number of anticonvulsants administered did not influence the results. No difference on adaptive level of ego functioning was found between the group with primary generalized epilepsy and the group with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similarly, the temporal lobe...... served as controls: 15 patients with a non-neurological but relapsing disorder, psoriasis, and 15 healthy volunteers. Compared with the group of healthy volunteers, a decreased adaptive level of ego functioning was found in the epilepsy groups, regardless of seizure types and EEG findings, and...

  1. [Current management of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  2. Epilepsy in Ireland: towards the primary-tertiary care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Jarlath; Delanty, Norman; Normand, Charles; Coyne, Imelda; McQuaid, Louise; Collins, Claire; Boland, Michael; Grimson, Jane; Fitzsimons, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease affecting people of every age, gender, race and socio-economic background. The diagnosis and optimal management relies on contribution from a number of healthcare disciplines in a variety of healthcare settings. To explore the interface between primary care and specialist epilepsy services in Ireland. Using appreciative inquiry, focus groups were held with healthcare professionals (n=33) from both primary and tertiary epilepsy specialist services in Ireland. There are significant challenges to delivering a consistent high standard of epilepsy care in Ireland. The barriers that were identified are: the stigma of epilepsy, unequal access to care services, insufficient human resources, unclear communication between primary-tertiary services and lack of knowledge. Improving the management of people with epilepsy requires reconfiguration of the primary-tertiary interface and establishing clearly defined roles and formalised clinical pathways. Such initiatives require resources in the form of further education and training and increased usage of information communication technology (ICT). Epilepsy services across the primary-tertiary interface can be significantly enhanced through the implementation of a shared model of care underpinned by an electronic patient record (EPR) system and information communication technology (ICT). Better chronic disease management has the potential to halt the progression of epilepsy with ensuing benefits for patients and the healthcare system. Copyright 2009 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epilepsy on the silver screen in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms. Although there has been a steady progression away from concealment of the condition, epilepsy continues to signal 'otherness' in movie characters and seldom in a good way. All too often, a character has epilepsy to maximize the unease of the audience with them; it is a device that is used to signal 'this character is not like you'. However, amongst the hackneyed negative stereotypes, accurate portrayals of the condition are beginning to emerge, not least due to active collaborations between filmmakers and epilepsy advocacy groups. Far from being worthy, it is heartening that these films are also those that are the most absorbing and thought-provoking of the cinematic output thus far this century. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Beam in on curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, Dr.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam curing of paints and allied materials is discussed. Examples of applications are: silicone papers; painting of metal; bonding of flake adhesives; bonding of grinding media (binders); paints for external uses; painting shaped parts; bi-reactive painting systems. An example is given of the calculation of the cost of irradiation. (U.K.)

  5. Curing the queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, Maartje Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we study several problems related to the management of healthcare and the cure of disease. In each chapter a hospital capacity distribution problem is analyzed using techniques from operations research, also known as mathematical decision theory. The problems considered are

  6. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy in Adults with TSC Individuals with tuberous sclerosis ... being well controlled for long periods of time. Epilepsy and Seizures Epilepsy is any brain disorder that ...

  7. The causes of epilepsy: changing concepts of etiology of epilepsy over the past 150 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorvon, Simon D

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides a survey of the changing concepts of the etiology of epilepsy from 1860 to 2010, focusing on the first two 50-year periods and outlining more briefly major developments in the past 50 years. Among the concepts reviewed in the first 100 years are: the division between predisposing and exciting causes, idiopathic and genuine epilepsy, organic epilepsy, the concept of "cause" being equivalent to "causal mechanism," Russell Reynolds etiological classification, the neurological taint and theories of degeneration, the self-perpetuating nature of seizures, reflex theories of etiology, autointoxication, heredity and eugenics, epilepsy due to brain disorders, the role of EEG and of hippocampal sclerosis, psychological theories of causation, and the multifactorial view of epilepsy etiology. In the past 50 years, the major advances in studying causation in epilepsy have been: clinical biochemistry, neuroimaging, molecular genetics, studies of mechanisms of epilepsy, better statistical methodologies and classification. A number of general observations can be made: the identification of "cause" is not as simple as it might at first appear; progress in the study of causation has been often erratic and travelled up many cul-de-sacs; theories of causation are heavily influenced by societal influences and fashion, and is also heavily dependent on applied methodologies; the recently explored possibility that the underlying inherited mechanisms of epilepsy are shared with other neuropsychiatric conditions is in effect a reinvention of the concept of the neurological trait, and this has ethical and social implications. Considering and classifying cause in terms of causal mechanism, as was suggested by Hughlings Jackson, is an ultimate goal. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  9. THE INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE AGAINST EPILEPSY AT THE THRESHOLD OF ITS SECOND CENTURY: YEAR 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSHÉ, Solomon L.; PERUCCA, EMILIO; WIEBE, SAMUEL; MATHERN, GARY W.

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) developed its four-year strategic plan in collaboration with past, current, and future leaders (www.ilae-epilepsy.org). This is the first yearly progress report, prepared by the management committee and the chair of the Strategic Task Force, to highlight progress toward achieving the plan’s goals. PMID:21219305

  10. Epilepsy: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandanavana Subbareddy Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 50 million people living with epilepsy worldwide, and most of them reside in developing countries. About 10 million persons with epilepsy are there in India. Many people with active epilepsy do not receive appropriate treatment for their condition, leading to large treatment gap. The lack of knowledge of antiepileptic drugs, poverty, cultural beliefs, stigma, poor health infrastructure, and shortage of trained professionals contribute for the treatment gap. Infectious diseases play an important role in seizures and long-term burden causing both new-onset epilepsy and status epilepticus. Proper education and appropriate health care services can make tremendous change in a country like India. There have been many original researches in various aspects of epilepsy across India. Some of the geographically specific epilepsies occur only in certain regions of our country which have been highlighted by authors. Even the pre-surgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy is available in many centers in our country. This article attempts to provide a complete preview of epilepsy in India.

  11. Pharmacogenomics in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2018-02-22

    There is high variability in the response to antiepileptic treatment across people with epilepsy. Genetic factors significantly contribute to such variability. Recent advances in the genetics and neurobiology of the epilepsies are establishing the basis for a new era in the treatment of epilepsy, focused on each individual and their specific epilepsy. Variation in response to antiepileptic drug treatment may arise from genetic variation in a range of gene categories, including genes affecting drug pharmacokinetics, and drug pharmacodynamics, but also genes held to actually cause the epilepsy itself. From a purely pharmacogenetic perspective, there are few robust genetic findings with established evidence in epilepsy. Many findings are still controversial with anecdotal or less secure evidence and need further validation, e.g. variation in genes for transporter systems and antiepileptic drug targets. The increasing use of genetic sequencing and the results of large-scale collaborative projects may soon expand the established evidence. Precision medicine treatments represent a growing area of interest, focussing on reversing or circumventing the pathophysiological effects of specific gene mutations. This could lead to a dramatic improvement of the effectiveness and safety of epilepsy treatments, by targeting the biological mechanisms responsible for epilepsy in each specific individual. Whilst much has been written about epilepsy pharmacogenetics, there does now seem to be building momentum that promises to deliver results of use in clinic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging of the epilepsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Radiology/Neuroradiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Imaging of epilepsy patients is challenging, since epileptogenic lesions (defined as structural lesions causally related to the epilepsy syndrome) may be small and often do not change during life. Prior clinical information about the epilepsy syndrome and the semiology of the seizures is needed in order to plan the examination properly. The effort to detect an epileptogenic lesion is directed to partial (focal) epilepsy syndromes whereas - by definition - no lesion is identified in idiopathic epilepsies. Most patients with partial epilepsies suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies. In these patients, 2- to 3-mm-thick T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) fast spin echo slices along or perpendicular to the temporal lobe length axis have the highest diagnostic efficacy. In contrast, in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsies perpendicular FLAIR slices through the anatomic region, from which, due to clinical and EEG criteria, the seizures are likely to originate, are preferred. The imaging features of common epileptogenic lesions (hippocampal sclerosis, long-term epilepsy-associated tumours, focal cortical dysplasias, vascular malformations, encephalitis including limbic and Rasmussen's encephalitis, gyral scarring including ulegyria) are detailed in the second section of this paper. (orig.)

  13. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  14. Stigma of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Nancy F; Camfield, Carol S; Camfield, Peter R

    2008-09-01

    Epilepsy directly affects 50 million people worldwide. Most can achieve excellent seizure control; however, people living with epilepsy continue to suffer from enacted or perceived stigma that is based on myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings that have persisted for thousands of years. This paper reviews the frequency and nature of stigma toward epilepsy. Significant negative attitudes prevail in the adolescent and adult public worldwide leading to loneliness and social avoidance both in school and in the workplace. People with epilepsy are often wrongly viewed as having mental health and antisocial issues and as being potentially violent toward others. Twenty-five percent of adults having epilepsy describe social stigma as a result of their epilepsy. They fear rejection and often feel shame or loneliness from this diagnosis. The psychosocial and social impact of epilepsy is significant. Yet few specific interventions have been demonstrated to alter this perception. The effect on public education is primarily short-term, while change over the long-term in attitudes and inaccurate beliefs have not presently been proven effective. School education programming demonstrates improved knowledge and attitude a month after a classroom intervention, but persisting change over a longer period of time has not been evaluated. In-depth adult psycho-educational programs for adults with epilepsy improves knowledge, coping skills and level of felt stigma. However these gains have not demonstrated persistence over time. Myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings about epilepsy continue and programs aimed at increasing knowledge and reducing negative public attitudes should be enhanced.

  15. Imaging of the epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging of epilepsy patients is challenging, since epileptogenic lesions (defined as structural lesions causally related to the epilepsy syndrome) may be small and often do not change during life. Prior clinical information about the epilepsy syndrome and the semiology of the seizures is needed in order to plan the examination properly. The effort to detect an epileptogenic lesion is directed to partial (focal) epilepsy syndromes whereas - by definition - no lesion is identified in idiopathic epilepsies. Most patients with partial epilepsies suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies. In these patients, 2- to 3-mm-thick T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) fast spin echo slices along or perpendicular to the temporal lobe length axis have the highest diagnostic efficacy. In contrast, in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsies perpendicular FLAIR slices through the anatomic region, from which, due to clinical and EEG criteria, the seizures are likely to originate, are preferred. The imaging features of common epileptogenic lesions (hippocampal sclerosis, long-term epilepsy-associated tumours, focal cortical dysplasias, vascular malformations, encephalitis including limbic and Rasmussen's encephalitis, gyral scarring including ulegyria) are detailed in the second section of this paper. (orig.)

  16. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  17. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  18. What is radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinstle, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation curing is a highly interdisciplinary and sophisticated field. Successful interplay between chemists and engineers of various disciplines is required. Throughout the research-development-applications cycle, two disciplines for which hybridization is extremely important are radiation chemistry and polymer chemistry. The molecular level effects caused by absorbed radiation depend strongly on the type and intensity of the radiation. Efficient utilization of the radiation to effect desired transformations in a monomer and/or polymer system, and maximization of final properties, depend on well-planned polymer synthesis and system formulation. The elementary basis of these two disciplines and the manner in which they necessarily coalesce in the field of radiation curing are reviewed

  19. Beam in on curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, Dr.

    1981-01-01

    This third part of an article on the electron beam curing of paints covers the following aspects: inertising equipment; working without inert gas; increase in temperature when irradiating; irradiating plants; laboratory plants; plant operating from coil to coil; plant for shaped parts; possible applications; decorative films, paper, PVC; packaging material; metallisation of paper films; film bonding; strengthening of flock; coating; pressure sensitive adhesives. (U.K.)

  20. Distance to Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Capachi, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Distance to Cure A three-part television series by Casey Capachi www.distancetocure.com   Abstract   How far would you go for health care? This three-part television series, featuring two introductory segments between each piece, focuses on the physical, cultural, and political obstacles facing rural Native American patients and the potential of health technology to break down those barriers to care.   Part one,Telemedici...

  1. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Epilepsy genetics: clinical beginnings and social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J A; Rees, M I; Smith, P E M

    2009-07-01

    The approach to epilepsy care has transformed in the last 30 years, with more and better anti-epileptic medications, improved cerebral imaging and increased surgical options. Alongside this, developments in neuroscience and molecular genetics have furthered the understanding of epileptogenesis. Future developments in pharmacogenomics hold the promise of antiepileptic drugs matched to specific genotypes. Despite this rapid progress, one-third of epilepsy patients remain refractory to medication, with their seizures impacting upon day-to-day activity, social well-being, independence, economic output and quality of life. International genome collaborations, such as HapMap and the Welcome Trust Case-Control Consortium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping project have identified common genetic variations in diseases of major public health importance. Such genetic signposts should help to identify at-risk populations with a view to producing more effective pharmaceutical treatments. Neurological disorders, despite comprising one-fifth of UK acute medical hospital admissions, are surprisingly under-represented in these projects. Epilepsy is the commonest serious neurological disorder worldwide. Although physically, psychologically, socially and financially disabling, it rarely receives deserved attention from physicians, scientists and governmental bodies. As outlined in this article, research into epilepsy genetics presents unique challenges. These help to explain why the identification of its complex genetic traits has lagged well behind other disciplines, particularly the efforts made in neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical beginnings must underpin any genetic understanding in epilepsy. Success in identifying genetic traits in other disorders does not make the automatic case for genome-wide screening in epilepsy, but such is a desired goal. The essential clinical approach of accurately phenotyping, diagnosing and interpreting the dynamic nature of epilepsy

  3. Mortality in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitiris, Nikolas; Mohanraj, Rajiv; Norrie, John; Brodie, Martin J

    2007-05-01

    All studies report an increased mortality risk for people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Population-based studies have demonstrated that the increased mortality is often related to the cause of the epilepsy. Common etiologies include neoplasia, cerebrovascular disease, and pneumonia. Deaths in selected cohorts, such as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), status epilepticus (SE), suicides, and accidents are more frequently epilepsy-related. SUDEP is a particular cause for concern in younger people, and whether and when SUDEP should be discussed with patients with epilepsy remain problematic issues. Risk factors for SUDEP include generalized tonic-clonic seizures, increased seizure frequency, concomitant learning disability, and antiepileptic drug polypharmacy. The overall incidence of SE may be increasing, although case fatality rates remain constant. Mortality is frequently secondary to acute symptomatic disorders. Poor compliance with treatment in patients with epilepsy accounts for a small proportion of deaths from SE. The incidence of suicide is increased, particularly for individuals with epilepsy and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Late mortality figures in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery vary and are likely to reflect differences in case selection. Future studies of mortality should be prospective and follow agreed guidelines to better quantify risk and causation in individual populations.

  4. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  5. Epilepsi og orale manifestationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Haubek, Dorte; Østergaard, John Rosendahl

    2016-01-01

    Risiko for sygdom I mundhulen hos patienter med epilepsy Epilepsi er en kronisk neurologisk lidelse, der ofte vil kræve medicinsk behandling for at holde patienterne fri for anfald. Lidelsen kan have betydning for patientens psykosociale og kognitive udvikling, der indirekte kan have betydning...

  6. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, Wilhelmina Adriana Maria

    2006-01-01

    Het proefschrift beschrijft de relatie tussen epilepsie en psychiatrische stoornissen. Voor het onderzoek werden zowel klinische als poliklinische patiënten met epilepsie onderzocht op het voorkomen van DSM as I klinische stoornissen en as II persoonlijkheidsstoornissen. De resultaten werden

  7. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...

  8. Behandling af rolandisk epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Maria Jose; Ahmad, Banoo Bakir

    2017-01-01

    Recent literature indicates, that rolandic epilepsy/epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes may not be as benign as previously assumed. This study investigates the existing evidence, which describes the treatment effects on seizure frequency as well as improvement of cognition in childre...

  9. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  10. Behavior Disorders and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 127 children with epilepsy aged 8-12 years and their mothers, designed to identify factors contributing to behavior problems, is reported from the Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis; the Minnesota Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Minneapolis; and the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.

  11. Epilepsy: A Disruptive Force in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rohaid; Connolly, Ian D; Feroze, Abdullah H; Awad, Ahmed J; Choudhri, Omar A; Grant, Gerald A

    2016-06-01

    Since it was first described in a Mesopotamian text in 2000 bc, countless individuals have offered their perspectives on epilepsy's cause, treatment, and even deeper spiritual significance. However, despite the attention the disease has received through the millennia, it has only been within the past half-century that truly effective treatment options have been available. As a result, for the vast majority of recorded history, individuals with epilepsy have not only had to deal with the uncertainty of their next epileptic seizure but also the concomitant stigma and ostracization. Interestingly, these individuals have included several prominent historical figures, including Julius Caesar, Vladimir Lenin, and Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The fact that epilepsy has appeared in the lives of influential historical people means that the disease has played some role in affecting the progress of human civilization. Epilepsy has cut short the lives of key political leaders, affected the output of talented cultural icons, and, especially within the past half century, influenced the collective understanding of neuroscience and the human nervous system. In this article, the authors review how epilepsy throughout history has manifested itself in the lives of prominent figures and how the disease has helped shape the course of humanity's political, cultural, and scientific evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian; Lin, Jack J.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and especially memory disruption is a major complicating feature of the epilepsies. In this review we begin with a focus on the problem of memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. We start with a brief overview of the early development of knowledge regarding the anatomic substrates of memory disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy, followed by discussion of the refinement of that knowledge over time as informed by the outcomes of epilepsy surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy) and the clinical efforts to predict those patients at greatest risk of adverse cognitive outcomes following epilepsy surgery. These efforts also yielded new theoretical insights regarding the function of the human hippocampus and a few examples of these insights are touched on briefly. Finally, the vastly changing view of temporal lobe epilepsy is examined including findings demonstrating that anatomic abnormalities extend far outside the temporal lobe, cognitive impairments extend beyond memory function, with linkage of these distributed cognitive and anatomic abnormalities pointing to a new understanding of the anatomic architecture of cognitive impairment in epilepsy. Challenges remain in understanding the origin of these cognitive and anatomic abnormalities, their progression over time, and most importantly, how to intervene to protect cognitive and brain health in epilepsy. PMID:21304484

  13. Genetic Forms of Epilepsies and other Paroxysmal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather E.; Poduri, Annapurna; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms explain the pathophysiology of many forms of epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders such as alternating hemiplegia of childhood, familial hemiplegic migraine, and paroxysmal dyskinesias. Epilepsy is a key feature of well-defined genetic syndromes including Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and others. There is an increasing number of singe gene causes or susceptibility factors associated with several epilepsy syndromes, including the early onset epileptic encephalopathies, benign neonatal/infantile seizures, progressive myoclonus epilepsies, genetic generalized and benign focal epilepsies, epileptic aphasias, and familial focal epilepsies. Molecular mechanisms are diverse, and a single gene can be associated with a broad range of phenotypes. Additional features, such as dysmorphisms, head size, movement disorders, and family history may provide clues to a genetic diagnosis. Genetic testing can impact medical care and counseling. We discuss genetic mechanisms of epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders, tools and indications for genetic testing, known genotype-phenotype associations, the importance of genetic counseling, and a look towards the future of epilepsy genetics. PMID:25192505

  14. Managing Epilepsy in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dwyer, V

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest medical conditions affecting women of childbearing age1. In the most recent triennial report into maternal deaths in Ireland and the UK, two thirds of women who died had a medical condition. In this report, 14 maternal deaths during pregnancy and up to 42 days postpartum were attributable to epilepsy or seizures; a rate of 0.4 per 100,000 maternities. In 12 of these women’ the cause was sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. Thus, epilepsy remains a high-risk condition in pregnancy. The gold standard of care is a multidisciplinary approach involving obstetricians, a neurologist and an epilepsy nurse specialist2. Like other units in Ireland this multidisciplinary service is currently provided in the National Maternity Hospital’s maternal medicine clinic, in conjunction with neurology services in Beaumont Hospital.

  15. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyung Ah

    2007-01-01

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization

  16. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung Ah [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization.

  17. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  19. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  20. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  1. Epilepsy after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Høgenhaven, H; Thage, O

    1987-01-01

    Development of epilepsy was studied prospectively in a group of 77 consecutive stroke patients. Included were stroke patients less than 75 years old admitted within the first 3 days after the stroke. Excluded were patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vertebrobasilar stroke, and patients...... with other severe diseases. Cerebral angiography, CT, and EEG were performed in all patients. The patients were followed clinically for 2 to 4 years. Seven patients (9%) developed epilepsy. Of 23 patients with lesions involving the cortex, 6 (26%) developed epilepsy. Of 54 patients in whom the cortex...... was not involved, only 1 (2%) developed epilepsy. Patients with persisting paresis and cortical involvement seem to be at particularly high risk of developing epilepsy, as 50% of such patients (6 of 12) developed the disease....

  2. 77 FR 59197 - Epilepsy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Epilepsy... Program Expansion Supplement Award to the Epilepsy Foundation of America. SUMMARY: The Health Resources... Child Health Bureau's Epilepsy Program to the Epilepsy Foundation of America (U23MC19824) to support...

  3. Epilepsy during the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Sidiropoulou, Kalliopi; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the views on epilepsy as a disease and symptom during medieval times and the Renaissance. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports along with a review of the available literature in PubMed was undertaken. With the exception of some early Byzantine doctors in the East and some of the representatives of Arab medicine, scientific views and observations on epilepsy in the West were overrun by the domination of the Catholic Church. This led to the formulation of superstitious views of the disease; epileptics were considered possessed and, therefore, only religious methods could possibly cure it. Near the end of the fourteenth century, physicians were emancipated from Catholic intervention. The Renaissance is marked by a plethora of new treatises on epilepsy regarding the mechanisms of epileptic convulsions, the connection with various clinical conditions such as tumors and venereal diseases and the collection of interesting cases.

  4. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  5. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  6. [Epilepsy: incidens, prevalens and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Lars; Sundelin, Heléne; Sveinsson, Olafur

    2018-05-21

    Epilepsy affects people in all ages with the highest incidence in small children, particularly before age one year, and in elderly aged 65 years and older. In Sweden, between 4500-5000 persons develop epilepsy annually. Based on studies from North America and Europe, including the Nordic countries, the number of people with active epilepsy in Sweden is between 60000-70000. The lifetime risk for epilepsy up to age 85 years is 4-5 %, i.e. approximately every 25th person. The new epilepsy classification divides etiology into the following groups: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown. The majority (70%) of people with epilepsy eventually become seizure free. Epilepsy increases the risk of psychosocial problems and accidents. People with epilepsy have up to a 3-fold increase in mortality, mainly due to the underlying causes and epilepsy related deaths, e.g. status epilepticus, SUDEP and accidents. Somatic, psychiatric and neuropsychiatric comorbidities are common in epilepsy.

  7. Genetic determinants of common epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    and insufficient power. We aimed to identify risk loci through meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for all epilepsy and the two largest clinical subtypes (genetic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy). METHODS: We combined genome-wide association data from 12 cohorts of individuals with epilepsy...... not previously implicated in epilepsy and provides further evidence about the genetic architecture of these disorders, with the ultimate aim of assisting in disease classification and prognosis. The data suggest that specific loci can act pleiotropically raising risk for epilepsy broadly, or can have effects...... and controls from population-based datasets. Controls were ethnically matched with cases. We phenotyped individuals with epilepsy into categories of genetic generalised epilepsy, focal epilepsy, or unclassified epilepsy. After standardised filtering for quality control and imputation to account for different...

  8. Art and epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Hunter, Gary; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The impact of health and disease has led many artists to depict these themes for thousands of years. Specifically, epilepsy has been the subject of many famous works, likely because of the dramatic and misunderstood nature of the clinical presentation. It often evokes religious and even mythical processes. Epilepsy surgical treatment has revolutionized the care of selected patients and is a relatively recent advance. Epilepsy surgery has been depicted in very few artistic works. The first portrait showing a potential surgical treatment for patients with epilepsy was painted in the 12th century. During the Renaissance, Bosch famously provided artistic commentary on traditional beliefs in "The stone of madness". Several of these works demonstrate a surgeon extracting a stone from a patient's head, at one time believed to be the source of all "folly", including epileptic seizures, psychosis, intellectual disability, depression, and a variety of other illnesses. There are some contemporary art pieces including themes around epilepsy surgery, all of them depicting ancient Inca Empire procedures such as trepanning. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with epilepsy surgery and also its historical context at the time the work was produced. We also present a painting from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino that represents the patient's journey through refractory epilepsy, investigations, and ultimately recovery. Through this work, the artist intends to communicate hope and reassurance to patients going through this difficult process. © 2013.

  9. Epilepsy is Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, Mia; Gjelsvik, Bergljot; Nakken, Karl O

    2015-10-01

    In "Epilepsy is Dancing", in Antony and the Johnsons' album "The Crying Light"(2009), the lyrics and accompanying music video depicts an epileptic seizure in which the person is transferred to another beautiful and magical world. This may be called "enchanted epilepsy"; i.e., the experience of epilepsy as deeply nourishing and (positively) transforming, is conveyed not only in the lyrics but also the visual and auditory qualities of the video. The seizure in the video gives associations to Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's dream". If epilepsy appears in music lyrics, the focus is mostly on negative aspects of the illness, such as horror, fear and repulsive sexuality associated with the fits [1,2]. Contradictory to these lyrics, Anthony and the Johnsons' song is an example of a positive portrayal of epilepsy. It is open to a multitude of meanings, emotional valence and appraisal of epilepsy. By widening the experiential range associated with epileptic seizures, these lyrics highlight the inherently construed nature of epileptic experience. The song stands out in several ways. First, it describes epilepsy in positive terms, prioritising the euphoric, ecstatic, potentially empowering and enhancing aspects of epileptic seizures. Second, the lyrics and accompanying video point to divine experiences associated with epileptic seizures. Through the lyrics and the music video we are, as an audience, able to sense a snicket of an epileptic seizure, but also the universal experience of loosing control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Leprosy: eradication or cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, S

    1995-01-01

    The National Leprosy Eradication Program (NLEP), launched in 1986, has brought medicine for leprosy to more people than ever before, covering 200 of India's 455 districts. Since 1988, the number of leprosy patients discharged as cured each year has been greater than the number of newly detected, thus moving the country closer to its goal of eradicating leprosy from India. A substantial number of the 3 million people with leprosy in India are likely to come under the coverage of the NLEP. The author, however, argues that the fight against leprosy and the NLEP should be considered in their historical context. Leprosy is therefore used to illustrate how the perhaps interchangeable terms eradication and cure are charged with history and custom. Historically, the focus on eradicating leprosy has had terrible consequences for the patient. In England, perceptions about leprosy are relevant to the situation India, for colonial policy on leprosy was largely derivative. In the 1880s, especially, leprosy excited the public imagination. Asylums adopted segregation and confinement during this period for people with leprosy and the colonial government in India supported that approach from 1882. The author concludes that while the NLEP is laudable, the program must not focus upon eradicating leprosy. It should instead focus upon the leprosy patient, who has for so long been denied and discriminated against. The individual must be placed at the center of any program. Some steps in this direction have been taken.

  11. Epilepsy diagnostic and treatment needs identified with a collaborative database involving tertiary centers in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipaux, Mathilde; Szurhaj, William; Vercueil, Laurent; Milh, Mathieu; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Cances, Claude; Auvin, Stéphane; Chassagnon, Serge; Napuri, Sylvia; Allaire, Catherine; Derambure, Philippe; Marchal, Cécile; Caubel, Isabelle; Ricard-Mousnier, Brigitte; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Pinard, Jean-Marc; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; de Baracé, Claire; Kahane, Philippe; Gautier, Agnès; Hamelin, Sophie; Coste-Zeitoun, Delphine; Rosenberg, Sarah-Dominique; Clerson, Pierre; Nabbout, Rima; Kuchenbuch, Mathieu; Picot, Marie-Christine; Kaminska, Anna

    2016-05-01

    To obtain perspective on epilepsy in patients referred to tertiary centers in France, and describe etiology, epilepsy syndromes, and identify factors of drug resistance and comorbidities. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the characteristics of 5,794 pediatric and adult patients with epilepsy included in a collaborative database in France between 2007 and 2013. Comparisons between groups used Student's t-test or Fisher's exact test for binary or categorical variables. Factors associated with drug resistance and intellectual disability were evaluated in multi-adjusted logistic regression models. Mean age at inclusion was 17.9 years; children accounted for 67%. Epilepsy was unclassified in 20% of patients, and etiology was unknown in 65%, including those with idiopathic epilepsies. Etiologies differed significantly in adult- when compared to pediatric-onset epilepsy; however, among focal structural epilepsies, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis began as often in the pediatric as in adult age range. Drug resistance concerned 53% of 4,210 patients evaluable for seizure control and was highest in progressive myoclonic epilepsy (89%), metabolic diseases (84%), focal cortical dysplasia (70%), other cortical malformations (69%), and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (67%). Fifty-nine percent of patients with focal structural epilepsy and 69% with epileptic encephalopathies were drug resistant; however, 40-50% of patients with West syndrome and epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-waves during sleep were seizure-free. Ages at onset in infancy and in young adults shared the highest risk of drug resistance. Epilepsy onset in infancy comprised the highest risk of intellectual disability, whereas specific cognitive impairment affected 36% of children with idiopathic focal epilepsy. Our study provides a snapshot on epilepsy in patients referred to tertiary centers and discloses needs for diagnosis and treatment

  12. Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinfeld, S. A.; Pellock, J M; Kjeldsen, Lone Marianne Juel

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate genetic associations of different febrile seizure subtypes. Results Histories of febrile seizures were validated in 1051 twins in 900 pairs. The febrile seizure type was classified as simple, complex, or febrile status epilepticus. There were 61% simple, 12% complex, and 7% febrile status...... epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. Conclusion A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures...

  13. Properties of radiation cured coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.G.; Spencer, D.S.; Boettcher, T.E.; Melbauer, M.A.; Skarjune, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Coatings were prepared from acrylate or methacrylate functionalized resins to study the effect of end group functionality on the physical properties of u.v. and electron beam cured coatings. Cure response was measured by solid state NMR and gel extraction, as expected, methacrylate resins cured much slower. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) revealed acrylate coatings have greater thermal stability. Properties such as tensile strength and hardness showed little effect of end group functionality or curing method. The O 2 and H 2 O permeabilities of the coating were correlated with the processing conditions. (author)

  14. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE, childhood absence epilepsy (CAE, and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and the influence of epilepsy-related variables. Memory was examined in 90 children with epilepsy (each epilepsy group consisted of 30 children, aged 6–15, and compared with 30 control children. Children with FLE showed significant deficits in verbal and visual memory. In addition, type of epilepsy, earlier age at epilepsy onset, and longer active duration of epilepsy were associated with memory problems. Seizure frequency and treatment, however, did not influence memory performance. This study indicates that children with FLE show greater risk of developing memory deficits than children with CAE or BECTS, thus highlighting the importance of assessing also memory functions in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  15. Surgical management of epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in epilepsy surgery and working in conjunction with an experienced epileptologist ... memory and the psychological impairment, and prepare the family ... ning that allows visualisation of abnormal activity or active lesions in cases of multiple ...

  16. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the people you work with about your seizure disorder. Driving your own car is generally safe and ... References Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy ...

  17. Multiplex families with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afawi, Zaid; Oliver, Karen L.; Kivity, Sara; Mazarib, Aziz; Blatt, Ilan; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Misk, Adel J.; Straussberg, Rachel; Walid, Simri; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Kahana, Esther; Masalha, Rafik; Kramer, Uri; Ekstein, Dana; Shorer, Zamir; Wallace, Robyn H.; Mangelsdorf, Marie; MacPherson, James N.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie; Gecz, Jozef; Heron, Sarah E.; Corbett, Mark; Mulley, John C.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Korczyn, Amos D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical syndromes and inheritance patterns of multiplex families with epilepsy toward the ultimate aim of uncovering the underlying molecular genetic basis. Methods: Following the referral of families with 2 or more relatives with epilepsy, individuals were classified into epilepsy syndromes. Families were classified into syndromes where at least 2 family members had a specific diagnosis. Pedigrees were analyzed and molecular genetic studies were performed as appropriate. Results: A total of 211 families were ascertained over an 11-year period in Israel. A total of 169 were classified into broad familial epilepsy syndrome groups: 61 generalized, 22 focal, 24 febrile seizure syndromes, 33 special syndromes, and 29 mixed. A total of 42 families remained unclassified. Pathogenic variants were identified in 49/211 families (23%). The majority were found in established epilepsy genes (e.g., SCN1A, KCNQ2, CSTB), but in 11 families, this cohort contributed to the initial discovery (e.g., KCNT1, PCDH19, TBC1D24). We expand the phenotypic spectrum of established epilepsy genes by reporting a familial LAMC3 homozygous variant, where the predominant phenotype was epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, and a pathogenic SCN1A variant in a family where in 5 siblings the phenotype was broadly consistent with Dravet syndrome, a disorder that usually occurs sporadically. Conclusion: A total of 80% of families were successfully classified, with pathogenic variants identified in 23%. The successful characterization of familial electroclinical and inheritance patterns has highlighted the value of studying multiplex families and their contribution towards uncovering the genetic basis of the epilepsies. PMID:26802095

  18. Pediatric epilepsy: The Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Pradnya; Udani, Vrajesh

    2011-10-01

    Epilepsy is a common clinical entity in neurology clinics. The understanding of the genetics of epilepsy has undergone a sea change prompting re-classification by the International league against epilepsy recently. The prevalence rates of epilepsy in India are similar to those of developed nations. However, the large treatment gap is a major challenge to our public health system. Perinatal injuries are a major causative factor in pediatric group. We have discussed a few common etiologies such as neurocysticercosis and newer genetic epilepsy syndromes. We have also briefly touched upon the Indian experience in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

  19. [Economic aspects of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumosa, A; Herranz, J L

    2000-06-01

    The economic magnitude of epilepsy is determined by its effect on the employment status of the patients, the cost of drug treatment for them and the healthcare system and the repercussion worldwide. Studies of the cost of the disease show that it has economic importance due to the sum of the direct and indirect costs caused by it. In the case of epilepsy, the results of studies in various countries led to the creation of a Commission on Economic Aspects of Epilepsy. The lack of epidemiological studies regarding epilepsy in Spain may explain the lack of publications on this subject in our country. The percentage of the total cost due to antiepileptic drugs is considerable and will probably increase in the future. The pharmaco-economic evaluation made by cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-usefulness analysis and studies to minimize costs should serve to use healthcare resources in the most effective manner and justify the rational use of the new antiepileptic drugs. The economic impact of epilepsy is added to the repercussion of the disease itself on the patient and his family. The different distribution of costs in children and adults with epilepsy suggest the need for intervention at an early age to try to reduce the long term economic and personal repercussions. The pharmaco-economic evaluation of the new antiepileptic drugs will make it clear whether their considerable cost is worth paying for their greater effectivity.

  20. Coeliac disease and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Whether there is an association between coeliac disease and epilepsy is uncertain. Recently, a syndrome of coeliac disease, occipital lobe epilepsy and cerebral calcification has been described, mostly in Italy. We measured the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients attending a seizure clinic, and investigated whether cerebral calcification occurred in patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy. Screening for coeliac disease was by IgA endomysial antibody, measured by indirect immunofluorescence using sections of human umbilical cord. Of 177 patients screened, four patients were positive. All had small-bowel histology typical of coeliac disease. The overall frequency of coeliac disease in this mixed patient sample was 1 in 44. In a control group of 488 pregnant patients, two serum samples were positive (1 in 244). Sixteen patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy, who had previously attended this hospital, were identified. No patient had cerebral calcification on CT scanning. Coeliac disease appears to occur with increased frequency in patients with epilepsy, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Cerebral calcification is not a feature of our patients with epilepsy and coeliac disease, and may be an ethnically-or geographically-restricted finding.

  1. Excitotoxicity and neuronal death in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorigados, Lourdes; Orozco, Sandra; Morales, Lilia; Estupiñán, Bárbara; García, Iván; Rocha, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent, often progressive neurological disorder with a chronic evolution, affecting 1 to 2 % of the world population. Research with experimental models and imaging analysis of diseased patients have been used to show that recurrent episodes produce oxidative stress, most of which is related to neuronal excitability phenomena. It is known that the excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors results in neurotoxicity; a process that, under the denomination of excitotoxicity, is...

  2. Perception of epilepsy among the urban secondary school children of Bareilly district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shanker Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of knowledge about epilepsy among the students and the population in general, with consequent prejudice and discrimination toward epileptic patients. Objectives: Knowledge, behavior, attitude and myth toward epilepsy among urban school children in Bareilly district was studied. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among students of 10 randomly selected secondary schools of the urban areas in Bareilly district. A structured, pretested questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics and assess the subject′s knowledge, behavior, attitude and myth toward epilepsy. Results: Of the 798 students (533 boys and 265 girls studied, around 98.6% had heard of epilepsy. About 63.7% correctly thought that epilepsy is a brain disorder while 81.8% believed it to be a psychiatric disorder. Other prevalent misconceptions were that epilepsy is an inherited disorder (71.55% and that the disease is transmitted by eating a nonvegetarian diet (49%. Most of them thought that epilepsy can be cured (69.3 and that an epileptic patient needs lifelong treatment (77.2. On witnessing a seizure, about 51.5% of the students would take the person to the hospital. Majority (72.31% of the students thought that children with epilepsy should study in a special school. Conclusions: Although majority of the students had reasonable knowledge of epilepsy, myths and superstitions about the condition still prevail in a significant proportion of the urban school children. It may be worthwhile including awareness programs about epilepsy in school education to dispel misconceptions about epilepsy.

  3. Electron beam curing of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Mai, H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern low-energy electron beam processors offer the possibility for high-speed curing of coatings on paper, plastics, wood and metal. Today the electron beam curing gets more importance due to the increasing environmental problems and the rising cost of energy. For an effective curing process low-energy electron beam processors as well as very reactive binders are necessary. Generally such binders consist of acrylic-modified unsaturated polyester resins, polyacrylates, urethane acrylates or epoxy acrylates and vinyl monomers, mostly multifunctional acrylates. First results on the production of EBC binders on the base of polyester resins and vinyl monomers are presented. The aim of our investigations is to obtain binders with curing doses ≤ 50 kGy. In order to reduce the curing dose we studied mixtures of resins and acrylates. (author)

  4. Occipital lobe seizures and epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Jane E; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2012-10-01

    Occipital lobe epilepsies (OLEs) manifest with occipital seizures from an epileptic focus within the occipital lobes. Ictal clinical symptoms are mainly visual and oculomotor. Elementary visual hallucinations are common and characteristic. Postictal headache occurs in more than half of patients (epilepsy-migraine sequence). Electroencephalography (EEG) is of significant diagnostic value, but certain limitations should be recognized. Occipital spikes and/or occipital paroxysms either spontaneous or photically induced are the main interictal EEG abnormalities in idiopathic OLE. However, occipital epileptiform abnormalities may also occur without clinical relationship to seizures particularly in children. In cryptogenic/symptomatic OLE, unilateral posterior EEG slowing is more common than occipital spikes. In neurosurgical series of symptomatic OLE, interictal EEG abnormalities are rarely strictly occipital. The most common localization is in the posterior temporal regions and less than one-fifth show occipital spikes. In photosensitive OLE, intermittent photic stimulation elicits (1) spikes/polyspikes confined in the occipital regions or (2) generalized spikes/polyspikes with posterior emphasis. In ictal EEG, a well-localized unifocal rhythmic ictal discharge during occipital seizures is infrequent. A bioccipital field spread to the temporal regions is common. Frequency, severity, and response to treatment vary considerably from good to intractable and progressive mainly depending on underlying causes.

  5. CURING EFFICIENCY OF DUAL-CURE RESIN CEMENT UNDER ZIRCONIA WITH TWO DIFFERENT LIGHT CURING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar GÜLTEKİN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. Materials and Methods: 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm were prepared. For each group (n=12 resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96. The values of depth of cure (in mm and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN were evaluated for each specimen. Results: The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (p<0.05.At 100μm and 300 μm depth, the LED unit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (p<0.05. At 500 μm depth, the difference between the VHN values of LED and QTH groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Light curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also experience occipital seizures, which can cause temporary blindness and visual hallucinations. Over time, the seizures worsen ... a continued loss of intellectual function (dementia) impairs memory, judgment, and thought. Affected people lose the ability ...

  7. Epilepsy and the law--a view from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locharernkul, Chaichon

    2007-03-01

    Patients with epilepsy often suffer social injustice in many societies. This is a review of current laws dealing with epilepsy and the consequences of this complex disease. The author looked at reported unjust legal and social acts resulting from epileptic seizures and their results. The author found that accusation of criminal acts, accidents while driving, and job loss are relatively common experiences for epileptics. Such events reflect lack of public understanding. There is inadequate legislation to protect epileptics. Most disturbing areas are ictal behavior misinterpreted as crime, driving while experiencing a seizure, and social discrimination. There is no law dealing with epilepsy in Thailand while considerable progress in this field has been made in Western countries. Epilepsy patients are inadequately protected by Thai law. There is an urgent need for education and campaigns for their rights focused on the public, the legal profession, and the health care professionals.

  8. Electron Beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, T.

    1984-01-01

    Press trials conducted by the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark in September 8-21, 1982, clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (EB) curing for web intaglio printing. These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting EB ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires EB inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with EB inks is being investigated

  9. Electron beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, T.

    1985-01-01

    Press trials conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (E.B.) curing for web intaglio printing . These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting E.B. ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires E.B. inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with E.B. inks is being investigated. (author)

  10. Epilepsy and homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya NS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neil S Pandya,1 Mirna Vrbancic,2 Lady Diana Ladino,3,4 José F Téllez-Zenteno31Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 4Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellin, ColombiaPurpose: We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy.Patients and methods: We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides.Results: We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility.Conclusion: The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse.Keywords: aggression, crime, epilepsy

  11. WONOEP appraisal: Biomarkers of epilepsy-associated comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravizza, Teresa; Onat, Filiz Y; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Depaulis, Antoine; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Mazarati, Andrey; Numis, Adam L; Sankar, Raman; Friedman, Alon

    2017-03-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. Diagnostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of such comorbidities do not exist. They may share pathogenetic mechanisms with epileptogenesis/ictogenesis, and as such are an unmet clinical need. The objectives of the subgroup on biomarkers of comorbidities at the XIII Workshop on the Neurobiology of Epilepsy (WONOEP) were to present the state-of-the-art recent research findings in the field that highlighting potential biomarkers for comorbidities in epilepsy. We review recent progress in the field, including molecular, imaging, and genetic biomarkers of comorbidities as discussed during the WONOEP meeting on August 31-September 4, 2015, in Heybeliada Island (Istanbul, Turkey). We further highlight new directions and concepts from studies on comorbidities and potential new biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of epilepsy-associated comorbidities. The activation of various molecular signaling pathways such as the "Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription," "mammalian Target of Rapamycin," and oxidative stress have been shown to correlate with the presence and severity of subsequent cognitive abnormalities. Furthermore, dysfunction in serotonergic transmission, hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, the role of the inflammatory cytokines, and the contributions of genetic factors have all recently been regarded as relevant for understanding epilepsy-associated depression and cognitive deficits. Recent evidence supports the utility of imaging studies as potential biomarkers. The role of such biomarker may be far beyond the diagnosis of comorbidities, as accumulating clinical data indicate that comorbidities can predict epilepsy outcomes. Future research is required to reveal whether molecular changes in specific signaling pathways or advanced imaging techniques could be detected in the clinical settings and correlate

  12. Cure of incurable lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, Gerald L.; Sysko, Vladimir V.; De Nardo, Sally J.

    2006-01-01

    The most potent method for augmenting the cytocidal power of monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment is to conjugate radionuclides to the MAb to deliver systemic radiotherapy (radioimmunotherapy; RIT). The antigen, MAb, and its epitope can make a difference in the performance of the drug. Additionally, the radionuclide, radiochemistry, chelator for radiometals and the linker between the MAb and chelator can have a major influence on the performance of drugs (radiopharmaceuticals) for RIT. Smaller radionuclide carriers, such as antibody fragments and mimics, and those used for pretargeting strategies, have been described and evaluated. All of these changes in the drugs and strategies for RIT have documented potential for improved performance and patient outcomes. RIT is a promising new therapy that should be incorporated into the management of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) soon after these patients have proven incurable. Predictable improvements using better drugs, strategies, and combinations with other drugs seem certain to make RIT integral to the management of patients with NHL, and likely lead to cure of currently incurable NHL

  13. Epilepsy in adults with mitochondrial disease: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Roger G; Devine, Helen E; Gorman, Grainne S; Schaefer, Andrew M; Horvath, Rita; Ng, Yi; Nesbitt, Victoria; Lax, Nichola Z; McFarland, Robert; Cunningham, Mark O; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and progression of epilepsy in adult patients with mitochondrial disease. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 182 consecutive adult patients attending a specialized mitochondrial disease clinic in Newcastle upon Tyne between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2008. We then followed this cohort over a 7-year period, recording primary outcome measures of occurrence of first seizure, status epilepticus, stroke-like episode, and death. Overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 23.1%. Mean age of epilepsy onset was 29.4 years. Prevalence varied widely between genotypes, with several genotypes having no cases of epilepsy, a prevalence of 34.9% in the most common genotype (m.3243A>G mutation), and 92.3% in the m.8344A>G mutation. Among the cohort as a whole, focal seizures, with or without progression to bilateral convulsive seizures, was the most common seizure type. Conversely, all of the patients with the m.8344A>G mutation and epilepsy experienced myoclonic seizures. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation remain at high risk of developing stroke-like episodes (1.16% per year). However, although the standardized mortality ratio for the entire cohort was high (2.86), this ratio did not differ significantly between patients with epilepsy (2.96) and those without (2.83). Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. It develops early in the disease and, in the case of the m.3243A>G mutation, often presents in the context of a stroke-like episode or status epilepticus. However, epilepsy does not itself appear to contribute to the increased mortality in mitochondrial disease. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  14. Epileptogenic networks and drug-resistant epilepsy: Present and future perspectives of epilepsy research-Utility for the epileptologist and the epilepsy surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary approach is required to understand the complex intricacies of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE. A challenge that neurosurgeons across the world face is accurate localization of epileptogenic zone. A significant number of patients who have undergone resective brain surgery for epilepsy still continue to have seizures. The reason behind this therapy resistance still eludes us. Thus to develop a cure for the difficult to treat epilepsy, we need to comprehensively study epileptogenesis. Till date, most of the studies on DRE is focused on undermining the abnormal functioning of receptors involved in synaptic transmission and reduced levels of antiepileptic drugs around there targets. But recent advances in imaging and electrophysiological techniques have suggested the role epileptogenic networks in the process of epileptogenesis. According to this hypothesis, the local neurons recruit distant neurons through complex oscillatory circuits, which further recruit more distant neurons, thereby generating a hypersynchronus neuronal activity. The epileptogenic networks may be confined to the lesion or could propagate to distant focus. The success of surgery depends on the precision by which the epileptogenic network is determined while planning a surgical intervention. Here, we summarize various modalities of electrophysiological and imaging techniques to determine the functionally active epileptogenic networks. We also review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of epileptogenic network in abnormal synaptic transmission which is one of the major causes of epileptiform activity. Elucidation of current concepts in regulation of synaptic transmission by networks will help develop therapies for epilepsy cases that cannot be managed pharmacologically.

  15. Accelerated dry curing of hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, N G; Kelly, R F; Shaffer, C K; Graham, P P; Boling, J W

    1985-01-01

    Uncured pork legs from the right side of 18 carcasses were treated with a Ross Tenderizer and the left side were controls. All 36 samples were dry-cured for 40, 56 or 70 days and evaluated for appearance traits, cure penetration characteristics, microbial load, Kramer Shear force and taste attributes. The tenderization treatment had no effect (P > 0·05) on visual color or cure penetration rate, weight loss before curing, percentage moisture, nitrate level, nitrite level, total plate count, anaerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, objective and subjective tenderness measurements or juiciness. However, the higher values of salt suggested a possible acceleration of the dry cure penetration process among the tenderized samples. Cure time had no effect (P > 0·05) on percentage moisture, percentage salt, nitrate content, nitrite content, shear force and juiciness. Results suggest a limited effect of the mechanical tenderization process on certain traits related to dry curing and that total process time should be at least 70 days if color stability during cooking is desired. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electron curing of surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1974-01-01

    The technical development of electron curing of surface coatings has received great impetus since 1970 from dramatic changes in the economics of the conventional thermal process. The most important of these changes are reviewed, including: the Clear Air Act, increasing cost and restrictive allocation of energy, decreased availability and increased costs of solvents, competitive pressure for higher line productivity. The principles of free-radical initiated curing as they pertain to industrial coatings are reviewed. Although such electron initiated processes have been under active development for at least two decades, high volume production applications on an industrial scale have only recently appeared. These installations are surveyed with emphasis on the developments in machinery and coatings which have made this possible. The most significant economic advantages of electron curing are presented. In particular, the ability of electron curing to eliminate substrate damage and to eliminate the curing station (oven) as the pacing element for most industrial surface coating curing applications is discussed. Examples of several new processes of particular interest in the textile industry are reviewed, including the curing of transfer cast urethane films, flock adhesives, and graftable surface finishes

  18. Excimer UV curing in printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained

  19. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Bath, Kevin G.; Berg, Anne T.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Jensen, Frances E.; Kanner, Andres M.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Whittemore, Vicky H.; Winawer, Melodie R.; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness—such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine—occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure. PMID:23909853

  20. Epilepsy in Dostoevsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Fyodor M. Dostoevsky (Moscow, 1821-Saint Petersburg, 1881) suffered epilepsy throughout his whole literary career. The aim here is to understand his condition in light of his novels, correspondence, and his contemporaries' accounts as well as through the eyes of later generations of neurologists. From Murin (The landlady, 1847) to Smerdyakov (The brothers Karamazov, 1880), Dostoevsky portrayed up to six characters with epilepsy in his literature. The first symptoms of the disease presented in early adulthood, but he was only diagnosed with epilepsy a decade later. In 1863 he went abroad seeking expert advice from the famous neurologists Romberg and Trousseau. Dostoevsky made an intelligent use of epilepsy in his literature (of his experiential auras or dreamy states particularly) and through it found a way to freedom from perpetual military servitude. His case offers an insight into the natural history of epilepsy (a cryptogenic localization related one of either fronto-medial or temporal lobe origin using contemporary medical terms), thus inspiring later generations of writers and neurologists. Furthermore, it illustrates the good use of an ordinary neurological disorder by an extraordinary writer who transformed adversity into opportunity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practices of students about first aid epilepsy seizures management in a Northern Indian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Results: Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. Conclusion: We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practices of students about first aid epilepsy seizures management in a Northern Indian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Singh, Navpreet; Lal, Vivek; Singh, Amarjeet

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment) and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment) on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum.

  3. Self-curing concrete with different self-curing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala krishna sastry, K. V. S.; manoj kumar, Putturu

    2018-03-01

    Concrete is recognised as a versatile construction material globally. Properties of concrete depend upon, to a greater extent, the hydration of cement and microstructure of hydrated cement. Congenial atmosphere would aid the hydration of cement and hence curing of concrete becomes essential, till a major portion of the hydration process is completed. But in areas of water inadequacy and concreting works at considerable heights, curing is problematic. Self-Curing or Internal Curing technique overcomes these problems. It supplies redundant moisture, for more than sufficient hydration of cement and diminish self-desiccation. Self-Curing agents substantially help in the conservation of water in concrete, by bringing down the evaporation during the hydration of Concrete. The present study focuses on the impact of self-curing agents such as Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG), Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) and Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) on the concrete mix of M25 grade (reference mix). The effect of these agents on strength properties of Concrete such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength was observed on a comparative basis which revealed that PEG 4000 was the most effective among all the agents.

  4. The beliefs among patients with epilepsy in Saudi Arabia about the causes and treatment of epilepsy and other aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamees, Hadeel A; Selai, Caroline E; Shorvon, Simon D

    2015-12-01

    The current survey sought to identify the religious and cultural beliefs about the causes and treatment of epilepsy in people with epilepsy from Saudi Arabia and a number of other aspects relating to the possibility of cure, coping with the condition, and public awareness. Study instruments were developed on the basis of the literature, a focus group of people with epilepsy, and feedback from people in the field with local knowledge. These were then piloted. A survey was then carried out among a total of 110 adults with epilepsy. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires inquiring into their beliefs about the causes and range of treatments used for epilepsy. Each participant was allowed to choose more than one cause and more than one treatment method. The questionnaires were administered face to face by a clinical psychologist (HAA) to improve the quality of the responses. We found that most adults with epilepsy in Saudi Arabia believe that epilepsy is a condition with multifactorial causation and for which more than one treatment method should be applied. A test from God was the most commonly ascribed cause (83% as well as 40% who believed that some cases of the illness were a punishment from God). The belief in the concept of God's will helped many in the cohort to accept their illness as part of their destiny. Ninety-six percent of the patients believed that there were also medical causes (such as an illness, brain insult, inflammation, heredity, contagion), and a similar proportion believed that there were also religious causes. Smaller proportions believed epilepsy could be due to cultural (78%) or psychosocial causes (64%). Thirty-four percent of people believed that there could be sometimes no cause, but only 2% thought that epilepsy never had any identifiable cause. Most patients did not believe that one treatment alone would help. Ninety-three percent of patients believed in medical treatment, 93% in religious treatment, and 64% in traditional

  5. Myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller-Alvarez, J S; Menéndez-González, M; Ribacoba-Montero, R; Salvado, M; Vega, V; Suárez-Moro, R; Sueiras, M; Toledo, M; Salas-Puig, J; Álvarez-Sabin, J

    2017-03-01

    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) who exhibit Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with age. Both diseases with a common neuropathological basis have been associated with late-onset myoclonic epilepsy (LOMEDS). This entity presents electroencephalogram features as generalized polyspike-wave discharges. We present a series of 11 patients with the diagnosis of DS or AD who developed myoclonic seizures or generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In all cases, clinical and neuroimaging studies and polygraph EEG monitoring was performed. In all cases, cognitive impairment progressed quickly after the onset of epilepsy causing an increase in the degree of dependence. The most common finding in the EEG was a slowing of brain activity with theta and delta rhythms, plus intercritical generalized polyspike-waves were objectified in eight patients. In neuroimaging studies was found cerebral cortical atrophy. The most effective drug in this series was the levetiracetam. The association of generalized epilepsy with elderly DS represents an epiphenomenon in evolution which is associated with a progressive deterioration of cognitive and motor functions. This epilepsy has some electroclinical characteristics and behaves as progressive myoclonic epilepsy, which is probably related to the structural changes that characterize the evolutionary similarity of DS with AD. Recognition of this syndrome is important, since it has prognostic implications and requires proper treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in contemporary neurosurgical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in diseases leading to intractable epilepsy. We reviewed 11 glioneuronal tumors (GNT) including gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 11 cortical dysplasia (CD), and 33 cavernous angiomas (CA) diagnosed with MRI between the years 2000 and 2008 at the Department of Neurosurgery of Juntendo University in this study. We analyzed retrospectively the followings. Age of seizure onset and seizure severity. Region of each disease leading to intractable epilepsy. Seizure outcome after the surgery. Surgical morbidity. Ages of seizure onset of GNT, CD, and CA were 21.0±12.1, 1.3±7.5, 24.8±18.1 years, respectively. 81.8% of CD and GNT were intractable, however CA progresses to intractable epilepsy in 48.5%. The 66.7% of GNT with intractable seizures located in the mesial temporal lobe and 66.7% of CD had entra-temporal location. CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progressed to intractable epilepsy in 80%. Seizure free ratios of GNT, CD, and CA were 87.5%, 50.0%, 81.3%, respectively. In CDs where was impossible to carry out complete resection resulted in residual seizures. Neurological sequelae after surgery were observed in 3 cases. Morbidity ratios of motor weakness, speech difficulty, and memory disturbances are 4.6%, 4.6%, 2.3%, respectively. Majority of CD, GNT, and CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progress towards intractable epilepsy. Prophylactic epilepsy surgery by experienced surgeon with low complication rates can be an acceptable alternative for these pathological conditions. Seizure outcome of surgery for CD does not reach the success rates of those in GNT and CA. The cause of the unfavorable result in CD is the inapplicability to eloquent areas. Aggressive early surgery for CD may improve outcome considering neuronal plasticity of childhood. (author)

  7. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  8. Structural brain abnormalities in the common epilepsies assessed in a worldwide ENIGMA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Andre; Botía, Juan A; Jahanshad, Neda; Hibar, Derrek P; Absil, Julie; Alhusaini, Saud; Alvim, Marina K M; Auvinen, Pia; Bartolini, Emanuele; Bergo, Felipe P G; Bernardes, Tauana; Blackmon, Karen; Braga, Barbara; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Calvo, Anna; Carr, Sarah J; Chen, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Cherubini, Andrea; David, Philippe; Domin, Martin; Foley, Sonya; França, Wendy; Haaker, Gerrit; Isaev, Dmitry; Keller, Simon S; Kotikalapudi, Raviteja; Kowalczyk, Magdalena A; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Langner, Soenke; Lenge, Matteo; Leyden, Kelly M; Liu, Min; Loi, Richard Q; Martin, Pascal; Mascalchi, Mario; Morita, Marcia E; Pariente, Jose C; Rodríguez-Cruces, Raul; Rummel, Christian; Saavalainen, Taavi; Semmelroch, Mira K; Severino, Mariasavina; Thomas, Rhys H; Tondelli, Manuela; Tortora, Domenico; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Vivash, Lucy; von Podewils, Felix; Wagner, Jan; Weber, Bernd; Yao, Yi; Yasuda, Clarissa L; Zhang, Guohao; Bargalló, Nuria; Bender, Benjamin; Bernasconi, Neda; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernhardt, Boris C; Blümcke, Ingmar; Carlson, Chad; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cendes, Fernando; Concha, Luis; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Devinsky, Orrin; Doherty, Colin P; Focke, Niels K; Gambardella, Antonio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Jackson, Graeme D; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kochunov, Peter; Kwan, Patrick; Labate, Angelo; McDonald, Carrie R; Meletti, Stefano; O'Brien, Terence J; Ourselin, Sebastien; Richardson, Mark P; Striano, Pasquale; Thesen, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Zhang, Junsong; Vezzani, Annamaria; Ryten, Mina; Thompson, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Progressive functional decline in the epilepsies is largely unexplained. We formed the ENIGMA-Epilepsy consortium to understand factors that influence brain measures in epilepsy, pooling data from 24 research centres in 14 countries across Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. Structural brain measures were extracted from MRI brain scans across 2149 individuals with epilepsy, divided into four epilepsy subgroups including idiopathic generalized epilepsies (n =367), mesial temporal lobe epilepsies with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE; left, n = 415; right, n = 339), and all other epilepsies in aggregate (n = 1026), and compared to 1727 matched healthy controls. We ranked brain structures in order of greatest differences between patients and controls, by meta-analysing effect sizes across 16 subcortical and 68 cortical brain regions. We also tested effects of duration of disease, age at onset, and age-by-diagnosis interactions on structural measures. We observed widespread patterns of altered subcortical volume and reduced cortical grey matter thickness. Compared to controls, all epilepsy groups showed lower volume in the right thalamus (Cohen’s d = −0.24 to −0.73; P left, but not right, MTLE (d = −0.29 to −0.54; P right, but not left, MTLE (d = −0.27 to −0.51; P right MTLE groups (beta, b brain measures that can be further targeted for study in genetic and neuropathological studies. This worldwide initiative identifies patterns of shared grey matter reduction across epilepsy syndromes, and distinctive abnormalities between epilepsy syndromes, which inform our understanding of epilepsy as a network disorder, and indicate that certain epilepsy syndromes involve more widespread structural compromise than previously assumed. PMID:29365066

  9. Industrial application of radiation curing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-12-31

    The contents are advantages of radiation processes - a solvent-free system, less energy consumative, higher production rate, processability at ambient temperature; electron beams vs. ultraviolet curing; applications -broad spectrum of markets use radiation curable materials.

  10. Novel techniques for concrete curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes (HSC/HPC) are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are taken. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to ensure good performance of concrete. Curing by both external (conventional......) and internal methods is reviewed and analyzed, among other methods of mitigating shrinkage and cracking of concrete. The focus is on the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage of low water to binder ratio (w/b) concrete by means of internal curing. The concepts of internal curing are based on using lightweight...... aggregate, superabsorbent polymers or water-soluble chemicals, which reduce water evaporation (so called "internal sealing"). These concepts have been intensively researched in the 90s, but still are not widespread among contractors and concrete suppliers. The differences between conventional methods...

  11. Radiation curing of polymers II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade radiation cured polymers have continued to grow in importance not only by expansion within existing coatings applications but also by extension into new fields of application such as ceramics, ink-jet inks and fibres. To provide a further update on the rapidly growing science and technology of radiation curing the Third International Symposium was held. Apart from providing an update on the application, chemistry and control aspects of the radiation curing the aim of the meeting was also to provide the newcomer with a basic insight into radiation curing applications. Accordingly the proceedings contained in this special publication which follow closely the format of the meeting, has five sections covering the background/trends, applications, initiator chemistry, substrate chemistry and analytical, physical chemical and health and safety aspects. There are twenty-five papers all told, three of which are indexed separately. (Author)

  12. Industrial application of radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Sasaki

    1993-01-01

    The contents are advantages of radiation processes - a solvent-free system, less energy consumative, higher production rate, processability at ambient temperature; electron beams vs. ultraviolet curing; applications -broad spectrum of markets use radiation curable materials

  13. Computer tomographic examinations in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.

    1984-01-01

    Epileptic patients that was examined at the Universitas Hospital (Bloemfontein) by means of computerized tomography for the period July 1978 - December 1980, are divided into two groups: a) Patients with general epilepsy of convulsions - 507; b) Patients with vocal or partial epilepsy - 111. The method of examination and the results for both general and vocal epilepsy are discussed. A degenerative state was found in 35% of the positive computer tomographic examinations in general epilepsy and 22% of the positive examinations for vocal epilepsy. The purpose of the article was to explain the circumstances that can be expected when a epileptic patient is examined by means of computerized tomography

  14. Monitoring Prepregs As They Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Gleason, J. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Quality IR spectra obtained in dynamic heating environment. New technique obtains quality infrared spectra on graphite-fiber-reinforced, polymeric-matrix-resin prepregs as they cure. Technique resulted from modification of diffuse reflectance/Fourier transform infrared (DR/FTIR) technique previously used to analyze environmentally exposed cured graphite composites. Technique contribute to better understanding of prepreg chemistry/temperature relationships and development of more efficient processing cycles for advanced materials.

  15. Understanding complexities of synaptic transmission in medically intractable seizures: A paradigm of epilepsy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the changes associated with the development of epileptic state in humans is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Understanding the intricacies of medically intractable epilepsy still remains a challenge for neurosurgeons across the world. A significant number of patients who has undergone resective brain surgery for epilepsy still continue to have seizures. The reason behind this therapy resistance still eludes us. Thus to develop a cure for the difficult to treat epilepsy, we need to comprehensively study epileptogenesis. Although various animal models are developed but none of them replicate the pathological conditions in humans. So the ideal way to understand epileptogenecity is to examine the tissue resected for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Advanced imaging and electrical localization procedures are utilized to establish the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients. Further molecular and cytological studies are required for the microscopic analysis of brain samples collected from the epileptogenic focus. As alterations in inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission are key features of epilepsy, understanding the regulation of neurotransmission in the resected surgery zone is of immense importance. Here we summarize various modalities of in vitro slice analysis from the resected brain specimen to understand the changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in epileptogenic zone. We also review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of nicotinic receptors in abnormal synaptic transmission which is one of the major causes of epileptiform activity. Elucidation of current concepts in regulation of synaptic transmission will help develop therapies for epilepsy cases that cannot me managed pharmacologically.

  16. Epilepsy: A Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirven, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, a disorder of unprovoked seizures is a multifaceted disease affecting individuals of all ages with a particular predilection for the very young and old. In addition to seizures, many patients often report cognitive and psychiatric problems associated with both the seizures themselves and its therapy. Epilepsy has numerous etiologies both idiopathic and acquired with a wide range of therapeutic responses. Despite numerous treatments available to control repetitive seizures including medications, diets, immunotherapy, surgery, and neuromodulatory devices, a large percentage of patients continue to suffer the consequences of uncontrolled seizures, which include psychosocial stigma and death. PMID:26328931

  17. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Goto, Ikuo

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed with the 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose method on 29 patients with epilepsy (generalized epilepsy, 4; partial epilepsy, 24; undetermined type, 1). The subjects were restricted to patients with epilepsy without focal abnormality on X-CT. All the patients with generalized epilepsy showed a normal pattern on PET. Fourteen out of the 24 patients with partial epilepsy and the 1 with epilepsy of undermined type showed focal hypometabolism on PET. The hypometabolic zone was localized in areas including the temporal cortex in 11 patients, frontal in 2 and thalamus in 1. The location of hypometabolic zone and that of interictal paroxysmal activity on EEG were well correlated in most patients. The patients with poorly-controlled seizure showed a higher incidence of PET abnormality (12 out of 13) than those with well-controlled seizures (2 out of 11). The incidence of abnormality on PET and MRI and the location of both abnormality were not necessarily coincident. These results indicated that the PET examination in epilepsy provides valuable information about the location of epileptic focus, and that the findings on PET in patients with partial epilepsy may be one of the good indicators about the intractability of partial epilepsy, and that PET and MRI provide complementary information in the diagnosis of epilepsy. (author)

  18. Recent advances in epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Alessandro; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale

    2018-02-22

    In last few years there has been rapid increase in the knowledge of epilepsy genetics. Nowadays, it is estimated that genetic epilepsies include over than 30% of all epilepsy syndromes. Several genetic tests are now available for diagnostic purposes in clinical practice. In particular, next-generation sequencing has proven to be effective in revealing gene mutations causing epilepsies in up to a third of the patients. This has lead also to functional studies that have given insight into disease pathophysiology and consequently to the identification of potential therapeutic targets opening the way of precision medicine for epilepsy patients. This minireview is focused on the most recent advances in genetics of epilepsies. We will also overview the modern genomic technologies and illustrate the diagnostic pathways in patients with genetic epilepsies. Finally, the potential implications for a personalized treatment (precision medicine) are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Collaborating and sharing data in epilepsy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Joost B; Worrell, Gregory A; Ives, Zachary; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Matthias, Dümpelmann; Litt, Brian; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Technological advances are dramatically advancing translational research in Epilepsy. Neurophysiology, imaging, and metadata are now recorded digitally in most centers, enabling quantitative analysis. Basic and translational research opportunities to use these data are exploding, but academic and funding cultures prevent this potential from being realized. Research on epileptogenic networks, antiepileptic devices, and biomarkers could progress rapidly if collaborative efforts to digest this "big neuro data" could be organized. Higher temporal and spatial resolution data are driving the need for novel multidimensional visualization and analysis tools. Crowd-sourced science, the same that drives innovation in computer science, could easily be mobilized for these tasks, were it not for competition for funding, attribution, and lack of standard data formats and platforms. As these efforts mature, there is a great opportunity to advance Epilepsy research through data sharing and increase collaboration between the international research community.

  20. Marijuana for epilepsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana has been used for centuries for medical reasons. In the early 20th century it was first linked to treatment for epilepsy. Over the last few decades researchers have been unravelling the truth behind the drug. Prof. Giuseppe Di Giovanni tells us more about using marijuana for medical research and his own research on this controversial drug.

  1. Mobile EEG in epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of routine EEG recordings for interictal epileptiform discharges in epilepsy is limited. In some patients, inpatient video-EEG may be performed to increase the likelihood of finding abnormalities. Although many agree that home EEG recordings may provide a cost-effective alternative

  2. Global Health: Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amza

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a frequently misunderstood and highly stigmatized condition. Major treatment gaps exist across the world, most so in areas of financial constraint. Classification permits the best approaches to treatment and to ascertaining prognosis. The International League Against Epilepsy's new classification system emphasizes clinical aspects and utilizes all available resources to determine whether it is a focal or generalized epilepsy. The most important tools are a careful history, clinical examination, electroencephalography, and appropriate neuroimaging. Inadequate, delayed, and incomplete evaluation may lead to misdiagnosis and costly mismanagement. Treatment is generally pharmacological, with approximately 20 to 30% of patients eventually proving refractory to medications and thus becoming potential surgical candidates. The type of epilepsy, age, gender, comorbidities, drug interactions, and drug cost are important factors in choosing an antiepileptic drug (AED). The teratogenic potential of some AEDs, weight gain, and menstrual hormone-related issues are important considerations in women. The impact of AEDs on bone health is critical in all age groups, particularly in the elderly. Psychiatric problems, mostly depression and anxiety, can have a great impact on seizure control and overall quality of life. Finally, effective partnerships and collaborations can bring resources, both human and financial, to regions that would otherwise find it impossible to effect change on their own. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  4. Epilepsy in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-An Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people are the largest and continuously fastest growing population among patients with epilepsy. Elderly patients with epilepsy are very different from other age groups in many respects and clinicians shouldn’t treat them in the same way as younger adults. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy in the elderly is much more difficult and atypical manifestations and misdiagnoses are certainly not the exception. Syncope is probably the most important differential diagnosis. High clinical suspicion and proper investigation are the best tools for prompt diagnosis. Etiologies of late-onset epilepsy are mainly symptomatic and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common causes in this age group, followed by degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is appropriate to consider starting antiepileptic drug (AED treatment at the first-ever seizure in elderly patients who have remote symptomatic causes such as stroke and dementia. According to the high recurrence rate of seizure and the good response to AEDs in elderly patients, the proper choice from various AEDs for seizure control is very important. Decision-making for AED choice depends on many different factors, including pharmacological properties, efficacy, tolerability from side effects, drug interactions, and medical comorbidities. The newer AEDs with lesser adverse effects and fewer drug interactions appear to be reasonable treatment options for elderly patients. However, more evidence from clinical trials in this specific age group is warranted.

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction in epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Kunz, W.S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-40 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epilepsy * mitochondrial dysfunction * neurodegeneration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.025, year: 2012

  6. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  7. exercise and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    UK, Epilepsy Society

    2018-01-01

    Exercise improves fitness, energy and mood and relieves stress. Improving overall health and wellbeing in this way can help reduce seizures and the impact of epilepsy for some people. It can also help people feel more in control of their health.

  8. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Henkel technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation was motivated by (1) a desire to cure at a single temperature for ease of manufacture and (2) a desire to keep the cure temperature low (to minimize residual stress build-up associated with the cooldown from the cure temperature to room temperature) without excessively limiting the cure reaction due to vitrification (i.e., material glass transition temperature, Tg, exceeding cure temperature).

  9. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in ...

  10. Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC In this video ... Aria Fallah, MD, discusses the surgical treatment of epilepsy in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsy is ...

  11. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.

  12. Familial benign nonprogressive myoclonic epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; de Falco, Fabrizio A; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Work on the classification of epileptic syndromes is ongoing, and many syndromes are still under discussion. In particular, special difficulty still persists in correctly classifying epilepsies with myoclonic seizures. The existence of special familial epileptic syndromes primarily showing myoclonic features has been recently suggested on the basis of a clear pattern of inheritance or on the identification of new chromosomal genetic loci linked to the disease. These forms in development include familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME), benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME), or autosomal dominant cortical myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME), and, maybe, adult-onset myoclonic epilepsy (AME). In the future, the identification of responsible genes and the protein products will contribute to our understanding of the molecular pathways of epileptogenesis and provide neurobiologic criteria for the classification of epilepsies, beyond the different phenotypic expression.

  13. Management of epilepsy in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsono Harsono

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of epilepsy in elderly requires understanding the unique biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these patients. Management decisions must be based on accurate classification of seizures or epilepsy syndromes, a thorough neurological assessment to define etiology, and a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s health and living situation. Concomitant illnesses such as neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, or cardiac disorders will require individualization of plans and instructions. Specific problems of treatment of epilepsy in the elderly compared to childhood patients are as follows: distinctive range of causes of epilepsy, distinctive differential diagnosis, concurrent pathologies unrelated to epilepsy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, and distinctive psychosocial effects. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 40-7 Keywords:  epilepsy, elderly, management, concomitant illness, pharmacokinetic

  14. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  15. Electron beam curing of composites in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.; Eberle, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    Electron beam curing of fiber-reinforced composites was explored over 30 years ago. Since then there have been developments in accelerator technology, in processes for handling materials presented to an accelerator, and in materials that can be used as matrix binders. In recent years in North America, Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) have been formed involving collaboration amongst materials suppliers, accelerator manufacturers and service providers, national laboratories, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and interested potential users. The scope and status of these CRADAs are reviewed along with other recent developments in the electron beam curing of composites in North America. Innovative and proprietary materials technology has been developed and progress made toward implementing commercial practice. Significant market interest has developed in the military/aerospace industries that are finding the process and performance of electron beam cured composites to offer significant benefits

  16. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.

    2005-01-01

    of additional internal water that is not part of the mixing water.” The additional internal water is typically supplied by using relatively small amounts of saturated, lightweight, fine aggregates (LWA) or superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles in the concrete. Benefits of internal curing include increased...... less than that of bulk water, a hydrating cement paste will imbibe water (about 0.07 g water/g cement) from an available source. While in higher w/c concretes, this water can be, and often is, supplied by external (surface) curing, in low w/c concretes, the permeability of the concrete quickly becomes...

  17. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  18. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Rolandic epilepsy and dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecila P. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS is an idiopathic, age-related epilepsy syndrome with favorable outcome, recent studies have shown impairment in specific neuropsychological tests. The objective of this study was to analyze the comorbidity between dyslexia and BECTS. Method Thirty-one patients with clinical and electroencephalographic diagnosis of BECTS (group A and 31 paired children (group B underwent a language and neuropsychological assessment performed with several standardized protocols. Our findings were categorized as: a dyslexia; b other difficulties; c without difficulties. Our results were compared and statistically analyzed. Results Our data showed that dyslexia occurred in 19.4% and other difficulties in 74.2% of our patients. This was highly significant when compared with the control group (p<0.001. Phonological awareness, writing, reading, arithmetic, and memory tests showed a statistically significant difference when comparing both groups. Conclusion Our findings show significant evidence of the occurrence of dyslexia in patients with BECTS.

  20. Epilepsy and videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Michelle; Hirsch, Edouard; Vigevano, Federico

    2004-01-01

    Since the first case of videogame (VG) epilepsy was reported in 1981, many cases of seizures triggered by VGs were reported, not only in photosensitive, but also in non-photosensitive children and adolescents with epilepsy. We provide an overview of the literature with overall conclusions and recommendations regarding VG playing. Specific preventive measures concerning the physical characteristics of images included in commercially available VGs (flash rate, choice of colors, patterns, and contrast) can lead in the future to a clear decrease of this problem. In addition to the positive effect of such measures, the collaborative studies performed in France and in the rest of Europe have stressed the importance of a safe distance to the screen of > or = 2 m, and the less provocative role of 100-Hz screens.

  1. Imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Raju; Sarma, Dipanka

    2000-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common problem in the paediatric age group. Imaging plays a vital role in identifying the seizure focus. Cross-sectional imaging modalities like CT and MRI have had a major impact on the management of seizure disorders. MRI, because of its high contrast resolution and multiplanar capability is the ideal imaging modality but its use is restricted due to high cost. Computed tomography is cheaper and is the first, and often, the only modality used, especially in the under privileged areas of the world. In the tropical countries inflammatory granuloma are a common cause of epilepsy and CT is adequate to detect these lesions. Other causes include congenital abnormalities, neoplastic and vascular causes. (author)

  2. [Epilepsy and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmis, J; Drazancić, A; Tkalcević, T; Ivanisević, M

    1991-01-01

    A total of 132 women with epilepsy were confined in the period from 1978-1989. Their pregnancies and outcomes were analysed. The special aim was to find out if the anticonvulsive therapy has any correlation with the occurrence of fetal malformations in the studied group of women. In 43.9% of pregnant women with epilepsy, methyl-phenobarbitone as an anticonvulsive drug was administered, while carbamazepine was applied in 13.6% cases. A combination of phenytoin and phenobarbitone was prescribed in 18.9% of cases. Primidone was the drug of choice in 8% cases and 5.3% of patients were treated with various combinations of anticonvulsive drugs. Hyperemesis, threatened spontaneous abortion and premature labor complicated significantly more pregnancies in patients with epilepsy than on controls. Pregnancies from the studied group were terminated by the cesarean section in significantly more cases (11.2%) than in the control group (5.4%). Newborns from mothers with epilepsy had a statistically lower birthweight (3173 +/- 575 g) than those born from healthy mothers (3376 +/- 510g). Fifteen newborns or 11.2% were born with congenital malformations, while among the control group of newborns only two were malformed. It is noticed that the newborns from mothers treated with phenitoin and phenobarbitone had dysmorphic anomalies of the face more frequently. The drugs mentioned above interfere with the metabolism of K vitamin and as a result of this interreaction, mothers and newborns can suffer from coagulation disorders. In conclusion it is important to mention that no anticonvulsant drug seems to be absolutely safe when used during pregnancy since each of them has a teratogenic effect on the fetus.

  3. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  4. Neuroreceptor imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The neurochemical processes that mediate seizures in humans are not fully understood. PET has contributed to our understanding of the neurochemical abnormalities of epilepsy with studies of cerebral metabolism and, more recently, regional neuroreceptor binding. We have focused on inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors that may (1) be decreased, thus facilitating seizure initiation, or (2) increase in response to seizure activity. Opiate receptors are believed to mediate anticonvulsant effects of the endogenous opioids. Accordingly, [ 11 C]carfentanil, a ligand selective for the mu-opiate receptor, displays increased binding in temporal neocortex ipsilateral to seizure foci in complex partial epilepsy. This finding is consistent with activation of the endogenous opiate system in response to seizure activity. [ 11 C]diprenorphine, a ligand that labels mu-, delta- and kappa-opiate receptors with equal affinity, shows little or no change in temporal cortex. Together, these findings suggest a decrease in delta- or kappa-receptors. The development of delta- and kappa-selective receptor ligands will help to elucidate the involvement of these opiate receptors in human epilepsy. The benzodiazepine-GABA receptor complex is the most prevalent in mediating inhibitory brain processes. Use of the benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligand [ 11 C]RO 15-1788 has shown decreases in BZD receptors in human epilepsy in one study, but this has not been observed in a current study. Thus, the existence of reduced inhibitory processes that might enhance seizure initiation remains uncertain at present. Future studies of receptors for excitatory transmitters will provide additional insight into alternate factors potentially responsible for the initiation of seizures

  5. Electron beam curing of coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, S.; Fujikawa, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Electron beam curing (EBC) method, by which hardened coating film is obtained by polymerizing and cross-linking paint with electron beam, has finally reached industrialized stage. While about seven items such as short curing time, high efficiency of energy consumption, and homogeneous curing are enumerated as the advantages of EBC method, it has limitations of the isolation requirement from air needing the injection of inert gas, and considerable amount of initial investment. In the electron accelerators employed in EBC method, the accelerating voltage is 250 to 750 kV, and the tube current is several tens of mA to 200 mA. As an example of EBC applications, EBC ''Erio'' steel sheet was developed by the cooperative research of Nippon Steel Corp., Dai-Nippon Printing Co. and Toray Industries, Inc. It is a high-class pre-coated metal product made from galvanized steel sheets, and the flat sheets with cured coating are sold, and final products are fabricated by being worked in various shapes in users. It seems necessary to develop the paint which enables to raise added value by adopting the EBC method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Expert incentives: cure versus prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    This paper distinguishes between two scenarios for the expert-client encounter. In the cure scenario, the client does not know whether a loss can be recovered. In the prevention scenario, the client faces a threat but does not know whether this threat is real enough to justify preventive action. The

  7. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  8. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  9. WONOEP appraisal: Development of epilepsy biomarkers-What we can learn from our patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Becker, Albert; Cepeda, Carlos; Engel, Jerome; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Huberfeld, Gilles; Kaya, Mehmet; Kobow, Katja; Simonato, Michele; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Current medications for patients with epilepsy work in only two of three patients. For those medications that do work, they only suppress seizures. They treat the symptoms, but do not modify the underlying disease, forcing patients to take these drugs with significant side effects, often for the rest of their lives. A major limitation in our ability to advance new therapeutics that permanently prevent, reduce the frequency of, or cure epilepsy comes from a lack of understanding of the disease coupled with a lack of reliable biomarkers that can predict who has or who will get epilepsy. The main goal of this report is to present a number of approaches for identifying reliable biomarkers from observing patients with brain disorders that have a high probability of producing epilepsy. A given biomarker, or more likely a profile of biomarkers, will have both a quantity and a time course during epileptogenesis that can be used to predict who will get the disease, to confirm epilepsy as a diagnosis, to identify coexisting pathologies, and to monitor the course of treatments. Additional studies in patients and animal models could identify common and clinically valuable biomarkers to successfully translate animal studies into new and effective clinical trials. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  11. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  12. Epilepsy and radiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberg, T.

    2005-01-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogenous group of disorders with multiple causes. Clinical management of epilepsy patients requires knowledge of seizure syndromes, causes, and imaging features. The aim of radiological investigations is to recognize the underlying cause of epilepsy. The main indications for neuroimaging studies are partial and secondarily generalized seizures, patients with neurological signs and intractable seizures, and patients with focal signs on EEG. Partial seizures of any type are more likely to be associated with a focus that may be identified on neuroimaging. MRI is the method of choice for evaluating structural abnormalities of the brain. High resolution MRI and dedicated imaging technique are needed for detection of subtle pathological changes as cortical dysplasias and temporal medial sclerosis. Other lesions that may be detected include neoplasms, vascular malformations, destructive lesions following brain injury, stroke, infection, etc. CT continues to be the technique for the investigation of patients with seizures under certain conditions. New techniques such as functional MRI, MR spectroscopy, SPECT, receptor PET and magnetic source imaging are becoming clinical tools for improving diagnosis [et

  13. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  14. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  15. WONOEP appraisal: new genetic approaches to study epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Elsa; Kobow, Katja; Simonato, Michele; Loeb, Jeffrey A.; Grisar, Thierry; Gilby, Krista L.; Vinet, Jonathan; Kadam, Shilpa D.; Becker, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective New genetic investigation techniques, including next-generation sequencing, epigenetic profiling, cell lineage mapping, targeted genetic manipulation of specific neuronal cell types, stem cell reprogramming and optogenetic manipulations within epileptic networks are progressively unravelling the mysteries of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. These techniques have opened new avenues to discover the molecular basis of epileptogenesis and to study the physiological impacts of mutations in epilepsy-associated genes on a multilayer level, from cells to circuits. Methods This manuscript reviews recently published applications of these new genetic technologies in the study of epilepsy, as well as work presented by the authors at the genetic session of the XII Workshop on the Neurobiology of Epilepsy in Quebec, Canada. Results Next-generation sequencing is providing investigators with an unbiased means to assess the molecular causes of sporadic forms of epilepsy and have revealed the complexity and genetic heterogeneity of sporadic epilepsy disorders. To assess the functional impact of mutations in these newly identified genes on specific neuronal cell-types during brain development, new modeling strategies in animals, including conditional genetics in mice and in utero knockdown approaches, are enabling functional validation with exquisite cell-type and temporal specificity. In addition, optogenetics, using cell-type specific Cre recombinase driver lines, is enabling investigators to dissect networks involved in epilepsy. Genetically-encoded cell-type labeling is also providing new means to assess the role of the non-neuronal components of epileptic networks such as glial cells. Furthermore, beyond its role in revealing coding variants involved in epileptogenesis, next-generation sequencing can be used to assess the epigenetic modifications that lead to sustained network hyperexcitability in epilepsy, including methylation changes in gene promoters and non

  16. Light curing through glass ceramics: effect of curing mode on micromechanical properties of dual-curing resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate micromechanical properties of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes including light curing through glass ceramic materials. Vickers hardness (VH) and indentation modulus (Y HU) of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA were measured after 1 week of storage (37 °C, 100 % humidity). The resin cements were tested following self-curing or light curing with the second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit Elipar FreeLight 2 in Standard Mode (1,545 mW/cm(2)) or with the third-generation LED curing unit VALO in High Power Mode (1,869 mW/cm(2)) or in XtraPower Mode (3,505 mW/cm(2)). Light curing was performed directly or through glass ceramic discs of 1.5 or 3 mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. VH and Y HU were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). RelyX Unicem 2 Automix resulted in the highest VH and Y HU followed by BeautiCem SA, BisCem, SpeedCEM, and finally Panavia F2.0. Self-curing of RelyX Unicem 2 Automix and SpeedCEM lowered VH and Y HU compared to light curing whereas self-curing of Panavia F2.0, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA led to similar or significantly higher VH and Y HU compared to light curing. Generally, direct light curing resulted in similar or lower VH and Y HU compared to light curing through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. Light curing through 3-mm-thick discs of IPS e.max CAD generally reduced VH and Y HU for all resin cements except SpeedCEM, which was the least affected by light curing through ceramic discs. The resin cements responded heterogeneously to changes in curing mode. The applied irradiances and light curing times adequately cured the resin cements even through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. When light curing resin cements through thick glass ceramic restorations, clinicians should consider to prolong the light curing times even with LED curing units providing high

  17. Cannabinoids for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, David; Vickrey, Barbara

    2014-03-05

    Marijuana appears to have anti-epileptic effects in animals. It is not currently known if it is effective in patients with epilepsy. Some states in the United States of America have explicitly approved its use for epilepsy. To assess the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids when used as monotherapy or add-on treatment for people with epilepsy. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (9 September 2013), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 8), MEDLINE (Ovid) (9 September 2013), ISI Web of Knowledge (9 September 2013), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (9 September 2013), and ClinicalTrials.gov (9 September 2013). In addition, we included studies we personally knew about that were not found by the searches, as well as searched the references in the identified studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) whether blinded or not. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted the data. The primary outcome investigated was seizure freedom at one year or more, or three times the longest interseizure interval. Secondary outcomes included responder rate at six months or more, objective quality of life data, and adverse events. We found four randomized trial reports that included a total of 48 patients, each of which used cannabidiol as the treatment agent. One report was an abstract and another was a letter to the editor. Anti-epileptic drugs were continued in all studies. Details of randomisation were not included in any study report. There was no investigation of whether the control and treatment participant groups were the same or different. All the reports were low quality.The four reports only answered the secondary outcome about adverse effects. None of the patients in the treatment groups suffered adverse effects. No reliable conclusions can be drawn at present regarding the efficacy of cannabinoids as a treatment for epilepsy. The dose of 200 to 300 mg daily of cannabidiol was

  18. Submikroskopiske kromosomforandringer disponerer til epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre; Hjalgrim, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGEs) affect up to 0.3% of the general population. Genetic factors play a predominant role in the aetiology of IGEs. Molecular genetic studies have mainly identified causative gene mutations in rare monogenic forms of idiopathic epilepsies. However, the genetic ...

  19. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  20. The Music Student with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Matthew C.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Laverghetta, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship can afford the music educator an opportunity to be the first to identify behaviors associated with epilepsy. A case of a student with epilepsy, based on the authors' experience, is described in which the music educators were the first and only individuals to become aware of a change in the student's behavior, after…

  1. Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....

  2. Epilepsy and Comorbid Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

  3. Epilepsy in tropics: Indian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shejoy P Joshua; Ashok Kumar Mahapatra

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. The causes and treatment protocols vary widely. A proper understanding of the causes and treatment strategies is essential for managing this patient group. This article analyzes the common causes of epilepsy in India and provides a brief summary on the available treatment strategies.

  4. Epilepsy in tropics: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejoy P Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. The causes and treatment protocols vary widely. A proper understanding of the causes and treatment strategies is essential for managing this patient group. This article analyzes the common causes of epilepsy in India and provides a brief summary on the available treatment strategies.

  5. Management of genetic epilepsies: From empirical treatment to precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; Vari, Maria Stella; Mazzocchetti, Chiara; Verrotti, Alberto; Zara, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Despite the over 20 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) now licensed for epilepsy treatment, seizures can be effectively controlled in about ∼70% of patients. Thus, epilepsy treatment is still challenging in about one third of patients and this may lead to a severe medically, physically, and socially disabling condition. However, there is clear evidence of heterogeneity of response to existing AEDs and a significant unmet need for effective intervention. A number of studies have shown that polymorphisms may influence the poor or inadequate therapeutic response as well as the occurrence of adverse effects. In addition, the new frontier of genomic technologies, including chromosome microarrays and next-generation sequencing, improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of epilepsies. Recent findings in some genetic epilepsy syndromes provide insights into mechanisms of epileptogenesis, unrevealing the role of a number of genes with different functions, such as ion channels, proteins associated to the vesical synaptic cycle or involved in energy metabolism. The rapid progress of high-throughput genomic sequencing and corresponding analysis tools in molecular diagnosis are revolutionizing the practice and it is a fact that for some monogenic epilepsies the molecular confirmation may influence the choice of the treatment. Moreover, the novel genetic methods, that are able to analyze all known genes at a reasonable price, are of paramount importance to discover novel therapeutic avenues and individualized (or precision) medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The right and the wrong with epilepsy and her science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorvon, Simon; Schmidt, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    This is a commentary and an opinion paper attempting a critical reassessment of the methods and practices of epilepsy research as we see it. The enormous progress in the field of epilepsy in recent years is a cause of celebration. Advances have been made on most fronts, and the position of patients with epilepsy in society has greatly improved. However, there have also been culs-de-sac and dead ends of modern science and clinical practice which are also intriguing. It may be true that we can learn more from our mistakes than from our successes. In this opinion paper, we have listed some of the successes and some of the failures of past epilepsy practice, and also areas of current practice and theory which we feel are likely to prove mistaken. The underlying reasons for misdirected practices and theories include, in our view, the influence of fashion, bad science, and the bureaucracies of practice and academic medicine. As a result, some findings are far from objective. Recognition is the first step to remediation, and hopefully future research will minimize some of the pitfalls mentioned in this article and bring the "End of Epilepsy," as defined and predicted by Oswei Temkin, closer than it is today.

  7. Radiation sources EB and UV curing machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Sasaki

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes electron beam processors and related technologies for curing applications to facilitate those industrial personals who are trying to understand and evaluate the applicability and benefits of radiation curing to their products. 4 tabs., 10 figs

  8. Radiation sources EB and UV curing machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes electron beam processors and related technologies for curing applications to facilitate those industrial personals who are trying to understand and evaluate the applicability and benefits of radiation curing to their products. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Development situation of radiation curing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Songhua; Luo Junyi; Liu Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Due to fitting the '4E' principle, radiation curing technology, known as green technology, have shown its own superiority in many applications. It has been rapid developed in China and abroad in recent years, especially ultraviolet/electron beam (UV/EB) radiation curing technology. In order to let the researchers have a general understanding on the radiation curing materials and their development, in this paper a briefly introducing on the related radiation sources, chemical systems, curing mechanism, and the application, the common and difference of ultraviolet curing and electron beam curing has been made. A brief account of development of radiation-curable material in China and the outlook of the development of materials can be found in this paper. At last, we have proposed that the development of radiation curing technology will promote the development of the radiation curing material and benefit in the humanity. (authors)

  10. Epilepsy, language, and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle

    2017-10-04

    Language and social skills are essential for intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Since epilepsy impacts these important domains of individuals' functioning, understanding the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the relationship among epilepsy, language, and social skills has important theoretical and clinical implications. This review first describes the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the association between language and social behavior in children and in adults and their relevance for epilepsy. It reviews the findings of studies of social skills and the few studies conducted on the inter-relationship of language and social skills in pediatric and adult epilepsy. The paper concludes with suggested future research and clinical directions that will enhance early identification and treatment of epilepsy patients at risk for impaired language and social skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The social and economic consequences of epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy.......Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy....

  12. 38 CFR 4.122 - Psychomotor epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a chronic mental disorder associated with psychomotor epilepsy, like those of the seizures, are... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b) A...

  13. Rationale for treating epilepsy in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrini, R; Arzimanoglou, A; Brouwer, O

    2002-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the effects of antiepileptic drugs on childhood epilepsies are partly linked to the specific type of epilepsy or epilepsy syndrome. Most (but not all) types of epilepsy can be classified into categories that are conceptually meaningful. It is likewise logical to set

  14. Epilepsy, seizures, physical exercise, and sports: A report from the ILAE Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, Giuseppe; Kaufman, Kenneth R; Perucca, Emilio; Moshé, Solomon L; Arida, Ricardo M

    2016-01-01

    People with epilepsy (PWEs) are often advised against participating in sports and exercise, mostly because of fear, overprotection, and ignorance about the specific benefits and risks associated with such activities. Available evidence suggests that physical exercise and active participation in sports may favorably affect seizure control, in addition to producing broader health and psychosocial benefits. This consensus paper prepared by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy offers general guidance concerning participation of PWEs in sport activities, and provides suggestions on the issuance of medical fitness certificates related to involvement in different sports. Sports are divided into three categories based on potential risk of injury or death should a seizure occur: group 1, sports with no significant additional risk; group 2, sports with moderate risk to PWEs, but no risk to bystanders; and group 3, sports with major risk. Factors to be considered when advising whether a PWE can participate in specific activities include the type of sport, the probability of a seizure occurring, the type and severity of the seizures, seizure precipitating factors, the usual timing of seizure occurrence, and the person's attitude in accepting some level of risk. The Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy considers this document as a work in progress to be updated as additional data become available. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Techniques for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Pietro, Lura

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the internal...

  16. Post-epilepsy stroke: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Rong; Xiao, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and epilepsy are two of the most common neurological disorders and share a complicated relationship. It is well established that stroke is one of the most important causes of epilepsy, particularly new-onset epilepsy among the elderly. However, post-epilepsy stroke has been overlooked. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that epilepsy patients have increased risk and mortality from stroke when compared with the general population. Additionally, it was proposed that post-epilepsy stroke might be associated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), epileptic seizures and the lifestyle of epileptic patients. Here, we comprehensively review the epidemiology, causes and interventions for post-epilepsy stroke.

  17. Oxidative Stress Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Experimental Models of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Méndez-Armenta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is considered one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Oxidative stress produced by free radicals may play a role in the initiation and progression of epilepsy; the changes in the mitochondrial and the oxidative stress state can lead mechanism associated with neuronal death pathway. Bioenergetics state failure and impaired mitochondrial function include excessive free radical production with impaired synthesis of antioxidants. This review summarizes evidence that suggest what is the role of oxidative stress on induction of apoptosis in experimental models of epilepsy.

  18. UV-cured polymer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón, Victor; Santiago, Freddie; Vogelsberg, Ashten; Davenport, Amelia; Cramer, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Although many optical-quality glass materials are available for use in optical systems, the range of polymeric materials is limited. Polymeric materials have some advantages over glass when it comes to large-scale manufacturing and production. In smaller scale systems, they offer a reduction in weight when compared to glass counterparts. This is especially important when designing optical systems meant to be carried by hand. We aimed to expand the availability of polymeric materials by exploring both crown-like and flint-like polymers. In addition, rapid and facile production was also a goal. By using UV-cured thiolene-based polymers, we were able to produce optical materials within seconds. This enabled the rapid screening of a variety of polymers from which we down-selected to produce optical flats and lenses. We will discuss problems with production and mitigation strategies in using UV-cured polymers for optical components. Using UV-cured polymers present a different set of problems than traditional injection-molded polymers, and these issues are discussed in detail. Using these produced optics, we integrated them into a modified direct view optical system, with the end goal being the development of drop-in replacements for glass components. This optical production strategy shows promise for use in lab-scale systems, where low-cost methods and flexibility are of paramount importance.

  19. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  20. Vigabatrin in childhood epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Alving, J; Gram, L

    1995-01-01

    In an retrospective uncontrolled long-term study in 30 children with intractable epilepsy, it was found that treatment with vigabatrin resulted in a seizure reduction of more than 50% at 1-year follow-up in 40% of the children. The responders were all children with partial seizures. Side effects...... seizure-free patients were unsuccessful. No further side effects were observed. A study of evoked potentials in 12 children showed no alteration in latency and amplitudes of VEP following treatment with vigabatrin. Our results show that in children vigabatrin seems to have a stable effect even though...

  1. Epilepsy and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishijima, Buichi

    1984-01-01

    The glucose metabolism of interictal epileptic foci in human brains were analyzed by positron emission tomography. The seizure patterns of 29 epileptic patients were as follows; complex partial 13 cases, elementary partial 9 cases, and generalized 7 cases. 11 C was produced by a JSW medical cyclotron BC105 and was randomly tagged to glucose prepared by photosynthesis. Data sampling by PET was started 15 minutes after peroral administration of 11 C-glucose to the patients. Three slices with 1.75 cm distance were obtained by a single scanning. In temporal lobe epilepsy, three slices were selected as 2.0 cm, 3.75 cm and 5.5 cm above orbitomeatal line. The basal ganglia were scanned 4.5 -- 5.0 cm and the motor and sensory strips were 5.0 -- 9.0 cm above OML. The glucose metabolic rate was expressed with color scales and qualitatively estimated. The results disclosed an obvious hypometabolic zone around a focus area in 22 cases (76%) out of the 29 subjects. This hypometabolic zone was observed in 12 cases (92%) of 13 complex partial, 9 cases (78%) of 9 elementary partial, and 3 cases (43%) of 7 generalized seizure patterns. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the location of the hypometabolic zone was different according to the clinical symptoms. The patients with automatism, pseudoabsence, autonomic, and emotional symptoms had its foci in the mesial portion of the temporal lobe. On the other hand, the patients with psychical seizure revealed its low metabolic area in the lateral temporal cortex. In the elementary partial epilepsy, the hypoactive zones were observed in the motor, sensory, and visual cortical area in accordance with the clinical symptoms. Very interestingly, an explicit cortical focus was discovered in two cases of the generalized epilepsy. In these cases the mechanism of secondary generalization was supposed to proceed in the expression of their clinical symptoms. In one Lennox-Gastaut case, a unilateral temporal lobe was involved as the seizure focus. (J.P.N.)

  2. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  3. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.

  4. Why epilepsy challenges social life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Bettina K; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-01-01

    Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions. We consider societal, psychological, and neuropsychological aspects of social life with particular emphasis on socio-cognitive functions in temporal lobe epilepsy. Deficits in emotion recognition and theory of mind, two main aspects of social cognition, are frequently observed in individuals with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Results from behavioural studies targeting these functions will be presented with a focus on their relevance for patients' daily life. Furthermore, we will broach the issue of pitfalls in current diagnostic tools and potential directions for future research. By giving a broad overview of individual and interpersonal determinants of social functioning in epilepsy, we hope to provide a basis for future research to establish social cognition as a key component in the comprehensive assessment and care of those with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  6. Epilepsy care in general practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2009-06-01

    Epilepsy care in Ireland is shared between primary, secondary and tertiary care services with the General Practitioner (GP) managing the process. Barriers to effective epilepsy care in Irish general practice remain undocumented although sub-optimal and fragmented services are frequently anecdotally reported. This survey of Irish GPs reports on such barriers to epilepsy care and on the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) issues potentially relevant to the use of an epilepsy specific Electronic Patient Record (EPR). The response rate was 247\\/700 (35.3%). Respondents supported the concept of shared care for epilepsy 237 (96%) however they were very dissatisfied with existing neurology services, including pathways of referral 207 (84%) and access to specialist neurology advice and investigations 232 (94%). They reported that neurology services and investigations may be accessed more expeditiously by patients with private health insurance than those without 178 (72%). Consequently many patients are referred to the emergency department for assessment and treatment 180 (73%). A deficit in epilepsy care expertise among GPs was acknowledged 86 (35%). While computerisation of GP practices appears widespread 230 (93%), just over half the respondents utilise available electronic functionalities specific to chronic disease management. GP specific electronic systems infrequently link or communicate with external electronic sources 133 (54%). While the current pathways of care for epilepsy in Ireland appear fragmented and inadequate, further investigations to determine the quality and cost effectiveness of the current service are required.

  7. Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Thermosetting Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Geun [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae Gil [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    Cure monitoring can be used to improve the quality and productivity of thermosetting resin matrix composite products during their manufacturing process. In this work, the sensitivity of dielectrometry was improved by adequate separation the efforts of sensor and externals on the measured signal. A new algorithm to obtain the degree of cure during dielectric cure monitoring of glass/polyester and glass/epoxy composites was developed by employing a function of both temperature and dissipation factor, in which five cure monitoring parameters were used to calculate the degree of cure. The decreasing pattern of dissipation factor was compared with the relationships between the degree of cure and the resin viscosity. The developed algorithm might be employed for the in situ cure monitoring of thermosetting resin composites

  8. Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Thermosetting Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Geun; Lee, Dae Gil

    2003-01-01

    Cure monitoring can be used to improve the quality and productivity of thermosetting resin matrix composite products during their manufacturing process. In this work, the sensitivity of dielectrometry was improved by adequate separation the efforts of sensor and externals on the measured signal. A new algorithm to obtain the degree of cure during dielectric cure monitoring of glass/polyester and glass/epoxy composites was developed by employing a function of both temperature and dissipation factor, in which five cure monitoring parameters were used to calculate the degree of cure. The decreasing pattern of dissipation factor was compared with the relationships between the degree of cure and the resin viscosity. The developed algorithm might be employed for the in situ cure monitoring of thermosetting resin composites

  9. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  10. Epilepsy in Dostoevsky's novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuil, Piet H A

    2013-01-01

    Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (1821-1881) suffered from epilepsy. Some type of psychopathology can be found in about 25% of the characters of his novels. Some of them have seizures. In at least five of them Dostoevsky clearly intends them to have epilepsy. Others are more likely to be created as people with hysteria or sometimes, for instance, possession. In this essay an inventory is given by more or less comprehensive quotes of different types of seizures in five novels. The seizures are named in the novels with a varying vocabulary based on the concepts of nosology in the 19th century, the knowledge of Dostoevsky of these concepts, his own experiences, and problems in translation and transliteration. In the discussion, analysis of the role these factors played in the understanding of what Dostoevsky really expressed is given attention. Special attention is given to the so-called ecstatic aura. This element of focal epileptic seizures is so rare that in the past the description of it raised doubts on its existence as such and therefore the embellishment by Dostoevsky, describing his own experience and/or that of his epileptic characters Kirillov and Myshkin. The consequence of this analytic approach, however, should not be losing one's amazement of the genius polyphonic creativity of Dostoevsky to integrate so many profound aspects of the human and especially the Russian soul in the characters of his novels. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Infective Causes of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression and genetic causal attribution of epilepsy in multiplex epilepsy families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Shawn T; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Phelan, Jo C; Winawer, Melodie R; Shostak, Sara; Goldsmith, Jeff; Chung, Wendy K; Ottman, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Rapid advances in genetic research and increased use of genetic testing have increased the emphasis on genetic causes of epilepsy in patient encounters. Research in other disorders suggests that genetic causal attributions can influence patients' psychological responses and coping strategies, but little is known about how epilepsy patients and their relatives will respond to genetic attributions of epilepsy. We investigated the possibility that among members of families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy, depression, the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in the epilepsies, might be related to the perception that epilepsy has a genetic cause. A self-administered survey was completed by 417 individuals in 104 families averaging 4 individuals with epilepsy per family. Current depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Genetic causal attribution was assessed by three questions addressing the following: perceived likelihood of having an epilepsy-related mutation, perceived role of genetics in causing epilepsy in the family, and (in individuals with epilepsy) perceived influence of genetics in causing the individual's epilepsy. Relatives without epilepsy were asked about their perceived chance of developing epilepsy in the future, compared with the average person. Prevalence of current depression was 14.8% in 182 individuals with epilepsy, 6.5% in 184 biologic relatives without epilepsy, and 3.9% in 51 individuals married into the families. Among individuals with epilepsy, depression was unrelated to genetic attribution. Among biologic relatives without epilepsy, however, prevalence of depression increased with increasing perceived chance of having an epilepsy-related mutation (p = 0.02). This association was not mediated by perceived future epilepsy risk among relatives without epilepsy. Depression is associated with perceived likelihood of carrying an epilepsy-related mutation among individuals without epilepsy in families containing

  14. Investigation of the cure behaviour of an epoxy polyester powder coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishrat, S.; Nadeem, M.

    1993-01-01

    The epoxy polyester based thermo sets make attractive matrix materials for many industrial and commercial applications because of their excellent performance properties. These properties for example, dimensional stability, adhesion, chemical resistance, and thermal stability arise primarily from the formation of crosslinks during cure. While many factors, such as the reactivity and stoichiometry of the reactants can influence the course of the crosslinking reaction, the cure temperature and cure time ultimately govern the end use performance of the thermosetting systems of powder coatings. The interrelationship between the network formation process and performance properties makes cure process studies critically important in product development. A products end use performance properties can be correlated with the processing conditions by monitoring specific polymeric properties such as gel points, glass transition temperature (TgS,) and the kinetics of the crosslinking reaction. By plotting the change in these properties against cure time and or cure temperature, a 'profile' or degree of cure (DOC) curve can be formed. These profiles illustrate the progress of the crosslinking reaction and can be used to optimize thermo set handling, processing and cure process. (author)

  15. Late onset myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapia Verri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific forms of epilepsy may be found at various ages in Down Syndrome (DS and a sharp increase in the incidence of epilepsy with age has been documented. A specific type of myoclonic epilepsy associated with cognitive decline has been reported as “senile myoclonic epilepsy” or “late onset myoclonic epilepsy in DS” (LOMEDS. We report a new case of LOMEDS, documented by clinical and neurophysiological evaluation and psychometric assessment (DSDS and DMR. MF, male, affected by DS, was referred in 2004 at 40 years of age; he had no personal or familial history of epilepsy. Since one year, the patient presented cognitive deterioration, characterized by regression of language abilities, loss of memory, and loss of sphincters control. A brain TC showed mild brainstem and sub-cortical atrophy. In 2006, myoclonic jerks involving upper limbs occurred mainly after awakening. EEG showed a low voltage 8 Hz background activity with diffuse slow activity, intermingled with spikes or polyspikes, persisting during NREM sleep. MF was initially treated with clonazepam and after with topiramate, resulting in partial seizures control. MRI (2008 demonstrated diffuse brain atrophy, associated with marked ventricular enlargement. At the psychometric evaluation, onset of dementia was evident late in 2004, with transition to the middle stage in 2006. Last assessment (2009 showed the clinical signs of a late stage of deterioration, with loss of verbal abilities and autonomous ambulation. Using levetiracetam till 2,000 mg/die, myoclonic jerks decreased but are still present every day after awakening. On the EEG slow and poorly organized background activity with bilateral polyspike-wave discharges was recorded. Therefore, we documented a parallel progression of dementia and myoclonic epilepsy in a DS subject.

  16. Electron beam curing of EPDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vroomen, G.L.M.; Visser, G.W.; Gehring, J.

    1991-01-01

    Normally EPDM rubbers are vulcanized by systems based on sulphur, resin or peroxide. The common feature of these systems is that they all require activator energy in the form of heat. The (extremely) high temperatures (approximately 180C) have the disadvantage that the final properties of the finished product may be affected in one way or another by a variety of uncontrolled side reactions which may occur. Radiation curing, on the other hand, is a process which differs from those mentioned above in that the final curing is carried out at about 20C under closely controlled conditions (such as radiation dose, penetration depth, etc.), and this form of curing ultimately results in a more well-defined end product. In the rubber industry, this technique is used by large rubber processors (for example, in roof sheeting and cable production). Its widespread use is, however, impeded by the high investment costs. One way of avoiding these high costs is to arrange for the products to be irradiated by contractors. The optimum radiation dose for EPDM is determined by the required pattern of properties. From this study it may be concluded that the network is primarily built up at a radiation dose of up to approximately 100 kGy. The degree to which it is built up depends partly on the coactivator used and the EPDM type used. In choosing the coactivator, allowance has to be made for its solubility in EPDM. The type of oil chosen and any stabilizer additions will affect the crosslinking efficiency. Contrary to studies published earlier, in this study it was found that when EDMA is used as a coactivator, no difference can be detected between a DCPD type (4%) and an ENB type (4%), provided both have an identical molecular weight distribution. Increasing the ENB content has less effect on the final crosslink density than using a type having a broader molecular weight distribution

  17. Stress, the hippocampus, and epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joëls, M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress is among the most frequently self-reported precipitants of seizures in patients with epilepsy. This review considers how important stress mediators like corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticosteroids, and neurosteroids could contribute to this phenomenon. Cellular effects of stress

  18. Behavior Problems Antedating Epilepsy Onset

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence and nature of behavior problems among 224 children (ages 4 to 14 years) with epilepsy, in the six month period before the first recognized seizure, were studied at the Indiana School of Nursing, Indianapolis.

  19. Attitudes towards African traditional medicine and Christian spiritual healing regarding treatment of epilepsy in a rural community of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Mayer, Michael; Ombay, Michael; Mathias, Bartholomayo; Schmutzhard, Erich; Jilek-Aall, Louise

    2009-12-30

    Most people with epilepsy (PWE) live in developing countries with limited access to health care facilities. In sub-Saharan Africa with approximately 12 million PWE, 90% do not receive adequate medical treatment. In this context, traditional medicine, being easily accessible, plays an important role. However, in sub- Saharan Africa, studies on the attitude of people (both affected and not affected by epilepsy) towards traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy are scarce. In this study, 167 people (59 PWE, 62 relatives, 46 villagers) were interviewed at the hospital and in the community with a semi-structured validated questionnaire regarding the prevailing attitude towards traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy in a rural area of northern Tanzania. Various traditional healing methods (THM) could be ascertained, i.e. traditional herbal medicine, spiritual healing, scarifications and spitting. 44.3% (n=74/167) of the interviewed people were convinced that epilepsy could be treated successfully with THM. Interestingly, 34.1% (n=57/167) thought that Christian prayers could cure the cause and/or treat symptoms of epilepsy. Significantly more PWE and their relatives were in favour of THM compared to villagers not knowing about epilepsy or not being immediately affected by epilepsy (χ(2)-test, p=0.004). Further factors influencing people's attitudes towards THM were gender, tribe, religion and urbanity of people's dwellings. Our study demonstrates that not only THM but also prayers in the Christian sense seem to play an important role in people's beliefs regarding successful treatment of epilepsy. Factors influencing this belief system have been identified and are discussed.

  20. [Modern aspects of epilepsy treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajbegović, Azra; Kantardzić, Dzelaludin; Suljić, Enra; Alajbegović, Salem

    2003-01-01

    It is a general rule today, after a relevant diagnostics of an epilepsy, to start a monotherapy treatment, depending on a kind of a seizure, a life age and a general health condition. First line of monotherapy epilepsy drugs remain carbamazapine and sodium valproat. New drugs that are being introduced are: felbamat, gabapentin, lamotrigin, oxcarbazepin, tiagabin, topiramat, vigabatin and zanisamid. These are commonly used as add-on therapy, or as an addition for previously used antiepileptic. Their indicated areas are complex resistant partial seizures with or without generalization. Attention should be paid on proper dosage, interactions and toxicity. Regardless on the new epileptic era, according to reports of International League against epilepsy, most of the patients do not receive the drug that is the most appropriate for them concerning the price (cost-benefit). Neurosurgical methods in epilepsy treatment are: selective amygdalo-hyppocampotomy, temporal lobotomy, subpial resection, hemispherectomy, corpus callosotomy, removal of lesions like tumors or cysts provide encouraging results in reduction of epileptic seizures that can be followed by reduction of drug therapy. N. vagus stimulation is being wider introduced in resident epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy in women requires an approach to sexuality, conception, pregnancy, introduction of medicaments, antiepileptic terratogenity, contraception, motherhood and menopause. A special significance of modern approach to epilepsy is in treatment of elderly who have cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease as a cause of seizures. A complex treatment of epilepsy using pharmacological and neurosurgical approach requires supportive psychotherapy, socio-therapy, the work with a family, education about epilepsy and living a life with more quality having one.

  1. Management of epilepsy in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Harsono Harsono

    2003-01-01

    Management of epilepsy in elderly requires understanding the unique biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these patients. Management decisions must be based on accurate classification of seizures or epilepsy syndromes, a thorough neurological assessment to define etiology, and a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s health and living situation. Concomitant illnesses such as neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, or cardiac disorders will require individualization of plans and ...

  2. Predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.; Ahmed, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prognosis of seizures in epileptic children and identify early predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy. All children (aged 1 month to 16 years) with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy who were treated and followed at the centre during the study period were included. The patients who had marked seizures even after two years of adequate treatment were labeled as intractable epileptics (cases). Children who had no seizure for more than one year at last follow-up visit were the controls. Adequate treatment was described as using at least three anti-epileptic agents either alone or in combination with proper compliance and dosage. Records of these patients were reviewed to identify the variables that may be associated with seizure intractability. Of 442 epileptic children, 325 (74%) intractable and 117 (26%) control epileptics were included in the study. Male gender (OR=3.92), seizures onset in infancy >10 seizures before starting treatment (OR=3.76), myoclonic seizures (OR=1.37), neonatal seizures (OR=3.69), abnormal EEG (OR=7.28) and cryptogenic epilepsy (OR=9.69) and head trauma (OR=4.07) were the factors associated with intractable epilepsy. Seizure onset between 5-7 years of age, idiopathic epilepsy, and absence seizures were associated with favourable prognosis in childhood epilepsy. Intractable childhood epilepsy is expected if certain risk factors such as type, age of onset, gender and cause of epilepsy are found. Early referral of such patients to the specialized centres is recommended for prompt and optimal management. (author)

  3. Progressive cerebellar atrophy and polyneuropathy: expanding the spectrum of PNKP mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulton, C.; Oegema, R.; Heijsman, D.; Hoogeboom, J.; Schot, R.; Stroink, H.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Verheijen, F.W.; Spek, P. van der; Kremer, A.; Mancini, G.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a neurodegenerative disorder starting in early childhood of two brothers consisting of severe progressive polyneuropathy, severe progressive cerebellar atrophy, microcephaly, mild epilepsy, and intellectual disability. The cause of this rare syndrome was found to be a homozygous mutation

  4. The Managing Epilepsy Well Network:: Advancing Epilepsy Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Jobst, Barbara C; Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Begley, Charles E; Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Erica K; Pandey, Dilip K; Quarells, Rakale C; Scal, Peter; Spruill, Tanya M; Thompson, Nancy J; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy, a complex spectrum of disorders, affects about 2.9 million people in the U.S. Similar to other chronic disorders, people with epilepsy face challenges related to management of the disorder, its treatment, co-occurring depression, disability, social disadvantages, and stigma. Two national conferences on public health and epilepsy (1997, 2003) and a 2012 IOM report on the public health dimensions of epilepsy highlighted important knowledge gaps and emphasized the need for evidence-based, scalable epilepsy self-management programs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention translated recommendations on self-management research and dissemination into an applied research program through the Prevention Research Centers Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network. MEW Network objectives are to advance epilepsy self-management research by developing effective interventions that can be broadly disseminated for use in people's homes, healthcare providers' offices, or in community settings. The aim of this report is to provide an update on the MEW Network research pipeline, which spans efficacy, effectiveness, and dissemination. Many of the interventions use e-health strategies to eliminate barriers to care (e.g., lack of transportation, functional limitations, and stigma). Strengths of this mature research network are the culture of collaboration, community-based partnerships, e-health methods, and its portfolio of prevention activities, which range from efficacy studies engaging hard-to-reach groups, to initiatives focused on provider training and knowledge translation. The MEW Network works with organizations across the country to expand its capacity, help leverage funding and other resources, and enhance the development, dissemination, and sustainability of MEW Network programs and tools. Guided by national initiatives targeting chronic disease or epilepsy burden since 2007, the MEW Network has been responsible for more than 43 scientific journal articles, two

  5. Ketone bodies in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Melanie A; Hartman, Adam L

    2012-04-01

    Seizures that are resistant to standard medications remain a major clinical problem. One underutilized option for patients with medication-resistant seizures is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The diet received its name based on the observation that patients consuming this diet produce ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Although the exact mechanisms of the diet are unknown, ketone bodies have been hypothesized to contribute to the anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effects. In this review, anticonvulsant properties of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet are discussed (including GABAergic and glutamatergic effects). Because of the importance of ketone body metabolism in the early stages of life, the effects of ketone bodies on developing neurons in vitro also are discussed. Understanding how ketone bodies exert their effects will help optimize their use in treating epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Vigilance, sleep and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, J

    1986-01-01

    The correlations between vigilance and epilepsy are manifold. Nearly all epileptic seizures cause a diminution of vigilance extending to unconsciousness. Many of the influences triggering or inhibiting epileptic seizures produce alterations of vigilance or are produced by them. Nearly all chemical influences more or less cause diminution of vigilance. The enhancement of vigilance may inhibit seizures. Decreasing vigilance may act vice versa. As a means to enhance vigilance afferent stimuli are able to trigger seizures. This may be accomplished when singular or rhythmic stimulation of afferents gets the already excited neuronal system oscillating. This principle is also responsible for the strong correlation between triggering of seizures and the sleep/waking cycle with its different grades of neuronal synchronization. On the other hand, inhibition of seizures is possible by a continuously applied stimulation load, which may disturb the increasing excitatory oscillation. Also, conditioning may trigger or inhibit seizures. But the EEG biofeedback only is used to decrease abnormal neuronal activity.

  7. Vigabatrin in childhood epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Alving, J; Gram, L

    1995-01-01

    In an retrospective uncontrolled long-term study in 30 children with intractable epilepsy, it was found that treatment with vigabatrin resulted in a seizure reduction of more than 50% at 1-year follow-up in 40% of the children. The responders were all children with partial seizures. Side effects...... were mild and did not lead to discontinuation of the drug. Increased numbers of seizures were seen in three cases. A moderate weight increase was seen in 27% of the children. At 5-year follow-up 7 children (23%) still maintained a seizure reduction of more than 50%. Trials of monotherapy in three...... seizure-free patients were unsuccessful. No further side effects were observed. A study of evoked potentials in 12 children showed no alteration in latency and amplitudes of VEP following treatment with vigabatrin. Our results show that in children vigabatrin seems to have a stable effect even though...

  8. Video material and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, G F; Jeavons, P M; Edson, A S

    1994-01-01

    Nine patients who had epileptic attacks while playing computer games were studied in the laboratory. Patients had an EEG recorded as well as their response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) at flash rates of 1-60 fps. In addition, pattern sensitivity was assessed in all patients by a gratings pattern. Only 2 patients had no previous history of convulsions, and only 2 had a normal basic EEG. All but 1 were sensitive to IPS, and all but 1 were pattern sensitive. Most patients were male, but although this appears to conflict with previously published literature results regarding the sex ratio in photosensitivity, it was due to the male predominance of video game usage. We compared our results with those reported in the literature. Diagnosing video game epilepsy requires performing an EEG with IPS and pattern stimulation. We propose a standard method of testing.

  9. Radiation cured silicone rubber articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, J.G.; Goodwin, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for making radiation cured silicone rubber articles is disclosed wherein a hydroxyl-terminated polysilaxane having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, optionally modified by mixing with up to 85% of an end-stopped silicone rubber, is mixed with from about 10 to about 70 parts per hundred of rubber of a finely divided silica filler with a particle size in the reinforcing range and other inert fillers as determined by desired final properties; the composition so prepared is formed into the desired shape at room temperature; the article so formed is precured to improve the mechanical properties of the material with which it is made by exposure to ammonia gas, ammonium hydroxide, or to the vapors or solutions of a volatile amine at room temperature; and the precured article is irradiated with high energy electrons or gamma radiation to effect a permanent cure of the material from which the article is formed

  10. Impaired development of intrinsic connectivity networks in children with medically intractable localization-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Smith, Mary Lou; Donner, Elizabeth J; Wang, Frank; Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter

    2014-11-01

    Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Accelerated cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Sandra; Aalbers, Marlien W; Rijkers, Kim; Lagiere, Melanie; Bogaarts, Jan G; Blokland, Arjan; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Hoogland, Govert; Vles, Johan S H

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is hypothesized that cumulative seizure exposure causes accelerated cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the influence of seizure frequency on cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobehavioral assessment was performed before and after surgery, after the induction of self-sustaining limbic status epilepticus (SSLSE), and in the chronic phase in which rats experienced recurrent seizures. Furthermore, we assessed potential confounders of memory performance. Rats showed a deficit in spatial working memory after the induction of the SSLSE, which endured in the chronic phase. A progressive decline in recognition memory developed in SSLSE rats. Confounding factors were absent. Seizure frequency and also the severity of the status epilepticus were not correlated with the severity of cognitive deficits. The effect of the seizure frequency on cognitive comorbidity in epilepsy has long been debated, possibly because of confounders such as antiepileptic medication and the heterogeneity of epileptic etiologies. In an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we showed that a decrease in spatial working memory does not relate to the seizure frequency. This suggests for other mechanisms are responsible for memory decline and potentially a common pathophysiology of cognitive deterioration and the occurrence and development of epileptic seizures. Identifying this common denominator will allow development of more targeted interventions treating cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. The treatment of interictal symptoms will increase the quality of life of many patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. UV/EB curing market in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Danu, S.

    1999-01-01

    The most application of UV curing of surface coating in Indonesia are on fancy plywood, furniture and wood flooring industry. Other application are on papers, printing ink/labelling, printed circuit board/PCB and dental materials. At present, application of EB curing coating is still in a pilot plant scale due to the high cost of production. Limited number of application of EB curing by using low energy electron beam machine are on wood panels, ceramics and marbles. This paper describes the market and the problem faced by the largest user of radiation curing systems such as the secondary process plywood, furniture and paper industries

  13. Assessing the similarity of surface linguistic features related to epilepsy across pediatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bretonnel Cohen, K; Standridge, Shannon M; Glauser, Tracy A; Dlugos, Dennis J; Koh, Susan; Tham, Eric; Pestian, John

    2014-01-01

    The constant progress in computational linguistic methods provides amazing opportunities for discovering information in clinical text and enables the clinical scientist to explore novel approaches to care. However, these new approaches need evaluation. We describe an automated system to compare descriptions of epilepsy patients at three different organizations: Cincinnati Children's Hospital, the Children's Hospital Colorado, and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. To our knowledge, there have been no similar previous studies. In this work, a support vector machine (SVM)-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm is trained to classify epilepsy progress notes as belonging to a patient with a specific type of epilepsy from a particular hospital. The same SVM is then used to classify notes from another hospital. Our null hypothesis is that an NLP algorithm cannot be trained using epilepsy-specific notes from one hospital and subsequently used to classify notes from another hospital better than a random baseline classifier. The hypothesis is tested using epilepsy progress notes from the three hospitals. We are able to reject the null hypothesis at the 95% level. It is also found that classification was improved by including notes from a second hospital in the SVM training sample. With a reasonably uniform epilepsy vocabulary and an NLP-based algorithm able to use this uniformity to classify epilepsy progress notes across different hospitals, we can pursue automated comparisons of patient conditions, treatments, and diagnoses across different healthcare settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Seizure outcomes in children with epilepsy after resective brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Lakshmi; Lee, Michael; Palumbo, Linda; Lee, Sharon; Shah, Snehal; Walsh, Peter; Cannell, Patricia; Ghosh, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    To assess the role of resective brain surgery in childhood epilepsy. We retrospectively analysed the seizure outcomes in 55 children with epilepsy who had resective brain surgery between 1997 and 2012, at our centre. The children were 1.5-18 years at the time of surgery; their seizure onset was between 0.2 andto 15 years of age. 48 had refractory epilepsy. One child died of tumour progression. Follow-up duration in the survivors ranged from 2 to -16 years (mean: 9).Presurgical evaluation included clinical profiles, non-invasive V-EEG monitoring, neuroimaging with MRIs in all; SPECT and PET in selected patients. 54 had intraoperative ECoG. An Engel Class 1 outcome was seen in 78% of the cohort, with 67% being off all AEDs at the most recent follow-up. Children with tumours constituted the majority (56%), with 87% of this group showing a Class 1 outcome and 84% being off AEDs. Children with cortical dysplasia had a Class 1 outcome in 56%. Resective brain surgery is an efficacious option in some children with epilepsy. We found ECoG useful to tailor the cortical resection and in our opinion ECoG contributed to the good seizure outcomes. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Curing efficiency of three light emitting diode units at different curing profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Reduction of exposure time to 6 s with high-intensity curing light seemed to be clinically acceptable and should be recommended. Curing of metal brackets with single exposure from buccal side showed lower shear bond strength values.

  16. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... call to find more information about driving and epilepsy? What should I discuss with my boss at ...

  17. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child ... should I discuss with my child's teachers about epilepsy? Will my child need to take medicines during ...

  18. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are

  19. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TYDSKRIF. 1035. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy ... watersrand, as well as with the Department of Psychiatry, .... Is the response to therapy different in the three groups? 6. .... epilepsy in the occupational and the social spheres and.

  20. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  1. Comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalles P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities are often associated with chronic neurological diseases, such as headache and epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To identify comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches, and to determine possible drug interactions. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire with information about type of epilepsy/headache, medical history, and medication was administered to 80 adult subjects (40 with epilepsy and 40 with chronic headache. RESULTS: Patients with epilepsy had an average of two comorbidities and those with headache of three. For both groups, hypertension was the most prevalent. On average, patients with epilepsy were taking two antiepileptic medications and those with headache were taking only one prophylactic medication. Regarding concomitant medications, patients with epilepsy were in use, on average, of one drug and patients with headache of two. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and headaches, have a high number of comorbidities and they use many medications. This may contribute to poor adherence and interactions between different medications.

  2. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  3. Pre-cure freezing affects proteolysis in dry-cured hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Cayuela, J M; Granados, M V; Garrido, M D

    1999-01-01

    Several parameters (sodium chloride, moisture, intramuscular fat, total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, white precipitates, free tyrosine, L* a* b* values and acceptability) related with proteolysis during the curing were compared in dry-cured hams manufactured from refrigerated and frozen/thawed raw material. Pre-cure freezing increased the proteolysis levels significantly (pcured meat, although it does not significantly affect the sensory quality of the dry-cured ham.

  4. Prevention is better than cure

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure.   This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...

  5. Pregnancy Among Women With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S V

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to pregnancy and birth defects in the baby are major concerns for women with epilepsy. Hardly any data from this country is available in this regards to provide factual information to people with epilepsy. This study was undertaken to survey the outcome of pregnancies in women with epilepsy in this part of the country. Women with epilepsy (20to55 year of age who had attended this institute between March 1997 and march 1997 were sent a questionnaire by post regarding their martial status, reproductive history and outcome of pregnancies including any birth defects in their children. The data on clinical aspects and treatment were extracted from their medical records. 184 women (mean age 28.5 + 8 years were included in this study. 108 (58.7% of them were married. Women with epilepsy had three times higher rate of abortions (24.1% than general population(8%. Their mean family size (1.6 was lower than that is Kerala State (2.3. The proportion of women without children (13.9% was also higher than that for the state (9.8%. The frequency of birth defects among their children was twice (4% that in the community (2%. Women taking sodium valproate had higher frequency of birth defects in their children (15% as compared to other drugs but this was not statistically significant. There is a tendency for lower fertility among women with epilepsy. There is a slight increase in the frequency of birth defects among children born to mothers with epilepsy.

  6. [Nonnius and the Spa cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J; Lemli, J; Marganne, M H; Melard, M

    1996-01-01

    The 12th of July 1635, Jan van Beverwyck wrote a letter from Dordrecht to his esteemed friend Luis Nunez, in Antwerp. He asked him for indications about the cure of kidney stones of which he was suffering. He had just passed two calculi very painfully. Nunez answered on July 31. His letter summarized his own experience with this disease. In such cases, temperate diuretics and emollients are well indicated: ingestion of light decoctions of Malva and Viola, Caerefolium and Parieteria as well as Marshmallow syrup. No purge and no 'chemicals'. However, the best remedy was drinking Spa water. Usually the best way to absorb it is to come to the springs, in the Ardennes, part of the independent Principality of Liège. However, considering the horrors of the war (the Thirty Years War) endangering the country, van Beverwyck would be wise to drink imported water during 40 or 50 days, while staying home quietly, in Dordrecht. The letter points out the importance of provoked diuresis in the treatment of kidney stones. On the other hand the letter is an illustration of the continuing contacts between the United Provinces and the Spanish territories and of the commercial traffic between Antwerp, Dordrecht and Spa. The exported water was bottled from many 'pouhons'. It was acid, ferruginous, sulfurous and saturated with carbon dioxide; no pathogen germs, at least at the spring. Nunez quoted the large number of his patients cured with Spa water in Antwerp. This is an illustration of its commercial expansion even during this critical period.

  7. Introduction-Pediatric epilepsy surgery techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenhag, Bertil; Cukiert, Arthur

    2017-04-01

    This supplement includes the proceedings from the Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Techniques Meeting held in Gothenburg (July 4-5, 2014), which focused on presentations and discussions regarding specific surgical technical issues in pediatric epilepsy surgery. Pediatric epilepsy neurosurgeons from all over the world were present and active in very fruitful and live presentations and discussions. These articles represent a synopsis of the areas and subjects dealt with there. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. PET studies in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI. In addition to localizing epileptogenic focus, FDG-PET provide additional important information on the functional status of the rest of the brain. The main limitation of interictal FDG-PET is that it cannot precisely define the surgical margin as the area of hypometabolism usually extends beyond the epileptogenic zone. Various neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, opiates, serotonin, dopamine, acethylcholine, and adenosine) and receptor subtypes are involved in epilepsy. PET receptor imaging studies performed in limited centers help to understand the role of neurotransmitters in epileptogenesis, identify epileptic foci and investigate new treatment approaches. PET receptor imaging studies have demonstrated reduced 11C-flumazenil (GABAA-cBDZ) and 18F-MPPF (5-HT1A serotonin) and increased 11C-cerfentanil (mu opiate) and 11C-MeNTI (delta opiate) bindings in the area of seizure. 11C-flumazenil has been reported to be more sensitive than FDG-PET for identifying epileptic foci. The area of abnormality on GABAAcBDZ and opiate receptor images is usually smaller and more circumscribed than the area of hypometabolism on FDG images. Studies have demonstrated that 11C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET (to study synthesis of serotonin) can detect the epileptic focus within malformations of cortical development and helps in differentiating epileptogenic from non-epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

  9. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  10. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.M.A.; Gorter, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  11. Neuropsychological Research Approaches in the Epilepsies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contributions of electro-encephalography to neurology and neurosurgery have tended to overshadow its value for the neuropsychologist as a tool for the study of instability of brain function in relation to the epilepsies and the borderlands of epilepsy. Studies of criminal behaviour have shown a high incidence of epilepsy ...

  12. Vascular anomalies associated with epilepsy - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drgova, M.; Polacek, H.; Stevik, M.; Zelenak, K.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in which the individual has recurrent seizures. These seizures occur when there is an imbalance in the electrical activity of the brain. The malfunction may be in a small area of the brain or spread to the entire brain. Epilepsy usually begins in childhood or adolescence. About 2.3 million people have seizures or epilepsy. (author)

  13. Epilepsy. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a seizure disorder. According to the Epilepsy Foundation of America, a seizure happens when a brief, strong surge of electrical activity affects part or all of the brain. About three million Americans have epilepsy. Of the 200,000 new cases diagnosed each year, nearly 45,000 are children and adolescents. Following a brief story of a…

  14. The concept of symptomatic epilepsy and the complexities of assigning cause in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorvon, Simon

    2014-03-01

    The concept of symptomatic epilepsy and the difficulties in assigning cause in epilepsy are described. A historical review is given, emphasizing aspects of the history which are relevant today. The historical review is divided into three approximately semicentenial periods (1860-1910, 1910-1960, 1960-present). A definition of symptomatic epilepsy and this is followed by listing of causes of symptomatic epilepsy. The fact that not all the causes of idiopathic epilepsy are genetic is discussed. A category of provoked epilepsy is proposed. The complexities in assigning cause include the following: the multifactorial nature of epilepsy, the distinction between remote and proximate causes, the role of nongenetic factors in idiopathic epilepsy, the role of investigation in determining the range of causes, the fact that not all symptomatic epilepsy is acquired, the nosological position of provoked epilepsy and the view of epilepsy as a process, and the differentiation of new-onset and established epilepsy. The newly proposed ILAE classification of epilepsy and its changes in terminologies and the difficulties in the concept of acute symptomatic epilepsy are discussed, including the inconsistencies and gray areas and the distinction between idiopathic, symptomatic, and provoked epilepsies. Points to be considered in future work are listed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions and enable an era of optimized MS treatment. Read more... The Accelerated Cure Project for MS is a non-profit, 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization whose mission is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  16. Radiation cured acrylonitrile--butadiene elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldred, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention, the ultimate elongation of an electron beam radiation cured acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer is significantly increased by the incorporation of a preferred noncrosslinking monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, in combination with the conventional crosslinking monomer, trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate, prior to the radiation curing process

  17. Hard facts for radiation curing of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered under the headings: introduction; outline of chemistry (differences between conventional and radiation curing); compounding; green strength; response of rubbers to electron beam treatment; electron beam cured applications:(a) wire and cable applications;(b) rubber tyre components;(c) heat shrinkable materials;(d) roofing materials. (U.K.)

  18. Translating Genomic Discoveries to Cure Ultrahypermutant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Translating Genomic Discoveries to Cure Ultrahypermutant Mismatch Repair Deficient Brain Tumours. Malignant brain tumours are the most common cause of death among children with cancer, but there is no known cure. This project will advance research in this important field. Inherited mutations and childhood cancer.

  19. Epilepsy surgery: Recommendations for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article recommends guidelines for epilepsy surgery for India. This article reviews the indications, the various surgical options available and the outcome of surgery for drug resistant epilepsy based on current evidence. Epilepsy surgery is a well-established option for patients who have been diagnosed to have drug resistant epilepsy (DRE (on at least two appropriate, adequate anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs (either in monotherapy or in combination with continuing seizures, where the presurgical work-up has shown concordance of structural imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and electrical mapping data (electroencephalography (EEG, video EEG. There may be a requirement of functional imaging techniques in a certain number of DRE like positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission tomography, (SPECT. Invasive monitoring should be restricted to a few when all noninvasive investigations are inconclusive, there is a dual pathology or there is a discordance of noninvasive data. The types of surgery could be curative (resective surgeries: amygdalo hippocampectomy, lesionectomy and multilobar resections; functional surgeries: hemispherotomy and palliative (multiple subpial transaction, corpus callosotomy, vagal nerve stimulation. Epilepsy surgery in indicated cases has a success range from 50 to 86% in achieving seizure freedom as compared with < 5% success rate with AEDs only in persons with DRE. Centers performing surgery should be categorized into Level I and Level II.

  20. Evaluation of staphylococcus aureus growth in unirradiated and irradiated cured meats using the Gompertz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinski, J.; Szczawinska, M.

    1993-01-01

    1. Sodium nitrite, in concentration of 156 mg/kg, exerted little (from practical point of view) inhibitory effect on S. aureus in cured meat. Its addition caused lag time extension, increase of exponential growth rate, decrease of generation time and maximum population density of staphylococci in samples of cured meat stored at 20 C. 2. Growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus in unirradiated and irradiated (50 kGy) meats cured without sodium nitrite were similar. 3. Irradiation of meat cured with 156 mg/kg sodium nitrite with increasing doses of ionizing radiation (0, 10, 30, 50 kGy) progressively decreased growth rates and lag time and increased generation time and maximum population densities of Staphylococcus aureus in samples inoculated after radiation treatment and incubated at 20 C. (orig.)

  1. Composite cements benefit from light-curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; De Munck, Jan; Geurtsen, Werner; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of curing of composite cements and a new ceramic silanization pre-treatment on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS). Feldspathic ceramic blocks were luted onto dentin using either Optibond XTR/Nexus 3 (XTR/NX3; Kerr), the silane-incorporated 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate (SBU/RXU; 3M ESPE), or ED Primer II/Panavia F2.0 (ED/PAF; Kuraray Noritake). Besides 'composite cement', experimental variables were 'curing mode' ('AA': complete auto-cure at 21°C; 'AA*': complete auto-cure at 37°C; 'LA': light-curing of adhesive and auto-cure of cement; 'LL': complete light-curing) and 'ceramic surface pre-treatment' ('HF/S/HB': hydrofluoric acid ('HF': IPS Ceramic Etching Gel, Ivoclar-Vivadent), silanization ('S': Monobond Plus, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and application of an adhesive resin ('HB': Heliobond, Ivoclar-Vivadent); 'HF/SBU': 'HF' and application of the 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal ('SBU'; 3M ESPE, only for SBU/RXU)). After water storage (7 days at 37°C), ceramic-dentin sticks were subjected to μTBS testing. Regarding the 'composite cement', the significantly lowest μTBSs were measured for ED/PAF. Regarding 'curing mode', the significantly highest μTBS was recorded when at least the adhesive was light-cured ('LA' and 'LL'). Complete auto-cure ('AA') revealed the significantly lowest μTBS. The higher auto-curing temperature ('AA*') increased the μTBS only for ED/PAF. Regarding 'ceramic surface pre-treatment', only for 'LA' the μTBS was significantly higher for 'HF/S/HB' than for 'HF/SBU'. Complete auto-cure led to inferior μTBS than when either the adhesive (on dentin) or both adhesive and composite cement were light-cured. The use of a silane-incorporated adhesive did not decrease luting effectiveness when also the composite cement was light-cured. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EB/UV curing market in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, Khairul Zaman; Nik Salleh, Nik Ghazali; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Res. (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    1999-07-01

    Radiation curing of coatings of wood based products is expanding and being used for curing of coatings of table tops, parquet, wood panel, furniture, curtain railing, etc. UV curing of over print varnish is still the main application of UV curing in printing industry. However, curing ofprinting ink has also been extended in the printing of CD and VCD in addition to other printing such as paper, magazine, label on bottles, metal-can, etc. In the electronic industry, the manufacturer of printed circuit board is still the main consumer of UV curable resins. On the other hand, low energy electron beam machine is used mainly for cross-linking of heat shrink films.

  3. EB/UV curing market in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood

    1999-01-01

    Radiation curing of coatings of wood based products is expanding and being used for curing of coatings of table tops, parquet, wood panel, furniture, curtain railing, etc. UV curing of over print varnish is still the main application of UV curing in printing industry. However, curing of printing ink has also been extended in the printing of CD and VCD in addition to other printing such as paper, magazine, label on bottles, metal-can, etc. In the electronic industry, the manufacturer of printed circuit board is still the main consumer of UV curable resins. On the other hand, low energy electron beam machine is used mainly for cross-linking of heat shrink films

  4. Toxoplasma gondii and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Erol; Türkoğlu, Şule Aydın; Orallar, Hayriye

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite can be seen in all the vital organ; in the acute phase, it can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, tears, saliva, urine, and in almost all body fluids. Transplasental infection can lead to fetal damage and miscarriage. Its last hosts are felines and intermediate hosts are all mammals, including humans. People infected by the ingestion of meat containing cysts in undercooked or raw, are thrown oocysts with cat felines By taking in water and food, from mother to fetus transplacental way, the infected organ transplantation, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents and kaprofaj transmitted by mechanical vectors of the invertebrates. Suppression of the immune system is being transformed to the shape and texture of the cysts with bradyzoite. The parasite settles in the cells of the tissue cysts and causes change in the cellular mechanisms, such as cytokinin task. Depending on changes and type of neurotransmitter (GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine) levels in CSF in ions (Ca, K, Cl, Mg), it is believed that there is a change in their concentration. In this review, literature about the relationship between T. gondii and epilepsy and epileptiform activity the importance of parasites, which settle in the brain, will be highlighted.

  5. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  6. Kinetic studies of chemical shrinkage and residual stress formation in thermoset epoxy adhesives under confined curing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, M.; Geiß, P. L.

    2015-05-01

    Faultless processing of thermoset polymers in demanding applications requires a profound mastering of the curing kinetics considering both the physico-chemical changes in the transition from the liquid to the solid state and the consolidation of the polymers network in the diffusion controlled curing regime past the gel point. Especially in adhesive joints shrinkage stress occurring at an early state of the curing process under confined conditions is likely to cause defects due to local debonding and thus reduce their strength and durability1. Rheometry is considered the method of choice to investigate the change of elastic and viscous properties in the progress of curing. Drawbacks however relate to experimental challenges in accessing the full range of kinetic parameters of thermoset resins with low initial viscosity from the very beginning of the curing reaction to the post-cure consolidation of the polymer due to the formation of secondary chemical bonds. Therefore the scope of this study was to interrelate rheological data with results from in-situ measurements of the shrinkage stress formation in adhesive joints and with the change of refractive index in the progress of curing. This combination of different methods has shown to be valuable in gaining advanced insight into the kinetics of the curing reaction. The experimental results are based on a multi component thermoset epoxy-amine adhesive.

  7. Comparison of impact on seizure frequency and epileptiform discharges of children with epilepsy from topiramate and phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-Y; Wang, M-G; Yao, D; Huang, X-X; Zhang, T; Deng, X-Q

    2016-03-01

    To study the impact on seizure frequency and epileptiform discharges of children with epilepsy from topiramate (TPM) and phenobarbital (PB). Two hundred cases children with epilepsy from August 2010 to August 2013 in our hospital were sampled and randomly divided into two groups. The observation group was treated with TPM while the control group with PB, and then comparing seizure frequency, efficiency, and adverse reactions of two groups. The reduced number of partial seizures, generalized seizures, and total seizures in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the rate of cure, markedly effective and total efficiency in observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. However, the adverse reactions in observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Thus, differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Compared with PB, TPM showed a better effect on epilepsy treatment with less adverse reactions which were worthy of clinical recommendation.

  8. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, F.A.; Qayyum, K.; Ahmad, N.; Makhdoomi, A.; Safdar, A.; Asif, A.; Chaudhry, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  9. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  10. Pediatric epilepsy - an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vrajesh

    2005-04-01

    Prevalence studies from India suggest that epilepsy prevalence is similar to developed nations. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) predominates as an etiology. A large treatment gap is still a public health problem. Benign epilepsies and West syndrome appear to be underrepresented in studies on classification of seizures/syndromes. Febrile seizures prevalence in India is similar to other countries and appear to be as benign. Risk factors of intractable epilepsy (IE) in Indian studies include early age of onset, neurodevelopmental abnormalities and certain seizure types. Perinatal injuries underlie many IE. Many IE are not truly intractable and respond to simple therapeutic measures. The ketogenic diet and surgery are other methods now being used in Indian centers. Neurocysticercosis and neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury, two widely prevalent etiologies are reviewed in detail.

  11. Pediatric epilepsy -- an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vrajesh

    2005-04-01

    Prevalence studies from India suggest that epilepsy prevalence is similar to developed nations. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) predominates as an etiology. A large treatment gap is still a public health problem. Benign epilepsies and West syndrome appear to be underrepresented in studies on classification of seizures/syndromes. Febrile seizures prevalence in India is similar to other countries and appear to be as benign. Risk factors of intractable epilepsy (IE) in Indian studies include early age of onset, neurodevelopmental abnormalities and certain seizure types. Perinatal injuries underlie many IE. Many IE are not truly intractable and respond to simple therapeutic measures. The ketogenic diet and surgery are other methods now being used in Indian centers. Neurocysticercosis and neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury, two widely prevalent etiologies are reviewed in detail.

  12. [Possibilities of psychoprophylaxis in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1976-01-01

    The psychiatrist should be given also their share in the prevetion of epilepsy by means of raising the psychiatric culture of the society and teaching the population the principles of mental hygiene and psychoprophylaxia. The possibilities of psychiatry in prophylactic management of patients with developed epilepsy include: 1. Energetic measures for controlling attacks which has many psychoprophylactic aspects. 2. Prevention of psychotraumatizing situations leading to secondary neurotic, psychotic and other reactions and behaviour disorders of the type of homilopathy and sociopathy, 3. Counteracting the development of mental and social disability in epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy should be conducted from its very beginning in cooperation with psychiatrists and therapeutic psychologists. The probems of prophylaxis cannot be separated from prophylactic treatment, psychotherapy sociotherapy and rehabilitation.

  13. Sex differences in human epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-09-01

    In the majority of neuropsychiatric conditions, marked gender-based differences have been found in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of disease. Emerging data suggest that gender differences exist also in the epidemiology, and pathophysiology of epilepsy. The present review summarizes the current information regarding gender and epilepsy. These differences are regarded from the perspective of innate sex differences in cerebral morphology, structural and functional connections, and assuming that these differences may render men and women differently vulnerable to epileptogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CT findings of infant epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojoh, Hiroatsu; Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Shozo; Tomita, Yutaka.

    1982-01-01

    CT diagnosis of infantile epilepsy was evaluated. High incidence of abnormal CT findings in infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was same as in other reports. Comparison between CT findings and neurological complications and that between CT findings and electroencephalogram findings revealed a stronger relationship existing in the former. This suggested that CT is more useful as a measure to detect underlying diseases which are due to organic change of the brain to cause epilepsy, rather than as that to disclose epileptic primary lesions of functional change. (Ueda, J.)

  15. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fit Test. Based on the odds ratio, the odds of patients having RLS were 4.60 times higher if they had right temporal epilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar

  16. Epilepsy in children and adolescents: Disease concepts, practical knowledge, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauschek, Josefine; Bernhard, Matthias K; Syrbe, Steffen; Nickel, Petra; Neininger, Martina P; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Bertsche, Thilo; Bertsche, Astrid

    2016-06-01

    Children suffering from epilepsy face severe difficulties in daily life. However, data about the self-assessment of children are scarce. From October 2013 to February 2014, patients aged 6-18years suffering from epilepsy were consecutively invited (i) to take part in a structured interview and (ii) to draw a picture about their self-assessment of epilepsy. Eighty-four children and their parents agreed to participate: (i) 63/84 (75%) of the children named their disease correctly; contagiousness was assumed by 8/84 (10%); 81/84 (96%) knew whether they have to take medication; 36/69 (52%) of the children taking long-term medication reported the name(s) of their medication; 8/69 (12%) believed that their medication will cure their disease; 45/84 (54%) named specific precautions to prevent harm from seizures; 6/84 (7%) believed that nonadherence to safety precautions would cause new seizures; and 23/84 (27%) believed that they are worse off than healthy children. (ii) 67/84 (80%) drew a picture titled "This is how I feel when I have a seizure". Specific symptoms [17/67 (25%)] and the interaction between child and environment [12/67 (18%)] were the most common subjects. Most children with epilepsy had rather good knowledge about medication; half of the children knew specific safety precautions. The children were often able to describe their seizures well. Pictures drawn by patients can give an insight into their experiences. Teaching programs should, among others, address the fear of contagiousness of epilepsy in some children and the fact that children with epilepsy might feel disadvantaged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik S

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0......BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...

  18. Determinants of felt stigma in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, N; Kaya, B; Yıldız, G; Öztura, I; Baklan, B

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the level of felt stigma, overprotection, concealment, and concerns related to epilepsy in different life domains by using culturally-specific scales for Turkish individuals with epilepsy. Also, it aimed to detect relations among the study variables and to determine the variables which predict felt stigma. For this purpose, felt stigma scale, overprotection scale, concealment of epilepsy scale, and concerns of epilepsy scale were administered to two hundred adult persons with epilepsy (PWE). The results showed that almost half of the participants reported felt stigma, overprotection, concealment of epilepsy, concerns related to future occupation, and concerns related to social life. Almost all the study variables show correlations with each other. Concealment of epilepsy, concerns related to social life, and concerns related to future occupation were found as the predictors of felt stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korczyn, A.D.; Schachter, S.C.; Brodie, M.J.; Dalal, S.S.; Engel Jr., J.; Guekht, A.; Hecimovic, H.; Jerbi, K.; Kanner, A.M.; Landmark, C.J.; Mareš, Pavel; Marusič, P.; Meletti, S.; Mula, M.; Patsalos, P. N.; Reuber, M.; Ryvlin, P.; Štillová, K.; Tuchman, R.; Rektor, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2013), s. 283-302 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : epilepsy * psychiatry * clinical studies * experimental models Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.061, year: 2013

  20. Quand la biopsie cutanee peut etiqueter une epilepsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufiq Harmouch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La maladie de Lafora (ML represente une forme rare et grave d�epilepsie myoclonique progressive. C�est une affection a transmission autosomique recessive, heterogene sur le plan genetique. Nous rapportons le cas d�une adolescente de 16 ans, issue de parents consanguins de premier degre, qui presente depuis l�age de 14 ans des crises d�epilepsie et des myoclonies. L'examen neurologique a montre un syndrome cerebelleux et une deterioration intellectuelle. La biopsie cutanee etait indispensable pour orienter le diagnostic. La ML a un pronostic constamment fatal. L�etude histologique confirme le diagnostic et l�etude moleculaire peut aider a etablir un conseil genetique.

  1. Common experiences of patients following suboptimal treatment outcomes: implications for epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Dinusha K; McIntosh, Anne M; Bladin, Peter F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the patient experience of unsuccessful medical interventions, particularly in the epilepsy surgery field. The present review aimed to gain insight into the patient experience of seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery by examining the broader literature dealing with suboptimal results after medical interventions (including epilepsy surgery). To capture the patient experience, the literature search focused on qualitative research of patients who had undergone medically unsuccessful interventions, published in English in scholarly journals. Twenty-two studies were found of patients experiencing a range of suboptimal outcomes, including seizure recurrence, cancer recurrence and progression, unsuccessful joint replacement, unsuccessful infertility treatment, organ transplant rejection, coronary bypass graft surgery, and unsuccessful weight-loss surgery. In order of frequency, the most common patient experiences included the following: altered social dynamics and stigma, unmet expectations, negative emotions, use of coping strategies, hope and optimism, perceived failure of the treating team, psychiatric symptoms, and control issues. There is support in the epilepsy surgery literature that unmet expectations and psychiatric symptoms are key issues for patients with seizure recurrence, while other common patient experiences have been implied but not systematically examined. Several epilepsy surgery specific factors influence patient perceptions of seizure recurrence, including the nature of postoperative seizures, the presence of postoperative complications, and the need for increased postoperative medications. Knowledge of common patient experiences can assist in the delivery of patient follow-up and rehabilitation services tailored to differing outcomes after epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overview of UV and EB curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: UV and EB are complementary techniques in radiation curing. In the proposed paper, a brief review of both fields will be given. This will include principles of the process, the chemistry of the systems including monomers/oligomers/polymers used, additives required where necessary such as photoinitiators for UV, flow aids, adhesion promoters and the like. The types of equipment used in such processes will also be discussed including low energy electron beam utilisation and excimer curing. The advantages and disadvantages of both techniques will be examined. Mechanistic aspects of both curing systems will be discussed. Applications of the technology including developments in the banknote printing field will be summarised

  3. Epilepsia mioclônica progressiva: aspectos clínicos, poligráficos e histopatológicos de um caso Progressive myoclonic epilepsy: clinical, polygraphic and histopathological aspects. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso caracterizado clinicamente por crises mioclônicas, crises convulsivas do tipo grande mal e rebaixamento mental progressivo. O estudo histo-patológico revelou a presença de corpúsculos intracitoplasmáticos no sistema nervoso central, com as características dos corpúsculos de Lafora. São feitas considerações clínicas, poligráficas, histopatológicas e etiopatogênicas a propósito da epilepsia mioclônica progressiva.A case with myoclonic jerks, grand mal convulsions and progressive mental retardation is reported. The patient died after 4 years and 10 months of disease, and a sister began with similar simptomatology at this time. By histopathological study there were found intracitoplasmatic bodies in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebelum and myocardium. Some considerations are made about clinical, polygraphic histological and etiopathogenic aspects.

  4. Role of genetics in the etiopathogenesis of genetic generalized epilepsy: A review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Balarabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE was believed to be of presumed genetic etiology with no identifiable genetic mutation or demonstrable epigenetic abnormality. A wide range of epileptic disorders has clue for an inherited susceptibility. Monogenic disorders associated with epilepsy mental retardation and structural brain lesion typified by heterotopias, tuberous sclerosis, and progressive myoclonus epilepsies account for about 1% of epilepsies. This review focuses on the role of genetic mutations and epigenetic rearrangements in the pathophysiologic mechanism of GGE. To achieve this; PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were systematically and comprehensively searched using keywords (“epilepsy” “juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME,” “typical absences,” “idiopathic generalized epilepsy,” “JME,” “juvenile absence epilepsy,” “childhood absence epilepsy” “generalized tonic-clonic seizure” “GTCS”. Most GGE has evidence of underlying genetic inheritance. Recent animal studies have shown that early detection and treatment of genetic generalized epilepsies can alter the phenotypic presentation in rodents. These findings suggest a critical period in epileptogenesis, during which spike-and-wave seizures can be suppressed, leading to chronic changes in the brain (epileptogenesis and the preceding dysfunctions may, therefore, be targeted using therapeutic approaches that may either delay or inhibit the transition to active epileptic attack. The interplay between genetic mutations and epigenetic rearrangements play important roles in the development of GCE and that this process, especially at crucial developmental periods, is very susceptible to environmental modulations.

  5. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  6. Epilepsy and astrocyte energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological syndrome characterized by neuronal hyperexcitability and sudden, synchronized electrical discharges that can manifest as seizures. It is now increasingly recognized that impaired astrocyte function and energy homeostasis play key roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Excessive neuronal discharges can only happen, if adequate energy sources are made available to neurons. Conversely, energy depletion during seizures is an endogenous mechanism of seizure termination. Astrocytes control neuronal energy homeostasis through neurometabolic coupling. In this review, we will discuss how astrocyte dysfunction in epilepsy leads to distortion of key metabolic and biochemical mechanisms. Dysfunctional glutamate metabolism in astrocytes can directly contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability. Closure of astrocyte intercellular gap junction coupling as observed early during epileptogenesis limits activity-dependent trafficking of energy metabolites, but also impairs clearance of the extracellular space from accumulation of K + and glutamate. Dysfunctional astrocytes also increase the metabolism of adenosine, a metabolic product of ATP degradation that broadly inhibits energy-consuming processes as an evolutionary adaptation to conserve energy. Due to the critical role of astroglial energy homeostasis in the control of neuronal excitability, metabolic therapeutic approaches that prevent the utilization of glucose might represent a potent antiepileptic strategy. In particular, high fat low carbohydrate "ketogenic diets" as well as inhibitors of glycolysis and lactate metabolism are of growing interest for the therapy of epilepsy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  8. ECG changes in epilepsy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tigaran, S; Rasmussen, V; Dam, M

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of ECG abnormalities suggestive of myocardial ischaemia in patients with severe drug resistant epilepsy and without any indication of previous cardiac disease, assuming that these changes may be of significance for the group of epileptic patients with sudden unexpected...

  9. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Sussman, N.M.; Selzer, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by paroxysmal alterations in behavior and psychological functions, associated with increased neural discharge that is detectable by EEG. In between these paroxysmal events patients may appear superficially normal, but may have neurological signs and neurpsychological deficits. The neurological signs are sometimes correlated with radiologically detectable lesions, but there is little correlation between the CT abnormalities and the EEG focus, and CT abnormalities are rarely found in ''primary'' or ''idiopathic'' forms of epilepsy. Thus, seizure foci documented by ictal EEG can occur in regions that appear normal on CT. Since brain abnormalities implicated in epilepsy are more clearly reflected in measures of neural activity than in measures of anatomy, PET has particular potential for the study of epileptic pathophysiology. It provides the ability to measure local alterations in brain blood flow and metabolism, which are highly coupled with neural activity, and this makes possible the characterization of metabolic changes associated with epilepsy. Thus PET has the potential for contributing to the localization of epileptic activity as well as to the understanding of its pathophysiology

  10. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, MRI, and EEG findings in 54 patients (35 female, 19 male; aged 1 to 64 years with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH were analyzed in relation to epileptic outcome and genesis of epileptic discharges, in a study at the Neurological Institute and Epilepsy Surgery Center, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, Italy.

  11. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  12. Trends in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh; Botre, Abhijit; Udani, Vrajesh

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy surgery has become an accepted treatment for drug resistant epilepsy in infants and children. It has gained ground in India over the last decade. Certain epilepsy surgically remediable syndromes have been delineated and should be offered surgery earlier rather than later, especially if cognitive/behavioral development is being compromised. Advances in imaging, particularly in MRI has helped identify surgical candidates. Pre-surgical evaluation includes clinical assessment, structural and functional imaging, inter-ictal EEG, simultaneous video -EEG, with analysis of seizure semiology and ictal EEG and other optional investigations like neuropsychology and other newer imaging techniques. If data are concordant resective surgery is offered, keeping in mind preservation of eloquent cortical areas subserving motor, language and visual functions. In case of discordant data or non-lesional MRI, invasive EEG maybe useful using a two-stage approach. With multi-focal / generalized disease, palliative surgery like corpus callosotomy and vagal nerve stimulation maybe useful. A good outcome is seen in about 2/3rd of patients undergoing resective surgery with a low morbidity and mortality. This review outlines important learning aspects of pediatric epilepsy surgery for the general pediatrician.

  13. APPROACH TO EPILEPSY IN CHILDHOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    day care facility, training centre or to receive special needs education. Similar ... access to medical resources and the continuing stigma around epilepsy.1-3 ... information from the EEG, request an awake study with hyperventilation for sus- .... Appear pale and frightened, run to a carer and cling to them and may vomit.

  14. [The causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children aged 3-18 years hospitalized in the year 2006-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergont, Aleksandra; Kroczka, Sławomir; Kaciński, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy can be one of symptoms of the damage to CNS in children with neurodevelopmental deficits, it is more difficult however to diagnose seizures if they are the first symptom of severe brain damage. This retrospective research was conducted to study causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children aged 3-18 year hospitalized between 2006 and 2007 year in the Department of Pediatric Neurology. 156 children with symptomatic epilepsy occurred after 2 years of life were included. The diagnosis of symptomatic epilepsy was established including clinical picture, neuro-radiological tests and EEG. The information from parents was helpful to analyze the type of seizures. The clinical state of children was analyzed, especially psychomotor development, focal deficits, as well as results of CT and/or MRI, in some children psychological testing was performed, molecular or serological. 156 children with epilepsy were hospitalized, within encephalopathy was diagnosed in 61 children. In 42 children static encephalopathy was associated with birth trauma, in 7 progressive encephalopathy was diagnosed, in 1 child CO intoxication caused encephalopathy, and in 11 cases the cause was not identified. Malformations of nervous system were associated with epilepsy in 37 children, geneticaly determined syndromes in 6, and the head trauma in other 6 children. Disorders of vascular origin caused epilepsy in 16 children, and neuroinfections in 9 children. In 2 children epilepsy was associated with ADEM, and in 11 children nonspecific de/dysmyelination was detected. The brain tumor was detected in 6 children with symptomatic epilepsy. The most common disorder leading to epilepsy in children aged 3-18 years was encephalopathy, within hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The other in sequence were malformations of nervous system and vascular diseases.

  15. Accelerated production of dry cured hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, N G; Graham, P P; Shaffer, C K; Phelps, S K

    1987-01-01

    Ten uncured legs from the right side of the sampled pork carcasses (Study A) were vacuum tumbled with the cure adjuncts for 30 min (T) and 10 counterparts from the left side were tumbled 30 min, rested 30 min and tumbled an additional 30 min (TRT). Evaluations were conducted at 40 and 70 days after cure application for color, taste attributes, percentage moisture, percentage salt and NO(3)(-) and NO(2)(-) content. Study B was the same except that 18 legs were boned, tumbled and cured for 40, 56 and 70 days. The TRT samples (Study A) at 40 days sustained less color fading (P 0.05) existed among the uncooked hams. Increased cure time enhanced moisture loss and salt content (Study A) and color retention during cookery (Study B). The TRT samples had increased moisture loss and salt content (Study A). Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Financing cures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban

    2015-02-01

    True cures in health care are rare but likely not for long. The high price tag that accompanies a cure along with its rapid uptake create challenges in the financing of cures by public and private payers. In the US, the disaggregated nature of health insurance system adds to this challenge as patients frequently churn across multiple health plans. This creates a 'free-rider' problem, where no one health plan has the incentive to invest in cure since the returns will be scattered over many health plans. Here, a new health currency is proposed as a generalized version of a social impact bond that has the potential to solve this free-rider problem, as it can be traded not only between public and private payers but also within the private sector. An ensuing debate as to whether and how to develop such a currency can serve the US health care system well.

  17. NONA Cure of Prepreg Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) cure of OoA or autoclave prepreg materials allows the manufacture of large composite structures without the expensive and...

  18. Radtech Asia'95 radiation curing conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Radtech Asia'95 Radiation Curing Conference was held in November, 20-24, 1995 in Guilin, China. The subjects include chemistry, application, Measurement and Equipment, and Material modification. Out of 86 titles, some 30 papers are in INIS scope

  19. Is There a Cure for Cushing's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pinterest Email Print Is there a cure for Cushing syndrome? Untreated Cushing syndrome can be life-threatening—fortunately, most people with ... their previous strength. People who no longer have Cushing syndrome might be more likely to develop diabetes, high ...

  20. Effect of cure cycle on curing process and hardness for epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate and analyze the temperature and degree of cure field of epoxy casting part during cure process. The present model based on general finite element software ABAQUS is verified by literature example and experimental data. The numerical results show good agreement with literature example and measured data, and are even more accurate than the simulation of literature. After modeling successfully, the influence of temperature cure cycle ramps have on the temperature and degree of cure gradient is investigated. Moreover, the effect of non-uniform temperature and degree of cure field within epoxy casting part on hardness is demonstrated. The present model provides an accurate and novel method that allows further insight into the process of cure for epoxy resin.

  1. EVALUATION OF DIELECTRIC CURING MONITORING INVESTIGATING LIGHT-CURING DENTAL FILLING COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Steinhaus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation of a dielectric analysis (DEA method monitoring the curing behaviour of a light curing dental filling material in real-time. The evaluation is to extract the influence of light intensity on the photo-curing process of dental composite filling materials. The intensity change is obtained by measuring the curing process at different sample depth. It could be shown that increasing sample thickness, and therefore exponentially decreasing light intensity, causes a proportional decrease in the initial curing rate. Nevertheless, the results give rise to the assumption that lower illumination intensities over a long period cause higher overall conversion, and thus better mechanical properties. This would allow for predictions of the impact of different curing-rates on the final mechanical properties.

  2. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  3. Neurocysticercosis as an infectious acquired epilepsy worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Volkmer, Randy

    2017-11-01

    Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide. NCC is caused by brain cysts from the T. solium and related tapeworms. Many people with NCC infection may develop epilepsy but the rates are highly variable. MRI imaging shows many changes including localization of cysts as well as the host response to treatment. Epilepsy, in a subset of NCC patients, appears to be due to hippocampal sclerosis. Serologic and brain imaging profiles are likely diagnostic biomarkers of NCC infection and are also used to monitor the course of treatments. Limited access to these tools is a key limitation to identify and treat NCC-related epilepsy in places with high prevalence of this parasite infestation. Overall, NCC is a common infection in many patients with epilepsy worldwide. Additional clinical and animal studies could confirm common pathology of NCC as a postinfectious epilepsy that is curable. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life.

  5. [Building epilepsy care network in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.

  6. Patients cured of acromegaly do not experience improvement of their skull deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Jonathan W; Jahangiri, Arman; Flanigan, Patrick M; Aghi, Manish K

    2017-04-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease that is associated with many co-morbidities. This condition also causes progressive deformity of the skull which includes frontal bossing and cranial thickening. Surgical and/or medical management can cure this condition in many patients, but it is not understood if patients cured of acromegaly experience regression of their skull deformities. We performed a retrospective analysis on patients treated at our dedicated pituitary center from 2009 to 2014. We looked at all MRI images taken during the treatment of these patients and recorded measurements on eight skull dimensions. We then analyzed these measurements for changes over time. 29 patients underwent curative treatment for acromegaly within our timeframe. The mean age for this population was 45.0 years old (range 19-70) and 55.2 % (n = 16) were female. All of these patients were treated with a transsphenoidal resection for a somatotropic pituitary adenoma. 9 (31.1%) of these patients required further medical therapy to be cured. We found statically significant variation in the coronal width of the sella turcica after therapy, which is likely attributable to changes from transsphenoidal surgery. None of the other dimensions had significant variation over time after cure. Patients cured of acromegaly should not expect natural regression of their skull deformities. Our study suggests that both frontal bossing and cranial thickening do not return to normal after cure.

  7. Radiation cured coatings for high performance products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkins, J.C.; Teesdale, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Development over the past ten years of radiation curable coating and lacquer systems and the means of curing them has led to new products in the packaging, flooring, furniture and other industries. Solventless lacquer systems formulated with acrylates and other resins enable high levels of durability, scuff resistance and gloss to be achieved. Ultra violet and electron beam radiation curing are used, the choice depending on the nature of the coating, the product and the scale of the operation. (author)

  8. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  9. Gamma and electron beam curing of polymers and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.B.; Dickson, L.W.; Singh, A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation polymerization has helped us understand polymer chemistry, and is also playing an increasing role in the field of practical applications. Radiation curing has a present market share of about 5% of the total market for curing of polymers and composites and the annual growth rate of the radiation curing market is ≥20% per year. Advantages of radiation curing over thermal or chemical curing methods include: improved control of the curing rate, reduced curing times, curing at ambient temperatures, curing without the need for chemical initiators, and complete (100%) curing with minimal toxic chemical emissions. Radiation treatment may also be used to effect crosslinking and grafting of polymer and composite materials. The major advantage in these cases is the ability to process products in their final shape. Cable insulation, automotive and aircraft components, and improved construction materials are some of the current and near-future industrial applications of radiation curing and crosslinking. 19 refs

  10. Antidepressant therapy in epilepsy: can treating the comorbidities affect the underlying disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, L; Salzberg, MR; O'Brien, TJ; Jones, NC

    2013-01-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric comorbidity in people with epilepsy (PWE), particularly depression. The manifold adverse consequences of comorbid depression have been more clearly mapped in recent years. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been made to improve detection and diagnosis, with the result that many PWE are treated with antidepressant drugs, medications with the potential to influence both epilepsy and depression. Exposure to older generations of antidepressants (notably tricyclic antidepressants and bupropion) can increase seizure frequency. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that newer (‘second generation’) antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, have markedly less effect on excitability and may lead to improvements in epilepsy severity. Although a great deal is known about how antidepressants affect excitability on short time scales in experimental models, little is known about the effects of chronic antidepressant exposure on the underlying processes subsumed under the term ‘epileptogenesis’: the progressive neurobiological processes by which the non-epileptic brain changes so that it generates spontaneous, recurrent seizures. This paper reviews the literature concerning the influences of antidepressants in PWE and in animal models. The second section describes neurobiological mechanisms implicated in both antidepressant actions and in epileptogenesis, highlighting potential substrates that may mediate any effects of antidepressants on the development and progression of epilepsy. Although much indirect evidence suggests the overall clinical effects of antidepressants on epilepsy itself are beneficial, there are reasons for caution and the need for further research, discussed in the concluding section. PMID:23146067

  11. Thermal Aging Behaviors of Rubber Vulcanizates Cured with Single and Binary Cure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Seen; Ha, Sung Ho [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Chang Su [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    In general, an accelerated sulfur cure system consists of elemental sulfur, one or two cure accelerators, and cure activators. Crosslink density of a rubber vulcanizate determines the physical properties. By increasing the crosslink density, the modulus, hardness, resilience, and abrasion resistance increase, whereas the elongation at break, heat build-up, and stress relaxation decrease. Sulfur linkages are composed of monosulfide, disulfide, and polysulfides. Sulfur linkages, especially polysulfides, are dissociated by heating and this brings about decrease of the crosslink density.

  12. Additive effects in radiation grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viengkhou, V.; Ng, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Detailed studies on the accelerative effect of novel additives in radiation grafting and curing using acrylated monomer/oligomer systems have been performed in the presence of ionising radiation and UV as sources. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is used as typical monomer for these grafting studies in the presence of the additives with model backbone polymers, cellulose and propropylene. Additives which have been found to accelerate these grafting processes are: mineral acid, occlusion compounds like urea, thermal initiators and photoinitiators as well as multifunctional monomers such as multifunctional acrylates. The results from irradiation with gamma rays have also been compared with irradiation from a 90W UV lamp. The role of the above additives in accelerating the analogous process of radiation curing has been investigated. Acrylated urethanes, epoxies and polyesters are used as oligomers together with acrylated monomers in this work with uv lamps of 300 watts/inch as radiation source. In the UV curing process bonding between film and substrate is usually due to physical forces. In the present work the presence of additives are shown to influence the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure thus affecting the nature of the bonding of the cured film. The conditions under which concurrent grafting with UV can occur will be examined. A mechanism for accelerative effect of these additives in both grafting and curing processes has been proposed involving radiation effects and partitioning phenomena

  13. Clinicopathological study on refractory epilepsy treated by several epilepsy surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and investigate the clinicopathological features and types of refractory epilepsy treated by several epilepsy surgeries. Methods There were 19 patients with age less than 20 years who underwent 2 (16/19 or 3 (3/19 epilepsy surgeries. After pathological examination, pathological diagnosis and subtype was made according to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD classification proposed by International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission in 2011 and World Health Organization (WHO Classification of Tumors of Central Nervous System in 2007. Results The operation intervals were 1-10 years (average 4.24 years. The pathological diagnoses after first operation were FCDⅠb in 2 cases (2/19, FCDⅡa in 2 cases (2/19, FCDⅢa in one case (1/19, FCDⅢd in one case (1/19, 5 cases of tumor lesions [2 (2/19 of astrocytoma, one (1/19 of oligoastrocytoma, one (1/ 19 of mixed germ cell tumor, one (1/19 of hysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT], one case (1/19 of hamartoma, one case (1/19 of angioma, one case (1/19 of heterotopic gray matter, and 4 cases (4/19 of ulegyria. The last one (1/19 underwent corpus callosal incision. Pathological diagnoses after reoperation were FCDⅢa in 4 cases (4/19, FCDⅢb in 4 cases (4/19, FCDⅢc in one case (1/19, FCDⅢd in 8 cases (8/19, dual pathology (FCDⅢa with oligoastrocytoma and with glial scar and/or ulegyria in 2 cases (2/19. Patients were followed up for 0.50-5.00 years after second or third operation (average 2.34 years, and the results showed Engel Ⅰ in 10 patients (10/19, Engel Ⅱ in 6 patients (6/19 and Engel Ⅲ in 3 patients (3/19. The rate of good prognosis was 84.21%. Conclusions The pathological diagnoses of brain tissue resected from patients accepting several epilepsy surgeries are mainly FCD Ⅲ and dual pathology. It is suggested that the second or third operation would be effective for refractory epilepsy patients who underwent surgery already. DOI: 10

  14. How close is the stem cell cure to the Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative illness, is the most common form of dementia. So far, there is neither an effective prevention nor a cure for Alzheimer's disease. In recent decades, stem cell therapy has been one of the most promising treatments for Alzheimer's disease patients. This article aims to summarize the current progress in the stem cell treatments for Alzheimer's disease from an experiment to a clinical research.

  15. Atorvastatin treatment during epileptogenesis in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Erwin A.; Holtman, Linda; Aronica, Eleonora; Schmitz, Leanne J. M.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Gorter, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that blood-brain barrier leakage together with inflammation could contribute to epileptogenesis and seizure progression in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy. Because statins have been shown to reduce blood-brain barrier permeability and inflammation in neurological

  16. Cognitive functions in myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domańska Martyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF is a rare, progressive mitochondrial disease affecting multiple systems, including the central nervous system. Typical MERRF symptoms include: myoclonus, epileptic seizures, ataxia and cognitive decline. In mitochondrial diseases selective cognitive impairment or generalized decline, called mitochondrial dementia, is usually diagnosed.

  17. Long-Term Social Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population-based longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of social outcomes of children with epilepsy in different countries are reviewed by researchers at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.Epilepsy, Chronic Disease, Idiopathic Epilepsy.

  18. Cure Cycle Optimization of Rapidly Cured Out-Of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Anqi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Yu, Qiyong

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-autoclave prepreg typically needs a long cure cycle to guarantee good properties as the result of low processing pressure applied. It is essential to reduce the manufacturing time, achieve real cost reduction, and take full advantage of out-of-autoclave process. The focus of this paper is to reduce the cure cycle time and production cost while maintaining high laminate quality. A rapidly cured out-of-autoclave resin and relative prepreg were independently developed. To determine a suitable rapid cure procedure for the developed prepreg, the effect of heating rate, initial cure temperature, dwelling time, and post-cure time on the final laminate quality were evaluated and the factors were then optimized. As a result, a rapid cure procedure was determined. The results showed that the resin infiltration could be completed at the end of the initial cure stage and no obvious void could be seen in the laminate at this time. The laminate could achieve good internal quality using the optimized cure procedure. The mechanical test results showed that the laminates had a fiber volume fraction of 59–60% with a final glass transition temperature of 205 °C and excellent mechanical strength especially the flexural properties. PMID:29534048

  19. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment-seeking strategic behavior, including faith healing practices, among patients with epilepsy in northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Surender Kumar; Sharma, Krishan; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Pathak, Ashis

    2008-08-01

    The data on sociocultural, demographic, and psychosocial aspects and types of treatment strategies adopted by families of patients with epilepsy in northwestern India were collected by the interview schedule method from 400 patients (200 idiopathic and 200 symptomatic) at the outpatient department of the Neurology and Epilepsy Clinic of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. Epilepsy was classified as idiopathic or symptomatic on the basis of clinical tests (EEG, CT scan, and MRI). It was observed that socioeconomic factors had no bearing on epilepsy in the present sample. Early onset, that is, before 20 years of age, reduced the chances of patients' finding a spouse among those who disclosed the disease information, thereby impacting the nuptial and fertility rates of patients with epilepsy. The present sample of patients was well informed about and sensitized to the efficacy of the modern system of medicine, as 80% of patients sought medical treatment on the very same day as or within a week of onset of seizures. The data were compatible with the framed hypothesis that well-being and safety of the patient would override the stigma burden factor, as 94% of the affected families made no attempt to hide the disease from their neighbors, friends, and colleagues, and teachers of the affected patients. Surprisingly, only 7.5% of the families admitted that they consulted a faith healer. Families did adopt some culturally prevalent methods to control involuntary movements during seizures. It can be concluded that trust in faith healers exists strongly as an undercurrent, but is not overtly admitted by the majority of patients. Some families concurrently visited modern hospitals and occult healers seeking a cure for the disease. The fear of having a child with epilepsy or other abnormalities discouraged married patients from becoming pregnant after developing epilepsy.

  20. The current treatment options for epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, P.; Svecova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most prevalent chronic brain disease manifesting with epileptic seizures. Epilepsy itself is not one nosological entity, it rather includes several diseases with various etiology, clinics, course and therapy. Antiepileptic therapy aims seizure freedom without affecting psychical and physical functions. The therapy is in first line pharmacological. The choice of antiepileptic drug depends not only on the seizure phenomenology, but also on the respective type of epilepsy syndrome. Most patients achieve seizure freedom or at least significant seizure frequency reduction. In 20-30% of the patients is the pharmacotherapy ineffective. In these cases of refractory epilepsy therapeutical options include epilepsy surgery, vagal stimulation or ketogenic diet. Despite recent advances in the diagnostics and therapy, epilepsy remains a serious medical and social issue. (author)

  1. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  2. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D.; Schachter, Steven C.; Brodie, Martin J.; Dalal, Sarang S.; Engel, Jerome; Guekht, Alla; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Jerbi, Karim; Kanner, Andres M.; Landmark, Cecilie Johannessen; Mares, Pavel; Marusic, Petr; Meletti, Stefano; Mula, Marco; Patsalos, Philip N.; Reuber, Markus; Ryvlin, Philippe; Štillová, Klára; Tuchman, Roberto; Rektor, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is, of course, not one disease but rather a huge number of disorders that can present with seizures. In common, they all reflect brain dysfunction. Moreover, they can affect the mind and, of course, behavior. While animals too may suffer from epilepsy, as far as we know, the electrical discharges are less likely to affect the mind and behavior, which is not surprising. While the epileptic seizures themselves are episodic, the mental and behavioral changes continue, in many cases, interictally. The episodic mental and behavioral manifestations are more dramatic, while the interictal ones are easier to study with anatomical and functional studies. The following extended summaries complement those presented in Part 1. PMID:23764496

  3. Focal epilepsies in adult patients attending two epilepsy centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, Isabella; Vignoli, Aglaia; Visani, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    , and we evaluated the risk factors associated with AED resistance using logistic regression analysis. We further grouped AED-resistant patients in different grades (I, II, and III) according to the number of AEDs already tried as proposed by Perucca. KEY FINDINGS: AED resistance occurred in 57...... consecutively after 1990 and followed regularly at two epilepsy centers. We systematically collected the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data using a custom-written database. We classified the patients as seizure-free or AED resistant according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria...... control (14.9% needed three or more AEDs). Furthermore, among seizure-free patients who could be previously classified as resistant to two or more AEDs, 52.2% reached seizure freedom while receiving treatment with "new generation" AEDs. SIGNIFICANCE: The ILAE classification of AED resistance, as well...

  4. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal : diagnostic approach to epilepsy in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farqhuar, Robyn; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Packer, Rowena M A; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Ned; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Batlle, Martí Pumarola; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient

  5. CT and MRI Guidelines in Recent-Onset Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Subcommittee for Pediatric Neuroimaging examined the value of, and indications for, neuroimaging in the evaluation of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

  6. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  7. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Autistic Characteristics in Adults with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeford, SallyAnn Rose

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders [ASD] in epilepsy is approximately 20%-32%, with previous research reporting high rates of under-diagnosis of ASD in epilepsy. Current psychological assessments were adapted to provide epilepsy-specific measures of behaviour, which increased validity by addressing specific methodological problems highlighted by several researchers. The initial experiments provided a comprehensive investigation of autistic traits and characteristics in a heterogeneou...

  9. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C.; Hong, SeokJun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy. PMID:24098281

  10. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris eBernhardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy.

  11. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Hong, Seokjun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-10-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy.

  12. Epilepsy Genetics—Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Annapurna; Lowenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous condition in which genetics play an important etiological role. We begin by reviewing the past history of epilepsy genetics, a field that has traditionally included studies of pedigrees with epilepsy caused by defects in ion channels and neurotransmitters. We highlight important recent discoveries that have expanded the field beyond the realm of channels and neurotransmitters and that have challenged the notion that single genes produce single disorders. Finally, we project toward an exciting future for epilepsy genetics as large-scale collaborative phenotyping studies come face to face with new technologies in genomic medicine. PMID:21277190

  13. MR imaging findings in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honghan, Gong; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Takae

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively examined the MR imaging (MRI) findings in 144 patients with epilepsy (31 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 113 with other epilepsies). 110 cases (76.4%) showed abnormal findings such as spotty lesions in white matter, hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change, ventricular dilatation and/or deformity, developmental lesions, brain tumors and so on. Hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change was shown in 74.1% of temporal lobe epilepsy, a remarkably high percentage (p<0.01) compared with the other types of epilepsies (18.1%). This finding means that hippocampal lesions may play a large part in the cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Investigation of the relationship between clinical term and abnormal findings revealed that the longer the clinical term, the large the number of hippocampal lesions, regardless of whether it is temporal lobe epilepsy or not. Thus hippocampal lesions may occur as a result of hypoxia accompanied with seizure. Therefore we recommend horizontal and/or vertical sections of hippocampus in MR imaging of all patients with epilepsy. Even though MR finding may reflect some secondary lesions, MRI will shed some light on the proper understanding of epilepsy. (author)

  14. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deblaere, Karel; Achten, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  15. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, Karel [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital, MR Department - 1K12, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  16. Anesthesia-induced epilepsy: causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xuefeng

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a type of chronic brain disease that results from an abnormally high synchronization of neuronal discharge. The typical clinical features of epilepsy are paroxysms and transient and stereotyped brain dysfunction. Many cases of epileptic seizures occurring during anesthesia have been reportedx. Recently, risk assessment of epileptic seizures during surgery and anesthesia has gained increasing attention. In this review, we systematically summarize the influence of anesthesia on epileptic seizures; the types, durations and frequencies of seizures related to anesthesia; and the epidemiology, prevention, treatment and prognosis of epilepsy. We also explore the possible mechanism of epilepsy and provide guidance for anesthesia during surgeries.

  17. Perampanel: An audit of clinical experience using the epilepsy electronic patient record.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, E

    2016-07-01

    Perampanel is a non-competitive antagonist of AMPA glutamate receptors on post synaptic neurons. The aim of this study was to conduct an audit of the experience of perampanel treatment in Ireland based on the interrogation of the national epilepsy electronic patient record (EPR). A retrospective audit was compiled which reviewed the progress of patients who had been treated across two regional epilepsy centres. The EPR was used to identify patients and collect information relevant to their perampanel therapy. Collected data was entered into a statistical package for social sciences for analysis using descriptive statistics.\\r\

  18. Pannexin-1 channels in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mark S; Whyte-Fagundes, Paige; Zoidl, Georg; Carlen, Peter L

    2017-09-05

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) expression is raised in several animal seizure models and in resected human epileptic brain tissue, suggesting relevance to epilepsy. Multiple factors that are characteristic of seizures are thought to regulate Panx1 channel opening, including elevated levels of extracellular K + . Panx1, when open, 1) releases ATP, glutamate, and other metabolites into the extracellular medium, and 2) may depolarize the membrane due to a channel reversal potential around 0mV. Resultant ATP release from stimulated Panx1 can activate purinergic receptors, including P2X7 receptors. Glutamate and other signaling molecules released by Panx1 opening may have both excitatory and inhibitory actions on seizure generation. This review examines the critical and complex roles of Panx1 channels in epilepsy, which could provide a basis for future therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  20. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s (MCT ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  1. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber

  2. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber.

  3. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Letícia Pereira de Brito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable whi...

  4. Excimer Laser Curing Of Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, David; Akerman, M. Alfred; Paul, George L.; Supurovic, Darko; Tsuda, Haruki

    1988-12-01

    The use of the excimer laser as a source of energy for photo-assisted curing of industrial polymeric coatings was investigated. Presently, UV lamps are sometimes used to excite a photoinitiating molecule mixed with the starting monomers and oligomers of a coating. The resulting polymeric chain reaction multiplies the effect of the initial photons, making economical use of the light source. The high cost of laser photons may thus be justifiable if lasers provide advantages over lamps. A series of visibly transparent 7 μm coatings (a typical thickness for 'slick' magazine coatings) with various photoinitiators, monomers, and oligomers was illuminated with excimer laser light of various wavelengths, fluences, and pulse repetition rates. For the optimum parameters, it was found that the laser had large advantages in curing speed over existing UV lamp processes, due to its monochromaticity. Pigmented coatings (20 μm TiO2 mixtures typical of appliance or automotive finishes) are not easily cured with UV lamps due to the inability of light to penetrate the absorbing and scattering pigmented layer. However, economically-viable cure rates were achieved with certain photoinitiators using a tunable excimer-pumped dye laser. A prototype of such a laser suitable for factory use was built and used to cure these coatings. Results are scaled to a factory situation, and costs are calculated to show the advantages of the laser method over currently used processes.

  5. The role of brain SPECT in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Liu Yongchang; Lin Xiangtong

    1996-01-01

    The rCBF brain SPECT with 99m Tc-HMPAO was performed in 15 children with interictal epilepsy, and some cases were compared with EEG, X-ray CT and MRI. The results showed that the positive rate of SPECT was the highest (93.33%,), then the EEG (92.31%), and the CT and MRI were the lowest (66.67% and 75%). This study indicated that brain SPECT was an effective method for diagnosis and foci localization in epileptic children, and also was useful to the study of prognosis and relationship between changes of rCBF and progress in clinical pictures

  6. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  7. Epilepsy and recommendations for breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte; Engelsen, Bernt A; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a synopsis of benefits and potential harmful effects of exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) via breastmilk, and present recommendations for breastfeeding in women with epilepsy. The article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, the LactMed database, and the authors' clinical experience. Breastfeeding is associated with benefits for the infant, including nutrition, protection against infectious and immunological disease, and promotion of development and psychological attachment. Exposure to AEDs via breastmilk could potentially produce side effects or negatively affect development. Most studies on AED transfer through breastmilk report infant serum levels well below the limit of an expected pharmacological effect. Some drugs have the potential to reach significant serum levels in breastfed infants, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, lamotrigine, and ethosuximide. Thus, breastfed infants should be monitored for side effects. Still, adverse symptoms are rarely reported in breastfed infants of mothers taking AEDs, and prospective studies have failed to demonstrate any negative developmental effects in children that have been exposed to AEDs via breastmilk. The nursing infant's degree of drug exposure can be minimized by breastfeeding when drug concentrations in the milk are low, reducing maternal AED dosage to prepregnancy levels, and administering mixed nutrition. Most AEDs are considered safe or moderately safe during breastfeeding. Mothers with epilepsy should be encouraged to breastfeed, provided careful monitoring of the infant. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epilepsy and music: practical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, M

    2017-04-01

    Music processing occurs via a complex network of activity far beyond the auditory cortices. This network may become sensitised to music or may be recruited as part of a temporal lobe seizure, manifesting as either musicogenic epilepsy or ictal musical phenomena. The idea that sound waves may directly affect brain waves has led researchers to explore music as therapy for epilepsy. There is limited and low quality evidence of an antiepileptic effect with the Mozart Sonata K.448. We do not have a pathophysiological explanation for the apparent dichotomous effect of music on seizures. However, clinicians should consider musicality when treating patients with antiepileptic medication or preparing patients for epilepsy surgery. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine each may cause a reversible altered appreciation of pitch. Surgical cohort studies suggest that musical memory and perception may be affected, particularly following right temporal lobe surgery, and discussion of this risk should form part of presurgical counselling. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Residual Stress Developed During the Cure of Thermosetting Polymers: Optimizing Cure Schedule to Minimize Stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Stavig, Mark E.; Jaramillo, Rex

    2016-06-01

    When thermosetting polymers are used to bond or encapsulate electrical, mechanical or optical assemblies, residual stress, which often affects the performance and/or reliability of these devices, develops within the structure. The Thin-Disk-on-Cylinder structural response test is demonstrated as a powerful tool to design epoxy encapsulant cure schedules to reduce residual stress, even when all the details of the material evolution during cure are not explicitly known. The test's ability to (1) distinguish between cohesive and adhesive failure modes and (2) demonstrate methodologies to eliminate failure and reduce residual stress, make choices of cure schedules that optimize stress in the encapsulant unambiguous. For the 828/DEA/GMB material in the Thin-Disk-on-Cylinder geometry, the stress associated with cure is significant and outweighs that associated with cool down from the final cure temperature to room temperature (for measured lid strain, Scure I > I I e+h erma * II) * The difference between the final cure temperature and 1 1 -- the temperature at which the material gels, Tf-T ge i, was demonstrated to be a primary factor in determining the residual stress associated with cure. Increasing T f -T ge i leads to a reduction in cure stress that is described as being associated with balancing some of the 828/DEA/GMB cure shrinkage with thermal expansion. The ability to tune residual stress associated with cure by controlling T f -T ge i would be anticipated to translate to other thermosetting encapsulation materials, but the times and temperatures appropriate for a given material may vary widely.

  10. [Effects of temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy on cognitive function and emotion in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Long, Li-Li; Xiao, Bo

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy on cognitive function and emotion in children and the risk factors for cognitive impairment. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 38 children with temporal lobe epilepsy and 40 children with idiopathic epilepsy. The controls were 42 healthy children. All subjects received the following neuropsychological tests: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale, verbal fluency test, digit span test, block design test, Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC), and Depression Self-rating Scale for Children (DSRSC). Compared with the control group, the temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy groups showed significantly lower scores of MoCA, verbal fluency, digit span, and block design (Pepilepsy group, the temporal lobe epilepsy group showed significantly lower scores of MoCA, verbal fluency, digit span, and block design (Ptemporal lobe epilepsy group, MoCA score was negatively correlated with SASC score, DSRSC score, and seizure frequency (r=-0.571, -0.529, and -0.545 respectively; Pepilepsy group, MoCA score was also negatively correlated with SASC score, DSRSC score, and seizure frequency (r=-0.542, -0.487, and -0.555 respectively; Ptemporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy show impaired whole cognition, verbal fluency, memory, and executive function and have anxiety and depression, which are more significant in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. High levels of anxiety, depression, and seizure frequency are risk factors for impaired cognitive function.

  11. Understanding Death in Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Elizabeth J; Camfield, Peter; Brooks, Linda; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Camfield, Carol; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Wirrell, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Death in children with epilepsy is profoundly disturbing, with lasting effects on the family, community, and health care providers. The overall risk of death for children with epilepsy is about ten times that of the general population. However, the risk of premature death for children without associated neurological comorbidities is similar to that of the general population, and most deaths are related to the cause of the epilepsy or associated neurological disability, not seizures. The most common cause of seizure-related death in children with epilepsy is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP is relatively uncommon in childhood, but the risk increases if epilepsy persists into adulthood. Although the direct cause of SUDEP remains unknown, most often death follows a generalized convulsive seizure and the risk of SUDEP is strongly related to drug-resistant epilepsy and frequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The most effective SUDEP prevention strategy is to reduce the frequency of seizures, although a number of seizure detection devices are under development and in the future may prove to be useful for seizure detection for those at particularly high risk. There are distinct benefits for health care professionals to discuss mortality with the family soon after the diagnosis of epilepsy. An individual approach is appropriate. When a child with epilepsy dies, particularly if the death was unexpected, family grief may be profound. Physicians and other health care professionals have a critical role in supporting families that lose a child to epilepsy. This review will provide health care providers with information needed to discuss the risk of death in children with epilepsy and support families following a loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of radiation curing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, L.D.B.; Rotta, A.C.; Petrie, I.

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, an agreement between the Rad tech International North America and the ATBCR, the Brazillian Technical Association for Radiation cure, turns ATCBR into RadTech South America. This new institution starts with already 10 years of history and pioneering technical experience and achievements in UV and EB radiation cure. Both RadTech institutions have asserted a whole cooperation and information exchange to continue with the initial ATBCR compromise in promoting UV and EB curing technology and to make it available to professionals, enterprise and other organizations. The RadTech South America has it's headquarter at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from whom also gets sponsorship. (Author)

  13. [Television, children and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst

    2002-06-08

    Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures.

  14. Neuroinflammation in epileptogenesis: Insights and translational perspectives from new models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Löscher, Wolfgang; White, H Steve; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2017-07-01

    Animal models have provided a wealth of information on mechanisms of epileptogenesis and comorbidogenesis, and have significantly advanced our ability to investigate the potential of new therapies. Processes implicating brain inflammation have been increasingly observed in epilepsy research. Herein we discuss the progress on animal models of epilepsy and comorbidities that inform us on the potential role of inflammation in epileptogenesis and comorbidity pathogenesis in rodent models of West syndrome and the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mouse model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy. Rat models of infantile spasms were generated in rat pups after right intracerebral injections of proinflammatory compounds (lipopolysaccharides with or without doxorubicin, or cytokines) and were longitudinally monitored for epileptic spasms and neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits. Anti-inflammatory treatments were tested after the onset of spasms. The TMEV mouse model was induced with intracerebral administration of TMEV and prospective monitoring for handling-induced seizures or seizure susceptibility, as well as long-term evaluations of behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy. Inflammatory processes are evident in both models and are implicated in the pathogenesis of the observed seizures and comorbidities. A common feature of these models, based on the data so far available, is their pharmacoresistant profile. The presented data support the role of inflammatory pathways in epileptogenesis and comorbidities in two distinct epilepsy models. Pharmacoresistance is a common feature of both inflammation-based models. Utilization of these models may facilitate the identification of age-specific, syndrome- or etiology-specific therapies for the epilepsies and attendant comorbidities, including the drug-resistant forms. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Radiation-induced femoral neck fracture in patients cured of cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukowska, K; Zomer-Drozda, J; Kielbinska, S [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    In the years 1948-1967 8275 patients with cervical carcinoma in various grades of progression were treated at the Institute of Oncology in Warsaw by radiotherapy from external fields. Five-year survival without signs of recurrence was obtained in 4204 cases, 3863 of them were irradiated from external fields with X-rays under conventional conditions, while 341 received Co/sup 60/ radiotherapy. In 43 patients treated with X-rays and radium and regarded as cured radiological evidence of femoral neck fracture was obtained. These patients account for 1.1% of all cured patients. In the group treated with Co/sup 60/ radiation in only 1 case femoral neck fracture was observed (0.3%). In the group of cured patients with femoral neck fracture the method of irradiation from external fields, the age, clinical course, radiological appearance of radiation-induced changes and the method of fracture management were analysed.

  16. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman; Rida, Anak Tajau; Mek Zah Salleh; Rosley Che Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  17. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland; Dashevskiy, Andriy

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat® SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat® SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60°C or 60°C/75% RH for 24h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60°C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with (1) high flexibility of coating, (2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, (3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and (4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified

  18. Spectrum of neurosurgeon's role in epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-ik Son

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there is high quality evidence of epilepsy surgery as an effective and safe option for patients with drug refractory epilepsy by advanced imaging technology and computerized electrophysiological facilities during recent three decades. However, it still remains debate regarding necessities of epilepsy surgery in terms of less satisfactory surgical outcome, especially in non-lesional neocortical epilepsies. This review is for the role of epileptic neurosurgeon rather than the role of epilepsy surgery, namely, the necessity of neurosurgeon's positive participation starting from the first visit of epilepsy patients followed by pertaining process by stages and its degree of contribution. All experienced epilepsy centers also need innovative or challenging trial absolutely through this kind of standpoint, because all of the present protocols and techniques are coming from the past. In any event, the interdepartmental and interpersonal cooperation is inevitable especially for improving patient's quality of life. Serious neurosurgical considerations are needed for patients with intractable epilepsies, especially in referred cases from other center for the purpose of double check, and incongruent cases with contrary opinions by epileptologist.

  19. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  20. Electroencephalographic patterns in Ethiopian patients with epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    Conclusion: The most common EEG abnormalities in Ethiopian patients with epilepsy are focal interictal epileptiform discharges, typically ..... EEG is a valuable investigative tool. In the advent of more sophisticated neuroimaging methods, epilepsy remains one of the few common clinical problems routinely demanding EEG.

  1. The representation of epilepsy in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2008-01-01

    Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics of musicians from a wide variety of musical genres, from hip-hop to rhythm and blues. Many of the ancient associations of epilepsy with madness, horror, and lunacy can be found in these lyrics. However, the language of epilepsy has also been appropriated by some musical artists to represent a state of sexual ecstasy and dance euphoria. The references to these states as "epilepsy" or a "seizure" in numerous songs suggest that this shorthand is widely recognized within some subcultures. Although epilepsy has frequently been associated with female sexual availability in other creative art forms, this novel use of the language of epilepsy represents a contemporary departure in the artistic application of epilepsy-related images and associations in the 21st century.

  2. Epilepsy as an Analogue of Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVellis, Robert F.; And Others

    The occurrence of unpredictable and often unavoidable aversive seizures in epilepsy bears a striking resemblance to the conditions known to induce learned helplessness. Additionally, depression and other characteristics associated with helplessness seem to occur more frequently among persons with epilepsy. Data from a national survey of…

  3. Monocarboxylate transporters in temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Eid, Tore; Bergersen, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 % of the general population, making it one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system. Furthermore, up to 40 % of all patients with epilepsy cannot control their seizures with current medications. More effica...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: epilepsy-aphasia spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Szepetowski P, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC. GRIN2A mutations cause epilepsy-aphasia spectrum disorders. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45( ... Neubauer BA, Biskup S, von Spiczak S. Mutations in GRIN2A cause idiopathic focal epilepsy with rolandic spikes. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45( ...

  5. Management of Antiepileptic Treatment After Epilepsy Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubboli, Guido; Sabers, Anne; Uldall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although epilepsy surgery is a recognized treatment option for drug-resistant epilepsies since several decades, the management of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) after successful surgery still remains one of the most difficult and unsolved therapeutic challenges. Indeed, no systematic cont...

  6. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum

  7. Diagnosis of Epilepsy and Related Episodic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-02-01

    This review identifies the diverse and variable clinical presentations associated with epilepsy that may create challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Epilepsy has recently been redefined as a disease characterized by one or more seizures with a relatively high recurrence risk (ie, 60% or greater likelihood). The implication of this definition for therapy is that antiepileptic drug therapy may be initiated following a first seizure in certain situations.EEG remains the most commonly used study in the evaluation of people with epilepsy. Routine EEG may assist in diagnosis, classification of seizure type(s), identification of treatment, and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Video-EEG monitoring permits seizure classification, assessment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, and evaluation of candidacy for epilepsy surgery. MRI is pivotal in elucidating the etiology of the seizure disorder and in suggesting the localization of seizure onset. This article reviews the new International League Against Epilepsy practical clinical definition for epilepsy and the differential diagnosis of other physiologic paroxysmal spells, including syncope, parasomnias, transient ischemic attacks, and migraine, as well as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. The initial investigational approaches to new-onset epilepsy are considered, including neuroimaging and neurophysiologic investigations with interictal and ictal video-EEG. Neurologists should maintain a high index of suspicion for epilepsy when children or adults present with a single paroxysmal spell or recurrent episodic events.

  8. Effect of Seizure Clustering on Epilepsy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, long-term population-based study was performed to determine whether seizure clustering (3 or more afebrile seizures during a 24 hour period is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, in a study at University of Turku, Finland, and the Epilepsy Research Group, Berlin, Germany.

  9. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  10. Epilepsy and Persian culture: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzan, A; Paladin, F

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the manner in which Persian culture viewed the problem of epilepsy. Beginning with the Avesta, the earliest Persian text on health and sickness, the medical literature on treatments of epilepsy common in Iran are reviewed. The article also explores popular Persian concepts that try to explain the causes of the morbus sacer.

  11. Translational approach for gene therapy in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Litsa Nikitidou; Melin, Esbjörn; Christiansen, Søren H.

    2016-01-01

    clinical trial for gene therapy of temporal lobe epilepsy was explored: We investigated (i) whether the post intrahippocampal kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of chronic epilepsy in rats could be clinically relevant; and (ii) whether a translationally designed neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Y2 receptor...

  12. De novo FGF12 mutation in 2 patients with neonatal-onset epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, Ilaria; Huh, Linda; McKenzie, Marna B.; Toyota, Eric B.; Bebin, E. Martina; Thompson, Michelle L.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Evans, Daniel M.; Buerki, Sarah E.; Adam, Shelin; Van Allen, Margot I.; Nelson, Tanya N.; Connolly, Mary B.; Farrer, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We describe 2 additional patients with early-onset epilepsy with a de novo FGF12 mutation. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 2 unrelated patients with early-onset epilepsy and their unaffected parents. Genetic variants were assessed by comparative trio analysis. Clinical evolution, EEG, and neuroimaging are described. The phenotype and response to treatment was reviewed and compared to affected siblings in the original report. Results: We identified the same FGF12 de novo mutation reported previously (c.G155A, p.R52H) in 2 additional patients with early-onset epilepsy. Similar to the original brothers described, both presented with tonic seizures in the first month of life. In the first patient, seizures responded to sodium channel blockers and her development was normal at 11 months. Patient 2 is a 15-year-old girl with treatment-resistant focal epilepsy, moderate intellectual disability, and autism. Carbamazepine (sodium channel blocker) was tried later in her course but not continued due to an allergic reaction. Conclusions: The identification of a recurrent de novo mutation in 2 additional unrelated probands with early-onset epilepsy supports the role of FGF12 p.R52H in disease pathogenesis. Affected carriers presented with similar early clinical phenotypes; however, this report expands the phenotype associated with this mutation which contrasts with the progressive course and early mortality of the siblings in the original report. PMID:27872899

  13. Electrophysiological signal analysis and visualization using Cloudwave for epilepsy clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayapandian, Catherine P; Chen, Chien-Hung; Bozorgi, Alireza; Lhatoo, Samden D; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sahoo, Satya S

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological disorder affecting 50-60 million persons worldwide. Electrophysiological data recordings, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), are the gold standard for diagnosis and pre-surgical evaluation in epilepsy patients. The increasing trend towards multi-center clinical studies require signal visualization and analysis tools to support real time interaction with signal data in a collaborative environment, which cannot be supported by traditional desktop-based standalone applications. As part of the Prevention and Risk Identification of SUDEP Mortality (PRISM) project, we have developed a Web-based electrophysiology data visualization and analysis platform called Cloudwave using highly scalable open source cloud computing infrastructure. Cloudwave is integrated with the PRISM patient cohort identification tool called MEDCIS (Multi-modality Epilepsy Data Capture and Integration System). The Epilepsy and Seizure Ontology (EpSO) underpins both Cloudwave and MEDCIS to support query composition and result retrieval. Cloudwave is being used by clinicians and research staff at the University Hospital - Case Medical Center (UH-CMC) Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) and will be progressively deployed at four EMUs in the United States and the United Kingdomas part of the PRISM project.

  14. Why have we failed to cure Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread recognition in the urgency to understand the causes and mechanisms of senile dementia. Attempts to find cures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have, however, failed so far, in spite of enormous investments, intellectual and financial. We therefore have to reconsider the problem from new angles. AD is regarded as a disease because of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathology. However, this combination does not define a disease but rather a syndrome, just like hepatic cirrhosis in which liver pathology causes metabolic changes, but which can result from many different etiologies. It is unlikely that attacking a downstream phenomenon, like apoptosis or amyloid-β accumulation, can cure AD, or prevent the progression of the disease. It is probable that senile dementia is the result of a combination of several processes, working differently in each person. Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors for "senile dementia of the Alzheimer type", some genetic but most environmental and therefore modifiable. Thus, a concerted action to fight the dementia epidemic must be made by aggressive action against its risk factors, and this battle must begin in midlife, not in old age.

  15. Strength of Geopolymer Cement Curing at Ambient Temperature by Non-Oven Curing Approaches: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanachai, Pitiwat; Suwan, Teewara

    2017-06-01

    At the present day, a concept of environmentally friendly construction materials has been intensively studying to reduce the amount of releasing greenhouse gases. Geopolymer is one of the cementitious binders which can be produced by utilising pozzolanic wastes (e.g. fly ash or furnace slag) and also receiving much more attention as a low-CO2 emission material. However, to achieve excellent mechanical properties, heat curing process is needed to apply to geopolymer cement in a range of temperature around 40 to 90°C. To consume less oven-curing energy and be more convenience in practical work, the study on geopolymer curing at ambient temperature (around 20 to 25°C) is therefore widely investigated. In this paper, a core review of factors and approaches for non-oven curing geopolymer has been summarised. The performance, in term of strength, of each non-oven curing method, is also presented and analysed. The main aim of this review paper is to gather the latest study of ambient temperature curing geopolymer and to enlarge a feasibility of non-oven curing geopolymer development. Also, to extend the directions of research work, some approaches or techniques can be combined or applied to the specific properties for in-field applications and embankment stabilization by using soil-cement column.

  16. Curing kinetics of visible light curing dental resin composites investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epilepsy classification and additional definitions in occipital lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Karatoprak, Elif Yüksel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate epileptic children with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) in the light of the characteristics of Panayiotopoulos syndrome and late-onset occipital lobe epilepsy of Gastaut (OLE-G). Patients were categorized into six groups: primary OLE with autonomic symptoms (Panayiotopoulos syndrome), primary OLE with visual symptoms (OLE-G), secondary OLE with autonomic symptoms (P-type sOLE), secondary OLE with visual symptoms (G-type sOLE), and non-categorized primary OLE and non-categorized secondary OLE according to characteristic ictal symptoms of both Panayiotopoulos syndrome and OLE-G, as well as aetiology (primary or secondary). Patients were compared with regards to seizure symptoms, aetiology, cranial imaging, EEG, treatment and outcome. Of 108 patients with OLE (6.4±3.9 years of age), 60 patients constituted primary groups (32 with Panayiotopoulos syndrome, 11 with OLE-G, and 17 with non-categorized primary OLE); the other 48 patients constituted secondary groups (eight with P-type sOLE, three with G-type sOLE, and 37 with non-categorized sOLE). Epileptiform activity was restricted to the occipital area in half of the patients. Generalized epileptiform activity was observed in three patients, including a patient with Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS). Only one patient had refractory epilepsy in the primary groups while such patients made up 29% in the secondary groups. In OLE, typical autonomic or visual ictal symptoms of Panayiotopoulos syndrome and OLE-G do not necessarily indicate primary (i.e. genetic or idiopathic) aetiology. Moreover, primary OLE may not present with these symptoms. Since there are many patients with OLE who do not exhibit the characteristics of Panayiotopoulos syndrome or OLE-G, additional definitions and terminology appear to be necessary to differentiate between such patients in both clinical practice and studies.

  18. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Bai, X.; Liu, Y.W.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process. PMID:26635279

  19. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Bai, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  20. Degree of conversion and surface hardness of resin cement cured with different curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilgun; Usumez, Aslihan; Usumez, Serdar; Ozturk, Bora

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion and Vickers surface hardness of resin cement under a simulated ceramic restoration with 3 different curing units: a conventional halogen unit, a high-intensity halogen unit, and a light-emitting diode system. A conventional halogen curing unit (Hilux 550) (40 s), a high-intensity halogen curing unit used in conventional and ramp mode (Optilux 501) (10 s and 20 s, respectively), and a light-emitting diode system (Elipar FreeLight) (20 s, 40 s) were used in this study. The dual-curing resin cement (Variolink II) was cured under a simulated ceramic restoration (diameter 5 mm, height 2 mm), and the degree of conversion and Vickers surface hardness were measured. For degree of conversion measurement, 10 specimens were prepared for each group. The absorbance peaks were recorded using the diffuse-reflection mode of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. For Vickers surface hardness measurement, 10 specimens were prepared for each group. A load of 200 N was applied for 15 seconds, and 3 evaluations of each of the samples were performed. Degree of conversion achieved with Optilux 501 (20 s) was significantly higher than those of Hilux, Optilux 501 (10 s), Elipar FreeLight (20 s), and Elipar FreeLight (40 s). For Vickers surface hardness measurement, Optilux 501 (20 s) produced the highest surface hardness value. No significant differences were found among the Hilux, Optilux 501 (10 s), Elipar FreeLight (20 s), and Elipar FreeLight (40 s). The high-intensity halogen curing unit used in ramp mode (20 s) produced harder resin cement surfaces than did the conventional halogen curing unit, high-intensity halogen curing unit used in conventional mode (10 s) and light-emitting diode system (20 s, 40 s), when cured through a simulated ceramic restoration.

  1. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  2. Maternal Mortality in Women with Epilepsy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holohan, M

    2016-10-01

    It is estimated that, in Ireland, there are 10,000 women with epilepsy of childbearing potential1. In this paper the maternal mortality rate for women with epilepsy attending the Rotunda Hospital Epilepsy Clinic 2004 - 2013 was determined. There were 3 maternal deaths in women with epilepsy during this time, which represents a mortality rate of 0.8%. In those women who died, there were concerns in relation to risks to the foetus by taking Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AED) and also issues with access to neurology services before pregnancy, acceptance of specialist support and lack of consistency in advice from health care professionals outside of Ireland. Implementing the nationally agreed care plan for women with epilepsy will improve the quality of care given and potentially we will see a reduction in maternal mortality in these women.

  3. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... of children who undergo epilepsy surgery have a good, worthwhile seizure outcome. The seizure outcome for Danish children corresponds to that of other epilepsy surgery centres. The clinical criteria for selection of patients changed over time. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...

  4. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...... of children who undergo epilepsy surgery have a good, worthwhile seizure outcome. The seizure outcome for Danish children corresponds to that of other epilepsy surgery centres. The clinical criteria for selection of patients changed over time. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection...

  5. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  6. Epilepsy and Sleep Disorders: a Clinical Review | Sunmonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with epilepsy (PWE) are at risk of developing sleep disorders and there is a complex inter-relationship between sleep disorders and epilepsy. Sleep disorders could be misdiagnosed as epilepsy and also worsen epilepsy. We searched Medline and Pubmed between 1962-2012, using the following search terms ...

  7. Language recovery after epilepsy surgery of the Broca's area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Mnatsakanyan

    Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is indicated in select patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Seizure freedom or significant reduction of seizure burden without risking new neurological deficits is the expected goal of epilepsy surgery. Typically, when the seizure onset zone overlaps with eloquent cortex, patients are excluded from surgery.We present a patient with drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent successful surgery with resection of Broca's area, primarily involving the pars triangularis (BA 45. We report transient expressive aphasia followed by recovery of speech. This case provides new insights into adult neuroplasticity of the language network. Keywords: Epilepsy surgery, Eloquent cortex, Language and epilepsy, Refractory epilepsy, Electrocorticography

  8. Standardized Cloning and Curing of Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Ida; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Porse, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    and exchange of genetic parts in the Standard European Vectors Architecture (SEVA) vector system. Additionally, to facilitate rapid testing and iterative bioengineering using different vector designs, we provide a one-step protocol for a universal CRISPR-Cas9-based plasmid curing system (pFREE) and demonstrate...

  9. Weak interfaces for UV cure nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Frances; Fornof, Ann; Simonyi, Eva; Miller, Dolores; Truong, Hoa

    2008-03-01

    Nanoimprint lithography using a photocurable organic resist provides a means of patterning substrates with a spatial resolution in the few nm range. The usefulness of the technique is limited by defect generation during template removal, which involves fracture at the interface between the template and the newly cured polymer. Although it is critical to have the lowest possible interfacial fracture toughness (Gc less than 0.1 Jm-2) to avoid cohesive failure in the polymer, there is little understanding on how to achieve this using reacting low viscosity resist fluids. Studies of debonding of a series of free-radical cured polyhedral silsesquioxane crosslinker formulations containing selected reactive diluents from fluorosilane-coated quartz template materials will be described. At constant diluent fraction the storage modulus of cured resists follows trends in initial reaction rate, not diluent Tg. Adhesion is uncorrelated with both Tg and storage modulus. XPS studies of near-interface compositions indicate that component segregation within the resist fluid on contact with the template, prior to cure, plays a significant role in controlling the fracture process.

  10. Radiation cured coatings for fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketley, A.D.; Morgan, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous protective coating is formed on a fiber optic by coating the fiber optic in a bath of a liquid radiation curable composition at a temperature up to 90 0 C and exposing the coated conductor to ultraviolet or high energy ionizing radiation to cure the coating

  11. Low Temperature Cure Powder Coatings (LTCPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Dr. Glen Merfeld, General Electric Global Research evaluated and optimized the formulation, and cure and performance parameters of candidate LTCPC...Unacceptable test result = Marginal test result = Acceptable test result 80 therefore suffer from brittleness at extremely low temperatures. NASA’s

  12. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ples have been enhanced by two times when compared with that of zero field cured samples. The effect of .... Gauge of wire ... electrolitic-300 mesh (84.67 µm) LR, Product No. ... be in the body centered cubic phase with a lattice parameter.

  13. Feasibility and acceptability of smartphone applications for seizure self-management in China: Questionnaire study among people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Dong; Hong, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using smartphone apps for seizure self-management in China. All patients with epilepsy were consecutively recruited from the Neurology Epilepsy Prevention and Cure Center of West China Hospital from January 2015 to June 2015. Data on patients' clinical characteristics, mobile phone utilization habits, preferences for contents of apps for seizure self-management, medication adherence, and attitudes toward the use of smartphone apps were collected from 502 patients with epilepsy by questionnaire. Among 502 participants, 96.8% had their own mobile phones, and 94.4% owned a smartphone. Although only 9.5% (48/502) of participants had prior knowledge of apps for managing chronic illness, 66.7% (335/502) of participants reported that managing their seizure through an app would be useful. Sixty-five point five percent of participants reported that they would use a smartphone app for seizure self-management if it were free. Patients who were more likely to use an app were those with a low Morisky Scale score (patients with poor medicine adherence), young patients, patients who lived in cities, and patients with frequent seizures (Psmartphone apps for seizure self-management in China. The findings of this study indicate that there is a positive attitude toward using epilepsy apps among patients with epilepsy. Based on patients' positive attitudes toward using epilepsy apps and the current development of mobile health in China, the use of smartphone apps could be a promising strategy for seizure self-management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Talking Cure Models: A Framework of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Marx

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is commonly described as a “talking cure,” a treatment method that operates through linguistic action and interaction. The operative specifics of therapeutic language use, however, are insufficiently understood, mainly due to a multitude of disparate approaches that advance different notions of what “talking” means and what “cure” implies in the respective context. Accordingly, a clarification of the basic theoretical structure of “talking cure models,” i.e., models that describe therapeutic processes with a focus on language use, is a desideratum of language-oriented psychotherapy research. Against this background the present paper suggests a theoretical framework of analysis which distinguishes four basic components of “talking cure models”: (1 a foundational theory (which suggests how linguistic activity can affect and transform human experience, (2 an experiential problem state (which defines the problem or pathology of the patient, (3 a curative linguistic activity (which defines linguistic activities that are supposed to effectuate a curative transformation of the experiential problem state, and (4 a change mechanism (which defines the processes and effects involved in such transformations. The purpose of the framework is to establish a terminological foundation that allows for systematically reconstructing basic properties and operative mechanisms of “talking cure models.” To demonstrate the applicability and utility of the framework, five distinct “talking cure models” which spell out the details of curative “talking” processes in terms of (1 catharsis, (2 symbolization, (3 narrative, (4 metaphor, and (5 neurocognitive inhibition are introduced and discussed in terms of the framework components. In summary, we hope that our framework will prove useful for the objective of clarifying the theoretical underpinnings of language-oriented psychotherapy research and help to establish a more

  15. Management of Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is recognized as the commonest serious neurological disorder in the world. Women with epilepsy (WWE experience several gender-related physical and social problems. They constitute high obstetric risk because of reduced fertility, risk of seizures during pregnancy, and complications of pregnancy. Hormonal and other factors can alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AED during pregnancy and puerperium. Antenatal exposure to AEDs, particularly at higher dosage and in polytherapy, increases the risk of fetal malformation. Recent reports raise the possibility of selective developmental language deficits and neurocognitive deficits with antenatal exposure to AEDs. There are concerns regarding the effect of traces of AEDs that pass to the infant during breast-feeding. The pre conception management is the cornerstone for epilepsy care in WWE. A careful reappraisal of each case should ascertain the diagnosis, the need for continued AED therapy, selection of appropriate AEDs, optimization of the dosage, and prescription of folic acid. During pregnancy, the fetal status needs to be monitored with estimation of serum a-feto-protein and ultrasound screening for malformations. The dosage of AEDs can be adjusted according to clinical requirement and blood levels of AEDs. Several institutions recommend oral vitamin K toward the end of pregnancy when enzyme-inducing AEDs are prescribed because the latter may potentially predispose the new born to hemorrhagic disease, but recent reports indicate that such a risk is practically negligible. WWE who are using enzyme-inducing AEDs (phenobarbitone, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine need to know that these AEDs may lead to failure of oral contraception.

  16. Musical and poetic creativity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Trimble, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Associations between epilepsy and musical or poetic composition have received little attention. We reviewed the literature on links between poetic and musical skills and epilepsy, limiting this to the Western canon. While several composers were said to have had epilepsy, John Hughes concluded that none of the major classical composers thought to have had epilepsy actually had it. The only composer with epilepsy that we could find was the contemporary composer, Hikari Oe, who has autism and developed epilepsy at age 15years. In his childhood years, his mother found that he had an ability to identify bird sound and keys of songs and began teaching him piano. Hikari is able to compose in his head when his seizures are not severe, but when his seizures worsen, his creativity is lost. Music critics have commented on the simplicity of his musical composition and its monotonous sound. Our failure to find evidence of musical composers with epilepsy finds parallels with poetry where there are virtually no established poets with epilepsy. Those with seizures include Lord George Byron in the setting of terminal illness, Algernon Swinburne who had alcohol-related seizures, Charles Lloyd who had seizures and psychosis, Edward Lear who had childhood onset seizures, and Vachel Lindsay. The possibility that Emily Dickinson had epilepsy is also discussed. It has not been possible to identify great talents with epilepsy who excel in poetic or musical composition. There are few published poets with epilepsy and no great composers. Why is this? Similarities between music and poetry include meter, tone, stress, rhythm, and form, and much poetry is sung with music. It is likely that great musical and poetic compositions demand a greater degree of concentration and memory than is possible in epilepsy, resulting in problems retaining a musical and mathematical structure over time. The lack of association between recognizable neuropsychiatric disorders and these skills is a gateway to

  17. Temporal plus epilepsy: Anatomo-electroclinical subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Machado, René; Benjumea-Cuartas, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a remediable epileptic syndrome. About 40% of patients continue to have seizures after standard temporal lobectomy. It has been suggested that some of these patients could actually suffer from a more complex epileptogenic network. Because a few papers have been dedicated to this topic, we decided to write an article updating this theme. Methods: We performed a literature search using the following terminology: “temporal plus epilepsy and networks,” “temporal plus epilepsy,” “orbito-temporal epilepsy,” “temporo-insular epilepsy,” “temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) epilepsy,” “parieto-temporal epilepsy,” “intracortical evoked potential and temporal plus epilepsy,” “temporal lobe connectivity and epilepsy,” “intracortical evoked potential and epilepsy surgery,” “role of extratemporal structures in TLE,” “surgical failure after temporal lobectomy,” “Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and temporal epilepsy,” and “positron emission tomography (PET) in temporal plus lobe epilepsy” in the existing PubMed databases. We searched only English and Spanish literature. Only papers that fit with the above-mentioned descriptors were included as part of the evidence. Other articles were used to reference some aspects of the temporal plus epilepsy. Results: A total of 48 papers from 2334 were revised. The most frequently reported auras in these groups of patients are gustatory hallucinations, vestibular illusions, laryngeal and throat constriction, atypical distribution of somatosensory symptoms (perioral and hands, bilaterally hands paresthesias, trunk and other). The most common signs are tonic posturing, hemifacial twist, and frequent bilateral clonic movements. Interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns exhibit regional and frequently bilateral spikes and/or slow waves. The first ictal electrographic change is mostly regional. It is important to note that the evidence is

  18. Cues for Cure; From within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2016-05-01

    -35. Mimeault M, Batra SK. Recent progress on tissue-resident adult stem cell biology and their therapeutic implications. Stem Cell Rev. 2008; 4(1:27-49.

  19. An emerging alternative to thermal curing: Electron curing of fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; Chung, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electron curing of fiber-reinforced composites to produce materials with good mechanical properties has been demonstrated by the authors' work, and by Aerospatiale. The attractions of this technology are the technical and processing advantages offered over thermal curing, and the projected cost benefits. Though the work so far has focused on the higher value composites for the aircraft and aerospace industries, the technology can also be used to produce composites for the higher volume industries, such as transportation and automotive

  20. Similarities and differences in the meanings children and their parents attach to epilepsy medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michelle

    2017-03-01

    By exploring the meanings children and their parents attached to two household treatments for childhood epilepsy (antiepileptic drugs and emergency medications), this paper broadens our understanding of the ways in which children view their medications and how these views can impact on their adherence to treatment. The paper draws on data collected during 2013 and 2014 from 24 families across the UK that had a child with epilepsy aged 3-13 years. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with the parents and 10 children participated in autodriven photo-elicitation interviews. Parents' and children's perceptions of medications were compared and contrasted and the findings show that although both parents and children viewed medications as an unpleasant necessity, parents' concerns centred on the perceived side effects of medications, whereas the children commented on the process of ingesting medications. Additionally, some of the children had to learn that their medications were a preventative measure, as they originally viewed them as a cure. Furthermore, among the children, it was found that treatment could be seen as either a positive or negative symbol of difference. Lastly, emergency medications were often viewed as a saviour, particularly by parents. Through this analysis, the study shows that the meanings children attached to medications were often linked to the form the medication took and that the way in which children perceived their medications had implications for their adherence; indeed, those who viewed their medications as an unpleasant necessity and those who initially saw their treatment as a cure were most likely to stop taking their medications. Consequently, this paper contributes to the current literature on the meanings individuals attach to treatments by providing the first detailed insight into children's views on epilepsy medications and by illustrating the similarities and differences in children's and parents' perspectives

  1. Frequency of seizures and epilepsy in neurological HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellinghaus, C; Engbring, C; Kovac, S; Möddel, G; Boesebeck, F; Fischera, M; Anneken, K; Klönne, K; Reichelt, D; Evers, S; Husstedt, I W

    2008-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated both with infections of the central nervous system and with neurological deficits due to direct effects of the neurotropic virus. Seizures and epilepsy are not rare among HIV-infected patients. We investigated the frequency of acute seizures and epilepsy of patients in different stages of HIV infection. In addition, we compared the characteristics of patients who experienced provoked seizures only with those of patients who developed epilepsy. The database of the Department of Neurology, University of Münster, was searched for patients with HIV infection admitted between 1992 and 2004. Their charts were reviewed regarding all available sociodemographic, clinical, neurophysiological, imaging and laboratory data, therapy and outcome. Stage of infection according to the CDC classification and the epileptogenic zone were determined. Of 831 HIV-infected patients treated in our department, 51 (6.1%) had seizures or epilepsy. Three of the 51 patients (6%) were diagnosed with epilepsy before the onset of the HIV infection. Fourteen patients (27%) only had single or few provoked seizures in the setting of acute cerebral disorders (eight patients), drug withdrawal or sleep withdrawal (two patients), or of unknown cause (four patients). Thirty-four patients (67%) developed epilepsy in the course of their HIV infection. Toxoplasmosis (seven patients), progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy (seven patients) and other acute or subacute cerebral infections (five patients) were the most frequent causes of seizures. EEG data of 38 patients were available. EEG showed generalized and diffuse slowing only in 9 patients, regional slowing in 14 patients and regional slowing and epileptiform discharges in 1 patient. Only 14 of the patients had normal EEG. At the last contact, the majority of the patients (46 patients=90%) were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-seven patients (53%) were on

  2. A flexible cure rate model with dependent censoring and a known cure threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul W

    2016-11-10

    We propose a flexible cure rate model that accommodates different censoring distributions for the cured and uncured groups and also allows for some individuals to be observed as cured when their survival time exceeds a known threshold. We model the survival times for the uncured group using an accelerated failure time model with errors distributed according to the seminonparametric distribution, potentially truncated at a known threshold. We suggest a straightforward extension of the usual expectation-maximization algorithm approach for obtaining estimates in cure rate models to accommodate the cure threshold and dependent censoring. We additionally suggest a likelihood ratio test for testing for the presence of dependent censoring in the proposed cure rate model. We show through numerical studies that our model has desirable properties and leads to approximately unbiased parameter estimates in a variety of scenarios. To demonstrate how our method performs in practice, we analyze data from a bone marrow transplantation study and a liver transplant study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Towards the development of integrated epilepsy services: an audit of documented epilepsy care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2011-11-17

    Effective chronic disease management (CDM) requires the ready availability and communication of accurate, clinical disease specific information. Using epilepsy as a probe into CDM, we report on the availability and reliability of clinical information in the primary care records of people with epilepsy (PWE). The medical records of 374 PWE from 53 general practices in the Mid-West region of Ireland were examined. Confirmation of an epilepsy diagnosis by a neurologist was documented for 132 (35%) patients. 282 (75%) patients had no documented evidence of receiving specialist neurology review while 149 (40%) had not been reviewed by their GP in the previous two years for their epilepsy. Significant variation in documentation of epilepsy specific information together with an inadequacy and inconsistency of existing epilepsy services was highlighted.

  4. Towards the development of integrated epilepsy services: an audit of documented epilepsy care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2012-02-01

    Effective chronic disease management (CDM) requires the ready availability and communication of accurate, clinical disease specific information. Using epilepsy as a probe into CDM, we report on the availability and reliability of clinical information in the primary care records of people with epilepsy (PWE). The medical records of 374 PWE from 53 general practices in the Mid-West region of Ireland were examined. Confirmation of an epilepsy diagnosis by a neurologist was documented for 132 (35%) patients. 282 (75%) patients had no documented evidence of receiving specialist neurology review while 149 (40%) had not been reviewed by their GP in the previous two years for their epilepsy. Significant variation in documentation of epilepsy specific information together with an inadequacy and inconsistency of existing epilepsy services was highlighted.

  5. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J

    2015-01-01

    the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing...... to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification...

  6. Epilepsy, Cognition, and Behavior: The clinical picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.

    2010-01-01

    Although epilepsy is defined by the occurrence of spontaneous epileptic seizures, a large body of evidence indicates that epilepsy is linked to a spectrum behavioral, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders as well as to sudden death. Explanations for these associations include: (1) The effects of structural lesions which may impair the functions subserved by the regions of the brain involved in the lesion. (2) The effects of seizure activity which may begin well before a clinical seizure occurs and may persist long after it is over raising questions about what truly constitutes “interictal.” In addition, encephalopathic effects of epilepsy in infancy during critical periods in development may be particularly severe and potentially irreversible. (3) Shared mechanisms underlying seizures as well as these other disorders in the absence of structural lesions or separate diseases of the CNS. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate the elevated risk of cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders not just during but also prior to the onset of epilepsy (seizures) itself. These may outlast the active phase of epilepsy as well. The mounting evidence argues strongly for the recognition of epilepsy as part of a spectrum of disorders and against the notion that even uncomplicated epilepsy can a priori be considered benign. PMID:21214534

  7. Techno-economic benefits of radiation curing: a comparison studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D [Universal Wood Inc., Lousville (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In comparing radiation cure versus conventional heat cure systems, the factors are considered in this studies i.e. environmental laws - includes the future regulations concerning volatile organic emissions and waste disposal may weigh heavily in the decision.

  8. Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Suitability of four parametric mixture cure models were considered namely; Log .... regression analysis which relies on the ... The parameter of mixture cure fraction model was ..... Stochastic Models of Tumor Latency and Their.

  9. Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hardness when exposed to different atmospheric steam curing temperatures. ... Use of self-compacting concretes (SCCs) lowered the noise level on the ... Although maximum temperature limit values in curing locations should be from 40 to ...

  10. Reduced Language Connectivity in Pediatric Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh N., Sepeta; Louise J., Croft; Lauren A., Zimmaro; Elizabeth S., Duke; Virginia K., Terwilliger; Benjamin E., Yerys; Xiaozhen., You; Chandan J., Vaidya; William D., Gaillard; Madison M., Berl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Functional connectivity (FC) among language regions is decreased in adults with epilepsy compared to controls, but less is known about FC in children with epilepsy. We sought to determine if language FC is reduced in pediatric epilepsy, and examined clinical factors that associate with language FC in this population. Methods We assessed FC during an age-adjusted language task in children with left-hemisphere focal epilepsy (n=19) compared to controls (n=19). Time series data were extracted for three left ROIs and their right homologues: inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and Wernicke's area (WA) using SPM8. Associations between FC and factors such as cognitive performance, language dominance, and epilepsy duration were assessed. Results Children with epilepsy showed decreased interhemispheric connectivity compared to controls, particularly between core left language regions (IFG, WA) and their right hemisphere homologues, as well as decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. Increased intrahemispheric FC between left IFG and left WA was a positive predictor of language skills overall, and naming ability in particular. FC of language areas was not affected by language dominance, as the effects remained when only examining study participants with left language dominance. Overall FC did not differ according to duration of epilepsy or age of onset. Significance FC during a language task is reduced in children, similar to findings in adults. In specific, children with left focal epilepsy demonstrated decreased interhemispheric FC in temporal and frontal language connections and decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. These differences were present near the onset of epilepsy. Greater FC between left language centers is related to better language ability. Our results highlight that connectivity of language areas has a developmental pattern and is related to cognitive ability. PMID:25516399

  11. Computed tomography of late-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Im, Jae Yung; Joo, Yang Goo; Park, Sam Kyoon

    1982-01-01

    Epilepsy can be divided into idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy according to the existence of underlying organic brain disease. It has been said that the incidence of the symptomatic epilepsy caused by underlying organic brain disease is higher in late-onset epilepsy after the age of 20 than in childhood-onset epilepsy. CT is very sensitive and non-invasive method for detection of organic brain disease. 168 cases of late-onset epilepsy after the age of of 20 were studied by CT in recent 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The 3rd decade was the most frequent age group, and the ratio of male to female was 2.5 : 1. 2. Structural abnormality on brain CT was demonstrated in 51.8% of the patient. 3. The older onset of age was, the higher the ratio of abnormal CT findings, except 5th decade which showed less CT abnormality than 4th decade. 4. The most frequent history related to epilepsy was trauma. 63.1% of patients had no relevant history: and they showed CT findings of brain tumor, atrophy and infraction in decreasing order of frequency. 5. Abnormal CT findings was demonstrated in 49.2% of normal neurologic examination and in 46.4% of normal EEG study. 6. The most frequent lesion of abnormal CT scan in late-onset epilepsy was 30 cases (18.4%) of brain atrophy. The next frequent lesion was 18 cases (10.7%) of brain tumor. Infarction, parasites and calcification were other frequent lesions

  12. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  13. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1 Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL, (2 Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3 Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association.

  14. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Chowdhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1) Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL), (2) Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association. PMID:24791092

  15. Epilepsy-Related Mortality is Low in Children: A 30 Year Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is a common childhood neurologic disorder, affecting 0.5 to1% of children. Increased mortality occurs due to progression of underlying disease, seizure-related accidents, suicide, status epilepticus, aspiration during seizures, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Previous studies show mortality rates of 2.7 to 6.9 per 1000 person-years (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010). Potential risk factors include poor seizure control, intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, tonic-clonic seizures, mental retardation, and remote symptomatic cause of epilepsy (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010, Walczak et al., 2001). Few population-based studies of mortality and SUDEP in childhood-onset epilepsy have been published. The purpose of this study is to report mortality and SUDEP from a 30 year population-based cohort of children with epilepsy. Methods The Medical Diagnostic Index of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was searched for all codes related to seizure and convulsion in children living in Olmsted County, Minnesota and of ages birth through 17 years from 1980 through 2009. The medical records of these children were reviewed to identify all those with new-onset epilepsy, and to abstract other baseline and follow-up information. Potential risk factors including seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, history of status epilepticus, the presence and severity of neurologic impairment, and epilepsy outcome was reviewed. Epilepsy outcome was characterized by seizure frequency, number of anti-seizure medications (AEDs) used, and number of AEDs failed due to lack of efficacy, and epilepsy intractability at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after epilepsy onset. We followed all children through their most recent visit to determine vital status, cause of death, and whether autopsy was performed. Key Findings From 1980 to 2009, there were 467 children age birth through 17 years diagnosed with epilepsy while residents of Olmsted County, MN

  16. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Modeling the curing process of thermosetting resin matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    A model is presented for simulating the curing process of a thermosetting resin matrix composite. The model relates the cure temperature, the cure pressure, and the properties of the prepreg to the thermal, chemical, and rheological processes occurring in the composite during cure. The results calculated with the computer code developed on the basis of the model were compared with the experimental data obtained from autoclave-curved composite laminates. Good agreement between the two sets of results was obtained.

  18. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  19. Neurostimulation, neuromodulation, and the treatment of epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolden Lauren B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neurostimulation and neuromodulation are techniques that may be able to affect the course of epilepsy. In the last 20 years, since the approval of VNS, we have observed a surge of studies assessing the potential of other devices and techniques for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsies including deep brain stimulation (DBS, responsive neurostimulation (RNS, trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Are these devices and techniques simply another treatment option that can be offered to patients with epilepsy or do they offer specific advantages when compared to the standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs?

  20. Quality of life in children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Nadkarni, Jayashree; Jain, Arti; Dwivedi, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic medical condition with many co-morbid features. It has been observed that children with epilepsy (CWE) have a compromised quality of life (QOL). Objective: To assess the QOL in CWE and to study the various factors affecting QOL among CWE. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 102 CWE aged 5-15 years of either sex. QOL was measured by Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, a 76-item, parent-reported questionnaire. Cronbach alpha ...

  1. Efficacy of the Danish epilepsy surgery programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, E; Foged, M T; Beniczky, S

    2018-01-01

    lobe after ICR were free of disabling seizures. 12% of MTLE patients developed de novo depression after epilepsy surgery despite good surgical outcome. Three patients required rehabilitation due to post-operative hemiplegia. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of the Danish epilepsy surgery programme align...... epilepsy surgery programme from 2009 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 169 consecutive patients, operated at Rigshospitalet, were included. Information was gathered from digital patient records. Before 1-year follow-up, two patients were lost to follow-up and three were referred to new surgery...

  2. Managing Epilepsy Well: Emerging e-Tools for epilepsy self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Patel, Archna; Kakacek, Jody; Escoffery, Cam; Johnson, Erica K; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O

    2013-10-01

    The Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network was established in 2007 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epilepsy Program to expand epilepsy self-management research. The network has employed collaborative research strategies to develop, test, and disseminate evidence-based, community-based, and e-Health interventions (e-Tools) for epilepsy self-management for people with epilepsy, caregivers, and health-care providers. Since its inception, MEW Network collaborators have conducted formative studies (n=7) investigating the potential of e-Health to support epilepsy self-management and intervention studies evaluating e-Tools (n=5). The MEW e-Tools (the MEW website, WebEase, UPLIFT, MINDSET, and PEARLS online training) and affiliated e-Tools (Texting 4 Control) are designed to complement self-management practices in each phase of the epilepsy care continuum. These tools exemplify a concerted research agenda, shared methodological principles and models for epilepsy self-management, and a communal knowledge base for implementing e-Health to improve quality of life for people with epilepsy. © 2013.

  3. Semiquantitative analysis of interictal glucose metabolism between generalized epilepsy and localization related epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikima, Akio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to detect seizure foci and evaluate surgical resection with localization related epilepsies. However, few investigations have focused on generalized epilepsy in children. To reveal the pathophysiology of generalized epilepsy, we studied 11 patients with generalized epilepsy except West syndrome, and 11 patients with localization related epilepsy without organic disease. The FDG PET was performed by simultaneous emission and transmission scanning. We placed regions of interest (ROI) on bilateral frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured and normalized to SUV of ipsilateral cerebellum. Then, we compared the data of generalized epilepsy to those of localization related epilepsy. FDG PET revealed significant interictal glucose hypometabolism in bilateral basal ganglia in generalized epilepsy compared to that in localization related epilepsy (right side: p=0.0095, left side: p=0.0256, Mann-Whitney test). No other region showed any significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. These findings indicate that the basal ganglia is involved in the outbreak of generalized seizures or is affected secondarily by the epileptogenicity itself. (author)

  4. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke and...

  5. UV curing by radical, cationic and concurrent radicalcationic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    UV and EB curing represent complementary technologies with respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper deals with the design and evaluation of UV curable coatings to optimize cure rate and film properties. Topics included are state-of-the-art photoinitiator systems, light intensity effects, retardation of air-inhibition, adhesion, and amplification of photons for enhanced speed of cure

  6. Techniques and materials for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal water curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and selfdesiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price...

  7. effect of curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High curing temperature (up to 212◦F or. 100◦C) ... are affected by curing and application of the ... for concrete production, it is important to ... Concrete properties and durability are signif- ... Curing compounds are merely temporary coatings on.

  8. Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIC, mean time to cure), variance and cure fraction (c) were used to determine the flexible Parametric Cure Fraction Model among the considered models. Gastric Cancer data from 76 patients received adjuvant CRT and 125 receiving resection (surgery) alone were used to confirm the suitability of the models. The data was ...

  9. Effect of curing time on microstructure and mechanical strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of curing time on the microstructure and mechanical strength development of alkali activated binders based on vitreous calcium aluminosilicate (VCAS). Mechanical strength of alkali activated mortars cured at 65 °C was assessed for different curing times (4–168 h) using 10 ...

  10. Environmental and conservation considerations for electron curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Fletcher, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the more important features of electron curing pertaining to environmental protection and conservation. The high electrical conversion efficiencies of these devices measured at output power levels to 200 kilowatts are reviewed with attention to energy transport to the product. The comparative energetics of free radical initiated addition chemistry with that of the more conventional condensation polymerized systems are presented. Some details of recent studies of the repulpability and de-inkability of electron cured products are presented with mill scale trials showing successful recycling with up to 75 % EB processed material in the waste. The ability of energetic electrons to effectively replace toxic chemicals such as H 2 O 2 and ethylene oxide in product sterilization will be presented with a discussion of the regulatory aspects of this process for medical device applications. (author)

  11. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  12. Cushing's syndrome: aftermath of the cure

    OpenAIRE

    Pivonello, Rosario; De Martino, Maria Cristina; De Leo, Monica; Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a chronic and systemic disease caused by endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolism, associated with an increase of mortality rate due to the clinical consequences of glucocorticoid excess, especially cardiovascular diseases. After cure, usually obtained by the surgical removal of the tumor responsible for the disease, the normalization of cortisol secretion is not constantly followed by the recovery of the clinical complications developed during the active disease, a...

  13. Altered metabolomic-genomic signature: A potential noninvasive biomarker of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Helen C; Dachet, Fabien; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Bagla, Shruti; Fuerst, Darren; Stanley, Jeffrey A; Galloway, Matthew P; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy. We compared high versus low or nonspiking regions in nine medically intractable epilepsy surgery patients by performing integrated metabolomic-genomic-histological analyses of electrically mapped human cortical regions using high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cDNA microarrays, and histological analysis. We found a highly consistent and predictive metabolite logistic regression model with reduced lactate and increased creatine plus phosphocreatine and choline, suggestive of a chronically altered metabolic state in epileptic brain regions. Linking gene expression, cellular, and histological differences to these key metabolites using a hierarchical clustering approach predicted altered metabolic vascular coupling in the affected regions. Consistently, these predictions were validated histologically, showing both neovascularization and newly discovered, millimeter-sized microlesions. Using a systems biology approach on electrically mapped human cortex provides new evidence for spatially segregated, metabolic derangements in both neurovascular and synaptic architecture in human epileptic brain regions that could be a noninvasively detectable biomarker of epilepsy. These findings both highlight the immense power of a systems biology approach and identify a potentially important role that magnetic resonance spectroscopy can play in the research and clinical management of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Validation of epilepsy diagnoses in the Danish National Hospital Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate the diagnosis of epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register. METHODS: We randomly selected 200 patients registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register between 1977 and 2002 and validated the diagnosis according to the guidelines developed...... by the International League Against Epilepsy. RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records of 188 (94%) persons from 57 departments at 41 hospitals. The epilepsy diagnoses were confirmed in 153 patients, providing a positive predictive value for epilepsy of 81% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 75-87%). Among the 35...... for syndrome classification was 60% (95% CI: 44-74%) for epilepsy with complex focal seizures and 35% (95% CI: 22-51%) for primary generalized epilepsy. CONCLUSION: The validity of the epilepsy diagnoses in the Danish National Hospital Register has a moderate to high positive predictive value for epilepsy...

  15. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil

    2013-01-01

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm -1 . The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network

  17. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm{sup -1}. The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network.

  18. Tools for Visualizing HIV in Cure Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessl, Julia; Baxter, Amy E; Kaufmann, Daniel E

    2018-02-01

    The long-lived HIV reservoir remains a major obstacle for an HIV cure. Current techniques to analyze this reservoir are generally population-based. We highlight recent developments in methods visualizing HIV, which offer a different, complementary view, and provide indispensable information for cure strategy development. Recent advances in fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques enabled key developments in reservoir visualization. Flow cytometric detection of HIV mRNAs, concurrently with proteins, provides a high-throughput approach to study the reservoir on a single-cell level. On a tissue level, key spatial information can be obtained detecting viral RNA and DNA in situ by fluorescence microscopy. At total-body level, advancements in non-invasive immuno-positron emission tomography (PET) detection of HIV proteins may allow an encompassing view of HIV reservoir sites. HIV imaging approaches provide important, complementary information regarding the size, phenotype, and localization of the HIV reservoir. Visualizing the reservoir may contribute to the design, assessment, and monitoring of HIV cure strategies in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Cushing's syndrome: aftermath of the cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; De Martino, Maria Cristina; De Leo, Monica; Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2007-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a chronic and systemic disease caused by endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolism, associated with an increase of mortality rate due to the clinical consequences of glucocorticoid excess, especially cardiovascular diseases. After cure, usually obtained by the surgical removal of the tumor responsible for the disease, the normalization of cortisol secretion is not constantly followed by the recovery of the clinical complications developed during the active disease, and it is often followed by the development of novel clinical manifestations induced by the fall of cortisol levels. These evidences were mostly documented in patients with pituitary-dependent CS, after surgical resection of the pituitary tumor. Indeed, despite an improvement of the mortality rate, metabolic syndrome and the consequent cardiovascular risk have been found to partially persist after disease remission, strictly correlated to the insulin resistance. Skeletal diseases, mainly osteoporosis, improve after normalization of cortisol levels but require a long period of time or the use of specific treatment, mainly bisphosphonates, to reach the normalization of bone mass. A relevant improvement or resolution of mental disturbances has been described in patients cured from CS, although in several cases, cognitive decline persisted and psychological or psychiatric improvement was erratic, delayed, or incomplete. On the other hand, development or exacerbation of autoimmune disorders, mainly thyroid autoimmune diseases, was documented in predisposed patients with CS after disease remission. The totality of these complications persisting or occurring after successful treatment contribute to the impairment of quality of life registered in patients with CS after disease cure.

  20. Epilepsy as a Network Disorder (2): What can we learn from other network disorders such as dementia and schizophrenia, and what are the implications for translational research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E; Kanner, Andres M; Friedman, Alon; Blümcke, Ingmar; Crocker, Candice E; Cendes, Fernando; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Förstl, Hans; Fenton, André A; Grace, Anthony A; Palop, Jorge; Morrison, Jason; Nehlig, Astrid; Prasad, Asuri; Wilcox, Karen S; Jette, Nathalie; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    There is common agreement that many disorders of the central nervous system are 'complex', that is, there are many potential factors that influence the development of the disease, underlying mechanisms, and successful treatment. Most of these disorders, unfortunately, have no cure at the present time, and therapeutic strategies often have debilitating side effects. Interestingly, some of the 'complexities' of one disorder are found in another, and the similarities are often network defects. It seems likely that more discussions of these commonalities could advance our understanding and, therefore, have clinical implications or translational impact. With this in mind, the Fourth International Halifax Epilepsy Conference and Retreat was held as described in the prior paper, and this companion paper focuses on the second half of the meeting. Leaders in various subspecialties of epilepsy research were asked to address aging and dementia or psychosis in people with epilepsy (PWE). Commonalities between autism, depression, aging and dementia, psychosis, and epilepsy were the focus of the presentations and discussion. In the last session, additional experts commented on new conceptualization of translational epilepsy research efforts. Here, the presentations are reviewed, and salient points are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.