WorldWideScience

Sample records for curing concrete pavements

  1. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  2. Modified pavement cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsman, L. N.; Ageeva, M. S.; Botsman, A. N.; Shapovalov, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests design principles of pavement cement concrete, which covers optimization of compositions and structures at the stage of mixture components selection due to the use of plasticizing agents and air-retaining substances that increase the viability of a concrete mixture. It also demonstrates advisability of using plasticizing agents together with air-retaining substances when developing pavement concrete compositions, which provides for the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of concrete and the reduction of cement binding agent consumption thus preserving strength indicators. The paper shows dependences of the main physical-mechanical parameters of concrete on cement consumption, a type and amount of additives.

  3. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  4. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  5. Sustainable concrete pavements : a manual of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Developed as a more detailed follow-up to a 2009 briefing document, Building Sustainable Pavement with Concrete, this guide provides a clear, concise, and cohesive discussion of pavement sustainability concepts and of recommended practices for maximi...

  6. Novel techniques for concrete curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes (HSC/HPC) are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are taken. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to ensure good performance of concrete. Curing by both external (conventional......) and internal methods is reviewed and analyzed, among other methods of mitigating shrinkage and cracking of concrete. The focus is on the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage of low water to binder ratio (w/b) concrete by means of internal curing. The concepts of internal curing are based on using lightweight...... aggregate, superabsorbent polymers or water-soluble chemicals, which reduce water evaporation (so called "internal sealing"). These concepts have been intensively researched in the 90s, but still are not widespread among contractors and concrete suppliers. The differences between conventional methods...

  7. Mechanical performance of porous concrete pavement containing nano black rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. Y. Mohd; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Rosli, H. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research on the performance of nano black rice husk ash on the porous concrete pavement properties. The performance of the porous concrete pavement mixtures was investigated based on their compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile strength. The results indicated that using nano material from black rice husk ash improved the mechanical properties of porous concrete pavement. In addition, the result of compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength was increased with increasing in curing age. Finally, porous concrete pavement with 10% replacement levels exhibited an excellent performance with good strength compared to others.

  8. Long-Term Field Performance of Pervious Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Radlińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work described in this paper provides an evaluation of an aged pervious concrete pavement in the Northeastern United States to provide a better understanding of the long-lasting effects of placement techniques as well as the long-term field performance of porous pavement, specifically in areas susceptible to freezing and thawing. Multiple samples were taken from the existing pavement and were examined in terms of porosity and unit weight, compressive and splitting tensile strength, and the depth and degree of clogging. It was concluded that improper placement and curing led to uneven pavement thickness, irregular pore distribution within the pervious concrete, and highly variable strength values across the site, as well as sealed surfaces that prevented infiltration.

  9. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  10. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  11. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  12. Evaluation of concrete pavement patching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This final report presents the results of a study undertaken to improve in concrete pavement patching techniques. Activities included an evaluation of the suitability of the impact hammer and maturity calculations for determining when a patch is read...

  13. Performance evaluation of precast prestressed concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report describes in detail an experimental investigation of an innovative precast prestressed concrete pavement (PPCP) system used to rehabilitate a 1,000 ft. section of interstate highway located on the northbound lanes of I-57 near Charleston,...

  14. Use of fiber reinforced concrete for concrete pavement slab replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Unlike ordinary concrete pavement, replacement concrete slabs need to be open to traffic within 24 hours (sooner in : some cases). Thus, high early-strength concrete is used; however, it frequently cracks prematurely as a result of high : heat of hyd...

  15. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavement, phase II : field demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) as : aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. An initial phase of research demonstrated that concretes with up to 50 percent : o...

  16. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This research effort was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed : asphalt pavement (RAP) as aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. This research demonstrated : that concretes with up to 50 percent of the fi...

  17. Techniques for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Pietro, Lura

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price of the internal...

  18. Precast concrete pavement - systems and performance review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Josef; Kohoutková, Alena; Křístek, Vladimír; Vodička, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term traffic restrictions belong to the key disadvantages of conventional cast-in-plane concrete pavements which have been used for technical structures such as roads, parking place and airfield pavements. As a consequence, the pressure is put on the development of such systems which have short construction time, low production costs, long-term durability, low maintenance requirements etc.. The paper presents the first step in the development of an entirely new precast concrete pavement (PCP) system applicable to airfield and highway pavements. The main objective of the review of PCP systems is to acquire a better understanding of the current systems and design methods used for transport infrastructure. There is lack of information on using PCP systems for the construction of entirely new pavements. To most extensive experience is dated back to the 20th century when hexagonal slab panels and system PAG were used in the Soviet Union for the military airfields. Since cast-in-situ pavements became more common, the systems based on precast concrete panels have been mainly utilized for the removal of damaged sections of existing structures including roads, highways etc.. Namely, it concerns Fort Miller Super Slab system, Michigan system, Uretek Stitch system and Kwik system. The presented review indicates several issues associated with the listed PCP systems and their applications to the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. Among others, the type of manufacturing technology, particularly the position of slots for dowel bars, affects the durability and performance of the systems. Gathered information serve for the development of a new system for airfield and highway pavement construction.

  19. Self-curing concrete with different self-curing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala krishna sastry, K. V. S.; manoj kumar, Putturu

    2018-03-01

    Concrete is recognised as a versatile construction material globally. Properties of concrete depend upon, to a greater extent, the hydration of cement and microstructure of hydrated cement. Congenial atmosphere would aid the hydration of cement and hence curing of concrete becomes essential, till a major portion of the hydration process is completed. But in areas of water inadequacy and concreting works at considerable heights, curing is problematic. Self-Curing or Internal Curing technique overcomes these problems. It supplies redundant moisture, for more than sufficient hydration of cement and diminish self-desiccation. Self-Curing agents substantially help in the conservation of water in concrete, by bringing down the evaporation during the hydration of Concrete. The present study focuses on the impact of self-curing agents such as Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG), Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) and Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) on the concrete mix of M25 grade (reference mix). The effect of these agents on strength properties of Concrete such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength was observed on a comparative basis which revealed that PEG 4000 was the most effective among all the agents.

  20. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  1. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  2. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  3. Evaluation of microcracking and chemical deterioration in concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-31

    The major objective of this research project was to investigate the : chemistry and morphology of portland cement concrete pavements in : Iowa. The integrity of the various pavements was evaluated qualitatively, : based on the presence or absence of ...

  4. Evaluation of concrete inlay for continuously reinforced concrete pavement rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    In 1996, WisDOT constructed a concrete inlay test section on I43 in Manitowoc County. The existing pavement was CRCP constructed in 1978 and was badly deteriorated with punchouts. In the area of the 2777foot test section, the existing paveme...

  5. A study on the influence of curing on the strength of a standard grade concrete mix

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Rao M.V.; Kumar Rathish P.; Khan Azhar M.

    2010-01-01

    Curing is essential if concrete is to perform the intended function over the design life of the structure while excessive curing time may lead to the escalation of the construction cost of the project and unnecessary delays. Where there is a scarcity of water and on sloping surfaces where curing with water is difficult and in cases where large areas like pavements have to be cured, the use of curing compound may be resorted to. The parameters of the study include the curing period [1, 3, 7, 1...

  6. Roller-compacted concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  7. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perrie, BD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  8. Fatigue Behavior of Modified Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is the most common distress in road pavement. It is mainly due to the increase in the number of load repetition of vehicles, particularly those with high axle loads, and to the environmental conditions. In this study, four-point bending beam fatigue testing has been used for control and modified mixture under various micro strain levels of (250 μƐ, 400 μƐ, and 750 μƐ and 5HZ. The main objective of the study is to provide a comparative evaluation of pavement resistance to the phenomenon of fatigue cracking between modified asphalt concrete and conventional asphalt concrete mixes (under the influence of three percentage of Silica fumes 1%, 2%, 3% by the weight of asphalt content, and (changing in the percentage of asphalt content by (0.5% ± from the optimum. The results show that when Silica fumes content was 1%, the fatigue life increases by 17%, and it increases by 46% when Silica fumes content increases to 2%, and that fatigue life increases to 34 % when Silica fumes content increases to 3% as compared with control mixture at (250 μƐ, 20°C and optimum asphalt content. From the results above, we can conclude the optimum Silica fumes content was 2%. When the asphalt content was 4.4%, the fatigue life has increased with the use of silica fumes by (50%, when asphalt content was 5.4%, the additives had led to increasing the fatigue life by (69%, as compared with the conventional asphalt concrete pavement.

  9. Modeling of interaction between steel and concrete in continuously reinforced concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) contains continuous longitudinal reinforcement with no transverse : expansion within the early life of the pavement and can continue to develop cracks in the long-term. The : accurate modeling of CRCPs...

  10. Experimental study and field application of calcium sulfoaluminate cement for rapid repair of concrete pavements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua GUAN; Ying GAO; Renjuan SUN; Moon C.WON; Zhi GE

    2017-01-01

    The fast-track repair of deteriorated concrete pavement requires materials that can be placed,cured,and opened to the traffic in a short period.Type Ⅲ cement and Calcium Sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement are the most commonly used fast-setting hydraulic cement (FSHC).In this study,the properties of Type Ⅲ and CSA cement concrete,including compressive strength,coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and shrinkage were evaluated.The test results indicate that compressive strength of FSHC concrete increased rapidly at the early age.CSA cement concrete had higher early-age and long term strength.The shrinkage of CSA cement concrete was lower than that of Type Ⅲ cement concrete.Both CSA and Type Ⅲ cement concrete had similar CTE values.Based on the laboratory results,the CSA cement was selected as the partial-depth rapid repair material for a distressed continuously reinforced concrete pavement.The data collected during and after the repair show that the CSA cement concrete had good short-term and long-term performances and,therefore,was suitable for the rapid repair of concrete pavement.

  11. Importance of dowels in transversal joints in concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosek, Jiri; Chupik, Vladimir; Stryk, Josef; Brezina, Ilja

    2017-09-01

    Concrete pavements are designed for heavy loaded road structures. Their usage brings a number of specific issues. It is necessary to solve them all to ensure that concrete pavements will fulfil their function along the whole design period. One of these issues concerns dowels, which are located in transversal joints. Modelling of load, caused by heavy vehicles, with the use of the finite element method, provides valuable information about the stress condition of concrete pavement. The results of modelling can be verified by measurements or experiments in practice. Dowels and tie bars in jointed unreinforced concrete pavements and the importance of their correct placement, dimensions and material quality on pavement behaviour and lifespan were studied as a part of R&D projects of Technology Agency of the Czech Republic Nos. TA02031195 and TE01020168. The paper presents the experience from the modelling and performed experiments and makes conclusions which are important for the use in practice.

  12. Evaluation of acceptance strength tests for concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    The North Carolina Department of Transportation has used traditionally flexural strength tests for acceptance : testing of Portland cement concrete pavements. This report summarizes a research project implemented to : investigate the feasibility of u...

  13. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has initiated a research project to investigate the use of recycled concrete as : aggregates (RCA) in Portland (hydraulic) cement concrete pavements (PCCP). The planned source for the RCA in t...

  15. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Galao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at −15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e., −15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention and deicing (curing, which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.

  16. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galao, Oscar; Bañón, Luis; Baeza, Francisco Javier; Carmona, Jesús; Garcés, Pedro

    2016-04-12

    This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at -15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e. , -15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention) and deicing (curing), which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.

  17. Performance of Kaolin Clay on the Concrete Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. E.; Jaya, R. P.; Shahafuddin, M. N. A.; Yaacob, H.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Nazri, F. M.; Ramli, N. I.; Mohammed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the performance of concrete pavement containing kaolin clay with their engineering properties and to determine the optimum kaolin clay content. The concrete used throughout the study was designed as grade 30 MPa strength with constant water to cement ratio of 0.49. The compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption test was conducted in this research. The concrete mix designed with kaolin clay as cement replacement comprises at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by the total weight of cement. The results indicate that the strength of pavement concrete decreases as the percentage of kaolin clay increases. It also shows that the water absorption increases with the percentage of cement replacement. However, 5% kaolin clay is found to be the optimum level to replace cement in a pavement concrete.

  18. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion for Portland Cement Concrete pavements for MEPDG Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) is an important parameter in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavement analysis and design as it is directly proportional to the magnitude of temperature-related pavement deformations throughout the pavement s...

  19. Deterioration of jointed Portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Information has been gathered regarding the performance of more than 400 lane-miles of jointed PCC interstate pavements located in five construction districts in Virginia. The factors causing pavement deterioration have been identified, the processes...

  20. Bearing capacity evaluation of rubblized concrete pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings of a research work performed on a real scale concrete pavement project where Rubblizing technology was used for its structural rehabilitation. Rubblizing may be defined as a fracture technique in which a concrete pavement slab is transformed in a granular base with a very high Modulus. This technique, fractures the concrete slab in angular pieces by using a concentrated dynamic load of low amplitude and high frequency. The research work was based on field study on the rehabilitation of 5 km motorway. The structural evaluations where made, before, during and after one year construction. Measurements and site evaluation where made by using DCP, Light Weight Deflectometer and FWD (on top of asphalt layer and excavating inside pits. The structural capacity of the Rubblized layer was evaluated through theoretical analysis. Because of the anisotropic properties of the Rubblized layer the results are presented using AASHTO structural layer coefficient. The structural layer coefficients recommended are between the range of 0.25 and 0.30 for concrete slabs with thickness grater than 220 mm.El trabajo presenta los resultados de un estudio a escala real de la capacidad estructural de un firme de hormigón rehabilitado utilizando la técnica de Rubblizing. La técnica de Rubblizing ha sido traducida como el pulverizado del firme de hormigón pero, es más bien un efecto combinado de trituración y fracturación de la losa de hormigón en todo su espesor para convertir esta en una base granular de alto módulo. Esta tecnica fractura la losa de hormigón en trozos angulares y entrelazados empleando una carga dinámica concentrada, de baja amplitud y alta frecuencia. La investigación se basó en el estudio de la rehabilitación de 5 km de autopista. Los estudios de la capacidad estructural fueron realizados durante, al término y un año después de la construcción. Para las mediciones y evaluaciones de terreno se utilizó, el

  1. Top-down cracking of rigid pavements constructed with fast setting hydraulic cement concrete

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heath, AC

    2009-01-29

    Full Text Available Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) test sections were constructed using fast setting hydrualic cement concrete (FSHCC) as part of the California accelerated pavement testing program (CAL/APT). Many of the longer slabs cracked under environmental...

  2. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  3. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability. PMID:28793518

  4. Techniques and materials for internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lura, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of different techniques for incorporation of internal curing water in concrete. Internal water curing can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and selfdesiccation shrinkage. Some concretes may need 50 kg/m3 of internal curing water for this purpose. The price...

  5. effect of curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High curing temperature (up to 212◦F or. 100◦C) ... are affected by curing and application of the ... for concrete production, it is important to ... Concrete properties and durability are signif- ... Curing compounds are merely temporary coatings on.

  6. Low Shrinkage Cement Concrete Intended for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzata, Linek

    2017-10-01

    The work concerns the issue of hardened concrete parameters improvement intended for airfield pavements. Factors which have direct or indirect influence on rheological deformation size were of particular interest. The aim of lab testing was to select concrete mixture ratio which would make hardened concrete less susceptible to influence of basic operating factors. Analyses included two research groups. External and internal factors were selected. They influence parameters of hardened cement concrete by increasing rheological deformations. Research referred to innovative cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. Due to construction operation, the research considered the influence of weather conditions and forced thermal loads intensifying concrete stress. Fresh concrete mixture parameters were tested and basic parameters of hardened concrete were defined (density, absorbability, compression strength, tensile strength). Influence of the following factors on rheological deformation value was also analysed. Based on obtained test results, it has been discovered that innovative concrete, made on the basis of modifier, which changes internal structure of concrete composite, has definitely lower values of rheological deformation. Observed changes of microstructure, in connection with reduced deformation values allowed to reach the conclusion regarding advantageous characteristic features of the newly designed cement concrete. Applying such concrete for airfield construction may contribute to extension of its operation without malfunction and the increase of its general service life.

  7. Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    R. Pernicova; D. Dobias

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standa...

  8. Effect of Using Porcelanite as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate on Roller Compacted Concrete with Different Curing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdulqader Salih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Roller-Compacted Concrete is a no-slump concrete, with no reinforcing steel, no forms, no finishing and wet enough to support compaction by vibratory rollers. Due to the effect of curing on properties and durability of concrete, the main purpose of this research is to study the effect of various curing methods (air curing, 7 days water curing, and permanent water curing and porcelanite (local material used as an Internal Curing agent with different replacement percentages of fine aggregate (volumetric replacement on some properties of Roller-Compacted Concrete and to explore the possibility of introducing practical Roller-Compacted Concrete for road pavement with minimum requirement of curing. Specimens were sawed from slabs of (380*380*100 mm for determination of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV and Voids volume. Results show that using (5 % porcelanite improved the results of UPV and Voids volume of Roller-Compacted Concrete (with air curing as compared with reference Roller-Compacted Concrete (with permanent water curing by percentages ranging from(3.6 to 28.9% and (-8 to -15.5% respectively.

  9. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad I. Sarsam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The pavement surface course should provide adequate levels of friction and ride quality and maintain low levels of noise and roughness. Many transportation departments perform routine skid resistant testing, the type of equipment used for testing varies depending on the preference of each transportation department. It was felt that modeling of the surface texture condition using different methods of testing may assist in solving such problem. In this work, Macro texture and Micro texture of asphalt and cement concrete pavement surface have been investigated in the field using four different methods (The Sand Patch Method, Outflow Time Method, British Pendulum Tester and Photogrammetry Technique. Two different grain sizes of sand have been utilized in conducting the Sand Patch while the Micro texture was investigated using the British Pendulum tester method at wet pavement surface conditions. The test results of the four methods were correlated to the skid number. It was concluded that such modeling could provide instant data in the field for pavement condition which may help in pavement maintenance management.

  10. Design Basis for Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Søren; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    -crack opening relationship can beused to descibe the properties of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) intension and how the stress-crack opening relationship can beapplied in a simple design scheme for pavements. The projectincludes development of design tools, experiments to determine thestress-crack opening...

  11. Effects of Interlocking and Supporting Conditions on Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Geetimukta; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-02-01

    Concrete Block Paving (CBP) is widely used as wearing course in flexible pavements, preferably under light and medium vehicular loadings. Construction of CBP at site is quick and easy in quality control. Usually, flexible pavement design philosophy is followed in CBP construction, though it is structurally different in terms of small block elements with high strength concrete and their interlocking aspects, frequent joints and discontinuity, restrained edge etc. Analytical solution for such group action of concrete blocks under loading in a three dimensional multilayer structure is complex and thus, the need of conducting experimental studies is necessitated for extensive understanding of the load—deformation characteristics and behavior of concrete blocks in pavement. The present paper focuses on the experimental studies for load transfer characteristics of CBP under different interlocking and supporting conditions. It is observed that both interlocking and supporting conditions affect significantly on the load transfer behavior in CBP structures. Coro-lock block exhibits better performance in terms of load carrying capacity and distortion behavior under static loads. Plate load tests are performed over subgrade, granular sub-base (GSB), CBP with and without GSB using different block shapes. For an example case, the comparison of CBP with conventional flexible pavement section is also presented and it is found that CBP provides considerable benefit in terms of construction cost of the road structure.

  12. Optimisation of the Crack Pattern in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent field investigations on several new Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (CRCP) in Belgium indicate that its crack pattern is characterized by low mean crack spacing along with a high percentage of clusters of closely spaced cracks. Field surveys also indicate that it is difficult to

  13. Finite element analysis of GFRP reinforced concrete pavement under static load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiping; Hu, Chunhua

    2018-02-01

    GFRP was more corrosion resistant than traditional reinforced, it is lightweight, high strength thermal expansion coefficient is more close to the concrete and a poor conductor of electromagnetic. Therefore, the use of GFRP to replace the traditional reinforcement in concrete pavement application has excellent practical value. This paper uses ANSYS to establish delamination and reinforcement of Pavement model and analyzed response of GFRP concrete and ordinary concrete pavement structural mechanics on effects of different factors under the action of static. The results showed that under static load, pavement surface layer presented similar changes on stress of surface layer, vertical and horizontal deformation in two kinds of pavement structure, but indicators of GFRP reinforced concrete pavement were obviously better than that of ordinary concrete pavement.

  14. Modeling damage in concrete pavements and bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This project focused on micromechanical modeling of damage in concrete under general, multi-axial loading. A : continuum-level, three-dimensional constitutive model based on micromechanics was developed. The model : accounts for damage in concrete by...

  15. AN OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR AIRPORT CONCRETE PAVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Taizo; Fujimori, Yuji; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Obama, Kengo; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    In this paper, an optimal management model is formulated for the performance-based rehabilitation/maintenance contract for airport concrete pavement, whereby two types of life cycle cost risks, i.e., ground consolidation risk and concrete depreciation risk, are explicitly considered. The non-homogenous Markov chain model is formulated to represent the deterioration processes of concrete pavement which are conditional upon the ground consolidation processes. The optimal non-homogenous Markov decision model with multiple types of risk is presented to design the optimal rehabilitation/maintenance plans. And the methodology to revise the optimal rehabilitation/maintenance plans based upon the monitoring data by the Bayesian up-to-dating rules. The validity of the methodology presented in this paper is examined based upon the case studies carried out for the H airport.

  16. Recycled Portland cement concrete pavements : Part II, state-of-the art summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This report constitutes a review of the literature concerning recycling of portland cement concrete pavements by crushing the old pavement and reusing the crushed material as aggregate in a number of applications. A summary of the major projects cond...

  17. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with concrete pavements which were finished with a random transverse grooved surface texture (ODOT specification...

  18. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  19. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  20. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  1. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  2. Research on Grooved Concrete Pavement Based on the Durability of Its Anti-Skid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulian Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to investigate the anti-skid performance of concrete pavement and to attempt to enhance its durability by two different methods: using a longitudinally-transversely grooved (LT form, and using a self-developed composite curing agent containing paraffin and Na2SiO3 as the main ingredients. The friction coefficient (μ was measured by self-developed equipment to evaluate the anti-skid performance of samples with three different groove forms (LT, longitudinally grooved (L, and transversely grooved (T. Abrasion tests were then carried out to evaluate the durability of the anti-skid performance. The results indicated that anti-skid performance of LT samples was approximately 46.2% greater than that of T samples, but its durability was not as significant as that of T samples. However, the resistance to abrasion could be improved by using the aforementioned curing agent. Comparisons were carried out between samples sprayed the curing agent and control samples without any curing agent under standard conditions. It was found that the application of the curing agent increased the anti-skid durability of concrete by 35.4%~47.8%, proving it to be a useful and promising technique.

  3. Experimental continuously reinforced concrete pavement parameterization using nondestructive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Salles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Four continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP sections were built at the University of São Paulo campus in order to analyze the pavement performance in a tropical environment. The sections short length coupled with particular project aspects made the experimental CRCP cracking be different from the traditional CRCP one. After three years of construction, a series of nondestructive testing were performed - Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD loadings - to verify and to parameterize the pavement structural condition based on two main properties: the elasticity modulus of concrete (E and the modulus of subgrade reaction (k. These properties estimation was obtained through the matching process between real and EverFE simulated basins with the load at the slab center, between two consecutive cracks. The backcalculation results show that the lack of anchorage at the sections end decreases the E and k values and that the longitudinal reinforcement percentage provides additional stiffness to the pavement. Additionally, FWD loadings tangential to the cracks allowed the load transfer efficiency (LTE estimation determination across cracks. The LTE resulted in values above 90 % for all cracks.

  4. A review of nanoclay applications in the pervious concrete pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakrani, Shahrul Azwan; Ayob, Afizah; Rahim, Mohd Asri Ab

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the use of nanoclay has received various interests in order to enhance the properties of construction materials which can also be eligible for pavement technology and engineering application. This review paper summarizes the effect of nanoclay as cement replacement and additive to the performance of pervious concrete pavement. The addition of nanoclay to pervious concrete has demonstrated improvements in strength properties such as compressive and flexural strength, durability such as freeze-thaw and chloride penetration resistance, shrinkage, and denser microstructure but at the same time reduced the porosity, permeability and water absorption properties. This enhancement is due to the roles of nanoclay as nanoreinforcements, nanofillers, nucleation site, and reactive pozzolans in order to promote hydration and improve material properties.

  5. Experimental observation of internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....

  6. Optimisation of the Crack Pattern in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent field investigations on several new Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (CRCP) in Belgium indicate that its crack pattern is characterized by low mean crack spacing along with a high percentage of clusters of closely spaced cracks. Field surveys also indicate that it is difficult to significantly reduce the probability of a non-uniform crack pattern - such as closely spaced cracks, meandering, and Y-cracks - by only slightly adjusting the amount of longitudinal steel. Non-unifor...

  7. Mechanical properties of self-curing concrete (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of concrete containing self-curing agents are investigated in this paper. In this study, two materials were selected as self-curing agents with different amounts, and the addition of silica fume was studied. The self-curing agents were, pre-soaked lightweight aggregate (Leca; 0.0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of volume of sand; or polyethylene-glycol (Ch.; 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement. To carry out this study the cement content of 300, 400, 500 kg/m3, water/cement ratio of 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 and 0.0%, 15% silica fume of weight of cement as an additive were used in concrete mixes. The mechanical properties were evaluated while the concrete specimens were subjected to air curing regime (in the laboratory environment with 25 °C, 65% R.H. during the experiment. The results show that, the use of self-curing agents in concrete effectively improved the mechanical properties. The concrete used polyethylene-glycol as self-curing agent, attained higher values of mechanical properties than concrete with saturated Leca. In all cases, either 2% Ch. or 15% Leca was the optimum ratio compared with the other ratios. Higher cement content and/or lower water/cement ratio lead(s to more efficient performance of self-curing agents in concrete. Incorporation of silica fume into self-curing concrete mixture enhanced all mechanical properties, not only due to its pozzolanic reaction, but also due to its ability to retain water inside concrete.

  8. Applications of waste material in the pervious concrete pavement: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakrani, Shahrul Azwan; Ayob, Afizah; Rahim, Mohd Asri Ab

    2017-09-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is one of the innovative structures designed in order to manage the quantity and quality of urban stormwater for a sustainable development. In general, pervious concrete pavement enables water to permeate through its structure and have a capability to cater dynamic loads at the same time. However, the conventional pervious concrete pavement lacks a superior strength while performing as pavement structure. Thus, an extensive research has been carried out in order to explore the possible materials to be incorporated into the pervious concrete pavement for better physical, structural and mechanical properties. The objectives of this paper are to review the waste materials used in the pervious concrete pavement along with their mechanical, durability and permeability performance.

  9. Physical properties of self-curing concrete (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-08-01

    The results show that the use of self-curing agent (Ch. in concrete effectively improves the physical properties compared with conventional concrete. On the other hand, up to 15% saturated leca was effective while 20% saturated leca was effective for permeability and mass loss but adversely affects the sorptivity and volumetric water absorption. Self-curing agent Ch. was more effective than self-curing agent leca. In all cases, both 2% Ch. and 15% leca were the optimum values. Higher cement content and/or lower water–cement ratio leads to more effective results of self-curing agents in concrete. Incorporation of silica fume into concrete mixtures enhances all physical properties.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF PRESERVATIVE FOR PROTECTION OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT OF HIGHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantages of road concrete pavement quite well known professionals-standards. They were mainly low elasticity modulus asphaltic concrete, as well as a fairly rapid aging of asphalt concrete core component-bitumen. And, as a consequence, is relatively low durability of the coating, the need for frequent repair. To some extent, cement concrete cover signifi cantly outperform this index of asphalt, convinces experience roads of Germany, the United States and other countries. The correct structure of concrete, overall compliance technology laying concrete, comprehensive quality control production  work, sufficient technical personnel qualifications provide long defect-free work road re-coated. However, violations by manufacture of works or in the process of exploitation, particularly in the harsh conditions of freezing and thawing, saturation-drying, especially under the influence of salts-defrosting, cause defects, reduce its durability. There are two directions of increase of durability of the coating. Firstly, it is the primary protection is the creation of concrete with minimal possible on data components mixture water cement ratio that provides reception of concrete with minimum porosity and consequently with maximum durability. Secondly, the secondary protection, providing increased resistance already ready-mixed concrete cover external aggressive actions. In this case against the background of other ways quite promising looks impregnation of the surface concrete integrated structure. Composition must contain multiple components, primarily water repellents, preventing penetration of fluid into the body of the concrete, and finely dispersed silica sol in particular silica, providing reduction of the porosity of the surface layers of concrete by interacting with the free calcium hydroxide. The problem of optimization of impregnation structure and is dedicated to this work.

  11. Aggregate Toughness/Abrasion Resistance and Durability/Soundness Tests Related to Asphalt Concrete Performance in Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The properties of aggregates used in asphalt concretes are very important to the performance of the pavements in which the asphalt concretes are used. Often pavement distress, such as stripping and rutting, can be traced directly to the aggregates us...

  12. Effect of mineral additives on structure and properties of concrete for pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Khrystyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pavements is an attractive alternative to asphalt pavements because of its lower cost and higher durability. Major contribution to sustainable development can be made by partial replacement of cement in concrete pavement with supplementary cementitious materials of different nature and origin. In this paper, the effect of natural zeolite and perlite additives in complex with chemical admixtures on the structure and properties of concrete for pavement was studied. Compressive and flexural strength test was used to study the mechanical behavior of designed concrete under load. Generally, the compressive strength of both control concrete and concrete containing mineral additives levels at the later ages of hardening. The microstructure analysis of concrete with mineral additives of different nature activity showed the formation of additional amount of hydration products such as tobermorite type calcium hydrosilicate which provide self-reinforcement of hardening concrete system.

  13. Effect of mineral additives on structure and properties of concrete for pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Khrystyna; Markiv, Taras; Hunyak, Oleksii

    2017-12-01

    Concrete pavements is an attractive alternative to asphalt pavements because of its lower cost and higher durability. Major contribution to sustainable development can be made by partial replacement of cement in concrete pavement with supplementary cementitious materials of different nature and origin. In this paper, the effect of natural zeolite and perlite additives in complex with chemical admixtures on the structure and properties of concrete for pavement was studied. Compressive and flexural strength test was used to study the mechanical behavior of designed concrete under load. Generally, the compressive strength of both control concrete and concrete containing mineral additives levels at the later ages of hardening. The microstructure analysis of concrete with mineral additives of different nature activity showed the formation of additional amount of hydration products such as tobermorite type calcium hydrosilicate which provide self-reinforcement of hardening concrete system.

  14. Unbonded portland cement concrete overlay/pavement monitoring with integrated grating and scattering optical fiber sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the findings and results from a laboratory and field study on the strain distribution : and crack development in 3 thick concrete panels cast on top of existing concrete pavements as a rapid : rehabilitation strategy for roa...

  15. Mud concrete paving block for pedestrian pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameera Udawattha

    2017-12-01

    This is an attempt to search for alternative eco-friendly earth paving material for public walkways with both the strength and durable properties of concrete while ensuring pedestrian comfort. Approaches were made to change the fine particle percentage while keeping the sand and gravel constant, once the optimum most practical mixture was known, the standard tests were done. The results obtained revealed that the proposed self-compacting block can be produced by using soil with less than 5% fine particles, 55% of 65% sand particles and 18% of 22% cement by weight together with the moisture content between 14% and 15%The tested mud concrete paving blocks were already used in practical application in Sri Lankan urban context.

  16. Porous concrete mixtures for pervious urban pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, J.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of a series of roller-compacted, laboratory porous concrete mixtures. The mix design variables examined were the actual void ratio in the hardened concrete and the water/cement ratio. From these results the better dosages from the mechanical and hydraulical behaviour point of view were determined. One of the designs developed was found to exhibit excellent hydraulic capacity and 20% greater strength than the mixtures recommended in the literature. Moreover, concrete with an actual void ratio of only 14% was observed to meet permeability requirements. Maximum flexural strength of concretes with different w/c ratios was achieved with a cement paste content of 250 l/m3. Relationships were found between the void ratio and both 28-day concrete permeability and flexural strength. Finally, the doses exhibiting the best mechanical and hydraulic performance were identified.El trabajo realizado en este estudio consistió en analizar el comportamiento de diferentes dosificaciones de mezclas de hormigón poroso, fabricadas en laboratorio y compactadas con rodillo pesado para simular las condiciones de terreno. Las variables consideradas para el diseño de las mezclas fueron el porcentaje real de huecos en el hormigón endurecido y la razón agua/cemento. A partir de estos resultados se determinaron las dosificaciones que presentan mejor comportamiento desde el punto de vista mecánico e hidráulico. Los resultados muestran que existe una dosificación de hormigón poroso, distinta a las encontradas actualmente en la literatura internacional, que permite obtener resistencias hasta 20% más altas, manteniendo todavía una excelente capacidad hidráulica. Se determinó que una permeabilidad suficiente se puede obtener con un porcentaje real de huecos de 14%, y que agregar pasta de cemento en una proporción de 250 l/m3 permite maximizar la resistencia a flexotracción de hormigones que

  17. Some Durability Aspects of Ambient Cured Bottom Ash Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanakumar R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines some durability aspects of ambient cured bottom ash geopolymer concrete (BA GPC due to accelerated corrosion, sorptivity, and water absorption. The bottom ash geopolymer concrete was prepared with sodium based alkaline activators under ambient curing temperatures. The sodium hydroxide used concentration was 8M. The performance of BA GPC was compared with conventional concrete. The test results indicate that BA GPC developes a strong passive layer against chloride ion diffusion and provides better protection against corrosion. Both the initial and final rates of water absorption of BA GPC were about two times less than those of conventional concrete. The BA GPC significantly enhanced performance over equivalent grade conventional concrete (CC.

  18. Autogenous Deformation and Internal Curing of Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lura, P.

    2003-01-01

    High-performance concrete (HPC) is generally characterized by a low water/binder ratio and by silica-fume addition, which guarantee a low porosity and a discontinuous capillary pore structure of the cement paste. Modern concretes possess some highly advantageous properties compared to traditional

  19. Effects of curing methods and supplementary cementitious material use on freeze thaw durability of concrete containing d-cracking aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    For concrete pavements in Kansas, the most effective method of increasing their sustainability is to : increase the service life. One of the principle mechanisms of concrete pavement deterioration in Kansas is : freezing and thawing damage. Some Kans...

  20. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    reinforcement if the enamel is broken  Embedded cement grains hydrate if enamel is cracked to self-heal with the formation of calcium silicate hydrate Goal...Reinforced Concrete Pavement The 600% volume change in the iron to iron oxide formation put the concrete in tension and it cracks an spalls BUILDING...corrodes prematurely and delaminates the pavement  Moisture and chlorides can move through the natural porosity of concrete and the cracks in the

  1. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2000) : effectiveness of fiber reinforced and plain, ultra-thin concrete overlays on Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the research was to compare the performance of fiber reinforced and plain PCC concrete overlay when used as a thin non-dowelled overlay on top of a rubblized, distressed concrete pavement. The experiment was conducted at the Accelera...

  2. Properties of ambient cured blended alkali activated cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha Junaid, M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents results of the development and strength properties of ambient-cured alkali activated geopolymer concrete (GPC). The study looks at the strength properties, such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and elastic modulus of such concretes and its dependency on various parameters. The parameters studied in this work are the type and proportions of pre-cursor materials, type of activator and their respective ratios and the curing time. Two types of pre-cursor material; low calcium fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) were activated using different proportions of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. The results indicate that ambient cured geopolymer concrete can be manufactured to match strength properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC). The strength properties of GPC are dependent on the type and ratio of activator and the proportion of GGBFS used. Increasing the percentage of GGBFS increased the compressive and tensile strengths, while reducing the setting time of the mix. The effect of GGBFS on strength was more pronounced in mixes that contained sodium silicate as activator solution. Unlike OPC, ambient-cured GPC containing sodium silicate gain most of their strength in the first 7 days and there is no change in strength thereafter. However, GPC mixes not containing sodium silicate only achieve a fraction of their strength at 7 days and extended curing is required for such concretes to gain full strength. The results also indicate that the elastic modulus values of GPC mixes without sodium silicate are comparable to OPC while mixes with sodium silicate have elastic modulus values much lower than ordinary concrete.

  3. Design of the First Italian Roundabout with Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Mascio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the overall design of the first Italian roundabout with jointed plain concrete pavement. The examined case study complies with current international standards and practices for geometry of roundabouts and road pavements. The construction of a concrete pavement in an urban roundabout will better manage and slow down fast vehicular flows, and increase traffic fluidity in an important junction, trafficked by heavy vehicles, where maintenance works should be reduced to avoid queues. The design of the roundabout involved several competences for: defining the geometry of the four-arm junction, designing the thickness of the jointed plain concrete pavement both on the circular crown and the arms, studying the mix design of a high resistance concrete. As regard to the pavement, the result of the study was an un-dowelled concrete pavement composed of square slabs laid on a cement concrete subbase and a granular layer. The shape of the slabs has been designed to optimize the structural performance of their material, which is a high strength concrete mix derived from an extensive laboratory test work. In general, the results summarized approaches typical of different design conditions: urban ones for traffic flow and safety needs; high-traffic ones for the chosen pavement type; airport ones for the absence of dowel and tie bars at the joints. Indeed, the article has highlighted that the design process of a concrete roundabout requires multiple analyses to consider various features and correctly re-design an existing urban junction. Its geometrical design, the structural design of the concrete pavement and the theoretical and experimental design of the concrete mix were the main phases of this process and they needed different competences to conduct comprehensive and appropriate analyses.

  4. Evaluation of curing compound application time on concrete surface durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The effect of curing compound application time after concrete finishing was examined in the study. Times of 30 minutes, 2 hours and 4 hours were considered and repeatability was evaluated with comparisons to a Phase I portion of the study. Scaling re...

  5. Biocementation of Concrete Pavements Using Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Hoon; Jo, Yoon-Soo; Park, Chang-Seon; Kang, Chang-Ho; So, Jae-Seong

    2017-07-28

    In this study, the feasibility of introducing calcite-forming bacteria into concrete pavements to improve their mechanical performance was investigated. Lysinibacillus sphaericus WJ-8, which was isolated in a previous study and is capable of exhibiting high urease activity and calcite production, was used. When analyzed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction, WJ-8 showed a significant amount of calcite precipitation. The compressive strength of cement mortar mixed with WJ-8 cells and nutrient medium (urea with calcium lactate) increased by 10% compared with that of the controls. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the increase in strength was due to the calcite formed by the WJ-8 cells.

  6. Strength development of concrete made with recycled glass aggregates subjected to frost curing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Poutos, Konstantinos; Nwaubani, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to study whether the strength behavior of concrete made with glass aggregate differed significantly from that made with natural aggregates when concretes cured in low temperatures. The aim of the research work presented is to examine the strength behavior of glass concrete when cured under freezing conditions at -15°C and -10°C. The results showed that when glass concrete is cured at low curing temperature, the 28 day compressive strength is higher...

  7. Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Crushed Concrete Backfill: State-of-the-Art Review and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes research results from the first year of a three-year study focused on the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed concrete (CC) as backfill for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls.

  8. A case study evaluation of the use of video technology in concrete pavement evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of video technology as a possible solution to the problem of safely collecting objective condition data for prioritizing concrete pavement rehabilitation needs in Virginia. The study involved the eval...

  9. Portland cement concrete pavement review of QC/QA data 2000 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report analyzes the Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) data for Portland cement concrete pavement : (PCCP) awarded in the years 2000 through 2009. Analysis of the overall performance of the projects is accomplished by : reviewing the Calc...

  10. Durability of saw-cut joints in plain cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate factors influencing the durability of the joints in portland cement concrete : pavement in the state of Indiana. Specifically this work evaluated the absorption of water, the absorption of deicing solutio...

  11. Design of a 3-D Magnetic Mapping System to Locate Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report outlines the design, fabrication, and testing of a 3-D magnetic mapping system used to locate reinforcing steel in concrete pavements developed at Kansas State University (KSU) in 2006. The magnetic sensing functionality is based on the p...

  12. Computer-based guidelines for concrete pavements : HIPERPAV III : user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This user manual provides guidance on how to use the new High PERformance PAVing (HIPERPAV) III software program for the analysis of early-age Portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) behavior. HIPERPAV III includes several improvements over prev...

  13. Self-curing concrete types; water retention and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to compare among concretes without or with silica fume (SF along with chemical type of shrinkage reducing admixture, polyethylene-glycol (Ch, and leca as self-curing agents for water retention even at elevated temperature (50 °C and their durability. The cement content of 400 kg/m3, silica fume of 15% by weight of cement, polyethylene-glycol of 2% by weight of cement, pre-saturated lightweight aggregate (leca 15% by volume of sand and water with Ch/binder ratio of 0.4 were selected in this study. Some of the physical and mechanical properties were determined periodically up to 28 days in case of exposure to air curing in temperature of (25 °C and (50 °C while up to 6 months of exposure to 5% of carbon dioxide and wet/dry cycles in 8% of sodium chloride for durability study. The concrete mass loss and the volumetric water absorption were measured, to evaluate the water retention of the investigated concretes. Silica fume concrete either without or with Ch gave the best results under all curing regimes; significant water retention and good durability properties.

  14. Assessment of technical condition of concrete pavement by the example of district road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, M.; Nita, P.; Żebrowski, W.; Wolka, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the comprehensive assessment of concrete pavement condition. Analyses included the district road located in the swietokrzyskie province, used for 11 years. Comparative analyses were conducted twice. The first analysis was carried out after 9 years of pavement operation, in 2015. In order to assess the extent of pavement degradation, the tests were repeated in 2017. Within the scope of field research, the traffic intensity within the analysed road section was determined. Visual assessment of pavement condition was conducted, according to the guidelines included in SOSN-B. Visual assessment can be extended by ground-penetrating radar measurements which allow to provide comprehensive assessment of the occurred structure changes within its entire thickness and length. The assessment included also performance parameters, i.e. pavement regularity, surface roughness and texture. Extension of test results by the assessment of changes in internal structure of concrete composite and structure observations by means of Scanning Electron Microscope allow for the assessment of parameters of internal structure of hardened concrete. Supplementing the observations of internal structure by means of computed tomography scan provides comprehensive information of possible discontinuities and composite structure. According to the analysis of the obtained results, conclusions concerning the analysed pavement condition were reached. It was determined that the pavement is distinguished by high performance parameters, its condition is good and it does not require any repairs. Maintenance treatment was suggested in order to extend the period of proper operation of the analysed pavement.

  15. Experimental studies in Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of roller compacted concrete pavement containing fly ash and M-sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishna Rao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture. River sand, M-sand and combination of M-sand and River sand are used as fine aggregate in this experimental work. Three types of fly ash roller compacted concrete mixes are prepared using above three types of fine aggregates and they are designated as Series A (River sand, Series B (manufactured sand and Series C (combination of River sand and M-sand. In each series the fly ash content in place of cement is varied from 0% to 60%. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e 3, 7, 28 and 90 days forty two cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV results of fly ash containing roller compacted concrete pavement (FRCCP show lower values at all ages from 3 days to 90 days in comparison with control mix concrete (0% fly ash in all mixes. However, it is also observed that Series B and C mixes containing fly ash show better results in UPV values, compressive strength and Dynamic Elastic Modulus in comparison to Series A mixes with fly ash. Relationships between compressive strength of FRCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes. A new empirical equation is proposed to determine the Dynamic Elastic Modulus of FRCCP. Keywords: Compressive strength, Dynamic Elastic Modulus, Fly ash, Roller compacted concrete pavement, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

  16. Waste-Based Pervious Concrete for Climate-Resilient Pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Lung; Huang, Ran; Hwang, Lih-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2018-05-27

    For the sake of environmental protection and circular economy, cement reduction and cement substitutes have become popular research topics, and the application of green materials has become an important issue in the development of building materials. This study developed green pervious concrete using water-quenched blast-furnace slag (BFS) and co-fired fly ash (CFFA) to replace cement. The objectives of this study were to gauge the feasibility of using a non-cement binder in pervious concrete and identify the optimal binder mix design in terms of compressive strength, permeability, and durability. For filled percentage of voids by cement paste (FPVs) of 70%, 80%, and 90%, which mixed with CFFA and BFS as the binder (40 + 60%, 50 + 50%, and 60 + 40%) to create pervious concrete with no cement. The results indicate that the complete (100%) replacement of cement with CFFA and BFS with no alkaline activator could induce hydration, setting, and hardening. After a curing period of 28 days, the compressive strength with different FPVs could reach approximately 90% that of the control cement specimens. The cementless pervious concrete specimens with BFS:CFFA = 7:3 and FPV = 90% presented better engineering properties and permeability.

  17. The Impact of Concrete Pavement Field Floor to Vehicle Missile Launching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xinlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The conception and evaluation indices of the bearing capacity of the concrete pavement field floor are analyzed in this paper. In order to get the damage process of the concrete panel, its tension and compression injury factors are derived, and a field floor structural dynamic model with concrete damage constitutive relation is built based on ABAQUS, and the influence of thickness and Young’s modulus of the concrete panel to the vehicular missile launching is comparatively analyzed.

  18. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate.

  19. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Yu, Xun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate. (paper)

  20. Improved Concrete Materials with Hydrogel-Based Internal Curing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Krafcik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research article will describe the design and use of polyelectrolyte hydrogel particles as internal curing agents in concrete and present new results on relevant hydrogel-ion interactions. When incorporated into concrete, hydrogel particles release their stored water to fuel the curing reaction, resulting in reduced volumetric shrinkage and cracking and thus increasing concrete service life. The hydrogel’s swelling performance and mechanical properties are strongly sensitive to multivalent cations that are naturally present in concrete mixtures, including calcium and aluminum. Model poly(acrylic acid(AA-acrylamide(AM-based hydrogel particles with different chemical compositions (AA:AM monomer ratio were synthesized and immersed in sodium, calcium, and aluminum salt solutions. The presence of multivalent cations resulted in decreased swelling capacity and altered swelling kinetics to the point where some hydrogel compositions displayed rapid deswelling behavior and the formation of a mechanically stiff shell. Interestingly, when incorporated into mortar, hydrogel particles reduced mixture shrinkage while encouraging the formation of specific inorganic phases (calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate within the void space previously occupied by the swollen particle.

  1. Durability of saw-cut joints in plain cement concrete pavements : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing the durability of the joints in portland cement concrete pavement in the state of Indiana. : The scope of the research included the evaluation of the absorption of water in concrete...

  2. Developing A Framework for Low-Volume Road Implementation of Pervious Concrete Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rahman, BSc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pervious concrete pavement is one of the promising pavement technologies, as it can help overcome traditional pavement environmental impacts, assist with stormwater management, and provide an effective low impact development solution. There are many benefits associated with pervious concrete pavement such as assisting with water filtration, absorbing heavy metals and reducing pollution. The most significant aspect, which draws the attention of environmental agencies and cities and municipalities, is its ability to reduce storm water runoff. Pervious concrete is documented as the paramount solution in storm water management by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Though it has been used in the southern United States for years, the practice of using pervious concrete is more recent in northern climates where freeze thaw is observed. In Canada, several pervious concrete parking lots have been constructed over the past few years. However barriers exist for implementing the technology, as designers are not always fully informed on the various functional and structural design considerations. In this paper, a framework is developed to identify how pervious concrete can be integrated into low-volume infrastructure. This paper also summarizes the structural performance and drainage characteristics of pervious concrete parking lots constructed in various provinces of Canada, demonstrating the viability of pervious concrete for low-volume northern applications.

  3. Evaluation of curing compound application time on concrete surface durability : [brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Roadways that are both durable and aesthetically pleasing are primary goals of Wisconsin : Department of Transportation (WisDOT) paving projects. Recently, Portland Cement Concrete : (PCC) pavement projects constructed by WisDOT have experienced incr...

  4. STRESSES IN CEMENT-CONCRETE PAVEMENT SURFACING CAUSED BY THERMAL SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to mention specially so-called thermal shock among various impacts on highway surface. Ice layer is formed on a concrete surface during the winter period of pavement surfacing operation. Sodium chloride which lowers temperature of water-ice transition temperature and causes ice thawing at negative temperature is usually used to remove ice from the pavement surface. Consequently, temperature in the concrete laying immediately under a thawing ice layer is coming down with a run that leads to significant stresses. Such phenomenon is known as a thermal shock with a meaning of local significant change in temperature. This process is under investigation, it has practical importance for an estimation of strength and longevity of a cement-concrete pavement surfacing and consequently it is considered as rather topical issue. The purpose of investigations is to develop a mathematical model and determination of shock blow permissible gradients for a cementconcrete road covering. Finite difference method has been used in order to determine stressed and deformed condition of the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways. A computer program has been compiled and it permits to carry out calculation of a road covering at various laws of temperature distribution in its depth. Regularities in distribution of deformation and stresses in the cement-concrete pavement surfacing of highways at thermal shock have been obtained in the paper. A permissible parameter of temperature distribution in pavement surfacing thickness has been determined in the paper. A strength criterion based on the process of micro-crack formation and development in concrete has been used for making calculations. It has been established that the thermal shock causes significant temperature gradients on the cement-concrete surfacing that lead to rather large normal stresses in the concrete surface layer. The possibility of micro-crack formation in a road covering is

  5. Modelling of composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive zone model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of the cement bound base material in composite concrete block pavement systems, using a cohesive zone model. The functionality of the proposed model is tested on experimental and numerical investigations of beam bending tests....... The pavement is modelled as a simple slab on grade structure and parameters influencing the response, such as analysis technique, geometry and material parameters are studied. Moreover, the analysis is extended to a real scale example, modelling the pavement as a three-layered structure. It is found...... block pavements. It is envisaged that the methodology implemented in this study can be extended and thereby contribute to the ongoing development of rational failure criteria that can replace the empirical formulas currently used in pavement engineering....

  6. PECULIAR FEATURES OF HEAT-HUMIDITY MODE PERTAINING TO POROUS LAYERS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Verenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental investigations and points out the fact that conventional approaches to design and calculations of road pavements that presuppose application of porous asphalt concrete on compact bedding can cause some deformations and destructions initiated due to humidity migration in large internal material pores and lead to material destruction during warm season of the year when water is characterized by high activity. Such processes result in bitumen washing-out, white spot occurrence on the pavement and quick destruction of the pavement.The paper proposes to reconsider existing approaches to design and calculation of road pavements, estimation of reliability and service-ability levels of the applied construction materials. In particular it is necessary to calculate a road pavement with respect to thermo-physical action while excluding condensate and humidity accumulation in porous materials. 

  7. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Saad I. Sarsam; Huda N. Al Shareef

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The ...

  8. How to transform an asphalt concrete pavement into a solar turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Alvaro; Partl, Manfred N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We create a system for harvesting energy from asphalt concrete. • We create an artificial porosity in the asphalt concrete. • We connect a chimney to this porosity. • Differences in temperature produce an air flow. • This air flow serves also for cooling down the pavement. - Abstract: Asphalt concrete can absorb a considerable amount of the incident solar radiation. For this reason asphalt roads could be used as solar collectors. There have been different attempts to achieve this goal. All of them have been done by integrating pipes conducting liquid, through the structure of the asphalt concrete. The problem of this system is that all pipes need to be interconnected: if one is broken, the liquid will come out and damage the asphalt concrete. To overcome these limitations, in this article, an alternative concept is proposed:parallel air conduits, where air can circulate will be integrated in the pavement structure. The idea is to connect these artificial pore volumes in the pavement to an updraft or to a downdraft chimney. Differences of temperature between the pavement and the environment can be used to create an air flow, which would allow wind turbines to produce an amount of energy and that would cool the pavement down in summer or even warm it up in winter. To demonstrate that this is possible, an asphalt concrete prototype has been created and basics calculations on the parameters affecting the system have been done. It has been found that different temperatures, volumes of air inside the asphalt and the difference of temperature between the asphalt concrete and the environment are critical to maximize the air flow through the pavement. Moreover, it has been found that this system can be also used to reduce the heat island effect

  9. ANALYSIS OF STRESS STATE IN UPPER LAYER OF ROAD CONCRETE PAVEMENT WITH TEMPERATURE ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While being operated auto-road pavements are subjected to intensive mechanical impacts, ultraviolet ray irradiation, freeze-thaw temperatures, freezing and thawing, drying and moistening. Due to these actions various types of pavement distresses appear on the road pavement. The most significant and dangerous type of distresses is micro-cracks on the road surface. One of the main reasons for their formation is an action of weather and climatic factors that initiate large changes in temperature of coating surface and occurrence of large temperature gradients in the upper layer. In this context while designing and operating auto-roads it is rather essential to investigate a stress state in road surface which is caused by temperature action. Purpose of the described investigations is to determine permissible temperature gradients for cement-concrete pavements that exclude formation of micro-cracks on their surface and thickness of damaged surface layer. Calculations of road pavement have been carried out at various laws for temperature distribution in its depth. A finite difference method realized in PARUS software has been used for studying a stress state of cement-concrete auto-roads. Regularities for distribution of stresses in cement-concrete pavement of auto-roads have been obtained at various surface temperatures. Permissible temperature gradients in the upper pavement layer have been determined and thickness of the layer where micro-cracks are formed has been assessed in the paper. Strength criterion based on the process of micro-crack formation and development in the concrete has been used for calculations. Risk of micro-crack formation on the auto-road pavement depends on material strength, conditions of plate fixing and temperature gradients.

  10. D-cracking field performance of portland cement concrete pavements containing limestone in Kansas : phase 1 report : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Introduction: Premature deterioration of concrete pavement due to D-cracking has been a problem in Kansas since the 1930s. Limestone is the major source of coarse aggregate in eastern Kansas where the majority of the concrete pavements are constructe...

  11. Compact Embedded Wireless Sensor-Based Monitoring of Concrete Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Trinidad; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Cifuentes, Héctor; González Carvajal, Ramón

    2018-03-15

    This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility. The devices were successfully implemented resulting in a low cost, highly reliable, compact and non-destructive solution.

  12. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  13. Stress Regression Analysis of Asphalt Concrete Deck Pavement Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design and Interlayer Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuntao; Feng, Jianhu; Wang, Hu; Hong, Shidi; Zheng, Supei

    2018-03-01

    A three-dimensional finite element box girder bridge and its asphalt concrete deck pavement were established by ANSYS software, and the interlayer bonding condition of asphalt concrete deck pavement was assumed to be contact bonding condition. Orthogonal experimental design is used to arrange the testing plans of material parameters, and an evaluation of the effect of different material parameters in the mechanical response of asphalt concrete surface layer was conducted by multiple linear regression model and using the results from the finite element analysis. Results indicated that stress regression equations can well predict the stress of the asphalt concrete surface layer, and elastic modulus of waterproof layer has a significant influence on stress values of asphalt concrete surface layer.

  14. Investigation of load transfer efficiency in jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sadeghi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to heavy traffic loads, rigid pavements encounter various types of failures at transverse joints during their lifetime. Three-dimensional finite-element method (3D-FEM was used to assess the structural response of jointed concrete pavement under moving tandem axle loads. In this study, 3D FEM was verified using an existing numerical model and field measurement of the concrete slab traversed by a moving truck. This paper also investigated the effects of multiple parameters: material properties, slab geometry, load magnitude and frictional status of the slab and base layer on load transfer efficiency (LTE of the transverse joints. Further study has been done to investigate the slab performance without the dowel bars which occurs when parts of the pavement needed to be repaired using precast slabs. The aggregate interlock between the new slab and the existing slab is simulated by frictional interface. In 3D FEM model, the load transfer efficiency has been improved by increasing the elasticity modules of the concrete slab and the base layer or increasing the slab thickness. This can decrease the joints' deflections, reduces the damages on pavement joints. Removing dowel bars adversely affected the load transfer. Keywords: Concrete pavement, Load transfer, Finite-element method, Dowel bar, Structural behavior

  15. Performance polymeric concrete with synthetic fiber reinforcement against reflective cracking in rigid pavement overlay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.; Khan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Cement concrete pavements are used for heavy traffic loads throughout the world owing to its better and economical performance. Placing of a concrete overlay on the existing pavement is the most prevalent rehabilitating method for such pavements, however, the problem associated with the newly placed overlay is the occurrence of reflective cracking. This paper presents an assessment of the performance of polymeric concrete with synthetic fiber reinforcement against reflective cracking in an overlay system. The performance of polymeric concrete with synthetic fibers as an overlay material is measured in terms of the load-deflection, strain-deflection and load-strain behavior of beams of the polymeric concrete. For this purpose, five types of beams having different number of fiber wires and position are tested for flexure strength. Deflection/strains for each increment of load are recorded. In addition, cubes of plain concrete and of concrete with synthetic fiber needles were tested after 7 and 28 days for compressive strengths. Finite element models in ANSYS software for the beams have also been developed. Beams with greater number of longitudinal fiber wires displayed relatively better performance against deflection whilst beams with synthetic fiber needles showed better performance against strains. Thus, polymeric concrete overlay with fiber reinforcement will serve relatively better against occurrence of reflective cracking. (author)

  16. Influence of curing conditions on the sorptivity and weight change characteristics of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to investigate the influence of curing conditions on the capillary water absorption and weight change characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC). Specimens were prepared using three types of concrete (SCC, Portland cement (PC), Fly ash (FA) concretes) and were cured under three different curing conditions (20C water and 20C and 40C air cure) for 28 days. Weight gain (water intake) in water curing and weight loss (water loss) in 20C and 40C air curing were recorded throughout the curing period. Compressive strength, water absorption and capillary water absorption tests were carried out at 28 days. The results indicated that FA concrete gained about 0.5% whilst PC and self-compacting concretes gained about 1.0% of the initial weight. This indicates that due to the slower reaction process more free water remains within FA concrete avoiding further water intake. In the weight loss study, FA concrete lost about 4.0% and 6.0% of the initial weight at 20C and 40C air curing, respectively; whereas SCC and PC concretes (both had almost identical values) lost about 3.2 and 5.2% at 20C and 40C, respectively. The absorption test results indicated that SCC gave the lowest captivity coefficient values followed by PC and FA concretes in all curing conditions. (author)

  17. Effect of wet curing duration on durability parameters of hydraulic cement concretes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic cement concrete slabs were cast and stored outdoors in Charlottesville, Virginia, to study the impact of wet curing duration on durability parameters. Concrete mixtures were produced using portland cement, portland cement with slag cement, ...

  18. Evaluation of various hot mix asphalt pavement thicknesses over rubblized concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In 1999, the Wisconsin DOT constructed two test sections as part of a rubblized PCC pavement project on I-39 to evaluate whether : increased HMA thickness could extend the pavement system's service life. Design thicknesses of the control and test sec...

  19. Effects of curing methods and supplementary cementitious material use on freeze thaw durability of concrete containing d-cracking aggregates : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    For concrete pavements in Kansas, the most effective method of increasing their sustainability is to increase the service life. One of the principle mechanism of concrete pavement deterioration in Kansas is freezing and thawing damage. Some Kansas li...

  20. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    successfully used as interlayers include asphalt rubber and geotextiles, and the applica- tion of recycling techniques to rework the upper 2–4 in. of the...from a set of weights dropped from increasingly greater predetermined heights onto a rubber buffer system connected to a 12 in. diameter segmented...pavement temperature at depth, IR = the infrared pavement surface temperature (°C), D = the asphalt depth to estimate the temperature (mm), 1

  1. Research on curing behavior of concrete with anti-frost admixtures at subzero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Yulian; Kramar, Ludmila; Kirsanova, Alena; Kolegova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is research on curing behavior of cold-weather concrete with anti-frost admixtures. During the study derivative thermal and X-ray phase analyses were performed and tests were carried out according to the standard GOST technique. The research results obtained reveal the peculiarities of cement hydration and concrete curing at subzero temperatures. The influence of subzero temperatures and anti-frost admixtures on hydrated phases of hardened cement paste and concrete strength formation was studied. It is found that cold-weather concrete does not cure at subzero temperatures, but when defrosting it attains 80 to 85% of its grade strength by the 28th day. Concrete achieves its grade strength when curing in normal conditions in 60 days only. Freezing concrete with anti-frost admixtures results in increase of calcium hydroxide content in hardened cement paste immediately when produced and has increased tendency of concrete to carbonation.

  2. Performance studies of continuously reinforced concrete pavement : pavements without transverse steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The status of studies of the three continuously reinforced pavement projects near Charlottesville is reported. Of particular interest in these studies are the effects of the elimination of transverse reinforcing steel, the changing characteristics of...

  3. Durability of certain configurations for providing skid resistance on concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to establish the factors that influence the durability of the surface configurations that are used or can be used to provide high and long lasting skid resistance for portland cement concrete pavements. In the dev...

  4. Evaluation of using crushed brick as coarse aggregate in concrete layer within rigid highway pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwash Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the present studies related to the field of highway pavement construction technique tend to make use of the local available materials as substitutes for the imported and necessary materials for some of the practical application. For this reason this research aims at looking for the prospect of used locally available aggregate such as crushed clay bricks for the aim of producing proper concrete with suitable thermal and mechanical properties. Experimental investigations have been carried out to asses the effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregate by free manually crushed Brick with percentages (10, 20, 30 and 40% of virgin coarse aggregate in concrete mix for highway rigid pavement. While the percentage (0% replacement represent reference mix. Mix proportion based on the target of compressive strength for all replacement percentage of (33 MPa at (28 days to achieve AASHTO requirement for highway concrete rigid pavement .The results of flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density and thermal conductivity refers to better performance (less thickness of concrete layer with large spacing between contraction or expansion joints and less stresses due to warping induced concrete layer for concrete mix with 20% crushed brick as replacement of coarse aggregate.

  5. Effect on Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Treated Waste Water for Mixing and Curing of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Kanwal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of the available resources is imperative approach to achieve the apex of productivity. The modern world is focusing on the conditioning, sustainability and recycling of the assets by imparting innovative techniques and methodologies. Keeping this in view, an experimental study was conducted to evaluate the strength of concrete made with treated waste water for structural use. In this study ninetysix cylinders of four mixes with coarse aggregates in combination with FW (Fresh Water, WW (Wastewater, TWW (Treated Wastewater and TS (Treated Sewagewere prepared. The workability of fresh concrete was checked before pouring of cylinders. The test cylinders were left for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days for curing. After curing, the compressive strength was measured on hardened concrete cylinders accordingly. Test results showed that workability of all the four mixes were between 25-50mm but ultimate compressive strength of concrete with WW was decreased and with TWW, TS at the age of 28 days do not change significantly. This research will open a new wicket in the horizon of recycling of construction materials. The conditioning and cyclic utilization will reduce the cost of the construction and building materials as well as minimize the use of natural resources. This novelty and calculating approach will save our natural assets and resources.

  6. Compact Embedded Wireless Sensor-Based Monitoring of Concrete Curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Trinidad; González Carvajal, Ramón

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility. The devices were successfully implemented resulting in a low cost, highly reliable, compact and non-destructive solution. PMID:29543765

  7. Performance of super-absorbent polymer as an internal curing agent for self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hubboubi Suhair

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal curing agent by using super-absorbent polymer was present in this study, its effect on the properties of self-compacting concrete was evaluated .The SAP content in the concrete mix was 0.5 % by weight of cement. Three procedures for curing were adopted; curing in water, curing in water and air and curing in polyethylene sealed bags. Fresh concrete tests conducted to assess the self-compactability of the produced concrete. Moreover, compressive and splitting strength tests were carried out. The testing program had been extended to the age of 90 days.The use of super-absorbent polymer did not affect the fresh state characteristics of the studied SCC and achieved an increase in both compressive and tensile strengths as compared to the reference concrete mix.

  8. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering the compatibility condition at the interface of the structural layers. By introducing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, some numerical results are presented. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental result implied that the proposed method is reasonable in predicting the stress and displacement of a multi-layered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6071

  9. Sound Absorption and Friction Properties of Nano-Lotus Leaf Coated Concrete for Rigid Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo GONZALEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility of superhydrophobic films to create the nano-lotus leaf effect on concrete surface and their influence on sound absorption and friction properties of concrete for application in rigid pavements. The study involved an evaluation of nanomaterials at the laboratory scale to analyze the effects of microtexture modification on the friction and sound absorption of concrete pavement. A number of laboratory specimens were produced by applying different amounts of nano-lotus leaf coating on the top of the textured concrete surface. The British pendulum test was used to measure the friction number, and an impedance tube was used to determine the sound absorption coefficient. Laboratory results indicate that nano-lotus leaf coated concrete can maintain the required friction property for rigid pavement, but may not increase the noise absorption. Further research must be carried out to determine possible benefit of the lotus leaf effect for reducing hydroplaning, particularly during heavy rainfall.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7638

  10. Effect of Nano Silica on the Physical Property of Porous Concrete Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusak, Mohd Ibrahim Mohd; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Rosli Hainin, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mohd Haziman Wan

    2017-08-01

    Rice husk can be categorized as an organic waste material from paddy industries. Silica is a major inorganic element of the rice husk. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effect of Nano silica on the physical properties of porous concrete pavement. Rice husk has been burned in the furnace (650°C for 6 hours) and ground for four different grinding times (33, 48, 63 and 81 hours). Five types of mixes were prepared to evaluate the different Nano silica grinding time. A Nano silica dosage of 10% by weight of binder was used throughout the experiments. The physical properties were examined through compressive strength, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence. The experimental results indicate that the different Nano size gives a different effect to porous concrete strength. Based on the results obtained, Nano silica ground for 63 hours (65.84nm) gives the best result and performance to porous concrete pavement specimens.

  11. A FEM Modeling of the Concrete Pavement Made of the Recycling Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šešlija Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is a brief review of the research focused on formulation an numerical model for the concrete pavement which is made by the recycling material. For numerical modeling the finite element model (FEM and the 3D finite element model were applied. The software EverFE 2.25, was used. The results of FEM analysis is in a chapter shape showing move value change, strees and deflections for all layers a construction road model. In the next phase of the research was provided by FEM software with appropriate general purpose non-linear models, which allows the analysis of the real behavior of solid pavement under load.

  12. Development of a wireless MEMS multifunction sensor system and field demonstration of embedded sensors for monitoring concrete pavements, volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This two-pronged study evaluated the performance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) micro-electromechanical sensors and systems (MEMS) embedded in concrete pavement (Final Report Volume I) and developed a wireless MEMS multifunctional sensor system f...

  13. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  14. Design of a 3-D Magnetic Mapping System to Locate Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Pavements : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report outlines the design, fabrication, and testing of a 3-D magnetic mapping system used to locate reinforcing steel in concrete pavements developed at Kansas State University (KSU) in 2006. The magnetic sensing functionality is based on the p...

  15. Performance of continuously reinforced concrete pavements volume 5 : maintenance and repair of CRC pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This report is one of a series of reports prepared as part of a recent study sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) aimed at updating the state-of-the-art of the design, construction, maintenance, and rehabiilitation of CRC pavements....

  16. Influence of slab connection in case of expanded concrete pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Deluka-Tibljaš, Aleksandra; Prager, Andrija; Rukavina, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    Load transfer from the stressed slab to the neighboring unstressed slab is analyzed in order to establish possibilities for stress reduction in concrete. The contact between slabs is established by means of reinforcing steel shear studs while the influence of friction in the concrete to concrete contact is neglected. The influence of slab thickness, slab cross-section and spacing of shear studs is analyzed, and the expansion joint movement due to change in temperature is studied. Conditions e...

  17. Comparing the effects of oil palm kernel shell and cockle shell on properties of pervious concrete pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Khankhaje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervious concrete pavement is one of the best materials used in construction industry as a top layer of permeable pavement system to control the storm water at source. In addition, increasing production of waste materials, increased the interest in utilising the waste materials for environmental and technical benefits. Therefore, this paper compared the effect of using two different sizes of oil palm kernel shell (OPKS and cockleshell (CS as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate on properties of pervious concrete pavement. Thirteen mixtures were made, in which 6.30-mm natural gravel was replaced with 0, 25, 50 and 75% of 6.30-mm and 4.75-mm of both shells. The relationships between the properties of pervious concrete mixtures was also determined. The replacement of OPKS and CS as the natural aggregate decreased the compressive strength, while the angular shape of both shells caused higher void content and permeability as compared to those of control pervious concrete. On the other hand, pervious concrete containing CS showed better properties than those of incorporating OPKS. Apart from that, strong relationships between density, void content, permeability, compressive strength values indicated that they can be used as a pervious concrete quality control tests for prediction of properties of pervious concrete pavement before placement in the field. Keywords: Pervious concrete pavement, Void content, Permeability, Cockleshell, Palm oil kernel shell

  18. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Moving Load on Concrete Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajčáková Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the development with time of the strain and stress states in pavement structures is needed in the solution of various engineering tasks as the design fatigue lifetime reliability maintenance and structure development. The space computing model of the truck TATRA 815 is introduced. The pavement computing model is created in the sense of Kirchhof theory of the thin slab on elastic foundation. The goal of the calculation is to obtain the vertical deflection in the middle of the slab and the time courses of vertical tire forces. The equations of motion are derived in the form of differential equations. The assumption about the shape of the slab deflection area is adopted. The equations of the motion are solved numerically in the environment of program system MATLAB. The dependences following the influence of various parameters (speed of vehicle motion, stiffness of subgrade, slab thickness, road profile on the pavement vertical deflections and the vertical tire forces are introduced. The results obtained from the plate computing model are compared with the results obtained by the FEM analysis. The outputs of the numerical solution in the time domain can be transformed into a frequency domain and subsequently used to solve various engineering tasks.

  20. Early age compressive strength, porosity, and sorptivity of concrete using peat water to produce and cure concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, Monita; Ismeddiyanto, Wibisono, Gunawan; Sitompul, Iskandar R.

    2017-09-01

    Construction in peatland has faced scarce water sources for mixing and curing concrete. It is known that peat water has high organic content and low pH that can be harmful to concrete in the environment. In some remote areas in Riau Province, contractors used peat water directly without sufficient treatments to comply with SKSNI requirements of concrete mixing water. This paper presents a study of compressive strength, porosity and sorptivity of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and blended OPC-Palm Oil Fuel Ash (OPC-POFA) concrete. The specimens were mixed using natural water and peat water, then some of them were cured in fresh water and peat water. Six mixtures were investigated using a variation of cement, mixing water and curing water. Tap water is used as control mixing and curing water for all specimens. The compressive strength, porosity and sorptivity were calculated at seven and 28 days. Results indicate that the use of peat water will cause low compressive strength, high porosity and sorptivity for both OPC and OPC-POFA concrete. Using peat water and curing the specimens in tap water could improve the early strength, porosity and sorptivity of OPC concrete; however, it has an adverse effect on OPC-POFA specimens. The properties of early age concrete of both types (OPC and OPC-POFA) using peat water were as good as those with tap water. Therefore, it is suggested that peat water should be considered as mixing and curing water for concrete where tap water resources are scarce. Investigation of its long-term properties, as well as extending the observed age of concrete is recommended before any use of peat water.

  1. Mechanical and Permeability Characteristics of Latex-Modified Pre-Packed Pavement Repair Concrete as a Function of the Rapid-Set Binder Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woong Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the strength and durability characteristics of latex-polymer-modified, pre-packed pavement repair concrete (LMPPRC with a rapid-set binder. The rapid-set binder was a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sand, where the fluidity was controlled using a latex polymer. The resulting mix exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa and a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h of curing (i.e., the traffic opening term for emergency repairs of pavement. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was varied through 0.40, 0.33, 0.29, and 0.25. Mechanical characterization revealed that the mechanical performance, permeability, and impact resistance increased as the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.29. The mixture exhibited a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.33. The permeability resistance to chloride ions satisfied 2000 C after 7 days of curing for all ratios. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material that satisfied all conditions for emergency pavement repair was ¤0.29.

  2. Efficiency of Sodium Polyacrylate to Improve Durability of Concrete under Adverse Curing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional external curing process requires supply of large amount of water in addition to mixing water as well as strict quality control protocol. However, in a developing country like Bangladesh, many local contractors do not have awareness and required knowledge on importance of curing which often results in weaker concrete with durability issues. Moreover, at times it is difficult to maintain proper external curing process due to nonavailability of water and skilled laborer. Internal curing can be adopted under such scenario since this method is simple and less quality intensive. Usually, naturally occurring porous light weight aggregates (LWA are used as internal curing agent. However, naturally occurring LWA are not available in many countries like Bangladesh. Under these circumstances, Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP can be utilized as an alternative internal curing agent. In this study, sodium polyacrylate (SP as SAP has been used to produce internally cured concrete. Desorption isotherm of SP has been developed to investigate its effectiveness as internal curing agent. Test results showed that internally cured concrete with SP performed better in terms of both strength and durability as compared to control samples when subjected to adverse curing conditions where supply of additional water for external curing was absent.

  3. Can superabsorent polymers mitigate autogenous shrinkage of internally cured concrete without compromising the strength?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Kovler, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    The paper “Super absorbing polymers as an internal curing agent for mitigation of early-age cracking of high-performance concrete bridge decks” deals with different aspects of using superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in concrete to mitigate self-desiccation. The paper concludes that “Addition of SAP...... by overestimation of SAP water absorption. This results in an increase in water/cement ratio (w/c) for concrete with SAP. It is misleading to conclude on how SAP influences concrete properties, based on comparison of concrete mixes with SAP and reference concrete without SAP, if SAP mixes have higher w/c than...

  4. Design, development, and application of precast and prestressed concrete system for rigid pavement in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjaman, Hari; Faizal, Lutfi; Suaryana, Nyoman; Hariandja, Binsar; Gambiro, Purnomo, Wicaksono, Siswo

    2017-11-01

    The performance of highways in Indonesia until today is yet to be optimum. Flexible or rigid pavement construction generally do not reach designed service lives, either due to the fact that the construction do not meet specifications or unavoidable excessive load. Precast and prestressed concrete system has been applied since 2007, but unfortunately the application has not been optimum due to the fact that the construction method is not integrally carried out. This paper deals with a construction concept that developed in 2015-2017. The concept applies green construction based on integrated manufacture industry, starting from design, construction, function, maintenance and demolition. The concept is applied on the three highway sub-layers, i.e., sub grade, sub base, and surface, and drainage system. Sub grade improvement may use soil dislocation, chemical improvement or concrete matress. Sub base material uses foam mortar, which is material easy in quality control compared to conventional materials. Pavement material uses precast and prestressed concrete components with controlled quality, quickly function as flexible pavement, and moreover, may anticipate excessive loadings. Cost estimation is carried out integrated by life cycle cost: initial investment, obstruction while construction, and maintenance cost during operation. This innovation has passed tests in technical construction method aspects as well as construction work in 2015-2017, so it is available to support infrastructure construction acceleration which achieves quality demanded to date.

  5. The effect of steam curing on chloride penetration in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Ekaputri Januarti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the result of our study on the effect of steam curing to chloride ion penetration in geopolymer concrete. Class F fly ash was activated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The concrete specimens were then steam-cured at 40°C, 60°C, 80°C and room temperature at 24 hours. The treatment was followed by wet curing for 28 days, and then followed by immersion of all specimens in salt water for the durations of 30, 60, and 90 days. Cylindrical specimens were then prepared for compressive strength, chloride ion penetration, pH, and porosity tests. A 16 mm-steel bar was fixed at the center of the specimen concrete blocks (specimen size: 10cm × 10cm × 15cm. Corrosion probability was determined by conducting Half Cell Potential test. Our result showed that increasing the curing temperature to 80°C induced chloride ion penetration into the concrete’s effective pores, despite improvements in compressive strength. We also found that chloride ingress on the geopolymer concrete increases commensurately with the increase of the curing temperature. The corrosion potential measurement of geopolymer concrete was higher than OPC concrete even if corrosion was not observed in reinforcing. Based on our result, we suggest that the corrosion categorization for geopolymer concretes needs to be adjusted.

  6. Sensitivity quantification of airport concrete pavement stress responses associated with top-down and bottom-up cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rezaei-Tarahomi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s rigid pavement design standard employs the NIKE3D-FAA software to compute critical pavement responses of concrete airport pavement structures. NIKE3D-FAA is a modification of the original NIKE3D three-dimensional finite element analysis program developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL of the U.S. Department of Energy, and is currently used in the FAA’s FAARFIELD program. This study evaluated the sensitivity of NIKE3D-FAA rigid pavement responses with respect to top-down and bottom-up cracking. The analysis was conducted by positioning a Boeing 777-300ER (B777-300ERaircraft at different locations (interior, corner, and edge of slab as baseline while varying other NIKE3D-FAA inputs, including rigid pavement geometric features, mechanical properties of paving and foundation materials, equivalent temperature gradient and thermal coefficient of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC layers. Several sensitivity charts were developed by examining the sensitivity of critical pavement responses to each input variation. Sensitivity evaluations were performed using a normalized sensitivity index (NSI as the quantitative metric. Using such sensitivity evaluation, the most significant NIKE3D-FAA input parameters for generating an effective synthetic database that will lower computational cost for future modeling developments were identified. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Airfield concrete pavement, Finite element analysis, Top down cracking

  7. Fracture behaviour of heat cured fly ash based geopolymer concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Prabir K.; Haque, Rashedul; Ramgolam, Karamchand V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fly ash geopolymer (GPC) can help reduce carbon footprint of concrete. ► Fracture behaviour of GPC as compared to OPC concrete was studied. ► Fracture energy of GPC was similar to that of OPC concrete. ► GPC showed higher fracture toughness than OPC concrete. ► Higher bond strength resulted in higher crack resistance of GPC. -- Abstract: Use of fly ash based geopolymer as an alternative binder can help reduce CO 2 emission of concrete. The binder of geopolymer concrete (GPC) is different from that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. Thus, it is necessary to study the effects of the geopolymer binder on the behaviour of concrete. In this study, the effect of the geopolymer binder on fracture characteristics of concrete has been investigated by three point bending test of RILEM TC 50 – FMC type notched beam specimens. The peak load was generally higher in the GPC specimens than the OPC concrete specimens of similar compressive strength. The failure modes of the GPC specimens were found to be more brittle with relatively smooth fracture planes as compared to the OPC concrete specimens. The post-peak parts of the load–deflection curves of GPC specimens were steeper than that of OPC concrete specimens. Fracture energy calculated by the work of fracture method was found to be similar in both types of concrete. Available equations for fracture energy of OPC concrete yielded conservative estimations of fracture energy of GPC. The critical stress intensity factor of GPC was found to be higher than that of OPC concrete. The different fracture behaviour of GPC is mainly because of its higher tensile strength and bond strength than OPC concrete of the same compressive strength.

  8. Ageing of portland cement concrete cured under moist conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Chen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Deterioration of microstructure in cement concrete will cause changes in the transport properties of the concrete. Transport properties at different ages of the concrete provide information about the microstructural changes of the material. A way to measure the transport properties, i.e. the

  9. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis Applied to Concrete Pavement for Air Remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.; Hunger, M.; Ballari, M.; Hüsken, G.; Bittnar, Z.; Bartos, P.J.M.; Nemecek, J.; Smilauer, V.; Zeman, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work the degradation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by concrete paving stones containing TiO2 to be applied in road construction is studied. A kinetic model is proposed to describe the photocatalytic reaction of nitric oxide (NO) in a standard flow laminar photoreactor irradiated with UV

  10. Cement treated recycled crushed concrete and masonry aggregates for pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.X.

    2012-01-01

    This research is focusing on the characterization of the mechanical and deformation properties of cement treated mixtures made of recycled concrete and masonry aggregates (CTMiGr) in relation to their mixture variables. An extensive laboratory investigation was carried out, in which the mechanical

  11. NOx photocatalytic degradation employing concrete pavement containing titanium dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, M.M.; Hunger, Martin; Hüsken, Götz; Brouwers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the degradation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by concrete paving stones containing TiO2 to be applied in road construction is studied. A kinetic model is proposed to describe the photocatalytic reaction of NOx (combining the degradation of NO and the appearance and disappearance of

  12. Differences in Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Adrià Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and gasoline were spilled have been analyzed. Variation in humidity, among other parameters, clearly affects the measured mass since condensed water is constantly added to or released from the concrete. This mass experiences an about exponential decay in time. The difference in behavior between both fuel types is important as the percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. A statistical analysis suggests that the initial spill amount does not significantly affect the fraction of infiltrated fuel over time. This finding is in agreement with pore-scale simulations that we performed. A significant amount of fuel could be seeping into soil and groundwater underneath concrete pavement at gas stations or could be released to the atmosphere. Possible solutions for pavement and groundwater pollution are considered.

  13. CRITICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL LIGHT-WEIGHT CONCRETE AND THE EFFECTS OF THESE PROPERTIES ON THE DESIGN OF THE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    In this study, critical mechanical properties of structural lightweight concrete were determined and utilized in the evaluation of a design of concrete pavements. Also presented are the critical mechanical properties resulting from unrestrained and r...

  14. Sustainability assessment and physical characterization of pervious concrete pavement made with GGBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hassan Hilal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of pervious concrete as sustainable and environment-friendly paving materials is primarily owed to its ability to reduce pavement runoff. The mechanical and transport properties of pervious concrete with 50% ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS replacement are examined in this paper. Open-graded 10 mm and 20 mm aggregates were used to attain porosity of 10%, 15%, and 20%. Polypropylene short cut fibers were added to the mix. The clogging potential of pervious concrete exposed to dust was also investigated. The results indicated that increasing the porosity led to a decrease in compressive and tensile strength. Similar findings were reported when smaller aggregates were used. The fiber addition was only effective in low-porosity concrete. Permeability, characterized by its coefficient k, was proportional to porosity and inversely proportional to aggregate size. After 40-year simulated dust exposure, the concrete permeability could be restored with water flushing maintenance process. In comparison to ordinary Portland cement (OPC concrete, pervious concrete incorporating GGBS is a more sustainable paving solution, offering a reduction in heat island effect and electricity consumption while also alleviating carbon emissions.

  15. Effect of cementitious permanent formwork on moisture field of internal-cured concrete under drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahe; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jiajia

    2018-02-01

    Drying shrinkage of concrete may still be the main source of cracking in concrete structures, even though the autogenous shrinkage of concrete can be effectively reduced by using internal curing. In the present paper, the effect of internal curing with pre-soaked lightweight aggregate and engineered cementitious composite permanent formwork (ECC-PF) on a moisture distribution in three kinds of concrete in a drying environment are investigated from both aspects of experiments and theoretical modeling. The test results show that the combination use of ECC-PF and internal curing can well maintain the humidity at a relatively high level not only at a place far from drying surface, but also at a place close to the drying surfaces. The developed model can well catch the characteristics of the moisture distribution in concrete under drying and the impacts of internal curing and ECC-PF can well be reflected as well. The model can be used for the design of concrete structures with combination use of internal curing and permanent formwork.

  16. Steam Cured Self-Consolidating Concrete and the Effects of Limestone Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Mohammad A.

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine the effect and the mechanisms associated with replacing 15% of the cement by limestone filler on the mechanical properties and durability performance of self-consolidating concrete designed and cured for precast/prestressed applications. This study investigates the role of limestone filler on the hydration kinetics, mechanical properties (12 hours to 300 days), microstructural and durability performance (rapid chloride permeability, linear shrinkage, sulfate resistance, freeze-thaw resistance and salt scaling resistance) of various self-consolidating concrete mix designs containing 5% silica fume and steam cured at a maximum holding temperature of 55°C. This research also examines the resistance to delayed ettringite formation when the concrete is steam cured at 70°C and 82°C and its secondary consequences on the freeze-thaw resistance. The effect of several experimental variables related to the concrete mix design and also the curing conditions are examined, namely: limestone filler fineness, limestone filler content, cement type, steam curing duration and steam curing temperature. In general, the results reveal that self-consolidating concrete containing 15% limestone filler, steam cured at 55°C, 70°C and 82°C, exhibited similar or superior mechanical and transport properties as well as long term durability performance compared to similar concrete without limestone filler. When the concrete is steam cured at 55°C, the chemical reactivity of limestone filler has an important role in enhancing the mechanical properties at 16 hours (compared to the concrete without limestone filler) and compensating for the dilution effect at 28 days. Although, at 300 days, the expansion of all concrete mixes are below 0.05%, the corresponding freeze-thaw durability factors vary widely and are controlled by the steam curing temperature and the chemical composition of the cement. Overall, the material properties indicate that the use

  17. Novel Concrete Chemistry Achieved with Low Dose Gamma Radiation Curing and Resistance to Neutron Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Steven Robert

    As much as 50% of ageing-related problems with concrete structures can be attributed to con-struction deficiencies at the time of placement. The most influential time affecting longevity of concrete structures is the curing phase, or commonly the initial 28 days following its placement. A novel advanced atomistic analysis of novel concrete chemistry is presented in this dissertation with the objective to improve concrete structural properties and its longevity. Based on experiments and computational models, this novel concrete chemistry is discussed in two cases: (a) concrete chemistry changes when exposed to low-dose gamma radiation in its early curing stage, thus improving its strength in a shorter period of time then curing for the conventional 28 days; (b) concrete chemistry is controlled by its atomistic components to assure strength is not reduced but that its activation due to long-term exposure to neutron flux in nuclear power plants is negligible. High dose gamma radiation is well documented as a degradation mechanism that decreases concrete's compressive strength; however, the effects of low-dose gamma radiation on the initial curing phase of concrete, having never been studied before, proved its compressive strength increases. Using a 137 Cs source, concrete samples were subjected to gamma radiation during the initial curing phase for seven, 14, and 28 days. The compressive strength after seven days is improved for gamma cured concrete by 24% and after 14 days by 76%. Concrete shows no improvement in compressive strength after 28 days of exposure to gamma radiation, showing that there is a threshold effect. Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to examine the microstructure of low-dose gamma radiation where no damage to its microstructure is found, showing no difference between gamma cured and conventionally cured concrete. Molecular dynamics modeling based on the MOPAC package is used to study how gamma radiation during the curing stage improves

  18. Late-Age Properties of Concrete with Different Binders Cured under 45°C at Early Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that high curing temperature (near 60°C or above results in reduced mechanical properties and durability of concrete compared to normal curing temperature. The internal temperature of concrete structures at early ages is not so high as 60°C in many circumstances. In this paper, concretes were cured at 45°C at early ages and their late-age properties were studied. The concrete cured at 20°C was employed as the reference sample. Four different concretes were used: plain cement concrete, concrete containing fly ash, concrete containing ground granulate blast furnace slag (GGBS, and concrete containing silica fume. The results show that, for each concrete, high-temperature curing after precuring does not have any adverse effect on the nonevaporable water content, compressive strength, permeability to chloride ions, and the connected porosity of concrete at late ages compared with standard curing. Additionally, high-temperature curing improves the late-age properties of concrete containing fly ash and GGBS.

  19. Concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA) : assessment of air void system requirements for durable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Concrete will suffer frost damage when saturated and subjected to freezing temperatures. Frost-durable concrete can be produced if a : specialized surfactant, also known as an air-entraining admixture (AEA), is added during mixing to stabilize micros...

  20. Influence of Hydrated Lime on the Properties and Permanent Deformation of the Asphalt Concrete Layers in Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tameemi Ahmed F.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or asphalt concrete pavement is the paving system most widely adopted all over the world. It has been recognized that there are many different types of the factors affecting the performance and durability of asphalt concrete pavement, including the service conditions, such as: the variation of temperature from mild to extremes and the repeated excessive axle loading as well as the inadequate quality of the raw materials. All of these when combined together are going to accelerate the occurrence of distresses in flexible pavement such as permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. As the result, there has an urgent need to enhance the ability of asphalt concrete mixture to resist distresses happened in pavement. Use of additives is one of the techniques adopted to improve pavement properties. It has been found that hydrated lime might be one of the effective additives because it is widely available and relatively cheap compared to other modifiers like polymers. This paper presents an experimental study of the hydrated-lime modified asphalt concrete mixtures. Five different percentages of the hydrated lime additive were investigated, namely (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 percent. The hydrated lime additive was used as partial replacement of limestone filler by total weight of the aggregate. The designed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA concretes are for the application of three pavement courses, i.e. Surface, Leveling and Base. These mixtures are designed and tested following Marshall procedure and uniaxial repeated loading to evaluate permanent deformation at different temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C. The experimental results show that the addition of hydrated lime as a partial replacement of ordinary limestone mineral filler results a significant improvement on mechanical properties and the resistant to permanent deformation of the designed asphalt concrete mixtures.

  1. Naturally cured foamed concrete with improved thermal insulation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkin Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to investigation on improvement of thermal insulation properties of non-autoclaved concrete by increasing aggregate stability of foamed concrete mixture. The study demonstrates influence of mineral admixtures on the foam stability index in the mortar mixture and on decrease of foamed concrete density and thermal conductivity. The effect of mineral admixtures on thermal conductivity properties of non-autoclaved concrete was assessed through different ways of their addition: to the foam and to the mortar mixture. The admixtures were milled up to the specific surface area of 300 and 600 m2/kg using an AГO-9 centrifugal attrition mill with continuous operation mode (Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk. Laboratory turbulent foam concrete mixer was used to prepare foamed concrete. Thermal conductivity coefficient was defined by a quick method using “ИTП-MГ 4 “Zond” thermal conductivity meter in accordance with the regulatory documents. The impact of modifiers on the foam structure stability was defined using the foam stability index for the mortar mixture. The research demonstrated the increase in stability of porous structure of non-autoclaved concrete when adding wollastonite and diopside. Improvement of thermal and physical properties was demonstrated, the decrease of thermal conductivity coefficient reaches 0.069 W/(m×°C

  2. Characterization of the Infiltration Capacity of Porous Concrete Pavements with Low Constant Head Permeability Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio C. Andres-Valeri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous concrete (PC has been extensively used as a surface layer in permeable pavements. The effectiveness of this material in managing stormwater runoff depends not only on subsurface storage, but on infiltration capacity during rainfall events. A variety of tests have been traditionally used for assessing their infiltration capacity, however, there is still uncertainty about whether these tests produce representative performance results under real conditions. This study aims to propose a methodology based on saturated and unsaturated low constant head (LCH permeability tests, in order to characterize in detail the infiltration performance of PC materials during storm events and predict their infiltration behavior over time. To this end, three different infiltration tests were performed on PC specimens, both in newly built conditions and after being clogged. These experiments included unsaturated LCH, Laboratorio Caminos Santander (LCS (one falling head permeameter and saturated LCH tests. The results achieved were analyzed to describe the infiltration performance of the PC pavements tested. Finally, the correlation between the results obtained from on-site tests and laboratory scale devices was studied, providing the regression equations required to apply the infiltration models developed with easily measurable parameters. Consequently, the outputs of this research showed the suitability of the proposed methodology for assessing the infiltration behavior of PC pavements during storm events.

  3. Using a centrifuge for quality control of pre-wetted lightweight aggregate in internally cured concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Albert E.

    Early age shrinkage of cementitious systems can result in an increased potential for cracking which can lead to a reduction in service life. Early age shrinkage cracking can be particularly problematic for high strength concretes, which are often specified due to their high strength and low permeability. However, these high strength concretes frequently exhibit a reduction in the internal relative humidity (RH) due to the hydration reaction (chemical shrinkage) and self-desiccation which results in a bulk shrinkage, termed autogenous shrinkage, which is substantial at early ages. Due to the low permeability of these concretes, standard external curing is not always efficient in addressing this reduction in internal RH since the penetration of water can be limited. Internal curing has been developed to reduce autogenous shrinkage. Internally cured mixtures use internal reservoirs filled with fluid (generally water) that release this fluid at appropriate times to counteract the effects of self-desiccation thereby maintaining a high internal RH. Internally cured concrete is frequently produced in North America using pre-wetted lightweight aggregate. One important aspect associated with preparing quality internally cured concrete is being able to determine the absorbed moisture and surface moisture associated with the lightweight aggregate which enables aggregate moisture corrections to be made for the concrete mixture. This thesis represents work performed to develop a test method using a centrifuge to determine the moisture state of pre-wetted fine lightweight aggregate. The results of the test method are then used in a series of worksheets that were developed to assist field technicians when performing the tests and applying the results to a mixture design. Additionally, research was performed on superabsorbent polymers to assess their ability to be used as an internal curing reservoir.

  4. The effect of curing conditions on the durability of high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    This study researches compressive strength and durability of the high strength self-compacting concrete (SCC) impacted at early stage by the curing conditions. The mixture compositions of metakaolin containing waste and cenospheres as partial cement replacement (15 wt%) were compared to reference SCC with 100% cement. The specimens prepared in advance were demoulded 24h after casting of the SCC and the specific curing conditions were applied for up to 28 days: standard water curing at 20°C (i); indoor curing at 20°C, RH 60% (ii) and low temperature air curing (2°C) at RH 60% (iii). Results indicate that at early stage (14 days) indoor curing conditions increase compressive strength of the SCC whilst no strength loss has been detected even at a low temperature curing. The further strength gain has been substantially reduced for samples cured indoor and at a low temperature with significant variation observed for long term compressive strength (180 days). The metakaolin containing waste has proved to be an effective partial cement replacement and it has improved strength gain even at a low temperature curing. Meanwhile cenospheres have reduced the SCC strength and with no positive effect on strength observed within the standard term. Freeze-thaw durability and resistance to the chloride penetration have been improved for the SCC cured at low temperature. The SCC with metakaolin containing waste has proved to be the most durable thus demonstrating importance of effective micro filler use.

  5. Effect of Curing Temperature on the Durability of Concrete under Highly Geothermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the durability of concrete in the actual temperature and humidity of the tunnel environment, this study investigates the mechanical properties, permeability of chloride ion, relative dynamic elastic modulus, and mass loss ratio of concrete specimens cured in the temperature which varied from normal, 40, 60, 75, and 90°C, and the humidity was kept at 90% continuously. Experimental results reveal that the hot temperature curing environment may benefit early stage strength development but reduce the long-term strength. It is proved that 60°C is a critical point. At above 60°C, the strength of the concrete material and its resistance to chloride ion permeability showed a decreasing trend; however, in the appropriate temperature range, the frost resistance properties of the concrete are improved with increasing temperature.

  6. Structural Design and Economic Evaluation of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement with Recycled Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Yavuz; Taner Yildirim, Salih

    2017-10-01

    Using recycled aggregates in the concrete offers advantages in many areas such as waste management, energy save and natural resources, conservation of ecological balance, low CO2 emissions, and users are encouraged in this regard to use these materials. In this study, the profit / loss account arising in the structural design phase was investigated when Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), which is limited to use in Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) pavements, was used as coarse aggregate. RAP materials were used as coarse aggregates by the levels of 0%, 15% and 20% and mechanical properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were investigated. In the last stage, the mechanical properties obtained from these experimental studies were entered into KENSLABS software as input, and the slab layer thicknesses were determined according to three different subgrade conditions and a certain fatigue criterion. According to the results, it has been determined that the use of RAP at a level of 20% is a serious reducing effect on mechanical properties and and the use of RAP at a level of 15% does not bring a great economic benefit but it is reasonable to use it as coarse aggregate in RCC mixes in consideration of environmental effects.

  7. Effect of aggregate graining compositions on skid resistance of Exposed Aggregate Concrete pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Gardziejczyk, Wladysław; Gierasimiuk, Pawel

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of skid resistance of EAC (Exposed Aggregate Concrete) pavements which differ in aggregate graining compositions. The tests were carried out on concrete mixes with a maximum aggregate size of 8 mm. Three types of coarse aggregates were selected depending on their resistance to polishing which was determined on the basis of the PSV (Polished Stone Value). Basalt (PSV 48), gabbro (PSV 50) and trachybasalt (PSV 52) aggregates were chosen. For each type of aggregate three graining compositions were designed, which differed in the content of coarse aggregate > 4mm. Their content for each series was as follows: A - 38%, B - 50% and C - 68%. Evaluation of the skid resistance has been performed using the FAP (Friction After Polishing) test equipment also known as the Wehner/Schulze machine. Laboratory method enables to compare the skid resistance of different types of wearing course under specified conditions simulating polishing processes. In addition, macrotexture measurements were made on the surface of each specimen using the Elatexure laser profile. Analysis of variance showed that at significance level α = 0.05, aggregate graining compositions as well as the PSV have a significant influence on the obtained values of the friction coefficient μm of the tested EAC pavements. The highest values of the μm have been obtained for EAC with the lowest amount of coarse aggregates (compositions A). In these cases the resistance to polishing of the aggregate does not significantly affect the friction coefficients. This is related to the large areas of cement mortar between the exposed coarse grains. Based on the analysis of microscope images, it was observed that the coarse aggregates were not sufficiently exposed. It has been proved that PSV significantly affected the coefficient of friction in the case of compositions B and C. This is caused by large areas of exposed coarse aggregate. The best parameters were achieved for the EAC pavements

  8. Effect of aggregate type, casting, thickness and curing condition on restrained strain of mass concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Choktaweekarn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis is used for computing temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The model takes into account time, material properties, and mix proportion dependent behavior of concrete.The hydration heat and thermal properties used in the finite element analysis are obtained from our previously proposedadiabatic temperature rise model and are used as the input in the analysis. The analysis was done by varying size of massconcrete (especially thickness and the casting method in order to explain their effect on temperature and restrained strain inmass concrete. The casting methods used in the analysis are continuous and discontinuous casting. The discontinuouscasting consists of layer casting and block casting. Different types of aggregate were used in the analysis for studying theeffect of thermal properties of aggregate on temperature and restrained strain in mass concrete. Different conditions of curing(insulation and normal curing were also studied and compared. It was found from the analytical results that the maximumtemperature increases with the increase of the thickness of structure. The use of layer casting is more effective for thermalcracking control of mass concrete. The insulation curing method is preferable for mass concrete. Aggregate with low coefficientof thermal expansion is beneficial to reduce the restrained strain.

  9. Effect of In-Situ Curing on Compressive Strength of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Ika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A development of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC currently is the use of quartz powder as a stabilizing agent with the content to cement ratio of 30% and steam curing method in an autoclave temperature of 250ºC which produced a high compressive strength of 180 MPa. That RPC can be generated due to one reason for using the technique of steam curing in an autoclave in the laboratory. This study proposes in-situ curing method in order the curing can be applied in the field and with a reasonable compressive strength results of RPC. As the benchmarks in this study are the curing methods in laboratory that are steam curing of 90°C for 8 hours (C1, and water curing for 28 days (C2. For the in-situ curing methods that are covering with tarpaulins and flowed steam of 3 hours per day for 7 days (C3, covering with wet sacks for 28 days (C4, and covering with wet sacks for 28 days for specimen with unwashed sand as fine aggregate (C5. The comparison of compressive strength of the specimens in this study showed compressive strength of RPC with in-situ steam curing (101.64 MPa close to the compressive strength of RPC with steam curing in the laboratory with 8.2% of different. While in-situ wet curing compared with the water curing in laboratory has the different of 3.4%. These results indicated that the proposed in-situ curing methods are reasonable good in term of the compressive strength that can be achieved.

  10. Performance Based Evaluation of Concrete Strength under Various Curing Conditions to Investigate Climate Change Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Kyun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the manifestation of global warming-induced climate change has been observed through super typhoons, heavy snowfalls, torrential rains, and extended heat waves. These climate changes have been occurring all over the world and natural disasters have caused severe damage and deterioration of concrete structures and infrastructure. In an effort to deal with these problems due to extreme and abnormal climate changes, studies have been conducted to develop construction technologies and design guidelines. Nevertheless, study results applicable to construction sites continue to be ineffective and insufficient. Therefore, this study proposes ways to cope with climate change by considering the effect of concrete curing condition variations on concrete material performance. More specifically, the 3-, 7- and 28-day compressive and split tensile strength properties of concrete mix cured under various climatic factors including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunlight exposure time were evaluated to determine whether the concrete meets the current design requirements. Thereafter, a performance based evaluation (PBE was performed using satisfaction probabilities based on the test values to understand the problems associated with the current mix proportion design practice and to identify countermeasures to deal with climate change-induced curing conditions.

  11. Pavement structure mechanics response of flexible on semi-flexible overlay that based on the old cement concrete pavement damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ruinan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The old cement pavement damage status directly affect the design of the paving renovation. Based on the state of the old road investigation, combined with the research data at home and abroad, use the control index that average deflection, deflection value and CBR value to determine the reasonable time to overlay. Draw up the typical pavement structure according to the principle of combination of old cement pavement overlay structure design, and calculated that the tensile stress and shear stress in asphalt layer ,semi-flexible layer and the tensile in the old cement pavement adopting BISA3.0 statics finite element analysis model when modulus in the old road was diminishing. Use the computed result to analyses the influence of old road damage condition the influence of pavement structure.

  12. A MECHANISTIC-EMPIRICAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT TRUCK CONFIGURATIONS ON A JOINTED PLAIN CONCRETE PAVEMENT (JPCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the last decade, the 1993 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO design guide has been traditionally used for the design of flexible and rigid pavements in the USA and some parts of the world. However, because of its inability to meet the new traffic and material challenges, a Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG was introduced based on an NCHRP 1-37 A study conducted in 2004. This study used the MEPDG software and associated models to determine, through comparative truck damage analysis, the effects of nine different truck configurations on a 12 inch-jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP. The study recorded truck damages at the end of each analysis period (40 years and comparatively analyzed the relative pavement damage in terms of fatigue cracking, faulting, and surface roughness. The results indicated that the most critical damage to the concrete pavement was caused by truck cases with high and uneven load distribution and relatively smaller size axles group (e.g. tandem. Other key findings included the following; (1 increase in damage when the truckloads were shifted between the same size axles, (2 decrease in truck damage when the truckloads were shifted from tandem axle to quad axles, and (3 no change in truck damage when the axle spacing was increased between wheels of a quad axle.

  13. Integration of a prototype wireless communication system with micro-electromechanical temperature and humidity sensor for concrete pavement health monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, structural health monitoring and management (SHMM has become a popular approach and is considered essential for achieving well-performing, long-lasting, sustainable transportation infrastructure systems. Key requirements in ideal SHMM of road infrastructure include long-term, continuous, and real-time monitoring of pavement response and performance under various pavement geometry-materials-loading configurations and environmental conditions. With advancements in wireless technologies, integration of wireless communications into sensing device is considered an alternate and superior solution to existing time- and labor-intensive wired sensing systems in meeting the requirements of an ideal SHMM. This study explored the development and integration of a wireless communications sub-system into a commercial off-the-shelf micro-electromechanical sensor-based concrete pavement monitoring system. A success-rate test was performed after the wireless transmission system was buried in the concrete slab, and the test results indicated that the system was able to provide reliable communications at a distance of more than 46 m (150 feet. This will be a useful feature for highway engineers performing routine pavement scans from the pavement shoulder without the need for traffic control or road closure.

  14. EAF Slag Aggregate in Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Effects of Delay in Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Ngoc-Tra Lam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of delay in compaction on the optimum moisture content and the mechanical propertie s (i.e., compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity of roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP made of electric arc furnace (EAF slag aggregate. EAF slag with size in the range of 4.75–19 mm was used to replace natural coarse aggregate in RCCP mixtures. A new mixing method was proposed for RCCP using EAF slag aggregate. The optimum moisture content of RCCP mixtures in this study was determined by a soil compaction method. The Proctor test assessed the optimum moisture content of mixtures at various time after mixing completion (i.e., 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 min. Then, the effect of delay in compaction on the mechanical properties of RCCP mixtures at 28 days of age containing EAF slag aggregate was studied. The results presented that the negative effect on water content in the mixture caused by the higher water absorption characteristic of EAF slag was mitigated by the new mixing method. The optimum water content and maximum dry density of RCCP experience almost no effect from the delay in compaction. The compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of RCCP using EAF slag aggregate fulfilled the strength requirements for pavement with 90 min of delay in compaction.

  15. Effect of Curing Temperature Histories on the Compressive Strength Development of High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative strength-maturity relationship of high-strength concrete (HSC specifically developed for nuclear facility structures while considering the economic efficiency and durability of the concrete. Two types of mixture proportions with water-to-binder ratios of 0.4 and 0.28 were tested under different temperature histories including (1 isothermal curing conditions of 5°C, 20°C, and 40°C and (2 terraced temperature histories of 20°C for an initial age of individual 1, 3, or 7 days and a constant temperature of 5°C for the subsequent ages. On the basis of the test results, the traditional maturity function of an equivalent age was modified to consider the offset maturity and the insignificance of subsequent curing temperature after an age of 3 days on later strength of concrete. To determine the key parameters in the maturity function, the setting behavior, apparent activation energy, and rate constant of the prepared mixtures were also measured. This study reveals that the compressive strength development of HSC cured at the reference temperature for an early age of 3 days is insignificantly affected by the subsequent curing temperature histories. The proposed maturity approach with the modified equivalent age accurately predicts the strength development of HSC.

  16. The influence of the curing conditions of concrete on durability after freeze-thaw accelerated testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Assadi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work relates the curing conditions of concrete with the damage caused by rapid freeze-thaw cycles (ASTM C 666. The “potential” durability of concrete after testing is also studied. In countries with a continental climate, the curing of concrete in summer is performed under high-temperature and low-humidity conditions, and during the winter the concrete undergoes freezing and thawing. This paper shows the experimental results of the behaviour of concrete specimens cured under climatic summer conditions and then subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Curing of the specimens includes conditions of good and bad practice in relation to wetting and protection of the concrete. Mechanical properties, cement hydration, volume and pore sizes, oxygen permeability, chloride diffusion and water penetration under pressure tests of the concrete are assessed. These tests were performed before and after the application of the freeze-thaw cycles. Statistical analysis of the correlation among variables is also included.Este trabajo relaciona las condiciones de curado del hormigón con los daños causados por ciclos hielo-deshielo (ASTM C 666. Estudia la durabilidad “potencial” del hormigón dañado por este ensayo. En países con clima continental, el curado del hormigón en verano se realiza con alta temperatura y baja humedad, y durante el invierno sufre condiciones de hielo-deshielo. Se presentan los resultados experimentales de probetas de hormigón curadas bajo condiciones climáticas del verano y luego sometidas a ciclos hielo-deshielo. El curado de las probetas incluye condiciones de buenas y malas prácticas en relación con el curado del hormigón. Se miden las propiedades mecánicas, grado de hidratación, volumen de poros y distribución de tamaños, permeabilidad al oxígeno, penetración de agua bajo presión y coeficiente de difusión de cloruros antes y después de la aplicación de los ciclos de hielo-deshielo. Se incluye un estudio estad

  17. Assessment of asphalt concrete reinforcement grid in flexible pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to independently assess the potential structural benefit of asphalt geogrid reinforcement of an operational flexible highway pavement. The asphalt interlay...

  18. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  19. Study of critical behavior in concrete during curing by application of dynamic linear and nonlinear means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacouture, Jean-Christoph; Johnson, Paul A; Cohen-Tenoudji, Frederic

    2003-03-01

    The monitoring of both linear and nonlinear elastic properties of a high performance concrete during curing is presented by application of compressional and shear waves. To follow the linear elastic behavior, both compressional and shear waves are used in wide band pulse echo mode. Through the value of the complex reflection coefficient between the cell material (Lucite) and the concrete within the cell, the elastic moduli are calculated. Simultaneously, the transmission of a continuous compressional sine wave at progressively increasing drive levels permits us to calculate the nonlinear properties by extracting the harmonics amplitudes of the signal. Information regarding the chemical evolution of the concrete based upon the reaction of hydration of cement is obtained by monitoring the temperature inside the sample. These different types of measurements are linked together to interpret the critical behavior.

  20. Alkali-silica reaction of aggregates for concrete pavements in Chihuahua’s State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olague, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The concrete of pavements must resist the climatic conditions, heavy traffic, chemical agents or any other type of aggressive agent. A methodology for characterizing materials that would influence concrete durability was developed considering chemical and physical factors. This methodology allows the consideration of several factors like physiography, geology, and climate, among others that would be of great importance to prevent future durability problems of pavements. This methodology takes into account several tests and this paper presents the results of potential reactivity aggregates of the State of Chihuahua. The tests for evaluating the reactive siliceous aggregate and the potential alkali-silica reactivity were performed according to the: petrographic examination (ASTM C 295 and standard quick chemical test (ASTM C 289. 38% of the tested sites resulted innocuous, 48% potentially reactive and 13% reactive. It is discussed the benefit of applying a conscious methodology in order to obtain the best results with a representative quantity of tests.

    El hormigón de los pavimentos debe ser resistente a las condiciones climáticas, tránsito pesado, agentes químicos o cualquier otro tipo de agente agresivo. Se desarrolló una metodología para caracterización de materiales considerando factores físicos y químicos que influyen en la durabilidad del hormigón. Esta metodología se basa en la consideración de varios factores como: fisiografía, geología y clima, entre otros, que podrían ser de gran importancia para prevenir futuros problemas de durabilidad en pavimentos de hormigón. La metodología en cuestión considera varias pruebas, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la reactividad potencial de los áridos del Estado de Chihuahua. Las pruebas para evaluar la reactividad de áridos silíceos y la reactividad potencial álcali-sílice fueron ejecutadas de acuerdo a: examen petrográfico (ASTM C 295 y la prueba qu

  1. Combined Effect of Initial Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Penetration in Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkedrouci Lotfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC structures are gradually being degraded all over the world, largely due to corrosion of the embedded steel bars caused by an attack of chloride penetration. Initial curing would be regarded as one factor influencing chloride diffusion in concrete in combination with cover cracking that is also of great attention for reinforced structures. In this study, a non-steady state diffusion test of chloride ion involving RC beam specimens with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.5, initial curing temperatures of 5°C or 20°C and three types of crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm was performed. Chloride content at 5°C or was determined. The results show that the higher chloride content was obtained in condition of crack width large than 0.1mm with low initial curing temperature and there are no obvious differences in chloride content when the crack width was not larger than 0.1mm.

  2. Effects of Reinforcing Fiber and Microsilica on the Mechanical and Chloride Ion Penetration Properties of Latex-Modified Fiber-Reinforced Rapid-Set Cement Concrete for Pavement Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of reinforcement fiber type and microsilica content on the performance of latex-modified fiber-reinforced roller-compacted rapid-hardening cement concrete (LMFRCRSC for a concrete pavement emergency repair. Experimental variables were the microsilica substitution ratio (1, 2, 3, and 4%, and the reinforcement fiber (jute versus macrosynthetic fiber. In the tests, compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength; chloride ion penetration resistance; and abrasion resistance were assessed. From the compressive and flexural strength tests with microsilica substitution, the 4-hour curing strength decreased as the microsilica substitution ratio increased. From the chloride ion penetration test, as the microsilica substitution ratio increased, chloride ion penetration decreased. The abrasion resistances increased with the substitution ratio of microsilica increase. Based on these test results, microsilica at a substitution ratio of 3% or less and macrosynthetic fiber as the reinforcement improved the performance of LMFRCRSC for a concrete pavement emergency repair and satisfied all of the target strength requirements.

  3. Combined effect of high curing temperature and crack width on chloride migration in reinforced concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkedrouci, L.; Diao, B.; Pang, S.; Li, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0 mm).

  4. A real case of steam-cured concrete track slab premature deterioration due to ASR and DEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration mechanisms of some premature damaged steam-cured concrete track slabs (CTS in Chinese railway less than 4 years were investigated. Field investigation, raw materials test and suspicious products analysis were carried out. Results show that steam-cured heat damage (SCHD of concrete takes place in steam-cured process. Expansion products are ettringite in hydrated products and alkali-silica gels between the interface of hydrated products and coarse aggregate. SCHD makes CTS surface layer loose, porous and more micro-cracks. Long-term fatigue load from high-speed train acting on CTS enlarges concrete microcracks, leading to water penetrating into concrete easily in moist and rainy environment. In the process of water ingression, alkali-silica reaction (ASR and delayed ettringite formation (DEF take place, hence resulting in CTS cracking and premature deterioration.

  5. Evaluation of several types of curing and protective materials for concrete : final report on part II : installation report and initial condition survey of bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Thirty-nine test panels were installed on three interstate bridges to evaluate several combinations of curing and protective treatments for concrete. Panels were cured with white pigmented liquid membrane and white polyethylene, both with and without...

  6. Experimental and Empirical Time to Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures under Different Curing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Abouhussien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures, especially those in marine environments, are commonly subjected to high concentrations of chlorides, which eventually leads to corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel. The total time to corrosion of such structures may be divided into three stages: corrosion initiation, cracking, and damage periods. This paper evaluates, both empirically and experimentally, the expected time to corrosion of reinforced concrete structures. The tested reinforced concrete samples were subjected to ten alternative curing techniques, including hot, cold, and normal temperatures, prior to testing. The corrosion initiation, cracking, and damage periods in this investigation were experimentally monitored by an accelerated corrosion test performed on reinforced concrete samples. Alternatively, the corrosion initiation time for counterpart samples was empirically predicted using Fick’s second law of diffusion for comparison. The results showed that the corrosion initiation periods obtained experimentally were comparable to those obtained empirically. The corrosion initiation was found to occur at the first jump of the current measurement in the accelerated corrosion test which matched the half-cell potential reading of around −350 mV.

  7. Report of concrete pavement evaluation : project 105 C-4181-01 Donahoo Road, Wyandotte County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The physical properties of hardened concrete cores and fresh concrete test results were compared with aggregate : gradation workability differences. The concrete cores were taken from a rural two-lane concrete road in northeastern Kansas : constructe...

  8. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  9. Influence of Curing Age and Mix Composition on Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash Blended Cement Laterized Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babafemi A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of curing age and mix proportions on the compressive strength of volcanic ash (VA blended cement laterized concrete. A total of 288 cubes of 100mm dimensions were cast and cured in water for 3, 7, 28, 56, 90 and 120 days of hydration with cement replacement by VA and sand replacement by laterite both ranging from 0 to 30% respectively while a control mix of 28-day target strength of 25N/mm2 (using British Method was adopted. The results show that the compressive strength of the VA-blended cement laterized concrete increased with the increase in curing age but decreased as the VA and laterite (LAT contents increased. The optimum replacement level was 20%LAT/20%VA. At this level the compressive strength increased with curing age at a decreasing rate beyond 28 days. The target compressive strength of 25N/mm2 was achieved for this mixture at 90 days of curing. VA content and curing age was noted to have significant effect (α ≤ 0.5 on the compressive strength of the VA-blended cement laterized concrete.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement Concrete With Recycled Asphalt Pavement as Partial Replacement for Coarse Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Finding constructive uses for construction waste byproducts contributes to green engineering principles. One such plentiful material is recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). This report looks at the mechanical viability of including RAP in a high strength...

  11. In-Place Recycling and Reclamation of Asphaltic Concrete Pavements in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Full-depth reclamation has been defined by the Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association as a rehabilitation technique in which the full thickness of the asphalt pavement and a predetermined portion of the underlying material (base, subbase, an...

  12. Determination of the heating temperature of potholes surface on road pavement in the process of repairs using hot asphalt concrete mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of roads construction the necessary transport and operational characteristics should be achieved, which depend on the quality of the applied, material and technologies. Under the loads of transport means and the influence of weather conditions on the road pavement deformations and destructions occur, which lead to worsening of transport and operational characteristics, decrease of operational life of the road and they are often the reason of road accidents. According to the data of the Strategic Research Center of "Rosgosstrah" more than 20 % of road accidents in Russia occur due to bad quality of road pavement. One of the main directions in traffic security control and prolongation of operational life for road pavement of non-rigid type is road works, as a result of which defects of pavement are eliminated and in case of timely repairs of high quality the operational life of the road increases for several years. The most widely used material for non-rigid pavement repairs is hot road concrete mixes and in case of adherence to specifications they provide high quality of works. The authors investigate the problems of hot asphalt concrete mixes for repairs of road surfaces of non-rigid type. The results of the study hot asphalt concrete mix’s temperature regimes are offered in case of repair works considering the temperature delivered to the work site and the ambient temperature depending on the type of mix and class of bitumen.

  13. Optimum Design and Performance of Porous Concrete for Heavy-Load Traffic Pavement in Cold and Heavy Rainfall Region of NE China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailing Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to solve the problem of drainage stability of pavement base in cold and Cloudburst area. With porous concrete as the research object, an optimum design of porous concrete was determined using a step filling and orthogonal test method, and the relationship between the porosity and the connected porosity of the porous concrete was analyzed. Furthermore, drainage performance and frost resistance of the pavement, compressive strength of the porous concrete, bending strength, and compressive elastic modulus were studied. The results show that the effects of water-cement ratio on the strength of porous concrete based on the step filling method are the most significant. In addition, the connected porosity and goal porosity have a good linear relationship; that is, the drainage performance increases with the increase in connected porosity, whereas the frost resistance, compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, and compressive elastic modulus decrease with the increase in connected porosity. Based on an engineering project in Inner Mongolia (in China, it was shown that porous concrete with a goal porosity of 15% used as a pavement base could meet the requirements of cold weather, showers, and heavy traffic.

  14. Environmental performance and mechanical analysis of concrete containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and waste precast concrete as aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Savaş; Blankson, Marva Angela

    2014-01-15

    The overall objective of this research project was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating 100% recycled aggregates, either waste precast concrete or waste asphalt planning, as replacements for virgin aggregates in structural concrete and to determine the mechanical and environmental performance of concrete containing these aggregates. Four different types of concrete mixtures were designed with the same total water cement ratio (w/c=0.74) either by using natural aggregate as reference or by totally replacing the natural aggregate with recycled material. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was used as a mineral addition (35%) in all mixtures. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain satisfactory performance for strength characteristics of concrete containing recycled aggregates, if these aggregates are sourced from old precast concrete. However, from the perspective of the mechanical properties, the test results indicated that concrete with RAP aggregate cannot be used for structural applications. In terms of leaching, the results also showed that the environmental behaviour of the recycled aggregate concrete is similar to that of the natural aggregate concrete. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Traffic-Induced Bridge Vibration on Rapid Repairing High-Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Pavement Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on forced vibration tests for high-performance concrete (HPC, the influence of bridge vibration induced by traveling vehicle on compressive strength and durability of HPC has been studied. It is concluded that 1 d and 2 d compressive strength of HPC decreased significantly, and the maximum reduction rate is 9.1%, while 28 d compressive strength of HPC had a slight lower with a 3% maximal drop under the action of two simple harmonic vibrations with 2 Hz, 3 mm amplitude, and 4 Hz, 3 mm amplitude. Moreover, the vibration had a slight effect on the compressive strength of HPC when the simple harmonic vibration had 4 Hz and 1 mm amplitude; it is indicated that the amplitude exerts a more prominent influence on the earlier compressive strength with the comparison of the frequency. In addition, the impact of simple harmonic vibration on durability of HPC can be ignored; this shows the self-healing function of concrete resulting from later hydration reaction. Thus, the research achievements mentioned above can contribute to learning the laws by which bridge vibration affects the properties of concrete and provide technical support for the design and construction of the bridge deck pavement maintenance.

  16. Ultra-thin reinforced concrete pavements (UTRCP): Addressing the design issues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available . This paper deals with an analytical evaluation based on laboratory results and computer modeling to determine the stress condition under loading and to determine the design life of the UTRCP pavement system under various loading states. The paper includes a...

  17. Evaluating the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the properties of high volume fly ash roller compacted concrete pavement using non-destructive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S. Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problems related to roller compacted concrete (RCC pavement are high rigidity, lower tensile strength which causes a tendency of cracking due to thermal or plastic shrinkage, flexural and fatigue loads. Furthermore, RCC pavement does not support the use of dowel bars or reinforcement due to the way it is placed and compacted, these also aided in cracking and consequently increased maintenance cost. To address these issues, high volume fly ash (HVFA RCC pavement was developed by partially replacing 50% cement by volume with fly ash. Crumb rubber was used as a partial replacement to fine aggregate in HVFA RCC pavement at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% replacement by volume. Nano silica was added at 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of cementitious materials to improve early strength development in HVFA RCC pavement and mitigate the loss of strength due to the incorporation of crumb rubber. The nondestructive technique using the rebound hammer test (RHT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV were used to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the performance of HVFA RCC pavement. The results showed that the use of HVFA as cement replacement decreases both the unit weight, compressive strength, rebound number (RN. Furthermore, the unit weight, compressive strength, RN, UPV and dynamic modulus of elasticity of HVFA RCC pavement all decreases with increase in crumb rubber content and increases with the addition of nano-silica. Combined UPV-RN (SonReb models for predicting the 28 days strength of HVFA RCC pavement based on combining UPV and RN were developed using multivariable regression (double power, bilinear, and double exponential models. The exponential combined SonReb model is the most suitable for predicting the compressive strength of HVFA RCC pavement using UPV and RN as the independent variable with better predicting ability, higher correlation compared to the single variable models. Keywords: Crumb rubber, High volume fly ash, Nano

  18. The significance of curing in the future corrosion resistance of concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, W.

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel in contact with fresh concrete is covered by a layer of passivating oxydes due to the alkaline nature of the pore solution. The presence of oxygen plays an important role in this passivation process as well as in the corrosión one when is developped due to the ingress of aggressives, such as, chloride ions. In the present paper, results are commented on the behaviour found when oxygen is limited due to the concrete curing conditions, in a completely saturated chamber. Surprisely, the results indicate that the oxygen availability during the curing has a marked influence on the future corrosion beabieviour This allows to deduce that the mechanisms involved are not so simple as was currently accepted and that new specific tests are needed to clarify the controversial points.

    Cuando el acero se pone en contacto con el hormigón fresco, debido a la naturaleza alcalina de éste, el acero se recubre de una capa de óxidos pasivantes, que lo mantienen constantemente protegido. En este proceso juega un papel preponderante la presencia del oxígeno, que resulta también esencial para el desarrollo de los procesos de corrosión, cuando hay agresivos presentes (por ejemplo los cloruros. En el presente trabajo se comentan resultados de los cambios que se aprecian, tanto en el proceso de pasivación como de corrosión, cuando el acceso de oxígeno se limita, circunstancia que se produce cuando el hormigón se cura en condiciones de saturación de agua. Los resultados muestran que la disponibilidad de oxígeno durante el curado tiene una marcada influencia en la resistencia futura a la corrosión lo, que indica que los mecanismos no son tan evidentes como se pensaba y se necesitarán ensayos futuros específicos para aclarar todos los aspectos que ahora aparecen como contradictorios

  19. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  20. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  1. Quantitative study on the effect of high-temperature curing at an early age on strength development of concrete. Experiment with mortar using moderate-heat portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hisashi; Chino, Shigeo

    1999-01-01

    The effect of high-temperature curing at an early age on the strength development of concrete using moderate-heat portland cement was quantitatively studied. High-temperature curing conditions were set so as to give systematic variations in the temperature-time factors. As a result, the integrated value of curing temperature during the period having a significant effect on the strength development was proposed as a parameter that expressed the degree of high-temperature curing. The effect of high-temperature curing on the strength development of concrete using moderate-heat portland cement could be exactly predicted with the integrated value of curing temperature during the period from 0 to 3 days. (author)

  2. Influence of fly ash, slag cement and specimen curing on shrinkage of bridge deck concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cracks occur in bridge decks due to restrained shrinkage of concrete materials. Concrete materials shrink as : cementitious materials hydrate and as water that is not chemically bonded to cementitious materials : migrates from the high humid environm...

  3. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Solikin Mochamad; Setiawan Budi

    2017-01-01

    High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly ...

  4. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  5. Compressive strength of a concrete mix for pavement blocks incorporating industrial by-product

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Refiloe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available - reference 3 0 0.26 808 0 1062 344 210 0 - Mix 8 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 0 0 Mix 8A 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 3.10 5 Mix 8B 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 6.21 10 Mix 9 90 0.28 81 727 1062 106 226 0 55 *water:binder ratio where fly ash and cement... was made for the 90% fly ash specimens due to the specimens disintegrating once placed in water. These specimens were therefore cured in heavy duty plastic bags; mixes 3, 6 and 9 were cured in the heavy duty bags before crushing on the appropriate days...

  6. Report of concrete pavement evaluation : project 105 C-4181-01 Donahoo Road, Wyandotte County : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The physical properties of hardened concrete cores and fresh concrete test results were compared with aggregate gradation workability differences. The concrete cores were taken from a rural two-lane concrete road in northeastern Kansas constructed in...

  7. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. The experiment and data analysis were prepared using minitab, a statistic software for design of experimental. The specimens were concrete cylinder with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm, tested for its compressive strength at 56 days. The result of the research demonstrates that high volume fly ash concrete can produce comparable compressive strength which meets the strength of OPC design strength especially for high strength concrete. In addition, the best mix proportion to achieve the design strength is the combination of high strength concrete and 50% content of fly ash. Moreover, the use of spraying method for curing method of concrete on site is still recommended as it would not significantly reduce the compressive strength result.

  8. Effect of High-Temperature Curing Methods on the Compressive Strength Development of Concrete Containing High Volumes of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsuk Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the high-temperature curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete containing high volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. GGBS was used to replace Portland cement at a replacement ratio of 60% by binder mass. The high-temperature curing parameters used in this study were the delay period, temperature rise, peak temperature (PT, peak period, and temperature down. Test results demonstrate that the compressive strength of the samples with PTs of 65°C and 75°C was about 88% higher than that of the samples with a PT of 55°C after 1 day. According to this investigation, there might be optimum high-temperature curing conditions for preparing a concrete containing high volumes of GGBS, and incorporating GGBS into precast concrete mixes can be a very effective tool in increasing the applicability of this by-product.

  9. The use of a non-standard high calcium fly ash in concrete and its response to accelerated curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atis, C. D.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was carried out to investigate the use of a non-standard high calcium fly ash in concrete. The response of the same fly ash to the accelerated curing was also explored. With three different cementitious material contents, a total of 48 concretes were produced. The water/ cement ratios were varied from 0.40 to 0.87. Compressive strengths of the moist cured cube specimens cast from the concrete mixtures made with 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% replacement of normal Portland cement with fly ash were measured at 28 days and 3 months. Accelerated compressive strengths were also measured using warmwater method and boiling-water method in accordance with the relevant ASTM and Turkish Standards. Despite the fact that the fly ash used was a non-standard, the laboratory test results showed that it could be utilized in concrete production at a replacement level between 15% and 30% by weight basis because fly ash concrete developed comparable or higher compressive strength than that of corresponding normal Portland cement concrete. The laboratory test results also indicated that the accelerated curing could be used to predict the compressive strength of fly ash concrete with 85% correlation coefficient. The amount of fly ash was found to be immaterial in the strength prediction. The relation between warm-water method and boiling-water method was of linear form with 93% correlation coefficient.

    Se llevó a cabo un trabajo experimental para investigar el uso de una ceniza volante de alto contenido en cal en el hormigón, la cual no cumple las especificaciones recogidas en norma. También, se estudió el comportamiento de la ceniza bajo un curado acelerado. Se elaboraron un total de 48 hormigones con tres proporciones diferentes de material cementante. Las relaciones agua/cemento (a/c usadas estaban comprendidas entre 0,40 y 0,87. A 28 días y 3 meses de curado, se determinaron las resistencias a compresión de probetas cúbicas de hormig

  10. The effects of silica fume and hydrated lime on the strength development and durability characteristics of concrete under hot water curing condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is considered to be highly important for preserving continued industrial growth and human development. Concrete, being the world’s largest manufacturing material comprises cement as an essential binding component for strength development. However, excessive production of cement due to high degree of construction practices around the world frames cement as a leading pollutant of releasing significant amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere. To overcome this environmental degradation, silica fume and hydrated lime are used as partial replacements to cement. This paper begins with the examination of the partial replacement levels of hydrated lime and silica fume in concrete and their influence on the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of concrete. The effect of hot water curing on concrete incorporated with both silica fume and hydrated lime is also investigated in this paper. The results reported in this paper show that the use of silica fume as a partial replacement material improved both the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of concrete due to the formation of calcium silica hydrate crystals through the pozzolanic reaction. Although the hydrated lime did not significantly contribute in the development of strength, its presence enhanced the durability of concrete especially at long-term. The results also showed that hot water curing enhanced the strength development of concrete incorporated with silica fume due to the accelerated rate of both the hydration and pozzolanic reaction that takes place between silica fume and calcium hydroxide of the cement matrix particularly at early times. The results reported in this paper have significant contribution in the development of sustainable concrete. The paper does not only address the use of alternative binders as a partial replacement material in concrete but also suggest proper curing conditions for the proposed replacement materials. These practices

  11. Evaluation of precut transverse cracks for an asphalt concrete pavement in interior Alaska (Moose Creek - Richardson Highway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Road-width thermal cracks (major transverse cracks) are perhaps the most noticeable form of crack-related damage on AC pavements : throughout colder areas of Alaska. The main objective of this study is to recommend design strategies and construction ...

  12. POROUS STRUCTURE OF ROAD CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Having a great number of concrete structure classifications it is recommended to specify the following three principal types: microstructure – cement stone structure; mesostructure – structure of cement-sand mortar in concrete; macrostucture – two-component system that consists of mortar and coarse aggregate. Every mentioned-above structure has its own specific features which are related to the conditions of their formation. Thus, microstructure of cement stone can be characterized by such structural components as crystal intergrowth, tobermorite gel, incompletely hydrated cement grains and porous space. The most important technological factors that influence on formation of cement stone microstructure are chemical and mineralogical cement composition, its grinding fineness, water-cement ratio and curing condition. Specific cement stone microstructure is formed due to interrelation of these factors. Cement stone is a capillary-porous body that consists of various solid phases represented predominantly by sub-microcrystals of colloidal dispersion. The sub-microcrystals are able adsorptively, osmotically and structurally to withhold (to bind some amount of moisture. Protection of road concrete as a capillary-porous body is considered as one of the topical issues. The problem is solved with the help of primary and secondary protection methods. Methods of primary protection are used at the stage of designing, preparation and placing of concrete. Methods of secondary protection are applied at the operational stage of road concrete pavement. The paper considers structures of concrete solid phase and characteristics of its porous space. Causes of pore initiation, their shapes, dimensions and arrangement in the concrete are presented in the paper. The highest hazard for road concrete lies in penetration of aggressive liquid in it and moisture transfer in the cured concrete. Water permeability of concrete characterizes its filtration factor which

  13. Laboratory Investigation on the Effects of Natural Fine Aggregates and Recycled Waste Tire Rubber in Pervious Concrete to Develop More Sustainable Pavement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicelli, Alessandra; Fuentes, Luis G.; Khalil Dawd Bermejo, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is a recognized sustainable solution for urban roads. To enhance mechanical properties of pervious concrete material, in order to allow wider use of this technology, a lot of studies are going on all over the world. The use of a little percentage of fine aggregates is proven to increase the material resistance without an excessive reduction of permeability. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing the fine virgin aggregates with r cycled tire rubber. 14 different mixes were analysed in terms of indirect tensile strength resistance, void content and density. Two different dimensions of crumb rubber were studied, as well as two different dosages, which were applied to different no-fine control mixes. All results were compared with the same control mixes containing natural fine aggregate. The mixes had a fixed granulometric curve but varied in water/cement ratio; this in order to evaluate the effect of recycled rubber depending to w/c ratio of the mix. An image analysis was also conducted to verify the rubber distribution in the mixture and the cracking surfaces. The experimental analysis showed that a correct proportioning of fine sand significantly increased the strength of the material. Moreover, the use of recycled waste tire rubber, gave interesting improvements respect to the no-fine control mixes, even though the developed resistance was lower respect to mixes containing mineral sand. This result was expected because of the cementing property of mineral sand. Although, the important result was that it was possible to use waste tire rubber in pervious concrete, with an appropriate dosage and granular dimension, for increasing the performance of traditional mix design, in order to achieve pavement materials more and more sustainable.

  14. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  15. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  16. Diseño de losas de hormigón con geometría optimizada Design of concrete pavement with optimized slab geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Covarrubias V.

    2012-12-01

    condiciones de cargas mecánicas y térmicas en diferentes posiciones. El agrietamiento de las losas se determina calculando la fatiga del hormigón y los modelos utilizados por la guía de diseño AASHTO del año 2007 y mediante calibración en secciones de prueba a gran escala. La nueva metodología diseña losas de hormigón que en promedio son 7 cm más delgadas para vías de alto tráfico en relación con el diseño tradicional de pavimentos AASHTO (1993. El método de diseño también es capaz de diseñar de manera eficiente pavimentos de hormigón para vías de menor volumen de tráfico que no son cubiertos con los actuales métodos de diseño de pavimento dando una alternativa a soluciones en asfalto.A new technology has been developed to design concrete pavements, which reduces slabs' thickness and optimizes their sizes, because of trucks axles' geometry. The design is supported by a gravel base treated with concrete or asphalt. It assumes there is no adherence between the base (existing pavement and the concrete slab. The core principle of this design method consists of designing a slab size, so that no more than one wheel set stays on a given slab, thus minimizing the critical tensile stress on the surface. Test segments have been built on a large scale and they have been tested under accelerated loads, with concrete thickness of 8, 15 and 20 cm, all of them having a gravel base and non-adhered asphaltic layers. Tests demonstrated that a reduced-size slab, of low thickness, might bear a considerable amount of equivalent axles before cracking takes place. Concrete slabs on gravel bases with 20 cm thickness did not suffer from cracking, in spite of being tested under more than 50 millions of equivalent axles. Slabs of 15 cm thickness suffered from cracking when tested under an average of 12 millions equivalent axles, while slabs of 8 cm thickness endured 75,000 equivalent axles before the first cracking took place. Besides the executed tests demonstrated that fiber

  17. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  18. Extending the Service Life of Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendt, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    The cost of road construction and expenditures on the maintenance of pavements, i.e., their whole life cost, represents a lot of money. The paper describes a procedure for a pavement management system with degradation models and estimates the length of time for the rehabilitation of an asphalt pavement. Using a theory of pavement mechanics, we calculated the stresses and strains on the layers of two pavement models. High modulus asphalt concrete, an asphalt mix with a high binder content, and an asphalt mix with binder modifications are new road building materials. Prolonging the time for the rehabilitation of pavements is possible.

  19. Effect of heat curing methods on the temperature history and strength development of slab concrete for nuclear power plant structures in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gun Cheol; Han, Min Cheol; Baek, Dae Hyun; Koh, Kyung Taek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of heat curing methods on the temperature history and strength development of slab concrete exposed to -10 degrees Celsius. The goal was to determine proper heat curing methods for the protection of nuclear power plant structures against early-age frost damage under adverse (cold) conditions. Two types of methods were studied: heat insulation alone and in combination with a heating cable. For heat curing with heat insulation alone, either sawdust or a double layer bubble sheet (2-BS) was applied. For curing with a combination of heat insulation and a heating cable, an embedded heating cable was used with either a sawdust cover, a 2-BS cover, or a quadruple layer bubble sheet (4-BS) cover. Seven different slab specimens with dimensions of 1200, 600, 200 mm and a design strength of 27 MPa were fabricated and cured at -10 degrees Celsius for 7 d. The application of sawdust and 2-BS allowed the concrete temperature to fall below 0 degrees Celsius within 40 h after exposure to -10 degrees Celsius, and then, the temperature dropped to -10 degrees Celsius and remained there for 7 d owing to insufficient thermal resistance. However, the combination of a heating cable plus sawdust or 2-BS maintained the concrete temperature around 5 degrees Celsius for 7 d. Moreover, the combination of the heating cable and 4-BS maintained the concrete temperature around 10 degrees Celsius for 7 d. This was due to the continuous heat supply from the heating cable and the prevention of heat loss by the 4-BS. For maturity development, which is an index of early-age frost damage, the application of heat insulation materials alone did not allow the concrete to meet the minimum maturity required to protect against early-age frost damage after 7 d, owing to poor thermal resistance. However, the combination of the heating cable and the heat insulating materials allowed the concrete to attain the minimum maturity level after

  20. Determination of transmission factors of concretes with different water/cement ratio, curing condition, and dosage of cement and air entraining agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Remzi; Polat, Recep; Icelli, Orhan; Celik, Cafer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We determined transmission factors of parameters affecting properties of concrete. → The most important parameter is W/C ratio for attenuation of radiation of concrete. → Taguchi Method provides an appropriate methodology for parameter reduction. - Abstract: This study focuses on determination of transmission factors of main parameters affecting the properties of both normal- and heavy-weight concrete in order to increase knowledge and understanding of radiation attenuation in concrete at a later age. Water/cement (W/C) ratio, curing condition, cement quantity and air entraining agent (AEA) were selected as the main parameters. Eight energy values have been selected within the energy interval of 30.85-383.85 keV to be used in the radiation source. The Taguchi Method was used as the method of optimization. It was determined in the study that the most important parameter affecting the attenuation of the radiation of the concrete is the W/C ratio and the concretes produced with the lowest level of W/C ratio absorb more radiation. However, it was also determined that there was a combined effect between the W/C ratio and the cement dosage.

  1. Traffic generated non-exhaust particulate emissions from concrete pavement: A mass and particle size study for two-wheelers and small cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatmeeyata; Kaul, D. S.; Sharma, Mukesh

    This study aimed to understand the non-exhaust (NE) emission of particles from wear of summer tire and concrete pavement, especially for two wheelers and small cars. A fully enclosed laboratory-scale model was fabricated to simulate road tire interaction with a facility to collect particles in different sizes. A road was cast using the M-45 concrete mixture and the centrifugal casting method. It was observed that emission of large particle non exhaust emission (LPNE) as well as PM 10 and PM 2.5 increased with increasing load. The LPNE was 3.5 mg tire -1 km -1 for a two wheeler and 6.4 mg tire -1 km -1 for a small car. The LPNE can lead to water pollution through water run-off from the roads. The contribution of the PM 10 and PM 2.5 was smaller compared to the LPNE particles (less than 0.1%). About 32 percent of particle mass of PM 10 was present below 1 μm. The number as well as mass size distribution for PM 10 was observed to be bi-modal with peaks at 0.3 μm and 4-5 μm. The NE emissions did not show any significant trend with change in tire pressure.

  2. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  3. Concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA) : application of a portable x-ray fluorescence technique to assess concrete mix proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Any transportation infrastructure system is inherently concerned with durability and performance issues. The proportioning and : uniformity control of concrete mixtures are critical factors that directly affect the longevity and performance of the po...

  4. Study of lime vs. no lime in cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The resilient characteristics of cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete with and without lime were examined. Six core samples were obtained from a site two months after construction; six months later, six additional core samples were obtained from t...

  5. Effect of Post-Fire Curing on the Residual Mechanical Properties of Fire-Damaged Self-Compacting Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Heidarpour, A.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Smith, S; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is recognized for being a fire-resistant construction material. At elevated temperatures concrete can, however, undergo considerable damage such as strength degradation, cracking, and explosive spalling. In recent decades, reuse of fire-damaged concrete structures by means of developing

  6. Effect of water-to-cement ratio and curing method on the strength, shrinkage and slump of the biosand filter concrete body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Nicole; Young-Rojanschi, Candice; Li, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The biosand filter is a household-level water treatment technology used globally in low-resource settings. As of December 2016, over 900,000 biosand filters had been implemented in 60 countries around the world. Local, decentralized production is one of the main advantages of this technology, but it also creates challenges, especially in regards to quality control. Using the current recommended proportions for the biosand filter concrete mix, slump was measured at water-to-cement ratios of 0.51, 0.64 and 0.76, with two replicates for each level. Twenty-eight-day strength was tested on four replicate cylinders, each at water-to-cement ratios of 0.51, 0.59, 0.67 and 0.76. Wet curing and dry curing were compared for 28-day strength and for their effect on shrinkage. Maximum strength occurred at water-to-cement ratios of 0.51-0.59, equivalent to 8-9.3 L water for a full-scale filter assuming saturated media, corresponding to a slump class of S1 (10-40 mm). Wet curing significantly improved strength of the concrete mix and reduced shrinkage. Quality control measures such as the slump test can significantly improve the quality within decentralized production of biosand filters, despite localized differences in production conditions.

  7. Effects of Different Water and Super Plasticizer Amount, Pre-Setting and Curing Regimes on the Behavior of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Dashti Rahmatabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC is an ultra high performance concrete which has superior mechanical and physical properties. The RPC is composed of cement and very fine powders such as crushed quartz (100–600 μm and silica fume with very low water/binder ratio (W/B (less than 0.20 and Super Plasticizer (SP. The RPC has a very high compressive and tensile strength with better durability properties than current high performance concretes. Application of very low water/binder ratio with a high dosage of super plasticizer, different heat curing processes and pre-setting pressure improve mechanical and physical properties of RPC. In this study, the RPC is composed of available materials in Iran. Two different mixing proportions, different water/binder ratios for preparation of samples, different super plasticizer dosages, five different (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 MPa pre-setting pressure and 7 different curing regimes were used in samples preparation and experiments. Results showed that appropriate water/binder ratio and super plasticizer dosage, higher temperature and pre-setting pressure increase the workability, density and compressive strength of compositions.

  8. Effects of crumb rubber content and curing time on the properties of asphalt concrete and stone mastic asphalt using dry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Tai Nguyen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the rapid increase in the number of road vehicles, a large amount of waste tires have been created, causing negative effects to the environment. Many attempts have been made to effectively reduce this type of solid waste including the reuse of recycled rubber powder from waste tires as an additive for improving the performance of asphalt mixtures. In this work, the authors aim to study the effects of crumb rubber (CR on the mechanical properties, especially the rutting resistance, of CR modified asphalt concrete (AC and stone mastic asphalt (SMA by varying two factors-namely, the content of additive and the curing time. The dimension of used CR ranges from 0 to 2.36 mm, which is not too coarse for promoting the CR–bitumen interaction and not too fine for facilitating the production of CR. The content of CR was increased gradually from 0 to 3% to examine the effects of CR content on the engineering properties and determine the optimal content in the mixture. It was observed that the optimal content is 1.5–2%, while the optimal curing time that contributes to the maximal increase in the mechanical characteristics of both mixtures could not be determined. In the range of 0–5 h of curing time, the longer the asphalt mixture is maintained at a high temperature, the better the performance of mixture will be. Ageing was found to have influence on the performance of asphalt mixtures; however, its effects are not as important as those of CR modification. Keywords: Crumb rubber, Dry process, Asphalt concrete, SMA, Curing time

  9. Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a component of coherent transition between a concrete base and a wooden construction. The structure is based on a quantity of investigations of the design possibilities that arise when combining digital fabrication tools and material capacities. Through tangible experiments the project...... specific for this to happen. And the knowledge and intention behind the drawing becomes specialised through the understanding of the fabrication processes and their affect on the materials.The structure Concrete is a result of a multi-angled kerf series in ash wood and a concrete base. The ash wood is cut...... using a 5-axis CNC router with a thin saw blade attached. The programming of the machining results in variations of kerfs that lets the ash wood twist into unique shapes.The shapes of the revolving ash ribbons continue into the concrete creating a cohesive shape. The form for the concrete itself is made...

  10. Calculation of the temperature of asphalt concrete at making the joints of multilane road pavement of non-rigid type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction quality of road surface of non-rigid type essentially depend on providing the temperature regimes in the process of laying and packing of hot asphalt concrete mixtures. In order to provide the required characteristics of asphalt concrete due to the surface width it is necessary to provide the temperature regimes of hot asphalt concrete mixture in the zones of lane connection. The hot mixture is promptly cooling right after laying within several minutes, which results, according to the construction technology and the specific conditions of work production, in temperature abuse of the mixture at joints of the lanes at packing. The authors present the analysis of the technology of arranging multilane road surface by one paver with the possibility of heating the surface lane edge with the temperature of the adjacent lane. The results of the studies of the production conditions effect on the temperature of edge heating of the previously laid lanes, and the time required to achieve the maximum heating temperature depending on the relative thickness of coating layers.

  11. The influence of alkalinity of portland cement on the absorption characteristics of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) for use in internally cured concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabares Tamayo, Juan D.

    The concrete industry increasingly emphasizes advances in novel materials that promote construction of more resilient infrastructure. Due to its potential to improve concrete durability, internal curing (IC) of concrete by means of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) has been identified as one of the most promising technologies of the 21st century. The addition of superabsorbent polymers into a cementitious system promotes further hydration of cement by providing internal moisture during the hardening and strength development periods, and thus limits self-desiccation, shrinkage, and cracking. This thesis presents the work performed on the series of cement pastes with varying alkalinity of their pore solutions to provide a better understanding of: (1) the influence of the chemistry of the pore solution (i.e. its level of alkalinity and the type of ionic species present) on the absorption capacity of SAP, and (2) the effectiveness of SAP with different absorption capacities as an internal curing agent. This research work was divided into three stages: (a) materials characterization, (b) measurement of absorption capacity of SAP in synthetic pore solutions, and (c) evaluation of the internal curing effectiveness of SAP. During the first stage (Materials Characterization), pore solutions were extracted from the fresh (5 minutes old) cement pastes prepared using cements with three different levels of alkalinity. The pH values of the extracted solutions were determined (using the pH meter) and their chemical analysis was performed by means of titration (concentration of hydroxyl), ion chromatography (sulfates and chlorides), atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP) (sodium, potassium and calcium). The commercial SAP adopted for this study was used with "as-supplied" gradation and with the finer gradation obtained by grinding the original polymer in the 6850 Cryomilling Freezer/Mill. The physical properties of these SAP's, such

  12. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  13. Accelerated pavement testing of thin RCC over soil cement pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three full-scale roller compacted concrete (RCC pavement sections built over a soil cement base were tested under accelerated pavement testing (APT. The RCC thicknesses varied from 102 mm (4 in. to 152 mm (6 in. and to 203 mm (8 in., respectively. A bi-directional loading device with a dual-tire load assembly was used for this experiment. Each test section was instrumented with multiple pressure cells and strain gages. The objective was to evaluate the structural performance and load carrying capacity of thin RCC-surfaced pavements under accelerated loading. The APT results generally indicated that all three RCC pavement sections tested in this study possessed very high load carrying capacity; an estimated pavement life in terms of equivalent single axle load (ESAL for the thinnest RCC section (i.e., RCC thickness of 102 mm evaluated was approximately 19.2 million. It was observed that a fatigue failure would be the primary pavement distress type for a thin RCC pavement under trafficking. Specifically, the development of fatigue cracking was found to originate from a longitudinal crack at the edge or in the center of a tire print, then extended and propagated, and eventually merged with cracks of other directions. Instrumentation results were used to characterize the fatigue damage under different load magnitudes. Finally, based on the APT performance of this experiment, two fatigue models for predicting the fatigue life of thin RCC pavements were developed. Keywords: Roller compacted concrete, APT, Pavement performance, Non-destructive testing, Fatigue analysis

  14. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  15. Class C fly ash in pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Portland cement is the most dominant material used in concrete pavements in the state of Nebraska. In order to improve performance, reduce cost, and advance sustainability, a percentage of the Portland cement is replaced with a recycled material know...

  16. Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Concrete is a component of coherent transition between a concrete base and a wooden construction. The structure is based on a quantity of investigations of the design possibilities that arise when combining digital fabrication tools and material capacities.Through tangible experiments the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect’s digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect th...

  17. Long-term Metal Performance of Three Permeable Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot surfaced with three permeable pavements (permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt) on the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Samples from each permeable pavement infiltrate were collected...

  18. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  19. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers...

  20. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison Environmental Center - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable paver...

  1. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) has been widely considered as a fundamental property of : Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement but has never played an important role in the thickness design : procedure for PCC pavement until recently. I...

  2. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  3. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios

    2017-05-11

    Inverted base pavements involve a well-compacted granular aggregate base built between a thin asphalt concrete layer and a cement-treated base. Inverted base pavements can be constructed using conventional equipment and procedures but require proper quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost. Inverted base pavements rely on the complementary interaction between layers. The cement-treated base provides a stiff foundation for efficient compaction and constrains the deformation of the stress-sensitive granular aggregate base. The thin asphalt surface layer deforms as a membrane and develops low tensile stress. Additional large-scale field tests should be conducted to assess the performance of inverted base pavement designs in a wide range of conditions relevant to the USA.

  4. Seven Year Performance of City of Shoreview’s Pervious Concrete Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Stormwater runoff from the Woodbridge neighborhood of Shoreview had previously been drained to Lake Owasso. City of Shoreview built the Woodbridge neighborhoods local roads using pervious concrete pavements in 2009. Pervious concrete pavements exh...

  5. Effect of nano-SiO2 particles and curing time on development of fiber-matrix bond properties and microstructure of ultra-high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zemei; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Shi, Caijun

    2017-01-01

    Bond properties between fibers and cementitious matrix have significant effect on the mechanical behavior of composite materials. In this study, the development of steel fiber-matrix interfacial bond properties in ultra-high strength concrete (UHSC) proportioned with nano-SiO 2 varying between 0 and 2%, by mass of cementitious materials, was investigated. A statistical model relating either bond strength or pullout energy to curing time and nano-SiO 2 content was proposed by using the response surface methodology. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and backscatter scanning electron microscopy (BSEM) were used to characterize the microstructure of the matrix and the fiber-matrix interface, respectively. Micro-hardness around the embedded fiber and hydration products of the matrix were evaluated as well. Test results indicated that the optimal nano-SiO 2 dosage was 1% in terms of the bond properties and the microstructure. The proposed quadratic model efficiently predicted the bond strength and pullout energy with consideration of curing time and nano-SiO 2 content. The improvement in bond properties associated with nano-silica was correlated with denser matrix and/or interface and stronger bond and greater strength of hydration products based on microstructural analysis.

  6. Development of a wireless MEMS multifunction sensor system and field demonstration of embedded sensors for monitoring concrete pavements : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Micro-electromechanical sensors and systems- (MEMS)-based and : wireless-based smart-sensing technologies have, until now, rarely : been used for monitoring pavement response in the field, and the : requirements for using such smart sensing technolog...

  7. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  8. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  9. Refining the maintenance techniques for Interlocking Concrete Paver GIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface clogging adversely affects the performance of Interlocking Concrete Pavements (ICP) by reducing their ability to infiltrate stormwater runoff. The clogging rate is a function of pavement type, traffic loading, surrounding physical environment and maintenance treatments. ...

  10. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  11. Photocatalyticpaving concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapidevskaya Ol'ga Borisovna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today bituminous concrete is a conventional paving material. Among its advantages one can name dustlessness and noiselessness, fine wear (up to 1 mm a year and fine maintainability. As the main disadvantages of this material one can name high slipperiness under humidification, low durability and weather resistance. Besides that, during placement of the bituminous concrete a lot of different air pollutants are emitted, which are harmful for environment and human’s health (they are listed in the paper according to the US Environmental Protection Agency materials. As an alternative, one can use cement-concrete pavement, which is in many ways more efficient than the bituminous concrete. It is proposed to enhance environmental performance of the cement-concrete pavement via usage of photocatalysis. The mechanism of different photocatalytic reactions is described in the paper, namely heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysis, photo-induces, photoactivated catalysis and catalytical photoreactions. It is pro-posed to use heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst. The mechanism of photo oxidation of air contaminants, with the usage of titanium dioxide is2described. The paper sets problems, connected with the sensibilization of TiOto thevisible light (it is proposed to use titanium dioxide, doped with the atoms of certain elements to increase its sensibility to the visible light and with the development of a new photocatalytic paving concrete, which will meet the requirements, specified for paving in the climatic and traffic conditions of the Russian Federation.

  12. Evaluation and Repair of Concrete Structures: Annotated Bibliography 1978 - 1988. Volume 2. (Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance and Rehabilitation Research Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    steps at the Rugby Football Union Ground in Twickenham, England. The deteriorated steps were cut away from the existing steel support beams. Reinforcing...otherwise distorted b1 ._U.-.ious -pavements. Overlaying-can also improve skid resistance or ridei llity. flowever, -no one treatment is-a cure-all for all...MASS CONCRETE-A-l2, A-332,-B-403 Crack width B1 -6, B3-150, B-156, -MEMBRANES B3-311, B-346, C-261, B3-180 C-28-6, C-359-, C-396, C-420, C-464, Density

  13. Fatigue and rutting lives in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible pavement is designed based on axle load limits and climatic conditions. The Egyptian code has specified certain load limits that should not be exceeded. The overweight trucks cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The study aims at studying the effect of axle load increase, and the variation in pavement modulus, on the overall pavement life. The research uses the BISAR software and the Egyptian environmental and pavement materials conditions to estimate the tensile strains occurring under the asphalt concrete (AC layer and the compressive strains above the subgrade surface. The results revealed that tensile and compressive strain increased with increasing axle loads and decreased with increasing asphalt layer modulus thus the violating trucks should be unloaded when their weights exceed certain limits. Base thickness and subgrade resilient modulus were the key elements which control the equilibrium between fatigue and rutting lives.

  14. Long-life concrete : how long will my concrete last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about moving toward performance-based specifications for concrete pavements. This document seeks to : move the discussion forward by outlining the needs and the challenges, and proposing some immediate actions. However,...

  15. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.

    2005-01-01

    of additional internal water that is not part of the mixing water.” The additional internal water is typically supplied by using relatively small amounts of saturated, lightweight, fine aggregates (LWA) or superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles in the concrete. Benefits of internal curing include increased...... less than that of bulk water, a hydrating cement paste will imbibe water (about 0.07 g water/g cement) from an available source. While in higher w/c concretes, this water can be, and often is, supplied by external (surface) curing, in low w/c concretes, the permeability of the concrete quickly becomes...

  16. Influence of temperature on fatigue life or reinforced pavement by whitetopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydło, A.; Mackiewicz, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the influence of temperature on the fatigue strength of concrete slabs used for reinforcing susceptible flexible pavement. In Poland, so far, there is no research on thermal interactions on concrete pavement. The article presents an analysis of various climatic conditions occurring in Poland and temperature distribution in concrete pavement. The dependence of daily temperature fluctuations on the temperatures appearing in the concrete slab was demonstrated. An analysis of thermal stresses in concrete slabs depending on their parameters was shown, and then fatigue life was determined. The applied 3DFEM model includes elements of contact, friction, and gravity in order to better approximate the behaviour of the board from temperature change. On this basis, the significant influence of cyclical daily temperature changes on the durability of the concrete pavement was indicated. The presented analyses can be applied to reinforcements of existing flexible pavements.

  17. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO2 over a length of 150 m ("DeNOx street"). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with

  18. Wet Weather Crater Repair Technologies for Grooved and Smooth Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Dean Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory 3909 Halls Ferry Road ...SUBJECT TERMS Crater Concrete Rain and rainfall ADR Grooved pavement Smooth pavement Runoff Runways (Aeronautics) – Maintenance and repair

  19. A User Friendly Software for Rigid Pavement Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Kıcı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pavements as concrete road slab, appear as a strong alternative for flexible superstructures especially because of their low cost for maintenance and repair and the high performance they show under heavy axle loads. The design of these concrete road slabs is quite different from the traditional concrete and reinforced concrete structures’ design. In the design for this kind of pavements, traffic conditions should be defined properly and considered an addition to the concrete and platform properties. There have been designing methods developed based on both experimental and mechanic foundations for concrete pavements. The most important ones of these methods are AASHTO (1993 and PCA (1984. In both design methods, it’s significant to know the maximum deflections and maximum strains the vehicles’ loads cause on the pavement. The calculation of this maximum deflections and maximum strains can be done via the finite element method or the closed formulas which have been developed by Westergaard. In this study, a user-friendly software has been developed based on AASHTO 1993, PCA 1984 design methods and Westergaard formulas. Thanks to this software, the user who wants to design the concrete pavement as concrete road slab can obtain the essential parameters automatically by entering the required data for the design.

  20. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots in Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed tha...

  1. Sustainable construction: Composite use of tyres and ash in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snelson, D.G.; Kinuthia, J.M.; Davies, P.A.; Chang, S.R. [University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Faculty of Advanced Technology

    2009-01-15

    An investigation was carried out to establish the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of a non-standard (unprocessed) pulverised fuel ash (PFA) and waste tyres from a former landfill site at the Power Station Hill near Church Village, South Wales, United Kingdom. Investigations are on-going to establish the suitability of the fly ash and/or tyres in road construction (embankment and pavement) and also in concrete to be used in the construction of the proposed highway. This paper reports on concrete-based construction where concrete blends (using various levels of PFA as partial replacement for Portland cement (PC), and shredded waste tyres (chips 15-20 mm) as aggregate replacement) were subjected to unconfined compressive strength tests to establish performance, hence, optimising mix designs. Strength development up to 180 days for the concrete made with PC-PFA blends as binders (PC-PFA concrete), with and without aggregate replacement with tyre chips, is reported. The binary PC-PFA concrete does not have good early strength but tends to improve at longer curing periods. The low early strength observed means that PC-PFA concrete cannot be used for structures, hence, only as low to medium strength applications such as blinding, low-strength foundations, crash barriers, noise reduction barriers, cycle paths, footpaths and material for pipe bedding.

  2. Quality evaluation tests for pervious concrete pavements’ placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rangelov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pervious concrete pavements are gaining popularity for stormwater management. Therefore, there is an impending need for the development of quality control and acceptance specifications. In this study, the necessary initial steps are taken towards this goal. The procedures to conduct fresh and hardened density/porosity (φ and 28-day compressive strength (f′c were evaluated. The proper methodology for casting specimens in the field was identified by examining the agreement between the fresh (D and hardened density (ρ. The effect of cylindrical size, and curing methods as combinations of air and moist curing during the four-week period on f′c was studied.Both cylinder sizes demonstrated comparable values of hardened porosity (φ = 16 percent and hardened density (D = 2.11 kg/m3, as well as strong linear φ–D correlations (R2 range 0.60–0.90. The values of D agree well with those of the fresh density (two percent or less difference, which confirmed the suitability of the implemented casting and compaction procedure. Small cylinders presented higher 28-day f′c than large cylinders by 7.7 to 19 percent, depending on the curing category. The two-week air followed by two-week moist curing (2A2 M method yielded the highest 28-day f′c for both specimen sizes, however, longer periods of moist curing did not result in higher strengths. Cylinders from 1A3M, which were exposed to the longest moist curing, demonstrate the lowest f′c. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed the trends seen in 28-day f′c and proved (that longer moist curing resulted in the loss of C–S–H and Ca(OH2. Keywords: Pervious concrete, Porosity, Density, Compressive strength, Curing

  3. Tack coat optimization for HMA overlays : accelerated pavement test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements is one : of the most significant factors affecting overlay service life. This study was performed to quantify the effects of HMA type, : tack coat t...

  4. Establishing appropriate inputs when using the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide to design rigid pavements in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Each design input in the Mechanistic-Empirical Design Guide (MEPDG) required for the design of Jointed Plain Concrete : Pavements (JPCPs) is introduced and discussed in this report. Best values for Pennsylvania conditions were established and : recom...

  5. Determination of mechanical properties of materials used in WAY-30 test pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The US Route 30 bypass of Wooster, Ohio, in Wayne County, WAY-30, was constructed to demonstrate two types of : extended service pavements, a long-life Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement on the eastbound lanes and an asphalt : concrete (AC...

  6. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...: dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC), open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC), and Portland cement... involved in what the highway noise industry refers to as ``low noise pavements'' or ``quieter pavements... several national workshops, trainings, and informational outreach pieces on this topic. In 2005, the FHWA...

  7. Laboratory freeze-thaw durability of pervious concrete with respect to curing time and addition of sand, slag, silica fume, and saltguard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Concerns persist regarding pervious concrete durability in cold climates related to freeze-thaw : and exposure to salt. This study was conducted as an extension to previous work regarding pervious : concrete in Vermont, to further investigate freeze-...

  8. The comparisons of computational models of pavement due to the dynamic load act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method (FEM is frequently used to solve current problems of the structural mechanics in engineering practice. The dynamic interaction of the two systems is one of the topics that can be solved using FEM. To simplify the solution of the interaction, it is possible to divide the system in two independent subsystems, vehicle and pavement. Computing software ADINA, based on the principles of the finite element modelling, was adopted to solve the given problem. The results from the first computational model can be used as the inputs for the second model. To analyse stress state of the pavement with different composition, three specific types of pavements were selected – concrete pavement, semi-rigid pavement and flexible pavement. The pavements represent the typical pavement types used for the regular road structures. This article is focused on the analysis of the stress state and the displacements of the pavement induced by the moving load from the traffic.

  9. Early age damage quantification of actively restrained concrete using inverse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Ali

    Early-age cracking can be a significant problem in concrete pavements, floors, and bridge decks. Cracking occurs when the volumetric changes associated with drying, hydration, and temperature reduction are prevented. Good knowledge about the characteristics of early age concrete is necessary to achieve reliable crack control. Volumetric changes due to shrinkage depend on the type of concrete and its components. It has been found that light weight aggregates can work as internal reservoir to supply the concrete matrix with water that is needed during the early age; this process is called internal curing. Also fibers can give more ductility to the concrete and produce less shrinkage. There is a need to better understand the effects of early age uniaxial restraint on long term concrete mechanical performance. In this study, two types of concrete were studied (high performance fiber reinforced concrete and ordinary concrete) under actively restrained loading conditions to assess the effect on the long term fracture toughness and energy. Single edge notched specimens having dimensions of 250 mm x 150 mm x 75 mm and a notch to depth ratio of 0.33 were caste and used in both direct tension and three point bending. The direct tension tests were carried out on a direct tension loading frame constructed in house that was supplied with two mechanical jacks and load cell.

  10. Characterizing and quantifying the shrinkage resistance of alkali-activated (cement-free) concrete and evaluating potential methods for reducing early-age cracking in pavements and bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings of an experimental investigation into shrinkage, and the mitigation thereof, in alkali-activated : fly ash and slag binders and concrete. The early-age (chemical and autogenous) and later-age (drying and : carbonat...

  11. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2004) : thin bonded rigid overlay on PCCP and HMA (CISL experiment no. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The thirteenth full-scale Accelerated Pavement Test (APT) experiment at the Civil Infrastructure Laboratory (CISL) : of Kansas State University aimed to determine the response and the failure mode of thin concrete overlays. Four : pavement structures...

  12. Evaluation of concrete bridge mix designs for control of cracking, phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Cracking of concrete is a common problem with concrete structures such as bridge decks, pavements and bridge : rail. The Agency of Transportation (VTrans) has recently invested in higher performing concrete mixes that are : more impervious and has hi...

  13. Effect of insulating concrete forms in concrete compresive strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Jerez, Silvio R.

    The subject presented in this thesis is the effect of Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF's) on concrete compressive strength. This work seeks to identify if concrete cured in ICF's has an effect in compressive strength due to the thermal insulation provided by the forms. Modern construction is moving to energy efficient buildings and ICF's is becoming more popular in new developments. The thesis used a concrete mixture and a mortar mixture to investigate the effects of ICF's on concrete compressive strength. After the experimentations were performed, it was concluded that the ICF's do affect concrete strength. It was found that the forms increase concrete strength without the need for additional curing water. An increase of 50% in strength at 56 days was obtained. It was concluded that the longer concrete cures inside ICF's, the higher strength it reaches, and that ICF's effect on concrete strength is proportional to volume of concrete.

  14. Iowa task report : US 18 concrete overlay construction under traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa Department of Transportation, and Federal Highway Administration set out to demonstrate and document the design and construction of portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays on two-lane roadways wh...

  15. Evaluation of MIT-SCAN-T2 for thickness quality control for PCC and HMA pavements : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Thickness is currently a pay item for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements : and a quality control item for both PCC and hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. : A change in pavement thickness of 0.5 in. can result in a reduction of multiple : years of...

  16. Performance of Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (AC-WC) Utilizing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement from Cold Milling Bound with 80/100 Pen Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanya, I. N. A.; Suweda, I. W.; Putra, G. K.

    2018-03-01

    Demands on natural aggregate materials for road pavement can be reduced by utilizing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This research was aimed at evaluating the performance of AC-WC mixture using RAP materials from cold milling, bound with 80/100 pen asphalt. The RAP aggregate gradation was adjusted by adding the required amount of natural aggregates to meet the specification in Indonesia. The RAP and added aggregates were hotmixed and compacted with Marshall hummer at 2×75 blows. The asphalt content were varied. It was found that the optimum asphalt content was 6.05 % with the following Marshall characteristics: stability 1237.08 kg; flow 3.36 mm; Marshall quotient 324,73kg/mm; void in mix (VIM) 3,360%; void in mineral aggregate (VMA) 15.103; and void filled with bitumen (VFB) 77.759% and residual stability 91.04; all met the Indonesian specification. The cantabro abration loss (CAL) at 30°C was 9,02%. The indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) at 20 °C was 7961.4 MPa; dynamic creep with 100 kPa pressure at 40°C gave slope 0.0112 microsstrain/pulse which is suitable for heavy load traffic. The fatigue test results was obtained at increased stress level, i.e. at 900, 1100, and 1300 kPa. Based on the equation derived from the fatigue strain and repeated loading relationship, at 100 microstrain (με) the repeated load was 434,661.58 times, and at one million (106) repeated loading, the samples could withstand strain of 92,38 microstrain. The performance of the samples were overall better than AC-WC mixture using virgin aggregates bound with 60/70 pen asphalt.

  17. Study of the effect of the nature of aggregates on the mechanical behaviour of the concrete in hot and dry zones «Contribution of the curing» Etude de l’effet de la nature des granulats sur le comportement mécanique du béton en zones chaudes et arides «Contribution de la cure»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendjillali K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Laghouat est parmi les villes de l’Algérie riches en matériaux de différentes natures, tels que les roches calcaires massives et les matériaux alluvionnaires meubles siliceux et silico-calcaires. L’objectif premier de ce travail est d’établir une comparaison des performances mécaniques des bétons préparés avec de granulats de natures différentes. Nôtre second objectif est l’étude de l’influence de la cure sur la résistance à la compression et la résistance à la flexion des bétons étudiés. Les échantillons sont conservés sous un climat chaud et sec réel qui est le climat de Laghouat. Nous avons utilisé comme cure: le film plastique, la toile de jute mouillée et l’immersion dans l’eau. A travers ce travail expérimental, nous avons pu constater que les meilleures résistances à la compression sont obtenues dans les bétons à sable siliceux et celles à la flexion sont obtenues dans les bétons à granulats calcaires. La conservation du béton dans une ambiance aride sans protection augmente sa résistance mécanique à jeune âge, mais à long terme, cette dernière chute d’une façon significative. L’étude a mis en évidence la nécessité de l’emploi d’un super plastifiant et de l’application immédiate de la cure pour le bétonnage en climat chaud. Laghouat is among the cities of Algeria rich in materials of various natures, such as the massive limestone rocks and the natural river materials. The first objective of this work is to establish a comparison of the mechanical performances between concretes with aggregates of different natures. The second objective is to study the effect of curing on the compressive and the flexural strength of concretes. Samples are conserved under a real hot and dry climate which is the climate of Laghouat. We used as curing: plastic film, wet hessian and immersing in water. Through this work, we noticed that the best compressive strengths are obtained in concretes

  18. Finite element investigation of the prestressed jointed concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precast prestressed concrete pavement (PCP) technology is of recent origin, and the information on PCP performance is not available in literature. This research presents a finite-element analysis of the potential benefits of prestressing on the jointed concrete pavements (JCP). With using a 3-dimensional (3D) ...

  19. Performances of Metal Concentrations from Three Permeable Pavement Infiltrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designed and constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements: permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. Water sampling was con...

  20. Nitrogen Transformations in Three Types of Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, USEPA constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types - permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). The driving lanes...

  1. Evaluating the performance of sustainable perpetual pavements using recycled asphalt pavement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast highways network in China is moving from the phase of construction to the phase of maintenance, and with the introduction of new technique of perpetual pavement in last decade, it is necessary to consider recycling as one of the promising solutions for rehabilitation of old asphalt concrete pavement and ultimately to convert them into perpetual pavements. The aim is to reuse the existing pavement materials for several reasons, mainly to preserve natural resources such as aggregates, and to satisfy economic requirements by reducing the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation. A detailed testing program has been carried out on recycled asphalt pavements materials (RAP to evaluate their mechanical and structural characteristics to be used for the construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. Different types of RAP mixes have been stabilized by Portland cement to find the most suitable one from the point of view of design, construction, economy and environment. The analysis of life cycle costs has been carried out using system analysis and management of pavement program (SAMP5. The analysis of life cycle costs showed that the use of Portland cements with small percentages improves the structural characteristics of recycled asphalt materials to be used as stabilized base pavement layers for new or rehabilitated old road pavements and also for the construction and rehabilitation of perpetual pavements. A large amount of savings in construction and rehabilitation cost has been achieved by the use of stabilized RAP materials in addition to important contributions to the environment and preserving of natural resources.

  2. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000 psi...

  3. Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M A; Abustan, I; Hamzah, M O

    2013-01-01

    Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

  4. Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hardness when exposed to different atmospheric steam curing temperatures. ... Use of self-compacting concretes (SCCs) lowered the noise level on the ... Although maximum temperature limit values in curing locations should be from 40 to ...

  5. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  6. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  7. Application of surplus and waste materials in roads pavement making

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, S. M.; Fazli, A. H.; Rouzmehr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are a lot of problems about surpluses and debris made by humans all around the world. Lots of these surpluses seriously harm our natural environment. Reuse of this kind of materials in other processes like building constructions or pavement help our natural environment in every aspect. Asphalt concrete is the main part of pavements in most parts of the world with an increasing rate of production in need of more ways and roads. In this paper we will provide...

  8. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  9. NANOMODIFIED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions in construction material science is the development of  next generation concrete that is ultra-dense, high-strength, ultra-porous, high heat efficient, extra corrosion-resistant. Selection of such direction is caused by extreme operational impacts on the concrete, namely: continuously increasing load on the concrete and various dynamics of such loads; the necessity in operation of concrete products in a wide temperature range and their exposure to various chemical and physical effects.The next generation concrete represents high-tech concrete mixtures with additives that takes on and retain the required properties when hardening and being used under any operational conditions. A differential characteristic of the next generation concrete is its complexity that presumes usage of various mineral dispersed components, two- and three fractional fine and coarse aggregates, complex chemical additives, combinations of polymer and iron reinforcement.Design strength and performance properties level of the next generation concrete is achieved by high-quality selection of the composition, proper selection of manufacturing techniques, concrete curing, bringing the quality of concrete items to the required level of technical condition during the operational phase. However, directed formation of its structure is necessary in order to obtain high-tech concrete.Along with the traditional methods for regulation of the next generation concrete structure, modification of concrete while using silica nanoparticles is also considered as a perspective one because the concrete patterning occurs due to introduction of a binder in a mineral matrix. Due to this it is possible to obtain nano-modified materials with completely new properties.The main problem with the creation of nano-modified concrete is a uniform distribution of nano-materials in the volume of the cement matrix which is particularly important in the cases of adding a modifier in

  10. Estudio de dosificaciones en laboratorio para pavimentos porosos de hormigón Laboratory study of mixture proportioning for pervious concrete pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presentado en este estudio muestra la deducción de una ecuación que permite dosificar hormigones porosos en función de la razón agua-cemento y del porcentaje de vacíos interconectados que se requieren en el hormigón endurecido. Usando esta ecuación se analizó el comportamiento de 1 8 mezclas de hormigón poroso conteniendo razones agua-cemento entre 0,29 y 0,41. Las probetas fueron fabricadas en laboratorio y compactadas con rodillo pesado simulando el proceso constructivo en terreno. Los resultados permiten caracterizas de buena forma el comportamiento estructural e hidráulico de estas mezclas. Relaciones entre el porcentaje de vacíos en el hormigón endurecido y la tasa de infiltración, la resistencia a flexotracción y la densidad en estado fresco son presentadas.The present research shows the results of an equation that allows to dose pervious concrete in function of water to cement ratio and the required interconnected void content in hardened concrete. Eighteen different mixtures - with w/c ratio between 0.29 and 0.41- were analyzed using this equation. The samples were made in the laboratory and compacted with a heavy roller simulating site conditions. The results allow a good characterization of these mixtures both mechanical and hydraulic behavior. Reliationships between void contents, infiltration rate and flexural strength were found.

  11. Surface treatment of reinforced cement concrete mixtures of hpcm type

    OpenAIRE

    Vyrozhemsky, V.; Krayushkina, K.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most perspective ways of pavement roughness and durability improvement is the arrangement of thin cement concrete layer surface treatment reinforced with different types of fiber. The name of this material is known abroad as HPCM (High Performance Cementious Materials) durable thin layer concrete pavement in a thickness of 1 cm, dispersion-like reinforced with metal or polymer fibers. To enhance bind properties the stone material grade 3 7mm is applied on the top of concrete surfac...

  12. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  13. The use of whitetopping technology in the aspect of implementation of repairs of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rudnicki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of bituminous pavements using whitetopping technology at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The problems of repairs of asphalt roads in the context of steadily progressive degradation of flexible pavements in Poland are discussed.The types of pavement constructions were presented, with particular emphasis on characteristics of flexible pavements. There were identified and described significant factors contributing to damage, which consequently lead to surface degradation. Also there have been described the types of concrete pavements and their characteristics, taking into account modern technology of cement concrete overlays made in various technologies. The results of the analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of flexible pavements using whitetopping technology are presented at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The benefits and potential difficulties in the implementation of pavements repairs as cement concrete technology are indicated.[b]Keywords[/b]: road, repair, whitetopping, overlay, flexible surface, cement concrete pavement, continuous reinforcement

  14. Determination of mechanical properties of materials used in WAY-30 test pavements : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    ODOT selected a relocation of US Route 30 near Wooster : in Wayne County, the WAY-30 project, as the site for : testing long life pavements. The eastbound lanes were : constructed with a long-life Portland Cement Concrete : (PCC) pavement, and the we...

  15. Heavy Vehicle Simulator aided evaluation of overlays on pavements with active cracks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available their effects by means of field data from actual pavements. The South African Heavy Simulator was also used to evaluate a variety of conventional and innovative asphaltic overlays on a severely cracked concrete pavement of which the mechanisms and extent...

  16. Crumb Rubber Recycling in Enhancing Damping Properties of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Damping plays a major role in the design of roadside structures that gets affected due to vibrations transmitted from moving traffic. In this study, fine aggregates were partially replaced with crumb rubber in concrete, at varying percentages of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Three different sets of concrete, mixed with crumb rubber were prepared using raw rubber, treated rubber and treated rubber with partial replacement of cement. Cement was partially replaced with Ultra-Fine Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (UFGGBS) for this study. Samples were cast, cured and tested for various properties on the 7th and 28th day. The damping ratio and frequency of the peak value from a number of waves in rubber incorporated beams were found out using a FFT Analyser along with its Strength, Damping and Sorptivity characteristics. SEM analysis was conducted to analyse the micro structural bonding between rubber and concrete. The mode shapes of pavement slabs were modelled and analysed using a FEM tool, ANSYS. From the results, the behaviour of the three sets of rubberized concrete were compared and analysed, and an optimum percentage for crumb rubber and UFGGBS was proposed to achieve best possible damping without compromising the strength properties.

  17. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating performance of textile material for interlocking concrete block pavement; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Block hosoyo sen'i zairyo no seino hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Targeting at realization of international standardization of a textile material (geotextile) used for interlocking concrete block pavement, R and D has been performed on a performance evaluation method consistent with field works. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. A literature survey has revealed that manuals prepared by the U.S. AASHTO, and ISO related standards show the test method for single geotextile, and guidelines on durability, but the method for evaluating the durability assuming the actual using conditions has not been standardized. The result of a field test reveals definite effects of existence of geotextile on the usability of block pavement in the water permeable bitumen stabilized roadbed, wherein the effectiveness of the geotextile was verified. In the research of an indoor evaluation test method, it was identified that the test method using a roller compactor and a wheel tracking testing machine can reproduce the behavior of block pavement at site, and it is a method that can identify the durability of the geotextile to some extent. (NEDO)

  18. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  19. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  20. Comparison of setting time measured using ultrasonic wave propagation with saw-cutting times on pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At present, there is little fundamental guidance available to assist contractors in choosing when to schedule saw cuts on joints. To : conduct pavement finishing and sawing activities effectively, however, contractors need to know when a concrete mix...

  1. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2004) : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The thirteenth full-scale Accelerated Pavement Test (APT) experiment at the Civil Infrastructure Laboratory (CISL) of Kansas State University aimed to determine the response and the failure mode of thin concrete overlays.

  2. Estimating the Application Rate of Liquid Chloride Products Based on Residual Salt Concentration on Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-21

    This technical report summarizes the results of laboratory testing on asphalt and concrete pavement. A known quantity of salt brine was applied as an anti-icer, followed by snow application, traffic simulation, and mechanical snow removal via simulat...

  3. The effects of silica fume and hydrated lime on the strength development and durability characteristics of concrete under hot water curing condition

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza Ali; Derogar Shahram; Ince Ceren

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability is considered to be highly important for preserving continued industrial growth and human development. Concrete, being the world’s largest manufacturing material comprises cement as an essential binding component for strength development. However, excessive production of cement due to high degree of construction practices around the world frames cement as a leading pollutant of releasing significant amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere. To overcome this environmental degradation, s...

  4. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper the focus is on quantification of the pavement roughness effects on the calculated structural pavement life and the effects of surfacing maintenance on the moving dynamic tyre loads generated by vehicles. A simplified method for calculating... the moving dynamic tyre load population is used together with standard pavement response analysis methods to quantify the effects of pavement surfacing maintenance on roughness and structural pavement life. This method can be used as a pavement management...

  5. Internal curing as a new tool for infrastructural renewal : reducing repair congestion, increasing service life, and improving sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Internal curing has recently been developed as a new concrete technology that has the potential to : dramatically extend the service life of concrete infrastructure elements like bridge decks. Internal curing : uses prewetted lightweight aggregate in...

  6. Recycled concrete aggregate : field implementation at the Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using RCA for concrete production in rigid pavement applications. : The experimental program was undertaken to investigate the performance of different concrete made with different...

  7. Effect of tack coat on bonding characteristics at interface between asphalt concrete layers; Asphalt concrete no sokan fuchaku ni okeru tack concrete no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Y. [Port and Harbour Research Inst., Kanagawa (Japan); Umeno, S. [Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, K. [Nagaoka National College of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    The effect of tack coat on bonding characteristics at the interface between surface and base layers was studied for airport asphalt pavement. In a fracture behavior, shear stress is first caused by horizontal loading at the interface between surface and base layers, resulting in peeling of the layers in the case of poor bonding. Further loading under the above condition results in fracture of asphalt concrete layers by bending or tensile actions. The bonding strength between layers decreases with an increase in interval of construction between surface and base layers, while the bonding strength between layers increases with sufficient curing of tack coat. Curing for 1 hour in the daytime and 6 hours or more in the nighttime is sufficient for evaporation of water content in asphalt emulsion. The use of conventional asphalt emulsion for the sandy interface as tack coat deduces the bonding strength in the case of poor curing. Asphalt emulsion containing high-penetration rubber can improve the bonding strength. 12 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  9. A Research on Low Modulus Distributed Fiber Optical Sensor for Pavement Material Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingjian; Wang, Linbing; Hou, Yue; Yan, Guannan

    2017-10-19

    The accumulated irreversible deformation in pavement under repeated vehicle loadings will cause fatigue failure of asphalt concrete. It is necessary to monitor the mechanical response of pavement under load by using sensors. Previous studies have limitations in modulus accommodation between the sensor and asphalt pavement, and it is difficult to achieve the distributed monitoring goal. To solve these problems, a new type of low modulus distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for asphalt pavement strain monitoring is fabricated. Laboratory experiments have proved the applicability and accuracy of the newly-designed sensor. This paper presents the results of the development.

  10. Self-compacting concrete mixtures for road BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Tuan My

    2012-10-01

    Therefore, effective concrete road pavements require self-compacting though non-segregating concrete mixtures to comply with the pre-set values of their properties, namely, bending and compressive strength, corrosion resistance, freeze resistance, etc. Acting in cooperation with Department of Technology of Binders and Concretes of MSUCE, NIIMosstroy developed and examined a self-compacting cast concrete mixture designated for durable monolithic road pavements. The composition in question was generated by adding a multi-component modifier into the mix. The modifier was composed of a hyperplasticiser, active (structureless fine and crystalline silica, and a concrete hardening control agent.

  11. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...

  12. A statistical comparison of accelerated concrete testing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Denny Meyer

    1997-01-01

    Accelerated curing results, obtained after only 24 hours, are used to predict the 28 day strength of concrete. Various accelerated curing methods are available. Two of these methods are compared in relation to the accuracy of their predictions and the stability of the relationship between their 24 hour and 28 day concrete strength. The results suggest that Warm Water accelerated curing is preferable to Hot Water accelerated curing of concrete. In addition, some other methods for improving the...

  13. Heavy vehicle simulator testing on pre-cast concrete panels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available commonly found in California, pre-cast concrete slabs are considered to be a very suitable repair material for extending the service life of intermittently distressed concrete pavements. This is because of the long life expectancy of concrete slabs cast...

  14. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  15. Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing PCC Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis and findings of a study to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of concrete pavements (JPCP, JRCP, CRCP) that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from Long...

  16. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  17. The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley

    2007-12-01

    Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.

  18. Evaluation of precast concrete slabs using a heavy vehicle simulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kohler, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Precast slabs are considered an attractive pavement option for rehabilitation or reconstruction cases where traffic closures of less than eight hours are required. Benefits include long life expectancy of concrete cast in factory...

  19. Physical and mechanical behaviour of a roller compacted concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benouadah A

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Rigid pavements are made with Portland cement ... The use of concrete for the construction of coverings; is now very widespread in the ... resistance [11,12], the plastic shrinkage [13] and the propagation of the cracks [14].

  20. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    subjected to bitumen extraction and sieve analysis, hot mix Marshall Stability and flow tests, penetration and ... asphalt concrete as well as other structures of the flexible pavement. ... High-quality road networks are very important to the.

  1. Correlation of Traditional Water Quality Parameters with Metal Concentrations in Permeable Pavement Infiltrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot for research and demonstration of three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)] at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Infiltrate samples from e...

  2. Correlation of Water Quality Parameters with Metal Concentrations in Permeable Pavement Infiltrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot for research and demonstration of three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)] at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Infiltrate samples from e...

  3. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized...... with wet lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures with different degree of saturation and different particle size of the lightweight aggregates were studied and compared to normal weight concrete. Autogenous deformations, selfinduced stresses in fully restrained conditions, elastic...

  4. Radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendrinsky, J.

    1987-04-01

    In the beginning of the seventies the two types of radiation sources applied in industrial processes, electron radiation and UV, had been given rather optimistic forecasts. While UV could succeed in the field of panel and film coating, electron radiation curing seems to gain success in quite new fields of manufacturing. The listing of the suggested applications of radiation curing and a comparison of both advantages and disadvantages of this technology are followed by a number of case studies emphasizing the features of these processes and giving some examplary calculations. The data used for the calculations should provide an easy calculation of individual manufacturing costs if special production parameters, investment or energy costs are employed. (Author)

  5. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. The permeable pavements are limited to parking spaces while adjacent driving lanes are impermeable and drain to the permeable surfaces. The parking lot is instrumented for continuous monitoring with thermistors and water content reflectometers that measure moisture as infiltrate passes through the storage gallery beneath the permeable pavements into the underlying native soil. Each permeable surface of the parking lot has four lined sections that capture infiltrate in tanks for water quality analyses; these tanks are capable of holding volumes up to 4.1 m3, which represents up to 38 mm (1.5 in.) for direct rainfall on the porous pavement and runoff from adjacent driving lanes that drain into the permeable surface.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, surface hydrology, and infiltration and evaporation rates. This presentation summarizes these past findings and addresses current water quality efforts including pH, solids analysis, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand. Stormwater runoff continues to be a major cause of water pollution in

  6. Monitoring water loss form fresh concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Desiccation of concrete before or during setting may lead to detrimental plastic shrinkage cracking in the concrete surface zone. Cracking due to plastic shrinkage is a major technological problem for any concrete, however, modern high-performance concretes are especially susceptible to this...... determination of the evaporation loss from hardening concrete and thus better possibility for preventing curing problems, including detrimental crack damage due to plastic shrinkage....

  7. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  8. New methods to quantify the cracking performance of cementitious systems made with internal curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitter, John L.

    The use of high performance concretes that utilize low water-cement ratios have been promoted for use in infrastructure based on their potential to increase durability and service life because they are stronger and less porous. Unfortunately, these benefits are not always realized due to the susceptibility of high performance concrete to undergo early age cracking caused by shrinkage. This problem is widespread and effects federal, state, and local budgets that must maintain or replace deterioration caused by cracking. As a result, methods to reduce or eliminate early age shrinkage cracking have been investigated. Internal curing is one such method in which a prewetted lightweight sand is incorporated into the concrete mixture to provide internal water as the concrete cures. This action can significantly reduce or eliminate shrinkage and in some cases causes a beneficial early age expansion. Standard laboratory tests have been developed to quantify the shrinkage cracking potential of concrete. Unfortunately, many of these tests may not be appropriate for use with internally cured mixtures and only provide limited amounts of information. Most standard tests are not designed to capture the expansive behavior of internally cured mixtures. This thesis describes the design and implementation of two new testing devices that overcome the limitations of current standards. The first device discussed in this thesis is called the dual ring. The dual ring is a testing device that quantifies the early age restrained shrinkage performance of cementitious mixtures. The design of the dual ring is based on the current ASTM C 1581-04 standard test which utilizes one steel ring to restrain a cementitious specimen. The dual ring overcomes two important limitations of the standard test. First, the standard single ring test cannot restrain the expansion that takes place at early ages which is not representative of field conditions. The dual ring incorporates a second restraining ring

  9. The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Hanh Nguyen; Nassim Sebaibi; Mohamed Boutouil; Lydia Leleyter; Fabienne Baraud

    2013-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems. Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervi...

  10. Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pavement edge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Four projects were built over two construction seasons using special devices attached to the paving machine that produces a 30 slope on the outside pavement edge instead of the near vertical drop-off common with conventional paving equipment. This ...

  12. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, synthetic topography DEM...

  13. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, P

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, "synthetic topography" DEM...

  14. Early Property Development in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Gitte; Munch-Petersen, Christian

    The Freiesleben Maturity function is widely used for planning of execution. We tested if for concrete with and without fly ash. The test showed surprisingly that the maturity function in general is not valid. We found that curing at high temperature gave a significant decrease in strength. Fly ash...... appears to reduce this decrease somewhat. We also examined the resistance against chloride penetration for the different concrete types. The resistance was reduced at high temperatures for concrete without fly ash. For concrete with fly ash, it was the opposite; concrete with fly ash obtained higher...

  15. Photocatalytic pavement blocks. Air purification by pavement blocks. Final results of the research at BRRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The use of materials can influence to a large extent the environmental impact of traffic and of road infrastructure. Especially in urban areas, where the risk on smog formation during hot summer days is high, the use of photocatalytic pavement blocks can reduce the air pollution significantly. A project on environmental friendly concrete pavement blocks is conducted at the Belgian Road Research Centre. The use of photocatalytic material in the surface of pavement blocks to obtain air purifying materials is investigated. In contact with light, TiO2 as photocatalyst, is able to reduce the NO and NO2 content in the air, caused by the exhaust of traffic. The efficiency is tested on pavement blocks, but the technique can as well be applied on other road elements (e.g. noise reducing walls, linear elements) or as a coating on new materials or existing structures. At the previous TRA conference in Gotenborgh, Sweden, the principle of photocatalysis was presented. In this paper, emphasis will be put on the final results of the 4-year project obtained in laboratory as well as on site at the Leien of Antwerp (10,000 m{sup 2}). The results indicate a durable efficiency towards NOx reduction, which is in favour for the diminishing of the risk on ozone formation. However, the precise translation from the laboratory towards the site is still in question. The results obtained during the project are discussed in this paper.

  16. Photocatalytic pavement blocks. Air purification by pavement blocks. Final results of the research at BRRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The use of materials can influence to a large extent the environmental impact of traffic and of road infrastructure. Especially in urban areas, where the risk on smog formation during hot summer days is high, the use of photocatalytic pavement blocks can reduce the air pollution significantly. A project on environmental friendly concrete pavement blocks is conducted at the Belgian Road Research Centre. The use of photocatalytic material in the surface of pavement blocks to obtain air purifying materials is investigated. In contact with light, TiO2 as photocatalyst, is able to reduce the NO and NO2 content in the air, caused by the exhaust of traffic. The efficiency is tested on pavement blocks, but the technique can as well be applied on other road elements (e.g. noise reducing walls, linear elements) or as a coating on new materials or existing structures. At the previous TRA conference in Gotenborgh, Sweden, the principle of photocatalysis was presented. In this paper, emphasis will be put on the final results of the 4-year project obtained in laboratory as well as on site at the Leien of Antwerp (10,000 m 2 ). The results indicate a durable efficiency towards NOx reduction, which is in favour for the diminishing of the risk on ozone formation. However, the precise translation from the laboratory towards the site is still in question. The results obtained during the project are discussed in this paper

  17. Prediction of concrete strength in massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Makino, H.; Nakane, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohike, T.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures of a nuclear power plant are mostly of mass concrete with cross-sectional dimensions larger than 1.0 m. The temperature of concrete inside after placement rises due to heat of hydration of cement. It is well known that concrete strengths of mass concrete structure subjected to such temperature hysteresis are generally not equal to strengths of cylinders subjected to standard curing. In order to construct a mass concrete structure of high reliability in which the specified concrete strength is satisfied by the specified age, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the strength gain property of concrete in the structure and its relationships with the water-cement ratio of the mix, strength of standard-cured cylinders and the internal temperature hysteresis. This report describes the result of studies on methods of controlling concrete strength in actual construction projects

  18. Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of river sand concrete with quarry dust concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Hyginus E.; Eziefula, Uchechi G.; Eziefula, Bennett I.

    2018-03-01

    This study compared the physical and mechanical properties of river sand concrete with quarry dust concrete. The constituent materials were batched by weight. The water-cement ratio and mix ratio selected for the experimental investigation were 0.55 and 1:2:4, respectively. The specimens were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Slump, density and compressive strength tests were carried out. The results showed that river sand concrete had greater density and compressive strength than quarry dust concrete for all curing ages. At 28 days of curing, river sand concrete exceeded the target compressive strength by 36%, whereas quarry dust concrete was less than the target compressive strength by 12%. Both river sand concrete and quarry dust concrete for the selected water/cement ratio and mix ratio are suitable for non-structural applications and lightly-loaded members where high strength is not a prerequisite.

  19. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  20. Alternative pavements for snowmobile crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Excessive highway pavement wear from snowmobile traffic is a maintenance problem for the New Hampshire Department of : Transportation. The snowmobiles and trail grooming equipment scar and erode the pavement surfaces, eventually creating wide ruts ac...

  1. Status report on pavement management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This report traces the developments in pavement management in the Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation from the initial efforts in the mid-1970s through early 1984. Included are status reports on pavement management for the interstate, ...

  2. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  3. Cooler reflective pavements give benefits beyond energy savings: durability and illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Akbari, Hashem; Harvey, John T.

    2000-01-01

    City streets are usually paved with asphalt concrete because this material gives good service and is relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain. We show that making asphalt pavements cooler, by increasing their reflection of sunlight, may lead to longer lifetime of the pavement, lower initial costs of the asphalt binder, and savings on street lighting and signs. Excessive glare due to the whiter surface is not likely to be a problem

  4. Discussion of the evolution of the chloride migration coefficient of Portland cement concrete tested by the rapid chloride migration (RCM) test at long-term curing periods up to 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.; Ye, G.; Hunger, M.; Noort, R.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforced concrete is one of the main deterioration mechanisms leading to shortening of the service life of concrete structures. Therefore, assessment of the resistance of concrete to chloride ingress plays an important role in predicting the service life of such

  5. Impacts of pavement types on in-vehicle noise and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Noise is a major source of pollution that can affect the human physiology and living environment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an exposure for longer than 24 hours to noise levels above 70 dB(A) may damage human hearing sensitivity, induce adverse health effects, and cause anxiety to residents nearby roadways. Pavement type with different roughness is one of the associated sources that may contribute to in-vehicle noise. Most previous studies have focused on the impact of pavement type on the surrounding acoustic environment of roadways, and given little attention to in-vehicle noise levels. This paper explores the impacts of different pavement types on in-vehicle noise levels and the associated adverse health effects. An old concrete pavement and a pavement with a thin asphalt overlay were chosen as the test beds. The in-vehicle noise caused by the asphalt and concrete pavements were measured, as well as the drivers' corresponding heart rates and reported riding comfort. Results show that the overall in-vehicle sound levels are higher than 70 dB(A) even at midnight. The newly overlaid asphalt pavement reduced in-vehicle noise at a driving speed of 96.5 km/hr by approximately 6 dB(A). Further, on the concrete pavement with higher roughness, driver heart rates were significantly higher than on the asphalt pavement. Drivers reported feeling more comfortable when driving on asphalt than on concrete pavement. Further tests on more drivers with different demographic characteristics, along highways with complicated configurations, and an examination of more factors contributing to in-vehicle noise are recommended, in addition to measuring additional physical symptoms of both drivers and passengers. While there have been many previous noise-related studies, few have addressed in-vehicle noise. Most studies have focused on the noise that residents have complained about, such as neighborhood traffic noise. As yet, there have been no complaints by

  6. A Review of Permeable Pavement Clogging Investigations and Recommended Maintenance Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Razzaghmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding clogging mechanisms in permeable pavements can help optimize the required maintenance regime. In this review paper, methods for investigating clogging mechanisms are described. These include surface infiltration methods, the use of embedded sensors, and the development of modelling tools. Previously conducted surface infiltration tests indicate the importance of the age of a permeable pavement system and also local climatic conditions, including rainfall intensity. The results indicate that porous concrete generally has the highest infiltration capacity and this is followed by permeable interlocking concrete pavement and then porous asphalt. The measured infiltration rates decreased significantly even within two years of installation. There was an indirect relationship between surface infiltration rates and the age of the pavements. It was also found that the rainfall characteristics are important in selecting the type of pavement. Sensor technologies have been used mainly in the United States and there has been a reluctance to use such technologies in other parts of the world. Few studies have been conducted into modelling the changing performance of permeable pavement systems over time and there is a need to develop more general models. Various methods and machinery have been developed for cleaning and maintaining permeable pavements and there is no universally preferred approach currently available. Indeed, several of the commonly used maintenance methods have been shown to be relatively ineffective.

  7. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How Concrete Is Concrete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, "manipulatives", in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own,…

  9. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  10. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  11. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  12. Experimental pavement delineation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

  13. Influence of site curing on bond properties of reinforced lightweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the requirements for structural lightweight concrete. The developed compressive strength and pull-out strength under both site curing conditions were relatively lower than full water curing condition but still were higher than minimum requirement as per standard. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  14. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  15. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals Associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  16. Runoff on Pavements of Soil-Cement Blocks – an Experimental Boarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zegarra-Tarqui Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the reduction of runoff in pavements constructed with rectangular blocks of soil-cement. The tests were conducted in a pilot pavement built with soil-cement blocks, seated in a metal box of 50 cm × 50 cm (area = 2500 cm2, with declivities of 1%, 3% and 5%. Mean intensities of 76.9 mm / I 117.7 mm / h were used, values close to the intensities calculated by intensity-frequency-duration (i-f- -d equation of the city of Salvador, Brazil, for return periods of 2 and 5 years, respectively. The medium runoff coefficient was C = 0.61, this value is close to the coefficient of pavement with rectangular blocks (C = 0.6 and it has a lower value than the coefficient for concrete block pavement (C = 0.78. On the other hand, considering that areas with more than 2500 cm2 are constituted by coupling of area units of 50 cm × 50 cm, the splash losses are part of the runoff, obtaining the coefficient Csuperficial + splashing, which showed values in the 0.74 to 0.89 range, these values were found close to the coefficient of concrete block pavement (C = 0.78 and below the concrete pavement (C = 0.95, respectively, but factors such as displacement time of runoff on surface, depressions on the surface, roughness of pavement, evaporation and others, should reduce this value. Then, the pavement of soil-cement blocks can be considered in the category of semi-permeable for the area size used.

  17. Fracture Behavior and Properties of Functionally Graded Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, Jeffery; Bordelon, Amanda; Gaedicke, Cristian; Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio

    2008-01-01

    In concrete pavements, a single concrete mixture design is selected to resist mechanical loading without attempting to adversely affect the concrete pavement shrinkage, ride quality, or noise attenuation. An alternative approach is to design distinct layers within the concrete pavement surface which have specific functions thus achieving higher performance at a lower cost. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials (FGCM) for rigid pavements by testing and modeling the fracture behavior of different combinations of layered plain and synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete materials. Fracture parameters and the post-peak softening behavior were obtained for each FGCM beam configuration by the three point bending beam test. The peak loads and initial fracture energy between the plain, fiber-reinforced, and FGCM signified similar crack initiation. The total fracture energy indicated improvements in fracture behavior of FGCM relative to full-depth plain concrete. The fracture behavior of FGCM depended on the position of the fiber-reinforced layer relative to the starter notch. The fracture parameters of both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete were embedded into a finite element-based cohesive zone model. The model successfully captured the experimental behavior of the FGCMs and predicted the fracture behavior of proposed FGCM configurations and structures. This integrated approach (testing and modeling) demonstrates the viability of FGCM for designing layered concrete pavements system

  18. Fatigue cracking in road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the problem of modelling fatigue phenomena occurring in the road pavement. The example of two selected pavements shows the changes occurring under the influence of the load in different places of the pavement layers. Attention is paid to various values of longitudinal and transverse strains generated at the moment of passing the wheel on the pavement. It was found that the key element in the crack propagation analysis is the method of transferring the load to the pavement by the tire and the strain distribution in the pavement. During the passage of the wheel in the lower layers of the pavement, a complex stress state arises. Then vertical, horizontal and tangent stresses with various values appear. The numerical analyses carried out with the use of finite element methods allowed to assess the strain and stress changes occurring in the process of cracking road pavement. It has been shown that low-thickness pavements are susceptible to fatigue cracks arising "bottom to top", while pavements thicker are susceptible to "top to bottom" cracks. The analysis of the type of stress allowed to determine the cracking mechanism.

  19. Pavement Performance : Approaches Using Predictive Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Acceptable pavement condition is paramount to road safety. Using predictive analytics techniques, this project attempted to develop models that provide an assessment of pavement condition based on an array of indictors that include pavement distress,...

  20. Optimization and standardization of pavement management processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report addresses issues related to optimization and standardization of current pavement management processes in Kentucky. Historical pavement management records were analyzed, which indicates that standardization is necessary in future pavement ...

  1. A guide for local agency pavement managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide Washington's local agencies with a practical document that will assist pavement managers in understanding the pavement management process and the steps necessary to implement their own pavement management syste...

  2. Reduction of minimum required weight of cementitious materials in WisDOT concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the feasibility of lowering the cementitious materials content : (CMC) used in Wisconsin concrete pavement construction. The cementitious materials studied included : portland cement, fly ash, and ground granulate...

  3. Reduction of minimum required weight of cementitious materials in WisDOT concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This project was designed to explore the feasibility of lowering the cementitious materials content : (CMC) used in Wisconsin concrete pavement construction. The cementitious materials studied included : portland cement, fly ash, and ground granulat...

  4. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  5. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar at the FAA's National Airport Pavement Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injun, Song

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States has used a ground-coupled Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) since 2005. One of the primary objectives of the testing at the facility is to provide full-scale pavement response and failure information for use in airplane landing gear design and configuration studies. During the traffic testing at the facility, a GSSI GPR system was used to develop new procedures for monitoring Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement density changes that is directly related to pavement failure. After reviewing current setups for data acquisition software and procedures for identifying different pavement layers, dielectric constant and pavement thickness were selected as dominant parameters controlling HMA properties provided by GPR. A new methodology showing HMA density changes in terms of dielectric constant variations, called dielectric sweep test, was developed and applied in full-scale pavement test. The dielectric constant changes were successfully monitored with increasing airplane traffic numbers. The changes were compared to pavement performance data (permanent deformation). The measured dielectric constants based on the known HMA thicknesses were also compared with computed dielectric constants using an equation from ASTM D4748-98 Standard Test Method for Determining the Thickness of Bound Pavement Layers Using Short-Pulse Radar. Six inches diameter cylindrical cores were taken after construction and traffic testing for the HMA layer bulk specific gravity. The measured bulk specific gravity was also compared to monitor HMA density changes caused by aircraft traffic conditions. Additionally this presentation will review the applications of the FAA's ground-coupled GPR on embedded rebar identification in concrete pavement, sewer pipes in soil, and gage identifications in 3D plots.

  6. Effects on evaporation rates from different water-permeable pavement designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

    2011-01-01

    The urban water balance can be attenuated to the natural by water-permeable pavements (WPPs). Furthermore, WPPs have a 16% higher evaporation rate than impermeable pavements, which can lead to a better urban climate. Evaporation rates from pavements are influenced by the pavement surface and by the deeper layers. By a compared evaporation measurement between different WPP designs, the grain size distribution of the sub-base shows no influence on the evaporation rates in a significant way. On the contrary, a sub-base made of a twin-layer decreases the evaporation by 16% compared to a homogeneous sub-base. By a change in the colour of the paving stone, 19% higher evaporation rates could be achieved. A further comparison shows that the transpiration-effect of the grass in grass pavers increases the evaporation rates more than threefold to pervious concrete pavements. These high evapotranspiration rates can not be achieved with a pervious concrete paving stone. In spite of this, the broad field of application of the pervious concrete paving stone increases the importance in regard to the urban climate.

  7. A statistical comparison of accelerated concrete testing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Meyer

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated curing results, obtained after only 24 hours, are used to predict the 28 day strength of concrete. Various accelerated curing methods are available. Two of these methods are compared in relation to the accuracy of their predictions and the stability of the relationship between their 24 hour and 28 day concrete strength. The results suggest that Warm Water accelerated curing is preferable to Hot Water accelerated curing of concrete. In addition, some other methods for improving the accuracy of predictions of 28 day strengths are suggested. In particular the frequency at which it is necessary to recalibrate the prediction equation is considered.

  8. Effect of prolonged mixing time on concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Mohamed; Sidek, H.A.A.; Wahab, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between workability, compressive strength and mixing time of fresh concrete has been studied. The concrete samples used in the study are normal concrete of grade 30. The mix design of the concrete samples was estimated using software called Calcrete. Three concrete cubes of 150 mm size were cast immediately after mixing. The same grade of concrete was prepared with the mixing time of 30 minutes to 5 hours. All of the concrete samples were cured for 28 days under room temperature before they were compressed using a compression machine. Result shows that the compressive strength of concrete decreases when mixing time is increased. (author)

  9. Testing the durability of concrete with neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Le Roux, J.J.; Kearsley, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of concrete to withstand the penetration of liquid and oxygen can be described as the durability of concrete. The durability of concrete, can in turn, be quantified by certain characteristics of the concrete such as the porosity, sorptivity and permeability. The quantification of neutron radiography images of concrete structures and, therefore, the determination of concrete characteristics validate conventional measurements. This study compares the neutron radiography capability to obtain quantitative data for porosity and sorptivity in concrete to laboratory or conventional measurements. The effects that water to cement ratio and curing time have on the durability of concrete are investigated

  10. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  11. 3-D cohesive finite element model for application in structural analysis of heavy duty composite pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2015-01-01

    The problem of stiffness degradation in composite pavement systems from localised fracture damage in the quasibrittle cement bound granular mixture are today taken into account only by empirical formulas. These formulas deals with a limited number of materials in a restricted range of design...... this paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of cement bound granular mixtures in composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive model. The functionality of the proposed model is compared to experimental investigations of beam bending tests. The pavement is modelled......, it can be shown that adequately good prediction of the structural response of composite pavements is obtained for monotonic loading without significant computational cost, making the model applicable for engineering design purpose. It is envisaged that the methodology implemented in this study can...

  12. New methods for moisture control of high-performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Falikman, Vyacheslav

    2005-01-01

    Curing of concrete by both external (conventional) and internal methods is reviewed and analyzed. The focus is given on the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage of low water-to-cementitious materials ratio concrete by means of internal curing. The concepts of internal curing are based on using pre......-soaked lightweight aggregate, super-absorbent polymers or water-soluble chemicals, which reduce water evaporation (so called "internal sealing"). These concepts have been suggested in the 90s, but still are not popular among users, engineers, contractors, concrete suppliers, researchers, and the rest...... of professionals who work for them. The differences between conventional methods of external curing and novel methods of internal curing are described. It is concluded that proper curing is a key factor to achieve durable concrete....

  13. Using Value-Focused Thinking to Evaluate the Practicality of Porous Pavement Parking Areas on Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    data for conventional systems was obtained mainly through the RS Means Assemblies Cost Data book (Balboni, 2005) while Bruce Ferguson’s Porous...Pavements book provided much of the information for porous systems (Ferguson, 2005). Additional information regarding pavement maintenance, inspection...Jacobs, M. M. J., Stet, M. J. A., & Molenaar , A. A. A. (2002). Decision model for the use of polymer modified binders in asphalt concrete for airfields

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Anti-Stripping Additives Mixing in Road Surface Pavement Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tienfuan Kerh; Yu-Min Wang; Yulern Lin

    2005-01-01

    Most road surfaces in Taiwan are paved with asphalt concrete but the phenomena of rutting, cracking and stripping of the pavement are frequently occurring due to the effects of traffic flow, thermal variation and water erosion caused by rain. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to examine the effectiveness of anti-stripping fillers, which include; rock flour, rock flour with 1% lime and rock flour with 1% cement, respectively, in the mixture of asphalt concrete. The experime...

  15. Pumice aggregates for internal water curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Bentz, Dale P.; Lange, David A.

    2004-01-01

    without pumice and mixes with 4% and 8% pumice by volume of mortar. By addition of pumice, mortars with improved strength, enhanced degree of hydration and reduced autogenous shrinkage were obtained. An important obstacle to the application of this kind of pumice for actual concrete production......A novel concept in internal curing of High Performance Concrete is based on dispersing very small, saturated lightweight aggregates (LWA) in the concrete, containing sufficient water to counteract self-desiccation. With this approach, the amount of water in the LWA can be minimized, thus...... water absorption, but they release a greater percentage of their absorbed water at the equilibrium relative humidity of practical interest in early-age concrete, above 90%. Additionally, early-age properties of mortars with different contents of saturated pumice were investigated: a reference mix...

  16. How Concrete is Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two diff...

  17. THE FATIGUE DURABILITY OF THE MODIFIED ASPHALT CONCRETE UNDER THE EFFECT OF INTENSIVE TRAFFIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri KALGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prediction of the service life of asphalt concrete surface constructed with modified asphalt concrete application onto a traffic lane is examined. Asphalt concrete behaviour in road surface under the traffic loads was analysed. There were shown The results of experiments and their mathematical analysis of the assessment of standard and modified cold asphalt concrete fatigue life on road surface were shown. The service life of an asphalt concrete surface covered with standard and modified cold asphalt concrete is examined. The prediction has been received with an account of stress relaxation processes in asphalt concrete pavement and unevenness of traffic load application.

  18. How can we make good concrete even better?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Falikman, Vyacheslav

    2005-01-01

    It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are used. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to provide both strength and performance. Curing by both external (conventional) and i...... of professionals who work for them. The differences between conventional methods of external curing and novel methods of internal curing are described. It is concluded that proper curing is a key factor to achieve durable concrete......It is known that some high-strength/high-performance concretes are prone to cracking at an early age unless special precautions are used. The paper deals with the methods of curing as one of the main strategies to provide both strength and performance. Curing by both external (conventional...

  19. Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete-making materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pielert, James H

    2006-01-01

    Reflects a decade of technological changes in concrete industry! The newest edition of this popular ASTM publication reflects the latest technology in concrete and concrete-making materials. Six sections cover: (1) General information on the nature of concrete, sampling, variability, and testing laboratories. A new chapter deals with modeling cement and concrete properties. (2) Properties of freshly mixed concrete. (3) Properties of hardened concrete. (4) Concrete aggregates—this section has been revised and the chapters are presented in the order that most concerns concrete users: grading, density, soundness, degradation resistance, petrographic examination, reactivity, and thermal properties. (5) Materials other than aggregates—the chapter on curing materials now reflects the current technology of materials applied to new concrete surfaces. The chapter on mineral admixtures has been separated into two chapters: supplementary cementitious materials and ground slag. (6) Specialized concretes—contains a ...

  20. Measuring Carbon Footprint of Flexible Pavement Construction Project in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmoko, Jati Utomo Dwi; Hidayat, Arif; Setiawati, Apsari; Prasetyo, Stefanus Catur Adi

    2018-02-01

    Road infrastructure in Indonesia is mainly dominated by flexible pavement type. Its construction process, however, has raised concerns in terms of its environment impacts. This study aims to track and measure the carbon footprint of flexible pavement. The objectives are to map the construction process in relation to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to quantify them in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) as generated by the process of production and transportation of raw materials, and the operation of plant off-site and on-site project. Data collection was done by having site observations and interviews with project stakeholders. The results show a total emissions of 70.888 tonnes CO2e, consisting of 34.248 tonnes CO2e (48.31%) off-site activities and 36.640 tonnes CO2e (51.687%) on-site activities. The two highest CO2e emissions were generated by the use of plant for asphalt concrete laying activities accounted 34.827 tonnes CO2e (49.130%), and material transportation accounted 24.921 (35.155%). These findings provide a new perspective of the carbon footprint in flexible pavement and suggest the urgent need for the use of more efficient and environmentally friendly plant in construction process as it shows the most significant contribution on the CO2e. This study provides valuable understanding on the environmental impact of typical flexible pavement projects in Indonesia, and further can be used for developing green road framework.

  1. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  2. How Concrete is Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two different ways of making things concrete. Next another role of manipulatives, will be discussed, namely that of means for scaffolding and communication. In this role, manipulatives may function as means of support in a process that aims at helping students to build on their own thinking while constructing more sophisticated mathematics

  3. Evaluation of airfield pavement evenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszewski, Paweł; Poświata, Adam; Wesołowski, Mariusz

    2018-05-01

    The evenness of airfield pavements is one of the basic operating parameters, which characterize them. The evenness determines not only comfort of traffic along an airfield pavement, but also influences the size of dynamic effect on the pavement, hence, the safety of air operations. In addition, the evenness condition changing as a result of dynamic loads, adverse weather conditions or inappropriate airfield pavement construction technology, lead to deviations from the desired condition in the form of longitudinal and transverse unevenness. As a result, systematic and correct performance of tests is a very significant and required factor impacting the improvement of traffic safety on airfield pavements. If the data obtained through the measurements are not sufficiently reliable, they may consequently lead to making incorrect decisions, which can ultimately impact the safety of air operations.

  4. Investigation of the impact of nanotechnology on the freeze-thaw durability of concrete containing d-cracking aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Freezing and thawing damage is the most common cause of distress in Kansas pavements. Many : locally available aggregates in Kansas do not meet current standards for use in concrete pavements because : of poor freeze-thaw durability. The use of nanot...

  5. Pavement maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new pavement management system (PMS) to achieve the optimal pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) strategy for a highway network using genetic algorithms (GAs). Optimal M&R strategy is a set of pavement activities that both minimise the maintenance cost of a highway network and maximise the pavement condition of the road sections on the network during a certain planning period. NSGA-II, a multi-objective GA, is employed to perform pavement maintenance optimisatio...

  6. Mechanics based model for predicting structure-induced rolling resistance (SRR) of the tire-pavement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Maryam; Ozer, Hasan; Ziyadi, Mojtaba; Al-Qadi, Imad L.

    2016-11-01

    The structure-induced rolling resistance of pavements, and its impact on vehicle fuel consumption, is investigated in this study. The structural response of pavement causes additional rolling resistance and fuel consumption of vehicles through deformation of pavement and various dissipation mechanisms associated with inelastic material properties and damping. Accurate and computationally efficient models are required to capture these mechanisms and obtain realistic estimates of changes in vehicle fuel consumption. Two mechanistic-based approaches are currently used to calculate vehicle fuel consumption as related to structural rolling resistance: dissipation-induced and deflection-induced methods. The deflection-induced approach is adopted in this study, and realistic representation of pavement-vehicle interactions (PVIs) is incorporated. In addition to considering viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete layers, the realistic representation of PVIs in this study includes non-uniform three-dimensional tire contact stresses and dynamic analysis in pavement simulations. The effects of analysis type, tire contact stresses, pavement viscoelastic properties, pavement damping coefficients, vehicle speed, and pavement temperature are then investigated.

  7. Radiation curing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Areas of Application of UV Curing; Areas of Application of EB Curing; Laser Curing of Acrylic Coatings; A User's View of the Application of Radiation Curable Materials; Radiation Curable Offset Inks: A Technical and Marketing Overview; and UV Curable Screen Printing Inks

  8. Evaluation of structural systems in precast concrete buildings by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the precast concrete is the type of concrete that constructing, casting and curing in the standard factory conditions with high quality and then it will be transported with proper equipments and then it will be installed in the final position. In fact, the precast concrete buildings are the combined of several types of ...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  10. Nondestructive testing of pavements and pavement bases (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964--Dec 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habercom, G.E. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Eighty references on nondestructive methods for quality assurance of pavements and pavement bases are presented. Vibration, nuclear activation, radiometry, and acoustic detection are among the various techniques employed

  11. Conductive concrete wins Popular Science prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    A conductive concrete developed by a research team at IRC (Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council of Canada) has won a prize in the home technology category because of its possible use in heating homes. Following the award, there have been a number of inquiries regarding possible applications for the concrete. Greatest interests in the concrete have been in its potential to heat buildings by using it as flooring. Other possible applications included de-icing pavements to building warming pads for parking aircraft. Essentially, carbon fibres and conductive particles are added to a concrete mix in such a quantity that they form a network within the mix, ensuring high electrical conductivity. A demonstration project is underway to build a 20 by 80 foot conductive concrete pad to test the material`s capability as a snow removal and de-icing tool.

  12. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  13. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  14. Analysis of Instrumentation Selection and Placement to Monitor the Hydrologic Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems and Bioinfiltration Areas at the Edison Environmental Center in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot surfaced with three different permeable pavement types (interlocking concrete pavers, porous concrete, and porous asphalt) and six bioinfiltration areas with three different drainage area to...

  15. Deterioration Models for Cement Bound Materials in Structural Design and Evaluation of Heavy Duty Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Holst, Mogens Løvendorf

    Ports and industries require special types of pavements to resist the heavy static load from containers and continuous loads from operation vehicles. To reduce the risk of rutting and settlements over time concrete or compositepavement systems are typically applied. The structural design of such ......Ports and industries require special types of pavements to resist the heavy static load from containers and continuous loads from operation vehicles. To reduce the risk of rutting and settlements over time concrete or compositepavement systems are typically applied. The structural design...... of such pavements are today based on Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) methods. The M-E method is appropriate for many situations, in other situations it may lead to overdesign, or maybe worse, underdesign. The method has limited capabilities and cannot account for signicant factors affecting the pavement response...... number of model parameters. In order to move a step towards more generalised structural design methods for analysis of heavy duty pavements, this study aims at developing a mechanistic approach based on constitutive models. A simple framework for engineering application is sought; creating a rational...

  16. Climatic Characteristics of Slovakia in the Years 1971 to 2011 from the Aspect of Pavement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decky, Martin; Remisova, Eva; Kovalcik, Lubomír; Dibdiakova, Jana; Hajek, Matej

    2017-12-01

    Contribution follows the previous work of authors in the field of implementation of objectified results of climate change in the design of roads, especially their pavement [1] to [3]. Climate conditions are besides traffic load, one of the permanent external factors adversely affecting the physical and mechanical properties of the construction layers. For designing concrete pavements is used in SR conditions average annual air temperature Tm and frost index for design of asphalt and concrete pavements. As part of the research activities carried out at the workplace, the authors statistically evaluated average daily temperatures of SR meteorological stations covering most of the SR territory with altitude from 115 to 695 m above sea level in the years 1971 to 2011. Act No. 135/1961 Coll. (Road Act) states that the design of road pavements is performed according to valid Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively identified results of research and development for road infrastructure. On the basis of the presented correlations, it can be stated that the presented research results can be used immediately for SR conditions in the design of road pavements.

  17. Study on polyurethane foamed concrete for use in structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kattoof Harith

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, foamed concrete is being widely used in civil construction and building, because of its high fluidity and settlement, low self-weight and low thermal conductivity. However, it has some major setbacks such as low strength and increased shrinkage at later ages. The strength gain of concrete depends upon several variables; one of these is the curing conditions. This work aims to study the potential production of foamed concrete as a sustainable structural material by varying the curing methods. For this purpose, sample cubes, cylinders and prisms were prepared to find the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage at different ages. Samples of the polyurethane foamed concrete cured under four different curing regimes (water, moisture, sealing by membrane-forming curing compound and air curing. At the end of the study, polyurethane foamed concrete used for this study has shown the potential for use in structural applications. Also, the results show that the samples cured by moisture have the highest compressive strength at all ages. Keywords: Polyurethane foamed concrete, Curing conditions, Fly ash, Compressive strength, Static modulus of elasticity drying shrinkage

  18. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  19. Self-compacting geopolymer concrete-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukesh Praveen, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this construction world, Geopolymer concrete is a special concrete which doesn’t requires the Ordinary Portland Cement and also reduces the emission of carbon-dioxide. The Geopolymer Concrete is made up of industrial by-products (which contains more Silica and Alumina) and activated with the help of Alkaline solution (combination of sodium hydroxide & sodium silicate or potassium hydroxide & potassium silicate). The high viscosity nature of Geopolymer Concrete had the ability to fail due to lack of compaction. In improvising the issue, Self Compacting Geopolymer Concrete has been introduced. The SCGC doesn’t require any additional compaction it will flow and compacted by its own weight. This concrete is made up of industrial by-products like Fly ash, GGBFS and Silica Fume and activated with alkaline solution. The earlier research was mostly on Fly ash based SCGC. In few research works Fly ash was partially replaced with GGBS and Silica Fume. They evaluated the compressive strength of concrete with varying molarities of NaOH; curing time and curing temperature. The flexural behaviour of the concrete also examined. The Fly ash based SCGC was got high compressive strength in heat curing as well as low compressive strength in ambient curing. The presence of GGBS improves the strength in ambient curing. For aiming the high strength in ambient curing Fly ash will be completely replace and examine with different mineral admixtures.

  20. Analysis of pavement serviceability for the Aashto Design Method: The Chilean Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solminihac, Hernan De; Salsilli, R.; Bengoa, E.; Kohler, E.

    2003-01-01

    Serviceability is an indicator that represents the level of service a pavement provides to the users. This subjective opinion is closely related to objective aspects, which can be measured on the pavement's surface. This research aims specifically at relating serviceability results obtained by a 9-member evaluation panel, representing general public as closely as possible to parameters (particularly of roughness) measured within instruments on 30, 25 and 11 road sections of asphalt concrete, Portland cement concrete and asphalt overlay respectively. Results show that prediction of serviceability is quite accurate based on roughness evaluation, while also revealing that, by comparison to studies in more developed countries, Chileans are seemingly more tolerant, in that they assign a somewhat high rating to ride quality. Furthermore, visible distress does not have a significant influence on serviceability values for Chilean users. A ratio between International Roughness Index (IRI) and Serviceability, as defined by AASHTO, was developed and may be used in this design method. Results for the final pavement condition of urban pavements were obtained (IRI-asphalt final=5.9, IRI-concrete final=8.1). (author)

  1. How Concrete is Concrete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeno Gravemeijer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, ‘manipulatives’, in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own, abstract, knowledge; in the latter, we try to find an example that the others will be familiar with. This article first looks at the tension between these two different ways of making things concrete. Next another role of manipulatives, will be discussed, namely that of means for scaffolding and communication. In this role, manipulatives may function as means of support in a process that aims at helping students to build on their own thinking while constructing more sophisticated mathematics.Key words:  Conceret Learning Materials, School Math, Common Sense, Scaffolding, Communication DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.780.1-14

  2. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) response to concrete grinding residue application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concrete grinding residue (CGR) is a slurry byproduct created by concrete pavement maintenance operations. The application of CGR to roadside soils is not consistently regulated by state agencies across the United States. Much of this variability in regulation may be due to the lack of science-base...

  3. The Stabilization of Weathered Dolerite Aggregates with Cement, Lime, and Lime Fly Ash for Pavement Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix N. Okonta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed on weathered dolerite specimens stabilized by adding varying percentages of cement (4, 8, 12, and 16 % and lime (6 and 12 % and a combination of lime and fly ash (6% lime + 12% Fly ash and 12% lime + 12% Fly ash % by dry weight of soil. The strength was examined under three different curing methods, namely, membrane curing (MBC, alternate moist-air curing (MAC, and water curing (WAC, by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS tests. Simple polynomial and linear functions (regression models were used to define the relationships between the variables investigated. Membrane curing (MBC gave results close enough to the water curing (WAC to indicate that it can be confidently used on the field during pavement construction. From the results obtained, for class B (interurban collector and major rural roads pavement construction, addition of 8% cement was recommended for road base construction with stabilized WDA. Also the addition of 12 + 12% Lime and Fly Ash was recommended for road subbase construction with stabilized WDA. Stabilized WDA against the prejudiced myths would perform satisfactorily for base and subbase construction in both heavily trafficked and low volume roads with economic quantities of cement, lime, and fly ash in South Africa.

  4. Mechanical behavior of flexible pavements undergoing thermal gradients - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.10848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielli Vassoler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The proper structural understanding of a pavement should consider, according to the pavement mechanics, the aspects related to the traffic load, the environment and material properties. When asphaltic materials are used, the stress/strain relationships and the dependencies of load-time and temperature are key parameters for understanding flexible pavement performance. In this study, we employed the finite elements method to calculate stress/strain in flexible pavements structures considering temperature variation. The input data includes material stiffness, which is function of temperature and changes with position and time. The pavement temperature is obtained through the heat transfer differential equation, applying the Laplace transform and its numerical inversion. The finite elements grid was generated by the software ANSYS® and imported by the software MATLAB®. In order to determine the stiffness of the first layer (asphalt concrete we used the average of four nodes, depending on the each node temperature. The result evidences the importance of thermal gradients for the pavement analysis, both for the fatigue cracking and the accumulation of plastic deformations. The use of unique modulus for asphalt concrete layer generates results far from reality.

  5. The use of reflective and permeable pavements as a potential practice for heat island mitigation and stormwater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Harvey, J T; Holland, T J; Kayhanian, M

    2013-01-01

    To help address the built environmental issues of both heat island and stormwater runoff, strategies that make pavements cooler and permeable have been investigated through measurements and modeling of a set of pavement test sections. The investigation included the hydraulic and thermal performance of the pavements. The permeability results showed that permeable interlocking concrete pavers have the highest permeability (or infiltration rate, ∼0.5 cm s −1 ). The two permeable asphalt pavements showed the lowest permeability, but still had an infiltration rate of ∼0.1 cm s −1 , which is adequate to drain rainwater without generating surface runoff during most typical rain events in central California. An increase in albedo can significantly reduce the daytime high surface temperature in summer. Permeable pavements under wet conditions could give lower surface temperatures than impermeable pavements. The cooling effect highly depends on the availability of moisture near the surface layer and the evaporation rate. The peak cooling effect of watering for the test sections was approximately 15–35 °C on the pavement surface temperature in the early afternoon during summer in central California. The evaporative cooling effect on the pavement surface temperature at 4:00 pm on the third day (25 h after watering) was still 2–7 °C lower compared to that on the second day, without considering the higher air temperature on the third day. A separate and related simulation study performed by UCPRC showed that full depth permeable pavements, if designed properly, can carry both light-duty traffic and certain heavy-duty vehicles while retaining the runoff volume captured from an average California storm event. These preliminarily results indicated the technical feasibility of combined reflective and permeable pavements for addressing the built environment issues related to both heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff management. (letter)

  6. Effect of Superabsorbent Polymer on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Dang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating superabsorbent polymer (SAP, which has the abilities of absorption and desorption in concrete can achieve the effect of internal curing. The influences of the volume, particle size and ways of entrained water of SAP on the workability, compressive strength, shrinkage, carbonation resistance and chloride penetration resistance of concrete were analyzed through the macroscopic and microscopic test. The results show that pre-absorbed SAP can increase the slump of the mixture, but SAP without water absorption and pre-absorbed SAP with the deduction of internal curing water from mixing water can reduce the slump. The improvement effects of SAP on compressive strength of concrete increase gradually with the increase of age. Especially from 28 days, the compressive strength of concrete increases obviously. At later age, the compressive strengths of SAP concrete under natural curing environment exceed the strength of reference concrete under natural curing environment and nearly reach the strengths of reference concrete under standard curing environment. SAP effectively reduces the shrinkage of concrete, improves the concrete’s abilities of carbonation resistance and chloride penetration resistance. The microscopic test results show that SAP can effectively improve the micro structure and make the pore structure refined. When SAP is added into concrete, the gel pores and small capillary pores are increased, the size of big capillary pores and air pores are reduced.

  7. Properties of concrete containing foamed concrete block waste as fine aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Budiea, A. M. A.; Zaidan, A. L. F.; Rasid, M. H.; Hazimmah, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental degradation due to excessive sand mining dumping at certain places and disposal of foamed concrete block waste from lightweight concrete producing industry are issues that should be resolved for a better and cleaner environment of the community. Thus, the main intention of this study is to investigate the potential of foamed concrete block waste as partial sand replacement in concrete production. The foamed concrete waste (FCW) used in this research that were supplied by a local lightweight concrete producing industry. The workability and compressive strength of concrete containing various percentage of foamed concrete waste as partial sand replacement has been investigated. Prior to the use, the foamed concrete waste were crushed to produce finer particles. Six concrete mixes containing various content of crushed foamed concrete waste that are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were used in this experimental work. Then the prepared specimens were placed in water curing until the testing age. Compressive strength test and flexural strength tests were conducted at 7, 14 and 28 days. The result shows that integration of crushed foamed concrete waste as partial sand replacement in concrete reduces the mix workability. It is interesting to note that both compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete improves when 30% crushed foamed concrete waste is added as partial sand replacement.

  8. Influence of wollastonite on mechanical properties of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renu Mathur; A.K. Misra; Pankaj Goel

    2007-12-15

    Studies were made on cement concrete and cement-fly ash concrete mixes incorporating wollastonite as partial substitute of cementitious material and sand respectively. Improvements in compressive (28-35%) and flexural strength (36-42%) at 28 and 56 days respectively were observed by incorporation of wollastonite (10%) in concrete mixes. By incorporation of wollastonite, reduction in water absorption, drying-shrinkage and abrasion loss of concrete, and enhancement in durability against alternate freezing-thawing and sulphate attack were observed. Because of high concrete strength and abrasion resistance, a better utilization of concrete cross section is possible. Alternatively, thickness of pavement slab can be reduced by incorporation of wollastonite micro-fibres in concrete mixes.

  9. Lift-up construction method of apron pavement in the airport. Kuko epuron hoso no lift up koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H. (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-25

    Frequently used airports do not allow the period during which facilities are shutdown for cultivation in the repair work of sunk concrete pavement. The present report describes the outline of the lift-up construction method by means of prestressed concrete pavement which allows repair work only in the night. The method has been developed and demonstrated this time in the construction of off-shore development of Tokyo International Airport. The fundamental procedures are as follows: A [phi] 16cm hole is drilled with a core boring machine into the pavement slab in the sunk area; the roadbed is excavated around the hole in the volume of ca. 45cm in diameter and ca. 30cm in thickness; a reaction bed of concrete and a metal fixture of the hydraulic jack are installed; the reaction bed is exerted with a force by the jack to lift up the pavement slab; and finally the gap made between the pavement slab and the road bed is grouted with cement milk. In a demonstration test construction, lift-up of 3.5cm over ca. 3500m[sup 2] was performed during a total of four days of one day in the daytime and three days in the night. 7 figs.

  10. A review on carbonation study in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat Rao, N.; Meena, T.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the authors have reviewed the carbonation studies which are a vital durability property of concrete. One of the major causes for deterioration and destruction of concrete is carbonation. The mechanism of carbonation involves the penetration carbon dioxide (CO2) into the concrete porous system to form an environment by reducing the pH around the reinforcement and initiation of the corrosion process. The paper also endeavours to focus and elucidate the gravity of importance, the process and chemistry of carbonate and how the various parameters like water/cement ratio, curing, depth of concrete cones, admixtures, grade of concrete, strength of concrete, porosity and permeability effect carbonation in concrete. The role of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) like Ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Silica Fume (SF) has also been reviewed along with the influence of depth of carbonation.

  11. Engineering Solution for the Uniform Strength of Partially Cracked Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elin A.; Hansen, Will; Brincker, Rune

    2005-01-01

    Significant computational resources are required to predict the remaining strength from numerical fracture analysis of a jointed plain concrete pavement that contains a partial depth crack. It is, therefore, advantageous when the failure strength can be adequately predicted with an engineering...

  12. Freeze-thaw resistance of concrete with marginal air content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Freeze-thaw resistance is a key durability factor for concrete pavements. Recommendations for the air void system parameters are normally 6 1 percent total air and a spacing factor of : < 0.20 millimeter (mm) (0.008 inch). However, it was observed...

  13. Steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In September 1994, steel slag test and control sections were constructed in Oregon to evaluate the use of steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC). This report covers the construction and five-year performance of a pavement constructed with 30% ...

  14. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  15. Low-shrink airfield cement concrete with respect to thermal resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linek Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical background to the occurrence and propagation of imposed thermal load deep inside the structure of airfield pavement. The standard composition of low-shrink cement concrete intended for airfield pavements was presented. The influence of recurring temperature changes on the extent of shrinkage deformations was assessed. The obtained lab test results, combined with observations and analysis of changes of the hardened concrete microstructure, allowed the authors to draw conclusions. It was proven that the suggested concrete mix composition makes it possible to obtain the concrete type of better developed internal microstructure. More micro air voids and reduced distance between the voids were proven, which provides increased frost resistance of concrete. The change of size, structure and quantity of the hydration products in the cement matrix and better developed contact sections resulted in the improvement of the mechanical parameters of hardened concrete. Low-shrink concrete in all analysed cases proved to have increased resistance to the variable environmental conditions. Increased concrete resistance is identified through reduced registered shrinkage deformations and growth of mechanical parameters of concrete. Low-shrink concrete used for airfield structure guarantees extended time of reliable pavement operation.

  16. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  17. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  18. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  19. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  20. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost

  1. An approach to pavement management in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report summarizes the objectives and benefits of formal pavement management systems and outlines an approach believed by the author to be practical for Virginia. The management of Virginia interstate pavements and a proposed random-sampling plan ...

  2. Calibration of PMIS pavement performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Improve the accuracy of TxDOTs existing pavement performance prediction models through calibrating these models using actual field data obtained from the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS). : Ensure logical performance superiority patte...

  3. Appraisal of the Causes of Pavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pavement failure) or structural (deep-seated pavement failure). ... is primarily due to shallow groundwater level. Adewole et al. ... processing and interpretation of Landsat-7 ETM+ images covering the study area and it's environ for lineaments.

  4. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  5. Investigation of the impact of nanotechnology on the freeze-thaw durability of concrete containing d-cracking aggregates : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Freezing and thawing damage is the most common cause of distress in : Kansas pavements. Many locally available aggregates in Kansas do not : meet current standards for use in concrete pavements because of poor : freeze-thaw durability. The use of nan...

  6. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Miao Yu; Guoxiong Wu; Lingyun Kong; Yu Tang

    2017-01-01

    The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systema...

  7. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballari, M.M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The results of a demonstration project for photocatalytic pavement are shown. ► The photocatalytic performance was studied in a street as well as on lab scale. ► The outdoor monitoring was performed in different seasons and weather conditions. ► The NO x concentration was in average 19% lowered by the photocatalytic street. ► Under ideal weather conditions the NO x reduction reached up to 45%. -- Abstract: Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO 2 over a length of 150 m (“DeNO x street”). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with normal paving blocks (“Control street”). The outdoor monitoring was done during 26 days for a period exceeding one year, and measured parameters included traffic intensity, NO, NO 2 and ozone concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and the visible and UV light irradiance. Prior and parallel to these field measurements, the used blocks were also measured in the lab to assess their performance. The NO x concentration was, on average, 19% (considering the whole day) and 28% (considering only afternoons) lower than the obtained values in the Control street. Under ideal weather conditions (high radiation and low relative humidity) a NO x concentration decrease of 45% could be observed

  8. Comparisons of Faulting-Based Pavement Performance Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Faulting prediction is the core of concrete pavement maintenance and design. Highway agencies are always faced with the problem of lower accuracy for the prediction which causes costly maintenance. Although many researchers have developed some performance prediction models, the accuracy of prediction has remained a challenge. This paper reviews performance prediction models and JPCP faulting models that have been used in past research. Then three models including multivariate nonlinear regression (MNLR model, artificial neural network (ANN model, and Markov Chain (MC model are tested and compared using a set of actual pavement survey data taken on interstate highway with varying design features, traffic, and climate data. It is found that MNLR model needs further recalibration, while the ANN model needs more data for training the network. MC model seems a good tool for pavement performance prediction when the data is limited, but it is based on visual inspections and not explicitly related to quantitative physical parameters. This paper then suggests that the further direction for developing the performance prediction model is incorporating the advantages and disadvantages of different models to obtain better accuracy.

  9. Review on supplymentary cementitious materials used in inorganic polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasreddy, K.; Srinivasan, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a review on various supplementary cementitious materials generated from industries are used in concrete, which one is considered a waste material. These materials are rich in aluminosilicates and are activated by sodium/potassium based alkaline solution to form geopolymer concrete. When these geopolymer concrete is used in civil engineering applications has showed better or similar mechanical properties and durability properties than ordinary Portland cement concrete. This paper also given the overview on sodium hydroxide (NaOH) & sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) ratios, curing adopted for different geopolymer concretes and the effect of adding fibres in geopolymer concretes.

  10. Pervious Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Torsvik, Øyvind André Hoff

    2012-01-01

    Pervious concrete is a material with a high degree of permeability but generally low strength. The material is primarily used for paving applications but has shown promise in many other areas of usage. This thesis investigates the properties of pervious concrete using normal Norwegian aggregates and practices. An overview of important factors when it comes to designing and producing pervious concrete is the result of this investigation. Several experiments have been performed in the concrete ...

  11. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.; Loo-Teck Ng; Visay Viengkhou

    1998-01-01

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  12. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural Precast Concrete Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly.......Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly....

  14. Microstructure of high-strength foam concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, A.; Middendorf, B.

    2009-01-01

    Foam concretes are divided into two groups: on the one hand the physically foamed concrete is mixed in fast rotating pug mill mixers by using foaming agents. This concrete cures under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand the autoclaved aerated concrete is chemically foamed by adding aluminium powder. Afterwards it is cured in a saturated steam atmosphere. New alternatives for the application of foam concretes arise from the combination of chemical foaming and air curing in manufacturing processes. These foam concretes are new and innovative building materials with interesting properties: low mass density and high strength. Responsible for these properties are the macro-, meso- and microporosity. Macropores are created by adding aluminium powder in different volumes and with different particle size distributions. However, the microstructure of the cement matrix is affected by meso- and micropores. In addition, the matrix of the hardened cement paste can be optimized by the specific use of chemical additives for concrete. The influence of aluminium powder and chemical additives on the properties of the microstructure of the hardened cement matrices were investigated by using petrographic microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  16. The use of lithium compounds for inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction effects in pavement structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapała-Sławeta, J.; Owsiak, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Internal corrosion of concrete caused by the reaction of reactive aggregate with sodium and potassium hydroxides from cement is a threat to the durability of concrete pavements. Traditional methods for reducing the negative effects of the reaction include the use of unreactive aggregates, low alkali cements, mineral additives or chemical admixtures, incorporated during mixing. Lowering the relative humidity of the concrete below 80% is another measure for limiting the destructive reaction. The incorporation of lithium compounds, in particular lithium nitrate and lithium hydroxide, to the concrete mix is a method of limiting alkali-silica reaction effects. The challenge is to reduce the negative effects of aggregate reactivity in members in which the reaction has occurred because the aggregate happened to be reactive. The paper presents ways of limiting the deterioration of ASR-affected concrete in road pavements and other forms of transportation infrastructure, mainly through the use of lithium compounds, i.e. lithium nitrate. Impregnation methods that allow the penetration of lithium ions into the concrete structure were characterized, as was the effectiveness of the solutions applied.

  17. Measuring Carbon Footprint of Flexible Pavement Construction Project in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utomo Dwi Hatmoko Jati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Road infrastructure in Indonesia is mainly dominated by flexible pavement type. Its construction process, however, has raised concerns in terms of its environment impacts. This study aims to track and measure the carbon footprint of flexible pavement. The objectives are to map the construction process in relation to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, to quantify them in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e as generated by the process of production and transportation of raw materials, and the operation of plant off-site and on-site project. Data collection was done by having site observations and interviews with project stakeholders. The results show a total emissions of 70.888 tonnes CO2e, consisting of 34.248 tonnes CO2e (48.31% off-site activities and 36.640 tonnes CO2e (51.687% on-site activities. The two highest CO2e emissions were generated by the use of plant for asphalt concrete laying activities accounted 34.827 tonnes CO2e (49.130%, and material transportation accounted 24.921 (35.155%. These findings provide a new perspective of the carbon footprint in flexible pavement and suggest the urgent need for the use of more efficient and environmentally friendly plant in construction process as it shows the most significant contribution on the CO2e. This study provides valuable understanding on the environmental impact of typical flexible pavement projects in Indonesia, and further can be used for developing green road framework.

  18. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, Mostafa; Borst, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary School, on Fort Riley, Kansas was selected for this study. An 80-space parking lot was built behind the school as part of an EPA collaboration with the U.S. Army. The parking lot design includes a permeable interlocking concrete pavement section along the downgradient edge. This study monitored the clogging progress of the pavement section using twelve water content reflectometers and three buried tipping bucket rain gauges. This clogging dynamic investigation was divided into three stages namely pre-clogged, transitional, and clogged. Recorded initial relative water content of all three stages were significantly and negatively correlated to antecedent dry weather periods with stronger correlations during clogged conditions. The peak relative water content correlation with peak rainfall 10-min intensity was significant for the water content reflectometers located on the western edge away from the eastern edge; this correlation was strongest during transition stage. Once clogged, rainfall measurements no longer correlated with the buried tipping bucket rain gauges. Both water content reflectometers and buried tipping bucket rain gauges showed the progress of surface clogging. For every 6 mm of rain, clogging advanced 1 mm across the surface. The results generally support the hypothesis that the clogging progresses from the upgradient to the downgradient edge. The magnitude of the contributing drainage area and rainfall characteristics are effective factors on rate and progression of clogging.

  19. Life cycle uses of concrete for more sustainable construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2001-07-01

    This paper examined ways in which the environmental burdens of construction in general and concrete production in particular can be reduced. Aggregates for concrete production include sand, gravel and stone. They account for most (80 per cent) of the materials used in the United States. This paper argued that given the fact that environmental concerns are an important social issue, the issue of natural resource conservation should be addressed. Some of the life-cycle assessments and comparative design issues associated with concrete construction were summarized. The author presented the example that often the initial cost of a new pavement application may indicate a lower environmental impact than an equivalent design when asphalt is used over reinforced concrete. However, annualized impacts may result in comparable environmental assessments. The same is true for bridge girders, reinforced concrete also seems to be a better environmental choice than steel. This paper also described end-of-life options that involve the use of waste products and recycled products in concrete and other materials to reduce the overall environmental impacts of a product or facility. This paper was divided into several sections entitled: life cycle assessments; life cycle inventory assessment of concretes and asphalt pavements; and, life cycle inventory assessment of concrete and steel bridge girders. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Influence of curing regimes on compressive strength of ultra high

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the ...

  1. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years......, the research in concrete hinges has not evolved significantly in that period. But introducing a new state-of-the-art concrete arch bridge solution (Pearl-Chain arches invented at the Technical University of Denmark) creates a necessity of a concrete hinge research based on modern standards. Back when research...... in concrete hinges was more common different designs were proposed for the geometry and reinforcement. Previous research focused on fatigue, multi-axial stresses around the hinge throat, and the relation between rotation- and moment. But many different test-setups were proposed by different researchers...

  2. Concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Setareh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This revised, fully updated second edition covers the analysis, design, and construction of reinforced concrete structures from a real-world perspective. It examines different reinforced concrete elements such as slabs, beams, columns, foundations, basement and retaining walls and pre-stressed concrete incorporating the most up-to-date edition of the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318-14) requirements for the design of concrete structures. It includes a chapter on metric system in reinforced concrete design and construction. A new chapter on the design of formworks has been added which is of great value to students in the construction engineering programs along with practicing engineers and architects. This second edition also includes a new appendix with color images illustrating various concrete construction practices, and well-designed buildings. The ACI 318-14 constitutes the most extensive reorganization of the code in the past 40 years. References to the various sections of the ACI 318-14 are pro...

  3. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  4. Estimation of doses from radioactively contaminated disaster wastes reused for pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaguchi, Takuma; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Tanaka, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    It is desirable that the disaster wastes contaminated by radioactive cesium after the severe accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Plant are reused as much as possible in order to minimize the quantity to be disposed of. Ministry of the Environment showed the policy that the wastes containing cesium of higher concentration than the clearance level (100 Bq/kg) were reusable as materials of construction such as subbase course materials of pavements under controlled condition with measures to lower exposure doses. In this study, in order to provide technical information for making a guideline on the use of contaminated concrete materials recycled from disaster wastes as pavement, doses for workers and the public were estimated, and the reusable concentration of radioactive cesium in the wastes was evaluated. It was shown that the external exposure of the public (children) residing near the completed pavement gave the minimum radiocesium concentration in order to comply with the dose criteria. The recycled concrete materials whose average concentration of cesium lower than 2,700 Bq/kg can be used as the subbase course materials of pavements. (author)

  5. Research on construction technology for orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y. C.; Qian, Z. D.; Zhang, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure the good service quality of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge in Tianjin, and to reduce the occurrence of pavement diseases like lateral and longitudinal cracks, the key working procedures such as steel deck cleaning, anticorrosive coating, bonding layer spraying, seam cutting, epoxy asphalt concrete’s mixing, transportation, paving and compaction were studied. The study was based on the main features of epoxy asphalt concrete which is the pavement materials of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, and combined with the basic characteristics and construction conditions of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge. Furthermore, some processing measures like controlling time and temperature, continuous paving with two pavers, lateral feeding, and improving the compaction method were proposed. The project example shows that the processing measures can effectively solve the technical difficulties in the construction of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, can greatly improve the construction speed and quality, and can provide reference for the same kinds of orthotropic steel deck pavement construction.

  6. Application of viscoelastic continuum damage approach to predict fatigue performance of Binzhou perpetual pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For this study, the Binzhou perpetual pavement test sections constructed in Shandong Province, China, were simulated for long-term fatigue performance using the layered viscoelastic pavement analysis for critical distresses (LVECD finite element software package. In this framework, asphalt concrete was treated in the context of linear viscoelastic continuum damage theory. A recently developed unified fatigue failure criterion that defined the boundaries of the applicable region of the theory was also incorporated. The mechanistic modeling of the fatigue mechanisms was able to accommodate the complex temperature variations and loading conditions of the field pavements in a rigorous manner. All of the material models were conveniently characterized by dynamic modulus tests and direct tension cyclic fatigue tests in the laboratory using cylindrical specimens. By comparing the obtained damage characteristic curves and failure criteria, it is found that mixtures with small aggregate particle sizes, a dense gradation, and modified asphalt binder tended to exhibit the best fatigue resistance at the material level. The 15-year finite element structural simulation results for all the test sections indicate that fatigue performance has a strong dependence on the thickness of the asphalt pavements. Based on the predicted location and severity of the fatigue damage, it is recommended that Sections 1 and 3 of the Binzhou test sections be employed for perpetual pavement design.

  7. Environmental importance, composition and properties of pervious concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topličić-Ćurčić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous or pervious concrete was in use since the 60's of the previous century. It was first used in the USA and afterwards in Europe. The environmental importance of pervious concrete can be seen through fast collection of stormwater from the pavements, parking lots and other impervious surfaces. . Special purification systems remove the detrimental matter from the collected strormwater. As such, it can be used for other purposes. The pervious concrete has little or almost no fine aggregates. Its porosity is high, and ranges between 15 and 30 % in comparison to the concrete volume. Prior to massive usage of pervious concrete, it was necessary to prove, i.e. to examine its properties in service conditions. The paper elucidates the environmental character of pervious concrete, provides its usual composition and its properties.

  8. ICP experiments more durable pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1994-01-01

    A new asphalts technology that will make more durable the pavement in the highways and roads of the cities of Colombia investigates the Colombian Institute of the Petroleum ICP. The project that will have important incidence in the solution of one of the main problems in the roads of cities like Bogota, is only one of the 35 investigation programs and application of new technologies that with relationship to the sector of the hydrocarbons and its influence branches the ICP advances. The investigation looks for to elevate the current average of useful life of the pavements, with that it would be reached a standard that has the developed countries in this field

  9. Microstructural Analysis on the NPP Concrete under Initial Frost Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyung Teak; Park, Chun Jin; Kim, Si Hwan; Ryu, Gum Sung

    2012-01-01

    The concrete should secure the quality over certain standard regardless of construction location and period. Especially, because the fly ash (FA) is used in nuclear power plant concrete as a concrete substitute by 20%, the concrete using FA is hugely influenced according to temperature and humidity in terms of constructability, strength and durability due to the material properties. Accordingly, when building the nuclear power plant under various environmental conditions, it's important to secure the concrete quality equally through applying an appropriate curing method to control temperature and humidity. Although various according to concrete materials and mixture, the concrete-freezing temperature is usually known as about -0.5∼-3.0 .deg. C. In case the concrete is frozen early under the condition that the strength has not been sufficiently developed yet, because the volume expansion caused by the frozen free moisture inside concrete results in the relaxation and destruction of structure, the strength, watertightness and durability of the concrete get lower drastically even after being hardened. Accordingly, this study tried to review the quality of nuclear power plant concrete under early freezing through measuring strength, SEM and XRD after making the concrete frozen over certain standard in the early curing with targeting the nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete replaced with FA 20%

  10. C-CURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — C-CURE system manages certain aspects of the access control system, including collecting employee and contractor names and photographs. The Office of Security uses...

  11. Reviewing the Carbonation Resistance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the studies on one of the important durability properties of concrete i.e. Carbonation. One of the main causes of deterioration of concrete is carbonation, which occurs when carbon dioxide (CO2 penetrates the concrete’s porous system to create an environment with lower pH around the reinforcement in which corrosion can proceed. Carbonation is a major cause of degradation of concrete structures leading to expensive maintenance and conservation operations. Herein, the importance, process and effect of various parameters such as water/cement ratio, water/binder ratio, curing conditions, concrete cover, super plasticizers, type of aggregates, grade of concrete, porosity, contaminants, compaction, gas permeability, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs/ admixtures on the carbonation of concrete has been reviewed. Various methods for estimating the carbonation depth are also reported briefly

  12. Teaching Methodology of Flexible Pavement Materials and Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yusuf; Najafi, Fazil

    2004-01-01

    Flexible pavement materials exhibit complex mechanical behavior, in the sense, that they not only show stress and temperature dependency but also are sensitive to moisture conditions. This complex behavior presents a great challenge to the faculty in bringing across the level of complexity and providing the concepts needed to understand them. The…

  13. Analysis of Construction Material Procurement Retardation on Sepaku-Petung Rigid Pavement Improvement Project in East Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available his study aims to know the factors influencing the retardation in procurement of construction materials on Sepaku-Petung pavement improvement project in East Kalimantan Province;to know the most dominant factor affecting the retardation in procurement of construction materials on Sepaku-Petung pavement improvement project in East Kalimantan Province; to determine what strategies that minimize the waiting time of materials in the improvement of Sepaku-Petung pavement project in East Kalimantan Province. This study used quantitative research method. The data was collected through interview, questionnaire distribution, and discussion forum. Based on the results of research and data analysis conducted, it can be concluded thatsuppliers, contractors, field conditions, and unpredictable conditionswere affecting the retardation in procurement of materials in the pavement improvement project in East Kalimantan. Field condition was the most dominant factors in the realization of Sepaku-Petung pavement improvement project in East Kalimantan province. Type B (Retarding Admixtures could be added to retard the time-binding of the concrete (setting time, therefore minimizing material procurement waiting time. The contractor should also build his own supplier close to the project site to reduce the distance between the concrete supplier location and the project site.

  14. Concrete Fibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnan, Ruggero

    2017-01-01

    As far as we know, no notion of concrete fibration is available. We provide one such notion in adherence to the foundational attitude that characterizes the adoption of the fibrational perspective in approaching fundamental subjects in category theory and discuss it in connection with the notion of concrete category and the notions of locally small and small fibrations. We also discuss the appropriateness of our notion of concrete fibration for fibrations of small maps, which is relevant to a...

  15. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  16. Fracture mechanics in pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available . The paper also seeks to promote the use of size independent material properties to characterize pavement materials. Some material properties used in current methods, such as the concepts of strain at break and flexural strength are known to exhibit size...

  17. Radiation curing - a personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter briefly introduces radiation curing from the personal perspective of the author. Topics covered in this chapter include characteristic features of radiation curing, photoinitiated polymerization -- ultraviolet (UV) curing, and general principles of electron beam (EB) curing. 57 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Radiation curing in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrancken, A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; what is radiation curing; history; radiation curable resins (with properties of products); ultraviolet and electron beam curing; photoinitiation and the ultraviolet light curing process; electron beam curing (initiation; electron beam accelerators); end uses (graphic arts; wood finishing; paper upgrading; adhesives; metal finishing; electronic chemical; floor coatings). (U.K.)

  19. Agency and Design: Pavement Failure in the Transmilenio Project, Bogotá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    the physical mis-working, can be depicted as a crack in the network of relations that supported the agency of the concrete. In the following paper we both discuss theory and case in the light of each other. Of special interest are the questions: how is responsibility in a complex relation of consultants...... provides an interesting point of departure because design and building of infrastructures can be understood as a complex process by which agency is configured in physical features or non-human actors. In this case the concrete pavement can be conceptualized as a non-human actor and the failure, more than...

  20. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  1. Texas flexible pavements overlays : review and analysis of existing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Proper calibration of pavement design and rehabilitation performance models to : conditions in Texas is essential for cost-effective flexible pavement design. The degree of : excellence with which TxDOTs pavement design models is calibrated will d...

  2. Preliminary In-Situ Evaluation of an Innovative, Semi-Flexible Pavement Wearing Course Mixture Using Fast Falling Weight Deflectometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, Chiara; Betti, Giacomo; Giuffrè, Tullio; Marradi, Alessandro

    2018-04-16

    In the last forty, years semi-flexible pavements have been successfully employed, especially in those areas subjected to heavy and slow-moving loads. They usually comprise a wearing course of Grouted Macadam, a composite pavement material that provides significant advantages in comparison to both concrete and asphalt pavements. On the other hand, the laying process of this material is a two-stage operation, and the realization complexity leads to long realization times and high initial costs. Therefore, the use of semi-flexible pavements has been limited to some fields of application and areas. Recently, an innovative material has been developed to be used as an alternative to Grouted Macadam for semi-flexible pavement wearing course realization. This material should provide similar or even superior characteristics compared to traditional Grouted Macadam. This will reduce semi-flexible pavement construction time and avoid the need for dividing the laying process. This paper presents an experimental program involving the use of FastFWD, as an APT device, to evaluate in-situ properties and performance of this material. The achieved results regarding the validation of this new material by means of FastFWD appear promising both in terms of the material's properties and resistance to dynamic load repetitions.

  3. Preliminary In-Situ Evaluation of an Innovative, Semi-Flexible Pavement Wearing Course Mixture Using Fast Falling Weight Deflectometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last forty, years semi-flexible pavements have been successfully employed, especially in those areas subjected to heavy and slow-moving loads. They usually comprise a wearing course of Grouted Macadam, a composite pavement material that provides significant advantages in comparison to both concrete and asphalt pavements. On the other hand, the laying process of this material is a two-stage operation, and the realization complexity leads to long realization times and high initial costs. Therefore, the use of semi-flexible pavements has been limited to some fields of application and areas. Recently, an innovative material has been developed to be used as an alternative to Grouted Macadam for semi-flexible pavement wearing course realization. This material should provide similar or even superior characteristics compared to traditional Grouted Macadam. This will reduce semi-flexible pavement construction time and avoid the need for dividing the laying process. This paper presents an experimental program involving the use of FastFWD, as an APT device, to evaluate in-situ properties and performance of this material. The achieved results regarding the validation of this new material by means of FastFWD appear promising both in terms of the material’s properties and resistance to dynamic load repetitions.

  4. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF COMPLEX-MODIFIED SAND ASPHALT CONCRETE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use sand asphalt concrete as a material for protection of asphalt concrete and cement concrete road pavements against affection of external destructive factors. Advantages and disadvantages of sand asphalt concrete road pavements have been determined in the paper. The paper provides recommendations on improvement of sand asphalt concrete properties and contains an analysis of possible variants for usage of complex-modified sand asphalt concrete in the road construction. It has been noted that according to its potentially possible physical and mechanical properties activated quartz sand being micro-reinforced by dispersive industrial wastes is considered as an efficient component for creation of constructive layers in road asphalt concrete pavements. The paper reveals only specific aspects of the efficient application of quartz sand in road asphalt concrete. The subject of the paper loоks rather interesting for regions where there are no rock deposits for obtaining broken-stone ballast but there is rather significant spreading of local quarts sand. Its successful application is connected with the necessity to develop special equipment for physical and chemical activation of sand grain surface that permits strongly to increase an adhesive strength in the area of phase separation within the “bitumen–SiO2” system. The considered problem is a topical one and its solution will make it possible to local sand in a maximum way and partially to exclude application of broken stone in road construction.

  5. Comparison of accelerated pavement test results with long term pavement behaviour and performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the following:how accelerated pavement testing predictions compare with actual road behaviour and performance the relative influences of load and environmental factors on pavement deterioration and how well...

  6. Calibration of full-scale accelerated pavement testing data using long-term pavement performance data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    VdM Steyn, WJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) has always been conducted with the objective of improving the understanding of real pavements under real traffic and environmental conditions. While APT provides an accelerated view of some of the major structural...

  7. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume IV, pavement evaluation tools-data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The overarching goal of the MoDOT Pavement Preservation Research Program, Task 3: Pavement Evaluation Tools Data : Collection Methods was to identify and evaluate methods to rapidly obtain network-level and project-level information relevant to :...

  8. Verification of mechanistic-empirical design models for flexible pavements through accelerated pavement testing : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed by the : highway departments of Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri, has supported an accelerated : pavement testing (APT) project to validate several models incorporated in the NCHRP :...

  9. Verification of mechanistic-empirical design models for flexible pavements through accelerated pavement testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled Fund Program, financed by the highway : departments of Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri, has supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project to : validate several models incorporated in the NCH...

  10. Advanced Pavement Design: Finite Element Modeling for Rigid Pavement Joints, Report II: Model Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hammons, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to obtain data on the response of the ng'id pavement slab-joint-foundation system by conducting laboratory-scale experiments on jointed rigid pavement models...

  11. An integrated pavement data management and feedback system (PAMS) : evaluation of pavement condition rating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of a method for use in the Highway Needs Study pavement condition rating. The methods by which the Department generates and manages pavement condition data in the overall process of providing a network of highways ...

  12. Existing pavement input information for the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate the Iowa Department of Transportations (DOTs) existing Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) with respect to the input information required for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Des...

  13. Integration and Evaluation of Automated Pavement Distress Data in INDOT’s Pavement Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This study was in two parts. The first part established and demonstrated a framework for pavement data integration. This is critical for fulfilling QC/QA needs of INDOTs pavement management system, because the precision of the physical location re...

  14. Effects of Elevated Temperature on Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the results of investigation of the effects of elevated temperatures on the compressive strength of Grade 40 concrete. A total of thirty cube specimens were cast, cured in water at ambient temperature in the laboratory and subjected to various temperature regimes before testing. A concrete mix of 1:1:3 ...

  15. Factors Affecting Pavement Surface and Evaluation Rating Accuracy and Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Sharlan R; Haddock, John E

    2018-01-01

    The collection of sufficient, accurate, and consistent pavement condition data is essential to an effective pavement management system. Condition data drive a variety of pavement management tasks such as: • Predicting future pavement performance• Identifying current and future maintenance and rehabilitation needs • Estimating budget needs and requirements • Reporting to decision makers • Selecting appropriate pavement management tools Pavement condition data are represented at either th...

  16. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmikanth Premkumar; William R. Vavrik

    2016-01-01

    Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway) with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS) methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) are used by th...

  17. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume III, development of pavement family and treatment performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Pavement performance models describe the deterioration behavior of pavements. They are essential in a pavement management : system if the goal is to make more objective, reliable, and cost-effective decisions regarding the timing and nature of paveme...

  18. Using Tire/Pavement Interface Noise Results to Define Statistically Similar Bituminous Pavements in Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, John; Haas, Edwin; Bennert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) utilized the On-Board Sound Intensity Method in Massachusetts to evaluate seven Open-Graded Friction Courses (OGFC) and eight Asphalt Rubber Gap Graded (ARGG) pavements for MassDOT. Since major concerns regarding pavement selection in the northeast revolve around winter conditions and winter maintenance, if noise level similarities could be found between ARGG and OGFC pavements, pavement engineers would be able ...

  19. Microcracking and durability of high strength concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yssorche, M.P.

    1995-07-01

    Durability of 28 days compressive strength concrete of 20 to 120 MPa has been studied. The ability of concrete to transport aggressive agents has been determined for four properties: the air permeability, the chloride diffusivity, the water absorption and the carbonation. A chloride migration test for high and very high strength concrete (HSC and VHSC) has been built. The relationship between transport properties and the compressive strength after one and 28 days of humid curing has always the same shape: transport decreases when strength increases. However, transport properties often vary in the ordinary concrete field. Beyond, the domain is much more limited. The relationship between transport properties and strength valid for ordinary concrete can not be simply extrapolated for HSC and VHSC. To determine the part of microcracking of HSC and VHSC, concrete behaviour stored in two mediums has been studied: the ones shaming the storing condition of concrete in auto-desiccation, the others reproducing the storing conditions of concrete in desiccation. Auto-desiccation (measuring relative humidity at balance) and desiccation (measuring mass losses) have been showed. Microcracks and shrinkage strains have been measured. It has been showed that auto-desiccation microcracks proving in HSC or VHSC don't question the durability. Microcracks, as for permeability, do not develop between 28 days and one year. On the contrary, desiccation microcracks observed in HSC and VHSC, increase with transport properties between 28 days and 1.5 year. Thus, a bulk concrete is always more durable than a cover concrete. At last, the good influence of increase of curing of 1 to 28 days on the transport of all concretes has been emphasized. (author)

  20. Pavement Preservation for Elected Officials: The Inside Story of Pavement Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This session is intended to provide elected officials and practitioners with an introduction to the concept of pavement preservation and its applicability within public agencies. Topics include definitions, budget planning, pavement life, road networks, alternative strategies, pavement distresses, guidelines and preservation treatments.

  1. Structural and mechanical study of concrete made from cementitious materials of low environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A. K.; Montaño, A. M.; González, C. P.; Santos, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work shows the results obtained by replacing Type I Portland®, by cementitious geopolymers materials, derived from minerals, in concrete mixtures. Synthesis of both geopolymers through alkaline activation of two alluminosilicates: Bentonite and Pumice with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). XRD, SEM and XRDE are used to structural study of new geopolymers. Concrete mixtures with replacement of Portland have 10% and 30% of geopolymer. Finally, concrete mortars formed were mechanically analysed according to ICONTEC 220 at 7, 14, 28, 41, 90 and 120 days of cure. Results shows that compressive strength of concrete from Bentonite and Pumice are almost the same for the standard concrete at 28 days of cure. At 90 days of cure, compression resistance of concrete from Pumice at 10% is even higher than those that standard concrete shows.

  2. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  3. Concrete with steel furnace slag and fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Steel furnace slag (SFS) is an industrial by-product material that can contain free calcium oxide (CaO) and free magnesium oxide (MgO), both : of which can cause significant expansion when hydrated. SFS aggregates are therefore not commonly used in c...

  4. Nanotechnology-based system for damage-resistant concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The focus of this study was to explore the use of nanotechnology-based nanofilaments, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs), as reinforcement for improving the mechanical properties of Portland cement paste and creating multifunctiona...

  5. Fracture in high performance fibre reinforced concrete pavement materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available of the study is that the accuracy of design models for UTCRCP can benefit from the adoption of fracture mechanics concepts. The experimental framework for this study includes fracture experiments under both monotonic and cyclic loading, on specimens...

  6. Developing Area of Concrete Pavements and Transportation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The objectives are: analyze scope of work currently performed by the Bureau of Materials, and understand , based on facts available, current mission of the Bureau of Materials; to understand past and current tasks performed by CAIT for NJDOT and to e...

  7. The applicability of alkaline-resistant glass fiber in cement mortar of road pavement: Corrosion mechanism and performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xiaochun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main technical requirements of road pavement concrete are high flexural strength and fatigue durability. Adding glass fiber into concrete could greatly increase flexural strength and wearing resistance of concrete. However, glass fiber has the great potential of corrosion during the cement hydration, which will directly affect the long-term performance and strength stability. In this paper, accelerated corrosion experiments have been done to find out the corrosion mechanism and property of alkali-resistant glass fiber in cement mortar. The applicability and practicability of alkaline-resistant glass fiber in road concrete have been illustrated in the analysis of flexural strength changing trend of cement mortar mixed with different proportions of activated additives to protect the corrosion of glass fiber by cement mortar. The results have shown that a 30% addition of fly ash or 10% addition of silica fume to cement matrix could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of alkali-resistant glass fiber. The optimal mixing amount of alkali-resistant glass fiber should be about 1.0 kg/m3 in consideration of ensuring the compressive strength of reinforced concrete in road pavement. The closest-packing method has been adopted in the mixture ratio design of alkali-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete, not only to reduce the alkalinity of the cement matrix through large amount addition of activated additives but also to greatly enhance the flexural performance of concrete with the split pressure ratio improvement of 12.5–16.7%. The results suggested a prosperous application prospect for alkaline-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete in road pavement.

  8. Applications of radioactive methods in cement concrete testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinakaran, M.; Vijayaraghavan, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Basic principles regarding the neutron moderation technique and the successful application of this technique for determining the moisture and cement content in hardened concrete are briefly discussed. Since fast neutrons are converted into slow thermal neutrons by elastic scattering in the presence of hydrogen nuclei, it is possible to determine the moisture content in hardened cement concrete using precalibrated relationships. Also since most of the hydrogenous matter in concrete pertains to non-fixed water and hydrated cement compounds, an analysis of slow neutron counts on a sample at different non-fixed moisture contents make the estimation of cement content possible using the mathematical relationship between cement content, degree of hydration and the equivalent moisture content. The method developed is quick, non-destructive, and repeatable at the same time giving better accuracy when compared to conventional chemical methods. Use was also made of gamma ray transmission method for determining the differential density at various depths in a cement concrete pavement making use of cores cut from the pavement. Further, development proposed for determination of density at different depths of pavement in situ is also discussed. (auth.)

  9. Long Life Pavements; Firmes de larga duracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos Moreno, A.; Marron Fernandez, J. O.; Perez Ayuso, J.

    2009-07-01

    The existence of long-life pavements is not new; they have been built in Europe and the United States for decades. In fact, the concept arises from the observation of in-service roads; it was verified how particular pavements, initially designed for a 20-year service life, did not seem to have reduced the bearing capacity along the time, and its maintenance necessities had been exclusively focused on the wearing course. The base idea of long-life pavements is the existence of a fatigue threshold below which the damage produced by each load application is, in practice, zero or below the healing potential of the asphalt mix. The use practice of long-life pavements design considers a pavements constituted by three asphalt layers, each one with a very specific role: a wearing course that provides with the surface characteristics, an intermediate course that provides with most of the structural capacity and a base course that provides with the fatigue resistance. Furthermore, one of the particularities is the design against specific distress mechanisms. Maintenance strategy also presents specific particularities for long-life pavements. It is essentially focused on the detection of surface deterioration, and the appropriate and timely repair, before the damage extends beyond the wearing course, putting into risk the structural integrity of the pavement. Nowadays, this new way to conceive the design, the construction and the maintenance of road pavements, constitutes one of the main challenges for pavement engineering worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Review of concrete properties for prestressed concrete pressure vesssels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.

    1976-10-01

    The desire for increasing power output along with safety requirements has resulted in consideration of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel (PCPV) for most current nuclear reactor systems, as well as for the very-high-temperature reactor for process heat and as primary pressure vessels for coal conversion systems. Results are presented of a literature review to ascertain current knowledge regarding plain concrete properties under conditions imposed by a mass concrete structure such as PCRV. The effects of high temperature on such properties as strength, elasticity, and creep are discussed, as well as changes in thermal properties, multiaxial behavior, and the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the observed behavior. In addition, the effects of radiation and moisture migration are discussed. It is concluded that testing results found in the technical literature show much disagreement as to the effects of temperature on concrete properties. The variations in concrete mixtures, curing and testing procedures, age at loading, and moisture conditions during exposure and testing are some of the reasons for such disagreement. Test results must be limited, in most cases, to the materials and conditions of a given test rather than applied to such a general class of materials such as concrete. It is also concluded that sustained exposure of normal concretes to current PCRV operating conditions will not result in any significant loss of properties. However, lack of knowledge regarding effects of temperatures exceeding 100 0 C (212 0 F), moisture migration, and multiaxial behavior precludes a statement advocating operation beyond current design limits. The report includes recommendations for future research on concrete for PCPVs

  11. X-ray-induced acoustic computed tomography of concrete infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanshan; Ramseyer, Chris; Samant, Pratik; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2018-02-01

    X-ray-induced Acoustic Computed Tomography (XACT) takes advantage of both X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single imaging modality by making use of the thermoacoustic effect. In XACT, X-ray absorption by defects and other structures in concrete create thermally induced pressure jumps that launch ultrasonic waves, which are then received by acoustic detectors to form images. In this research, XACT imaging was used to non-destructively test and identify defects in concrete. For concrete structures, we conclude that XACT imaging allows multiscale imaging at depths ranging from centimeters to meters, with spatial resolutions from sub-millimeter to centimeters. XACT imaging also holds promise for single-side testing of concrete infrastructure and provides an optimal solution for nondestructive inspection of existing bridges, pavement, nuclear power plants, and other concrete infrastructure.

  12. Long term creep behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an experimental investigation to evaluate the long term creep behavior of concrete subjected to sustained uniaxial loads for an extended period of time at 75 0 F. The factors investigated were (1) curing time (90, 183, and 365 days); (2) curing history (as-cast and air-dried); and (3) uniaxial stress (600 and 2400 psi). The experimental investigation applied uniaxial compressive loads to cylindrical concrete specimens and measured strains with vibrating wire strain gages that were cast in the concrete specimen along the axial and radial axes. Specimens cured for 90 days prior to loading were subjected to a sustained load for a period of one year, at which time the loads were removed; the specimens which were cured for 183 or 365 days, however, were not unloaded and have been under load for 5 and 4.5 years, respectively. The effect of each of the above factors on the instantaneous and creep behavior is discussed and the long term creep behavior of the specimens cured for 183 or 365 days is evaluated. The findings of these evaluations are summarized. (17 figures, 10 tables) (U.S.)

  13. Experimental investigation of photocatalytic effects of concrete in air purification adopting entire concrete waste reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yidong; Chen, Wei; Jin, Ruoyu; Shen, Jiansheng; Smallbone, Kirsty; Yan, Chunyang; Hu, Lei

    2018-07-05

    This research investigated the capacities of recycled aggregate concrete adopting entire concrete waste reuse model in degrading NO 2. Two major issues within environmental sustainability were addressed: concrete waste reuse rate and mitigation of hazards substances in the polluted air. The study consisted of two stages: identification of proper replacement rates of recycled concrete wastes in new concrete mixture design, and the evaluation of photocatalytic performance of recycled aggregate concrete in degrading NO 2 . It was found that replacement rates up to 3%, 30%, and 50% for recycled power, recycled fine aggregate, and recycled coarse aggregate respectively could be applied in concrete mixture design without deteriorating concrete strength. Recycled aggregates contained both positive attributes ("internal curing") and negative effects (e.g., lower hardness) to concrete properties. It was found that 30%-50% of natural coarse aggregate replaced by recycled coarse aggregates coated with TiO 2 would significantly improve the photocatalytic performance of concrete measured by degradation rate of NO 2 . Micro-structures of recycled aggregates observed under microscope indicated that soaking recycled aggregates in TiO 2 solution resulted in whiskers that filled the porosity within recycled aggregates which enhanced concrete strength. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Beam in on curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, Dr.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam curing of paints and allied materials is discussed. Examples of applications are: silicone papers; painting of metal; bonding of flake adhesives; bonding of grinding media (binders); paints for external uses; painting shaped parts; bi-reactive painting systems. An example is given of the calculation of the cost of irradiation. (U.K.)

  15. Curing the queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, Maartje Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we study several problems related to the management of healthcare and the cure of disease. In each chapter a hospital capacity distribution problem is analyzed using techniques from operations research, also known as mathematical decision theory. The problems considered are

  16. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  17. Evaluating life cycle costs of perpetual pavements in China using operational pavement management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway transportation is considered as vital factor in China’s economic growth; many high grade highways have been constructed in China during the last decades. The research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology have been deployed in China since 2000. The semi-rigid pavement has been normally considered as typical pavement of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different Chinese perpetual pavements using operational pavement management system and to examine its suitability for use in the design and construction of more economical and durable pavements. It has been found that the use of thin asphalt layers over semi-rigid pavement foundation in PP structure will create more sustainable, economical, and durable PP structures in comparison with typical thick asphalt layers PP structures.

  18. Laboratory Investigation for the Effects of Using Fiber Reinforcement in Rigid Pavements on Compressive and Flexural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abbas Jasim Alsabbagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigid pavements provide durable service life and have remarkable application under heavy traffic loading. But, though the rigid pavements have several advantages, it suffers from some disadvantages that are relating with concrete is brittle material. One solution have been carried out in order to overcome this problem is using fibers reinforced to improve tensile strength and provides ductility. The main objective of this study is to investigating the effects of using fiber reinforced concrete (Polyvinyl alcohol and steel fiber in Rigid Pavements on Compressive and Flexural Properties. The study results shown the compressive strength has been increased by (20% when adding (0.5% of Polyvinyl alcohol concrete mixture. While modulus of elasticity has been decreasing by (23% when adding the same content of Polyvinyl alcohol. On the other hand, the study results show that using steel fiber (1.5% in concrete mixtures increase compressive strength by more than 145%.However modulus of elasticity slightly decrease. Also the addition of PVA fiber by 0.5% increase of about (51% in the Modulus of Rupture, while using steel fiber (1.5% increase Modulus of Rupture by more than (24%.

  19. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  20. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballari, M.M., E-mail: ballari@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brouwers, H.J.H., E-mail: jos.brouwers@tue.nl [Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► The results of a demonstration project for photocatalytic pavement are shown. ► The photocatalytic performance was studied in a street as well as on lab scale. ► The outdoor monitoring was performed in different seasons and weather conditions. ► The NO{sub x} concentration was in average 19% lowered by the photocatalytic street. ► Under ideal weather conditions the NO{sub x} reduction reached up to 45%. -- Abstract: Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO{sub 2} over a length of 150 m (“DeNO{sub x} street”). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with normal paving blocks (“Control street”). The outdoor monitoring was done during 26 days for a period exceeding one year, and measured parameters included traffic intensity, NO, NO{sub 2} and ozone concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and the visible and UV light irradiance. Prior and parallel to these field measurements, the used blocks were also measured in the lab to assess their performance. The NO{sub x} concentration was, on average, 19% (considering the whole day) and 28% (considering only afternoons) lower than the obtained values in the Control street. Under ideal weather conditions (high radiation and low relative humidity) a NO{sub x} concentration decrease of 45% could be observed.