WorldWideScience

Sample records for curie incoming european

  1. European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

  2. Income insurance in European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Skees, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The agricultural risk environment in Europe is changing, for example because of WTO agreements and governments increasingly withdrawing from disaster assistance in case of catastrophic events. In this context, some form of income insurance may be a useful risk management tool for farmers. Insuring f

  3. Job and income satisfaction among older Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsang, E.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Michalos, A.

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes a study by Bonsang and van Soest (2012) using data on individuals of ages 50 and older from 11 European countries to analyze satisfaction with household income and job satisfaction, both contributing substantially to overall well-being (Van Praag & Ferrer-i-Carbonell, 2008).

  4. Introduction to the EC's Marie Curie Initial Training Network (MC-ITN) project: Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy (PARTNER)

    CERN Document Server

    Dosanjh, Manjit

    2013-01-01

    PARTNER (Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy) is a project funded by the European Commission’s Marie Curie-ITN funding scheme through the ENLIGHT Platform for 5.6 million Euro. PARTNER has brought together academic institutes, research centres and leading European companies, focusing in particular on a specialized radiotherapy (RT) called hadron therapy (HT), interchangeably referred to as particle therapy (PT). The ultimate goal of HT is to deliver more effective treatment to cancer patients leading to major improvement in the health of citizens. In Europe, several hundred million Euro have been invested, since the beginning of this century, in PT. In this decade, the use of HT is rapidly growing across Europe, and there is an urgent need for qualified researchers from a range of disciplines to work on its translational research. In response to this need, the European community of HT, and in particular 10 leading academic institutes, research centres, companies and small and medium-sized en...

  5. Attracting Talented Researchers to Ireland: A review of The European Marie Curie Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Giordani, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED The purpose of this publication is to illustrate how researchers in academia and industry in Ireland have successfully secured funding from Europe in the Marie Curie Programme and to highlight the impact this has had in furthering their R&D ambitions.

  6. Marie Curie; Marie Curie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotereau, J.

    2011-07-01

    The legend has only retained from Marie Curie (1867-1934) the image of a hard and brilliant worker, pioneer in the radioactivity domain, and who awarded twice the Nobel Price. Behind the scientist, there is a women, Marya Salomea Sklodowska, the 'Polish', who was considered during some time as an 'alien', an 'atheistic intellectual', an 'emancipated women'. When she died alone in July 1934, after an exhausting life of labour, her funeral led to no official ceremony or speech. This small book summarizes the biography of the most famous female scientist in the world

  7. Introduction to the EC's Marie Curie Initial Training Network (MC-ITN) project: Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy (PARTNER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Magrin, Giulio

    2013-07-01

    PARTNER (Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy) is a project funded by the European Commission's Marie Curie-ITN funding scheme through the ENLIGHT Platform for 5.6 million Euro. PARTNER has brought together academic institutes, research centres and leading European companies, focusing in particular on a specialized radiotherapy (RT) called hadron therapy (HT), interchangeably referred to as particle therapy (PT). The ultimate goal of HT is to deliver more effective treatment to cancer patients leading to major improvement in the health of citizens. In Europe, several hundred million Euro have been invested, since the beginning of this century, in PT. In this decade, the use of HT is rapidly growing across Europe, and there is an urgent need for qualified researchers from a range of disciplines to work on its translational research. In response to this need, the European community of HT, and in particular 10 leading academic institutes, research centres, companies and small and medium-sized enterprises, joined together to form the PARTNER consortium. All partners have international reputations in the diverse but complementary fields associated with PT: clinical, radiobiological and technological. Thus the network incorporates a unique set of competencies, expertise, infrastructures and training possibilities. This paper describes the status and needs of PT research in Europe, the importance of and challenges associated with the creation of a training network, the objectives, the initial results, and the expected long-term benefits of the PARTNER initiative.

  8. Marie Curie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serna M., Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Maria Sklodowska--Marie Curie--fue pionera en la ciencia de la radiactividad; es mejor conocida como la descubridora de los elementos radiactivos polonio y radio, y como el primer cientifico en ganar dos premios Nobel: Fisica y Quimica...

  9. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within th...

  10. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being....... the family. However, it is still an open ended question, if this means an equal distribution of economic well-being within the family. The paper exercises data from the European Community Household Panel and covers the situation in most of the European Community countries. In most countries husbands economic...

  11. Wives' work and income distribution in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pasqua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Women's participation in the labour market varies substantially across Europe. While female participation rates are usually high in Northern countries, they decline as one moves South, where more traditional household models still predominate and women devote more time to domestic rather than to labour-market activities. At the same time, income is more equally distributed in Northern than in Southern European countries. This paper takes a cross-country approach to analyse the impact of wives' work on income distribution, using the last wave of the ECHP (European Community Household Panel data set. Decompositions of inequality measures and counterfactual distributions are used to assess the impact of higher female employment rates on inequality in household income distribution. The decomposition of inequality by household type shows that income in all the countries studied is distributed more equally among dual-earner than among male-breadwinner households. Since the percentage of dual-earner families is higher in Northern European countries, inequality is lower. Sub-group analysis also shows that within-group inequality is the main source of inequality in all countries concerned, while between-groups inequality has a lower impact. Decomposition by sources of income reveals that, in European countries, women's earnings account for a lower proportion of overall inequality than men's earnings and that the impact of women's work on income distribution is mainly due to the "employment effect": wherever women work less, inequality in women's earnings distribution is higher, due to the higher number of zero values in the distribution. Moreover, analysis of inequality among working wives shows that female labour income is often distributed more equally where women's employment rate is higher. Finally, counterfactual distributions are used to show that an increase in women's participation in the labour market can cause a decrease in household income

  12. Madame Curie

    CERN Document Server

    Eve, Curie

    1942-01-01

    Marie Curie is a women who changed the face of science for all time, not just because of her discovery of the radioactive element Radium and her work with it, but because of her incredible strides forward in a such a male dominated world as laboratory science at the turn of the 19th century. This is the Madame Curie many people know but here is a biography written by her daughter Eve that shows her human side, in a way that can only be viewed and admired from a family member describing her as a caring mother, devoted and passionate wife. Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive.

  13. Relative income distribution in six European countries: Market and disposable income

    OpenAIRE

    Petrarca, Ilaria; Ricciuti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between income inequality and polarization is an empirical fact: a change in equality might occur together with a change in polarization. At the same time, polarization might emerge while inequality remains constant. The outcome of this process entails relevant information about the evolution of the income distribution. We exploit the LIS micro-data to perform a relative distribution analysis for six European countries. Our aim is describing how both the market and the dispos...

  14. Differential pricing of new pharmaceuticals in lower income European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Annemans, Lieven; Garrison, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies adjust the pricing strategy of innovative medicines to the imperatives of their major markets. The ability of payers to influence the ex-factory price of new drugs depends on country population size and income per capita, among other factors. Differential pricing based on Ramsey principles is a 'second-best' solution to correct the imperfections of the global market for innovative pharmaceuticals, and it is also consistent with standard norms of equity. This analysis summarizes the boundaries of differential pharmaceutical pricing for policymakers, payers and other stakeholders in lower-income countries, with special focus on Central-Eastern Europe, and describes the feasibility and implications of potential solutions to ensure lower pharmaceutical prices as compared to higher-income countries. European stakeholders, especially in Central-Eastern Europe and at the EU level, should understand the implications of increased transparency of pricing and should develop solutions to prevent the limited accessibility of new medicines in lower-income countries.

  15. Convergence and Distributions of Income in Large European Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kruszka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an empirical analysis of the convergence process in the years 1993–2008 and the impact of economic growth on income distribution in selected European Union countries. Considering this fact one can state that research was conducted from the perspective of EU citizens. The crucial hypothesis of this paper is statement that convergence is differently perceived in terms of entire economies, and gives a different picture from the perspective of the single citizen of the selected country. The analysis was carried out in several stages. Initially, the authors referred to the classical convergence hypotheses (unconditional β and σ convergence within the EU-27, then the same assumptions were examined taking into account population – weighted indicators. However, the main aim of research undertaken in this study was to investigate the individual within – country distribution of income for the initial and final period, which allowed to answer the question whether faster growth of the ‘new EU’ was accompanied by reduction of inequalities within analyzed economic systems.

  16. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  17. Income distribution in the European Union versus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Maciej; Duczmal, Rafał; Kutner, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    We prove that the refined approach-our extension of the Yakovenko et al. formalism-is universal in the sense that it describes well both household incomes in the European Union and individual incomes in the United States for all income social classes. This formalism, supplemented in this work by the entropy analysis, allowed the study of the impact of the recent world-wide financial crisis on the annual incomes of different income social classes. Hence, we find the most painful impact of the crisis on incomes of all income social classes. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a possible market crisis precursor.

  18. Satisfaction with Job and Income among Older Individuals across European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsang, Eric; van Soest, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Using data on individuals of age 50 and older from 11 European countries, we analyze two economic aspects of subjective well-being of older Europeans: satisfaction with household income, and job satisfaction. Both have been shown to contribute substantially to overall well-being (satisfaction with life or happiness). We use anchoring vignettes to…

  19. Satisfaction with Job and Income among Older Individuals across European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsang, Eric; van Soest, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Using data on individuals of age 50 and older from 11 European countries, we analyze two economic aspects of subjective well-being of older Europeans: satisfaction with household income, and job satisfaction. Both have been shown to contribute substantially to overall well-being (satisfaction with life or happiness). We use anchoring vignettes to…

  20. Introduction to the EC's Marie Curie Initial Training Network project: The European training network in digital medical imaging for radiotherapy (ENTERVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit eDosanjh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2015, the ENTERVISION Marie Curie Initial Training Network has been training 15 young researchers coming from a variety of backgrounds on topics ranging from in-beam Positron Emission Tomography or Single Particle Tomography techniques, to adaptive treatment planning, optical imaging, Monte Carlo simulations, biological phantom design. This article covers the main research activities, as well as the training scheme implemented by the participating institutes, which included academia, research, and industry.

  1. Introduction to the EC's Marie Curie Initial Training Network Project: The European Training Network in Digital Medical Imaging for Radiotherapy (ENTERVISION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Navin, Sparsh

    2015-01-01

    Between 2011 and 2015, the ENTERVISION Marie Curie Initial Training Network has been training 15 young researchers from a variety of backgrounds on topics ranging from in-beam Positron Emission Tomography or Single Particle Tomography techniques, to adaptive treatment planning, optical imaging, Monte Carlo simulations and biological phantom design. This article covers the main research activities, as well as the training scheme implemented by the participating institutes, which included academia, research, and industry.

  2. Introduction to the EC’s Marie Curie Initial Training Network Project: The European Training Network in Digital Medical Imaging for Radiotherapy (ENTERVISION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Navin, Sparsh

    2015-01-01

    Between 2011 and 2015, the ENTERVISION Marie Curie Initial Training Network has been training 15 young researchers from a variety of backgrounds on topics ranging from in-beam Positron Emission Tomography or Single Particle Tomography techniques, to adaptive treatment planning, optical imaging, Monte Carlo simulations and biological phantom design. This article covers the main research activities, as well as the training scheme implemented by the participating institutes, which included academia, research, and industry. PMID:26697403

  3. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  4. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  5. Pierre y Marie Curie

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, Juan de Dios; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Pocas veces se encuentran dos vidas tan profundamente identificadas como las de Pierre Curie y María Sklodowska.Pierre Curie, nació en París el 15 de mayo de 1859; realiza sus estudios preparatorios privadamente, hasta que a los 16 años aprueba su bachillerato, para seguir luego sus estudios en la Facultad de Ciencias donde obtiene su licenciatura en Física en 1877. Su amor a las ciencias naturales parece haberlo adquirido de su padre, Eugenio, con quien realiza sus primeras experiencias. Con...

  6. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  7. Tracing the Interface Between Numerical Flexibility and Income Security for European Youth during the Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Finn, Mairéad

    This paper traces convergences in terms of flexibility and security with a focus on younger and older youth in European countries. Youth were one of the groups hardest hit by the economic crisis. Young people in most European countries are more likely to work on temporary contracts of limited...... underexplored. This allows us to assess if developments during the economic crisis have improved or rather deteriorated the situation of youth with regard to different dimension of flexibility and security....... benefit schemes. This paper adopts a comparative European approach in order to shed light on the interaction between flexibility and income security, for youth. Special extracts of the aggregate European Labour Force Survey data are used to trace the development of (involuntary) temporary employment among...

  8. Multiple deprivation, income and poverty in Italy: an analysis based on European Community Household Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brasini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine both the diffusion and intensity of poverty in Italy by utilising two kinds of approach. The first is the usual one, which employs a threshold defined in terms of income in order to identify the poor families. The second, referring to the definition of functioning introduced by Sen, identifies the poor families on the basis of living conditions. The use of this specific approach allows us to take into account new aspects of the phenomenon that the income approach overcame. Our analyses refer to the results of the second wave of the European Community Household Panel, which was delivered in 1995. Regarding income poverty, a logistic discriminant analysis has been performed in order to detect the significantly connected variables, as for the living conditions approach. The latter approach is more effective in the detection of the family state of privation than the former.

  9. Stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in central and eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Gozgor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate stochastic properties of the consumption-income ratios in eleven central and eastern European (CEE countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The heterogeneous panel unit root tests are used to account for cross-sectional dependence and the Modified Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test over the period March 1997-September 2012. The half-lives are also calculated as to find the strong mean-reversion in the consumption income ratio for nine of eleven CEE economies; and the exceptions are Croatia and Slovenia. In other words, empirical findings provide significant support for the existence of hypothesis that the consumption-income ratio is a mean reversion. Accordingly, the policy implications have permanent effects on the consumption of households only in Croatia and Slovenia.

  10. Income development of General Practitioners in eight European countries from 1975 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Zee Jouke

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gain insight into the international development of GP incomes over time through a comparative approach. The study is an extension of an earlier work (1975–1990, conducted in five yearly intervals. The research questions to be addressed in this paper are: 1 How can the remuneration system of GPs in a country be characterized? 2 How has the annual GP income developed over time in selected European countries? 3 What are the differences in GP incomes when differences in workload are taken into account? And 4 to what extent do remuneration systems, supply of GPs and gate-keeping contribute to the income position of GPs? Methods Data were collected for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Written sources, websites and country experts were consulted. The data for the years 1995 and 2000 were collected in 2004–2005. The data for 2005 were collected in 2006–2007. Results During the period 1975–1990, the income of GPs, corrected for inflation, declined in all the countries under review. During the period 1995–2005, the situation changed significantly: The income of UK GPs rose to the very top position. Besides this, the gap between the top end (UK and bottom end (Belgium widened considerably. Practice costs form about 50% of total revenues, regardless of the absolute level of revenues. Analysis based on income per patient leads to a different ranking of countries compared to the ranking based on annual income. In countries with a relatively large supply of GPs, income per hour is lower. The type of remuneration appeared to have no effect on the financial position of the GPs in the countries in this study. In countries with a gate-keeping system the average GP income was systematically higher compared to countries with a direct-access system. Conclusion There are substantial differences in the income of GPs among the countries included in this study. The

  11. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987–2008: a fixed effects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Hu (Yannan); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWhether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant

  12. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987–2008: a fixed effects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Hu (Yannan); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWhether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant

  13. PARTNER: A Marie Curie Initial Training Network for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN BULLETIN; Nathalie Hospital; Manuela Cirilli

    2011-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network.

  14. A jolly good call for Marie Curie Fellows

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A new funding opportunity to train young researchers has just been announced by the European Commission. One of the calls within FP7 Marie Curie Actions requests proposals for Initial Training Network (ITN) projects, with a deadline of 22 December 2009. Project proposals are strongly encouraged at CERN and authors can receive support and guidance from the Marie Curie Steering Group. Winnie Wong: "I wouldn’t have considered a PhD if I hadn’t been a Marie Curie fellow" Dan Savu: "It’s the best of both worlds: training plus working in an international organisation" ITN projects have one key aim: training. Academic and industrial partners work together to form a network to recruit and train Marie Curie Fellows. Fellows are young researchers (typically PhD-level) from any country who combine project-based research with tailor-made training programmes, ...

  15. Pierre curie, 1859-1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    2007-04-01

    The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background-his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years.

  16. CURIE: Cubesat Radio Interferometry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hurford, G. J.; Maruca, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pulupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    The CUbesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (CURIE) is a proposed two-element radio interferometer, based on proven and developed digital radio receivers and designed to fit within a Cubesat platform. CURIE will launch as a 6U Cubesat and then separate into two 3U Cubesats once in orbit. CURIE measures radio waves from 0.1-19MHz, which must be measured from space, as those frequencies fall below the cutoff imposed by Earth's ionosphere. The principal science objective for CURIE is to use radio interferometry to study radio burst emissions from solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere, providing observations important for our understanding of the heliospheric space weather environment. The influence of space weather can be felt at Earth and other planets, as radiation levels increase and lead to auroral activity and geomagnetic effects. CURIE will be able to determine the location and size of radio burst source regions and then to track their movement outward from the Sun. In addition to the primary objective CURIE will measure the gradients of the local ionospheric density and electron temperature on the spatial scale of a few kilometers, as well as create an improved map of the radio sky at these unexplored frequencies. A space based radio interferometry observatory has long been envisioned, in orbit around the Earth or the Moon, or on the far side of the Moon. Beyond its important science objectives, CURIE will prove that the concept of a dedicated space-based interferometer can be realized by using relatively cheap Cubesats. CURIE will therefore not only provide new important science results but also serve as a pathfinder in the development of new space-based radio observation techniques for helio- and astro-physics.

  17. Optimal Consumption and Investment with Labor Income and European/American Capital Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tolver Kronborg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the optimal consumption and investment strategy for an investor, endowed with labor income, searching to maximize utility from consumption and terminal wealth when facing a binding capital constraint of a European (constraint on terminal wealth or an American (constraint on the wealth process type. In both cases, the optimal strategy is proven to be of the option-based portfolio insurance type. The optimal strategy combines a long position in the optimal unrestricted allocation with a put option. In the American case, where the investor is restricted to fulfill a capital guarantee at every intermediate time point over the interval of optimization, we prove that the investor optimally changes his budget constraint for the unrestricted allocation whenever the constraint is active. The strategy is explained in a step-by-step manner, and numerical illustrations are presented in order to support intuition and to compare the restricted optimal strategy with the unrestricted optimal counterpart.

  18. Minimum income protection and European integration: trends and levels of minimum benefits in comparative perspective, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This article draws attention to the Europeanization of social policy and the development of minimum income protection in a large number of welfare democracies. The empirical analyses are based on unique institutional and comparative data on benefit levels from the Social Assistance and Minimum Income Protection Interim Dataset. There is some evidence of convergence in benefit levels among the European countries in the new millennium, but there is no clear proof of universal ambitions to fight poverty or of the existence of a single European social model. There are still welfare front-runners and those who lag behind in this regard, not only among industrial welfare democracies in general but also in Europe.

  19. Factors Affecting Maternal Care in an Income Breeder, the European Roe Deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reidar Andersen; Jean-Michel Gaillard; John D. C. Linnell; Patrick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    ...), which rely heavily on body reserves to raise their young. Roe deer, in contrast, are close to the income breeder end of the capital-income breeder continuum, and show high levels of maternal care. 2...

  20. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redmond, S; Woodhall, S; van den Broek, I;

    2015-01-01

    /EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study...... characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results: We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response...... consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men)....

  1. Should pharmacogenetics be incorporated in major depression treatment? Economic evaluation in high- and middle-income European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Bajo, Emanuele; Bigelli, Marco; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2012-01-10

    The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates response to SSRIs and side-effect burden. The aim of this study is to quantify the cost-utility of incorporating 5-HTTLPR genotyping in drug treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously reported a theoretical model to simulate antidepressant treatment with citalopram or bupropion for 12 weeks. The drugs were alternatively selected according to an 'as usual' algorithm or based on response and tolerability predicted by 5-HTTLPR profile. Here we apply this model to conduct a cost-utility analysis in three European regions with high GDP (Euro A), middle GDP (Euro B) and middle-high GDP (Euro C). In addition we test a verification scenario in which citalopram+bupropion augmentation is administered to individuals with the least favorable 5-HTTLPR genotype. Treatment outcomes are remission and Quality Adjusted-Life Weeks (QALW). Cost data (international $, year 2009) are retrieved from the World Health Organization (WHO) and national official sources. In base-case scenario incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) values are $1147 (Euro A), $1185 (Euro B) and $1178 (Euro C). From cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC), the probability of having an ICER value below WHO recommended cost-utility threshold (3 GDP per capita=$1926) is >90% in high-income countries (Euro A). In middle- income regions, these probabilities are income countries (Euro B). This simulation using data from 27 European states suggests that choosing antidepressant treatment from the results of 5-HTTLPR might be a cost-effective solution in high income countries. Its feasibility in middle income countries needs further research.

  2. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210006_07a: Prof. L. Maiani, Director General of CERN. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Function of Large-scale Facilities and Centres of Excellence". Photo 0210006_14a: Prof. L. Maiani, Director General of CERN. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Function of Large-scale Facilities and Centres of Excellence". Photo 0210006_22: Dr. David Plane (CERN) introducing Dr. Theodore Papazoglou from the European Commission. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Marie Curie Fellowships in the 6th Framework Programme". Photo 0210006_28a: Dr. Nora Brambilla, Vice-President of Marie Curie Fellow Association, INFN and Dept. of Physics, University of Milan. Addressing the Marie-Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Marie Curie Fellows Association". Photo 0210006_29a: Dr. Nora Brambilla, Vice-President of Marie Curie Fellow Association, INFN a...

  3. Marie Curie during ORT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Marie Curie rover drives down the rear ramp during Operational Readiness Test (ORT) 4.Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over thenext ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  4. Marie Curie during ORT6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Marie Curie sits on the lander petal prior to deployment during the pre launch Operations Readiness Test (ORT) 6.Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over thenext ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. The Marie Curie programme at the Institute of Archaeology 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Rehren

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marie Curie Early Stage Training (MEST projects, run by the European Commission, offer training opportunities to young scientists from EU member states and sometimes also from non-European countries. The Institute of Archaeology hosted one such project between 2004 and 2008, which is described here by its Principal Investigator.

  6. PARTNER: A Marie Curie Initial Training Network for hadron therapy (with english subtitles)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN BULLETIN; Manuela Cirilli; Nathalie Hospital

    2011-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network.

  7. PARTNER: A Marie Curie Initial Training Network for hadron therapy (with french subtitles)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN BULLETIN; Manuela Cirilli; Nathalie Hospital

    2011-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network.

  8. CURIE-TEMPERATURE "SLATER-PAULING CURVE"

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi, Y.; Hosohata, O.

    1988-01-01

    The systematic variation of the Curie-temperature "Slater-Pauling curve" has been explained for the first time on the basis of the finite-temperature theory of the local environment effect. The peculiarity of the Curie temperatures in Fe-V, Fe-Ni, and Ni-Mn alloys is elucidated by using the effective exchange couplings.

  9. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...

  10. Radium, Marie Curie and modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin-Joliot, H

    1998-11-01

    In 1898, the discovery of two new elements, polonium and radium, reawakened interest in the topic of uranic rays discovered 2 years before by H. Becquerel. Radioactivity, a name coined by Marie Curie, became a major research field for decades. The contrasting personalities of Pierre Curie, already a first-rank physicist, and of the young Marie Curie-Sklodowska as they undertook their common work are described. It is shown how a well-chosen quantitative method and a systematic approach combining physics and chemistry led to the discovery within less than 1 year. The special role of radium and the determination of its atomic weight by Marie Curie followed by her long-term program for accumulating pure radium salts are emphasized. The first woman with a full professorship at a French University, Marie Curie created and managed the Radium Institute.

  11. Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Altobelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI and Low and Middle Income (LMI States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates.

  12. Welfare state regimes and income-related health inequalities: A comparison of 23 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Eikemo (Terje); C. Bambra (Clare); K. Joyce; E. Dahl

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of income-related health inequalities varies between welfare regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern and Eastern). Specifically, it examined whether the Scandinavian welfare state regime has s

  13. Corporation taxes in the European Union: Slowly moving toward comprehensive business income taxation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cnossen (Sijbren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper surveys and evaluates the corporation tax systems of the Member States of the European Union on the basis of a comprehensive taxonomy of actual and potential regimes, which have as their base either profits; profits, interest and royalties; or economic rents. The current

  14. Pierre Curie: the anonymous neurosurgical contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Karen; Sabourin, Victor M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Carmel, Peter W; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    Pierre Curie, best known as a Nobel Laureate in Physics for his co-contributions to the field of radioactivity alongside research partner and wife Marie Curie, died suddenly in 1906 from a street accident in Paris. Tragically, his skull was crushed under the wheel of a horse-drawn carriage. This article attempts to honor the life and achievements of Pierre Curie, whose trailblazing work in radioactivity and piezoelectricity set into motion a wide range of technological developments that have culminated in the advent of numerous techniques used in neurological surgery today. These innovations include brachytherapy, Gamma Knife radiosurgery, focused ultrasound, and haptic feedback in robotic surgery.

  15. Curie surface of Borborema Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Raphael T.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Oksum, Erdinc

    2016-06-01

    The Curie surface interpreted from magnetic data through spatial frequency domain techniques is used to provide information on the thermal structure of Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is part of the neoproterozoic collision of an orogenic system situated between the São Francisco-Congo and São Luís-West Africa cratons, which formed the Gondwana Supercontinent. The Curie surface of Borborema Province varies from 18 to 59 km, which reveals the complexity in the crustal composition of the study area. The thermal structure shows different crustal blocks separated by the main shear zones, which corroborates the evolution model of allochthonous terranes. The Curie surface signature for the west portion of Pernambuco Shear Zone may indicate processes of mantle serpentinization, once the Curie isotherm is deeper than Mohorovic discontinuity. In this region, the amplitude of Bouguer anomaly decreases, which corroborates long wavelength anomaly observed in the magnetic anomaly. We interpreted this pattern as evidence of the Brasiliano-Pan-Africano's subduction/collision event. Earthquakes in the region are concentrated mainly in shallow Curie surface regions (less resistant crust) and in transition zones between warm and cold blocks. We calculated the horizontal gradient of the Curie depth to emphasize the signature of contact between the thermal blocks. These regions mark possible crustal discontinuities, and have high correlation with orogenic gold occurrence in the study area.

  16. Multilingualism - a European Union goal - and incoming exchange students' language learning and language use in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    Multilingualism, or plurilingualism, is a European Union goal, which is supposed to be realized through programs such as ERASMUS. This presentation is based on a three-year research project partly funded by the Nordic Council and seeking to determine which factors influence exchange students......' language learning and use in study abroad contexts. The study involves exchange students - but not language students - at four Scandinavian universities - two traditional ones and two specialised ones. Data for the project, which closes at the end of 2007, were collected through semi-structured individual...... interviews and subsequent tests. Students were interviewed three times during their first semester in Scandinavia and once more if they stayed for a second semester. Each interview concluded with two tests: a picture description test and a basic vocabulary test; all interviews were recorded. Findings...

  17. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2004-01-01

    Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie

  18. Women who Worked with Marie Curie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeard-Micault, Natalie

    2015-06-01

    Marie Curie directed a research laboratory for 28 years. Between 1906 and 1934, forty five women worked under her guidance. Some were, and are, well-known in their own countries as their first woman full professor such as Ellen Gleditsch or Margaret von Wrangel, but for twenty eight of them, who were often French, nothing has ever been written. The strong presence of women in Marie Curie's laboratory has often been highlighted and has been considered as an exception, and the result of deliberate choice. Of course, these women did not choose this workplace by accident. They knew its director was a woman, a laureate of one, and after 1911, two Nobel Prizes, who was leading a well-equipped laboratory with an important radioactive source. But how did Marie Curie selected her collaborators among the many applications she received? Was her choice influenced by gender? A prosopographical research based on genealogical researches and new sources explains this presence contextually and sheds light on several questions : where did these women come from, what were their social and geographic origins, did they occupy any specific cultural or technical area inside Curie's lab, what future did they have after the laboratory? Through their lives, we can question the existence, or not, of a one profile of the female researcher in scientific areas in France.

  19. Marie Curie: In the Laboratory and on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    This year is the centennial of the Nobel Prize in Physics shared by Henri Becquerel and the Curies for their pioneering work on radioactivity. But Marie Curie's contribution to the medical use of x rays is not widely known.

  20. The Marie Curie Actions at CERN – reaching out beyond particle physics and Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    EU Projects Office

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission’s Marie Curie Actions have been a pillar of the EU Framework Programmes for several decades as a means of promoting career development and enhancing mobility of researchers in Europe. This corresponds nicely to one of CERN’s main missions: to train the next generation of scientists and engineers.   The European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism, Sport, Media and Youth, Androulla Vassiliou (centre) met the Marie Curie Fellows on her visit to CERN in April 2013. CERN has been pleased to be a major player in the Marie Curie Actions under the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes (FP6 from 2002 to 2006 and FP7 from 2007 to 2013), being one of the most successful participants in Europe. Under FP7, CERN was ranked first in Switzerland and fifth in Europe against stiff competition in terms of overall funding. Participation was in all of the Marie Curie Actions: Initial Training Networks, Industry-Academia Partnership Pathways, IRSES, CO...

  1. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  2. Marie and Pierre Curie. Life in extremes; Marie and Pierre Curie. Leben in Extremen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roethlein, Brigitte

    2008-07-01

    In Paris in 1894, two young physicists fall in love: Marie Sklodowska and Pierre Curie. They get married and make great contributions to science, research radioactivity and discover new chemical elements. The marriage of Marie and Pierre Curie is quite modern: They work together as equals, share their thoughts and pursue their plans together as partners. They share an absolute interest in science, a love of nature, and a sceptic attitude towards the sophisticated society of the Belle Epoque. They are together 24 hours a day with hardly ever any disagreement. Whenever one of them is ill - which is quite often because of the high level of radioactivity in their laboratory -, the other will nurse him or her. After only twelve years of mutual love, Pierre Curie dies. Marie raises their two daughters on her own and continues her research. In 1911, she will be the first scientist that ever gets a second Nobel Prize. (orig.) [German] Im Paris des Jahres 1894 verlieben sich zwei junge Physiker: Marie Sklodowska und Pierre Curie. Sie heiraten und leisten gemeinsam Grosses fuer die Wissenschaft, erforschen die Radioaktivitaet und entdecken neue chemische Elemente. Zusammen erhalten sie den Nobelpreis. Marie und Pierre Curie fuehren eine Ehe, die ihrer Zeit weit voraus ist: Sie arbeiten gleichberechtigt miteinander, teilen ihre Gedanken und verfolgen ihre Plaene gemeinsam. Beiden eigen ist die absolute wissenschaftliche Neugier, die Liebe zur Natur und die Skepsis gegenueber der mondaenen Gesellschaft der Belle Epoque. Fast jeden Tag sind sie rund um die Uhr zusammen, dabei gibt es selten Spannungen. Wenn einer von beiden gesundheitliche Probleme hat - und das haben sie wegen der radioaktiven Belastung im Labor oft - ist der andere fuer ihn da und pflegt ihn. Nach nur zwoelf gemeinsamen Jahren der Liebe und Arbeit stirbt Pierre Curie. Marie zieht ihre beiden Toechter alleine gross und fuehrt die Forschungen weiter. 1911 erhaelt sie als erster Mensch zum zweiten Mal den

  3. Marie Curie's contribution to Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Claude, Rosenwald; Nüsslin, Fridtjof

    2013-09-01

    On occasion of its 50th anniversary, the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) from now on is going to celebrate annually an International Day of Medical Physics for which the 7th November, the birthday of Marie Sklodowska Curie, a most exceptional character in science at all and a pioneer of medical physics, has been chosen. This article briefly outlines her outstanding personality, sketches her fundamental discovery of radioactivity and emphasizes the impact of her various achievements on the development of medical physics at large.

  4. Personal income tax non-standard reliefs in European Union member states, Croatia and countries of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Drezgic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the current situation in personal income tax non-standard reliefs for the EU-15, most of the EU-12, Croatia and countries of the region, as well as a comparison of them for 2006-2011. A review of personal income tax relief issues in last twenty years is given, especially concerning the reaction of the entire personal income tax system to the economic and financial crises. It is followed by comparative analysis of non-standard tax reliefs in the stated period. Despite the mostly negative attitude of tax theory (and policy, economic crisis and fiscal consolidation, they still play very significant role. The EU-15 actually broadened these reliefs in the period observed, while the analyzed EU-12, Croatia and countries of the region with less developed non-standard tax reliefs have reduced them significantly. Many of these countries, accordingly, have none today. Since the introduction of the new personal income tax system in 1994 Croatia has gone a long way, from their complete exclusion to the inclusion of almost all of them and in the end the exclusion of almost all of them.

  5. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redmond, S; Woodhall, S; van den Broek, I

    2015-01-01

    characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results: We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response...

  6. The life and legacy of Marie Curie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Marie Curie was a remarkable woman whose discoveries broke new ground in physics and chemistry and also opened the door for advances in engineering, biology, and medicine. She broke new ground for women in science: she was, for example, the first woman to receive a doctor of science degree in France, the first woman to win Nobel Prize, the first woman to lecture at the Sorbonne, the first person to win two Nobel Prizes, and the first Nobel Laureate whose child also won a Nobel Prize. Her life offers insights into the changing role of women in science and academia over the past century. It also offers examples of many ways in which scientists can, and should, work to improve the educational programs and career opportunities available to those who follow in their footsteps.

  7. [Maria Skłodowska-Curie and Piotr Curie an epoch-makingin year 1898].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielogórski, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    For many reasons the year 1898 was unusual for Maria Skłodowska-Curie and her husband. After defining the subject of the doctoral thesis and choosing Henri Becqerel as thesis supervisor, Maria started intensive experimental work. In the allotted room called storeroom, in conditions that were far too inadequate, they managed to put up a unique measuring equipment composed of instruments whose originator was Pierre Curie. In the ionization chamber and in the piezoelectric quartz charges formed, whose mutual neutralization was shown by the quadrant electrometer. Ionization current, which was measured quantitatively, was proportional to the radiation of the sample. Studying many elements, their compounds and minerals enabled Maria to state that uranium is not the only element endowed with the power of radiation; the second one turned out to be thorium. Anomaly detected in the radiation of uranium minerals made it possible for Maria to draw an extremely important conclusion: radioactive uranium and thorium are not the only elements endowed with such an attribute. Pitchblende, which was studied by the Curie couple, had to contain also other radioactive substances. Gustave Bémont also participated in the chemical analysis of the uranium ore and it is worth reminding that he was involved in the discovery of polonium and uranium. The phenomenon of radioactivity couldn't have been explained if it was not for the sources of strong radioactivity. Those sources undoubtedly could have been the discovered elements but their scanty content in the uranium ore made their isolation very difficult and laborious. Access to industrial remains after procession of pitchblende from Jachymov (Sankt Joachimstahl), obtained owing to the mediation of Eduard Suess, provided the source of this raw material. From it, in a shack also called le hangar, the Curie couple isolated the first samples of the radium salt. This element, later extracted by discoverers on a grand scale and handed over in a

  8. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    1999-09-01

    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  9. Spin dynamics in a Curie-switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A F; Tovstolytkin, A I; Dzhezherya, Yu I; Polishchuk, D M; Kozak, I M; Korenivski, V

    2015-11-11

    Ferromagnetic resonance properties of F1/f/F2/AF multilayers, where weakly ferromagnetic spacer f is sandwiched between strongly ferromagnetic layers F1 and F2, with F1 being magnetically soft and F2-magnetically hard due to exchange pinning to antiferromagnetic layer AF, are investigated. Spacer-mediated exchange coupling is shown to strongly affect the resonance fields of both F1 and F2 layers. Our theoretical calculations as well as measurements show that the key magnetic parameters of the spacer, which govern the ferromagnetic resonance in F1/f/F2/AF, are the magnetic exchange length (Λ), effective saturation magnetization at T  =  0 (m0) and effective Curie temperature (T(C)(eff)). The values of these key parameters are deduced from the experimental data for multilayers with f  =  Ni(x)Cu(100-x), for the key ranges in the Ni-concentration (x = 54 ÷ 70 at. %) and spacer thickness (d = 3 ÷ 6 nm). The results obtained provide a deeper insight into thermally-controlled spin precession and switching in magnetic nanostructures, with potential applications in spin-based oscillators and memory devices.

  10. Maria Sklodowska-Curie - scientist, friend, manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, A.

    2009-01-01

    Great names in science represent an inexhaustible source and richness of inspiration, satisfaction and consolation, a moving and victorious force. Throughout her exemplifying life, Maria Sklodowska remained modest but with a keen sense of humor, of an outstanding style, a mine of knowledge and experience, of innovative ideas and a rich inner life. Full of love, of passion to give and to share, of natural optimism, mixed with a light melancholy, so typical for sages. She vehemently defended the love of scientific research, of the spirit of adventure and entrepreneurship and fought for international culture, for the protection of personality and talent. Maria Sklodowska left her passion to science, her dedication to work including education and training of young people, her passionate adherence to her family, her belief in her friends, her pure and profound humanity and warmth! The paper should be a homage to her, an appreciation of her work over the years, but not less a correspondence, a conversation with her! On the other hand, the present solemn occasion resuscitates the personalities of Maria and Pierre Curie and their work, in particular of Maria Sklodowska in her own native land! In this manner, it truly contributes to her immortality!

  11. A bust of Marie Sklodowska Curie at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The Polish Deputy Minister of Energy and Nuclear Power, J. Felicki, presented the Directors General with a bust of Mme Marie Sklodowska Curie on behalf of physicists of Poland (CERN Courier 19 (1979) 164).

  12. Marie Curie's Doctoral Thesis: Prelude to a Nobel Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the life and research techniques of Marie Curie's doctoral dissertation leading to the discovery and purification of radium from ore. Reexamines the discoveries of other scientists that helped lead to this separation. (ML)

  13. The Pasteurization of Marie Curie: A (meta)biographical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtén, Eva Hemmungs

    2015-08-01

    Biographies of scientists occupy a liminal space, highly popular with general readers but questioned in academia. Nonetheless, in recent years, historians of science have not only embraced the genre with more enthusiasm and less guilt, they have also turned to the metabiography in order to renew the study and story of scientists' roles. This essay focuses on Marie Curie, the world's most famous female scientist, in order to unpack some of the theoretical and methodological claims of the science biography, and especially to address the sexing mechanisms at play in the construction of the biographical subject. Pierre Curie (1923), Marie's biography of her husband Pierre, paid tribute to her dead husband and collaborator, but also allowed Curie a legitimate outlet to construct her own persona and legacy. Categories such as personhood, person, and persona are not only central to the biography genre but also are essential to the sense of self and self-fashioning of scientists. Looking at how Marie Curie negotiated these categories in Pierre Curie not only gives new insight into Curie's self-fashioning strategies but may also shed some light on the more general analytical lacunae of the science biography.

  14. Referrals to the Marie Curie nursing service in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, B; Feather, J; Ward, C

    2000-01-01

    District and Marie Curie nurses participated in a small-scale study to describe referrals to a Marie Curie service in one English health district over a 3-month period. The number of new patients referred was small; they were geographically clustered and had widely differing life expectancies. Anecdotal reports of difficulties with the 'Nurselink' referral system were not confirmed, and in situations where the system was in operation, Marie Curie nurses were more likely to speak directly to the referring nurse. The most frequently cited reason for referral was general nursing needs; however, Marie Curie nurses felt that they were most often involved to provide family support. These findings suggest that there may not be a shared understanding of the Marie Curie nurse's role, and that equity in community palliative nursing care merits examination. Defining and publicizing the role of the Marie Curie nurse, providing guidance for referrals and prioritizing communication between professionals are proposed not only to enhance the service locally but to ensure that the service is available to all. This article illustrates the value of research to identify ways to improve service delivery.

  15. Marie and Irene Curie. The first female Nobel Prize winners; Marie en IreneCurie. De eerste vrouwelijke Nobelprijswinnaars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordenbos, G. [Joke Smit Instituut voor Vrouwenstudies, Universiteit Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1903 and in 1911. Also her daughter, Irene Joliot-Curie, received a Nobel Prize for science in 1935. In this book an overview is given of the academic world at that time: limited access to universities for women, the carriers of both women in physics and their pioneering research and discoveries, the refusal of Marie Curie by the French Academy of Sciences, the awarding of the Nobel Prize and the assignment of Irene Joliot-Curie as the first female minister in France, the impact of the two World Wars, their married and private lives and the constant smear campaign of the press against both women. The lives and works of both women are hold against the light of the present position of women in physical sciences. [Dutch] In 1903, precies honderd jaar geleden, ontving Marie Curie als eerste vrouw de Nobelprijs voor de Wetenschap, gevolgd door een tweede Nobelprijs in 1911. Ook haar dochter Irene Joliot-Curie kreeg de Nobelprijs voor de wetenschap in 1935. Marie and Irene Curie schetst een breed beeld van de academische wereld waarin beide vrouwen zich bewogen: de beperkte toegang van vrouwen tot de universiteit, hun carrisres in de natuurkunde en baanbrekende ontdekkingen, de afwijzing van Marie door de Franse Academie des Sciences, de toekenning van de Nobelprijs en de benoeming van Irene als eerste vrouwelijke minister in Frankrijk, de invloed van de twee Wereldoorlogen, hun huwelijks- en priveleven en de niet aflatende hetze van de pers tegen beiden. In de door mannen gedomineerde wereld van de natuurwetenschappen liep de uitzonderingspositie van beide vrouwen als rode draad door hun curieuze levens. Het leven en werk van de Curies wordt geactualiseerd door deze tegen het licht te houden van de huidige positie van vrouwen in de natuurwetenschappen. Het bereiken van de top van de wetenschap door vrouwen blijkt nog steeds uitzonderlijk.

  16. Volunteering, income and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income. PMID:28273163

  17. Joliot-Curie School of Nuclear Physics, 1997; Ecole Joliot-Curie de Physique Nucleaire, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, Y. [L`Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS (India2P3), 75 - Paris (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the lectures of the Joliot-Curie International School of Nuclear Physics held at Maubuisson, France on 8-13 September 1997. The following lectures of nuclear interest were given: The N-body problem (relativistic and non-relativistic approaches); The shell model (towards a unified of the nuclear structure); Pairing correlations in extreme conditions; Collective excitations in nuclei; Exotic nuclei (production, properties and specificities); Exotic nuclei (halos); Super and hyper deformation (from discrete to continuum, from EUROGAM to EUROBALL); and The spectroscopy of fission fragments. Important new facts are reported and discussed theoretically, concerning the nuclei in high excitation and high states and of the nuclei far off stability. Important technical achievements are reported among which the production of radioactive beams, sophisticated multi-detectors as well as significant advances in the nuclear theoretical methods. The double goal of training of young researchers and of permanent formation and information of the older ones seems to have been reached

  18. On the Fulfillment of Curie's Law in Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernovoi, A. I.; Dyachenko, S. V.

    2015-05-01

    A fulfillment of Curie's law in magnetic fluids provides an option of their thermometric applications to measure thermodynamic temperature. On the other hand, it was shown elsewhere that the initial magnetic susceptibility χ of magnetic fluids follows Curie-Weiss's law rather than Curie's law. To obtain its values, use was made of the formula χ = M/N0, where M is magnetization, and N0 is the external magnetic field strength without any specimen. This work deals with investigations of the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of magnetic fluid on temperature for the cases where its values are found via the following formulas: 1) χ = M/N0, and 2) χ = Mμ0/M, where M is the magnetic field induction inside the specimen. It is found that in the first case the temperature dependence of χ obeys Curie-Weiss's law while in the second case - Curie's law. The reason for this results from the fact that induction M acting on the particles of magnetic fluid is noticeably higher than that of the external field, M0.

  19. Maria Sklodowska Curie - the precursor of radiation sterilization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluszewski, Wojciech; Zagorski, Zbigniew P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tran, Quoc Khoi; Cortella, Laurent [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, Atelier Regional de Conservation, Grenoble (France)

    2011-06-15

    A resolution of the 63rd Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry. The coordinators of the event are UNESCO and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The patroness of this event is Marie Curie, nee Sklodowska. Among women scientists, she was the first recipient of the Novel Prize, and among all scientists, she is the only one who has received this award in different scientific fields (in 1903 in the field of physics with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, in 1911 in the field of chemistry). Considering the former Polish nationality of Marie Curie, the year 2011 has been proposed by the Polish Parliament as her year, using the name Maria Sklodowska Curie, under which she is known in Poland. Celebrating the International Year of Chemistry is a good opportunity to remember the importance of the work of Maria Sklodowska Curie for the emergence and development of many fields of science. This article is an attempt to present a view of science, as taught through modern applications of the radiation chemistry of polymetric materials and radiation sterilization. Although the real development of both ''cold'' sterilization and polymer technology occurred in the 1950's long after the death of Marie Curie Sklodowska, the original ideas go back to ther work performed in the 1920s. Sometimes, and that is the present case, a single scientist creates a new field, in spite of the fact that at the time of discovery there are no applications. The parallel development of other branches of science and technology helps the application of the original idea. (orig.)

  20. Size and shape effects on Curie temperature of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A simplified model was developed to describe the Curie temperature suppression of ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Based on a size and shape dependent model of cohesive energy, the critical temperature variations of ferromagnetic nanoparticles were deduced. It is predicted that the Curie temperature of nanoparticles depends on both size and shape conditions, among which the temperature suppression is strongly influenced by the particle size and the shape effect is comparably minor. The calculation values for freestanding nanoparticles are in good agreement with other theoretical model and the experimental results. The model is also potential for predictions for the nanoparticles embedded in different substrates.

  1. The technical report on sodium intake and cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries by the joint working group of the World Heart Federation, the European Society of Hypertension and the European Public Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Oparil, Suzanne; Whelton, Paul K; McKee, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Luft, Friedrich C; AlHabib, Khalid; Lanas, Fernando; Damasceno, Albertino; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; La Torre, Giuseppe; Weber, Michael; O'Donnell, Martin; Smith, Sidney C; Narula, Jagat

    2017-03-07

    Ingestion of sodium is essential to health, but excess sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Defining an optimal range of sodium intake in populations has been challenging and controversial. Clinical trials evaluating the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure have shown blood pressure lowering effects down to sodium intake of less than 1.5 g/day. Findings from these blood pressure trials form the basis for current guideline recommendations to reduce sodium intake to less than 2.3 g/day. However, these clinical trials employed interventions that are not feasible for population-wide implementation (i.e. feeding studies or intensive behavioural interventions), particularly in low and middle-income countries. Prospective cohort studies have identified the optimal range of sodium intake to reside in the moderate range (3-5 g/day), where the risk of cardiovascular disease and death is lowest. Therefore, there is consistent evidence from clinical trials and observational studies to support reducing sodium intake to less than 5 g/day in populations, but inconsistent evidence for further reductions below a moderate intake range (3-5 g/day). Unfortunately, there are no large randomized controlled trials comparing low sodium intake (reduce sodium intake in populations who consume high sodium intake (> 5 g/day), which should be embedded within an overall healthy dietary pattern. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The legacy of Maria Curie Skłodowska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Maria Skłodowska Curie left us a great legacy. Her discovery of polonium and radium was incomparably greater than the mere discovery of new elements. Its significance lay in the discovery of a new form of matter, namely radioactive one, but also in her unveiling of the internal property of its atoms. Subsequently emitted radiation went on to play the role of a "natural accelerator" for both scientific research and in medical radiotherapy. It was thanks to these discoveries that the field of nuclear physics arose just a few decades later. As importantly the work of Maria Curie Skłodowska during the Great War demonstrated how important pure scientific discovery can be for society and its welfare.

  3. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210004_1: Prof. Ugo Amaldi, University of Milano Bicocca and Tera Foundation, Italy. Addressing the Marie Curie Workshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Research Developments on Medical Physics". Photo 0210004_2: Marie Curie Fellows at CERN. Participating in Marie Curie Workshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002.

  4. Curie and Pauli Spins in Lithium Intercalated MCMB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ESR signal of lithium intercalated MCMB can be well simulated by combination of a Lorentz curve and a Gauss curve. The ESR intensity of the Lorentz component is essentially independent of temperature while the Gauss component shows a linear change with the reciprocal of temperature, indicative of Pauli spin and Curie spin, respectively. The former is probably associated with the ordered (graphitized) structures while the latter with the disordered structures in the sample.

  5. Exhibition: Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The exhibition "Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie” will be held at CERN (Pas Perdus Corridor, 1st floor, building 61) from the 8 to 24 March.   It is organised under the auspices of the Ambassador R. Henczel, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the UN Office at Geneva to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to Maria Sklodowska-Curie. The exhibition is also one of the events celebrating the 20th anniversary of Poland joining CERN as a Member State. Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Nobel Prize winner both in physics and chemistry, is one of the greatest scientists of Polish origin. The exhibition, consisting of 20 posters, presents her not only as a brilliant scientist, but also an exceptional woman of great heart, character and organizational talents, sensitive to contemporary problems. The authors are Mrs M. Sobieszczak-Marciniak, the director of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Museum in Warsaw and Mrs H. Krajewska, the direct...

  6. The contribution of women to radiobiology: Marie Curie and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasinska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Marie Sklodowska-Curie, an extraordinary woman, a Polish scientist who lived and worked in France, led to the development of nuclear energy and the treatment of cancer. She was the laureate of two Nobel Prizes, the first woman in Europe who obtained the degree of Doctor of Science and opened the way for women to enter fields which had been previously reserved for men only. As a result of her determination and her love of freedom, she has become an icon for many female scientists active in radiation sciences. They are successors of Maria Curie and without the results of their work, improvement in radiation oncology will not be possible. Many of them shared some elements of Maria Curie's biography, like high ethical and moral standards, passionate dedication to work, strong family values, and scientific collaboration with their husbands. The significance of Tikvah Alper, Alma Howard, Shirley Hornsey, Juliana Denekamp, Helen Evans, Eleanor Blakely, Elizabeth L. Travis, Fiona Stewart, Andree Dutreix, Catharine West, Peggy Olive, Ingela Turesson, Penny Jeggo, Irena Szumiel, Eleonor Blakely, Sara Rockwell and Carmel Mothersill contribution to radiation oncology is presented. All the above mentioned ladies made significant contribution to the development of radiotherapy (RT) and more efficient cancer treatment. Due to their studies, new schedules of RT and new types of ionizing radiation have been applied, lowering the incidence of normal tissue toxicity. Their achievements herald a future of personalized medicine.

  7. Utilizing Materials With Controllable Curie Temperatures for Magnetic Actuation Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic force between a permanent magnet and different blocks of ferromagnetic materials was measured and calculated as a function of distance and temperature in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of the materials. The calculations were carried out using a 3-D finite-element model...... of the system. On the basis of forces predicted by the model a number of equilibrium points were calculated for a system where the magnetic force on a ferromagnetic block of material is balanced by a linear spring force. It is shown how these calculation procedures can be used as a tool for designing autonomous...

  8. Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors.

  9. [Chronological table of Mr. and Mrs. Curie and Mr. and Mrs. Joliot-Curie--in connection with the 100-year anniversary since Dr. H. Becquerel discovered radial ray in 1896].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M

    1996-01-01

    This year (1996) is the 100th year since Dr. Henri Becquerel discovered radial rays in 1896 in France. In 1897, Dr. Pierre Curie and Marie Curie preliminarily reported the existence of polonium and radium which have radioactivity. H. Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie were awarded the Nobel Chemical Prize for discovering artificial radioactivity in 1935. I report herein the chronological table of Mr. and Mrs. Curie and Mr. and Mrs. Joliot-Curie spanning about one century.

  10. Frederic Joliot-Curie: the scientist and politics; Frederic Joliot-Curie: le savant et la politique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinault, M

    2000-07-01

    This book presents the biography of the French scientist, founder of the French nuclear research, in its social, political, and scientific context. Frederic Joliot-Curie, with his wife Irene, discovered the artificial radioactivity in 1934, won the Nobel price of chemistry in 1935, and demonstrated the existence of the fission phenomenon. He studied the chain reactions and the conditions of realization of a nuclear reactor, called 'Zoe', which was built in 1948. He was the very first chief-commissary of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). (J.S.)

  11. Phase Transition in Conditional Curie-Weiss Model

    CERN Document Server

    Opoku, Alex A; Ansah, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a conditional Curie-Weiss model as a model for opinion formation in a society polarized along two opinions, say opinions 1 and 2. The model comes with interaction strength $\\beta>0$ and bais $h$. Here the population in question is divided into three main groups, namely: Group one consisting of individuals who have decided on opinion 1. Let the proportion of this group be given by $s$. Group two consisting of individauls who have chosen opinion 2. Let $r$ be their proportion. Group three consisting of individuals who are yet to decide and they will decide based on their environmental conditions. Let $1-s-r$ be the proportion of this group. We show that the specific magnetization of the associated conditional Curie-Weiss model has a first order phase transition (discontinuous jump in specific magnetization) at $\\beta^*=\\left(1-s-r\\right)^{-1}$. It is also shown that not all the discontinuous jumps in magnetization will result in phase change. We point out how an extention of this model could...

  12. Controlling temperature in magnetic hyperthermia with low Curie temperature particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Dumitru, Ioan; Chiriac, Horia; Stancu, Alexandru

    2014-05-01

    Hyperthermia induced by the heating of magnetic particles (MPs) in alternating magnetic field receives a considerable attention in cancer therapy. An interesting development in the studies dedicated to magnetically based hyperthermia is the possibility to control the temperature using MPs with selective magnetic absorption properties. This paper analyzes the temperature field determined by the heating of MPs having low Curie temperature (a FeCrNbB particulate system) injected within a malignant tissue, subjected to an ac magnetic field. The temperature evolution within healthy and tumor tissues was analyzed by finite element method simulations in a thermo-fluid model. The cooling effect produced by blood flowing in blood vessels was considered. This effect is intensified at the increase of blood velocity. The FeCrNbB particles, having the Curie temperature close to the therapeutic range, transfer the heat more homogeneous in the tumor keeping the temperature within the therapeutic range in whole tumor volume. Having the possibility to automatically control the temperature within a tumor, these particle type opens new research horizons in the magnetic hyperthermia.

  13. Tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and the European Union : Preface to the special issue of Financial Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Urban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a preface to a special issue of Financial Theory and Practice, which is devoted to the comparison of tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and other EU countries. The articles in this issue have arisen from the students’ research project, undertaken in 2015. This Preface outlines the motivation behind the research project, explains the most important methodological issues, and reviews the literature on the measurement of tax wedge in Croatia.

  14. Aspectos históricos da visita de Marie Sklodowska Curie a Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássius Klay Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2011 it is celebrated the Marie Sklodowska Curie Nobel Prize centenary and the International Year of Chemistry. However, it is not generally known that Marie Sklodowska Curie, one of the greatest scientists of all time, visited Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. She arrived by train at Belo Horizonte city on 16 August 1926, coming from Rio de Janeiro and accompanied by her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie. The scientists visited the Institute of Radium of Belo Horizonte. The approach in this work emphasizes the presence of Marie Sklodowska Curie in Belo Horizonte, exploring the admiration and respect that people had for her.

  15. Curie temperature rising by fluorination for Sm2Fe17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matahiro Komuro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine atoms can be introduced to Sm2Fe17 using XeF2 below 423 K. The resulting fluorinated Sm2Fe17 powders have ferromagnetic phases containing Sm2Fe17FY1(0Curie temperature from 403 K for Sm2Fe17 to 675 K. This increase can be explained by the magneto-volume effect.

  16. Curie law for systems described by kappa distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-01-01

    We derive the magnetization of a system, Pierre Curie's law, for paramagnetic particles out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions. The analysis uses the theory and formulation of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems with a non-zero potential energy. Among other results, emphasis is placed on the effect of kappa distribution on the phenomenon of having strong magnetization at high temperatures. At thermal equilibrium, high temperature leads to weak magnetization. Out of thermal equilibrium, however, strong magnetization at high temperatures is rather possible, if the paramagnetic particle systems reside far from thermal equilibrium, i.e., at small values of kappa. The application of the theory to the space plasma at the outer boundaries of our heliosphere, the inner heliosheath, leads to an estimation of the ion magnetic moment for this space plasma, that is, μ ≈ 138+/-7 \\text{eV/nT} .

  17. Developing translational medicine professionals: the Marie Skłodowska-Curie action model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Alessandra; Prakken, Berent J; Rosenblum, Norman D

    2016-11-29

    End goal of translational medicine is to combine disciplines and expertise to eventually promote improvement of the global healthcare system by delivering effective therapies to individuals and society. Well-trained experts of the translational medicine process endowed with profound knowledge of biomedical technology, ethical and clinical issues, as well as leadership and teamwork abilities are essential for the effective development of tangible therapeutic products for patients. In this article we focus on education and, in particular, we discuss how programs providing training on the broad spectrum of the translational medicine continuum have still a limited degree of diffusion and do not provide professional support and mentorship in the long-term, resulting in the lack of well established professionals of translational medicine (TMPs) in the scientific community. Here, we describe the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions program ITN-EUtrain (EUropean Translational tRaining for Autoimmunity & Immune manipulation Network) where training on the Translational Medicine machinery was integrated with education on professional and personal skills, mentoring, and a long-lasting network of TMPs.

  18. Marie Curie nurses: enabling patients with cancer to die at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Wilkinson, Susie

    2002-05-01

    Marie Curie Cancer Care established its nursing service in 1958; however, the service has had little formal evaluation. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the care provided by Marie Curie nurse, and in particular to determine whether patients in their care remained and died at home. Two existing data sets were used: data on all patients referred to the Marie Curie Nursing Services in 147 areas of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland for 26 months, and data on cancer death registrations in England. A request for a Marie Curie nurse was made for 26,632 patients, 97% of whom had cancer and 11% of whom lived alone. The amount of care provided varied enormously (Marie Curie nurses facilitated home death for many patients. Services need to ensure that mechanisms are in place to achieve data collection. Rigorous prospective evaluation is needed in the future.

  19. GLANAM (Glaciated North Atlantic Margins): A Marie Curie Initial Training Network between Norway, the UK & Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter Sejrup, Hans; Oline Hjelstuen, Berit

    2015-04-01

    GLANAM (Glaciated North Atlantic Margins) is an Initial Training Network (ITN) funded under the EU Marie Curie Programme. It comprises 10 research partners from Norway, UK and Denmark, including 7 University research teams, 1 industrial full partner and 2 industrial associate partners. The GLANAM network will employ and train 15 early career researchers (Fellows). The aim of GLANAM is to improve the career prospects and development of young researchers in both the public and private sector within the field of earth science, focusing on North Atlantic glaciated margins. The young scientists will perform multi-disciplinary research and receive training in geophysics, remote sensing, GIS, sedimentology, geomorphology, stratigraphy, geochemistry and numerical modeling through three interconnected work packages that collectively address knowledge gaps related to the large, glacial age, sedimentary depocentres on the North Atlantic margin. The 15 Fellows will work on projects that geographically extend from Ireland in the south to the High Arctic. Filling these gaps will not only result in major new insights regarding glacial age processes on continental margins in general, but will also provide paleoclimate information essential for understanding the role of marine-based ice sheets in the climate system and for the testing of climate models. GLANAM brings together leading European research groups working on glaciated margins in a coordinated and collaborative research and training project. Focusing on the North Atlantic margins, this coordinated approach will lead to a major advance in the understanding of glaciated margins more widely and will fundamentally strengthen European research and build capacity in this field.

  20. The mysterious malleability of titanomagnetite Curie temperatures: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Bowles, J.; Lappe, S. C.; Berquo, T. S.; Solheid, P.

    2015-12-01

    Intermediate-composition titanomagnetites (TM30-TM50) have recently been shown to have Curie temperatures (Tc) that depend not only on composition but also quite strongly on thermal history, with increases of 100°C or more in Tc produced by moderate-temperature (300-400° C) annealing in the lab or in slow natural cooling, and equally large decreases produced by more rapid cooling ("quenching") from higher temperatures [e.g., Bowles et al 2013, Nature Communications]. The phenomenon is robustly defined and repeatable, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic, although it presumably involves some rearrangement of metal cations within the spinel lattice. New high-and low-temperature measurements, including hysteresis, frequency-dependent AC susceptibility (k(f,T)) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, were carried out to help shed light on the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in Tc. Fabian et al [2015, GJI] have shown for ferrimagnetic compositions in the hematite-ilmenite system that high-T hysteresis measurements exhibit a peak in high-field slope at the Curie temperature, and that the magnitude (area) of this peak is a strong function of cation ordering degree. Our data for synthetic titanomagnetites in quenched and annealed states show some indications of this, although the relationship is not perfectly systematic. On the other hand, our new low-T Mössbauer spectra, measured in the quenched and annealed states, are indistinguishable and argue against any change in site occupancy. Church et al [2011, G3] have proposed that the sharp change in low-T magnetic behavior of intermediate titanomagnetites is a "pinning transition" due to redistribution and localization of ferrous ions within the octahedral sites. Our new k(f,T) results show that the pinning transition in some samples is strongly affected by prior annealing or quenching, suggesting that these treatments affect the intrasite cation distributions. Such an idea is consistent with

  1. Curie depth vs. flat subduction in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2010-05-01

    Forearcs located above active subduction zones are generally characterized by low heat flow values, and this is considered a consequence of the subduction of cold slabs beneath continental plates. In the case of Central Mexico, the geometry of the subducting Cocos plate is quite unusual, the slab runs flat for several hundreds of kilometers before plunging into the asthenosphere. This particular geometry has a strong influence on the temperature distribution of the overriding plate where very low heatflow values are recorded (15-30 mW/m2). In this paper we use the aeromagnetic map of Mexico in order to infer the maximum depth of magnetic source, regarded as Curie depth and corresponding to a temperature of 575-600C°. Our spectral analysis revealed the existence of a deep magnetic source (30-40 km). We compare these results with the thermal structure associated with flat slab subduction in the area. We obtained a good agreement between the two estimates and we conclude that flat slab subduction in Central Mexico controls the maximum depth of magnetic sources in the overriding plate.

  2. Thermal expansion of gadolinium in the vicinity of the Curie point. [270 to 320/sup 0/K, Curie point exponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolejsi, D.A.

    1977-02-01

    The c- and a-axis linear thermal expansivities of high purity single crystals of gadolinium were measured in the temperature range 270/sup 0/K to 320/sup 0/K. Length changes were translated to capacitance changes with a modified normal geometry 3-terminal capacitance dilatometer. An ac 3-terminal capacitance bridge was employed to measure nominal 10 pF capacitances to a precision of 10/sup -7/ pF, which corresponds to a relative length change sensitivity of 10/sup -10/. A 25 ohm platinum resistance thermometer was used to detect the dilatometer temperature to a precision of 10 ..mu..K with an ac resistance bridge. The c-axis expansivity was negative and had a large (approximately equal to 10/sup -4/ K/sup -1/) peak at 293.435/sup 0/K, while the a-axis expansivity was positive and had a smaller (approximately equal to 10/sup -5/ K/sup -1/) peak at 293.363/sup 0/K. The values of the Curie temperatures (T/sub c/'s) and critical point exponents for the c- and a-axis crystals were obtained from fitting power law equations to the expansivities.

  3. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology.

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210008_05a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator. Photo 0210008_06a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator. Photo 0210008_08a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator. Photo 0210008_09a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator.

  4. Curie-point Depths Estimated from Fractal Magnetization Models in the Indian-Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.; Lei, J., Sr.; Zhang, G.; Sun, C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates has developed the world's extreme topography and has also resulted in the occurrence of large earthquakes in the region. The April 25, 2015 (Mw 7.8) earthquake in central Nepal is the largest earthquake that has been recorded in the Nepal Himalaya since 1934. The earthquake caused thousands of people to die and massive destruction of famous heritage-structures in and around kathmandu and was attributed to the interations between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The crustal thermal structure which can be inferred from the Curie-point depths is critial to understand the seismotectonics and subduction in the Indian-Himalayan region. We present our inversion of Curie-point depths of the Indian-Himalayan region based on fractal spectral analyses both from aeromagnetic and satellite data. The first magnetic anomaly model used for estimatiion of Curie-point depths is the EMAG2 model, which has a resolution of 2-arc minute and an altitude of 4 km above the geoid. The second magnetic anomaly model is the CHAMP lithospheric model MF6. The third and the last magnetic anomaly model is the NGDC-720 lithospheric model, which is based on both the EMAG2 and MF6 models, has the smallest wavelength of 56 km. We first test variable windows sizes of 100.8×100.8 km2, 201.6×201.6 km2 and 302.4×302.4 km2 to estimate the Curie-point depths and then take the average of the results from these three different window sizes as the final Curie depths for the EMAG2 and MF6 models, respectively. The differences between the two Curie depths estimations from the EMAG2 and MF6 models mostly range within about ±4 km except for that in the Central Tibetan Plateau and Northeast India. This result shows that the NGDC-720 lithospheric model which contains both the EMAG2 and MF6 models is valid for the Curie-point estimation in the Indian-Himalayan region. The average Curie depths estimated from the NGDC-720 lithospheric model show small values in

  5. The behaviour of physical quantities in thin films near the Curie point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1982-05-01

    The Valenta model of a thin ferromagnetic film in the critical region above the Curie point has been considered. Spatial and temperature dependence for spin correlation time and magnetic susceptibility has been obtained and discussed. The results have been generalized and expressions describing the behaviour of any physical quantity in more complicated models of a thin ferromagnetic film near the Curie temperature have been given.

  6. Effect of Gd doping and O deficiency on the Curie temperature of EuO

    KAUST Repository

    Jutong, Nuttachai

    2015-01-27

    The effect of Gd doping and O deficiency on the electronic structure, exchange interaction, and Curie temperature of EuO in the cubic and tetragonal phases is studied by means of density functional theory. For both defects, the Curie temperature is found to exhibit a distinct maximum as a function of the defect concentration. The existence of optimal defect concentrations is explained by the interplay of the on-site, RKKY, and superexchange contributions to the magnetism.

  7. Calculation of exchange integrals and Curie temperature for La-substituted barium hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke; Nie, Jinlan; Guo, Rongdi; Liu, Hai; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen

    2016-10-01

    As the macro behavior of the strength of exchange interaction, state of the art of Curie temperature Tc, which is directly proportional to the exchange integrals, makes sense to the high-frequency and high-reliability microwave devices. Challenge remains as finding a quantitative way to reveal the relationship between the Curie temperature and the exchange integrals for doped barium hexaferrites. Here in this report, for La-substituted barium hexaferrites, the electronic structure has been determined by the density functional theory (DFT) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). By means of the comparison between the ground and relative state, thirteen exchange integrals have been calculated as a function of the effective value Ueff. Furthermore, based on the Heisenberg model, the molecular field approximation (MFA) and random phase approximation (RPA), which provide an upper and lower bound of the Curie temperature Tc, have been adopted to deduce the Curie temperature Tc. In addition, the Curie temperature Tc derived from the MFA are coincided well with the experimental data. Finally, the strength of superexchange interaction mainly depends on 2b-4f1, 4f2-12k, 2a-4f1, and 4f1-12k interactions.

  8. Relationship between Curie isotherm surface and Moho discontinuity in the Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman M.; Saud, Ramzi

    2016-10-01

    The Arabian shield is a Precambrian complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks located approximately one-third of the way across the western Arabian Peninsula, with uncommon exposures along the Red Sea coast. We used aeromagnetic data acquired by others over the past several decades to estimate the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm throughout this region. Our goal was to further understand the lithospheric structure, thermal activity, and seismicity to assist in geothermal exploration. We also compared the Curie temperature isotherm with the crustal thickness to investigate the possibility that mantle rocks are magnetic in some parts of the Arabian shield. Depths to the Curie isotherm were estimated by dividing the regional aeromagnetic grid into 26 overlapping windows. Each window was then used to estimate the shape of the power spectrum. The windows had dimensions of 250 × 250 km to allow investigation of depths as deep as 50 km. The results show the presence of a Curie isotherm at a depth of 10-20 km near the Red Sea, increasing to 35-45 km in the interior of the Arabian shield. The Curie isotherm generally lies above the Moho in this region but deepens into the mantle in some locations, notably beneath the Asir Terrane.

  9. Variations in Moho and Curie depths and heat flow in Eastern and Southeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The Eastern and Southeastern Asian regions witness the strongest land-ocean and lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions. The extreme diversity of geological features warrants a unified study for a better understanding of their geodynamic uniqueness and/or ubiquity from a regional perspective. In this paper we have explored a large coverage of potential field data and have detected high resolution Moho and Curie depths in the aforementioned regions. The oldest continental and oceanic domains, i.e. the North China craton and the Pacific and Indian Ocean have been found thermally perturbed by events probably linked to small-scale convection or serpentinization in the mantle and to numerous volcanic seamounts and ridges. The thermal perturbation has also been observed in proximity of the fossil ridge of the western Philippine Sea Basin, which shows anomalously small Curie depths. The western Pacific marginal seas have the lowest Moho temperature, with Curie depths generally larger than Moho depths. The contrary is true in most parts of easternmost Eurasian continent. Magmatic processes feeding the Permian Emeishan large igneous province could have also been genetically linked to deep mantle/crustal processes beneath the Sichuan Basin. The regionally elongated magnetic features and small Curie depths along the Triassic Yangtze-Indochina plate boundary suggest that the igneous province could be caused by tectonic processes along plate margins, rather than by a deep mantle plume. At the same time, we interpret the Caroline Ridge, the boundary between the Pacific and the Caroline Sea, as a structure having a continental origin, rather than as hotspot or arc volcanism. The surface heat flow is primarily modulated by a deep isotherm through thermal conduction. This concordance is emphasized along many subduction trenches, where zones of large Curie depths often correspond with low heat flow. Local or regional surface heat flow variations cannot be faithfully used in inferring

  10. Enhancement of Curie temperature of barium hexaferrite by dense electronic excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Curie temperature of polycrystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19, prepared by conventional solid state technique, is anomalously and significantly enhanced (by nearly 15% by energetic heavy ion irradiation (150 MeV, Ag12+ at ambient temperature due to dense electronic excitations Moderate fluence (1 × 1012 ions/cm2 induces structural defects giving rise to above enhancement. As established by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman studies, higher fluence (1 × 1013 ions/cm2 has structurally transformed the sample to amorphous phase with marginal change in magnetization and Curie temperature.

  11. Enhancement of Curie temperature of barium hexaferrite by dense electronic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manju; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Gupta, Hem C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dimri, Mukesh C. [Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad - 201009 (India); Asokan, K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Curie temperature of polycrystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), prepared by conventional solid state technique, is anomalously and significantly enhanced (by nearly 15%) by energetic heavy ion irradiation (150 MeV, Ag{sup 12+}) at ambient temperature due to dense electronic excitations Moderate fluence (1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) induces structural defects giving rise to above enhancement. As established by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman studies, higher fluence (1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) has structurally transformed the sample to amorphous phase with marginal change in magnetization and Curie temperature.

  12. Ciencia e industria en el desarrollo de la radiactividad: el caso de Marie Curie

    OpenAIRE

    Roqué, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    Not available.Se argumenta que Marie Curie desarrolló sus investigaciones en radiactividad en estrecha relación con la industria de los radioelementos. Esta relación incluyó desde el desarrollo de procedimientos de extracción para diversas sustancias radiactivas, hasta la promoción de su propio laboratorio industrial. La actividad industrial de Curie se aviene mal con su imagen heroica de científica pura, sacrificada y carente de medios, imagen que, paradójicamente, se retrotrae a las campaña...

  13. Curie Transition of NC Nickel by Mechanical Spectroscopy and Magnetization Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping-Yun; CAO Zhen-Hua; ZHANG Xi-Yan; WU Xiao-Lei; HUANG Yi-Neng; MENG Xiang-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical spectroscopy measurement is performed to study the internal friction of nanocrystalline (NC) nickel with an average grain size of 23 nm from room temperature to 610 K.An internal friction peak is observed at about 550 K,which corresponds to the Curie transition process of the NC nickel according to the result of magnetization test.Moreover,the fact that the Curie temperature of NC nickel is lower than that of coarse-grained nickel is explained by an analytical model based on the weakening of cohesive energy.

  14. Curie temperatures of dilute magnetic semiconductors from LDA+U electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. [ISIR, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: ksato@cmp.sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Dederichs, P.H. [IFF, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Katayama-Yoshida, H. [ISIR, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2006-04-01

    The magnetic properties of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are calculated by using the local density approximation +U(LDA+U) method. In the LDA+U, occupied d-states in (Ga, Mn)As are predicted at lower energy than in the LDA and p-d exchange interaction explains calculated concentration dependence of Curie temperature very well. In (Ga, Mn)N, unoccupied d states are predicted at higher energy by LDA+U, resulting in higher Curie temperatures than in LDA at high concentrations due to the suppression of the anti-ferromagnetic super-exchange interaction.

  15. Curie-point pyrolysis of sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Selected sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids were subjected to Curie-point pyrolysis and their pyrolysis products subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to study the thermal dissociation mechanisms of lipid moieties in bio- and geomacromolecules. Pyrolysis of t

  16. Book Review: The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2012-01-01

    truth about nature. In The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science, Julie Des Jardins does not seek to discredit the work of Archimedes; rather, she demonstrates that the image of the superman-scientist saturated the public mindset from the late nineteenth century through the 1960s...

  17. Near-Curie magnetic anomaly at the Ni/C interface observed by Electron Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Loris; Matteucci, Giorgio; Schofield, Marvin A

    2010-01-01

    We analyze with electron holography carried out in a transmission electron microscope the near-Curie behavior of magnetism at the edge of a Nickel thin film coated with Carbon. In-situ experiments with finely controlled variations of the sample temperature reveal an anomaly in the ferromagnetic t...

  18. On the dielectric curie-weiss law and diffuse phase transition in ferroelectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple derivation of parabolic 1/εr-T curves is obtained by reconsidering the origin of the dielectric Curie-Weiss law. The only assumption needed is the introduction of a non-linear temperature dependance of the macroscopic dielectric polarization in the macroscopic Clausius-Mossotti equation

  19. Difficulties in teaching electromagnetism: an eight year experience at Pierre and Marie Curie University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Roussel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We will begin by outlining the details of how electromagnetics are taught in the  electrical engineering program offered at Pierre and Marie Curie University (a French example from the undergraduate to the Masters degree levels.  We will also discuss how our methods are and should be adapted to teach waves propagation without discouraging students.

  20. Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Mariotti, Chiara; Vicinanza, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui Conférence par Hélène Langevin-Joliot Avec la participation de l'Echo du Reculet de Thoiry. L'enregistrement et la liste d'attente sont déjà complets... Mais il n'est pas rare que des personnes réservent et ne viennent pas. Nous réassignerons les places libérées selon la règle "premier arrivé, premier inscrit". Au vu de la forte demande, la conférence sera également disponible en vidéoconférence : lien d'accès "webcast" disponible en bas de cette page. Hélène Langevin-Joliot, directrice de recherche émérite en physique nucléaire fondamentale au CNRS à Orsay, est aussi la fille de Frédéric et Irène Joliot-Curie (prix Nobel de chimie en 1935) et la petite-fille de Pierre Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903) et de Marie Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903 et prix Nobel de chimie en 1911). Hélène Langevin-Joliot nous parlera de sa vie scientifique, de l’histoire extraordinai...

  1. Ciencia e industria en el desarrollo de la radiactividad: el caso de Marie Curie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqué, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Se argumenta que Marie Curie desarrolló sus investigaciones en radiactividad en estrecha relación con la industria de los radioelementos. Esta relación incluyó desde el desarrollo de procedimientos de extracción para diversas sustancias radiactivas, hasta la promoción de su propio laboratorio industrial. La actividad industrial de Curie se aviene mal con su imagen heroica de científica pura, sacrificada y carente de medios, imagen que, paradójicamente, se retrotrae a las campañas de Curie en los años 1920 por dotar a su laboratorio con «medios de acción industriales». Se verá que los valores dominantes del medio científico francés favorecieron la propagación selectiva de la imagen heroica de Curie, que fue luego aceptada acríticamente por la historiografía de la física del siglo XX.

  2. Going to School with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: Gender Roles in Children's Science Biographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this…

  3. Living Proof: What Helen Keller, Marilyn Monroe, and Marie Curie Have in Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1986-01-01

    Examines biographies of Marie Curie written for children and discusses two types of distortions: simple misrepresentations of fact and selective retelling of the past. It is concluded that biographies of minority or female success should deal specifically with strategies used by the hero or heroine to combat prejudice. (EM)

  4. Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui - English

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui Conférence par Hélène Langevin-Joliot Avec la participation de l'Echo du Reculet de Thoiry. L'enregistrement et la liste d'attente sont déjà complets... Mais il n'est pas rare que des personnes réservent et ne viennent pas. Nous réassignerons les places libérées selon la règle "premier arrivé, premier inscrit". Nous envisageons la possibilité de faire un webcast de la conférence. Plus d'information bientôt. Hélène Langevin-Joliot, directrice de recherche émérite en physique nucléaire fondamentale au CNRS à Orsay, est aussi la fille de Frédéric et Irène Joliot-Curie (prix Nobel de chimie en 1935) et la petite-fille de Pierre Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903) et de Marie Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903 et prix Nobel de chimie en 1911). Hélène Langevin-Joliot nous parlera de sa vie scientifique, de l’histoire extraordinaire de sa famille et en particulier du rôle des ...

  5. Living Proof: What Helen Keller, Marilyn Monroe, and Marie Curie Have in Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1986-01-01

    Examines biographies of Marie Curie written for children and discusses two types of distortions: simple misrepresentations of fact and selective retelling of the past. It is concluded that biographies of minority or female success should deal specifically with strategies used by the hero or heroine to combat prejudice. (EM)

  6. Variational description of Gibbs-non-Gibbs dynamical transitions for the Curie-Weiss model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; den Hollander, F.; Martinez, J.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions for the Curie- Weiss model subject to independent spin-flip dynamics (“infinite-temperature” dynamics). We show that, in this setup, the program outlined in van Enter et al. (Moscow Math J 10:687–711, 2010) can be fully completed, namely, Gi

  7. An important day for European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Today is an important day for the future of European science. It is the day on which CERN’s relationship with the European Union reaches maturity. Ever since the early 1950s, CERN and the European project have grown together. CERN was a child of the European movement: the first discussions at Denis de Rougemont’s European Cultural Conference in Lausanne in 1949 led directly to the foundation of CERN in 1954. More recently, the European Union has become an Observer at the CERN Council, links between CERN and the EU have strengthened as Europe has pursued the goal of creating a European Research Area, and CERN has benefited from European support for projects as varied as Grid computing and future accelerator R&D, not forgetting, of course, the numerous Marie Curie fellows whose careers have received a boost thanks to European funds. Today, that collaboration goes one step further with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the European C...

  8. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    . Making soil from rock 2. Dissolved metals in the global water cycle 3. Human influence on metal cycling 4. Innovations in metal ore exploration 5. New analytical tools Acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013/ under REA grant agreement n° [608069].

  9. The development of income and income differentiation in the Czech Republic according to the EU SILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Přikrylová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The report deals with a brief description of the EU SILC (European Union – Statistics on Income and Living Conditions statistical enquiry, which is pursued by the Czech Statistical Office accordingly to the European Union methodical instructions. The survey sampling proceeds in order to coordinate the methodical procedures in all EU countries according to the Regulation (EC 1177/2003; and in the long term, it is meant to acquire the data on the income and social situation of inhabitants. The survey enables to obtain the representative data on the particular types of households income distributions, the way, quality and financial claims of living, the household equipment of things for long-time usage. Every year the survey is extended by the households living conditions modulus.The object of the paper concerns the delimitation of Czech households income levels in the years of 2005–2008 with the basic income characteristics quantification. The primary data of EU SILC survey conducted in the years of 2005–2008 were used for the income and income differentiation analysis. The Czech economics development after the period of transformation refers to a low income differentiation, therefore the basic methodical tools of income differentiation (Gini coefficient, income deciles analysis, Theil index, Robin Hood index will be used to prove such a matter of fact. The attention will be paid to the delimitation of the main factors influencing the income differentiation. The poverty and households endangered by poverty present a frequent topic of proffesional and laic discussions. The basic tools for the poverty level determination will be applicated in the paper, as well as the low income group analysis in particular years with the principal characteristics delimitation. The typical sign of a low income group presents social security benefits, whose structure will be introduced in the paper. At the close, we will approach to the EU SILC survey results

  10. FDI, Human Capital and Income Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This study examines income convergence in regional GDP per capita for a sample of 269 regions within the European Union (EU) between 2003 and 2010. We use an endogenous broad capital model based on foreign direct investment (FDI) induced agglomeration economies and human capital. By applying...... a Markov chain approach to a new dataset that exploits micro-aggregated sub-national FDI statistics, the analysis provides insights into regional income growth dynamics within the EU. Our results indicate a weak process of overall income convergence across EU regions. This does not apply to the dynamics...

  11. Racial Appearance And Income In Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutilio Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, income and European appearance are strongly positively correlated. Racist attitudes, overt preference for the European appearance and high unemployment combine to maintain this racial economic hierarchy. Free market policies could help to reduce the racial economic inequality. These policies, however, go against the economic interests of the wealthy white oligarchy and against the prevailing political ideology of the dark skinned lower classes. Thus, the current racial economic inequality, with its negative economic consequences, is likely to continue.

  12. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  13. The happiness-income paradox revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterlin, Richard A; McVey, Laura Angelescu; Switek, Malgorzata; Sawangfa, Onnicha; Zweig, Jacqueline Smith

    2010-12-28

    The striking thing about the happiness-income paradox is that over the long-term--usually a period of 10 y or more--happiness does not increase as a country's income rises. Heretofore the evidence for this was limited to developed countries. This article presents evidence that the long term nil relationship between happiness and income holds also for a number of developing countries, the eastern European countries transitioning from socialism to capitalism, and an even wider sample of developed countries than previously studied. It also finds that in the short-term in all three groups of countries, happiness and income go together, i.e., happiness tends to fall in economic contractions and rise in expansions. Recent critiques of the paradox, claiming the time series relationship between happiness and income is positive, are the result either of a statistical artifact or a confusion of the short-term relationship with the long-term one.

  14. The happiness–income paradox revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterlin, Richard A.; McVey, Laura Angelescu; Switek, Malgorzata; Sawangfa, Onnicha; Zweig, Jacqueline Smith

    2010-01-01

    The striking thing about the happiness–income paradox is that over the long-term —usually a period of 10 y or more—happiness does not increase as a country's income rises. Heretofore the evidence for this was limited to developed countries. This article presents evidence that the long term nil relationship between happiness and income holds also for a number of developing countries, the eastern European countries transitioning from socialism to capitalism, and an even wider sample of developed countries than previously studied. It also finds that in the short-term in all three groups of countries, happiness and income go together, i.e., happiness tends to fall in economic contractions and rise in expansions. Recent critiques of the paradox, claiming the time series relationship between happiness and income is positive, are the result either of a statistical artifact or a confusion of the short-term relationship with the long-term one. PMID:21149705

  15. [Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska (1867-1934)--contribution to the development of radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Rade R; Babić, Gordana Stanković

    2011-01-01

    Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw (Poland). She suffered from leukaemia and died on June 4, 1934. She was buried with full honours at Pantheon. Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie discovered the radioactive elements Polonium (84Po210), Thorium (90Th232) and Radium (88Ra226). Marie Curie introduced the term radioactivity into science. She was the first woman who got Ph.D. in France, the first woman professor at Sorbonne, Paris and Medical Academy. Of all the women who have ever won the Nobel Prize, Marie Curie was the only who received it twice. During World War I Marie Curie designed a mobile x-ray room "radiologic car". Marie Curie had an x-ray machine installed into a car and demonstrated how to use its dynamo for electric power production necessary for the x-ray machine to work. She had 20 cars with moving radiological lab made and trained 150 people to work on them. She brought something radically new into military medicine--mobile x-ray diagnostics. With the discovery of radioactive elements a new medical branch, radiotherapy, was developed.

  16. Income and Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We employ a behavioral measure of trustworthiness obtained from a trust game carried out with a sample of the general British population, the individuals of which were extensively interviewed on earlier occasions. Our basic finding is that given past income, higher current income increases trustworthiness and, given current income, higher past income reduces trustworthiness. Past income determines the level of financial aspirations, and whether or not these aspirations are fulfilled by the level of current income affects trustworthiness.

  17. Anomalous curie response of impurities in quantum-critical spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Kaj H; Sandvik, Anders W

    2007-07-13

    We consider a magnetic impurity in two different S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnets at their respective critical interlayer couplings separating Néel and disordered ground states. We calculate the impurity susceptibility using a quantum Monte Carlo method. With intralayer couplings in only one of the layers (Kondo lattice), we observe an anomalous Curie constant C*, as predicted on the basis of field-theoretical work [S. Sachdev, Science 286, 2479 (1999)10.1126/science.286.5449.2479]. The value C* = 0.262 +/- 0.002 is larger than the normal Curie constant C=S(S+1)/3. Our low-temperature results for a symmetric bilayer are consistent with a universal C*.

  18. Radioisótopos e sociedade : o legado de Marie Curie 100 anos depois

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    No ano em que se comemora o centenário da atribuição do Prémio Nobel da Química a Marie Curie e o Ano Internacional da Química, é oportuno recordar e analisar a herança deixada à Humanidade por esta cientista excepcional. Trata-se de um legado que não só revolucionou a ciência como igualmente teve impactos profundos e incontornáveis na sociedade. A aplicação clínica dos radioisótopos, por ela e por Pierre Curie preconizada, constitui uma das armas mais poderosas para o combate ao cancro actua...

  19. Critical behavior of the resistivity of GaMnAs near the Curie temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Yunusov, Z. A.; Kwon, Y. H.; Lee, S. H.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the magnetization fluctuations on the resistivity of GaMnAs near the Curie temperature TC was experimentally studied. It is shown that the determination of TC from the maximum of the temperature derivative of the resistivity is valid for the samples with a high concentration of free carries. Whereas, for the samples with low concentration of free carriers the TC coincides with the resistivity maximum. The magnetic specific heat for T>TC demonstrates the crossover from the one dimensional to the three dimensional critical behavior when the temperature become closer to the Curie temperature. This is explained by the formation of the ferromagnetic phase in the paramagnetic side of the phase transition which is started from Mn-Mn dimers oriented along one direction.

  20. Radioisótopos e sociedade : o legado de Marie Curie 100 anos depois

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    No ano em que se comemora o centenário da atribuição do Prémio Nobel da Química a Marie Curie e o Ano Internacional da Química, é oportuno recordar e analisar a herança deixada à Humanidade por esta cientista excepcional. Trata-se de um legado que não só revolucionou a ciência como igualmente teve impactos profundos e incontornáveis na sociedade. A aplicação clínica dos radioisótopos, por ela e por Pierre Curie preconizada, constitui uma das armas mais poderosas para o combate ao cancro actua...

  1. High Curie temperature BiInO3-PbTiO3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Wang, Wei; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2014-06-14

    High Curie temperaturepiezoelectricthin films of xBiInO3-(1-x)PbTiO3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25) were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. It was found that the tetragonality of films decreased with increasing BI content. The dielectric constant and transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f ) exhibit the highest values of 665 and -13.6 C/m(2) at x = 0.20. Rayleigh analyses were performed to identify the extrinsic contributions to dielectric nonlinearity with different x. The composition with x = 0.20 also exhibits the largest extrinsic contributions to dielectric nonlinearity. The Curie temperature (TC ) is increased with increasing x content from 558 to 633 °C; TC at x = 0.20 is about 584 °C.

  2. The research school of Marie Curie in the Paris faculty, 1907-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L

    1995-07-01

    As the most famous woman scientist of the twentieth century, there has been no shortage of books and articles on the life and career of Marie Curie (1867-1934). Her role as director of a laboratory-based research school in the new scientific field of radioactivity, a field which embraced both chemistry and physics, however, has never been examined. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the question of research schools, and Morrell, Ravetz, Geison, and Klosterman, amongst others, have written on this subject. Using, in part, the methodology of Morrell, this paper investigates the role of Marie Curie as a school director in the Paris Faculty in the years 1907-14, examining the work and characteristics of her school and assessing her effectiveness as a director.

  3. Influence of inherent strain on the curie temperature of rare earth ion-doped bismuth vanadate

    OpenAIRE

    Sooryanarayana, K; Row, TNG; R. Somashekar; Varma, KBR

    1998-01-01

    X-ray line broadening is found to be an effective parameter to estimate the strain associated with rare earth ion (Gd3+)-doped polycrystalline bismuth vanadate(Bi2VO5.5). The strain increases with increasing Gd3+ concentration. It is anisotropic and found to be maximum in (111) plane. The Curie temperature which is known to decrease with increase in the rare earth ion concentration in these compounds is correlated with increase in strain.

  4. Investigations on electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Song, Ting; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Su, Hao; Deng, Jian-Bo; Zhu, Xing-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Using full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis along with spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker methods, we study the electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy. The alloy with Li2AgSb and Cu2MnAl structures are compared in terms of magnetic properties, and the electronic structures in two structures are also discussed. According to the calculated electronic states, it finds that the Zr2CoAl with Li2AgSb structure is half-metallic ferromagnet with an integral magnetic moment of 2.00μB , meanwhile we also notice the d-d and p-d hybridizations are responsible for the formation of minority-spin gap, furthermore, the fat-bands are applied to discuss the mixture between d and p electrons in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The Fermi surfaces related to the valence bands are constructed, and it is found that the spin-up valence bands 26, 27 and 28 across the Fermi energy dominate the nature of electrons. By mapping the system onto a Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we obtain the exchange coupling parameters, and observe that the Zr(A)-Co(C) and Zr(A)-Zr(B) interactions provide a major contribution for exchange interactions. Based on the calculated exchange coupling parameters, the Curie temperature is estimated to be 287.86 K at equilibrium, and also the dependence of Curie temperature on lattice constant related to the tunable Curie temperature in Zr2CoAl alloy is studied. Finally, we report the optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy, and present the photon energy dependence of the absorption, the optical conductivity and the loss function.

  5. A new approach to increase the Curie temperature of Fe-Mo double perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi, D. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Frontera, C. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roig, A. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Nogues, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Munoz, J.S. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail: fontcuberta@icmab.es

    2006-01-25

    Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} and related double perovskites are nowadays intensely investigated due to their potential in the field of spintronics. It has been previously shown that the Curie temperature (T {sub C}) of double perovskites can be increased by injecting carriers in the conduction band. We report here on an alternative approach to reinforce the magnetic interaction, and thus raise T {sub C}. It can be suspected that the introduction of Fe excess in the Fe-Mo sub-lattice, which would lead into the appearance of nearest neighbour Fe-O-Fe antiferromagnetic spin coupling, could reinforce the next-near neighbour Fe-O-Fe-O-Fe ferromagnetic ordering and thus raise the Curie temperature. The plausibility of this mechanism was checked, in the first place, by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Afterwards, Nd{sub 2x}Ca{sub 2-2x}Fe{sub 1+x}Mo{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} series was prepared and fully characterized, being found that the Curie temperature rises as much as {delta}T {sub C} {approx} 75 K when the Fe content is increased. We argue that this is a genuine magnetic exchange effect, not related neither to steric distortions nor band filling.

  6. Ising Critical Behavior of Inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss Models and Annealed Random Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; van der Hofstad, Remco; Prioriello, Maria Luisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the critical behavior for inhomogeneous versions of the Curie-Weiss model, where the coupling constant {J_{ij}(β)} for the edge {ij} on the complete graph is given by {J_{ij}(β)=β w_iw_j/( {sum_{kin[N]}w_k})}. We call the product form of these couplings the rank-1 inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss model. This model also arises [with inverse temperature {β} replaced by {sinh(β)} ] from the annealed Ising model on the generalized random graph. We assume that the vertex weights {(w_i)_{iin[N]}} are regular, in the sense that their empirical distribution converges and the second moment converges as well. We identify the critical temperatures and exponents for these models, as well as a non-classical limit theorem for the total spin at the critical point. These depend sensitively on the number of finite moments of the weight distribution. When the fourth moment of the weight distribution converges, then the critical behavior is the same as on the (homogeneous) Curie-Weiss model, so that the inhomogeneity is weak. When the fourth moment of the weights converges to infinity, and the weights satisfy an asymptotic power law with exponent {τ} with {τin(3,5)}, then the critical exponents depend sensitively on {τ}. In addition, at criticality, the total spin {S_N} satisfies that {S_N/N^{(τ-2)/(τ-1)}} converges in law to some limiting random variable whose distribution we explicitly characterize.

  7. Income inequality, decentralisation, and regional development in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tselios, Vassilis; Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Pike, Andy; Tomaney, John; Torrisi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between decentralisation, regional economic development, and income inequality within regions. Using multiplicative interaction models and regionally aggregated microeconomic data for more than 100000 individuals in the European Union (EU), it addresses two mai

  8. MARIE CURIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDGAR SERNA MONTOYA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available María Sklodowska ‒Marie Curie‒ fue pionera en la ciencia de la radiactividad; es mejor conocida como la descubridora de los elementos radiactivos polonio y radio, y como el primer científico en ganar dos premios Nobel: Física y Química. Para sus colegas y el público en general, el radio fue la clave para un cambio fundamental en nuestra comprensión de la materia y la energía. Su trabajo no sólo influyó en el desarrollo de la ciencia fundamental, sino que también marcó el comienzo de una nueva era en la investigación y los tratamientos médicos.

  9. [Income of family physicians in Western Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, J; Groenewegen, P P; van Haaften, R

    1991-05-04

    Although doctors tend to belong to the best paid categories of professionals, considerable differences between countries in average remuneration can be found. This study is focused on incomes (1985) of general practitioners (GP) in II Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, West Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden). Beside a description of the incomes (before taxation) as such, an attempt is made to correlate the income figures with some characteristics of the general practitioner's position in each country. The average GP income per country (before taxes) was ECU 43,600. The German (ECU 67,000), Austrian (ECU 56,000) and Danish (ECU 55,000) form the top, the Italian (ECU 14,000), Belgian (ECU 31,000) and Swedish (ECU 34,500) doctors the bottom-three. Correcting for OECD purchasing power parities does not change the rank order of the GP income in the different countries essentially. The more doctors per inhabitant, the lower the income, and the more different tasks the GP has to perform, the higher the income. Direct access of specialist care has no relationship with GP incomes.

  10. ESR study of thermal demagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles with Curie temperatures between 40 and 60 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kuznetsov_oa@yahoo.com; Sorokina, Olga N. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Leontiev, Vladimir G. [Institute of Metallurgy, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Shlyakhtin, Oleg A. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kovarski, Alexander L. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Anatoly A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    Thermal demagnetization in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of silver and sodium manganite nanoparticles, as well as copper-nickel and palladium-nickel alloy nanoparticles were studied by both static magnetic measurements and by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR data indicate that some magnetic ordering remains even above the Curie temperature, determined by static magnetometry. Mechanisms of thermal demagnetization in alloy nanoparticles appear to be different from that in manganites.

  11. Income and Trustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    John Ermisch; Diego Gambetta

    2016-01-01

    We employ a behavioral measure of trustworthiness obtained from a trust game carried out with a sample of the general British population, the individuals of which were extensively interviewed on earlier occasions. Our basic finding is that given past income, higher current income increases trustworthiness and, given current income, higher past income reduces trustworthiness. Past income determines the level of financial aspirations, and whether or not these aspirations are fulfilled by the le...

  12. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  13. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated...... with a web of meanings encompassed by the central imaginary signification of autonomy, manifested as critique and questioning of established representations, pursuit of truth through rational communication and scientific knowledge, as well as democratic citizenship, conceived of as social and personal self......-determination. But, in addition to Greek Antiquity, on which Modernity drew, the European social imaginary included the central signification of rational control and domination, which is articulated mainly as instrumental rationality, techno-scientific supremacy, capitalism, national state and bureaucracy...

  14. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  15. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets i

  16. Coping with crisis risk in European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the major findings of an international workshop on coping with crisis risk in European agriculture. The workshop took place as part of an EU sixth framework project entitled: Income stabilisation: Design and economic impact of risk management tools for European agriculture. T

  17. Structure and Curie temperature of Y2Fe17-xCrx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝世强; 陈难先

    2003-01-01

    The structures of Y2Fe17-xCrx are simulated by the ab initio potentials. The site preference of Cr atom in Y2Fe17 is evaluated and the order is determined as 4f, 12j, which is close to the experimental result. Based on the site preference behavior, the calculated parameters and the atom sites of Y-Fe-Cr system are studied. The result corresponds well to observed data. Further, the DOS of the relaxed structures are calculated and the variation in Curie temperature is explained qualitatively by the spin-fluctuation theory.

  18. CoxC nanorod magnets: Highly magnetocrystalline anisotropy with lower Curie temperature for potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, AA; Almugaiteeb, T; Carpenter, EE

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic CoxC nanorods with larger magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 5 x 10(5) J/m(3) as well as larger coercivity and lower Curie temperature are introduced. The particles have an average diameter of 8 nm and shows three different magnetic behaviors. The sample shows ferromagnetism up to 400 K, superparamagnetism at temperature > 400 K and

  19. First-principles calculation of the Curie temperature Slater-Pauling curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, C; Ogura, M; Akai, H

    2007-09-12

    It is well known that the magnetizations as a function of the valence electron number per atom of 3d transition metal substitutional alloys form the so-called Slater-Pauling curve. Similarly, the Curie temperatures of these alloys also show systematic behaviour against the valence electron number. Though this fact has long been known, no attempt has been made so far to explain this behaviour from first principles. In this paper we calculate T(C) of 3d transition metal alloys in the framework of first-principles electronic structure calculation based on the local density approximation.

  20. Curie Temperature of the Intergranular Amorphous Phase in Nanocrystalline Fe89Zr7B4 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The FeZrB amorphous alloys for simulating the intergranular amorphous phase in the nanocrystalline Fe89Zr7B4 soft magnetic materials were obtained by mechanical alloying of a mixture of elemental Fe, Zr and B powdersfor 25 h. It is shown that the Curie temperature of the simulated intergranular phase alloy is much lower than thatof the intergranular phase with the same chemical composition in the nanocrystalline Fe89Zr7B4 alloy. The possiblemechanism is mainly due to the strong ferromagnetic exchange force among the nanocrystalline α-Fe grains.

  1. High Curie temperatures in (Ga,Mn)N from Mn clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Hynninen, Teemu; Raebiger, Hannes; Ayuela, Andres; von Boehm, J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of microscopic Mn cluster distribution on the Curie temperature (Tc) is studied using density-functional calculations. We find that the calculated Tc depends crucially on the microscopic cluster distribution, which can explain the abnormally large variations in experimental Tc values from a few K to well above room temperature. The partially dimerized Mn_2-Mn_1 distribution is found to give the highest Tc > 500 K, and in general, the presence of the Mn_2 dimer has a tendency to enh...

  2. Local radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia using CuNi nanoparticles with therapeutically suitable Curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Leontiev, Vladimir G. [Institute of Metallurgy, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Brukvin, Vladimir A. [Institute of Metallurgy, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Vorozhtsov, Georgy N. [NIOPIK Organic Intermediates and Dyes Institute, Moscow 103787 (Russian Federation); Kogan, Boris Ya. [NIOPIK Organic Intermediates and Dyes Institute, Moscow 103787 (Russian Federation); Shlyakhtin, Oleg A. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Yunin, Alexander M. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Tsybin, Oleg I. [Institute of Metallurgy, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kuznetsov_oa@yahoo.com

    2007-04-15

    Copper-nickel (CuNi) alloy nanoparticles with Curie temperatures (T{sub c}) from 40 to 60{sup o}C were synthesized by several techniques. Varying the synthesis parameters and post-treatment, as well as separations by size and T{sub c}, allow producing mediator nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia with parametric feedback temperature control with desired parameters. In vitro and in vivo animal experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of the temperature-controlled heating of the tissue, laden with the particles, by an external alternating magnetic field.

  3. O legado de Madame Curie : uma abordagem CTS para o ensino da radioatividade

    OpenAIRE

    Jucelino Cortez

    2014-01-01

    Nesta dissertação relatamos uma experiência de ensino de Radioatividade motivada na abordagem Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS) e trabalhada com os estudantes do terceiro ano da Escola Estadual de Ensino Médio Ponche Verde, em Sertão, Rio Grande do Sul, em 2013. A vida e o legado de Marie Curie foram usados como mote central para uma introdução multidisciplinar ao conteúdo de Radioatividade, que envolveu Biologia, História, Química, Filosofia, Sociologia, Matemática, Medicina, além de Fís...

  4. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  5. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  6. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  7. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  8. Observation of Curie transition during spark plasma sintering of ferromagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Mani, Mahesh [Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Viola, Giuseppe [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Hall, Jeremy P. [Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Grasso, Salvatore; Reece, Mike J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    The possibility of employing the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic phase transitions of magnetic materials to calibrate temperature during spark plasma sintering (SPS) was investigated using pure Fe and Fe–50Co alloy. A sharp and repeatable change was observed in the electrical current profile at the Curie temperature (T{sub c}) during both sintering and reheating of the sintered samples. Under a pulsed DC current, an abrupt change in the electrical resistance was observed at T{sub c} due to the sudden changes in the permeability and in turn, the skin depth during heating and cooling. These effects can be used to obtain a more accurate in-situ measurement of the sample temperature than the one provided by the pyrometers that are normally used for SPS processing. The temperature measured using a pyrometer was found to be significantly lower (up to 70 °C) than the actual temperature of the specimen. - Highlights: • Calibration of temperature during spark plasma sintering (SPS) remains a big challenge. • Temperature measured by non-contact pyrometers in SPS is not accurate. • Ferromagnetic materials exhibit abrupt change in permeability at Curie temperature (T{sub c}). • Iron and Fe–Co alloy showed sharp and reproducible changes in SPS electric current profiles at T{sub c}. • Ferromagnetic materials can be successfully used to calibrate pyrometers in SPS.

  9. Magnetic properties of N-doped graphene with high Curie temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qinghua; Wang, Lidong; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Wei, Bing; Xu, Fubiao; Fei, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    N-doped graphene with Curie temperature higher than room temperature is a good candidate for nanomagnetic applications. Here we report a kind of N-doped graphene that exhibits ferromagnetic property with high Curie temperature (>600 K). Four graphene samples were prepared through self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), and the doped nitrogen contents of in the samples were 0 at.%, 2.53 at.%, 9.21 at.% and 11.17 at.%. It has been found that the saturation magnetization and coercive field increase with the increasing of nitrogen contents in the samples. For the sample with the highest nitrogen content, the saturation magnetizations reach 0.282 emu/g at 10 K and 0.148 emu/g at 300 K; the coercive forces reach 544.2 Oe at 10 K and 168.8 Oe at 300 K. The drop of magnetic susceptibility at ~625 K for N-doped graphene is mainly caused by the decomposition of pyrrolic N and pydinic N. Our results suggest that SHS method is an effective and high-throughput method to produce N-doped graphene with high nitrogen concentration and that N-doped graphene produced by SHS method is promising to be a good candidate for nanomagnetic applications. PMID:26907569

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Ni–Cu alloy nanoparticles with a tunable Curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferk, Gregor [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor (Slovenia); Stergar, Janja [Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor (Slovenia); Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hamler, Anton [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor (Slovenia); Jagličić, Zvonko [Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics and Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drofenik, Miha [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor (Slovenia); Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ban, Irena [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor (Slovenia); Center of Excellence NAMASTE, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-11-05

    A series of nickel–copper alloy magnetic nanoparticles with a range of Curie points from 51 °C to 63 °C were prepared by the reduction of intimately mixed nickel and copper oxides in a silica matrix using the sol–gel method. The silica matrix was subsequently removed with an etching solution, assisted by sonication. The alloy nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/SDTA), thermomagnetic analysis (TMA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic measurements (SQUID, vibrating-sample magnetometer) and specific absorption rate measurements (SAR). The synthesized nanoparticles show a size in the range 15–20 nm, exhibited superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of approximately 135 K and a room-temperature magnetization of 3–9 emu/g, depending on the composition. The nanoparticles showed a relatively high effective anisotropy constant (K{sub eff}) and a significant heating ability in an alternating magnetic field. The synthesis method is straightforward and allows the preparation of homogeneous Ni–Cu alloy nanoparticles with a relatively narrow particle size distribution. - Highlights: • Straightforward so-gel synthesis of homogeneous Ni–Cu alloy nanoparticles. • Narrow particle size distribution and controlled Curie point. • Applications in “self-regulating magnetic fluid hyperthermia”. • Heating efficiency of nanoparticles as a function of composition and size.

  11. European integration, financial resources and the absorption of European funds in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The regional integration has the purpose to enhance the income in the region, which may be achieved through getting higher economic results by using the production factors more efficiently, increasing their mobility and benefiting from the access to a comprehensive knowledge base. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration, financial resources and, absorption of European funds. The paper proposes an analysis of financial framework by means of data and statistics provided by European institution, national statistics institutions and international statistics institutions. The financial framework is a mechanism designed to ensure a strict budgetary discipline of the maximum spending cap for each major area of European Union budget. This mechanism is drawing on the basis of political and economic priorities. One of the main objectives should be the expenditure forecasting, annual budgets, so they be situated under overall cap, knowing that achieving long-term economic growth depends on the financial incentives that the European Union can sustain.

  12. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  13. Magnetic Signatures and Curie Surface Trend Across an Arc-Continent Collision Zone: An Example from Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Pearlyn C.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Ramos, Noelynna T.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Queaño, Karlo L.; Yumul, Graciano P.

    2016-05-01

    Ground and aeromagnetic data are combined to characterize the onshore and offshore magnetic properties of the central Philippines, whose tectonic setting is complicated by opposing subduction zones, large-scale strike-slip faulting and arc-continent collision. The striking difference between the magnetic signatures of the islands with established continental affinity and those of the islands belonging to the island arc terrane is observed. Negative magnetic anomalies are registered over the continental terrane, while positive magnetic anomalies are observed over the Philippine Mobile Belt. Several linear features in the magnetic anomaly map coincide with the trace of the Philippine Fault and its splays. Power spectral analysis of the magnetic data reveals that the Curie depth across the central Philippines varies. The deepest point of the magnetic crust is beneath Mindoro Island at 32 km. The Curie surface shallows toward the east: the Curie surface is 21 km deep between the islands of Sibuyan and Masbate, and 18 km deep at the junction of Buruanga Peninsula and Panay Island. The shallowest Curie surface (18 km) coincides with the boundary of the arc-continent collision, signifying the obduction of mantle rocks over the continental basement. Comparison of the calculated Curie depth with recent crustal thickness models reveals the same eastwards thinning trend and range of depths. The coincidence of the magnetic boundary and the density boundary may support the existence of a compositional boundary that reflects the crust-mantle interface.

  14. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  15. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  16. Improved nonhuman animal welfare is related more to income equality than it is to income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    The link between nonhuman animal welfare, income, and income inequality (Gini coefficient) was tested using consumption of animal products, laws protecting animals on the farm from the worst abuses, and animals used in experimentation as indicators. Experimentation on all animals and on rodents significantly increased in high-income European countries, although there was some evidence that the increase in experimentation on cats and dogs started to flatten out for the highest income countries. Consumption of all flesh products in high-income countries declined in more equal societies. More equal high-income countries also had stricter regulations protecting animals, although the same correlation was not seen between U.S. states. In New Zealand, there was some evidence that testing on cats and dogs declined during years when equality was improving. The results provide little evidence for a Kuznets effect of income on animal welfare, with the possible exception of companion animal treatment. They do, however, suggest that greater equality can be a predictor for better treatment of animals. Previous research has strongly suggested that social conditions for humans improve with greater equality. The same may be true for nonhuman animals. Alternatively, conditions conducive to improving human income equality may also lead to better animal welfare outcomes.

  17. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  18. Giant magnetocaloric effect in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system by establishing a Curie-temperature window

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, E. K.

    2013-03-28

    An effective scheme of isostructural alloying was applied to establish a Curie-temperature window in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system. With the simultaneous accomplishment of decreasing structural-transition temperature and converting antiferromagnetic martensite to ferromagnetic state, a 200 K Curie-temperature window was established between Curie temperatures of austenite and martensite phases. In the window, a first-order magnetostructural transition between paramagnetic austenite and ferromagnetic martensite occurs with a sharp jump in magnetization, showing a magnetic entropy change as large as −40 J kg−1 K−1 in a 50 kOe field change. This giant magnetocaloric effect enables Mn1− x Co x NiGe to become a potential magnetic refrigerant.

  19. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...

  20. Impact of curie-therapy timing in the treatment of cervical cancer; Impact du timing de la curietherapie dans le traitement du cancer du col uterin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochbati, L.; Bouzid, N.; Saidi, I.; Nasr, C.; Messai, T.; Hentati, D.; Gargouri, W.; Besbes, M.; Maalej, M. [Service de radiotherapie, institut Salah-Azaiz, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2011-10-15

    Curie-therapy conventionally comes before surgery in the treatment of cervical cancer, either alone or after a concomitant chemotherapy. The authors report a study of the impact of a reverse sequence (surgery before curie-therapy) on the exeresis quality and on the evolution of operable tumours. Among women treated between 2004 and 2009, 40 have been identified who had surgery before curie-therapy. Ages, tumour stages, average doses, and treatment procedures are discussed. The notably high rate of vaginal sections could be reduced or avoided by using the conventional protocol (curie-therapy before surgery). Short communication

  1. Influence of Non—Magnetic Substitutional Atoms on Spontaneous Moment and Curie Temperature of Ce2Co17Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡社军; 刘正义; 等

    2002-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Ce2Co17-xMx(M=Ga,Al and Si)compounds for Mcomcentrations up to x=5 were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements,The experimental results show that the Curie temperatures and Co spontaneous magnetization decrease significantly with increasing the addition of non-magnetic substitutional atoms,and that Si which has a minimum solid solubility ic Ce2Co17causes a largest reduction of Curie temperature,spontaneous magnetization and moment perCo atom compared with Ga and Al.

  2. Influence of Non-Magnetic Substitutional Atoms on Spontaneous Moment and Curie Temperature of Ce2Co17 Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Ce2Co17-xMx(M=Ga,Al and Si) compounds for M concentrations up to x=5 were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The experimental results show that the Curie temperatures and Co spontaneous magnetization decrease significantly with increasing the addition of non-magnetic substitutional atoms, and that Si which has a minimum solid solubility in Ce2Co17 causes a largest reduction of Curie temperature, spontaneous magnetization and moment per Co atom compared with Ga and Al.

  3. In-Situ Alignment of MnBi Crystals Induced by High Magnetic Field above Curie Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Sheng; ZHANG Jin-Cang; REN Zhong-Ming; CAO Shi-Xun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Above Curie temperature, MnBi crystals are aligned in situ along the c-axis in a Bi matrix by a high fabrication magnetic field Hf of 10 T. Magnetic testing shows a pronounced anisotropy in magnetization in directions normal and parallel to the fabrication field, resulting from the alignment. The successful alignment may result from the fact that the easy magnetization direction is along the c-axis of MnBi and the high fabrication field of 10 T is large enough to rotate the MnBi crystal to this direction even though the temperature is above the Curie temperature.

  4. High Curie temperature of Ce-Fe-Si compounds with ThMn12 structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Pinkerton, FE; Herbst, JF

    2015-01-15

    We report the discovery of ternary CeFe(12-x)Si(x)compounds possessing the ThMn12 structure. The samples were prepared by melt spinning followed by annealing. In contrast to other known Ce Fe-based binary and ternary compounds, CeFe12-xSix compounds exhibit exceptionally high Curie temperatures whose values increase with added Si substitution. The highest T. = 583 K in CeFe10Si2 rivals that of the well-established Nd2Fe14B compound. We ascribe the T-c behavior to a combination of Si-induced 3d band structure changes and partial Ce3+ stabilization. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. High Curie temperature Mn5Ge3 thin films produced by non-diffusive reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, E.; Portavoce, A.; Hoummada, K.; Bertoglio, M.; Bertaina, S.

    2017-02-01

    Polycrystalline Mn5Ge3 thin films were produced on SiO2 using magnetron sputtering and reactive diffusion (RD) or non-diffusive reaction (NDR). In situ X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were used to determine the layer structures, and magnetic force microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, and ferromagnetic resonance were used to determine their magnetic properties. RD-mediated layers exhibit similar magnetic properties as molecular beam epitaxy-grown monocrystalline Mn5Ge3 thin films, while NDR-mediated layers show magnetic properties similar to monocrystalline C-doped Mn5Ge3Cx thin films with 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. NDR appears as a complementary metal oxide semi-conductor-compatible efficient method to produce good magnetic quality high-Curie temperature Mn5Ge3 thin films.

  6. Nd-doped ZnO monolayer: High Curie temperature and large magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Changlong; Sun, Dan; Zhou, Long; Tian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yuewu

    2016-10-01

    We performed first-principles calculations within density-functional theory to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Nd-doped ZnO monolayer. The calculated results reveal that Nd-doped ZnO monolayer exhibits stable room temperature ferromagnetism with a large saturation magnetic moment of 3.99 μB per unit in ZnO monolayer. The magnetic property is contributed to the localized f sates of Nd atoms. When two Zn atoms are substituted by two Nd dopants, they tend to form ferromagnetic (FM) coupling and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than room temperature. More interesting, the impurity bands appear within the band gap of ZnO monolayer due to the introduction of Nd dopant. Our results may provide a reference for modifying the material property of ZnO monolayer and are promising as nanoscale building block in spintronic devices.

  7. [Maria Skłodowska-Curie--her chemistry at the centenary of the second Nobel Prize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórski, Zbigniew Paweł; Kornacka, Ewa Maria

    2012-01-01

    The article presents from the perspective of one hundred years the work of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, which in many cases was ahead of the state of knowledge of the time. It opened new horizons and for this reason we made many digressions. The fact of awarding her the Nobel Prize twice is a sensation enough to present the values of careful activity of the Nobel Prize Committee that emphasizes the importance of Maria's achievements. A significant element of Maria Skłodowska-Curie's achievements was still mysterious character of the radiation in her time, and only chemical approach made it possible to organise the phenomena and explain the origin of the radiation. The essence of the research was an arduous separation of components following the track of growing radiation of successive fractions of preparations. This research was a start of the technology of educement of dispersed elements in great mass of materials. We underline the paramount role of the chemical research Maria Skłodowska conducted while still in Warsaw in the laboratories of the Museum of Industry and Agriculture under the guidance of an excellent chemist Józef Jerzy Boguski. Her research in Paris was the origin of the semi-commercial scale in chemistry and setting aside a special shed outside the university building was the beginning of the institutes that now function beyond universities and are key element of scientific and technical progress. Technology of splitting developed by Maria Skłodowska-Curie was applied also by other radiochemists, e.g. By Otto Hahn. Lively movement in radiochemistry of her lifetime resulted in Maria's disputes with e.g. German chemist Marckwald, who questioned the originality of polonium. The scientific disputes like this one Maria won triumphantly although in several others she had to accept opponents' argument, as in the case of radon. Her experiments were planned with utmost rationality as it was with the rejection of the hypothesis saying that radioactivity was

  8. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  9. Determination of the Thermal Decomposition Products of Terephthalic Acid by Using Curie-Point Pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begüm Elmas Kimyonok, A.; Ulutürk, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    The thermal decomposition behavior of terephthalic acid (TA) was investigated by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and Curie-point pyrolysis. TG/DTA analysis showed that TA is sublimed at 276°C prior to decomposition. Pyrolysis studies were carried out at various temperatures ranging from 160 to 764°C. Decomposition products were analyzed and their structures were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 11 degradation products were identified at 764°C, whereas no peak was observed below 445°C. Benzene, benzoic acid, and 1,1‧-biphenyl were identified as the major decomposition products, and other degradation products such as toluene, benzophenone, diphenylmethane, styrene, benzaldehyde, phenol, 9H-fluorene, and 9-phenyl 9H-fluorene were also detected. A pyrolysis mechanism was proposed based on the findings.

  10. Mapping Curie temperature depth in the western United States with a fractal model for crustal magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J.M.G.; Blakely, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have revisited the problem of mapping depth to the Curie temperature isotherm from magnetic anomalies in an attempt to provide a measure of crustal temperatures in the western United States. Such methods are based on the estimation of the depth to the bottom of magnetic sources, which is assumed to correspond to the temperature at which rocks lose their spontaneous magnetization. In this study, we test and apply a method based on the spectral analysis of magnetic anomalies. Early spectral analysis methods assumed that crustal magnetization is a completely uncorrelated function of position. Our method incorporates a more realistic representation where magnetization has a fractal distribution defined by three independent parameters: the depths to the top and bottom of magnetic sources and a fractal parameter related to the geology. The predictions of this model are compatible with radial power spectra obtained from aeromagnetic data in the western United States. Model parameters are mapped by estimating their value within a sliding window swept over the study area. The method works well on synthetic data sets when one of the three parameters is specified in advance. The application of this method to western United States magnetic compilations, assuming a constant fractal parameter, allowed us to detect robust long-wavelength variations in the depth to the bottom of magnetic sources. Depending on the geologic and geophysical context, these features may result from variations in depth to the Curie temperature isotherm, depth to the mantle, depth to the base of volcanic rocks, or geologic settings that affect the value of the fractal parameter. Depth to the bottom of magnetic sources shows several features correlated with prominent heat flow anomalies. It also shows some features absent in the map of heat flow. Independent geophysical and geologic data sets are examined to determine their origin, thereby providing new insights on the thermal and geologic crustal

  11. Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles prepared by ball mill method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Daming [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, Hainan (China); Harward, Ian; Baptist, Joshua; Goldman, Sara; Celinski, Zbigniew [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Barium ferrite has attracted considerable interest in the fields of permanent magnets and perpendicular magnetic recording due to its strong uniaxial anisotropy and high Curie temperature (T{sub c}). We prepared aluminum doped barium ferrite ceramics (BaAl{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19}, 0≤x≤6) by the ball mill method. The powder was milled for 96 h, and after forming pellets, annealed for 48 h in air at 1000 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that there are only single hexagonal phases in the samples without any impurity phase. The crystal lattice constants, a and c, were calculated by Cohen's method. Both a and c decrease with increasing x, ranging from 0.588 nm and 2.318 nm to 0.573 nm and 2.294 nm, respectively. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) were used to investigate T{sub c} and magnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 19}. It is found that T{sub c} decreases with increasing x, from 425 °C to 298 °C. It is also found that the saturated magnetization (4πM{sub s}) decreases with increasing x, while the coercivity (H{sub c}) increases with the increase in x. The anisotropy field was also determined from the SQUID measurement. - Highlights: • The Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles were studied systemically. • The relation between 4πM{sub s} and composition x at 50 K (both experimental value and theoretical calculation) was revealed. • Occupation number for spin up and spin down as a function of temperature was shown. • The relation between 4πM{sub s} and composition x from 50 K to room temperature was revealed.

  12. Band filling dependence of the Curie temperature in CrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, I. V.; Kashin, I. V.; Mazurenko, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Rutile CrO2 is an important half-metallic ferromagnetic material, which is also widely used in magnetic recording. In an attempt to find the conditions, which lead to the increase of the Curie temperature (T C), we study theoretically the band-filling dependence of interatomic exchange interactions in the rutile compounds. For these purposes, we use the effective low-energy model for the magnetic t 2g bands, derived from the first-principles electronic structure calculations in the Wannier basis, which is solved by means of dynamical mean-field theory. After the solution, we calculate the interatomic exchange interactions, by using the theory of infinitesimal spin rotations, and evaluate T C. We argue that, as far as the Curie temperature is concerned, the band filling realized in CrO2 is far from being the optimal one and much higher T C can be obtained by decreasing the number of t 2g electrons (n) via the hole doping. We find that the optimal n is close to 1, which should correspond to the case of VO2, provided that it is crystallized in the rutile structure. This finding was confirmed by using the experimental rutile structure for both CrO2 and VO2 and reflects the general tendency towards ferromagnetism for the narrow-band compounds at the beginning of the band filling. In particular, our results suggest that the strong ferromagnetism can be achieved in the thin films of VO2, whose crystal structure is controlled by the substrate.

  13. Capital Income and Income Inequality: Evidence from Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Using urban household survey data collected by National Bureau of Statistics of China from 1988-2009, this study examines the distribution, composition, and changes of capital income and its contribution to income inequality. The data shows that capital income has increased considerably in past 20 years in urban China. Although the average value of capital income is still relatively low, the dispersion of capital income is significant, and for high-income earners capital income is substantial...

  14. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  15. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  16. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  17. European structuralism

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    European structuralism is a paradigm for the study of language developed by prominent European linguists during the inter-war period and the first decades after World War II that radically rejected the prevailing atomism of 19th century (particularly neo-grammarian) linguistics and language psychology.

  18. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  19. DRESSING THE NEW WORLD. A Marie Sklodowska-Curie Research Fellowship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thepaut-Cabasset, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    “Dressing the New World” aims to understand in detail the trade mechanism of European products and fashion overseas. It will evaluate the impact of European commodities and fashionable goods in everyday life in the colonial system. In particular it will study textiles and fashionable items in the...

  20. Continuous-Flow Inlet Systems for Low Pressure Curie-Point Pyrolysis. Introduction of Pulse-Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1984-01-01

    With emphasis on a constant reactant flow, a series of inlet systems for gas-phase Curie-point pyrolysis—mass spectrometry experiments have been studied. Inlet systems for the handling of gaseous, liquid and oligomeric (solid) samples have been designed and their performances evaluated. The princ....... The principle of pulse-pyrolysis is introduced and its applicability to kinetic studies outlined....

  1. Spin-flip dynamics of the Curie-Weiss model : Loss of Gibbsianness with possibly broken symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulske, Christof; Le Ny, Arnaud

    2007-01-01

    We study the conditional probabilities of the Curie-Weiss Ising model in vanishing external field under a symmetric independent stochastic spin-flip dynamics and discuss their set of points of discontinuity (bad points). We exhibit a complete analysis of the transition between Gibbsian and non-Gibbs

  2. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  3. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...

  4. Income, leisure, and happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2008-01-01

    The income-leisure trade-off, whilst prominent in textbooks, is largely absent in the incomehappiness debate. Multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling is introduced and used to investigate the income-leisure-happiness nexus. Leisure has a positive effect on happiness, but lowers the effect of

  5. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  6. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  7. Factor Determining Income Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractSince the phrase income distribution covers a large number of different concepts, it is necessary to define these and to indicate the choice made in this article. Income for a given recipient may cover lists of items which are not always the same. Apart from popular misunderstandings abo

  8. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...

  9. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution of r...

  10. Income distribution: Second thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractAs a follow-up of his book on income distribution the author reformulates his version on the scarcity theory of income from productive contributions. The need to introduce into an earnings theory several job characteristics, non-cognitive as well as cognitive, and the corresponding perso

  11. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...

  12. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    , depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities...... to the total income accounting of the poor and the non-poor were estimated. The results indicate that forest and environmental income was the second important livelihood activity to both poor and non-poor households next to crop production - contributing about 22.46 and 24.14 percent to the poor and non......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  13. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  14. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  15. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  16. EU Integration and Harmonisation of Personal Income Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of furthering EU integration little attention was given to the role of income taxes. Multiple income tax systems exist across the Union and their differentiation negatively impacts the European labour market, investments and savings, inhibiting economic growth. Individual nations have little motivation to harmonise as they can engage in tax rate competition and income taxes are interwoven with social security systems that make any attempts at reform extremely complex and politically unpopular. Much of current harmonisation is “silent”, paralegal, and occurs in response to market forces rather than following a formal plan and through intergovernmental cooperation.

  17. High-Curie-temperature ferromagnetism in self-organized Ge1-xMnx nanocolumns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet, Matthieu; Barski, André; Devillers, Thibaut; Poydenot, Valier; Dujardin, Romain; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Rothman, Johan; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Marty, Alain; Cibert, Joël; Mattana, Richard; Tatarenko, Serge

    2006-08-01

    The emerging field of spintronics would be dramatically boosted if room-temperature ferromagnetism could be added to semiconductor nanostructures that are compatible with silicon technology. Here, we report a high-TC (>400K) ferromagnetic phase of (Ge,Mn) epitaxial layer. The manganese content is 6%, and careful structural and chemical analyses show that the Mn distribution is strongly inhomogeneous: we observe eutectoid growth of well-defined Mn-rich nanocolumns surrounded by a Mn-poor matrix. The average diameter of these nanocolumns is 3nm and their spacing is 10nm. Their composition is close to Ge(2)Mn, which corresponds to an unknown germanium-rich phase, and they have a uniaxially elongated diamond structure. Their Curie temperature is higher than 400K. Magnetotransport reveals a pronounced anomalous Hall effect up to room temperature. A giant positive magnetoresistance is measured from 7,000% at 30K to 200% at 300K and 9T, with no evidence of saturation.

  18. Curie isotherm map of Scotia Arc from near surface magnetic anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The opening of the Drake Passage, situated between South America and Antarctica, represents the final stage of the fragmentation of Gondwana supercontinent. It led to the Scotia Arc formation, bordering the Scotia Sea, which is surrounded by fragments of the former continental connection. It is currently composed of Scotia and Sandwich Plates. Shackleton Fracture Zone constitutes its sinistral transpressive western boundary and it is a key structure that accommodates former Phoenix and Scotia Plates' differential movement. The formation of the Drake Passage and the Scotia Sea is considered of great importance to ocean circulation, as it allows the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that isolated the Antarctic continent, with strong implications for climate and global changes. Thermal structure of the Earth's crust is one of the main parameters controlling geodynamic processes. There is few information regarding heat flow values on Scotia arc. These values are mainly located in its westernmost, southern and easternmost part, which are not enough to extract conclusions regarding lithospheric thickness variations and asthenospheric flow. Taking advantage of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map Project's compilation we have extracted magnetic anomaly data which fall inside the Scotia Arc and surrounding areas. This magnetic anomaly picture provides the best representation of magnetic properties to date. We propose to use spectral methods on this regional magnetic compilation to obtain depth to the bottom of magnetic sources as a proxy to infer Curie depth and heat flow distribution in the Scotia Sea.

  19. [Analytical chemistry in works of Maria Skłodowska-Curie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulanicki, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Maria Skłodowska-Curie--a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry--the elements of learning of chemistry gained just by a dint of work of more than ten months in Warsaw in the Institute of Industry and Agriculture Museum. The Nobel Prize concerned a contribution to the progress of chemistry through the discovery of radium and polonium, separation of radium and study of properties of this amazing element. It was awarded for an extremely arduous work, during which the chemical reactions being the principles of analytical chemistry were realized. Unlike to a typical analytical procedure, an initial attempt here was the thousands of kilograms of uranium ore: pitchblende. The final effect was small amounts of new elements: polonium and radium. Both the knowledge and the intuition of the researcher let her have a triumph. The difficulties she experienced because the properties of the searched chemical elements could only be evaluated thanks to the knowledge on other chemical elements. A significant achievement was the determination of the samples by means of radioactivity measurement, which gave rise to radiochemical analytical methods. An extreme analytical precision was demanded in multiple processes of fractional crystallization and precipitation which finally led to the calculation of the atomic mass of radium.

  20. Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles prepared by ball mill method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Baptist, Joshua; Goldman, Sara; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Barium ferrite has attracted considerable interest in the fields of permanent magnets and perpendicular magnetic recording due to its strong uniaxial anisotropy and high Curie temperature (Tc). We prepared aluminum doped barium ferrite ceramics (BaAlxFe12-xO19, 0≤x≤6) by the ball mill method. The powder was milled for 96 h, and after forming pellets, annealed for 48 h in air at 1000 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that there are only single hexagonal phases in the samples without any impurity phase. The crystal lattice constants, a and c, were calculated by Cohen's method. Both a and c decrease with increasing x, ranging from 0.588 nm and 2.318 nm to 0.573 nm and 2.294 nm, respectively. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) were used to investigate Tc and magnetic properties of BaFe12-xAlxO19. It is found that Tc decreases with increasing x, from 425 °C to 298 °C. It is also found that the saturated magnetization (4πMs) decreases with increasing x, while the coercivity (Hc) increases with the increase in x. The anisotropy field was also determined from the SQUID measurement.

  1. Cluster Mott insulators and two Curie-Weiss regimes on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the quantum-spin-liquid candidate material LiZn2Mo3O8 , we study a single-band extended Hubbard model on an anisotropic kagome lattice with the 1/6 electron filling. Due to the partial filling of the lattice, the intersite repulsive interaction is necessary to generate Mott insulators, where electrons are localized in clusters rather than at lattice sites. It is shown that these cluster Mott insulators are generally U(1) quantum spin liquids with spinon Fermi surfaces. The nature of charge excitations in cluster Mott insulators can be quite different from conventional Mott insulator and we show that there exists a cluster Mott insulator where charge fluctuations around the hexagonal cluster induce a plaquette charge order (PCO). The spinon excitation spectrum in this spin-liquid cluster Mott insulator is reconstructed due to the PCO so that only 1/3 of the total spinon excitations are magnetically active. Based on these results, we propose that the two Curie-Weiss regimes of the spin susceptibility in LiZn2Mo3O8 may be explained by finite-temperature properties of the cluster Mott insulator with the PCO as well as fractionalized spinon excitations. Existing and possible future experiments on LiZn2Mo3O8 , and other Mo-based cluster magnets are discussed in light of these theoretical predictions.

  2. Tailoring Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Mohanan Parakkat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of perpendicular magnetization and Curie temperature (Tc of Pt/Co/Pt thin films on the thicknesses of Pt seed (Pts and presence of Ta buffer layer has been investigated in this work. Pt and Co thicknesses were varied between 2 to 8 nm and 0.35 to 1.31 nm (across the spin reorientation transition thickness respectively and the Tc was measured using SQUID magnetometer. We have observed a systematic dependence of Tc on the thickness of Pts. For 8nm thickness of Pts the Co layer of 0.35nm showed ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy at room temperature. As the thickness of the Pts was decreased to 2nm, the Tc went down below 250K. XRD data indicated polycrystalline growth of Pts on SiO2. On the contrary Ta buffer layer promoted the growth of Pt(111. As a consequence Ta(5nm/Pt(3nm/Co(0.35nm/Pt(2nm had much higher Tc (above 300K with perpendicular anisotropy when compared to the same stack without the Ta layer. Thus we could tune the ferromagnetic Tc and anisotropy by varying the Pts thickness and also by introducing Ta buffer layer. We attribute these observations to the micro-structural evolution of Pts layer which hosts the Co layer.

  3. Nanoengineering of an Si/MnGe quantum dot superlattice for high Curie-temperature ferromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Tianxiao; Kou, Xufeng; Tang, Jianshi; Fan, Yabin; Lee, Shengwei; He, Qinglin; Chang, Li-Te; Murata, Koichi; Gen, Yin; Wang, Kang L

    2017-02-14

    The realization and application of spintronic devices would be dramatically advanced if room-temperature ferromagnetism could be integrated into semiconductor nanostructures, especially when compatible with mature silicon technology. Herein, we report the observation of such a system - an Si/MnGe superlattice with quantum dots well aligned in the vertical direction successfully grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Such a unique system could take full advantage of the type-II energy band structure of the Si/Ge heterostructure, which could trap the holes inside MnGe QDs, significantly enhancing the hole-mediated ferromagnetism. Magnetic measurements indeed found that the superlattice structure exhibited a Curie temperature of above 400 K. Furthermore, zero-field cooling and field cooling curves could confirm the absence of ferromagnetic compounds, such as Ge8Mn11 (Tc ∼ 270 K) and Ge3Mn5 (Tc ∼ 296 K) in our system. Magnetotransport measurement revealed a clear magnetoresistance transition from negative to positive and a pronounced anomalous Hall effect. Such a unique Si/MnGe superlattice sets a new stage for strengthening ferromagnetism due to the enhanced hole-mediation by quantum confinement, which can be exploited for realizing the room-temperature Ge-based spin field-effect transistors in the future.

  4. Developing spiritual and religious care competencies in practice: pilot of a Marie Curie blended learning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy; Gordon, Tom

    2009-02-01

    The Marie Curie Cancer Care (2003) Spiritual and Religious Care Competencies for Specialist Palliative Care provide a common language for healthcare practitioners in the nebulous area of spiritual care. The development of a pilot blended learning event, as described in this paper, sought to integrate the competencies into practice by providing opportunities both online and in the classroom to explore this aspect of holistic care in depth. In the planning stages, multiprofessional focus groups determined the level of delivery, and emerging themes shaped the content. Self-awareness and reflection were key features and part of the overall process to improve competency. The features of the virtual learning environment (VLE) used were video, facilitated asynchronous discussion and direct links to key articles and documents, while interactive classroom activities built on prior learning. Evaluation covered all aspects of the course design from participant and facilitator perspectives. Participant comments were overwhelmingly positive in relation to the content and chosen delivery methods with concerns about online learning proving unfounded.

  5. Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, I; Bihlmayer, G; Bluegel, S

    2003-01-01

    An ab initio approach to the magnetic properties of bulk hexagonal Gd is developed that is based on the local spin-density approximation with the 4f electrons treated as localized core electrons. The effective one-electron problem is solved using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method in the atomic-sphere approximation with the valence basis consisting of s-, p-and d-type orbitals. The approach leads to a correct description of the ground-state properties like the stability of the ferromagnetic structure, the magnetic moment and the equilibrium lattice constant. Application of a real-space Green-function formalism yields the exchange pair interactions between distant neighbours that are inevitable for quantitative studies of magnetic excitations. The distance dependence and anisotropy of the exchange pair interactions are presented and the Curie temperature in the mean-field approximation is evaluated. The obtained value of 334 K is in much better agreement with the experimental value of 293 K tha...

  6. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  7. INCOMING TOURISM IN TRANSNISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia BAR-KOŁELIS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Incoming tourism is a valuable source of revenues, creating jobs and bringing wealth, whilst contributing to a sustainable development in a widely range of areas. It is a perfect choice for developing Transnistria, with great benefits for local economy and minimum negative impact on the environment, unfortunately unexplored by population and ignored by the government. The following paper makes a short radiography of incoming tourism in Transnistria, also mentions the two main trends of incoming tourism development in Transnistria, one based on Soviet heritance and second on historical artifacts, landscape and folklore.

  8. Income and Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...

  9. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  10. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Income distribution has become one of the people’s main concerns in China where more than 30 years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap. But narrowing down the

  11. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  12. Large magnetization and high Curie temperature in highly disordered nanoscale Fe2CrAl thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, Rajendra P.; Dahal, Bishnu R.; Forbes, Andrew; Pegg, Ian L.; Philip, John

    2017-02-01

    We have successfully grown nanoscale Fe2CrAl thin films on polished Si/SiO2 substrates using an ultra-high vacuum deposition with a base pressure of 9×10-10 Torr. The thickness of thin films ranges from 30 to 100 nm. These films exhibit cubic crystal structure with lattice disorder and display ferromagnetic behavior. The Curie temperature is greater than 400 K, which is much higher than that reported for bulk Fe2CrAl. The magnetic moments of the films varies from 2.5 to 2.8 μB per formula unit, which is larger than the reported bulk values. Thus, the disordered nanoscale Fe2CrAl films exhibit strong Fe-Fe exchange interactions through Fe-Cr-Fe and Fe-Al-Fe layers, resulting in both a large magnetization and a high Curie temperature.

  13. Effect of pressure on the Curie temperature of Mn2RuSn and Mn2PdSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Kanomata, T.; Hayasaka, M.; Endo, K.; Nishihara, H.; Xu, X.; Kainuma, R.

    2017-04-01

    Effect of pressure on the Curie temperature TC of the Mn-rich Heusler alloys Mn2RuSn and Mn2PdSn has been investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of initial permeability at various pressures up to 10 kbar. It was found that the Curie temperatures of Mn2RuSn and Mn2PdSn decrease with increasing pressure. The pressure derivatives of TC were estimated to be -0.59 K/kbar for Mn2RuSn and -0.80 K/kbar for Mn2PdSn. On the basis of the experimental results, the relationship between the magnetic transition temperature and the Mn-Mn distance is discussed.

  14. A pixel ionization chamber used as beam monitor at the Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino. Via P. Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy) and INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy)]. E-mail: larosa@to.infn.it; Garella, M.A. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [Fondazione TERA. Via Puccini 11, Novara 28100 (Italy); Cirio, R. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Donetti, M. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Fondazione CNAO. Via Caminadella 16, Milan 20123 (Italy); Giordanengo, S. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Givehchi, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Marchetto, F. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Martin, F. [Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay. Bat. 101 Campus Universitaire, Orsay Cedex 91898 (France); Meyroneinc, S. [Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay. Bat. 101 Campus Universitaire, Orsay Cedex 91898 (France); Peroni, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Pitta, G. [Fondazione TERA. Via Puccini 11, Novara 28100 (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    The Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Torino, in collaboration with the Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO), have developed and built a pixel parallel plate ionization chamber to be used as monitor for the proton therapy beam line at the Institut Curie-CPO (Orsay, France). The sensitive area of the detector is (160x160) mm{sup 2}, with the anode segmented in 1024 square pixels arranged in a 32x32 matrix; the area of each pixel is (5x5) mm{sup 2}. The detector has been placed on the beam line just upstream of the last collimator to monitor the beam shape and to measure the stability and reproducibility of the delivery system. In this paper, we present a detailed description of the detector and the results of a set of preliminary tests.

  15. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data from Cerro Prieto geothermal area, Baja California, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cardeña, J. M.; Campos-Enriquez, J. O.

    2008-10-01

    Using aeromagnetic data acquired in the area from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, we estimated the depth to the Curie point isotherm, interpreted as the base of the magnetic sources, following statistical spectral-based techniques. According to our results the Curie point isotherm is located at a depths ranging from 14 to 17 km. Our result is somewhat deeper than that obtained previously based only in 2-D and 3-D forward modeling of previous low-quality data. However, our results are supported by independent information comprising geothermal gradients, seismicity distribution in the crust, and gravity determined crustal thickness. Our results imply a high thermal gradient (ranging between 33 and 38 °C/km) and high heat flow (of about 100 mW/m 2) for the study area. The thermal regime for the area is inferred to be similar to that from the Salton trough.

  16. Effect of P-anion codoping on the Curie temperature of GaMnAs diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzerar, Richard; Máca, Frantisek; Kudrnovský, Josef; Bergqvist, Lars

    2010-07-01

    Recent measurements of GaMnAs alloy samples with a very small content of P atoms prepared by ion-implanted pulsed laser melting (II-PLM) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 087203 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.087203] have shown surprisingly low Curie temperature as compared to undoped samples. An explanation based on a possible metal-insulator transition at constant Mn doping was proposed based on a dramatic increase of the sample resistivity. However, no quantitative calculations supporting such a picture as concerns the Curie temperature were shown. We will present a parameter-free theory of the Curie temperature (TC) which assumes that possible defects due to the II-PLM such as, e.g., space inhomogeneities, vacancies, clustering, and also conventional compensating defects will reduce the sample hole concentration. Their effect was first qualitatively modeled in the framework of the rigid-band model by adjusting the system Fermi level due to the reduction of the carrier concentration which is considered as a parameter of the theory. In addition, the effect of possible conventional compensating defects, such as, e.g., As and P antisites or P and Mn interstitials was also investigated. TC ’s are calculated within the self-consistent local RPA (SCLRPA) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We will demonstrate that a reasonable agreement of calculated and measured TC can be obtained for reduced hole concentrations which are known to exist in GaMnAs samples. As concerns possible specific defects, we have shown that P and Mn interstitials are particularly effective in the reduction of the sample Curie temperature.

  17. Income inequality, individual income, and mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2002-01-01

    To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.......To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors....

  18. European Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    on the belief that conflicts between former belligerents can be transformed through association processes thought to bring peace to unstable regions. Examining whether this is actually the case, this contribution traces European peacebuilding from the early integration of post-World War Two economies in Western......This contribution argues that the peace that has emerged between and increasingly within European states is a historical achievement. A variety of different peace initiatives have brought Europe to where it is today, but a particularly significant player in this process has been and still...

  19. Using ferromagnetic nanoparticles with low Curie temperature for magnetic resonance imaging-guided thermoablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herynek V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vít Herynek,1 Karolína Turnovcová,2 Pavel Veverka,3 Tereza Dědourková,4,5 Pavel Žvátora,6 Pavla Jendelová,2 Andrea Gálisová,1 Lucie Kosinová,7 Klára Jiráková,2 Eva Syková2 1MR-Unit, Radiodiagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, 2Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, 3Department of Magnetics and Superconductors, Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 4Department of Inorganic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 5SYNPO, akciová společnost, Pardubice, 6Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, 7Diabetes Center, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic Introduction: Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs represent a tool for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-guided thermoablation of tumors using an external high-frequency (HF magnetic field. To avoid local overheating, perovskite NPs with a lower Curie temperature (Tc were proposed for use in thermotherapy. However, deposited power decreases when approaching the Curie temperature and consequently may not be sufficient for effective ablation. The goal of the study was to test this hypothesis. Methods: Perovskite NPs (Tc =66°C–74°C were characterized and tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the cells suspended with NPs were exposed to a HF magnetic field together with control samples. In vivo, a NP suspension was injected into a induced tumor in rats. Distribution was checked by MRI and the rats were exposed to a HF field together with control animals. Apoptosis in the tissue was evaluated. Results and discussion: In vitro, the high concentration of suspended NPs caused an increase of the temperature in the cell sample, leading to cell death. In vivo, MRI confirmed distribution of the NPs in the tumor. The temperature in the tumor with injected NPs did not increase

  20. Structure and Curie temperature of Y2Fe17-xCrx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Shiqiang; (

    2003-01-01

    [1]Sun Hong, Coey, J. M. D., Otani, Y. et al., Magnetic properties of a new series of rare-earth iron nitrides: R2Fe17Ny (y~2.6), J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 1990, 2: 6465-6470.[2]Jacobs, T. H., Buschow, K. H. J., Zhou, G. F. et al., Magnetic interactions in R2Fe17-xAlx compounds (R=Ho, Y), J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 1992,116: 220-230.[3]Gvord, D., Lemaire, R., Magnetic transition and anomalous thermal expansion in R2Fe17 compounds, IEEE Trans. Magn., 1974, 10: 109-113.[4]Gubbens, P. C. M., van der Kraan, A. M., Jacobs, T. N. et al., 57Fe and 169Tm Mossbauer effect and magnetic properties of Tm2Fe15M2 (M=Al, Ga, Si), J. Less-Common Met., 1990,159: 173.[5]Middleton, D. P., Buschow, K. H. J., Magnetic properties of Ce2Fe17-xSix compounds, J. Alloys of Compounds, 1994, 206: L1-L2.[6]Jaswal, S. S., Yelon, W. B., Hadjipanayis, G. C. et al., Electronic and magnetic structures of the rare-earth compounds: R2Fe17Nx, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1991,67(5): 644-647.[7]Sabiryanov, R. F., Jaswal, S. S., Ab initio calculations of the Curie temperature of complex permanent-magnet materials, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1997, 79: 155-158.[8]Chen, N. X., Shen, J., Su, X. P., Theoretical study on the phase stability, site preference, and lattice parameters for Gd(Fe,T)12, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 2001, 13: 2727-2736.[9]Chen, N. X., Hao, S. Q., Wu, Y. et al., Phase stability and site preference of Sm(Fe,T)12, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 2001, 233: 169-180.[10]Carlsson, A. E., Gelatt, C. D., Ehrenreich, H., An ab initio pair potential applied to metals, Philos. Mag. A, 1980, 41: 241-250.[11]Chen, N. X., Chen, Z. D., Wei, Y. C., Multidimensional inverse lattice problem and a uniformly sampled arithmetic Fourier transform, Phys. Rev. E, 1997, 55: R5-R8.[12]Chen, N. X., Ren, G. B., Carlsson-Gelatt-Ehrenreich technique and the Mobius inversion theorem, Phys. Rev. B, 1992, 45: 8177-8180.[13]Chen, N. X., Ge, X. J., Zhang, W. Q., Atomistic analysis of the field

  1. Observation of a low Curie temperature ferromagnetic phase of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films on GaAs(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangenberg, M. [Joule Physics Laboratory, The Crescent, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Neal, J.R. [Joule Physics Laboratory, The Crescent, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Shen, T.-H. [Joule Physics Laboratory, The Crescent, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: t.shen@salford.ac.uk; Morton, S.A. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA 94550 (United States); Tobin, J.G. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA 94550 (United States); Waddill, G.D. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Matthew, J.A.D. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO1 5DD (United Kingdom); Greig, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Malins, A.E.R. [CLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Seddon, E.A. [CLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hopkinson, M. [EPSRC National Centre for III-V Technologies, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-15

    The magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe films on GaAs in the range of the first few monolayers have been the subject of a considerable number of investigations in recent years. The absence of magnetic signatures at room temperature has been attributed to the existence of a magnetic 'dead' layer as well as superparamagnetism. By examining the temperature dependence of the magnetic linear dichroism of the Fe core level photoelectrons, we found a ferromagnetic regime with a Curie temperature, T {sub c} substantially lower than room temperature, e.g., a T {sub c} of about 240 K for thin films of a nominal thickness of 0.9 nm. The values of Curie temperature were sensitive to the initial GaAs substrate conditions and the thickness of the Fe over-layer with a layer of thickness of 1.25 nm showing a T {sub c} above room temperature. The data suggest that the thin Fe films on GaAs(0 0 1) may have ferromagnetic character at an earlier stage of growth than previously expected, although a weaker exchange interaction in the films leads to a substantial reduction in Curie temperature.

  2. Peer Review Evaluation Process of Marie Curie Actions under EU's Seventh Framework Programme for Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Pina

    Full Text Available We analysed the peer review of grant proposals under Marie Curie Actions, a major EU research funding instrument, which involves two steps: an independent assessment (Individual Evaluation Report, IER performed remotely by 3 raters, and a consensus opinion reached during a meeting by the same raters (Consensus Report, CR. For 24,897 proposals evaluated from 2007 to 2013, the association between average IER and CR scores was very high across different panels, grant calls and years. Median average deviation (AD index, used as a measure of inter-rater agreement, was 5.4 points on a 0-100 scale (interquartile range 3.4-8.3, overall, demonstrating a good general agreement among raters. For proposals where one rater disagreed with the other two raters (n=1424; 5.7%, or where all 3 raters disagreed (n=2075; 8.3%, the average IER and CR scores were still highly associated. Disagreement was more frequent for proposals from Economics/Social Sciences and Humanities panels. Greater disagreement was observed for proposals with lower average IER scores. CR scores for proposals with initial disagreement were also significantly lower. Proposals with a large absolute difference between the average IER and CR scores (≥10 points; n=368, 1.5% generally had lower CR scores. An inter-correlation matrix of individual raters' scores of evaluation criteria of proposals indicated that these scores were, in general, a reflection of raters' overall scores. Our analysis demonstrated a good internal consistency and general high agreement among raters. Consensus meetings appear to be relevant for particular panels and subsets of proposals with large differences among raters' scores.

  3. Curie Temperature and Microstructural Changes Due to the Heating Treatment of Magnetic Amorphous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondro J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct alloys: Fe86Zr7Nb1Cu1B5, Fe82Zr7Nb2Cu1B8, and Fe81Pt5Zr7Nb1Cu1B5 were characterized both magnetically and structurally. The samples, obtained with spinning roller method as a ribbons 3 mm in width and 20 μm thick, were investigated as-quenched and after each step of a multi steps heating treatment procedure. Each sample was annealed at four steps, fifteen minutes at every temperature, starting from 573K+600K up to +700K depending on type of alloy. Mössbauer spectroscopy data and transmission electron microscope (HRE M pictures confirmed that the as-quenched samples are fully amorphous. This is not changed after the first stages of treatment heating leads to a reduction of free volumes. The heating treatment has a great influence on the magnetic susceptibilities. The treatment up to 600K improves soft magnetic properties: an χ increase was observed, from about 400 to almost 1000 for the samples of alloys without Pt, and from about 200 to 450 at maximum, for the Fe81Pt5Zr7Nb1Cu1B5. Further heating, at more elevated temperatures, leads to magnetic hardening of the samples. Curie temperatures, established from the location of Hopkinson’s maxima on the χ(T curve are in very good agreement with those obtained from the data of specific magnetization, σ(T, measured in a field of 0.75T. As a critical parameter β was chosen to be equal 0.36 for these calculations, it confirmed that the alloys may be considered as ferromagnetic of Heisenberg type. Heating treatment resulted in decreasing of TC. These changes are within a range of several K.

  4. Peer Review Evaluation Process of Marie Curie Actions under EU's Seventh Framework Programme for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, David G; Hren, Darko; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the peer review of grant proposals under Marie Curie Actions, a major EU research funding instrument, which involves two steps: an independent assessment (Individual Evaluation Report, IER) performed remotely by 3 raters, and a consensus opinion reached during a meeting by the same raters (Consensus Report, CR). For 24,897 proposals evaluated from 2007 to 2013, the association between average IER and CR scores was very high across different panels, grant calls and years. Median average deviation (AD) index, used as a measure of inter-rater agreement, was 5.4 points on a 0-100 scale (interquartile range 3.4-8.3), overall, demonstrating a good general agreement among raters. For proposals where one rater disagreed with the other two raters (n=1424; 5.7%), or where all 3 raters disagreed (n=2075; 8.3%), the average IER and CR scores were still highly associated. Disagreement was more frequent for proposals from Economics/Social Sciences and Humanities panels. Greater disagreement was observed for proposals with lower average IER scores. CR scores for proposals with initial disagreement were also significantly lower. Proposals with a large absolute difference between the average IER and CR scores (≥10 points; n=368, 1.5%) generally had lower CR scores. An inter-correlation matrix of individual raters' scores of evaluation criteria of proposals indicated that these scores were, in general, a reflection of raters' overall scores. Our analysis demonstrated a good internal consistency and general high agreement among raters. Consensus meetings appear to be relevant for particular panels and subsets of proposals with large differences among raters' scores.

  5. The 1951-98 experience of the Paris Institut Curie Radiopathology Unit: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, J.M.; Perdereau, B.; Dubray, B.; Helfre, S.; Brixy, F.; Gongora, R.; Fourquet, A. [Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    1999-12-01

    From 1 January 1951 to 30 June 1998, 696 patients presented spontaneously or were referred to the French Institut Curie Radiopathology Unit following a more or less severe accidental irradiation. Of these, 568 patients came from France, while 128 were sent by various foreign countries. The very great majority of irradiation accidents occurred in the workplace, particularly in industry. Interestingly, 'non-nuclear' industry was responsible for three times more events than the nuclear industry. While incidental irradiation of the public by lost radioactive sources was exceedingly rare in France, it seemed to be more frequent in our cohort of foreign patients. Radiation phobia accounted for about 10% of cases in the French cohort, but the number of cases did not seem to increase with time. Overall, the accrual of patients over time appears to be stable, with 10 to 25 new cases consulting each year. Fortunately, a majority of cases corresponded to low-level irradiation (and even no irradiation at all). In the French cohort, only 21.6% of patients, showing deterministic effects, required some form of treatment, with 4.9% considered as 'severe' cases. Not unexpectedly, more patients required treatment in the foreign cohort (35.2%), with 24.2% of severe cases, including four deaths. The main features of this database are consistent with the data previously reported by the IAEA, UNSCEAR and REAC/TS. Although the number of severe cases is small, it should still be considered to be too high, especially as most of these accidents could have been easily avoided if a few basic radioprotection rules had been fully respected. (abstract)

  6. Curie point depth in the SW Caribbean using the radially averaged spectra of magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan M.; Vargas, Carlos A.; Leon, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    We have estimated the Curie Point Depth (CPD) using the average radial power spectrum in a tectonically complex area located in the SW Caribbean basin. Data analyzed came from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, and three methods have been used to compare results and evaluate uncertainties: Centroid, Spectral Peak, and Forward Modeling. Results show a match along the three methods, suggesting that the CPD values in the area ranging between 6 km and 50 km. The results share the following characteristics: A) High values (> 30 km) are in continental regions; B) There is a trend of maximum CPD values along the SW-NE direction, starting from the Central Cordillera in Colombia to the Maracaibo Lake in Venezuela; C) There is a maximum CPD at the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) as well as between Costa Rica - Nicaragua and Nicaragua - Honduras borders. The lowest CPD values (coastal regions and offshore. We also tested results by estimating the geothermal gradient and comparing measured observations of the study area. Our results suggest at least five thermal terrains in the SW Caribbean Basin: A) The area that is comprising the Venezuela Basin, the Beata Ridge and the Colombia Basin up to longitude parallel to the Providencia Throat. B) The area that includes zones to the north of the Cocos Ridge and Panam Basin up to the trench. C) The orogenic region of the northern Andes and including areas of the Santa Marta Massif. D) The continental sector that encompasses Nicaragua, northern Costa Rica and eastern of Honduras. E) Corresponds to areas of the northern Venezuela and Colombia, NW of Colombia, the Panamanian territory and the transition zones between the Upper and Lower Nicaragua Rise.

  7. Comprehensive income in Europe: Valuation, prediction and conservatism issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; Hodgson, A.

    2008-01-01

    The IASB Discussion Paper (2008), Preliminary Views on Financial Statement Presentation promises to extend the 'fair value' measurement concept into an aggregated comprehensive income statement. This article extends prior Anglo-Saxon based research by using 56,700 European firm years from sixteen

  8. Comprehensive income in Europe: Valuation, prediction and conservatism issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Goncharov; A. Hodgson

    2008-01-01

    The IASB Discussion Paper (2008), Preliminary Views on Financial Statement Presentation promises to extend the 'fair value' measurement concept into an aggregated comprehensive income statement. This article extends prior Anglo-Saxon based research by using 56,700 European firm years from sixteen co

  9. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  10. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  11. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  12. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  13. Approximations to the Truth: Comparing Survey and Microsimulation Approaches to Measuring Income for Social Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figari, Francesco; Iacovou, Maria; Skew, Alexandra J.; Sutherland, Holly

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate income distributions in four European countries (Austria, Italy, Spain and Hungary) using two complementary approaches: a standard approach based on reported incomes in survey data, and a microsimulation approach, where taxes and benefits are simulated. These two approaches may be expected to generate slightly different…

  14. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  15. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but differences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural...... areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles....

  16. About the modified Gaussian family of income distributions with applications to individual incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia, José María; Prieto, Faustino; Trueba, Carmen; Jordá, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal [Q. Guo, L. Gao, Distribution of individual incomes in China between 1992 and 2009, Physica A 391 (2012) 5139-5145], a new family of distributions for modeling individual incomes in China was proposed. This family is the so-called Modified Gaussian (MG) distribution, which depends on two parameters. The MG distribution shows a satisfactory fit for the individual income data between 1992 and 2009. However, for the practical use of this model with individual incomes, it is necessary to know its probabilistic and statistical properties, especially the corresponding inequality measures. In this paper, probabilistic functions and inequality measures of the MG distribution are obtained in closed form, including the normalizing constant, probability functions, moments, first-degree stochastic dominance conditions, relationships with other families of distributions and standard tools for inequality measurement (Lorenz and generalized Lorenz curves and Gini, Donaldson-Weymark-Kakwani and Pietra indices). Several methods for parameter estimation are also discussed. In order to illustrate all the previous formulations, we have fitted individual incomes of Spain for three years using the European community household panel survey, concluding a static pattern of inequality, since the Gini index and other inequality measures remain constant over the study period.

  17. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Income distribution has become one of the people's main concerns in China where more than 30years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap.But narrowing down the rich-poor disparity will prove to be no easy task.Wei Zhong,a researcher with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,elaborated on the origins and trends of China's widening income gap,and discussed solutions to curb the gap,in a recent article.Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Curie's hypotheses concerning radioactivity and the origin of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, P.K.

    1999-09-01

    Pierre Curie gave two hypotheses at first; (1) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances borrow the energy, which they release, from an external radiation, and their radiation would then be a secondary radiation, (2) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances draw from themselves the energy which they release. The second hypothesis has shown the more fertile in explaining the properties of the radioactive substances. Consequently, the first hypothesis became more or less forgotten. It appears, however, the first hypothesis should play an important role in explaining the phenomena concerning the origin of the elements. The Oklo Phenomenon has demonstrated that a nuclear fire had once existed on our planet earth and formation of heavy elements was occurring in nature. The author pointed out that the difference in the isotopic compositions of xenon found in meteorites, lunar samples and in the earth's atmosphere can only be explained as due to the alterations of the isotropic compositions of xenon by combined effect of (a) mass-fractionation, (b) spallation, and (c) stellar temperature neutron-capture reactions. The strange xenon components are not isotopically pure substance. Instead, xenon-HL is a mixture of the {sup 244}Pu fission xenon and the xenon whose isotopic compositions is severely altered by a combined effect of the processes (a), (b) and (c) mentioned above. These results also indicate that C1 carbonaceous chondrites, which is generally as the most primitive sample of the solar system material, began to retain its xenon 5.1 billion years ago, when the plutonium to uranium ratio in the solar system was as high as almost 0.6 (atom/atom), while the C2 carbonaceous chondrite began to retain their xenon about 150 million years later and the ordinary chondrites and achondrite about 500 to 600 million years later. This means that the birth of the solar system began soon after the last supernova exploded about 5.1 billion years ago, and the

  19. The European Framework Programme under way

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The new European Framework Programme - FP7 - has recently started and will offer various possibilities for CERN to participate in EU co-funded projects for research and technological development. In December 2006, the Council of the European Union (EU) formally adopted the 7th European Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (FP7). FP7 started on 1 January 2007 and will cover the period 2007 to 2013. With a total budget of 50.5 B-Euros, FP7 is the largest Framework Programme in the history of the EU. FP7 consists of four major sub-programmes, referred to as 'Specific Programmes'. 'Cooperation' is focused on collaborative research and is divided into 10 research themes. 'Ideas' is a new EU programme for funding of frontier research in all fields of science. 'Capacities' aims at strengthening the research capacities in Europe. Finally, 'People' succeeds the previous Marie Curie Programmes and targets the development of Europe's human potential. On 22 December...

  20. The European Framework Programme under way

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The new European Framework Programme - FP7 - has recently started and will offer various possibilities for CERN to participate in EU co-funded projects for research and technological development. In December 2006, the Council of the European Union (EU) formally adopted the 7th European Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (FP7). FP7 started on 1st January 2007 and will cover the period 2007 to 2013. With a total budget of 50.5 billion euros, FP7 is the largest Framework Programme in the history of the EU. FP7 consists of four major sub-programmes, referred to as 'Specific Programmes'. 'Cooperation' is focused on collaborative research and is divided into 10 research themes. 'Ideas' is a new EU programme for funding frontier research in all fields of science. 'Capacities' aims at strengthening the research capacities in Europe. Finally, 'People' succeeds the previous Marie Curie Programmes and targets the development of Europe's human potential. On 22 Decem...

  1. Down With Income Taxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China increases its income tax exemption threshold to reduce tax burdens on low-wage earners As a company clerk, 32-year-old Ren Jun doesn’t make a lot of money.Of his meager paycheck, he needs to pay about 250 yuan ($39) in taxes each month. From September,

  2. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    , past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  3. Fragmentation, Incomes and Jobs. An analysis of European competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel; Los, Bart; Stehrer, Robert; Vries, Gaaitzen J. de

    2012-01-01

    Increasing fragmentation of production across borders is changing the nature of international competition. It increasingly plays out at the level of activities within industries, rather than at the level of whole industries. As a result, current measures of competitiveness such as export market shar

  4. Fragmentation, incomes and jobs : an analysis of European competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Los, Bart; Stehrer, Robert; de Vries, Gaaitzen J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing fragmentation of production across borders is changing the nature of international competition. As a result, conventional indicators of competitiveness based on gross exports become less informative and new measures are needed. In this paper we propose a new concept based on the value add

  5. 10. national conference of Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. Abstract of papers; 10. krajowy zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Badan Radiacyjnych im. Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie. Streszczenia referatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 10. national conference of M. Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society has given the opportunity to present novel Polish advisement in all fields of radiation research, e.g. radiation chemistry and biology, radiation processing, environmental study, mathematical modeling and simulation as well as different theoretical study. As a whole it may be treated as a review of actual state of art. The scientific progress since 1992 when the 9. national conference place up to now can be easy assessed on the base of presented material.

  6. Acquisition of European research funds and its effect on international scientific collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, Jarno; Scherngell, Thomas; Frenken, Koen; Tijssen, Robert

    The Framework Programmes (FPs) funded by the European Commission support transnational research collaborations in order to make the European Research Area more competitive. Some have raised concerns that the FPs compromise the cohesion policies of the European Commission aimed at reducing income

  7. Co{sub x}C nanorod magnets: Highly magnetocrystalline anisotropy with lower Curie temperature for potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A., E-mail: aelgendy@vcu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), Richmond, VA (United States); Nanotechnology and Nanometrology Lab., National Institute for Standards (NIS), Giza (Egypt); Almugaiteeb, Turki [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), Richmond, VA (United States); Carpenter, Everett E., E-mail: ecarpenter2@vcu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), Richmond, VA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Magnetic Co{sub x}C nanorods with larger magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 5×10{sup 5} J/m{sup 3} as well as larger coercivity and lower Curie temperature are introduced. The particles have an average diameter of 8 nm and shows three different magnetic behaviors. The sample shows ferromagnetism up to 400 K, superparamagnetism at temperature >400 K and

  8. Stress-induced large Curie temperature enhancement in Fe(sub 64)Ni(sub 36) Invar alloy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorria, P.; Martinez-Blanco, D.; Perez, M. J.; Blanco, J. A.; Hernando, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; Souza-Neto, N. M.; Xmith, R. I.; Marshall, W. G.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.; Fernandez-Martinez, A.; Chaboy, J.; Fernandez Barquin, L.; Rodriguez Castrillon, J. A.; Moldovan, M.; Garcia Alonso, J. I.; Zhang, J.; Llobet, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Univ. de Oviedo; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado; ISIS Facility; ESRF; Univ.Grenoble and CNRS; CSIC-Univ. de Zaragoza; Univ. de Cantabria; LANL

    2009-01-01

    We have succeeded in increasing up to 150 K the Curie temperature in the Fe{sub 64}N{sub 36}6 invar alloy by means of a severe mechanical treatment followed by a heating up to 1073 K. The invar behavior is still present as revealed by the combination of magnetic measurements with neutron and x-ray techniques under extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high pressure. The proposed explanation is based in a selective induced microstrain around the Fe atoms, which causes a slight increase in the Fe-Fe interatomic distances, thus reinforcing ferromagnetic interactions due to the strong magnetoelastic coupling in these invar compounds.

  9. Studies on the Relation between the Composition of Thermal Sensitive MnZn Ferrite and Curie Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Thermal sensitive MnZn ferrite is a kind of soft magnetic ferrite material with lower Curie temperature (Tc) and can be used to make many kinds of magnetic thermal sensitive sensors with high sensitivity. In this paper, the relation between the composition of thermal sensitive ferrite and Tc was studied. It was found that Tc changes linearly with ZnO extent when the content of Fe2O3 is fixed. Based on lots of experiments, an experimential formula to determine Tc was given out.

  10. Effect of ionic radii on the Curie temperature in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenov, A.; Le Goupil, F.; Alford, N.

    2016-06-01

    A series of Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds were prepared with varying average ionic radii and cation disorder on A-site. All samples showed typical ferroelectric behavior. A simple empirical equation correlated Curie temperature, TC, with the values of ionic radii of A-site cations. This correlation was related to the distortion of TiO6 octahedra observed during neutron diffraction studies. The equation was used for the selection of compounds with predetermined values of TC. The effects of A-site ionic radii on the temperatures of phase transitions in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 were discussed.

  11. Corporate Income Taxation: Selected Problems and Decisions. The Case of Ukraine 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Proskura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine and finding ways to resolve them in the context of European integration. The aim of this paper is demonstrate ways to improve corpo- rate income taxation on the basis of balancing the interests of taxpayers against those of the government. The paper will highlight the key issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine with its large share of unprofitable enterprises, unequal regulations for different corporate taxpayers and the requirement to pay tax advances even where there is an absence of taxable income. Based on our analysis, the causes of the origin and deepening problems of corporate income taxation in Ukraine will be demonstrated. A compar- ative analysis of income taxation in Poland and Ukraine was performed. It is believed that some elements of the Polish experience in the taxation of income can be applied to Ukraine.

  12. State Transfers, Taxes and Income Inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient, we measure the contribution to inequality of direct monetary income flows to and from the Brazilian State. The income flows from the State include public sector workers' earnings, Social Security pensions, unemployment benefits, and Social Assistance transfers. The income flows to the State comprise direct taxes and employees' social security contributions. Data come from the Brazilian POF 2008–09. We do not measure indirect contributions to inequality of subsidies granted to and taxation of companies, nor the in-kind provision of goods and services. The results indicate that the State contributes to a large share of family per capita income inequality. Incomes associated with work in the public sector—wages and pensions—are concentrated and regressive. Components related to the private sector are also concentrated, but progressive. Contrary to what has been found in European countries, public spending associated with work and social policies is concentrated in an elite group of workers and, taken as a whole, tends to increase income inequality. Redistributive mechanisms that could reverse this inequality, such as taxes and social assistance, are very progressive but proportionally small. Consequently, their effect is completely offset by the regressive income flows from the State.

  13. TAXATION TRENDS IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GRIGORE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work contains an economic analysis of the tax rates and revenue ratios of the European Union Member States. The paper also includes the structural reform initiatives that have been high on the tax policy agenda in last period. Despite the fairly short span of time, a wide spectrum of tax reforms was implemented or are going to be implemented (the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, the key reform initiatives including dual income taxes and flat taxes, the elimination of harmful tax competition, the simplification and rationalization of the current VAT rates structure or key elements contributing to the establishment of the VAT anti-fraud strategy within the EU. The main objective of this paper is to present a fairly view of the structure, level and trends of taxation in the European Union over the last ten years.

  14. Labor Income Dynamics in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Huneeus L.; Andrea Repetto L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of individual earnings using data from the personal income survey Encuesta Suplementaria de Ingresos. We find that the predictable component of income is humpshaped over the life-cycle, and that there are strong effects from education. The unpredictable component of income can be described by a very persistent permanent shock and a transitory shock. Our estimates are built from a panel of cohorts, so we use US data from the Panel Study of Income Dynam...

  15. Income, Ideology, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tausanovitch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Do legislators represent the rich better than they represent the poor? Recent work provides mixed support for this proposition. I test the hypothesis of differential representation using a data set on the political preferences of 318,537 individuals. Evidence of differential representation in the House of Representatives is weak. Support for differential representation is stronger in the Senate. In recent years, representation has occurred primarily through the selection of a legislator from the appropriate party. Although the preferences of higher-income constituents account for more of the variation in legislator voting behavior, higher-income constituents also account for much more of the variation in district preferences. In light of the low level of overall responsiveness, differential responsiveness appears small.

  16. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  17. 20 CFR 627.450 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient that... for copyrighted material, patents, patent applications, trademarks, and inventions developed by...

  18. Launching Low-Income Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Kahliah

    2013-01-01

    With middle-income jobs in decline, entrepreneurship offers an increasingly promising pathway out of poverty; but few low-income New Yorkers are currently taking this route to economic self-sufficiency. This report provides the most comprehensive examination of low-income entrepreneurship in New York. The report documents current self-employment…

  19. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  20. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  1. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  2. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  3. Curie point depth and heat flow from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data over the northern part of Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Saada Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to estimate the Curie point depth and the surface heat flow for the northern part of the Western Desert using aeromagnetic data. Applying spectral analysis to aeromagnetic anomalies has provided equitable promising geological results, useful for further geothermal or petroleum exploration. The total intensity aeromagnetic map was first reduced to the north magnetic pole to correct the shape and position of different magnetic anomalies over their causative bodies. Secondly, the short wavelengths were removed to enhance the deeper long wavelengths related to the deep sources. Spectral analysis indicates that the area is underlined by an average Curie point depth of about 27 km. This implies an average thermal heat flow (53 mW/m2) lower than the average global heat flow. The investigated area was divided into eighteen blocks, where the average depths to centroid and top of the magnetic source were estimated for each block. The results of this work show a general depth increase of the magnetic boundaries from 24.5 km in the southern area to 33 km at the northern part. The calculated surface heat flow decreases from about 56 to 42 mW/m2 in the same direction. Consequently, this area is characterized by its low geothermal gradient and surface heat flow. This low geothermal gradient indicates that the upper mantle contributes to the magnetic features at the northern offshore parts. This work also recommends by deep drilling for petroleum exploration and production within the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea exploration strip.

  4. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN TAX HAVENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the actual context of economic globalization, tax havens represent a significant obstacle for global governments seeking to increase their fiscal incomes and a source of polarization of income and wealth. Statistics reports showed that tax havens hold at least $10 trillion in assets, money generally controlled and hidden by major players from the political and financial areas, as well as from criminal ones. The paper introduces the present situation of European tax havens, with the major poles of action. The conclusion finds the real efforts of international bodies such as OECD, to interdict opportunities to avoid taxation.

  5. Extrinsic Curie temperature and spin reorientation changes in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/{alpha}-Fe nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Panchanathan, V. [Magnequench International, Inc., Anderson, IN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The Curie temperatures and spin reorientation temperatures of a series of four melt-spun nanocomposite materials comprised of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 1}4B and varying amounts of {alpha}-Fe were measured using independent techniques. The phase constitution and grain size was assessed with synchrotron x-ray diffraction; the Curie temperatures were measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dc SQUID magnetometry in the temperature range 375 K {le} T {le} 800 K, whereas the spin reorientation transition temperature was determined from ac susceptibility measurements taken in the range 10 K {le} T {le} 300 K. The Curie temperature increases with increasing excess iron content, resulting in a 18 {degree} enhancement over the Curie temperature of pure Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B for 27 wt% excess {alpha}-Fe. The spin reorientation temperatures are depressed from the single-crystal value by an average of 10 degrees. Both anomalous effects are attributed to intergranular exchange coupling present in the alloys, although the effects of uncompensated stress between the constituent phases cannot be ruled out The experimental results suggest that while the Curie temperature of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase may be extrinsically enhanced significantly beyond the bulk value, possibly extending the range of applications of this compound, the anisotropy may be simultaneously lowered, impeding the attainment of high coercivities in these alloys.

  6. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  7. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  8. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  9. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  10. 13 CFR 143.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  11. 15 CFR 24.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  12. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  13. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  14. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  15. 45 CFR 92.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  16. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  17. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or... copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only...

  18. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  19. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  20. Surplus Value & Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1993-01-01

    Introduction 1. Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 1.1. Use-Value and Exchange-Value 1.2. Surplus-Value 1.3. Variable Capital and Constant Capital 2. Implications of Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 2.1. First Implication-Exploitation 2.2. Second Implication-Deviation of Price from Value 2.3. Third Implication-Capitalist Corporation 3. Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution 3.1. The Effect of Capital Accumulation 3.2. Fall in the Rate of Profit 4. Conclusion 

  1. Numerical study on the multi-region bio-heat equation to model magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) using low Curie temperature nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanqian; Johnson, Duane T; Brazel, Christopher S

    2008-12-01

    This study develops and solves two-dimensional convective-conductive coupled partial differential equations based on Pennes' bio-heat transfer model using low Curie temperature nanoparticles (LCTNPs) to illustrate thermal behavior quantitatively within tumor-normal composite tissue by establishing a multi-region finite difference algorithm. The model combines NEel relaxation and temperature-variant saturation magnetization derived from Brillouin Equation and Curie-Weiss Law. The numerical results indicate that different deposition patterns of LCTNP and boundary conditions directly effect the steady state temperature distribution. Compared with high Curie temperature nanoparticles (HCTNPs), optimized distributions of LCTNPs within tumorous tissue can be used to control the temperature increase in tumors for hyperthermia treatment using an external magnetic field while healthy tissue surrounding a tumor can be kept closer to normal body tissue, reducing the side effects observed in whole body and regional hyperthermia therapy.

  2. Classification of species in the genus Penicillium by Curie point pyrolysis/mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analysis and artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben; Bassani, Maria R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    1996-01-01

    linkage clustering. By this approach a successful classification of the species Penicillium italicum, P. expansum and P. digitatum originating from fruits was obtained. Isolates of the same species grouped together in the dendrogram, while the different species were distinguished. Also when grown on two......Curie point pyrolysis/mass spectrometry of Penicillium species was performed with 530 degrees C Curie point foils. The mass spectra were submitted to principal component analysis, canonical variates analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, producing a final dendrogram by the use of average...... in a correct classification in all cases. Thus, it is concluded that Curie point pyrolysis/mass spectrometry is useful in chemotaxonomic studies of the closely related species in the genus Penicillium....

  3. Angular dependence of dipole-dipole-Curie-spin cross-correlation effects in high-spin and low-spin paramagnetic myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintacuda, Guido; Hohenthanner, Karin; Otting, Gottfried; Müller, Norbert

    2003-10-01

    The (15)N-HSQC spectra of low-spin cyano-met-myoglobin and high-spin fluoro-met-myoglobin were assigned and dipole-dipole-Curie-spin cross-correlated relaxation rates measured. These cross-correlation rates originating from the dipolar (1)H-(15)N interaction and the dipolar interaction between the (1)H and the Curie spin of the paramagnetic center contain long-range angular information about the orientation of the (1)H-(15)N bond with respect to the iron-(1)H vector, with information measurable up to 11 A from the metal for the low-spin complex, and between 10 to 25 A for the high-spin complex. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions from crystal structure data showed that the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility tensor in low spin cyano-met-myoglobin significantly influences the cross-correlated dipole-dipole-Curie-spin relaxation rates.

  4. European projects: a new wave of success

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of this year, no fewer than six new EU projects at CERN have been launched. These are just a third of the projects selected by the European Commission for funding during the course of 2010, bringing in some 23 M€ over a period of two to five years. This makes last year our most successful yet in securing EU support, and places CERN among the top 50 out of more than 10,000 participants in the EU’s seventh Framework Programme.   The success rate of our proposals has been very good ever since the beginning of FP7 in 2007, particularly for projects coordinated by CERN. There has been a clear evolution of CERN’s involvement in EU projects over the last 10 years. In the early days, we tended to target the Marie Curie actions and the e-Infrastructures Programme. The former help us to fulfil our mission to train young people, while the latter supported the development of the European Grid, mainly through the EGEE projects. Later, the Organization became a...

  5. Top Income Shares in Greece: 1957-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Chrissis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of top income shares in Greece for the period 1957 to 2010 following Piketty (2001 methodology. We present the 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 2%, 1.5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1% income shares estimates which are based on tax statistics. The empirical results indicate that the behavior of the alternative estimated top income shares is quite similar. A ‘flat’ Ushaped pattern for most cases seems to exist. This common pattern is more apparent for the 2.5-0.1% top income shares. The top 10% and 5% income shares seem to be more volatile, accompanied with an increasing trend by the end of the period. This paper is an attempt to extend the existing research in southern Europe by presenting the relevant Greek experience. For the whole period, country comparisons show that the 1% top income share in Greece is in lower levels than that of USA and the other European countries (Italy, Portugal, Spain, France, Germany.

  6. Farmer Income Differential in Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qian; MIAO Shanshan

    2006-01-01

    China's success in reform and opening up policy for twenty years is regarded as China's miracles in the world,whereas the income differential widening phenomenon has been the focus of the policymakers and researchers. This article researches 1994-2003 China's rural regions income differential and its decomposition. The method this paper used to measure the disparity is Gini Index. There are many ways to compute it, so the easiest way to decompose Gini Index-Matrix method is adopted. And based on it, farmer's income could be divided into wage income, farming income,transfer income and property income according to its composition. The conclusion is that all of the indexes are between 0.2 and 0.3, at the comparatively average level. From the fluctuation trend, it increased from 1994 to 1995, while reduced from 1995 to 1996, fluctuated in 1997, and then diminished again. In general, farmer's regions income differential stays at comparatively average level, but it has the widening trend with time. Through decomposing Gini Index, wage income is the most important increasing factor, while farming income is the reducing factor.

  7. DIVERSIFICATION OF UNIVERSITY INCOME – POLISH PRACTICE AND INTERNATIONAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rozmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the face of global economic problems European (and not only European universities are forced to diversify their income. The constant and stable stream of governmental funds for education is beginning to dry up. For the majority of Polish universities the main and noticeably dominant source of income are the revenues from teaching activity. Thus the current diversification of universities’ revenues appears to be just a fiction. The situation is even worse because of both the global economic crisis and the imminent decrease in the birth rate. Polish universities should follow funding models of foreign leaders, who successfully deal with diversification of their revenues. Obviously we cannot compare such universities as Harvard or Oxford with Polish universities, but some of their solutions are worth following. Only by diversifying sources of their revenues will Polish universities be able to compete with the foreign leaders and secure a stable basis for development and use of their potential.

  8. Thickness dependent Curie temperature and power-law behavior of layering transitions in ferromagnetic classical and quantum thin films described by Ising, XY and Heisenberg models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yüksel, Yusuf, E-mail: yusuf.yuksel@deu.edu.tr; Akıncı, Ümit

    2015-04-01

    Ferromagnetic–paramagnetic phase transitions in classical and quantum thin films have been studied up to 50 mono-layers using effective field theory with two-site cluster approximation. Variation of the Curie temperature as a function of film thickness has been examined. The relative shift of the Curie temperature from the corresponding bulk value has been investigated in terms of the shift exponent λ. We have found that shift exponent λ clearly depends on the strength of the ferromagnetic exchange coupling of the surface. Moreover, we have not observed any significant difference between classical and quantum exponents for a particular model.

  9. Income and functional limitations among the aged in Europe: a trend analysis in 16 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Vonneilich, Nico; Lüdecke, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Analyses are focused on 3 research questions: (1) Are there absolute and relative income-related inequalities in functional limitations among the aged in Europe? (2) Did the absolute and relative income-related inequalities in functional limitations among the aged change between 2002 and 2014? (3) Are there differences in the changes of income-related inequalities between European countries? Data stem from 7 waves (2002-2014) of the European Social Survey. Samples of people aged 60 years or older from 16 European countries were analysed (N=63 024). Inequalities were measured by means of absolute prevalence rate differences and relative prevalence rate ratios of low versus high income. Meta-analyses with random-effect models were used to study the trends of inequalities in functional limitations over time. Functional limitations among people aged 60 years or older declined between 2002 and 2014 in most of the 16 European countries. Older people with a low income had higher rates of functional limitations and elevated rate ratios compared with people with high income. These inequalities were significant in many countries and were more pronounced among men than among women. Overall, absolute and relative income-related inequalities increased between 2002 and 2014, especially in Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden. High-income groups are more in favour of the observed overall decline in functional limitations than deprived groups. Results point to potential income-related inequalities in compression of morbidity in the recent past in Europe. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Stress-induced Curie temperature increase in the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} invar alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorria, Pedro; Martinez-Blanco, David; Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Boada, Roberto; Chaboy, Jesus [ICMA and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC - Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, Maison des Geosciences, Grenoble (France); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Garbarino, Gaston; Castro, German R.; Mezouar, Mohamed [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Facility, RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Alonso, J.I.G. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo (Spain); Hernando, Antonio [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Structural and magnetic changes on invar Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} alloy (T{sub C}=500 K) produced by mechanical milling followed by heating up to 1073 K, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization measurements, X-ray diffraction under high pressures and X-ray absorption at both Fe and Ni K-edges. We argue that the strain induced in the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} material after this treatment mainly affects the Fe sites due to the magnetovolume coupling, the most notorious feature being the increase of the Curie temperature ({delta}T{sub C}=70 K). (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. The study of high Curie temperature ferromagnetism properties in Mn-doped SiC thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyang Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn-doped 3C-SiC film has been prepared onto the Si (111 substrate by employing a molecular beam epitaxy method. The experimental analysis establishes that the prepared sample shows the ferromagnetic property with a relatively high Curie temperature (Tc of 355 K, which is an exciting phenomenon on account of the scarceness in the SiC-based diluted magnetic semiconductor. The analysis derived from the X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy patterns indicates that Mn atoms should react with Si atoms and then form Mn4Si7 compounds. Combined with the theoretical simulation, it is speculated that a new alloy phase of Mn4Si7Cx maybe appear, which should be responsible for the exceptionally high Tc ferromagnetic behavior in the sample.

  12. Enhancement of Curie temperature and transition temperature range induced by Al doping in Mn1-xAlxCoGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiaodong; Liu, Yongsheng; Lei, Wei; Xu, Juan; Du, Wenlong; Lin, Jia; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Xiaofei

    2016-12-01

    Mn1-xAlxCoGe alloys with a second order transition were produced by arc-melting method. The substitution of Mn by Al increased the Curie temperature (TC) from 260.5 K to 300.8 K, the magnetic entropy change (|ΔSM|) decreased from 3.78 J·Kg-1K-1 to 2.35 J·Kg-1K-1 under a field change of Δμ0H=5 T. In addition, the |ΔSM| well linearly depends on the H2/3 around TC. Furthermore, the relative cooling power (RCP) can reach 242.3 J·Kg-1 with a large full width at half maximum of |ΔSM| (75.5 K) for x=0.02. The decrease of |ΔSM| is explained by the corresponding monotonical decrease of magnetic moment per formula unit.

  13. Enhancing the Curie temperature of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As to 200 K via nanostructure engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Fuhua; Zhao, Jianhua; Misuraca, Jennifer; Xiong, Peng; von Molnár, Stephan

    2011-07-13

    We demonstrate by magneto-transport measurements that a Curie temperature as high as 200 K can be obtained in nanostructures of (Ga,Mn)As. Heavily Mn-doped (Ga,Mn)As films were patterned into nanowires and then subject to low-temperature annealing. Resistance and Hall effect measurements demonstrated a consistent increase of T(C) with decreasing wire width down to about 300 nm. This observation is attributed primarily to the increase of the free surface in the narrower wires, which allows the Mn interstitials to diffuse out at the sidewalls, thus enhancing the efficiency of annealing. These results may provide useful information on optimal structures for (Ga,Mn)As-based nanospintronic devices operational at relatively high temperatures.

  14. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Law, Jiayan; Chang, Chuntao; Du, Juan; Man, Qikui; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-08-01

    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (TC) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune TC in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔSM and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd5Ge1.9Si2Fe0.1. The tunable TC and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.

  15. curi y bacánowa: Rituales de vida y muerte en la sierra tarahumara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Acuña Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En base a los datos obtenidos durante los once meses de experiencia de campo, entre 2001 y 2005, en varias comunidades rarámuris de la Alta y Baja Tarahumara, al suroeste del estado de Chihuahua (México, en el presente trabajo centramos la atención en dos rituales y al mismo tiempo formas de danza, ambos de carácter privado, que ocupan un papel esencial en la cosmovisión rarámuri. El hecho de haber participado como espectador invitado en tales prácticas nos permitirá describir el contexto etnográfico de primera mano; para finalizar destacando especialmente las funciones y significados que llevan asociados. Antes ofreceremos, no obstante, una serie de referencias bibliográficas que sitúan al jícuri y al bacánowa entre la historia y la leyenda.

  16. Strongly enhanced Curie temperature in carbon-doped Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajdzik, M.; Suergers, C. E-mail: christoph.suergers@physik.uni-karlsruhe.de; Kelemen, M.T.; Loehneysen, H. von

    2000-11-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}C{sub x} films prepared at elevated substrate temperatures T{sub S} are investigated. In particular, films with x{>=}0.5 and T{sub S}=680 K exhibit a strongly enhanced Curie temperature T{sub C}=445 K compared to bulk Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} with T{sub C}=304 K while at the same time the average Mn moment decreases from 2.6 to 1 {mu}{sub B}. Structural analysis of these films suggests that the carbon is interstitially incorporated into the voids of Mn octahedra of the hexagonal Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure giving rise to a lattice compression. The enhanced ferromagnetic stability in connection with the lattice compression is interpreted in terms of an Mn-Mn interaction mediated by C based on a change in the electronic structure.

  17. Redefining the Poet as Healer: Valerie Gillies's Collaborative Role in the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the poetic contribution of Valerie Gillies, Edinburgh Makar (or poet of the city) from 2005-2008, to the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room, a new contemplation space for patients, families, and staff. In collaboration with others, Gillies created a transitional space for the Quiet Room, centered on the display of her sonnet, "A Place Apart." This space functions to comfort visitors to the Quiet Room by relocating them in their surroundings and offering the solace provided by nature and history. With this project, her first as Edinburgh Makar, Gillies redefines the role of the poet as healer and advocates for newer forms of palliative care that focus on patients' spiritual and emotional, as well as physical, wellbeing.

  18. Curie temperature of GaMnN and GaMnAs from LDA-SIC electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi [Department of Computational Nanomaterials Design, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Akai, Hisazumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    We present the electronic structures, magnetic exchange interactions and Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of GaMnN and GaMnAs calculated by self-interaction-corrected local-density approximation (LDA-SIC). In GaMnAs, the LDA-SIC results of T{sub C} do not differ so much from the LDA results. Both the LDA and LDA-SIC values are in a good agreement with the experimental data. In GaMnN, on the other hand, the ferromagnetic exchange interactions are enhanced due to the suppression of antiferromagnetic super-exchange interaction, resulting in T{sub C} higher than the LDA results. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Tax competitiveness of the European Union member countries

    OpenAIRE

    Konderlová, Beata

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the tax systems and tax competitiveness of the European Union countries. Aim is to analyze the influence of competitiveness on the growth of tax revenues for selected taxes. The analysis is applied to a personal income tax, corporate income tax and value added tax. The method of constant tax shares divides the total tax revenues growth in the monitored period between two effects -- the influence of competitiveness and the influence of growth in total tax revenues. The t...

  20. The Eurovision Song Contest, Preferences and European Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone - perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences...... as revealed by voting in the European Song Contest. We conclude that preferences influence trade through several channels, and that results of the European Song Contest are a robust predictor of bilateral trade.......Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone - perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences...

  1. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  2. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  3. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  4. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes i...

  5. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    shows that the conditions which must be met in order to be subject to CIT are very different from one country to another. The way tax systems define foreign entities which fall under their CIT may also vary in a significant way, which may in practice give rise to interesting tax planning opportunities...... fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed....... Against this background, the EATLP congress devoted to CIT subjects should enhance the main similarities and differences which exist between European countries in order to reach a better understanding of the need (or the absence of need) of increased harmonization in this matter....

  6. Income Inequality in Rural India: Decomposing the Gini by Income Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...

  7. The effects of tax policy and labour market institutions on income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Obadić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate how labor market institutions and regulations and tax policies effect income inequality across the European member countries. The sample contains the fifteen core European Union (EU members as well as thirteen Central and Eastern European (CEE economies which have recently joined. Using fixed and random effect panel models over the sample period 2000–2011 we test the influence of three major tax forms (labor, capital and consumption, social security contributions, and labor market institutions. We demonstrate that the overall social contributions and labor taxes lead to statistically significant improvements in income inequality among EU member states. We conclude that tax policy, specifically the choice of taxes implemented, and labor market institutions, union membership in particular, reduce income inequality in the EU-28 in the observed period.

  8. The Eurovision Song Contest, Preferences and European Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone - perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences...... as revealed by voting in the European Song Contest. We conclude that preferences influence trade through several channels, and that results of the European Song Contest are a robust predictor of bilateral trade....

  9. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  10. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  11. Income Gap Widens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The income gap between the highest-and lowestincome groups in Beijing, China's capital city, grew to 4:1 in 2004, up from 3:1 in 2003, according to a sampling survey of 2,000 urban households conducted by the Beijing Municipal Statistics Bureau.Among the most important factors affecting income levels were education and profession, the survey indicated.

  12. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or...

  14. 24 CFR 92.203 - Income determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... low-income families for the family size of the tenant and state that the tenant's annual income does... Security Income, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, or other public assistance or public welfare... for very low-income families established under § 92.252(b)(2) are based on adjusted income....

  15. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  16. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...

  17. Management of malignant phyllode tumors of the breast: the experience of the Institut Curie; Prise en charge des tumeurs phyllodes malignes du sein: l'experience de l'Institut Curie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberer, S.; Kirova, Y.M.; Dendale, R.; Campana, F.; Miranda, O.; Fourquet, A.; Bollet, M.A. [Institut Curie, Dept. de Radiotherapie Oncologique, 75 - Paris (France); Lae, M. [Institut Curie, Dept. de Biologie des Tumeurs, 75 - Paris (France); Seegers, V. [Institut Curie, Dept. de Biostatistiques, 75 - Paris (France); Pierga, J.Y. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Oncologie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Salmon, R.; Reyal, F. [Institut Curie, Dept. de Chirurgie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    Purpose Given the scarcity of malignant phyllode tumours of the breast and the absence of consensus regarding their management justify the need for institutional retrospective evaluations of clinical practices. Patients and methods Retrospective study with central pathology review of the 25 consecutive patients treated at the Institut Curie (Paris, France) between 1969 and 2006 for non metastatic malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast. The median follow-up was 65 months (7-257 months). Results Median age at diagnosis was 52 years (20-64 years). Breast surgery was conservative in five patients (20%). Surgical margins were wide (> 10 mm), narrow, involved or unknown in respectively 17 (68%), three (12%), three (12%) and two (8%) patients. Median tumour size was 65 mm (12-250 mm). Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered in seven (28%) patients (two patients, post tumor-ectomy; five patients, post mastectomy) and 13 patients (52%) received anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival rate was 91% (95% CI, 80-100%). Five patients (20%) developed distant metastases (one after chemotherapy) and three (12%) locoregional relapse (one after tumor-ectomy and unknown margin without radiotherapy, two after mastectomy and involved margins with radiotherapy). Conclusion Wide breast surgery (that can be conservative in selected patients) is the mainstay of the treatment of non metastatic malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast. To better determine the respective roles of adjuvant systemic treatment and radiotherapy, further clinical studies and the search for new prognostic and predictive factors remain necessary. (authors)

  18. Transitioning from low-income growth to high-income growth : is there a middle income trap ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, David; Eden, Maya; Nguyen, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Is there a "middle income trap"? Theory suggests that the determinants of growth at low and high income levels may be different. If countries struggle to transition from growth strategies that are effective at low income levels to growth strategies that are effective at high income levels, they may stagnate at some middle income level; this phenomenon can be thought of as a "middle income ...

  19. 32 CFR 33.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  1. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  2. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    ’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  3. The Income Gap GROWS Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The income gap between regions, urban and rural areas, industries and various social groups is widening in China. The gap, as indicated by the Gini Coefficient, extended beyond an alarming level. A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0.47 in 2009, exceeding the "red line" of 0.4. The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention. Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap. A Xinhua News Agency research team recently analyzed this trend, and published an article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  4. The Income Gap Grows Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The income gap between regions,urban and rural areas,industries and various social groups is widening in China.The gap,as indicated by the Gini Coefficient,extended beyond an alarming level.A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0A7 in 2009,exceeding the "red line"of 0.4.The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention.Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap.

  5. A Discussion on the European Debt Crisis by Fiscal Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jen Chang

    2016-01-01

    Sociology. The economic profits conflict of investment, consumption, international business and labor market will have influence on the government’s revenue and expenditure. Furthermore, the root of the European debt crisis is the uneven income distribution by financialization and neoliberalism.

  6. Low-temperature dynamics of the Curie-Weiss Model: Periodic orbits, multiple histories, and loss of Gibbsianness

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Curie-Weiss model at a given initial temperature in vanishing external field evolving under a Glauber spin-flip dynamics corresponding to a possibly different temperature. We study the limiting conditional probabilities and their continuity properties and discuss their set of points of discontinuity (bad points). We provide a complete analysis of the transition between Gibbsian and non-Gibbsian behavior as a function of time, extending earlier work for the case of independent spin-flip dynamics. For initial temperature bigger than one we prove that the time-evolved measure stays Gibbs forever, for any (possibly low) temperature of the dynamics. In the regime of heating to low-temperatures from even lower temperatures, when the initial temperature is smaller than the temperature of the dynamics, and smaller than 1, we prove that the time-evolved measure is Gibbs initially and becomes non-Gibbs after a sharp transition time. We find this regime is further divided into a region where only symmetr...

  7. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Chang, Chuntao, E-mail: ctchang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn; Du, Juan, E-mail: ctchang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn; Man, Qikui; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Law, Jiayan [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-08-14

    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune T{sub C} in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔS{sub M} and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 1.9}Si{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.1}. The tunable T{sub C} and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.

  8. Estimation of Curie temperature of manganite-based materials for magnetic refrigeration application using hybrid gravitational based support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Taoreed O.; Akande, Kabiru O.; Olatunji, Sunday O.; Alqahtani, Abdullah; Aldhafferi, Nahier

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic refrigeration (MR) technology stands a good chance of replacing the conventional gas compression system (CGCS) of refrigeration due to its unique features such as high efficiency, low cost as well as being environmental friendly. Its operation involves the use of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of a magnetic material caused by application of magnetic field. Manganite-based material demonstrates maximum MCE at its magnetic ordering temperature known as Curie temperature (TC). Consequently, manganite-based material with TC around room temperature is essentially desired for effective utilization of this technology. The TC of manganite-based materials can be adequately altered to a desired value through doping with appropriate foreign materials. In order to determine a manganite with TC around room temperature and to circumvent experimental challenges therein, this work proposes a model that can effectively estimates the TC of manganite-based material doped with different materials with the aid of support vector regression (SVR) hybridized with gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Implementation of GSA algorithm ensures optimum selection of SVR hyper-parameters for improved performance of the developed model using lattice distortions as the descriptors. The result of the developed model is promising and agrees excellently with the experimental results. The outstanding estimates of the proposed model suggest its potential in promoting room temperature magnetic refrigeration through quick estimation of the effect of dopants on TC so as to obtain manganite that works well around the room temperature.

  9. Estimation of Curie temperature of manganite-based materials for magnetic refrigeration application using hybrid gravitational based support vector regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoreed O. Owolabi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic refrigeration (MR technology stands a good chance of replacing the conventional gas compression system (CGCS of refrigeration due to its unique features such as high efficiency, low cost as well as being environmental friendly. Its operation involves the use of magnetocaloric effect (MCE of a magnetic material caused by application of magnetic field. Manganite-based material demonstrates maximum MCE at its magnetic ordering temperature known as Curie temperature (TC. Consequently, manganite-based material with TC around room temperature is essentially desired for effective utilization of this technology. The TC of manganite-based materials can be adequately altered to a desired value through doping with appropriate foreign materials. In order to determine a manganite with TC around room temperature and to circumvent experimental challenges therein, this work proposes a model that can effectively estimates the TC of manganite-based material doped with different materials with the aid of support vector regression (SVR hybridized with gravitational search algorithm (GSA. Implementation of GSA algorithm ensures optimum selection of SVR hyper-parameters for improved performance of the developed model using lattice distortions as the descriptors. The result of the developed model is promising and agrees excellently with the experimental results. The outstanding estimates of the proposed model suggest its potential in promoting room temperature magnetic refrigeration through quick estimation of the effect of dopants on TC so as to obtain manganite that works well around the room temperature.

  10. CIENTISTAS EM REVISTA: EINSTEIN, DARWIN E MARIE CURIE NA CIÊNCIA HOJE DAS CRIANÇAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Alves de Almeida

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este trabalho analisou três edições da revista Ciência Hoje das Crianças, em que Einstein, Darwin e Marie Curie são apresentados. Frente ao desafio de divulgar a vida e a obra desses cientistas de forma adequada às crianças, para análise dos artigos consideramos a linguagem utilizada, as imagens apresentadas e, principalmente, a representação da revista sobre os cientistas. A metodologia de análise do material é inspirada nos trabalhos de Bakhtin sobre dialogismo e na compreensão por meio dos procedimentos discursivos, verbais e visuais com que a revista interpela e dialoga com as crianças. Os resultados mostram que a chancela editorial opta por focar a infância dos cientistas e uma imagem do cientista curioso e aventureiro. Entretanto, veicula-se nos artigos analisados uma visão estereotipada do cientista como alguém que já se anunciava cientista. Reitera-se a importância da Ciência Hoje das Crianças para a promoção da leitura e a democratização da linguagem de divulgação científica para crianças.

  11. Large deviations of the finite-time magnetization of the Curie-Weiss random-field Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paga, Pierre; Kühn, Reimer

    2017-08-01

    We study the large deviations of the magnetization at some finite time in the Curie-Weiss random field Ising model with parallel updating. While relaxation dynamics in an infinite-time horizon gives rise to unique dynamical trajectories [specified by initial conditions and governed by first-order dynamics of the form mt +1=f (mt) ] , we observe that the introduction of a finite-time horizon and the specification of terminal conditions can generate a host of metastable solutions obeying second-order dynamics. We show that these solutions are governed by a Newtonian-like dynamics in discrete time which permits solutions in terms of both the first-order relaxation ("forward") dynamics and the backward dynamics mt +1=f-1(mt) . Our approach allows us to classify trajectories for a given final magnetization as stable or metastable according to the value of the rate function associated with them. We find that in analogy to the Freidlin-Wentzell description of the stochastic dynamics of escape from metastable states, the dominant trajectories may switch between the two types (forward and backward) of first-order dynamics. Additionally, we show how to compute rate functions when uncertainty in the quenched disorder is introduced.

  12. European research school on large scale solar thermal – SHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bales, Chris; Forteza, Pau Joan Cortés; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Heat Integration NEtwork (SHINE) is a European research school in which 13 PhD students in solar thermal technologies are funded by the EU Marie-Curie program. It has five PhD course modules as well as workshops and seminars dedicated to PhD students both within the project as well...... as outside of it. The SHINE research activities focus on large solar heating systems and new applications: on district heating, industrial processes and new storage systems. The scope of this paper is on systems for district heating for which there are five PhD students, three at universities and two...... at companies. The PhD students all started during the early part of 2014 and their initial work has concentrated on literature studies and on setting up models and data collection to be used for validation purposes. The PhD students will complete their studies in 2017-18....

  13. Special features in managing European Training Networks (ETN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Daniela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Drossou-Berendes, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    The Marie Skłodowska-Curie European Training Networks (ETN) within Horizon 2020, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, aim to train a new generation of creative and innovative early-stage researchers with focus on both scientific excellence and researchers' career development extending the traditional academic research training, and providing researchers with tools to develop scientific expertise and transferable skills needed to establish career perspectives in academia as well as non-academia. This profile is different from what we know from "typical" collaborative projects, and project consortia face specific challenges with regard to international recruitment, joint organization of network activities, financial regulations, etc. The poster will give an overview of the main ETN features emphasizing special requirements and needs, and identifying main challenges, which may rise.

  14. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  15. Preoperative concomitant radio chemotherapy in bulky carcinoma of the cervix: Institut Curie experience; Chimioradiotherapie concomitante preoperatoire dans les carcinomes du col uterin de stades IB2 a IIB: experience de l'Institut Curie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirova, Y.M.; Bourhaleb, Z.; Campitelli, M.; De la Rochefordiere, A. [Institut Curie, Groupe de Gynecologie, Service d' Oncologie et de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Alran, S.; Fourchotte, V. [Institut Curie, Groupe de Gynecologie, Service de Chirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Plancher, C. [Institut Curie, Groupe de Gynecologie, Service de Biostatistique, 75 - Paris (France); Beuzeboc, P.; Cottu, P. [Institut Curie, Groupe de Gynecologie, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Petrow, P. [Institut Curie, Groupe de Gynecologie, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France); Cremoux, P. de; Sastre-Garau, X. [Institut Curie, Groupe de Pathologie, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the treatment results of patients (pts) with Figo stage IB2, IIA, IIB cervical carcinoma (C.C.) treated with preoperative radio chemotherapy, followed by extended radical hysterectomy. Patients and methods: Retrospective study of 148 women treated to the Curie Institute for operable Figo Stage IB2 to IIB, biopsy proved C.C.. Among them, 70 pts, median age 46 years, were treated using the same regimen associating primary radio cis-platinum based chemotherapy,intracavitary LDR brachytherapy, followed by extended radical hysterectomy. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to draw survival curves. Comparisons of survival distribution were assessed by the log-rank test. Results: Complete histological local-regional response was obtained in 56% of the pts (n = 39). Residual macroscopic or microscopic disease in the cervix was observed in 28 pts (40%). All but one had in situ microscopic residual C.C.. Lateral residual disease in the parametria was also present in nine pts, all with residual C.C.. Pelvic lymph nodes were free from microscopic disease in 56 pts (80%). Eight of 55 (11%) radiological N0 patients had microscopic nodal involvement, as compared to 6/15 (40%) radiological N1 (p = 0.03). Seventeen pts (25%) had residual cervix disease but negative nodes. After median follow-up of 40 months (range, 8-141), 38/70 patients (54.1%) are still alive and free of disease, six (8.6%) alive with disease, and 11 (15.8%) patients were lost for follow-up but free of disease. Conclusion: The treatment of locally advanced C.C. needs a new multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment approach using new therapeutic arms to improve the survival and treatment tolerance among women presenting this disease. (authors)

  16. European Honors Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Marca Wolfensberger

    2016-01-01

    In M. Wolfensberger (Chair), Models of support. Break out session conducted at the Utrecht Honours Conference 2016: Honours Futures, June 2-3 Utrecht. The European Honors Council (EHC) is a new European network around the subject of talent development in European higher education.

  17. European Network Against Racism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    From the point of view of social movement theory, ENAR (European Network Against Racism) is a strange creature. Partly being an outcome of the European Year Against Racism celebrated in 1997, ENAR was created in 1998 explicitly as an interlocutor with the European Commission in terms of its...

  18. Effect of pressure on the Curie temperature of Mn{sub 2}RuSn and Mn{sub 2}PdSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Y., E-mail: adachy@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Kanomata, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajo 985-8537 (Japan); Research Institute for Engineering and Technology, Tohoku Gakuin University, 985-8537 (Japan); Hayasaka, M.; Endo, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajo 985-8537 (Japan); Nishihara, H. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryukoku University, Otsu 520-2194 (Japan); Xu, X.; Kainuma, R. [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Effect of pressure on the Curie temperature T{sub C} of the Mn-rich Heusler alloys Mn{sub 2}RuSn and Mn{sub 2}PdSn has been investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of initial permeability at various pressures up to 10 kbar. It was found that the Curie temperatures of Mn{sub 2}RuSn and Mn{sub 2}PdSn decrease with increasing pressure. The pressure derivatives of T{sub C} were estimated to be −0.59 K/kbar for Mn{sub 2}RuSn and −0.80 K/kbar for Mn{sub 2}PdSn. On the basis of the experimental results, the relationship between the magnetic transition temperature and the Mn-Mn distance is discussed.

  19. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth? Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serra

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of inequality on the rate of growth of an economy. We assume that it is easier for an individual to achieve a given level of human capiral the higher society's average level of human capiral. Agents with above average human capital find it relatively more costly to acquire additional human capital, while agents with below average human capital find it relatively cheaper to acquire additional human capital. The existence of such an externality implies that even when where is no income inequality agents will behave inefficiently. In order to achieve the optimal growth rate, a lump sum tax must be combined with a subsidy to investment in education. When incomes are heterogenous, we show that income convergence is attained in the long run. We also show that the effect of inequality on the growth rate of an economy depends on the functional form of the externality. When the externality junction is concave, income dispersion reduces the rate of growth. On the other hand, when the externality function is convex, the effect is ambiguous. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

  20. Estimating the Curie point depth using aeromagnetic data with a fractal model in the Province of Québec, eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Giroux, Bernard; Bouligand, Claire

    2017-04-01

    New technologies that allow geothermal energy production in colder conditions result in interest for geothermal exploration in low heat flux regions that were previously overlooked. The Province of Québec, eastern Canada, is such a case. It is a large and cold area with a low amount of heat flux measurements, and mapping the Curie point depth is appealing as an exploration tool due to the scarcity of the direct data. For that purpose, we have revisited a methodology to estimate the Curie point depth using a fractal source distribution model and aeromagnetic data. Our methodology relies on a statistical model of crustal magnetization having a constant magnetization direction and random magnetization amplitude. The shape of the radial average of the logarithm of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is predicted using this model. The model parameters (thickness and depth to the top of the magnetic layer, the fractal exponent β and the constant C') are obtained by calculating the best fit between the theoretical and observed radial power spectra using a non-linear least-square algorithm. Rather than using a constant value for the fractal exponent β over the whole study area, which would overcorrect the shape of the radially averaged power spectra in some zones, we propose a new calibration workflow based on heat flux measurements and lithology. This workflow includes the use of sequential Gaussian simulations (SGS) of heat flux data to enlarge the limited available dataset. The use of SGS also allows quantifying the uncertainty and the range of the predicted Curie point depths. This work contributes to mapping the Curie point depth at large scale and help identifying potential areas for further detailed exploration programs and potential geothermal energy production in the Province of Québec.

  1. Efficiency, Fairness, and Social Cohesion in Europe and the United States: Incomes, Hours of Work, and Equality with an Afterthought on Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Gylfason, Thorvaldur

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the European Union as a union of primarily small European states, a union whose parallel emphasis on efficiency and fairness, including deep respect for human rights, holds the key to Europe’s economic and social advances over the years. The paper shows that adjusting conventional economic indicators of living standards such as gross domestic product or gross national income per capita to reflect also social factors (such as hours of work and equality of income) places Eur...

  2. Magnetization and magnetic entropy change of a three-dimensional isotropic ferromagnet near the Curie temperature in the random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorina, E.E., E-mail: kokorina@iep.uran.ru [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Medvedev, M.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Physics, Ural Federal University, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-01

    The behavior of a three-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet in the presence of a magnetic field H is investigated in the random phase approximation (RPA) near the Curie temperature T{sub c}. It is shown that the magnetization M at the Curie temperature T{sub c} is described by the law M(T=T{sub c})∼H{sup 1/5} and the initial magnetic susceptibility χ{sub 0} at temperatures T≥T{sub c} is given by χ{sub 0}(T≥T{sub c})∼(T−T{sub c}){sup −2}. It means that in the RPA the critical exponents for a three-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet coincide with the critical exponents for the Berlin-Kac spherical model of a ferromagnet rather than with the critical exponents of the mean field approximation (MFA). Hence it follows as well that, when a magnetic field H is risen from H=0 to H=H{sub a}, the magnetic entropy S{sub M} will be decreased as ΔS{sub M}(T=T{sub c})∼−H{sub a}{sup 4/5} at the Curie temperature T{sub c} and as ΔS{sub M}(T>T{sub c})∼−(T−T{sub c}){sup −3}H{sub a}{sup 2} at temperatures T>T{sub c}.

  3. Structure, electrical properties of Bi(Fe, Co)O3-BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics with improved Curie temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changrong; Cen, Zhenyong; Yang, Huabin; Zhou, Qin; Li, Weizhou; Yuan, Changlai; Wang, Hua

    2013-02-01

    Dense (1-y)BiFe1-xCoxO3-yBaTiO3 (BFC-BTx, y=0.29, x=0-0.012) high-temperature lead-free ceramics were prepared by the conventional oxide-mixed method and the effects of BiCoO3 modification on microstructural, electrical properties and their Curie temperatures were investigated. The solid solutions show a single phase perovskite structure, and the content of BiCoO3 has a significant effect on the microstructure of ceramics. The BFC-BTx ceramics exhibit improved Curie temperature Tc, together with increased piezoelectric properties. In particular, x=0.6% BFC-BTx ceramics, with a Curie temperature, Tc, of ∼488 °C, show optimum piezoelectric properties of d33=167 pC/N, kp=0.32. The combination of good piezoelectric properties and high Tc makes these ceramics suitable for elevated temperature piezoelectric devices.

  4. Structure, electrical properties of Bi(Fe, Co)O{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics with improved Curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Changrong, E-mail: zcr750320@yahoo.com.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Cen Zhenyong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Yang Huabin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhou Qin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Li Weizhou [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Yuan Changlai; Wang Hua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Dense (1-y)BiFe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3}-yBaTiO{sub 3} (BFC-BTx, y=0.29, x=0-0.012) high-temperature lead-free ceramics were prepared by the conventional oxide-mixed method and the effects of BiCoO{sub 3} modification on microstructural, electrical properties and their Curie temperatures were investigated. The solid solutions show a single phase perovskite structure, and the content of BiCoO{sub 3} has a significant effect on the microstructure of ceramics. The BFC-BTx ceramics exhibit improved Curie temperature T{sub c}, together with increased piezoelectric properties. In particular, x=0.6% BFC-BTx ceramics, with a Curie temperature, T{sub c}, of {approx}488 Degree-Sign C, show optimum piezoelectric properties of d{sub 33}=167 pC/N, k{sub p}=0.32. The combination of good piezoelectric properties and high T{sub c} makes these ceramics suitable for elevated temperature piezoelectric devices.

  5. Forearc structure in the Lesser Antilles inferred from depth to the Curie temperature and thermo-mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie; Arcay, Diane; Münch, Philippe; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Imaging deep active volcanic areas remains a challenge in our understanding of their activity and evolution, especially in subduction zones. Study of magnetic anomalies is appropriate to access such dynamics in depth. The magnetic anomaly pattern of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA) subduction is studied through Curie Point Depth (CPD), interpreted as the depth of the 580 °C isotherm, and developed to better assess the deep thermal structure of the arc. The depth of the estimated CPD exhibits a complex topography. Keeping in mind the overall uncertainty associated with this method, a main doming is evidenced below the Guadeloupe archipelago. Its apex is shifted towards the ancient arc, suggesting a very hot state of the fore-arc/arc domain. To better understand the LAA thermal state, we perform 2D thermo-mechanical simulations of the subduction zone. Recalling that magnetite is a serpentinization by-product, we simulate water transfer triggered by slab dehydration to test the assumption of fore-arc serpentinization suggested by the positive magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the Guadeloupe archipelago. In this area, the subduction-induced arc lithosphere hydration and related weakening trigger a fast heating of the upper plate by basal convective removal. This process of fast arc lithosphere thinning may apply where simultaneously the volcanic arc is split in two and normal convergence is high enough. As serpentinization strongly decreases P-wave velocity, we propose a new interpretation of a published seismic profile below Guadeloupe. The seismic layer previously interpreted as the arc lower crust may rather be a layer of serpentinized mantle, as supported by spatial correlations between gravimetric and magnetic anomalies. Consequently, at the scale of Guadeloupe Island, the fore-arc Moho would be shallower than initially assumed, with a dome shape more consistent with both the extensive deformation active since the Oligocene in the inner fore-arc and the CPD doming.

  6. Engineering of the Curie temperature of epitaxial Sr1-xBaxTiO3 films via strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y.; Schubert, J.; Hollmann, E.; Mussler, G.; Wördenweber, R.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of strain on the structural and electrical properties of epitaxial Sr1-xBaxTiO3 films grown on single crystalline DyScO3 (110), TbScO3 (110), and GdScO3 (110) substrates is presented. X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that all films are grown epitaxially. The tensile in-plane strain is only partially compensated by a contraction of the out-of-plane lattice parameter. As a result, the volume of the unit cell of the Sr1-xBaxTiO3 film increases due to the tensile strain, and the resulting Poisson ratio of the film is ν ≈ 0.33, which is larger than but still close to the literature values of ν ≈ 0.23 for unstrained defect-free SrTiO3. The Curie temperature derived from the temperature dependence of the in-plane dielectric response leads to a strain-temperature phase diagram for the epitaxial Sr1-xBaxTiO3 films. The experimental data show a deviation from the linear dependence predicted by the Landau thermodynamic theory for large strain (>1.2%). However, using the equilibrium thermodynamic analysis, we can demonstrate that this deviation arises from the relaxation of the strain due to defect formation in the film. The result reveals that in addition to the nominal misfit strain, the defect formation strongly affects the effective strain and, thus, the dielectric response of epitaxially grown ferroelectric films.

  7. Report on the Workshop and Regular Meeting of the Imode-CKD and Bcmolmed Marie Curie Training and Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochmal, Magdalena; Cisek, Katryna; Markoska, Katerina; Spasovski, Goce; Vlahou, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A Workshop and Regular Meeting of the Marie Curie Training and Research Programs iMODECKD (Identification of the Molecular Determinants of established Chronic Kidney Disease) and BCMolMed (Molecular Medicine for Bladder Cancer) was held from 20-22 March at the Macedonian Academy of Science and Arts (MASA). The meeting was hosted by the participating center University of Skopje (SKO) - Goce Spasovski and MASA - Momir Polenakovic (R. Macedonia). The representative from MASA proteomic research center - Katerina Davalieva (R. Macedonia) had presentation on proteomic research in prostate cancer (PCa). 40 researchers from 13 different countries participated at the meeting. The Workshop was devoted on "Chronic Kidney Disease: Clinical Management issues", and consisted of 15 oral presentations given by nephrologists and experts in the field of CKD. Raymond Vanholder (Belgium) - past president of ERA-EDTA had a keynote lecture on "CKD: Questions that need to be answered and are not (or at least not entirely)". The workshop continued in four sessions with lectures from Alberto Ortiz (Spain), Olivera Stojceva-Taneva (R. Macedonia), Dimitrios Goumenos (Greece), Joachim Beige (Germany), Marian Klinger (Poland), Goce Spasovski (R. Macedonia), Joachim Jankowski (Germany), Adalbert Schiller (Romania), Robert Johnson (USA), Franco Ferrario (Italy), Ivan Rychlik (Czech Republic), Fulvio Magni (Italy) and Giovambattista Capasso (Italy), all covering a training theme. Within the meeting there were two lectures on complimentary skills for ethics in science and career advancement from two principal investigators - Goce Spasovski (R. Macedonia) and Joost Schanstra (France). During the Regular Meeting, 13 PhD students i.e. Early Stage Researchers and one Experienced Researcher from both Programs presented their work and progress within iMODE-CKD and BCMolMed projects. This meeting was a great opportunity to exchange experience and ideas in the field of systems biology approaches and

  8. Lifetime income and old age mortality risk in Italy over two decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, Michele; Alessie, Rob; Kalwij, Adriaan; Marinacci, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The evidence on the shape and trend of the relationship between (lifetime) income and old age mortality is scarce and mixed both for North American and European countries. Nationwide evidence for Italy does not exist yet. OBJECTIVE We investigate the shape and evolution of the association

  9. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  10. How Socio-Economic Change Shapes Income Inequality in Post-Socialist Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelj, Nina; Mahutga, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Although income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe was considerably lower during socialism than in other countries at comparable levels of development, it increased significantly in all Central and East European states after the fall of communist regimes. However, some of these countries managed to maintain comparatively low inequality…

  11. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  12. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State median...-35 (42 U.S.C. 8624(b)(2)), grantees using the Federal government's official poverty income...

  13. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income from self-employment is remuneration with respect to a particular day or particular days, consideration... mercantile establishment, ordinarily is not remuneration with respect to any day. (b) Income from...

  14. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect...

  15. The Curie laboratory. In the middle of a competence network. The study of radioactivity is an enterprise at multiple components; Le laboratoire Curie. Au coeur d`un reseau de competence. L`etude de la radioactivite est une entreprise a composantes multiples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudia, S. [Centre de recherche en histoire des sciences et des techniques a la Villette, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-07-01

    After the first world war, the most important research laboratory is placed under the direction of a woman: Marie Curie. She leads a voluntarist policy to weave links with industry, the medical profession, and public authorities. In this network, circulate men, women, radium samples,calibration certificates, money, measuring instruments. (N.C.)

  16. The value relevance of comprehensive income

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we look at the effects of the adoption of the revised IAS 1 rules, which has been in effect since January 1, 2009. The revised IAS 1 requires that all changes in equity, excluding changes in equity arising from transactions with owners, should be recognized in comprehensive income statement. Revised IAS 1 requires companies to report total comprehensive income that is a sum of net income and other comprehensive income. Total comprehensive income includes all unrealized gains an...

  17. The value relevance of comprehensive income

    OpenAIRE

    Ringström, Elena; Ekström, Jörgen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we look at the effects of the adoption of the revised IAS 1 rules, which has been in effect since January 1, 2009. The revised IAS 1 requires that all changes in equity, excluding changes in equity arising from transactions with owners, should be recognized in comprehensive income statement. Revised IAS 1 requires companies to report total comprehensive income that is a sum of net income and other comprehensive income. Total comprehensive income includes all unrealized gains an...

  18. Data on Income inequality in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, and other affluent nations, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Dorling

    2015-12-01

    Average income from the state is also calculated by these income categories and the number of people working in finance and receiving over €1,000,000 a year in income is reported from other sources (the European Banking Authority. Finally income distribution data is provided from the USA and the rest of Europe in order to allow comparisons to be made. The data revealed the gross household (simple unweighted median incomes in 2012 to have been (in order from best-off country by median to worse-off: France €39,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €36,300, Italy €33,400 and Spain €27,000. However the medians, once households are weighted to reflect the nation populations do differ although they are in the same order: France €36,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €31,300, Italy €31,000 and Spain €23,700. Thus weighting to increase representativeness of the medians reduces each by €3000, €0, €5000, €3300 and €3300 respectively. In short, the middle (weighted median French household is €4700 a year better off than the middle UK family, and that is before housing costs are considered. This Data in Brief article accompanies Dorling, D. (2015 Income Inequality in the UK: Comparisons with five large Western European countries and the USA [1].

  19. Study by neutron diffusion of magnetic fluctuations in iron in the curie temperature region; Etude des fluctuations d'aimantation dans le fer au voisinage de la temperature de curie par diffusion des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson-Galula, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-12-15

    The critical diffusion of neutrons in iron is due to the magnetisation fluctuations which occur in ferromagnetic substances in the neighbourhood of the Curie temperature. The fluctuations can be described in correlation terms; a correlation function {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t) is defined, {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t) = mean value of the scalar product of a reference spin and a spin situated at a distance (R) from the first and considered at the instant t. In chapter I we recall the generalities on neutron diffusion cross-sections; a brief summary is given of the theory of VAN HOVE, who has shown that the magnetic diffusion cross section of neutrons is the Fourier transformation of the correlation function. In chapter Il we study the spatial dependence of the correlation function, assumed to be independent of time. It can then be characterised by two parameters K{sub 1} and r{sub 1}, by means of which the range and intensity of the correlations can be calculated respectively. After setting out the principle of the measurement of these parameters, we shall describe the experimental apparatus. The experimental values obtained are in good agreement with the calculations, and the agreement is better if it is supposed that the second and not the first neighbours of an iron atom are magnetically active, as proposed by Neel. In chapter III we study the evolution with time of the correlation function; this evolution is characterised by a parameter {lambda} depending on the temperature, which occurs in the diffusion equation obeyed by the magnetisation fluctuations: {delta}M{sub vector}/{delta}t = {lambda} {nabla}{sup 2} M{sub vector}. The principle of the measurement of {lambda} is given, after which the modifications carried out on the experimental apparatus mentioned in chapter II are described. The results obtained are then discussed and compared with the theoretical forecasts of De Gennes, mode by using the

  20. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the princip......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  1. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women

  2. Anthroposophical Reflections on Basic Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Birnbaum, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s Danish author and painter Johannes Hohlenberg (1881-1960) published several essays in defense of an unconditional income for all. These original writings, strongly influenced by Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophy, are not widely known. This article makes two of Hohlenberg's essays...

  3. Anthroposophical Reflections on Basic Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Birnbaum, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s Danish author and painter Johannes Hohlenberg (1881-1960) published several essays in defense of an unconditional income for all. These original writings, strongly influenced by Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophy, are not widely known. This article makes two of Hohlenberg's essays...

  4. Does Consumption Lag Behind Incomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1942-01-01

    textabstractThe fact that consumption outlay of individuals as well as of groups of individuals depends on their income is well known. Although this statement will hardly be doubted, it may be tested statistically from family budget statistics, as has been done by various investigators. These statis

  5. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  6. Misunderstandings concerning income distribution policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIn this essay in honour of Professor P. Hennipman the latter's clarity and precision of expression are chosen as an example of how to avoid misunderstanding of his publications. As counterexamples some twenty-odd misunderstandings are set out by the essay's author in the field of income

  7. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...

  8. The European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper it is generally examined the institution of the European arrest warrant according to the latest changes and additions through the adoption of a new European legislative act. The paper is a continuation of research in the area of judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. It may be useful to the judicial bodies with the responsibilities of issuing and executing a specific European arrest warrant and to academics and students in law schools. The research results, the essential contribution, the originality consist of the general examination of the institution, the critical remarks and proposals for amending and completing certain provisions insufficiently clear.

  9. Europeanization and Transnational States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove Kaj; Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...

  10. APPLICATION OF THE BASIC INCOME CONCEPT IN UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stavytskyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance for the social sphere remains a great challenge in modern economy. The necessity of adequate living standards under limited resources raises a complicated problem for governments to provide appropriate distributing mechanism among the most vulnerable sections of the population. The paper analysed the concept of absolute basic income, which in some EU countries is considered as a substitution for a modern system of social security. Inequality of incomes creates not only a social problem but it is also an obstacle in the way of economic growth. It leads to the conclusion that government should provide some strategy to avoid high inequality. The model of rational individual with certain basic income is under investigation. The analysis of the model suggests that the presence of additional income not only facilitates more effective involvement of individuals to work, but it is a sort of indisputable factor for guaranteeing freedom of individuals and increasing their mutual respect. Thus, the idea of basic income, which spreads among European countries, has not only economic, but also political and psychological components that may affect the mentality of people in future. It is demonstrated that the transition to a new social security schemes in Ukraine can accumulate from 856 to 1020 bln. UAH in 2015 prices. It can provide guaranteed monthly payments from 1928 to 2297 UAH per capita and from 482 to 574 USD per child without changing the structure of the budget in case of replacement minimum pensions, minimum wages and full monetization of privileges. Obviously, such strategy not only would improve the efficiency of budget spending, but also produce a multiplier effect on the economy by changing and optimizing the consumption patterns of the population, increasing the competition in all markets for a real consumer. It has a chance of reducing the struggle to obtain state funds through tenders. However, the transition to the new system can be

  11. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  12. A Discussion on the European Debt Crisis by Fiscal Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jen Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is that discuss thereasons of European debt crisis. Every European country adopts austeritypolicy, which cannot solve government debt problems and further lead toeconomic exacerbation and continuous recession, based on the neoclassicaleconomic theory. In order to realize the root of European debt crisis, thisarticle adopts the reaseach method of fiscal sociology. In this study, wethink that the government debt problem is the result of economic profitsconflict based on the Fiscal Sociology. The economic profits conflict ofinvestment, consumption, international business and labor market will haveinfluence on the government’s revenue and expenditure. Furthermore, the root ofthe European debt crisis is the uneven income distribution by financializationand neoliberalism.

  13. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  14. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  15. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  16. Theorizing European societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Explores key sociological concepts and theory in relation to European crises, identity, inequality and social order. It offers a firm understanding of the modernization of Europe and everyday European life, while not neglecting the historical context. Essential reading for students of sociology in E

  17. Railway separation: European diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, D.M.; Röntgen, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The European railway sector currently exhibits a wide variety of institutional configu- rations as a result of the reforms initiated by European legislation. This chapter de- scribes the situation in the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Great-Britain and France, providing a good coverage of the

  18. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  19. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  20. The European Geoparks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NickolasZouros

    2004-01-01

    The European Geoparks Network was established in June 2000 by four regions of different European Countries--France, Germany, Spain and Greece--with similar natural and socioeconomic characteristics. These four regions are rural areas, with a particular geological heritage, natural beauty and high cultural potential, all facing problems of slow economic development,

  1. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Medi

  2. Institutionalization through Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    to the question of Europeanization. The main argument is that the EC’s ongoing push for the Pan-European idea, through pressures and enabling structures, have contributed to the promotion of a process of institutionalization with re-nationalization and affirmation of national film-cultural diversity as its main...

  3. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  4. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  5. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether......NB: For those interested in our use of the Issuecrawler in this paper, please see our more recent web science paper entitled "Tracing Eurosceptic Party Networks via Hyperlink Network Analysis and #FAIL!ng: Can Web Crawlers Keep up with Web Design?", where we outline the limitations we uncovered...... while using the Issuecrawler. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the, perhaps paradoxical, phenomenon of Europeanization of Eurosceptic parties and the role the internet played in this process during the campaign for the European Parliament elections of May 2014. We exemplify this phenomenon...

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of GeMn layers; High Curie temperature ferromagnetism induced by self organized GeMn nano-columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, T.; Jamet, M.; Barski, A.; Poydenot, V.; Dujardin, R.; Bayle Guillemaud, P.; Bellet Amalric, E.; Mattana, R. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, Service de Physique des Materiaux et Microstructures, CEA Grenoble, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Rothman, J. [Laboratoire d' Electronique de Technologie de l' Information, Laboratoire Infrarouge, CEA Grenoble, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cibert, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tatarenko, S. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper we report on the structural and magnetic properties of GeMn layers grown on Ge(001). We show that for the optimized Mn concentration (6%) and for optimized growth temperature (close to 130 C), GeMn samples exhibit a high Curie temperature (higher than 400 K) and Anomalous Hall Effect up to room temperature. Our GeMn layers grown at low temperature (70 C to 130 C) are composed of vertical Mn-rich nano-columns. Samples grown at temperatures higher than 130 C contain GeMn nanoclusters. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. La historia de la ciencia en la enseñanza de la naturaleza de la ciencia: Maria Skłodowska-Curie y la radiactividad

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Se presentan tres unidades didácticas para enseñar la naturaleza de la ciencia al profesorado de ciencias. Las unidades utilizan materiales de historia de la ciencia centrados en la figura y en el trabajo de Maria Sklodowska-Curie y organizados a modo de casos para contextualizar la reflexión metacientífica (sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia). Tal reflexión se realiza a través de ideas epistemológicas clave ligadas a tres tópicos: método científico, realismo y contextos y valores de la cienci...

  8. Exchange coupling and magnetoresistance in CoFe/NiCu/CoFe spin valves near the Curie point of the spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, S.; Korenivski, V.

    2010-05-01

    Thermal control of exchange coupling between two strongly ferromagnetic layers through a weakly ferromagnetic Ni-Cu spacer and the associated magnetoresistance is investigated. The spacer, having a Curie point slightly above room temperature, can be cycled between its paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states by varying the temperature externally or using joule heating. It is shown that the giant magnetoresistance vanishes due to a strong reduction in the mean free path in the spacer at above ˜30% Ni concentration—before the onset of ferromagnetism. Finally, a device is proposed which combines thermally controlled exchange coupling and large magnetoresistance by separating the switching and the readout elements.

  9. Curie temperature of Co-doped TiO2 as functions of carrier density and Co content evaluated from electrical transport and magnetization at low temperature regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thantip S. Krasienapibal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Curie temperature (TC of anatase Co-doped TiO2 epitaxial thin films was systematically investigated as functions of carrier density (n and Co content (x by electrical transport and magnetization measurements at low temperature regime. The estimated TC from both measurements showed similar TC. For x = 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07, non-monotonic TC vs. n relations were observed, whereas TC was monotonically increasing function of n for x = 0.10. Possible mechanism of high TC ferromagnetism for this compound was discussed.

  10. Collective market participation for improved income among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... income among smallholder farming households: a case of Balaka Innovation Platform ... Collective marketing identified as critical for improving households' incomes, ... The study involved a sample of 115 randomly selected households from ...

  11. 44 CFR 13.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., refunds, etc. and interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  12. 22 CFR 135.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., discounts, refunds, etc. and interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program... inventions developed by a grantee or subgrantee is program income only if the revenues are...

  13. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., refunds, etc. and interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means... royalties and license fees for copyrighted material, patents, and inventions developed by a grantee...

  14. Competitive pressures on income distribution in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, H.

    1999-01-01

    to explore what perfect competition would do to income distribution in China. The research analyzes this question by determining personal income distribution under hypothetical, perfectly competitive conditions, where factors are rewarded according to their marginal productivities. Comparison with t

  15. HUD Low and Moderate Income Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on the U.S. Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) low to moderate income areas. The term Low to Moderate Income,...

  16. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  17. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  18. Earned Income Tax Credit Eligibility and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    to assist the working poor . The EIC is intended to offset the burden of the Social Security payroll tax on low - income workers and to encourage low ...The Earned Income Tax Credit (EIC), which is expected to provide over $30 billion in refundable credits in fiscal year 2002, is major federal effort... income individuals to work. The amounts of credit that taxpayers receive depend on the taxpayers’ incomes and the number of qualifying children they have

  19. Rational Solution To Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While enjoying an economic boom, China has seen a widening income gap that has appeared like a chasm between its urban and rural citizens. What are the deep roots of this situation and what is the best way to deal with it? Ding Yuanzhu, researcher at the Macro-Economic Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, shares his views on this issue in an article published in Wen Hui Bao. Excerpts follow:

  20. Income inequality and happiness in 119 nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Berg (Maarten); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractINCOME INEQUALITY AND HAPPINESS IN 119 NATIONS All modern nations reduce income differences to some extent, and as a result there is an ongoing discussion about what degree of income inequality is acceptable. In this discussion libertarians oppose egalitarians and a principled consensus

  1. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary or... of periodic amounts received from Social Security, annuities, insurance policies, retirement funds... provision must be received under employment training programs with clearly defined goals and objectives,...

  2. Household income distribution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Costas J.; Wearne, Adam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present an alternative model for the distribution of household incomes in the United States. We provide arguments from two differing perspectives which both yield the proposed income distribution curve, and then fit this curve to empirical data on household income distribution obtained from the United States Census Bureau.

  3. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if...

  4. Declaration of income for 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Information from the Legal Service and the HR Department Information for members of the personnel residing in France Following the introduction of the internal taxation of salaries and emoluments of members of the CERN personnel on 1st January 2005 (cf. Bulletin No. 48-49/2005), the French Finance Ministry has communicated the following information on the procedure for completing the 2005 declaration of income form, which must be returned by 31 May 2006 at the latest. All members of the personnel*) residing in France, whether or not they are of French nationality, are required to complete a declaration of income for 2005 according to the following instructions and to return a signed copy to their local tax office by 31 May 2006 at the latest. Members of the personnel should receive an income declaration form for 2005 at the beginning of May. Those who do not receive a form directly should obtain one from their local 'Centre des Impôts', Trésorerie' or 'Mairie', or download one from the Finance Ministry...

  5. 24 CFR 1006.305 - Low-income requirement and income targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-income requirement and income... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.305 Low-income... made available for occupancy only by a family that is a low-income family at the time of the...

  6. 76 FR 36976 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY... regulation to permit federal credit unions (FCUs) that do not qualify for a low-income designation using the..., eases the burden on FCUs seeking to qualify for a low-income designation. The final rule is very...

  7. 75 FR 9141 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI67 Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for... income requirement for purposes of claiming a reduction in their required 2009 estimated income tax... estimated income tax payments for certain qualified individuals. The text of the temporary regulations...

  8. The Leap of the Tiger; How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Reda Cherif; Fuad Hasanov

    2015-01-01

    Only a few European economies and Korea and Taiwan Province of China reached high-income status during 1970-2010. Malaysia’s real income per capita increased to 26 percent of the U.S. level in 2010 from 20 percent in 1970. Despite relatively strong growth and a substantial improvement in export sophistication, Malaysia’s total factor productivity lagged behind that of Korea and Taiwan Province of China. We argue that what characterizes their experience in contrast to Malaysia’s is the c...

  9. The Evolution of Income Concentration in Japan, 1886-2002: Evidence from Income Tax Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chiaki Moriguchi; Emmanuel Saez

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of income concentration in Japan from 1886 to 2002 by constructing long-run series of top income shares and top wage income shares, using income tax statistics. We find that (1) income concentration was extremely high throughout the pre-WWII period during which the nation underwent rapid industrialization; (2) a drastic de-concentration of income at the top took place in 1938-1945; (3) income concentration has remained low throughout the post-WWII period despi...

  10. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  11. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  12. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    ’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting......In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union...

  13. European journals on microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  14. Reactivities of acid and/or tetralin pretreated Wandoan coal for a Curie point flash pyrolysis; Sanzen shori, tetralin yobaimae shori Wandoan tan no kyusoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishino, M.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    Discussions were given on effects of acid pretreatment and tetralin swelling in Wandoan coal on a Curie point flash pyrolysis (which used a Curie point pyrolyzer). Residue yield loss effects were obtained at 3.9% in hydrochloric acid pretreatment, and 6.2% in acetic acid pretreatment. The effects of tetralin swelling pretreatment were compared in the similar manner in terms of the residue yield loss. The effects were 4.0% in untreated coal, 2.0% in the hydrochloric acid pretreatment, and 0.6% in the acetic acid pretreatment. It is thought that components that can be activated by acetic acid have already been activated, but the remaining components would not be activated by tetralin. Average microporosity (area) in the remaining particle as a whole shows very little difference both in acetic acid pretreated coal and untreated coal. However, with the acetic acid pretreatment, pores smaller than 4{mu}m{sup 2} disappeared, and pores as large as 205 to 411{mu}m{sup 2} increased largely. This phenomenon was observed as an increase in foaming degree under microscopic observation, even if the average microporosity remains equal. Thermoplasticity of the coal increased, and so did volatilization reactivity as a result of the acetic acid pretreatment, resulting in appearance of a large number of large pores. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. DFT+ U study of electronic structure and Curie temperature of A2 B ReO6 (A=Sr, Ca and B=Cr, Fe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex; Marianetti, Chris

    Re-based double perovskites (DPs) have attracted much attention due to their high Curie temperature (TC) and colossal magneto resistance with large potential for spintronic applications. Here we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the Re-based DPs A2 B ReO6 (A=Sr, Ca and B=Cr, Fe) using density functional theory + U (DFT+ U) calculations. While monoclinic Ca2CrReO6 and Ca2FeReO6 (monoclinic) are insulating within GGA+ U, tetragonal Sr2CrReO6 (a0a0c0) and Sr2FeReO6 (a0a0c-) remain metallic. We show that both on-site interaction U and octahedral tilting are critical to obtain the insulating phases. The a0a0c- -phase of Sr2CrReO6 is most stable and insulating with nonzero U, suggesting that the high quality Sr2CrReO6 film on STO substrate can be a semiconductor as reported in recent experiments. We explain that the insulator-to-metal transition (MIT) of Ca2FeReO6 at 140K is predominantly due to a structural phase transition which drives the insulating state. Curie temperatures of Re-based DPs are calculated using the classical Monte Carlo simulations based on the Heisenberg model.

  16. Depth to Curie temperature or bottom of the magnetic sources in the volcanic zone of la Réunion hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie-Sarah; Lénat, Jean-François; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    We present an innovative study to generalize Curie Point Depth (CPD) determinations at the scale of oceanic volcanic islands, an approach which has previously focused largely on continental areas. In order to determine the validity of this technique in oceanic environments, we first tested the approach on sets of sea-floor-spreading anomalies. Assuming that magnetic anomalies are concentrated within the oceanic crust and uppermost mantle, the Curie depth should deepen as oceanic lithosphere increases in age and thickness away from spreading centers. The calculated depths to the magnetic bottom are in agreement with this general pattern. On the basis of this test, we then applied the method to La Réunion Island and surrounding oceanic lithosphere. The calculated extent of magnetic sources lies at depths between 10 and 30 km and exhibits a complex topography, presumably caused by a combination of various magmatic and tectonic lithospheric structures. These calculations indicate that magnetic sources extend well below the crust-mantle interface at this location. To the first order, the bottom of the magnetic surface shallows beneath Réunion and Mauritius Islands due to the thermal effect of the hot spot, and deepens away from La Réunion edifice. On the scale of the Mascarene Basin, several discontinuities in the CPD correlate well with major fracture zones.

  17. Recent evolution of poverty in the European countries

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of poverty in the 15 countries of E.U., whose household income data is available through the information contained in the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). Several indicators have been proposed in economic literature for measuring poverty, but they may produce different orderings when cases are compared. In this work, a set of poverty one-dimensional indicators are chosen, which best verify some desirable properties. A modificatio...

  18. Curie temp erature mechanism in La(Fe,Si)13 comp ound%La(Fe,Si)13化合物的居里温度机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 汪金芝; 冯唐福; 孙仁兵; 余盛

    2014-01-01

    NaZn13型La(Fe,Si)13化合物随Si含量增加,相变性质由一级过渡为二级,化合物晶胞体积收缩,饱和磁化强度降低,居里温度升高。其居里温度与晶胞体积之间的关系不能用Bethe-Slater曲线给出合理的解释。本文利用添加间隙原子碳调节La(Fe,Si)13化合物晶胞体积和居里温度的方法,系统研究了该化合物居里温度与晶胞体积之间的关系。结果发现二者之间的变化规律遵循Jaccarino-Walker模型,即仅有5%甚至更少的3d电子被认为是真正的巡游电子,其余的3d电子仍是局域的。以极化的巡游电子为媒介,局域电子之间产生类似于Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida 的长程相互作用,相互作用的符号和大小与距离呈周期性震荡。随Si含量的增加, La(Fe,Si)13化合物巡游电子数目增加,化合物的居里温度由晶胞体积和巡游电子的浓度共同决定。%In NaZn13 type La(Fe,Si)13 compound, the phase transition nature varies from the first order to the second order, the cell volume contracts, the saturated magnetization decreases and the Curie temperature increases with increasing Si content. In this paper, the relation between the Curie temperature and the cell volume is investigated systematically by introducing the interstitial carbon atoms, which is an efficient method to control the cell volume and the Curie temperature. It is found that the relation between the Curie temperature and the cell volume is consistent with the Jaccarino-Walker model, in which only 5% or less 3d electrons are considered as the itinerant electrons and the others are regarded as the localized ones. With the polarized itinerant electrons used as a medium, the interaction between the 3d localized electrons is similar to Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction, whose sign and magnitude oscillate periodically with distance. The number of the itinerant electrons of the La (Fe,Si)13 increases with the increase of Si content. The Curie

  19. Dual income tax: An option for the reform of personal income tax in Serbia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tax theory and practice provides two fundamental concepts for taxation of personal income: scheduler and global. Several systems have been derived from these basic models, including combined, flat, dual and negative income tax. Dual income tax, the subject of this paper, requires progressive taxation of income from employment and proportional taxation of income from capital. However, strict application of this system significantly violates the principle of equitability of taxation, both horizontally and vertically.

  20. A study of the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of income tax revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eureka

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of Indonesian's income tax revenues in the period of 1983-2011. It points out two key features of the Indonesian's income tax reforms: 1) the tax reforms have embraced tax rates cutting and tax bases broadening apcomprehensive income tax system toward the schedular tax system. Then, regarding tax revenues, data shows that the Indonesian's nominal income tax revenues have increased considerably during that period; howev...

  1. Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.

  2. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  3. The Unsteady Incomes Distribution in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farion Mychailina M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady distribution of resources among the population of Ukraine is connected with the influence of both political and economic reasons and factors. Differentiation of incomes is reinforced by the economy over-shadowing. The article considers the main approaches to the distribution of household incomes of Ukrainian population by the decile groups, taking account of a number of factors that affect their formation. As the main indicator for the study were selected statistics about the allocation of the total population of Ukraine for certain categories by the level of income including all kinds of profit – wages, benefit and mixed income, property income, social assistance, and transfers. The reasons of decreasing incomes and the emergence of a new term in the economy, «the sudden poverty» were analyzed. It has been concluded about prognosticated improving the economic situation of the country, which will significantly impact the balance of incomes of population.

  4. Ultra-high Curie temperature (>800 °C) low sintering temperature Bi2(1-x)La2xWO6 piezoelectric material for the applications of seafloor hydrothermal vents detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qingwei; An, Zhao; Huang, Haining; Fang, Mingwei; Chen, Zhongjun; Peng, Shasha; Li, Kun

    2016-10-01

    Searching low sintering temperature material with ultra-high Curie temperature (>800 °C) is urgent to seafloor hydrothermal vents detection. Bi2WO6, as the simplest member of the Aurivillius family was improved to possess ultra-high Curie temperature and ultra-high depolarization temperature by experiment at first time. The crystal structure was determined by ab initio and Rietveld refinement calculations. The symmetry group of ultra-high Curie temperature Bi2WO6 is Aba2 (41). The Curie temperatures of Bi2(1-x)La2xWO6 (x = 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) with increasing x are 952 °C, 1008 °C, 905 °C, 853 °C, 822 °C, respectively, and depolarization temperatures of them are around 915 °C, 905 °C, 880 °C, 800 °C, and 725 °C, respectively. The typical properties are as follows: Curie temperature T c = 905 °C, depolarization temperature T d = 880 °C, mechanical quality factor Q m = 621.8, d 33 = 17 pC/N, K 33 = 82.01, tanδ = 0.19 × 10-2 with x value of 0.01.

  5. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  6. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours...... to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  7. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  8. MOOCs, the European way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How the European approach to MOOCs is largely that of a pedagogical innovation whereas the initial US xMOOCs were largely seen as a vehicle to make education cheaper, to export American quality education to developing countries

  9. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  10. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize...

  11. MOOCs, the European way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How the European approach to MOOCs is largely that of a pedagogical innovation whereas the initial US xMOOCs were largely seen as a vehicle to make education cheaper, to export American quality education to developing countries

  12. INTERNAL DIMENSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND GEORGIA’S EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND DIFFICULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina MORARI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Moldova and Georgia have signed the Association Agreement with European Union and are firmly directed to obtain the prospect of EU membership. This article seeks to realize an analysis of internal dimension of European integration process of these two countries and namely focuses on the study of key priorities, tasks, problems and difficulties that Moldova and Georgia meet in order to reach the domestic readiness for realization of their European aspirations. The research was supported by FP7 Marie Curie IRSES programme.DIMENSIUNEA INTERNĂ A PROCESULUI DE INTEGRARE EUROPEANĂ A REPUBLICII MOLDOVA ŞI GEORGIEI: REALIZĂRI ŞI DIFICULTĂŢIRepublica Moldova şi Georgia au semnat Acordul de Asociere cu Uniunea Europeană şi acum sunt orientate spre a obţine perspective de a deveni state membre ale comunităţii europene. În articolul de faţă se analizează dimensiunea internă a procesului de integrare europeană a acestor două state şi atenţia se focusează, în special, pe cercetarea priorită-ţilor-cheie, a sarcinilor pe care le au şi a problemelor şi dificultăţilor cu care se confruntă Moldova şi Georgia în vederea pregătirii lor interne pentru realizarea aspiraţiilor europene. Cercetarea a fost realizată în cadrul Programului FP7 Marie Curie IRSES.

  13. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  14. European Robotics Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Halt, Lorenz; Bubeck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The European Robotics Challenges (EuRoC) aims at strengthening collaboration and cross-fertilization between the industrial and the research community by launching three industrially-relevant challenges in European robotics with applicability to the factory of the future. To qualify for admission, potential challengers are asked to solve a simulated task. The aim of this talk is to describe the development of a simulated human-robot collaboration task using ROS/gazebo. Furthermore several bac...

  15. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  16. The Prospects of the Corporate Taxation Agreement in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Matei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In all the countries of the world, the fiscal policy is a tool used by the governments in order to get the public incomes and to stimulate the economic development, to reduce the fluctuations and the economic instability. Income taxation causes great difficulties within an open economy, like EU economy, since there is a competition of attracting investments. The tax rate agreement on the European companies’ profits is subject of dispute and discussion. The European Committee’s proposal to adopt measures to charge the capital companies’ incomes according to a consolidated fiscal base for activities performed within the European Union has many supporters, attracted by the possibilities provided by a more concise taxation system and a better business planning that may result when applying such formula. This measures will be a very important step in the process of improving the business environment, by consolidating the Unique Market and increasing the competition. The opponents of the idea of corporate taxation agreement are, as a rule, countries which are currently favored by the reduced level of the taxation of the companies’ incomes in their relations to their European neighbors (Ireland, Great Britain, Slovenia and the Baltic Countries. According to these countries’ representatives, fiscal agreement will determine the migration of the investments to the more stable economies of the Central Europe, which have an infrastructure and benefit from the competitive advantages in different branches of the economy and it will limit the positive effects of the fiscal competition within the European Union.

  17. Moral considerations concerning income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen P. de Vries

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The income inequality evident today has reached ethically unwarranted levels. In the Old and New Testament the Bible teaches us that disparity in wealth ought to meet the norms of justice and equity. Differences in income must be proportional to differences in the workers’performance and the responsibilities they assume. Employers and trade unions have the duty to ensure that these boundaries are respected. The government’s obligation is to take measures against the abuse of power monopolies, but it does not have to pursue income equality as such. Finally, where greed still rules society, Christians have the task to model a different life.In die hedendaagse samelewing kan aansienlike inkomsteverskille nie eties verantwoordword nie. In sowel die Ou as Nuwe Testament leer die Bybel ons dat verskille in inkomste aan die norm van regverdigheid en billikheid moet voldoen. Inkomsteverskille moet in ’n sinvolle verhouding tot die verskil in prestasie en verantwoordelikheid staan. Werkgewers en vakbonde moet in hierdie opsig die nodige grense in stand hou. Die owerheid kan maatreëls instel teen die wanpraktyke van magsmonopolieë, maar nie teen inkomste-ongelykhede as sulks nie. Wanneer hebsug die botoon in ’n samelewing voer, is dit die taak van Christene om’n eie lewenstyl te handhaaf.In de hedendaagse maatschappij zijn de inkomensverschillen groter dan ethisch verantwoord is. Het Oude en Nieuwe Testament van de Bijbel leren dat financiële verhoudingen moeten voldoen aan de normen van rechtvaardigheid en billijkheid. Inkomensverschillen moeten in redelijke verhouding staan tot het verschil in prestatie en verantwoordelijkheid. Werkgevers en vakorganisaties moeten hier de verantwoorde grenzen bewaken. De overheid neemt maatregelen tegen misbruik van machtsmonopolies ten eigen bate, maar voor haar is nivellering niet een doel op zich. En als in de maatschappij de hebzucht nog de boventoon voert, is het de taak van christenen hier een eigen

  18. National and International Income Dispersion and Aggregate Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fillat; J.F. François (Joseph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe examine linkages between aggregate household income, distribution of that income, and aggregate cross-country expenditure patterns. We are able to decompose income effects into international income dispersion effects (from variations in average income) and national income dispersion (

  19. Money and happiness: rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Brown, Gordon D A; Moore, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Does money buy happiness, or does happiness come indirectly from the higher rank in society that money brings? We tested a rank-income hypothesis, according to which people gain utility from the ranked position of their income within a comparison group. The rank hypothesis contrasts with traditional reference-income hypotheses, which suggest that utility from income depends on comparison to a social reference-group norm. We found that the ranked position of an individual's income predicts general life satisfaction, whereas absolute income and reference income have no effect. Furthermore, individuals weight upward comparisons more heavily than downward comparisons. According to the rank hypothesis, income and utility are not directly linked: Increasing an individual's income will increase his or her utility only if ranked position also increases and will necessarily reduce the utility of others who will lose rank.

  20. Poverty, income and ill health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T K

    1999-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the relationship between poverty, low income, and poor health conditions. A table shows the differences between central Asia and Western Europe in terms of maternal and child health indicators. Various studies also show that the more polarized the income, the worse the population's health status. Countries with higher per capita gross national product (GNP) tend to have lower infant and maternal mortality. Countries who have achieved low mortality rate despite their low levels of per capita GNP, attribute the result to non-health factors such as the spread of education and the drive to provide access to other basic needs, in addition to low cost health services. It is believed that people from deprived backgrounds are more susceptible to diseases, malnutrition, and despair. This may be due to cutbacks in expenditure on food and lower utilization of health services by the socially deprived. Furthermore, poverty is a major cause of death and misery of children and women both in developed and developing countries. It accounts for the social injustices done to women and undermines the physical, social, intellectual and emotional development of children. New patterns of health care service delivery are being developed by the WHO to improve the state of poverty-stricken countries. The article concludes with sound recommendations for both local and national levels.

  1. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  2. Lessons learnt from Volcanoes' Night I-II-III - a Marie Curie Researchers' Night project series dedicated to geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseko, Adrienn; Bodo, Balazs; Ortega Rodriguez, Ariadna

    2017-04-01

    European Researchers' Nights (ERNs) are a pan-European series of events funded by the European Commission, organised on the last Friday of every September since 2005. ERNs mobilise scientific, academic and research organisations with the aim of giving the public the opportunity to meet researchers in an informal setting. The overall objective of ERNs is to achieve better awareness among the general public concerning the importance of science in everyday life and to combat stereotypes about researchers. The longer-term strategic objective of ERNs is to encourage young people to embark on a scientific career. Volcanoes' Night I-II-III has been an ERN project series funded by the EC FP7 and H2020 programmes between 2012-2015 (EC contract No. 316558, 610050, 633310, www.nochedevolcanes.es). The concept of Volcanoes' Night was created by researchers from the Canary Islands, Spain, where both the researchers and the public live in the close vicinity of volcanoes. The objective of the project was to use volcanoes as a background against which the role of geoscientists could be explained to the public. The scope of Volcanoes' Night was exclusively dedicated to geoscience, and in this respect it stands out among all other ERN projects, which are always more general in scope. During its four years of EC funding, the geographical coverage of Volcanoes' Night expanded substantially from a single location in 2012 (Fuencaliente de La Palma, Spain) to a dozen locations in 2015, mobilising multiple scientific organisations, researchers, and public authorities for engagement with the public. The last EC-funded project, Volcanoes' Night III, which was organised in 2014 and 2015, engaged approximately 21,000 visitors through its outreach activities, which included experiments, science cafés, volcano movies, My Day presentations, excursions, science workshops and more. The impact of the project was carefully assessed via surveys and social studies during its lifetime, and an Impact

  3. Immigration, Low Income and Income Inequality in Canada: What?s New in the 2000s?

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett

    2014-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, immigration was associated with the rise in low-income rates and family-income inequality in Canada. Over the 2000s, there were significant changes in the labour market and in immigrant selection. This paper focuses on the direct effect of immigration on the change in low income and family-income inequality over the 1995-to-2010 period. The paper outlines recent trends in low-income rates and income inequality for both the Canadian-born and immigrants. The low-inco...

  4. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  5. The European arrest warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđić Vojislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper portrays the new European Union extradition system, established by the Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States of 2002. In the introductory remarks, the author explains the formation and development of the traditional extradition procedure, depicts relevant legal sources, and points to its flaws, which boil down to tardiness and inefficiency. The main author's standpoint is that the European arrest warrant is based on mutual trust in the member-states' legal systems, and that it depoliticizes the extradition procedure by transforming interstate cooperation into cooperation between member - states' law enforcement authorities. On these grounds, the author determines the nature of this new legal institute, that introduces radical changes into the paradigm of the classical extradition, and explains its main features as well as the scope of application. Further on, the paper explores the conditions for issuance of the European arrest warrant, which are proscribed by negative formulations - as absolute and relative obstacles for extradition. Finally, the author explains the standardized formal elements of the European arrest warrant content, which should make its application easier and more expeditious.

  6. ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSOBTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie (Ungureanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to absorb European funds is part of a state complex integrated admninistrative capacity, a component of a state as a whole. The analysis in this article starts from the theoretical development by studying the reports made by the Romanian Government, correlated with the European Union reports on funds and Romanian legislation. This analysis of the EU's structural funds, highlights the importance of accessing them and the degree to which Romania and member countries benefits of income support.European funds are meant to supplement a member of the Union funds to the extent that they are accessed through the projects. Money allocated on type of operation is distributed in amounts proportionate to that state needs. Money distributed will be justified by their realization of infrastructure projects, environment, transport, human resources development, rural and regional development.Theoretical research lay the foundation for determining administrative capacity in Romania from the first time of defining the concept until now. Empirical research reveals the degree of absorption of which is that Romania has in comparison with some EU countries, former socialist countries present democratic states.The absorption capacity of European funds determine the strength of a state administrative management issues in the management of monetary dated. Power in handling management administrative problems can be efficient in higher manner and it’s represented by cost-benefit analysis and the degree of satisfaction of citizen interest. As public services are financially supported and developed, the degree of citizen satisfaction is greater in an implemented decentralized administrative system.

  7. Bank Accounts for Public Finance Agencies Income

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Lenio

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper are bank accounts for public finance agencies income. The article describes characteristics of accounts for all three kinds of agencies: government and municipal units working in regards to statue of education and units with headquarters in foreign countries. The author presents a detailed directory of income for particular accounts and the allocation of said income. This paper also deals with the optionality of those dedicated bank accounts and the competence for er...

  8. Avoiding the Middle-Income Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The news China surpassed Japan as the world’s second largest economy in 2010 has put China in the limelight. China’s per-capita GDP has reached $4,000, turning the country from a lower middle-income country to an upper middle-income country. But the economic growth model is still extensive and the income gap between the rich and the poor is widening.

  9. Land Scale, Input-Output and Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengzhi; DENG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the investigation of production, inputs and income of tobacco farmers in 337 families in 10 counties of which the specialty is tobacco in Henan Province in 2010, the differences in the production, inputs and income were discussed. Results suggested that in terms of land yield rate and tobacco growers income, the suitable proportion of land for tobacco production in Henan Province is from 0.33 to 0.67 hm2.

  10. Does Income Inequality Lead to Terrorism?

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of income inequality on terrorism for a sample of 114 countries between 1985 and 2012. We provide evidence, robust to various methodological changes (e.g., different dependent variables, instrumental-variable approaches), that higher levels of income inequality are associated with more terrorism. Consistent with relative deprivation theory, we argue that this effect is a direct consequence of frustration over the distribution of income within a society, resulting in terr...

  11. Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David

    2007-06-01

    Evidence about the relationship between contextual variables and substance use is conflicting. Relationships between neighborhood income and income distribution and the prevalence and frequency of substance use in 59 New York City (NYC) neighborhoods were assessed while accounting for individual income and other socio-demographic variables. Measures of current substance use (in the 30 days prior to the survey) were obtained from a random-digit-dial phone survey of adult residents of NYC and data from the 2000 U.S. Census to calculate median neighborhood income and income distribution (assessed using the Gini coefficient). Among 1355 respondents analyzed (female=56.2%, mean age=40.4), 23.9% reported cigarette, 40.0% alcohol, and 5.4% marijuana use in the previous 30 days. In ecologic assessment, neighborhoods with both the highest income and the highest income maldistribution had the highest prevalence of drinking alcohol (69.0%) and of smoking marijuana (10.5%) but not of cigarette use; there was no clear ecologic association between neighborhood income, income distribution, and cigarette use. In multilevel multivariable models adjusting for individual income, age, race, sex, and education, high neighborhood median income and maldistributed neighborhood income were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use but not of cigarette use. Both high neighborhood income and maldistributed income also were associated with greater frequency of alcohol use among current alcohol drinkers. These observations suggest that neighborhood income and income distribution may play more important roles in determining population use of alcohol and marijuana than individual income, and that determinants of substance use may vary by potential for drug dependence. Further research should investigate specific pathways that may explain the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and use of different substances.

  12. Increasing the Curie temperature of Ca{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} double perovskite by introducing near-neighbour antiferromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi, D [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Frontera, C [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roig, A [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Nogues, J [Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08193, Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Munoz, J S [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fontcuberta, J [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2005-12-21

    We report on the magnetic, magnetotransport and structural characterization of (Ca{sub 1-y}Nd{sub y}){sub 2}Fe{sub 1+x}Mo{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} (x<0.5) ferromagnetic double perovskites. It is found that the presence of an excess (x>0) of Fe ions in the metallic sublattice produces a remarkable increase, by more than 90 K, of the Curie temperature. Moessbauer spectroscopy data indicate a reinforcement of the magnetic interactions. We argue that this dramatic enhancement of the ferromagnetic order is due to the strong antiferromagnetic superexchange coupling between near-neighbour Fe-Fe occupying regular and antisite positions in the structure. Moreover, the results indicate that the excess of magnetic ions (Fe) is essential to overcome the dilution effects caused by antisite defects.

  13. Enhancement of Curie Temperature and Magnetoresistance in the Perovskites La2/3Ca1/3Mn1-xSixO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run-Wei; WANG Zhi-Hong; SUN Ji-Rong; CHEN Xin; SHEN Bao-Gen

    2000-01-01

    Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of perovskite La2/3Ca1/3Mn1-xSixO3 (x=0, 0.025, 0.05) have been studied. The incorporation of Si decreases the overall resistivity, but obviously increases the Curie temperature (Tc), metal-insulator transition temperature (Tp), and the magnetoresistance ratio MR (defined as [R(0)-R(H)]/R(O)) near room temperature. Comparing with La2/3Ca1/3MnO3, the Tc, Tp, and MR of the sample with x=0.05 increase by 30, 45K, and 20%, respectively. Lattice effects may play a more important role than the magnetic dilution in the case of low Si substitution.

  14. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  15. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age 4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, psocio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  16. The usefulness of a Happy Income Index

    OpenAIRE

    Prinz, Aloys; Bünger, Björn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Happy Income is introduced as an indicator of physical and socio-psychic wellbeing. It is constructed on the assumption that socio-economic well-being is based on objective circumstances, such as personal income as well as on a subjective evaluation of life. In combining these factors, Happy Income is a cardinal measure of overall well-being in a given country. Therefore, Happy Income is not subject to the limitations of purely ordinally scaled indicators, i.e. it is not restri...

  17. Bank Accounts for Public Finance Agencies Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lenio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper are bank accounts for public finance agencies income. The article describes characteristics of accounts for all three kinds of agencies: government and municipal units working in regards to statue of education and units with headquarters in foreign countries. The author presents a detailed directory of income for particular accounts and the allocation of said income. This paper also deals with the optionality of those dedicated bank accounts and the competence for erecting them. In a smaller scope there are presented the controversies of establishing bank accounts for public finance agencies income in the past, before the current statue of public finance.

  18. Income diversification and risk for fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperski, Stephen; Holland, Daniel S

    2013-02-05

    Catches and prices from many fisheries exhibit high interannual variability, leading to variability in the income derived by fishery participants. The economic risk posed by this may be mitigated in some cases if individuals participate in several different fisheries, particularly if revenues from those fisheries are uncorrelated or vary asynchronously. We construct indices of gross income diversification from fisheries at the level of individual vessels and find that the income of the current fleet of vessels on the US West Coast and in Alaska is less diverse than at any point in the past 30 y. We also find a dome-shaped relationship between the variability of individuals' income and income diversification, which implies that a small amount of diversification does not reduce income risk but that higher levels of diversification can substantially reduce the variability of income from fishing. Moving from a single fishery strategy to a 50-25-25 split in revenues reduces the expected coefficient of variation of gross revenues between 24% and 65% for the vessels included in this study. The increasing access restrictions in many marine fisheries through license reductions and moratoriums have the potential to limit fishermen's ability to diversify their income risk across multiple fisheries. Catch share programs often result in consolidation initially and may reduce diversification. However, catch share programs also make it feasible for fishermen to build a portfolio of harvest privileges and potentially reduce their income risk. Therefore, catch share programs create both threats and opportunities for fishermen wishing to maintain diversified fishing strategies.

  19. 45 CFR 74.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.24 Program income....

  20. Life time income of men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Life-time income is estimated here including the money value of household work. A modified opportunity principle is used, which means that non-employed women's price of time is found by calculating reservation wage rates. The overall results demonstrate that Danish women's ‘loss' of labour income...... during the child caring period is difficult for them to regain, and just to reach the same level of income as childless Danish women seems impossible; furthermore Danish men get a higher life-time income than Danish women even when we add the money value of household work...

  1. The scaling of income inequality in cities

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Somwrita; Simpson, Roderick; Wasnik, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Developing a scientific understanding of cities in a fast urbanizing world is essential for planning sustainable urban systems. Recently, it was shown that income and wealth creation follow increasing returns, scaling superlinearly with city size. We study scaling of per capita incomes for separate census defined income categories against population size for the whole of Australia. Across several urban area definitions, we find that lowest incomes grow just linearly or sublinearly ($\\beta = 0.94$ to $1.00$), whereas highest incomes grow superlinearly ($\\beta = 1.00$ to $1.21$), with total income just superlinear ($\\beta = 1.03$ to $1.05$). These findings support the earlier finding: the bigger the city, the richer the city. But, we also see an emergent metric of inequality: the larger the population size and densities of a city, higher incomes grow more quickly than lower, suggesting a disproportionate agglomeration of incomes in the highest income categories in big cities. Because there are many more people ...

  2. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  3. Social Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Eastern European Countries: Findings from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    According to the WHO in all countries – whether low-, middle- or high-income – there are wide differences in the health status of different social groups. The purpose of this paper is to identify the possible socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern...... European countries (Bulgaria, Czech republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russian Federation) by exploring the associations of the socio-economic determinants of health with poor self-reported health. Data for this study is derived from the European Social Survey. Respondents from six collected...... of this research show the existence of some socio-demographic and socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern European countries...

  4. La Gestion Locale Sécurisée (GELOSE : L’expérience malgache de gestion décentralisée des ressources naturelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sarrasin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Marqué par une biodiversité exceptionnelle et une grande pauvreté humaine, la destruction rapide des ressources naturelles à Madagascar place le territoire et son appropriation au centre des enjeux de développement. Dans ce contexte, cet article s’intéresse à l’émergence et à la mise en œuvre d’une politique publique touchant la Gestion LOcale SÉcurisée (GELOSE dont le principal objectif vise à transférer la gestion de ces ressources, de l’État vers les communautés locales, dans le but de les protéger plus efficacement. Cette lecture montre cependant que les objectifs, les ressources et les stratégies des principaux acteurs concernés sont difficilement conciliables et que le système de relation qu’il induit n’est pas nécessairement en phase avec les finalités poursuivies.Marked by exceptional biodiversity and extreme human poverty, Madagascar is experiencing a rapid destruction of its natural resources, placing territory and its appropriation at the heart of development issues. From this perspective, this article will look at the development and implementation of a public policy, the Gestion LOcale SÉcurisée (GELOSE, for the local management of natural renewable resources. This regulation seeks to transfer the management of these resources from the government to local communities in the goal of protecting them more effectively. We will see, however, that the objectives, resources and strategies of the primary actors concerned are difficult to reconcile at best and that the relational system to which the policy gives rise is not necessarily in keeping with the goals being pursued.

  5. Corrigendum - Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2007 income tax declaration Since the French tax authorities have modified the tax declaration form, we recommend that you write your statement "Membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l’impôt interne du CERN et, à ce titre, exonéré d’impôt sur les traitements et émoluments versés par le CERN" (member of the CERN personnel subject to internal CERN taxation and therefore exempt from taxation on the salary and emoluments paid by CERN) in section E "Renseignements complémentaires" rather than in the final section "Autres renseignements" as previously advised (cf. Bulletin CERN No.18 and 19 – 28 April and 5 May 2008). HR Department Contact: 73903

  6. CORRIGENDUM - INCOME TAX IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2007 income tax declaration Since the French tax authorities have modified the tax declaration form, we recommend that you write your statement "Membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l’impôt interne du CERN et, à ce titre, exonéré d’impôt sur les traitements et émoluments versés par le CERN" (member of the CERN personnel subject to internal CERN taxation and therefore exempt from taxation on the salary and emoluments paid by CERN) in section E "Renseignements complémentaires" rather than in the final section "Autres renseignements" as previously advised (cf. Bulletin CERN No. 18 and 19 – 28 April and 5 May 2008). HR Department Contact: 73903

  7. Making European Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education, and government policy intersect in the lives of young Muslims and inform their developing religious beliefs and practices. Mark Sedgwick’s introduction provides a framework for theorizing Muslimness in the European context, arguing that Muslim children must navigate different and sometimes......Making European Muslims provides an in-depth examination of what it means to be a young Muslim in Europe today, where the assumptions, values and behavior of the family and those of the majority society do not always coincide. Focusing on the religious socialization of Muslim children at home...

  8. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  9. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...

  10. Impact of Income on Customers' Loyalty: Are Customers with Higher Income more Loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klopotan Igor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research on customers’ loyalty mostly focuses on several indicators, such as price, income and promotion. However, the level of income and its impacts on customers' loyalty have not been investigated in greater details.

  11. China's New Rural Income Support Policy:Impacts on Grain Production and Rural Income Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nico Heerink; Marijke Kuiper; Xiaoping Shi

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of agricultural tax abolition and direct income payments to grain farmers on grain production and rural inequality in China. To separate the impact of the income support measures from recent price trends for grains and inputs, and to account for differences in household responses, we use a village-level general equilibrium model that we calibrate for two villages with different degrees of market access in Jiangxi province.The results show that the income support policy does not reach its goal of promoting grain production. The increased incomes allow farm households to buy more inputs for livestock production and involve other activities that are more profitable than grain farming. Selling of rice outside the villages declines more than rice production, because households in the villages consume more rice when incomes rise. We further find that the income support measures tend to reduce income within a village, but that tax abolition tends to widen income inequality between villages.

  12. Study of consequences of a ionizing radiation exposure on the health of persons having stay at the Marie Curie school of Nogent-sur-Marne (Val-de-Marne); Etude des consequences d'une exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sur la sante des personnes ayant sejourne a l'ecole Marie Curie de Nogent-sur-Marne (Val-de-Marne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This study follows two other ones about the same subject. No one could bring elements to the question of the exposure impact on the population having stayed in the school. The old pupils and personnel have been exposed to radiation doses higher to the limit values of public exposure especially before 1987. The scientific knowledge suggest that the eventual sanitary consequences are in the area of low risks. The lack of exhaustiveness in the inquiry realisation and the lack of statistical power did not allow to measure the sanitary impact of ionizing radiation exposure among the former pupils of the Marie Curie school of Nogent sur Marne. (N.C.)

  13. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  14. Why does Income Relate to Depressive Symptoms? Testing the Income Rank Hypothesis Longitudinally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo Hounkpatin, Hilda; Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Dunn, Graham

    This paper reports a test of the relative income rank hypothesis of depression, according to which it is the rank position of an individual's income amongst a comparison group, rather than the individual's absolute income, that will be associated with depressive symptoms. A new methodology is developed to test between psychosocial and material explanations of why income relates to well-being. This method was used to test the income rank hypothesis as applied to depressive symptoms. We used data from a cohort of 10,317 individuals living in Wisconsin who completed surveys in 1992 and 2003. The utility assumed to arise from income was represented with a constant relative risk aversion function to overcome limitations of previous work in which inadequate specification of the relationship between absolute income and well-being may have inappropriately favoured relative income specifications. We compared models in which current and future depressive symptoms were predicted from: (a) income utility alone, (b) income rank alone, (c) the transformed difference between the individual's income and the mean income of a comparison group and (d) income utility, income rank and distance from the mean jointly. Model comparison overcomes problems involving multi-collinearity amongst the predictors. A rank-only model was consistently supported. Similar results were obtained for the association between depressive symptoms and wealth and rank of wealth in a cohort of 32,900 British individuals who completed surveys in 2002 and 2008. We conclude that it is the rank of a person's income or wealth within a social comparison group, rather than income or wealth themselves or their deviations from the mean within a reference group, that is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms.

  15. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  16. Income in the United States: 2002. Current Population Reports. Consumer Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen; Cleveland, Robert W.; Webster, Bruce H., Jr.

    Using data from the 2003 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement, this study found that real median household money income declined by 1.1 percent between 2001-2002 to $42,409. Real median household income was unchanged between 2001-2002 for three of four alternative income definitions. The fourth, real median household…

  17. Level of income and income distribution in mid-18th century France, according to Francois Quesnay

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The paper uses the data from Francois Quesnay's writings to derive a social table for pre-revolutionary France, estimate country's mean income and income distribution. These Quesnay-based estimates are compared with more recent estimates of 18th century French incomes and inequality.

  18. The Impacts of Income from Non-agricultural Industries Operated by Rural households on Farmers’ Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households is an important income source of farmers’ income. According to the Regional Rural Residents’ Net Income Per Capita in 2004 issued by the State Statistics Bureau and the relevant statistics of national comprehensive investigation(CGSS2005) in 2005, the impacts of farmers’ income gap and farmers’ individual features on their income and the impacts of income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households on farmers’ individual income differences are analyzed by applying Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) as an analysis tool to establish the null model of HLM, excluding the second level model of the second level prediction variables and including the second level model of the second layer prediction variables. The analysis assumes that farmers’ individual income varies hugely in different provinces; farmers’ individual income has close relation with farmers’ individual features; the improvement of income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households has different impacts on farmers’ income.

  19. Intergenerational income mobility – top incomes and assortative mating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Bonke, Jens; Munk, Martin D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates intergenerational income mobility among top-income people in Denmark focusing on the impact of assortative mating. Earnings and capital income are the variables of interest included in the analyzes testing the hypothesis that both wealth and social heritage are transferred...

  20. Income Evaluation and Happiness in the Case of an Income Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2007-01-01

    Income evaluation and happiness in a number of life domains of people who had experienced an income decline were studied. 800 Participants in a survey indicated whether they had sought information and had taken precautionary measures to mitigate the effects of the lower income. By using Categorical