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  1. Albert Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson-Harding, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's studies and findings are world renowned, and this beginner biography walks elementary readers through the life of one of history's most amazing scientists. With many color photos, the book details his early life and struggles in Germany. Readers will learn about Einstein's personal life in Germany and Italy. His major scientific achievements are clearly and simply explained, as are general physics terms. Readers will enjoy this lively life story and are apt to be inspired by Einstein's achievements and determination.

  2. Albert Einstein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泓桀

    2006-01-01

    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a German-born Jewish theoretical physicist, who contributed more than any other scientist since Sir Isaac Newton to our understanding of physical reality. In 2000 Times Magazire named him the leading figure of the 20th century.

  3. Albert Einstein

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    En 2015/16 se conmemoran cien años de la Teoría de la Relatividad General de Albert Einstein, el científico más conocido y popular del siglo XX. Diez años antes, había introducido la Teoría de la Relatividad Especial, en un estudio sobre el movimiento de cuerpos en ausencia de un campo gravitatorio y electromagnetismo, y en noviembre de 1915 presentaba en la Academia Prusiana de las Ciencias su Teoría de la Relatividad General, en la que Einstein revoluciona la física de Newton y proporciona...

  4. Albert Einstein

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    En 2015/16 se conmemoran cien años de la Teoría de la Relatividad General de Albert Einstein, el científico más conocido y popular del siglo XX. Diez años antes, había introducido la Teoría de la Relatividad Especial, en un estudio sobre el movimiento de cuerpos en ausencia de un campo gravitatorio y electromagnetismo, y en noviembre de 1915 presentaba en la Academia Prusiana de las Ciencias su Teoría de la Relatividad General, en la que Einstein revoluciona la física de Newton y proporciona...

  5. The Gendering of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie in Children's Biographies: Some Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel E.; Jarrard, Amber R.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Few twentieth century scientists have generated as much interest as Albert Einstein and Marie Currie. Their lives are centrally depicted in numerous children's biographies of famous scientists. Yet their stories reflect interesting paradoxes and tacit sets of unexplored sociocultural assumptions about gender in science education and the larger…

  6. Albert Einstein: The Violinist

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peregrine

    2005-05-01

    To the press of his time Albert Einstein was two parts renowned scientist, one jigger pacifist and Zionist fundraiser, and a dash amateur musician. These proportions persisted during 1979, the 100th anniversary of his birth, as writers in all media jostled each other as they recounted his achievements. Relativity tended to hog the show. Relatively little space was given to Einstein the musician.

  7. Albert Einsteins Wonderjaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.

    2005-01-01

    In het jaar 1905 publiceerde Albert Einstein een reeks artikelen die een omwenteling voor de wetenschap betekende. En toch bleef Einstein een kind van zijn tijd, van een eeuw die in het teken stond van dynamo’s, raderen en stoommachines.

  8. Albert Einstein: Rebellious Wunderkind

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Childhood and Schooldays: Albert Einstein, and the family members seemed to have exaggerated the story of Albert who developed slowly, learned to talk late, and whose parents thought he was abnormal. These and other stories were adopted by biographers as if they really happened in the form that Albert and his sister told them. Hence biographers were inspired by them to create a mythical public image of Albert Einstein. Albert had tendency toward temper tantrums, the young impudent rebel Einstein had an impulsive and upright nature. He rebelled against authority and refused to learn by rote. He could not easily bring himself to study what did not interest him at school, especially humanistic subjects. And so his sister told the story that his Greek professor, to whom he once submitted an especially poor paper, went so far in his anger to declare that nothing would ever become of him. Albert learned subjects in advance when it came to sciences; and during the vacation of a few months from school, Albert indepen...

  9. Albert Einstein visits Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, A; Gangui, Alejandro; Ortiz, Eduardo L.

    2005-01-01

    This is a detailed, day by day, account of Albert Einstein's activities, both social and scientific, during his 30-day stay in Argentina in 1925, including his lectures on relativity at the various local universities and his visit to the National Academy of Sciences, as follows from his personal Diary of the trip to South-America and other contemporary documents.

  10. Albert Einstein memorial lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities

    2012-01-01

    This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.

  11. Albert Einstein a biography

    CERN Document Server

    Fölsing, Albrecht

    1997-01-01

    Albert Einstein's achievements are not just milestones in the history of science; decades ago they became an integral part of the twentieth-century world in which we live. Like no other modern physicist he altered and expanded our understanding of nature. Like few other scholars, he stood fully in the public eye. In a world changing with dramatic rapidity, he embodied the role of the scientist by personal example. Albrecht Folsing, relying on previously unknown sources and letters, brings Einstein's "genius" into focus. Whereas former biographies, written in the tradition of the history of science, seem to describe a heroic Einstein who fell to earth from heaven, Folsing attempts to reconstruct Einstein's thought in the context of the state of research at the turn of the century. Thus, perhaps for the first time, Einstein's surroundings come to light.

  12. Albert Einstein Centenary

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1979-01-01

    Homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The scientist and his work by D. Amati and S. Fubini. A socially engaged scientist by V. F. Weisskopf. On the origin of the Einstein-Russell statement on nuclear weapon by H. S. Burhop.

  13. Albert Einstein gentle genius

    CERN Document Server

    Herweck, Don

    2009-01-01

    Albert Einstein is probably the most influential scientist and greatest physicist of the twentieth century. He revolutionized our ideas about time and space, and he is best known for his theory of relativity and his equation E=mc2, which explains the relationship between energy and mass. By age 30, he was considered by many to be one of the world's greatest scientific thinkers.

  14. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  15. Albert Einstein Centenary

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; CERN. Geneva

    1979-01-01

    A socially engaged scientist by V. F. WEISSKOPF. On the origin of the Einstein-Russell statement on nuclear weapon by H. S. BURHOP. This week, we pay homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The centenary of his birth is being commemorated all over the world. Exhibitions and symposia are being organized, books...

  16. Albert Einstein Centenary

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele; Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; CERN. Geneva

    1979-01-01

    The scientist and his work by D. AMATI and S. FUBINI. A socially engaged scientist by V. F. WEISSKOPF. This week, we pay homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The centenary of his birth is being commemorated all over the world. Exhibitions and symposia are being organized, books published, postage stamps is...

  17. Albert Einstein's Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses Einstein's methodology. 1. Einstein characterized his work as a theory of principle and reasoned that beyond kinematics, the 1905 heuristic relativity principle could offer new connections between non-kinematical concepts. 2. Einstein's creativity and inventiveness and process of thinking; invention or discovery. 3. Einstein considered his best friend Michele Besso as a sounding board and his class-mate from the Polytechnic Marcel Grossman, as his active partner. Yet, Einstein wrote to Arnold Sommerfeld that Grossman will never claim to be considered a co-discoverer of the Einstein-Grossmann theory. He only helped in guiding Einstein through the mathematical literature, but contributed nothing of substance to the results of the theory. Hence, Einstein neither considered Besso or Grossmann as co-discoverers of the relativity theory which he invented.

  18. Albert Einstein's Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses Einstein's methodology. 1. Einstein characterized his work as a theory of principle and reasoned that beyond kinematics, the 1905 heuristic relativity principle could offer new connections between non-kinematical concepts. 2. Einstein's creativity and inventiveness and process of thinking; invention or discovery. 3. Einstein considered his best friend Michele Besso as a sounding board and his class-mate from the Polytechnic Marcel Grossman, as his active partner. Yet, Ein...

  19. Albert Einstein:. Opportunity and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    The year 1905 has been called Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." It was during that year that he caused revolutionary changes in man's primordial concepts about the physical world: space, time, energy, light and matter. How could a 26-year-old clerk, previously unknown, cause such profound conceptual changes, and thereby open the door to the era of modern scientific technological world? No one, of course, can answer that question. But one can, perhaps, analyze some factors that were essential to his stepping into such a historic role...

  20. Albert Einstein and Scientific Theology

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Max L E

    2012-01-01

    In recent centuries the world has become increasingly dominated by empirical evidence and theoretic science in developing worldviews. Advances in science have dictated Roman Catholic doctrine such as the acceptance of Darwinian evolution and Big Bang cosmology. Albert Einstein created an indelible impact on the relationship between science and religion. The question is whether or not his work was deleterious for church doctrine or whether it was compatible with, or even advanced, church dogma. It's my contention that Einstein revived the relationship between science and theology and did not create a bifurcation between the two. Despite his personal religious beliefs, his work has helped to reinforce the harmonious conjunction of science with religion, which cannot be ignored by succeeding scientists and theologians.

  1. Mileva Maric Einstein vivre avec Albert Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Milentijevic, Radmila

    2013-01-01

    Radmila Milentijevic n’est pas la première à écrire sur les relations entre le génial Albert Einstein et sa première épouse et précieuse collaboratrice durant ses années de recherches, la scientifique serbe Mileva Maric. Mais c’est la première fois qu’un ouvrage traite de cette idylle, puis de ce drame familial qui a duré près de cinquante années, sous une forme quasiment poétique, si rare dans l’historiographie scientifique.Professeur émérite d’histoire à l’université de New York, l’auteur propose ici une monographie riche et vivante, dévoilant une face cachée d’Albert Einstein, et faisant de sa compagne une figure historique de premier plan en même temps qu’un personnage romanesque dont le destin tragique ne laissera aucun lecteur indifférent.

  2. Albert Einstein's Magic Mountain: An Aarau Education*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.

  3. Conversations With Albert Einstein. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Einstein's views on the role of Michelson-Morley, Fizeau, and Miller experiments in the development of relativity and his attitude toward the theories of new quantum mechanics. Indicates that Einstein's opposition to quantum mechanics is beyond dispute. (CC)

  4. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  5. Albert Einstein, guide spirituel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandraz, Raphaël

    2005-01-01

    The year 2005, proclaimed "World year of Physics" by UNESCO, dedicates the 100th anniversary of the theory of relativity and the 50th anniversary of the death of his discoverer: Albert Einstein. The CERN in Geneva applies every day his theories (1 page)

  6. Albert Einstein 1879-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Celebrates the centennial of Einstein's birth with an eight-page pictorial biography and two special articles: (1) Einstein the catalyst; and (2) Unitary field theories. His special and general theories of relativity and his contributions to quantum physics and other topics are also presented. (HM)

  7. Going to School with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: Gender Roles in Children's Science Biographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this…

  8. Albert Einstein, Cosmos and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokovic, V.; Grujic, P.

    2007-06-01

    We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect) and agnosticism (epistemological aspect). His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo-) Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects) and religious (intuitive aspects) thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics.

  9. Albert Einstein - a Pious Atheist

    CERN Document Server

    Djokovic, V

    2007-01-01

    We consider Einstein's attitude with regard to religion both from sociological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective has been made, with the emphasis on his ethnic and religious background. The great scientist was neither anatheist nor a believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might apply would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological view) and agnosticism (epistemological view). His ideas on the divine could be considered as a continuation of a line that can be traced back to Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed the Greek Stoics and Neoplatonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. Einstein's scientific (or rational) and religious (or intuitive) thinking was deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture.

  10. Some Interesting Things about Albert Einstein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓军

    2010-01-01

    @@ [精彩品读]爱因斯坦,这个伟大的科学家,无人不知无人不晓,下面让我们走近这位伟人-- It is well known that Albert Einstein was one of the greatest scientists of all time and he was also a really great person.Here are some interesting things about him.

  11. Liver transplantation at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mies

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present patients and results of liver transplantationperformed by the Liver Unit team at the Hospital Israelita AlbertEinstein. Methods: The medical records of all patients transplantedby the team at the Liver Unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein,from January 2002 to June 2005, were analyzed. Results: Duringthis period, 328 transplants were performed and 64.3% were malerecipients; 64.9% were performed with cadaveric donor; 31.1%with living donors; and 4.3% were domino liver transplants. Thethree-year survival rate was 78% with cadaveric donors, 71.1%with living donor and 46.2% with domino liver transplant. The meanseverity index according to the Child-Pugh score was 8.7 (ChildB–9 and the median was 9 (Child B-9; the mean MELD score was17.6 and the median 18. Conclusion: The Liver Unit team has thelargest number of liver transplantation cases in Latin Americawith over 850 transplants performed and outcomes similar to theworld’s best centers.

  12. New Information about Albert Einstein's Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2009-01-01

    In order to glean information about hominin (or other) brains that no longer exist, details of external neuroanatomy that are reproduced on endocranial casts (endocasts) from fossilized braincases may be described and interpreted. Despite being, of necessity, speculative, such studies can be very informative when conducted in light of the literature on comparative neuroanatomy, paleontology, and functional imaging studies. Albert Einstein's brain no longer exists in an intact state, but there are photographs of it in various views. Applying techniques developed from paleoanthropology, previously unrecognized details of external neuroanatomy are identified on these photographs. This information should be of interest to paleoneurologists, comparative neuroanatomists, historians of science, and cognitive neuroscientists. The new identifications of cortical features should also be archived for future scholars who will have access to additional information from improved functional imaging technology. Meanwhile, to the extent possible, Einstein's cerebral cortex is investigated in light of available data about variation in human sulcal patterns. Although much of his cortical surface was unremarkable, regions in and near Einstein's primary somatosensory and motor cortices were unusual. It is possible that these atypical aspects of Einstein's cerebral cortex were related to the difficulty with which he acquired language, his preference for thinking in sensory impressions including visual images rather than words, and his early training on the violin.

  13. Mileva and Albert Einstein their love and scientific collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Krstic, Dord

    2004-01-01

    This English translation of Dord Krstic's book, Mileva & Albert Einstein: Their Love and Scientific Collaboration represents the culmination of fifty years of research on the relationship between the two physicists.

  14. Contribution of the Association »Albert Einstein« Through a 5-year Existance

    OpenAIRE

    Vojniković, Božo

    2011-01-01

    The Association »Albert Einstein« has been established as it is written in its memorandum: The Association »Albert Einstein« was established in 2005, the year of Physics and Albert Einstein, with intention to propagate Einstein’s contribution to Physics, Theory of Relativity and his humanities.

  15. 15 Scientists Receive the 2006 Albert Einstein Visiting Professorship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atotal of 15 world-renowned scholars, including six Nobel Prize laureates and one Turing Award winner, will be invited to visit CAS institutes under the prestigious program of the CAS Albert Einstein Visiting Professorship in 2006. The announcement was made recently in Beijing.

  16. Albert Einstein and LD: An Evaluation of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marlin

    2000-01-01

    This article refutes claims that Albert Einstein had a learning disability and argues the claim derives its force not from evidence but from belief that the greatest among us suffer from some impairment and from desire to enhance the status of a marginalized group by including exceptional individuals. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  17. Albert Einstein: Radical Pacifist and Democrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T.

    We draw attention here to the radical political grounding of Einstein's pacifism. We also drescribe some less commonly known aspects of his commitment to civil liberties, particularly in the context of the anti-l hysteria and anti-racism current in the United States of the late 1940s and 1950s. We also examine briefly his views on socialism.

  18. Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)

  19. The Collaboration of Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Asmodelle, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    This is a contemporary review of the involvement of Mileva Maric, Albert Einsteins first wife, in his theoretical work between the period of 1900 to 1905. Separate biographies are outlined for both Mileva and Albert, prior to their attendance at Zurich Polytechnic in 1896. Then a combined journal is described, detailing significant events. In additional to a biographical sketch, comments by various authors are compared and contrasted concerning two narratives. Firstly, the sequence of events that happened and the couples relationship at particular times. Secondly, the contents of letters from both Albert and Mileva. Some interpretations of the usage of pronouns in those letters during 1899 and 1905 are re-examined, and a different hypothesis regarding the usage of those pronouns is introduced. We examine various papers and compare the content of each subsequent paper to the work that Mileva was performing. With a different take, this treatment further suggests that the couple continued to work together much l...

  20. Albert Einstein, the human side glimpses from his archives

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert; Hoffmann, Banesh

    2013-01-01

    Modesty, humor, compassion, and wisdom are the traits most evident in this illuminating selection of personal papers from the Albert Einstein Archives. The illustrious physicist wrote as thoughtfully to an Ohio fifth-grader, distressed by her discovery that scientists classify humans as animals, as to a Colorado banker who asked whether Einstein believed in a personal God. Witty rhymes, an exchange with Queen Elizabeth of Belgium about fine music, and expressions of his devotion to Zionism are but some of the highlights found in this warm and enriching book.

  1. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  2. Albert Einstein for beginners. 12. enl. and rev. ed.; Albert Einstein fuer Anfaenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanolis, Stratis

    2008-07-01

    He was called the most important jew since the birth of Christus. Others however believed however he has came like no other nearer to the gods. Thought is Albrt Einstein, the scientific work of him and especially his relativity theory has the world changed radically both in scientific and in political regard. The present 12th extended and strongly revised edition of the book, which came out firstly above 20 years ago and until today thousands of readers - young and old - has always enthused, describes not only the relativity theory but also the role, which Einstein played in the development of the first atomic bomb. A short biographical part mediates to the reader also something about the man Einstein.

  3. The world-line. Albert Einstein and modern physics; Die Weltlinie. Albert Einstein und die moderne Physik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalampi, Jukka [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    2008-07-01

    This book is an entertaining and formula-free presentation of modern physics from the 19th century to present. The life of Albert Einstein and his scientific works are drawn as red fathom through the text. The author explains central terms and results of modern physics in populary-scientific form from the historical perspective. To the reader in humorous form an imagination is mediated how modern physics has been developed. We learn from the exciting effects of the ether, we hear from faraday and magnetic needles, from Maxwell's prediction of the electromagnetic waves, from heinrich Hertz and from the photoelectric effect. Was the Michelson-Morley experiment a measurement success or an unsuccess? Why has Einstein abandoned the ether? How has Einstein in the miraculous year 1905 revolutionated physics and why he has begged Newton for excusement? Exist atoms? What is motion? What is light and what is to be understood under ''now'' and ''here''? Light deviation or non-deviation? How act the tidal forces? And above all: How has Einstein answered these questions. We meet Poincare, Lorentz and Hilbert, Boltzmann and Bohr, Minkowski, Planck, de Broglie, Hubble and Weyl, Gamow, Hahn and Meitner, Kapiza and Landau, Fermi and many other famous scientists. What had Eddington against Chandrasekhar and what had Einstein against black holes? Why should space tourists and dream tourists make holiday not on the Loch Ness but on the safe side of a black hole? Why inveighed Pauli against Einstein? Is the concern with the atomic-bomb formula right? Smeared matter, big bang and cosmic background radiation, gravitational waves and double pulsars, the cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe are further themes, which keep the reader in breath and let no mental vacuum arise. [German] Das Buch ist eine unterhaltsame und formelfreie Darstellung der modernen Physik vom 19. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. Das Leben Albert Einsteins

  4. Einstein's cosmos how Albert Einstein's vision transformed our understanding of space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Kaku, Michio

    2004-01-01

    Few figures loom as large as Albert Einstein in our contemporary culture. It is truly remarkable that a man from such humble beginnings, an unemployed dreamer without a future or a job, who was written off by his professors as a hopeless loser, could to dare to scale the heights he reached. In this enlightening book Michio Kaku reasseses Einstein's work by centering on his three great theories - special relativity, general relativity and the Unified Field Theory. The first yielded the equation E =mc which is now such a fixture in our culture that it is practically a ubiquitous slogan. But the subsequent theories led to the Big Bang theory and have changed irrevocably the way we perceive time and space. Michio Kaku gives a new, refreshing look at the pioneering work of Einstein, giving a more accurate portrayal of his enduring legacy than previous biographies. As today's advanced physicists continue their intense search to fulfill Einstein's most cherished dream, a 'theory of everything', he is recognised as a...

  5. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a “special” visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation i

  6. Albert Einstein and his mentor Max Talmey. The seventh Charles B. Snyder Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, J G

    1997-01-01

    While he was a student at the Munich medical school, Max Talmey strongly influenced the education of Albert Einstein. Their association occurred during five years of Einstein's second decade. They lost contact for many years after each left Munich. Talmey emigrated to the United States and practiced medicine, mainly ophthalmology, in New York City. He made significant contributions to medicine, to the popularization of Einstein's work, and to the development of international languages. The relationship of Talmey and Einstein was rekindled when Einstein visited and later moved to the United States.

  7. Biographies of Albert Einstein -- Mastermind of Theoretical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Over the years many have written biographies of Einstein. They all based their biographies on primary sources, archival material: memories and letters of people who were in contact with Einstein, Einstein's own recollections; interviews that Einstein had given over the years, and letters of Einstein to his friends - youth friends like Marcel Grossman and Michele Besso and later friends and colleagues like Heinrich Zangger; and especially his love letters with Mileva Mari\\'c. One can demarcate...

  8. Academic profile of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein medical staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Maria Salles Carneiro-Sampaio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Based on data from the Medical Registryof Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE, the academic profile of 543physicians responsible for 80% of the admissions (group 1 and 315physicians hired by HIAE (group 2 was assessed; in that, 42professionals belonged to both groups, leading to a study of 816registries. RESULTS: In group 1 there was a higher concentration ofprofessionals dedicated to general surgery and surgical specialties,followed by general internist, gynecologists/obstetricians andpediatricians. In group 2 there was a predominance of generalinternists, followed by specialists in fields that support diagnosis andtreatment (Clinical Pathology, Anatomic pathology, Radiology,Endoscopy, among others, pediatricians and surgeons. Approximatelyhalf of the physicians in both groups graduated at the medical schoolsFaculdade de Medicina da USP (FMUSP and Escola Paulista deMedicina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp/EPM. Ingroup 1, 66% of the physicians graduated in the 70’s and 80’s, whereas,in group 2, 73% graduated in the 80’s and 90’s. As to medical residence,70% of the professionals in group 2 were trained at Hospital dasClínicas, FMUSP and at Hospital São Paulo, Unifesp/EPM. Manyphysicians trained at Hospital das Clínicas graduated at other medicalschools in the State of São Paulo and in other states. RegardingMaster’s degree, 35% in group 1 and 33% in group 2 hold the title,and in 80% of the cases it was granted by FMUSP and Unifesp/EPM.Fifty-one per cent of the professionals in group 1 and 31% in group 2are PhDs – 90% of them bestowed by FMUSP and Unifesp/EPM, thetwo main public medical schools in the City of São Paulo. Taking intoaccount Master’s degree and/or PhD, 61% of the physicians in group1 and 49% in group 2 hold one or both titles. It was also observed that37% of the physicians in group 1 and 21% in group 2 were trainedabroad and/or were fellows of a foreign institution, mostly

  9. Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne'eman, Yuval

    1979-01-01

    Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)

  10. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2012-06-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.

  11. The legacy of Albert Einstein a collection of essays in celebration of the Year of Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This indispensable volume contains a compendium of articles covering a vast range of topics in physics which were begun or influenced by the works of Albert Einstein: special relativity, quantum theory, statistical physics, condensed matter physics, general relativity, geometry, cosmology and unified field theory. An essay on the societal role of Einstein is included. These articles, written by some of the renowned experts, offer an insider's view of the exciting world of fundamental science. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Einstein and the Search for Unification (625 KB). Contents: Einstein and

  12. Biographies of Albert Einstein -- Mastermind of Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Over the years many have written biographies of Einstein. They all based their biographies on primary sources, archival material: memories and letters of people who were in contact with Einstein, Einstein's own recollections; interviews that Einstein had given over the years, and letters of Einstein to his friends - youth friends like Marcel Grossman and Michele Besso and later friends and colleagues like Heinrich Zangger; and especially his love letters with Mileva Mari\\'c. One can demarcate between two types of biographies, namely, Documentary biographies, and, Non-documentary biographies. Non-documentary biographies were written by people who based themselves on documentary biographies and on other non-documentary biographies. Documentary biographies were written by people who knew Einstein personally, and received information from him and from other people who were in personal contact with him. This type can be further divided into two subgroups: books that were written while Einstein was still alive, and...

  13. Over lichtemissie: Albert Einstein en de vroege geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Natuurkundige Vereniging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tauschinsky, A.; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Op 29 april 1922 gaf Albert Einstein een lezing voor de Nederlandse Natuurkundige Vereniging op het Natuurkundig Laboratorium aan de Plantage Muidergracht te Amsterdam. Hij deed er verslag van een experiment dat hij zo’n zes maanden eerder had voorgesteld en dat zou hebben moeten uitmaken of licht u

  14. [ISO 9002 at the Center of Pediatric Intensive Care at the Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gé Lacerda, D P; Rocha, M L; Santos, R P

    2000-01-01

    This study shows the process of implementation of a quality program in Pediatric Intensive Therapy Center of "Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein" which resulted in the certification of this service for the Standards ISO 9002/94. It points out the nurse's role as a leader in this process.

  15. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-07

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  16. Albert Einstein's close friends and colleagues from the Patent Office

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    In the Patent Office Einstein hatched his most beautiful ideas, and there he spent his "Happy Bern Years". These wonderful ideas led to his miraculous year works of 1905. Einstein was not an expert in academic matters, and he was out of academic world. Neither did he meet influential professors, or attend academic meetings. He discussed his ideas with his close friends and colleagues from the Patent Office. In 1907 he finally got his foot into the academic doorway; Einstein became a privatdozent and gave lectures at the University of Bern. However, his first students consisted again of his two close friends and another colleague from the Patent Office.

  17. Albert Einstein's Personal Papers: A Physics Teaching Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    Presents the concept of using Einstein the man as a way of generating interest in the study of physics among students. Finds that it provides an instantly recognizable face for science, thus a gateway to the subject through the discussion of the man. (Author/CCM)

  18. Stubbornly Persistent Illusion The Essential Scientific Works of Albert Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    With commentary by the greatest physicist of our time, Stephen Hawking, this anthology has garnered impressive reviews. PW has called it "a gem of a collection" while New Scientist magazine notes the "thrill of reading Einstein's own words." From the writings that revealed the famous Theory of Relativity, to other papers that shook the scientific world of the 20th century, A Stubbornly Persistent Illusion belongs in every science fan's library

  19. "Long live effrontery!" Albert Einstein and the birth of Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, D

    2005-01-01

    From its very beginning, Quantum Theory developed contrary to the intentions of its creators. For Max Planck it marks the failure of a long-term research program, in which he tried to understand the 2nd law of thermodynamics deterministically in terms of mechanics and electrodynamics. For Albert Einstein it meant a refutation of his scientific credo. I describe parts of the early stages of this most remarkable development, up to Einstein's light-quantum hypotheis and its unfavourable reception by most other physicists.

  20. Implementing competency based admissions at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Kerrigan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein was founded in 1955 during an era of limited access to medical school for women, racial minorities, and many religious and ethnic groups. Located in the Bronx, NY, Einstein seeks to educate physicians in an environment of state-of-the-art scientific inquiry while simultaneously fulfilling a deep commitment to serve its community by providing the highest quality clinical care. A founding principle of Einstein, the basis upon which Professor Einstein agreed to allow the use of his name, was that admission to the student body would be based entirely on merit. To accomplish this, Einstein has long used a ‘holistic’ approach to the evaluation of its applicants, actively seeking a diverse student body. More recently, in order to improve its ability to identify students with the potential to be outstanding physicians, who will both advance medical knowledge and serve the pressing health needs of a diverse community, the Committee on Admissions reexamined and restructured the requirements for admission. These have now been categorized as four ‘Admissions Competencies’ that an applicant must demonstrate. They include: 1 cocurricular activities and relevant experiences; 2 communication skills; 3 personal and professional development; and 4 knowledge. The purpose of this article is to describe the process that resulted in the introduction and implementation of this competency based approach to the admission process.

  1. Implementing competency based admissions at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Noreen; Akabas, Myles H; Betzler, Thomas F; Castaldi, Maria; Kelly, Mary S; Levy, Adam S; Reichgott, Michael J; Ruberman, Louise; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2016-01-01

    The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein) was founded in 1955 during an era of limited access to medical school for women, racial minorities, and many religious and ethnic groups. Located in the Bronx, NY, Einstein seeks to educate physicians in an environment of state-of-the-art scientific inquiry while simultaneously fulfilling a deep commitment to serve its community by providing the highest quality clinical care. A founding principle of Einstein, the basis upon which Professor Einstein agreed to allow the use of his name, was that admission to the student body would be based entirely on merit. To accomplish this, Einstein has long used a 'holistic' approach to the evaluation of its applicants, actively seeking a diverse student body. More recently, in order to improve its ability to identify students with the potential to be outstanding physicians, who will both advance medical knowledge and serve the pressing health needs of a diverse community, the Committee on Admissions reexamined and restructured the requirements for admission. These have now been categorized as four 'Admissions Competencies' that an applicant must demonstrate. They include: 1) cocurricular activities and relevant experiences; 2) communication skills; 3) personal and professional development; and 4) knowledge. The purpose of this article is to describe the process that resulted in the introduction and implementation of this competency based approach to the admission process.

  2. Heinrich ZANGGER (1874-1957. El hombre que salvó la vida de Albert Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Montes-Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El profesor de la Universidad de Zurich, Heinrich Zangger (1874-1957, es recordado principalmente por haber sido compañero y amigo de Albert Einstein. La abundante correspondencia entre ambos revela esclarecedores aspectos del pensamiento científico de Einstein. Sin embargo, es menos conocido que en varias ocasiones salvó la vida del físico (rescatándole de una intoxicación por monóxido de carbono o suministrándole alimentos durante las penurias de la I Guerra Mundial y veló por las necesidades económicas y de salud del resto de la familia de Einstein: su primera mujer Mileva y sus hijos Hans Albert y Eduard. Pero además Zangger fue un hombre extraordinario que merece ser recordado también por sus aportaciones pioneras en el campo de las enfermedades profesionales como la silicosis o la intoxicación por plomo, sobre la Medicina de catástrofes, por sus estudios forenses y de Derecho sanitario, así como por su labor humanitaria con la Cruz Roja.

  3. The cerebral cortex of Albert Einstein: a description and preliminary analysis of unpublished photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Lepore, Frederick E; Noe, Adrianne

    2013-04-01

    Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein's brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein's entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein's sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein's brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein's brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein's parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein's brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein's brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci.

  4. Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994. Report To Accompany S. 2104. 103D Congress, 2d Session, Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    This document contains the text of the "Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994" (S. 2104) along with related analysis. The bill establishes a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that provides them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and…

  5. [Never forget this in making your drawings and equations! A conversation with Albert Einstein on learning, teaching and the secrets of the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, A

    2009-03-01

    Albert Einstein, the genius--this aspect often has been noted. A neglected aspect is Einstein's role as student and teacher. For this reason, Einstein's notes have been looked at once again. The selected original quotes are composed into the format of a fictive dialogue. The original context and coherence of his comments have thereby been respected carefully.

  6. Studying scientific thought experiments in their context: Albert Einstein and electromagnetic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potters, Jan; Leuridan, Bert

    2017-05-01

    This article concerns the way in which philosophers study the epistemology of scientific thought experiments. Starting with a general overview of the main contemporary philosophical accounts, we will first argue that two implicit assumptions are present therein: first, that the epistemology of scientific thought experiments is solely concerned with factual knowledge of the world; and second, that philosophers should account for this in terms of the way in which individuals in general contemplate these thought experiments in thought. Our goal is to evaluate these assumptions and their implications using a particular case study: Albert Einstein's magnet-conductor thought experiment. We will argue that an analysis of this thought experiment based on these assumptions - as John Norton (1991) provides - is, in a sense, both misguided (the thought experiment by itself did not lead Einstein to factual knowledge of the world) and too narrow (to understand the thought experiment's epistemology, its historical context should also be taken into account explicitly). Based on this evaluation we propose an alternative philosophical approach to the epistemology of scientific thought experiments which is more encompassing while preserving what is of value in the dominant view.

  7. Ethical assessment of research protocols: the experience of the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.

  8. Albert Einstein and Wernher von Braun - the two great German-American physicists seen in a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-04-01

    It was Albert Einstein who for the first time changed our view of the universe to be a non-euclidean curved space-time. And it was Wernher von Braun who blazed the trail to take us into this universe, leaving for the first time the gravitational field of our planet earth, with the landing a man on the moon the greatest event in human history. Both these great physicists did this on the shoulders of giants. Albert Einstein on the shoulders of his landsman, the mathematician Bernhard Riemann, and Wernher von Braun on the shoulders of Goddard and Oberth. Both Einstein and von Braun made a Faustian pact with the devil, von Braun by accepting research funds from Hitler, and Einstein by urging Roosvelt to build the atom bomb (against Hitler). Both of these great men later regretted the use of their work for the killing of innocent bystanders, even though in the end the invention of nuclear energy and space flight is for the benefit of man. Their example serves as a warning for all of us. It can be formulated as follows: ``Can I in good conscience accept research funds from the military to advance scientific knowledge, for weapons developed against an abstract enemy I never have met in person?'' Weapons if used do not differentiate between the scientist, who invented these weapons, and the non-scientist.

  9. Emil Rupp, Albert Einstein and the canal ray experiments on wave-particle duality: Scientific fraud and theoretical bias

    CERN Document Server

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    In 1926 Emil Rupp published a number of papers on the interference properties of light emitted by canal ray sources. These articles, particularly one paper that came into being in collaboration with Albert Einstein, drew quite some attention as they probed the wave versus particle nature of light. They also significantly propelled Rupp's career, even though that from the outset they were highly controversial. This article will review this episode, and in particular Rupp's collaboration with Einstein. Evidence that Rupp forged his results is presented and their critical reception in the socially and politically divided German physics community is discussed. These divisions fail to explain the full dynamic; the latter is attempted by turning to the role that theoretical bias on occasion has in assessing experiment. Einstein's responses in particular are analyzed in this context.

  10. Bridging the knowledge gap: An analysis of Albert Einstein's popularized presentation of the equivalence of mass and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit

    2014-11-01

    This article presents an analysis of a scientific article written by Albert Einstein in 1946 for the general public that explains the equivalence of mass and energy and discusses the implications of this principle. It is argued that an intelligent popularization of many advanced ideas in physics requires more than the simple elimination of mathematical formalisms and complicated scientific conceptions. Rather, it is shown that Einstein developed an alternative argument for the general public that bypasses the core of the formal derivation of the equivalence of mass and energy to provide a sense of derivation based on the history of science and the nature of scientific inquiry. This alternative argument is supported and enhanced by variety of explanatory devices orchestrated to coherently support and promote the reader's understanding. The discussion centers on comparisons to other scientific expositions written by Einstein for the general public.

  11. Annotations to D.B. Herrmann's contribution ``On Albert Einstein's political views'' (German Title: Anmerkungen zu D.B. Herrmanns Beitrag ``Über Albert Einsteins politische Ansichten'')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    Referring to the Straus-Herrmann correspondence, we deal only with one aspect of the ``political Einstein'': his attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin (who were in the past sometimes called the ``classics of Marxism-Leninism''). Einstein revered Marx, but condemned Stalin as a criminal. He also resisted attempts to be misused by representatives of ``dialectic materialism''.

  12. Elementary, Dear Albert

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Elementary, Dear Albert! fiction based upon every physicist's dream: have a chat with Albert Einstein. Starring theoretical physicist Alvaro de Rujula in the role of Dr. Nuts and experimental physicist Federico Antinori in the role of Albert Einstein. Directed by Silvano de Gennaro

  13. Interprofessional student education: exchange program between Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Pacific College of Oriental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Belinda J; Herron, Patrick D; Downie, Sherry A; Myers, Daniel C; Milan, Felise B; Olson, Todd R; Kligler, Ben E; Sierpina, Victor S; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    The growing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), of which estimated 38% of adults in the United States used in 2007, has engendered changes in medical school curricula to increase students' awareness of it. Exchange programs between conventional medical schools and CAM institutions are recognized as an effective method of interprofessional education. The exchange program between Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein, Yeshiva University) and Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY) is in its fifth year and is part of a broader relationship between the schools encompassing research, clinical training, interinstitutional faculty and board appointments, and several educational activities. The Einstein/PCOM-NY student education exchange program is part of the Einstein Introduction to Clinical Medicine Program and involves students from Einstein learning about Chinese medicine through a lecture, the experience of having acupuncture, and a four-hour preceptorship at the PCOM outpatient clinic. The students from PCOM learn about allopathic medicine training through an orientation lecture, a two-and-a-half-hour dissection laboratory session along side Einstein student hosts, and a tour of the clinical skills center at the Einstein campus. In the 2011/2012 offering of the exchange program, the participating Einstein and PCOM students were surveyed to assess the educational outcomes. The data indicate that the exchange program was highly valued by all students and provided a unique learning experience. Survey responses from the Einstein students indicated the need for greater emphasis on referral information, which has been highlighted in the literature as an important medical curriculum integrative medicine competency.

  14. What about Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Students' Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.

    2009-01-01

    Who hasn't heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einstein's genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einstein's image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in…

  15. Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, Nathan Rosen. Can the quantum mechanical description of the physical reality be considered as complete?; Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, Nathan Rosen. Kann die quantenmechanische Beschreibung der physikalischen Realitaet als vollstaendig betrachtet werden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Claus (ed.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2015-07-01

    The year 2015 marks not only the centenary anniversary around the general relativity theory, but also the octogenary anniversary around one of the most effective works of theoretical physics: The work of Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen (EPR) from the year 1935 reprinted and commented here. In the commented edition present here not only the historical context and the effect history of this work are drawn after in detail but also the effects on modern research and the still discussed theoretical foundations of quantum theory. Reprinted are beyond the German translation of the EPR work also the translation of Bohr's subsequent work with the same title from the same year as well Einstein's article for the journal Dialectica written 1948 in German.

  16. Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter D

    2003-01-01

    Albert Einstein re-wrote the textbooks of science in 1905: physics since has been little more than a series of footnotes to the theories of a 26-year-old patent-office clerk. Einstein's science and emotional life come together in this vivid portrait of a rebellious and contradictory figure, a pacifist whose legendary equation E=mc2 opened scientists' eyes to the terrible power within every atom. 'To punish me for my contempt for authority,' he lamented, 'Fate has made me an authority myself.'

  17. BOOK REVIEW: The Legacy of Albert Einstein: A Collection of Essays in Celebration of the Year of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-10-01

    During the 'World Year of Physics' much has been written on the epoch-making 1905 papers of Albert Einstein and his later great contributions to physics. Why another book on the enormous impact of Einstein's work on 20th-century physics? The short answer is that the present collection of 13 relatively short essays on the legacy of Einstein by outstanding scientists is very pleasant to read and should be of interest to physicists of all branches. Beside looking back, most articles present later and topical developments, whose initiation began with the work of Einstein. During the year 2005, the growing recognition among physicists, historians, and philosophers of Einstein's revolutionary role in quantum theory was often emphasized. It is truly astonishing that most active physicists were largely unaware of this before. Fortunately, the article 'Einstein and the quantum' by V Singh puts the subject in perspective and describes all the main steps, beginning with the truly revolutionary 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and ending with Einstein's extension of the particle-wave duality to atoms and other particles in 1924 1925. The only point which, in my opinion, is not sufficiently emphasized in the discussion of the 1916 1917 papers on absorption and emission of radiation is the part on the momentum transfer in each elementary process. Einstein's result that there is a directed recoil hν/c—also for spontaneous emission—in complete contrast to classical theory, was particularly important to him. I enjoyed reading the articles on Brownian motion (S Majumdar), Bose Einstein condensation (N Kumar) and strongly correlated electrons (T Ramakrishnan), which are all written for non-experts. Connected with Einstein's most lasting work—general relativity—there are two articles on cosmology. The one by J Narlikar gives a brief historical account of the development that was initiated by the 1917 paper of Einstein. S Sarkar's essay emphasizes the remarkable

  18. In Albert's shadow the life and letters of Mileva Marić, Einstein's first wife

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Through previously unpublished letters written to her best friend over 30 years, this collection offers an intimate portrait of Einstein's first wife and a troubled marriage that ended in divorce and depression.

  19. L'uomo senza frontiere vita e scoperte di Albert Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Einstein era un bambino che amava sognare, ma non diede mai segnali che da lui ci si sarebbe potuti aspettare un futuro così promettente. Una biografia, arricchita da fotografie e disegni, che racconta e spiega esperimenti e teorie che scaturirono dall'immaginazione e dal genio di Einstein: dalla rivoluzionaria teoria della relatività, alla ricerca del campo unificato che avrebbe dovuto dar conto di tutte le forze presenti in natura.

  20. The Creative Power of Formal Analogies in Physics: The Case of Albert Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In order to show how formal analogies between different physical systems play an important conceptual work in physics, this paper analyzes the evolution of Einstein's thoughts on the structure of radiation from the point of view of the formal analogies he used as "lenses" to "see" through the "black box" of Planck's…

  1. Albert Einstein at the Z\\"urich Polytechnic: a rare mastery of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Einstein at the Z\\"urich Polytechnic: he skipped classes, did not attend all the lectures of his Professors, and before going to the examinations he studied instead from the notebooks of his good friend from class, Marcel Grossmann. Einstein the free-thinker did not respect the two major professors in the Polytechnic - Heinrich Friedrich Weber and Jean Pernet - who eventually turned on him. He felt that his beloved science had lost its appeal because Weber's lectures did not include Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. Einstein seldom showed up to Pernet's practical physics course. By his fourth-rightness and his distrust of authority he had alienated his professors, especially Weber, who apparently conceived a particular dislike of him. At the Z\\"urich Polytechnic, Einstein could not easily bring himself to study what did not interest him. Most of his time he spent on his own studying Maxwell's theory and learning at first hand the works of great pioneers in science and philosophy: Boltzmann, Helmholtz, Kirchho...

  2. CIENTISTAS EM REVISTA: EINSTEIN, DARWIN E MARIE CURIE NA CIÊNCIA HOJE DAS CRIANÇAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Alves de Almeida

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este trabalho analisou três edições da revista Ciência Hoje das Crianças, em que Einstein, Darwin e Marie Curie são apresentados. Frente ao desafio de divulgar a vida e a obra desses cientistas de forma adequada às crianças, para análise dos artigos consideramos a linguagem utilizada, as imagens apresentadas e, principalmente, a representação da revista sobre os cientistas. A metodologia de análise do material é inspirada nos trabalhos de Bakhtin sobre dialogismo e na compreensão por meio dos procedimentos discursivos, verbais e visuais com que a revista interpela e dialoga com as crianças. Os resultados mostram que a chancela editorial opta por focar a infância dos cientistas e uma imagem do cientista curioso e aventureiro. Entretanto, veicula-se nos artigos analisados uma visão estereotipada do cientista como alguém que já se anunciava cientista. Reitera-se a importância da Ciência Hoje das Crianças para a promoção da leitura e a democratização da linguagem de divulgação científica para crianças.

  3. Albert Einstein, visto desde la filosofía, en el año internacional de la física

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monserrat Puchades

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En el año 1905 aparecieron una serie de artículos de Albert Einstein en quese contenían ya algunas de sus decisivas aportaciones a la ciencia física.Este annus mirabilis sólo es comparable quizá en la historia de la física a otroannus mirabilis, de 1665 a 1666, en que Isaac Newton estableció las bases delcálculo integral, la ley de la gravitación y la teoría de los colores. [...

  4. A review of the contributions of Albert Einstein to earth sciences--in commemoration of the World Year of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.

  5. Some comments on the paper "On the Effects of External Sensory Input on Time Dilation" by Albert Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Silagadze, Z K

    2012-01-01

    Einstein's famous 1938 experiment to test relativity of time is plagued by too many ambiguities and does not prove anything. Nevertheless, it is a landmark experiment at the foundation of the modern theory of time perception.

  6. ATTRAOT Albert Einstein 诱惑爱因斯坦 技嘉g-Smart智能手机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    大科学家阿伯特·爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)博士尽管去世已经半个世纪,但由于其在科学方面的突出成就以及其热心于社会正义和人类和平事业的优秀品格,至今仍得到全世界人民的敬仰与尊崇,作为科学家,

  7. Marie Curie; Marie Curie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotereau, J.

    2011-07-01

    The legend has only retained from Marie Curie (1867-1934) the image of a hard and brilliant worker, pioneer in the radioactivity domain, and who awarded twice the Nobel Price. Behind the scientist, there is a women, Marya Salomea Sklodowska, the 'Polish', who was considered during some time as an 'alien', an 'atheistic intellectual', an 'emancipated women'. When she died alone in July 1934, after an exhausting life of labour, her funeral led to no official ceremony or speech. This small book summarizes the biography of the most famous female scientist in the world

  8. August Kopff, the theory of relativity and two letters from Albert Einstein to Kopff in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. (German Title: August Kopff, die Relativitätstheorie, und zwei Briefe Albert Einsteins an Kopff im Archiv des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    August Kopff (1882-1960) was one of the most eminent German astronomers of his time with a high international reputation. He started his career at the Heidelberg Observatory. In addition to carrying out observations he worked on the theory of relativity. From 1919 to 1924 he gave lectures on special and general relativity at the University of Heidelberg. In 1921 and 1923 he published a scientific textbook on the theory of relativity, which was also translated into English, Italian and Russian. He also wrote many related journal articles. In 1922 he was a member of a solar-eclipse expedition for measuring the light deflection by the Sun. In 1928, a large textbook article by him on relativity theory was published. From 1924 to 1954 Kopff was director of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, first at Berlin and since 1945 in Heidelberg. There he worked mainly on astrometry, especially on the fundamental catalogues FK3 and FK4. From 1947 to 1950 Kopff was also director of the observatory in Heidelberg. An exchange of letters between Kopff and Einstein from the year 1930 is documented in the Albert Einstein Archives. Two original letters by Einstein survived in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. We edit here this correspondence, which concerns the dynamical evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the planetary system due to tidal friction.

  9. A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carol C.

    This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role

  10. Albert's Alphabet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Ann R.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how she introduced a lesson called Albert's Alphabet to her kindergarten students. This lesson introduces the design thinking process to kindergartners in a developmentally appropriate way. She began the lesson by reading Leslie Tyron's book "Albert's Alphabet," which tells the story of Albert Goose,…

  11. When Art Meets Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Scope, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,…

  12. Prevalence of hereditary factors predisposing to thrombosis in 260 patients diagnosed as thrombosis and investigated at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos de Campos Guerra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of genetic polymorphism incoagulation factors in thromboembolic disease in patients withclinical suspicion of thrombosis. Methods: A retrospective casecollection was performed searching all patients with clinicalsuspicion of thrombosis who were submitted to coagulation factoranalysis at the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from November2003 to April 2004. We included 260 patients, 118 male and 142female, mean age of 46 years. Prothrombin mutation and Leiden Vfactor were evaluated with multiplex PCR. Protein C, S and lupusanticoagulant were studied in coagulation assays. AntithrombinIII was studied by chromogenic assay. Anticardiolipin was evaluatedthrough an immunoenzymatic method and homocysteine by animmunometric method. Results: Factor V Leiden was found in 22cases (8.3 %, one homozygote and 21 heterozygotes. Prothrombinmutation was found in 18 cases (6.8%, one homozygote and 17heterozygotes. Forty cases with genetic alteration showed 34 caseswith thrombosis (85%, 29 venous thrombosis and 4 arterialthrombosis. One hundred and seven patients were tested foranticardiolipin antibodies: 21 were anticardiolipin antibody positives(19.6%, and 15 of them had IgG antibodies, 3 IgM and 3 IgA. Sixteenof the 21 patients had thrombosis, 11 venous thrombosis and 5arterial thrombosis. Lupus anticoagulant was found in two patients,both with thrombosis. There was only one case ofhyperhomocystinemia, with thrombosis. Protein C, protein S andantithrombin III deficiencies were found in 63 cases (12%. Out of31 cases with thrombosis (49,2 %, 26 cases had venous thrombosisand 5 had arterial thrombosis. Conclusion: Thromboembolicdisease is clearly associated with genetic factors but there isconsensus its cause is multifactorial. Genetic alterations, however,should be studied when there is clinical evidence of thrombosis,at least in young patients.

  13. Retrospective study evaluating dose standards for infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Morton; Goldenberg, José; Feldman, Daniel P; Nóbrega, João Luiz

    2008-08-01

    We determined, in our surrounding environment, the proportion of patients being treated with infliximab who required a therapeutic scheme escalation (an infliximab dose increase surpassing the level of 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks and/or a decrease on the current between infusions' interval). This was a study of the retrospective analysis of data from the 41 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving an infliximab therapy at the Albert Einstein Israelita Hospital, from January 2001 up to December 2005. A questionnaire was applied to these patients, assessing their clinical and laboratory data, adverse events, and individual information regarding the infliximab administration. Therapeutic dose information was available in 68% (28/41) of the RA patients, with 46% of these (13/28) receiving a dose increase, and 30% (8/27) experiencing a shortening of the between infusions' interval. The average final infliximab dose (4.21 mg/kg) was significantly greater than their average initial dose (3.29 mg/kg). The average time intervals between the initial and final infusions, though shortened, were not significantly different. A proportion of 73% (30/41) of these patients demonstrated improvement in at least one of the assessed clinical parameters, and 50% of these patients (15/30) experienced a dose increase, while 20% (6/30) experienced shortening of the between treatments' interval. A total of 20% (8/41) of the original patients experienced adverse events. Although infliximab is effective in the control of RA, dose adjustment and/or shortening of the between treatments' interval is frequently required.

  14. Marie Curie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serna M., Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Maria Sklodowska--Marie Curie--fue pionera en la ciencia de la radiactividad; es mejor conocida como la descubridora de los elementos radiactivos polonio y radio, y como el primer cientifico en ganar dos premios Nobel: Fisica y Quimica...

  15. [Two traditions in the scientific learning of the world. A case study of creation and reception of quantum mechanics over the period 1925-1927, on the bases of discussion between Werner Heisenberg and Albert Einstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajniak, Wiktor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is the analyses of discussion between Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg in the period 1925-1927. Their disputes, relating to the sources of scientific knowledge, its methods and the value of knowledge acquired in this way, are part of the characteristic for the European science discourse between rationalism and empirism. On the basis of some sources and literature on the subject, the epistemological positions of both scholars in the period were reconstructed. This episode, yet poorly known, is a unique example of scientific disputes, whose range covers a broad spectrum of methodological problems associated with the historical development of science. The conducted analysis sheds some light on the source of popularity of logical empirism in the first half of the 20th century. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the neopositivist ideas which reflect Heisenberg's research program, being the starting point for the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The main assumption of logical empirism, concerning acquisition of scientific knowledge only by means of empirical procedures and logical analysis of the language of science, in view of the voiced by Einstein arguments, bears little relationship with actual testing practices in the historical aspect of the development of science. The criticism of Heisenberg's program, carried out by Einstein, provided arguments for the main critics of the neopositivist ideal and contributed to the bankruptcy of the idea of logical empirism, thereby starting a period of critical rationalism prosperity, arising from criticism of neopositivism and alluding to Einstein's ideas.

  16. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the international meeting on 'New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' (Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam, Germany, 17 21 July 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M.; Rezzolla, L.

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, frontiers represent a treacherous terrain to venture into, where hidden obstacles are present and uncharted territories lie ahead. At the same time, frontiers are also a place where new perspectives can be appreciated and have often been the cradle of new and thriving developments. With this in mind and inspired by this spirit, the Numerical Relativity Group at the Albert Einstein Institute (AEI) organized a `New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' meeting on 17 21 July 2006 at the AEI campus in Potsdam, Germany. It is an interesting historical remark that the suggestion of the meeting was first made in the late summer of 2005 and thus at a time that for many reasons has been a turning point in the recent history of numerical relativity. A few months earlier (April 2005) in fact, F Pretorius had announced the first multi-orbit simulations of binary black holes and computed the waveforms from the inspiral, merger and ring-down (`Numerical Relativity', Banff International Research Station, Banff, Canada, 16 21 April 2005). At that time, the work of Pretorius served as an important boost to the research in this field and although no other group has yet adopted the techniques he employed, his results provided the numerical relativity community with clear evidence that the binary black hole problem could be solved. A few months later (November 2005), equally striking results were presented by the NASA Goddard and Texas/Brownsville groups, who also reported, independently, multi-orbit evolutions of binary black holes using numerical techniques and formulations of the Einstein equations which were markedly distinct from those suggested by Pretorius (`Numerical Relativity 2005', Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD, USA, 2 4 November 2005). A few months later other groups were able to repeat the same simulations and obtain equivalent results, testifying that the community as a whole had reached comparable levels of maturity in both the numerical

  17. Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, described the photoelectric effect (for which he received the Nobel prize in 1921) and created the theory of special relativity in 1905 in his spare time, while an employee of the Swiss patent office. The theory of relativity was based on two hypotheses, that the laws of physics had to have the same form in any frame of reference and that the speed of ...

  18. Albert Camus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopenhayn, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Based on the death of Albert Camus, occurred on January 4th 1960 because of a car accident, the author writes the following short-text, where he relates the event to others suggesting possible and curious coincidences...

  19. Einstein Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    A brief description on the work and life of the great physicist scientist Albert Einstein is presented. The photoelectric paper written by him in 1905 led him to the study of fluctuations in the energy density of radiation and from there to the incomplete nature of the equipartition theorem of classical mechanics, which failed to account for…

  20. Einstein's Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  1. Madame Curie

    CERN Document Server

    Eve, Curie

    1942-01-01

    Marie Curie is a women who changed the face of science for all time, not just because of her discovery of the radioactive element Radium and her work with it, but because of her incredible strides forward in a such a male dominated world as laboratory science at the turn of the 19th century. This is the Madame Curie many people know but here is a biography written by her daughter Eve that shows her human side, in a way that can only be viewed and admired from a family member describing her as a caring mother, devoted and passionate wife. Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive.

  2. Herwig Schopper Einstein's Legacy

    CERN Multimedia

    Schneegans, Susan

    2005-01-01

    "Last June, the United Nations declared 2005 the International Year of Physics and invited UNESCO to take the lead in celebrating the hundreth anniversary of Albert Einstein's legandary articles on relativisty, quantum theory and Brownian motion" (3 pages)

  3. Albert Hirschman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amartya Sen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is part of the special issue of the journal, including the proceedings of the conference "Albert Hirschman scienziato sociale" held in Rome at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. The author comments upon his personal relations (both family ties and professional relations with Hirschman, and discusses the latter's economic and social thought in opposition to the economic mainstream.

  4. Einstein Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  5. The collected papers of Albert Einstein. - Vol. 11: Cumulative index, bibliography, list of correspondence, chronology, and errata to volumes 1-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, A.J.; Sauer, T.; Kormos Buchwald, D.; Hirschmann, R.; Moses, O.; Aronin, B.; Stolper, J.

    2009-01-01

    This index volume provides quick access to the most authoritative compilation of documents and information concerning Einstein's work and correspondence for the first half of his life. It offers readers a Cumulative Index to the first ten volumes of the collected papers, the first complete bibliogra

  6. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  7. Einstein's enigma or black holes in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2006-01-01

    A funny rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein''s theory of general relativity and black-hole physics.

  8. An Einstein encyclopedia

    CERN Document Server

    Calaprice, Alice; Schulmann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein’s life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life. An Einstein Encyclopedia contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage o...

  9. Einstein a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This guide contains the essential facts and concepts of the life and work of Albert Einstein. It examines his background and the scientific method of the day, and explains his theories in simple terms. Central themes are presented in jargon-free language and key terms are highlighted and explained.

  10. Einstein was right!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the first time scientists have succeeded in measuring the speed of gravity. They took advantage of a rare alignment of Jupiter against a far-off quasar to measure the fundamental constant described by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity (2 pages).

  11. Examining the Enigmatic Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoon, Koh Aik

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…

  12. General Motors sued for 'denigrating' Einstein's image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The US car giant General Motors (GM) has played down the consequences of a lawsuit against it for using the likeness of Albert Einstein in an advertisement for its Terrain sports utility vehicle (SUV).

  13. Albert Nawahi Like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Warren

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Albert Nawahi Like, Hawai'i Department of Education teacher from 1927 to 1965. Albert Nawahi Like was born 1900 in Honolulu's Chinatown. When Like was eight years old, his family moved to Kalihi. After the death in 1912 of his father, Edward Like, who was editor of the Hawaiian-language newspaper "Ke…

  14. 100eme anniversaire de la théorie de la relativité Une BD romande : Mélanges Einstein (Albert) et l'histoire de la physique

    CERN Multimedia

    Tesnier, Grégory

    2005-01-01

    2005 has been delcared "Year of Physics" by UNESCO and ONU to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the theory of relativity, elaborated by Einstein (who lived in Bern). To hon. Einstein, an historical comic strip has been published (1 page)

  15. Signets Albert Camus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Poul Søren

    2010-01-01

    Liste med relevant information om den franske forfatter og Nobelprismodtager Albert Camus - fremstillet i forbindelse med 50-året for forfatterens død og i forbindelse med en konference om forfatteren på Syddansk Universitet......Liste med relevant information om den franske forfatter og Nobelprismodtager Albert Camus - fremstillet i forbindelse med 50-året for forfatterens død og i forbindelse med en konference om forfatteren på Syddansk Universitet...

  16. Signets Albert Camus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Poul Søren

    2010-01-01

    Liste med relevant information om den franske forfatter og Nobelprismodtager Albert Camus - fremstillet i forbindelse med 50-året for forfatterens død og i forbindelse med en konference om forfatteren på Syddansk Universitet......Liste med relevant information om den franske forfatter og Nobelprismodtager Albert Camus - fremstillet i forbindelse med 50-året for forfatterens død og i forbindelse med en konference om forfatteren på Syddansk Universitet...

  17. Einstein's essays in science

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2009-01-01

    His name is synonymous with ""genius,"" but these essays by the renowned physicist and scholar are accessible to any reader. In addition to outlining the core of relativity theory in everyday language, Albert Einstein presents fascinating discussions of other scientific fields to which he made significant contributions. The Nobel Laureate also profiles some of history's most influential physicists, upon whose studies his own work was based.Assembled during Einstein's lifetime from his speeches and essays, this book marks the first presentation to the wider world of the scientist's accomplishme

  18. Einstein: annus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pepi Contieri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 1905, when Albert Einstein was celebrating his 26th birthday, a series of his papers was first published turning over a new leaf in Physics, knowledge and culture until nowadays. It was his annus mirabilis, a period in which, among papers and declarations to patent electric products in a Swiss company, his imagination gave rise to a concept both materialistic and transcendent: the time-space dimension or time as the fourth dimension. This paper intends to show the conditions that surrounded Einstein in 1905 concerning his intellectual and familiar development during the creation of his articles.

  19. Pierre y Marie Curie

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, Juan de Dios; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Pocas veces se encuentran dos vidas tan profundamente identificadas como las de Pierre Curie y María Sklodowska.Pierre Curie, nació en París el 15 de mayo de 1859; realiza sus estudios preparatorios privadamente, hasta que a los 16 años aprueba su bachillerato, para seguir luego sus estudios en la Facultad de Ciencias donde obtiene su licenciatura en Física en 1877. Su amor a las ciencias naturales parece haberlo adquirido de su padre, Eugenio, con quien realiza sus primeras experiencias. Con...

  20. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  1. Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.

  2. Einstein from 'B' to 'Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Stachel, John

    2002-01-01

    John Stachel, the author of this collection of 37 published and unpublished articles on Albert Einstein, has written about Einstein and his work for over 40 years. Trained as a theoretical physicist specializing in the theory of relativity, he was chosen as the founding editor of The Collected papers of Albert Einstein 25 years ago, and is currently Director of the Boston University Center for Einstein Studies. Based on a detailed study of documentary evidence, much of which was newly discovered in the course of his work, Stachel debunks many of the old (and some new) myths about Einstein and offers novel insight into his life and work. Throughout the volume, a new, more human picture of Einstein is offered to replace the plaster saint of popular legend. In particular, a youthful Einstein emerges from the obscurity that previously shrouded his early years, and much new light is shed on the origins of the special and general theories of relativity. Also discussed in some detail are Einstein's troubled relatio...

  3. The Challenge of Editing Einstein's Scientific Manuscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Tilman

    2004-01-01

    Einstein's research manuscripts provide important insights into his exceptional creativity. At the same time, they can present difficulties for a publication in the documentary edition of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (CPAE). The problems are illustrated by discussing how some important examples of Einstein's research manuscripts have been included in previous volumes of the CPAE series: his Scratch Notebook from the years 1910-1914, his so-called Zurich Notebook from 1912, document...

  4. Einstein and the Atomic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2005-01-01

    In the year 1905, a young Albert Einstein published a number of scientific papers that changed physics forever. The best known of these, the Special Theory of Relativity, quickly established the young Einstein as a scientist of note (see J.IEI vol. 59:6) and led to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, one of the pillars of modern physics. In a second paper, Einstein published a controversial proposal concerning the nature of light that later formed a cornerstone of quantum theory, the ...

  5. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  6. Unconventional Therapist: Albert Ellis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.

    1980-01-01

    Albert Ellis is one of counseling's most prolific authors, mostly on the topic of Rational Emotive Therapy. He has been a moving force in the cognitive behavior movement. In this interview Ellis discusses his theory and its application, and aspects of his personal and family life. (Author)

  7. Gustav Albert Stiasny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1950-01-01

    Gustav Albert Stiasny was born in Vienna (Austria) on December 10th, 1877. After he had attended the elementary and grammar schools there and having finished a one year course of lectures in commercial enterprise, Stiasny enlisted as a volunteer with the Austro-Hungarian army. A year later he left t

  8. Einstein a hundred years of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    "The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility … The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle." --Albert Einstein, 1936 Albert Einstein's universal appeal is only partially explained by his brilliant work in physics, as Andrew Robinson demonstrates in this authoritative, accessible, and richly illustrated biography. The main narrative is enriched by twelve essays by well-known scientists, scholars, and artists, including three Nobel Laureates. The book presents clearly the beautiful simplicity at the heart of Einstein's greatest discoveries, and explains how his ideas have continued to influence scientific developments such as lasers, the theory of the big bang, and "theories of everything." Einstein's life and activities outside of science are also considered, including his encounters with famous contemporaries such as Chaplin, Roosevelt, and Tagore, his love of music, and his troubled family life. The book recognizes that Einstein's striking originality was expressed in many ways, from hi...

  9. Einstein une biographie dessinée

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    « Je m'appelle Albert Einstein. En voulant comprendre l'univers, j'ai libéré des forces de destruction terrifiantes. Mais il faut continuer à chercher le grand secret du cosmos. » Albert Einstein (1879-1955) est un immense génie devenu, sans le vouloir, une star de la science. Avec ses théories de la relativité restreinte puis de la relativité générale, il a radicalement transformé nos vies. Voici le récit de son existence passionnée et de ses contributions fondamentales.

  10. The Routledge guidebook to Einstein's relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Trefil, James

    2015-01-01

    Albert Einstein, one of the most prolific scientists of the twentieth century, developed the theory of relativity which was crucial for the advancement of modern physics. Young Einstein identified a paradox between Newtonian Mechanics and Maxwell's equations which pointed to a flawed understanding of space and time by the scientists of the day. In Relativity, Einstein presents his findings using a minimal amount of mathematical language, but the text can still be challenging for readers who lack an extensive scientific background.The Routledge Guidebook to Einstein's Relativity expands on and

  11. Determinação dos valores hematológicos e das concentrações séricas de ferro e ferritina em sangue de cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos de termo e pré-termo no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silber Marcelo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os valores hematológicos (Hb, Ht, VCM, HCM, CHCM, reticulócitos e as concentrações séricas de ferro e ferritina no sangue de cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos (RN no Hospital Albert Einstein. A amostra continha 32 RN de termo (T e 30 RN pré-termo (PT. Os RN apresentavam-se clinicamente sadios, sendo excluídos os que apresentaram intercorrências clínicas ou no momento do parto. O sangue foi colhido por punção da veia umbilical até 5 minutos após a dequitação e encaminhado ao laboratório de patologia clínica para processamento laboratorial. Os valores hematológicos encontram-se mais elevados no grupo de RNT em relação ao grupo de RNPT (p<0,05. Ajustando-se um modelo de regressão logística múltipla, o Ht tem valor preditivo para a prematuridade, observando-se uma relação inversamente proporcional entre o valor do Ht e a idade gestacional.

  12. The Einstein almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Calaprice, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein was an exceptional human being. Perhaps nothing reflects the breadth and scope of his brilliance, his interests, and his influence better than his publications -- more than six hundred scientific papers, books, essays, reviews, and opinion pieces. Einstein began publishing in March 1901 with a scientific work that appeared in the German journal Annalen der Physik when he was twenty-two; the last publication was an editorial in the journal Common Cause which appeared a few months before his death in 1955. In the fifty-four-year interval, his published work ranged widely over relativity theory and quantum physics, nationalism, Judaism, war, peace, and education. Indeed, Einstein's literary output was so abundant that even many of his most informed admirers are not familiar with all of it. The Einstein Almanac takes a look at Einstein's year-by-year output, explaining his three-hundred most important publications and setting them into the context of his life, science, and world history. Concentr...

  13. Einstein's Third Paradise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerald Holton

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Historians of modern science have good reasons to be grateful to Paul Arthur Schilpp, professor of philosophy and Methodist clergyman but better known as the editor of a series of volumes on "Living Philosophers," including several on scientist - philosophers. His motto was: "The asking of questions about a philosopher' s meaning while he is alive." And to his everlasting credit, he persuaded Albert Einstein to do what he had resisted all his years: to sit down to write, in 1946 at age sixty - seven, an extensive autobiography- forty - five pages long in print.

  14. Physics before and after Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Capria, M Mamone

    2005-01-01

    It is now a century ago that one of the icons of modern physics published some of the most influential scientific papers of all times. With his work on relativity and quantum theory, Albert Einstein has altered the field of physics forever. It should not come as a surprise that looking back at Einstein''s work, one needs to rethink the whole scope of physics, before and after his time. This books aims to provide a perspective on the history of modern physics, spanning from the late 19th century up to today. It is not an encyclopaedic work, but it presents the groundbreaking and sometimes provocative main contributions by Einstein as marking the line between ''old'' and ''new'' physics, and expands on some of the developments and open issues to which they gave rise.

  15. Einstein's Real "Biggest Blunder"

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Homer G

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein's real "biggest blunder" was not the 1917 introduction into his gravitational field equations of a cosmological constant term \\Lambda, rather was his failure in 1916 to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. Had he made the distinction, and followed David Hilbert's lead in deriving field equations from a variational principle, he might have discovered a true (not a cut and paste) Einstein-Rosen bridge and a cosmological model that would have allowed him to predict, long before such phenomena were imagined by others, inflation, a big bounce (not a big bang), an accelerating expansion of the universe, dark matter, and the existence of cosmic voids, walls, filaments, and nodes.

  16. The Einstein Papers Project 1955 ~ 2005%爱因斯坦档案50年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diana Kormos Buchwald

    2005-01-01

    @@ The publication of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein has been a long-standing editorial project. So far, nine volumes of Einstein's collected writings and correspondence have been published since 1987 (with one double volume). They cover Einstein's life and work from

  17. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Talk: Remembering our Humanity: the deep impact of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Patricia M.

    2009-05-01

    ``There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal as human beings to human beings: Remember your humanity, and forget the rest.'' Days before his death, Albert Einstein joined Bertrand Russell and other notable scientists and philosophers in issuing a statement calling for the abolition of war and for governments to ``find peaceful means for the settlement of all matters of dispute between them." As a first step, they called for the renunciation of nuclear weapons. The initiative led to the establishment of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, which bring together influential scholars and public figures concerned with reducing the danger of armed conflict and seeking cooperative solutions for global problems. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto has had a major impact on the way in which people discuss the issues of peace and war. The paper traces the growing awareness of the meaning of war, ways in which violent conflict can be prevented, particularly in the nuclear age, and the humanitarian imperative for so doing. From the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, London, 9 July 1955, signed also by Max Born, Percy W. Bridgman, Leopold Infeld, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Herman J. Muller, Linus Pauling, Cecil F. Powell, Joseph Rotblat and Hideki Yukawa

  18. The Challenge of Editing Einstein's Scientific Manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Sauer, T

    2004-01-01

    Einstein's research manuscripts provide important insights into his exceptional creativity. At the same time, they can present difficulties for a publication in the documentary edition of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (CPAE). The problems are illustrated by discussing how some important examples of Einstein's research manuscripts have been included in previous volumes of the CPAE series: his Scratch Notebook from the years 1910-1914, his so-called Zurich Notebook from 1912, documenting his early search for a generally covariant theory of gravitation, and the Einstein-Besso manuscript from 1913, containing calculations of Mercury's perihelion advance on the basis of the Einstein-Grossmann equations. Another category of research notes are "back-of-an-envelope" calculations. A major challenge for future volumes of the CPAE series are Einstein's Berlin and Princeton research manuscripts on a unified field theory. This batch of some 1700 undated manuscript pages presents a formidable challenge also for h...

  19. Einstein in My Hometown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamola, Karl

    2005-12-01

    During the 22 years Albert Einstein lived and worked in the United States, he frequently took long summer vacations. Generally he chose quiet, out-of-the-way vacation spots, and because of his love of sailing, places close to bodies of water. Among other locations, he vacationed at Saranac Lake in upstate New York, the Rhode Island coast, and, during the summers of 1937-39, at Nassau Point on the North Fork of Long Island. Nassau Point is a part of the small town of Cutchogue and is located on Peconic Bay, about 90 miles from New York City. It was an ideal spot for Einstein both because it was off the beaten path and because of the outstanding sailing conditions on Peconic Bay. Einstein rented a cabin just a stone's throw from the bay. I myself have a special interest in Cutchogue because it's the place where I was born and where I spent the first few years of my life. Unfortunately, I came along five or six years too late to have actually seen Einstein there, but he did have encounters with some of my older friends and relatives.

  20. Pierre curie, 1859-1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    2007-04-01

    The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background-his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years.

  1. Albert Behnke: nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Casey A; Grover, David H

    2014-02-01

    As early as 1826, divers diving to great depths noted that descent often resulted in a phenomenon of intoxication and euphoria. In 1935, Albert Behnke discovered nitrogen as the cause of this clinical syndrome, a condition now known as nitrogen narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis consists of the development of euphoria, a false sense of security, and impaired judgment upon underwater descent using compressed air below 3-4 atmospheres (99 to 132 feet). At greater depths, symptoms can progress to loss of consciousness. The syndrome remains relatively unchanged in modern diving when compressed air is used. Behnke's use of non-nitrogen-containing gas mixtures subsequent to his discovery during the 1939 rescue of the wrecked submarine USS Squalus pioneered the use of non-nitrogen-containing gas mixtures, which are used by modern divers when working at great depth to avoid the effects of nitrogen narcosis.

  2. CURIE: Cubesat Radio Interferometry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundkvist, D. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H. M.; Bale, S. D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Hurford, G. J.; Maruca, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pulupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    The CUbesat Radio Interferometry Experiment (CURIE) is a proposed two-element radio interferometer, based on proven and developed digital radio receivers and designed to fit within a Cubesat platform. CURIE will launch as a 6U Cubesat and then separate into two 3U Cubesats once in orbit. CURIE measures radio waves from 0.1-19MHz, which must be measured from space, as those frequencies fall below the cutoff imposed by Earth's ionosphere. The principal science objective for CURIE is to use radio interferometry to study radio burst emissions from solar eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere, providing observations important for our understanding of the heliospheric space weather environment. The influence of space weather can be felt at Earth and other planets, as radiation levels increase and lead to auroral activity and geomagnetic effects. CURIE will be able to determine the location and size of radio burst source regions and then to track their movement outward from the Sun. In addition to the primary objective CURIE will measure the gradients of the local ionospheric density and electron temperature on the spatial scale of a few kilometers, as well as create an improved map of the radio sky at these unexplored frequencies. A space based radio interferometry observatory has long been envisioned, in orbit around the Earth or the Moon, or on the far side of the Moon. Beyond its important science objectives, CURIE will prove that the concept of a dedicated space-based interferometer can be realized by using relatively cheap Cubesats. CURIE will therefore not only provide new important science results but also serve as a pathfinder in the development of new space-based radio observation techniques for helio- and astro-physics.

  3. Perspectives on Einstein's scientific works in Milan

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Milanese period in Albert Einstein's life is a key one for the understanding of the development of his scientific questioning. While being a student in Z\\"urich from 1896, Einstein returned regularly to Milan to meet his family for the holidays. There, he could work on the most recent articles in physics at the rich library of the Lombardo Institute, Academy of Sciences and Letters. Hopefully, this new perspective will help to trace back more accurately a few of Einstein's scientific ideas, such as the need to expand his first doctoral work on molecular forces to weakly compressed gases or as to conceive a first idea of light quanta.

  4. The Victorian and Albert Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿一铭

    2006-01-01

    London is famous for its museums—the British Museum,the Science Museum,and many more.One of the earliest museums in London is the Victorian and Albert Museum, named after Queen Victoria and her husband

  5. [Albert Bandura and his work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrin, Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    The Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (1925) author of the concept of self-efficacy is still not much known of nurses. This article offers an outline of his biography and his work. Theories of Albert Bandura provide a positive, dynamic relationship with the agentivity human control over events that affect their existence. The concept of vicarious learning, self-efficacy and agency can enrich nursing research.

  6. Einstein's daughter the search for Lieserl

    CERN Document Server

    Zackheim, Michele

    1999-01-01

    A thoroughly gripping and groundbreaking investigation into the mysterious fate of Albert Einstein's illegitimate daughter. Albert Einstein fell in love with Mileva Maric, the woman who would become his first wife, when they were students at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute. When Maric conceived a child out of wedlock, she went home to her family in Serbia to have the child. Lieserl Maric Einstein was born in 1902. Though Einstein and Maric married the following year, Lieserl was left in the care of her grandparents and never became a part of the Einstein family. In fact, her very existence was unknown until the recent discovery of a cache of letters between Einstein and Maric. The final reference to Lieserl comes in a September 1903 letter, when, at the age of approximately eighteen months, she simply disappears. What happened to Einstein's daughter is the most potent mystery to emerge from the mythology that surrounds one of the century's legendary figures, owing in large part to the careful and apparent...

  7. Einstein against quantum mechanics: randomness, ignorance and our ignorance about randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Paz, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein made fundamental contributions to the development of quantum mechanics. However, he was never satisfied with the quantum worldview. In fact, during most of his life he attempted to find inconsistencies and paradoxes within quantum mechanics. His famous quote "God does not play dice" shows how disturbing was to Einstein one of the most important aspects of quantum mechanics: non-determinism. In this paper we will present the basic concepts of quantum mechanics, we will describe Einstein's attempts to destroy it and we will discuss why we can nowadays state that, in this regard, Albert Einstein was not right.

  8. Albert Camus, un perfil personal Albert Camus, a personal profile Albert Camus, un perfil personal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Octavi Fullat

    2011-01-01

    .... ______________________________________________ Dans ce travail, le professeur Octavi Fullat (1928) offre un profil d’Albert Camus, auteur qu’il a découvert au cours d’un voyage à Paris et sur lequel...

  9. Rediscovering Einstein's legacy: How Einstein anticipates Kuhn and Feyerabend on the nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberheim, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend promote incommensurability as a central component of their conflicting accounts of the nature of science. This paper argues that in so doing, they both develop Albert Einstein's views, albeit in different directions. Einstein describes scientific revolutions as conceptual replacements, not mere revisions, endorsing 'Kant-on-wheels' metaphysics in light of 'world change'. Einstein emphasizes underdetermination of theory by evidence, rational disagreement in theory choice, and the non-neutrality of empirical evidence. Einstein even uses the term 'incommensurable' specifically to apply to challenges posed to comparatively evaluating scientific theories in 1949, more than a decade before Kuhn and Feyerabend. This analysis shows how Einstein anticipates substantial components of Kuhn and Feyerabend's views, and suggests that there are strong reasons to suspect that Kuhn and Feyerabend were directly inspired by Einstein's use of the term 'incommensurable', as well as his more general methodological and philosophical reflections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A student's guide to Einstein's major papers

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...

  11. Afanassjewa en Einstein. Wederzijdse waardering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet van der Heijden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Afanassjewa and EinsteinIn 1912 Tatiana Afanassjewa (1876–1964, a Russian mathematician, arrived in Leiden. The university in this city had an amazingly flourishing physics department. Afanassjewa accompanied her husband Paul Ehrenfest (1880–1933, a theoretical physicist from Vienna, who was to become successor to the famous professor Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. Soon the couple’s house became a regular meeting place for Dutch mathematicians and physicists, and a temporary home for many learned guests from all over the world. Among them was Albert Einstein, a close friend of Ehrenfest, with whom he shared a passion for physics and music. This paper recapitulates their friendship and includes new details about Afanassjewa, who was to initiate a fierce debate on the didactics of mathematics in The Netherlands and whose sharp and analytical mind made an impression on Einstein. Both the Ehrenfest-Afanassjewa couple and Einstein had a vivid interest in international relations and, the role of science therein. Afanassjewa and Einstein stayed in touch through letters and cards after Ehrenfest’s untimely death in 1933, the year when Hitler rose to power in Germany and Einstein moved to the United States.

  12. Einstein His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on the World

    CERN Document Server

    Sessler, Andrew M

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).

  13. Albert Camus” / “Albert Camus”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hopenhayn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the death of Albert Camus, occurred on January 4th 1960 because of a car accident, the author writes the following short-text, where he relates the event to others suggesting possible and curious coincidences.

  14. 76 FR 11789 - Albert Poet: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Albert Poet: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Albert Poet, MD from...), finds that Albert Poet has been convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to...

  15. Einstein on Race and Racism

    CERN Document Server

    Jerome, Fred

    2005-01-01

    Nearly fifty years after his death, Albert Einstein remains one of America's foremost cultural icons. A thicket of materials, ranging from scholarly to popular, have been written, compiled, produced, and published about his life and his teachings. Among the ocean of Einsteinia-scientific monographs, biographies, anthologies, bibliographies, calendars, postcards, posters, and Hollywood films-however, there is a peculiar void when it comes to the connection that the brilliant scientist had with the African American community. Nowhere is there any mention of his close relationship with Pa

  16. On the role of the Michelson–Morley experiment: Einstein in Chicago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses new material, published in volume 12 of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, that addresses Einstein’s knowledge of the Michelson–Morley experiment prior to 1905: in a lecture in Chicago in 1921, Einstein referred to the experiment, mentioned when he came upon it and hinte

  17. Gravity before Einstein and Schwinger before gravity1

    OpenAIRE

    Trimble, V

    2014-01-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought that gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity, which was highlighted at the June 2012 meeting of the American Astronomical Society, the first such dispute. Explored here are several views of what gravity is supposed to do: action at a distance versus ...

  18. Centenarian Einstein

    CERN Multimedia

    Weisskopf,V; Fubini,S; Berob

    1979-01-01

    Commémoration de A.Einstein avec 4 orateurs pour honnorer sa mémoire: le prof.Weisskopf parlera de l'homme de science engagé, Daniel Amati du climat de la physique aux années 1920, Sergio Fubini de l'heure scientifique d'A.Einstein et le prof.Berob(?)

  19. Einstein on Race and Racism, presented by Fred Jerome and Rodger Taylor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger

    2007-10-01

    It is little-known that physicist Albert Einstein strongly held the view that ``Racism is America's worst disease.'' Einstein was active in the fight against racism from the 1930's until his death in 1955. Included among his friends were a number of important Afro-American figures, including the educator W.E.B. DuBois, the actor and basso profundo singer Paul Robeson, and the soprano Marian Anderson. Based on the authors' work ``Einstein on Race and Racism.''

  20. PEMIKIRAN PENDIDIKAN MORAL ALBERT BANDURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumruin Nurul Laila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albert Bandura dilahirkan pada tanggal 4 Desember 1925 di Mundare, sebuah kota kecil di barat daya Alberta, Kanada, sekitar 50 mil sebelah timur Edmonton. Berasal dari keluarga keturunan Eropa Timur. Ayahnya dari Krakow Polandia dan ibunya dari Ukraina. Pada tahun 1952 Albert Bandura menikah dengan Virginia Varns dan dikaruniai dua orang anak, Mary dan Carol. Bandura belajar bersama Robert Sears, salah satu perintis teori belajar sosial lainnya dan mengambil gelar diplomanya dari University of British Columbia dan gelar kesarjanaan psikologinya dari University of Iowa. Karena reputasinya, pada tahun 1974 dia dipercaya menjabat sebagai Presiden Asosiasi Psikologi Amerika (APA. Sebagai ahli dibidang psikologi, dia percaya bahwa proses transfer keilmuan atau pendidikan, tak lepas dari norma-norma moral yang berlaku di masyarakat hingga nilai-nilai dari norma tersebut diejawantahkan dalam prilaku siswa sehari-hari. Atas dasar asumsi tersebut, maka teori pembelajaran Albert Bandura disebut sosial kognitif karena proses kognitif dalam diri individu memegang peranan dalam pembelajaran, sedangkan pembelajaran terjadi karena adanya pengaruh lingkungan sosial. Proses tahapan-tahapan dalam pembelajaran social kognitif meliputi: Tahap perhatian (attentional phase, Tahap penyimpanan dalam ingatan (retention phase, Tahap reproduksi (reproduction phase dan tahap motivasi (motivation phase. Teori pembelajaran sosial ini menekankan kepada proses bagaimana anak-anak belajar norma-norma kemasyarakatan. Jika pesan yang disampaikan bersifat positif, anak-anak menerimanya dengan baik dan pengaruh lainnya adalah sama positifnya, maka anak itu akan cenderung untuk membesar dengan nilai-nilai yang baik. Begitu juga sebaliknya.

  1. Einstein's physics atoms, quanta, and relativity : derived, explained, and appraised

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ta-Pei

    2013-01-01

    Many regard Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist since Newton. What exactly did he do that is so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate physics student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Einstein's doctoral thesis and his Brownian motion paper were decisive contributions to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms. Einstein was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory: his photon proposal through the investigation of blackbody radiation, his quantum theory of photoelectri

  2. Marie Curie during ORT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Marie Curie rover drives down the rear ramp during Operational Readiness Test (ORT) 4.Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over thenext ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  3. Marie Curie during ORT6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Marie Curie sits on the lander petal prior to deployment during the pre launch Operations Readiness Test (ORT) 6.Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over thenext ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  4. Celebrating Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.

  5. Einstein's Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Norsen, T

    2005-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the existing literature; analyze and assess it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem; and generally lobby for Einstein's Boxes taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better-known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schroedinger's Cat.

  6. CURIE-TEMPERATURE "SLATER-PAULING CURVE"

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi, Y.; Hosohata, O.

    1988-01-01

    The systematic variation of the Curie-temperature "Slater-Pauling curve" has been explained for the first time on the basis of the finite-temperature theory of the local environment effect. The peculiarity of the Curie temperatures in Fe-V, Fe-Ni, and Ni-Mn alloys is elucidated by using the effective exchange couplings.

  7. How Einstein Got His Field Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We study the pages in Albert Einstein's 1916 landmark paper in the Annalen der Physik where he derived his field equations for gravity. Einstein made two heuristic and physically insightful steps. The first was to obtain the field equations in vacuum in a rather geometric fashion. The second step was obtaining the field equations in the presence of matter from the field equations in vacuum. (This transition is an essential principle in physics, much as the principle of local gauge invariance in quantum field theory.) To this end, we go over some quick differential geometric background related to curvilinear coordinates, vectors, tensors, metric tensor, Christoffel symbols, Riemann curvature tensor, Ricci tensor, and see how Einstein used geometry to model gravity.

  8. Radium, Marie Curie and modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin-Joliot, H

    1998-11-01

    In 1898, the discovery of two new elements, polonium and radium, reawakened interest in the topic of uranic rays discovered 2 years before by H. Becquerel. Radioactivity, a name coined by Marie Curie, became a major research field for decades. The contrasting personalities of Pierre Curie, already a first-rank physicist, and of the young Marie Curie-Sklodowska as they undertook their common work are described. It is shown how a well-chosen quantitative method and a systematic approach combining physics and chemistry led to the discovery within less than 1 year. The special role of radium and the determination of its atomic weight by Marie Curie followed by her long-term program for accumulating pure radium salts are emphasized. The first woman with a full professorship at a French University, Marie Curie created and managed the Radium Institute.

  9. Tribute: Remembering Albert Greve (1938-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Jaap

    2012-02-01

    With the sudden death of Albert Greve on 13 June 2011, caused by a massive heart attack, the radio astronomy community lost a remarkable member, and many of us a very good friend. The career of Albert was characterized by a broad array of activities, all performed at a high level of professionalism and an enduring wit.

  10. Albert Camus, un perfil personal Albert Camus, a personal profile Albert Camus, un perfil personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavi Fullat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En aquest treball se’ns ofereix un perfil d’Albert Camus (1913-1960, que el qui signa va descobrir en un viatge a París i sobre el qual va elaborar la seva tesi doctoral defensada a la Universitat de Barcelona el 1961. Es tracta d’una reflexió personal que repassa els anys de formació, tot situant la personalitat de Camus com un referent de primer ordre en el seu univers intel·lectual. ______________________________________________ Dans ce travail, le professeur Octavi Fullat (1928 offre un profil d’Albert Camus, auteur qu’il a découvert au cours d’un voyage à Paris et sur lequel il a élaboré sa thèse de doctorat soutenue à l’Université de Barcelone en 1961. Il s’agit d’une réflexion personnelle dans laquelle l’auteur repasse ses années de formation, tout en situant la personnalité de Camus comme une référence de premier ordre dans son univers intellectuel.In this work, Professor Octavi Fullat (1928 offers us a profile of Albert Camus, the author he discovered on a trip to Paris and on whom he wrote his doctoral thesis, which he defended in the University of Barcelona in 1961. It is a personal view in which the author reviews his early years, while placing the character of Camus as a primary reference in his intellectual universe.En este trabajo el profesor Octavi Fullat (1928 nos ofrece un perfil de Albert Camus, autor que descubrió en un viaje a París y sobre el cual elaboró su tesis doctoral defendida en la Universitat de Barcelona en el año 1961. Se trata de una reflexión personal en la que el autor repasa sus años de formación, situando la personalidad de Camus como un referente de primer orden en su universo intelectual.

  11. A Note On Einstein, Bergmann, and the Fifth Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Edward

    2014-01-01

    This note is devoted to a detail concerning the work of Albert Einstein and Peter Bergmann on unified theories of electromagnetism and gravitation in five dimensions. In their paper of 1938, Einstein and Bergmann were among the first to introduce the modern viewpoint in which a four-dimensional theory that coincides with Einstein-Maxwell theory at long distances is derived from a five-dimensional theory with complete symmetry among all five dimensions. But then they drew back, modifying the theory in a way that spoiled the five-dimensional symmetry and looks contrived to modern readers. Why? According to correspondence of Peter Bergmann with the author, the reason was that the more symmetric version of the theory predicts the existence of a new long range field (a massless scalar field). In 1938, Einstein and Bergmann did not wish to make this prediction. (Based on a lecture at the Einstein Centennial Celebration at the Library of Alexandria, June, 2005.

  12. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  13. Einstein before Israel Zionist icon or iconoclast?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenkranz, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Albert Einstein was initially skeptical and even disdainful of the Zionist movement, yet he affiliated himself with this controversial political ideology and today is widely seen as an outspoken advocate for a modern Jewish homeland in Palestine. What enticed this renowned scientist and humanitarian, who repeatedly condemned nationalism of all forms, to radically change his views? Was he in fact a Zionist? Einstein Before Israel traces Einstein's involvement with Zionism from his initial contacts with the movement at the end of World War I to his emigration from Germany in 1933 in the wake of Hitler's rise to power. Drawing on a wealth of rare archival evidence--much of it never before published--this book offers the most nuanced picture yet of Einstein's complex and sometimes stormy relationship with Jewish nationalism. Ze'ev Rosenkranz sheds new light on Einstein's encounters with prominent Zionist leaders, and reveals exactly what Einstein did and didn't like about Zionist beliefs, objectives, and methods...

  14. ...und Einstein hatte doch recht

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford M.; Leuchs, Anne; Leuchs, Gerd

    Keine wissenschaftliche Theorie ist auf solche Faszination auch außerhalb der Wissenschaft gestoßen wie die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie von Albert Einstein, und keine wurde so nachdrücklich mit den Mitteln der modernen Physik überprüft. Wie hat sie diesen Test mit Raumsonden, Radioastronomie, Atomuhren und Supercomputern standgehalten? Hatte Einstein recht? Mit der Autorität des Fachmanns und dem Flair des unvoreingenommenen Erzählers schildert Clifford Will die Menschen, Ideen und Maschinen hinter den Tests der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Ohne Formeln und Fachjargon wird der leser mit Einsteins Gedanken vertraut und erfährt von der Bestätigung seiner Vorhersagen, angefangen bei der Lichtablenkung im Schwerefeld der Sonne 1919 bis zu den ausgefeilten Kreiselexperimenten auf dem Space Shuttle. Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie hat nich nur alle diese Tests bestanden, sie hat darüber hinaus wesentlich beigetragen zu unserem Verständnis von Phänomenen wie Pulsaren, Quasaren, Schwarzen Löchern und Gravitationslinsen. Dieses Buch erzählt lebendig und spannend die Geschichte einer der größten geistigen Leistungen unserer Zeit.

  15. Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation, rather than an exploration of all possible cosmic models. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplistic relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.

  16. De Sitter en Einstein. ‘Het lijkt mij dat Einstein hier een vergissing begaan heeft’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Guichelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available De Sitter and EinsteinWillem de Sitter’s interest in gravity was based on his work on celestial mechanics, in particular on the four big moons of Jupiter. His work on cosmology was based on the general theory of relativity of Albert Einstein. De Sitter published in 1917, on request of Arthur Eddington to inform the English astronomers, a series of four articles in The Observatory and the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Einstein developed his own cosmological models, containing mass. De Sitter found a different solution and described a universe without mass. Einstein could not accept De Sitter’s model and they ‘fought out’ two controversies in their correspondence. In theend Einstein had to confess De Sitter was mainly right in his criticisms. In 1932 Einstein and De Sitter published an article on a new model, the so-called Einstein-De Sitter Model of the universe. So, De Sitter was able to do fundamental work in classical celestial mechanics as well as in the new cosmological theories.

  17. Pierre Curie: the anonymous neurosurgical contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Karen; Sabourin, Victor M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Carmel, Peter W; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    Pierre Curie, best known as a Nobel Laureate in Physics for his co-contributions to the field of radioactivity alongside research partner and wife Marie Curie, died suddenly in 1906 from a street accident in Paris. Tragically, his skull was crushed under the wheel of a horse-drawn carriage. This article attempts to honor the life and achievements of Pierre Curie, whose trailblazing work in radioactivity and piezoelectricity set into motion a wide range of technological developments that have culminated in the advent of numerous techniques used in neurological surgery today. These innovations include brachytherapy, Gamma Knife radiosurgery, focused ultrasound, and haptic feedback in robotic surgery.

  18. Correcting the record on Watson, Rayner, and Little Albert: Albert Barger as "psychology's lost boy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Russell A; Digdon, Nancy; Harris, Ben; Smithson, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    In 1920, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner attempted to condition a phobia in a young infant named "Albert B." In 2009, Beck, Levinson, and Irons proposed that Little Albert, as he is now known, was actually an infant named Douglas Merritte. More recently, Fridlund, Beck, Goldie, and Irons (2012) claimed that Little Albert (Douglas) was neurologically impaired at the time of the experiment. They also alleged that Watson, in a severe breach of ethics, probably knew of Little Albert's condition when selecting him for the study and then fraudulently hid this fact in his published accounts of the case. In this article, we present the discovery of another individual, Albert Barger, who appears to match the characteristics of Little Albert better than Douglas Merritte does. We examine the evidence for Albert Barger as having been Little Albert and, where relevant, contrast it with the evidence for Douglas Merritte. As for the allegations of fraudulent activity by Watson, we offer comments at the end of this article. We also present evidence concerning whether Little Albert (Albert Barger) grew up with the fear of furry animals, as Watson and Rayner speculated he might.

  19. Einstein's Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  20. Einstein on politics his private thoughts and public stands on nationalism, zionism, war, peace, and the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, David E; Schulmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The most famous scientist of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein was also one of the century's most outspoken political activists. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. In Einstein on Politics, leading Einstein scholars David Rowe and Robert Schulmann gather Einstein's m

  1. Einstein: His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on theWorld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.

    2005-07-30

    The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).

  2. Curie surface of Borborema Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Raphael T.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Oksum, Erdinc

    2016-06-01

    The Curie surface interpreted from magnetic data through spatial frequency domain techniques is used to provide information on the thermal structure of Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is part of the neoproterozoic collision of an orogenic system situated between the São Francisco-Congo and São Luís-West Africa cratons, which formed the Gondwana Supercontinent. The Curie surface of Borborema Province varies from 18 to 59 km, which reveals the complexity in the crustal composition of the study area. The thermal structure shows different crustal blocks separated by the main shear zones, which corroborates the evolution model of allochthonous terranes. The Curie surface signature for the west portion of Pernambuco Shear Zone may indicate processes of mantle serpentinization, once the Curie isotherm is deeper than Mohorovic discontinuity. In this region, the amplitude of Bouguer anomaly decreases, which corroborates long wavelength anomaly observed in the magnetic anomaly. We interpreted this pattern as evidence of the Brasiliano-Pan-Africano's subduction/collision event. Earthquakes in the region are concentrated mainly in shallow Curie surface regions (less resistant crust) and in transition zones between warm and cold blocks. We calculated the horizontal gradient of the Curie depth to emphasize the signature of contact between the thermal blocks. These regions mark possible crustal discontinuities, and have high correlation with orogenic gold occurrence in the study area.

  3. Obituary: Albert G. Petschek, 1928-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Libersky, Larry D.

    2005-12-01

    Albert G. Petschek died suddenly 8 July 2004. He enjoyed good health and was very active professionally and personally until his death. He was highly respected, particularly in theoretical physics, for his deep, broad-ranging analytical powers, which resulted in contributions to nuclear physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing. Albert was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1928. His extended family left Czechoslovakia when its sovereignty was threatened by Germany in 1938 and settled throughout the Western Hemisphere. Albert's father, a banker, settled in Scarsdale, near New York City. Albert graduated from White Plains High School and obtained his BS from MIT in a program accelerated during World War II. While getting his masters degree at the University of Michigan, Albert met his wife, Marilyn, also a physics masters student. In 1953, Albert obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester working with Robert Marshak on aspects of nuclear theory, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Albert's younger brother, Harry, also became a PhD physicist. Harry is now well known in plasma physics for reconnection theory. At Los Alamos, Albert worked closely with Carson Mark, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Conrad Longmire designing the first thermonuclear weapons. His derivation of several radiation diffusion solutions, later published as LAMS 2421, remains a classic in its field, as does work on nuclear theory done with Baird Brandow and Hans Bethe during a sabbatical at Cornell in 1961. Bethe was a frequent visitor to Los Alamos and a close friend. A devoted family man, Albert also valued Los Alamos as a safe, stimulating environment for raising an active family. Like many of the scientists at Los Alamos, Albert enjoyed its ready access to outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing. Albert often combined his passions for intellectual activity and the outdoors

  4. Albert Camus´ "Katk" / Ott Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojamaa, Ott, 1926-1996

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Katk : romaan / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Henno Rajandi ; eessõna: Ott Ojamaa. Tallinn : Ajalehtede-Ajakirjade Kirjastus, 1963. (Loomingu raamatukogu ; 1963, 43/46 (311/314))

  5. Albert Camus´ "Katk" / Ott Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojamaa, Ott, 1926-1996

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Katk : romaan / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Henno Rajandi ; eessõna: Ott Ojamaa. Tallinn : Ajalehtede-Ajakirjade Kirjastus, 1963. (Loomingu raamatukogu ; 1963, 43/46 (311/314))

  6. Memorial: Albert O. Brecht (1946-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Robert K.; Nelson, Dorothy W.; Ross, Amy A.; Gasaway, Laura N.; Aranas, Pauline M.

    2012-01-01

    Albert Brecht was born in Dallas, Texas, in 1946. He attended the University of North Texas, where he had a double major in government and sociology. His interest in government led him to the University of Houston College of Law. It was there that Albert found his calling in life. He worked part-time as a student assistant in the law library. After graduating from Houston, he enrolled in the Master of Law Librarianship program at the University of Washington.

  7. Einstein, la luz, el espacio-tiempo y los cuantos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Barbero G., J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of light, its nature and properties was a central topic in the works of Albert Einstein. This paper discusses the role of light in the formulation of special relativity, in particular as a tool to provide operational definitions of the basic kinematic concepts. It also discusses the role of light in understanding general relativity and ends by briefly considering its quantum behaviour.El estudio de la luz, su naturaleza y sus propiedades ocupó un lugar central en los trabajos de Albert Einstein. En este artículo se discute el papel de la luz en la formulación de la relatividad especial, en particular como instrumento para la definición operacional de las magnitudes cinemáticas básicas, se muestra su importancia para la comprensión de la relatividad general y, por último, se considera brevemente su comportamiento cuántico.

  8. Relativity and Gravitation : 100 Years After Einstein in Prague

    CERN Document Server

    Ledvinka, Tomáš; General Relativity, Cosmology and Astrophysics : Perspectives 100 Years After Einstein's Stay in Prague

    2014-01-01

    In early April 1911 Albert Einstein arrived in Prague to become full professor of theoretical physics at the German part of Charles University. It was there, for the first time, that he concentrated primarily on the problem of gravitation. Before he left Prague in July 1912 he had submitted the paper “Relativität und Gravitation: Erwiderung auf eine Bemerkung von M. Abraham” in which he remarkably anticipated what a future theory of gravity should look like. At the occasion of the Einstein-in-Prague centenary an international meeting was organized under a title inspired by Einstein's last paper from the Prague period: "Relativity and Gravitation, 100 Years after Einstein in Prague". The main topics of the conference included: classical relativity, numerical relativity, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology, quantum gravity, experimental aspects of gravitation, and conceptual and historical issues. The conference attracted over 200 scientists from 31 countries, among them a number of leading experts in ...

  9. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2004-01-01

    Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie

  10. Einstein against quantum mechanics: randomness, ignorance and our ignorance about randomness

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein made fundamental contributions to the development of quantum mechanics. However, he was never satisfied with the quantum worldview. In fact, during most of his life he attempted to find inconsistencies and paradoxes within quantum mechanics. His famous quote "God does not play dice" shows how disturbing was to Einstein one of the most important aspects of quantum mechanics: non-determinism. In this paper we will present the basic concepts of quantum mechanics, we will describe...

  11. From Newton to Einstein: the birth of Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Physics was in crisis at the beginning of the twentieth century because the newborn Maxwell's electromagnetism defied mechanistic preconceptions. Albert Einstein understood that the solution to the crisis required an audacious reworking of the concepts of space and time. Special Relativity deeply modified our way of regarding space and time, in order to harmonize electromagnetism with the principle of relativity. As a consequence, lengths and elapsed times were stripped of the invariant character that classical Physics conferred them; in their place, the speed of light acquired that privileged status. Such revolutionary change forced Einstein to reformulate Newtonian mechanics, a step that led him to discover the mass-energy equivalence.

  12. Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H.

    2005-05-01

    The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.

  13. How were the Hilbert-Einstein equations discovered?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logunov, Anatolii A; Mestvirishvili, Mirian A; Petrov, Vladimir A [State Research Center ' Institute of High Energy Physics' , Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-30

    The ways in which Albert Einstein and David Hilbert independently arrived at the gravitational field equations are traced. A critical analysis is presented of a number of papers in which the history of the derivation of the equations is viewed in a way that 'radically differs from the standard point of view'. The conclusions of these papers are shown to be totally unfounded. (from the history of physics)

  14. Einstein's strugges with quantum theory a reappraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Home, Dipankar

    2007-01-01

    Einstein’s Struggles with Quantum Theory: A Reappraisal by Dipankar Home and Andrew Whitaker provides a detailed account of Albert Einstein’s thinking in regard to quantum physics. Until recently, most of Einstein’s views on quantum physics were dismissed and even ridiculed; some critics even suggested that Einstein was not able to grasp the complexities of the formalism of quantum theory and subtleties of the standard interpretation of this theory known as the Copenhagen interpretation put forward by Niels Bohr and his colleagues. But was that true? Modern scholarship argues otherwise, insist Drs. Home and Whitaker, who painstakingly explain the questions Einstein raised as well as offer a detailed discussion of Einstein’s position and major contributions to quantum theory, connecting them with contemporary studies on fundamental aspects of this theory. This unique book presents a mathematical as well as a non-mathematical route through the theories, controversies, and investigations, making the disc...

  15. Einstein spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Aleksej Z

    1969-01-01

    Einstein Spaces presents the mathematical basis of the theory of gravitation and discusses the various spaces that form the basis of the theory of relativity. This book examines the contemporary development of the theory of relativity, leading to the study of such problems as gravitational radiation, the interaction of fields, and the behavior of elementary particles in a gravitational field. Organized into nine chapters, this book starts with an overview of the principles of the special theory of relativity, with emphasis on the mathematical aspects. This text then discusses the need for a ge

  16. Einstein solvmanifolds with a simple Einstein derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolayevsky, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a solvable Lie groups admitting an Einstein left-invariant metric is, in a sense, completely determined by the nilradical of its Lie algebra. We give an easy-to-check necessary and sufficient condition for a nilpotent algebra to be an Einstein nilradical whose Einstein derivation has simple eigenvalues. As an application, we classify filiform Einstein nilradicals (modulo known classification results on filiform graded Lie algebras).

  17. Gravity Probe B: Examining Einstein's Spacetime with Gyroscopes. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Space Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Shannon K'doah; Mullins, Jennifer

    This teaching guide introduces a relativity gyroscope experiment aiming to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. An introduction to the theory includes the following sections: (1) "Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, and Frame-Dragging"; (2) "'Seeing' Spacetime with Gyroscopes"; (3)…

  18. Women who Worked with Marie Curie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeard-Micault, Natalie

    2015-06-01

    Marie Curie directed a research laboratory for 28 years. Between 1906 and 1934, forty five women worked under her guidance. Some were, and are, well-known in their own countries as their first woman full professor such as Ellen Gleditsch or Margaret von Wrangel, but for twenty eight of them, who were often French, nothing has ever been written. The strong presence of women in Marie Curie's laboratory has often been highlighted and has been considered as an exception, and the result of deliberate choice. Of course, these women did not choose this workplace by accident. They knew its director was a woman, a laureate of one, and after 1911, two Nobel Prizes, who was leading a well-equipped laboratory with an important radioactive source. But how did Marie Curie selected her collaborators among the many applications she received? Was her choice influenced by gender? A prosopographical research based on genealogical researches and new sources explains this presence contextually and sheds light on several questions : where did these women come from, what were their social and geographic origins, did they occupy any specific cultural or technical area inside Curie's lab, what future did they have after the laboratory? Through their lives, we can question the existence, or not, of a one profile of the female researcher in scientific areas in France.

  19. The formative years of relativity the history and meaning of Einstein's Princeton lectures : featuring Einstein's classic text The meaning of relativity in its historical context

    CERN Document Server

    Gutfreund, Hanoch

    2017-01-01

    First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein's The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, The Formative Years of Relativity introduces Einstein's masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein's insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jurgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein's achievements into a broader context for all readers. In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein's ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity's meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of it...

  20. 76 FR 66072 - Albert Ronald Cioffi: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Albert Ronald Cioffi: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring Albert Cioffi, MD for 5 years from... to him (Staff Manual Guide 1410.35), finds that Albert R. Cioffi has been convicted of a...

  1. Einstein's opponents the public controversy about the theory of relativity in the 1920s

    CERN Document Server

    Wazeck, Milena

    2014-01-01

    This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.

  2. Communicating the Heisenberg uncertainty relations: Niels Bohr, Complementarity and the Einstein-Rupp experiments

    CERN Document Server

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein-Rupp experiments have been unduly neglected in the history of quantum mechanics. While this is to be explained by the fact that Emil Rupp was later exposed as a fraud and had fabricated the results, it is not justified, due to the importance attached to the experiments at the time. This paper discusses Rupp's fraud, the relation between Albert Einstein and Rupp, and the Einstein-Rupp experiments, and argues that these experiments were an influence on Niels Bohr's development of complementarity and Werner Heisenberg's formulation of the uncertainty relations.

  3. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    CERN Document Server

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein's steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold and consider the reasons Einstein abandoned his model. The relevance of steady-state models for today's cosmology is briefly reviewed.

  4. Marie Curie: In the Laboratory and on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    This year is the centennial of the Nobel Prize in Physics shared by Henri Becquerel and the Curies for their pioneering work on radioactivity. But Marie Curie's contribution to the medical use of x rays is not widely known.

  5. Einstein's Annalen Papers: The Complete Collection 1901 - 1922

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2005-05-01

    In 1905, Einstein's Annus Mirabilis, Albert Einstein made three discoveries concerning the foundations of nature which form the basis of his fame as a physicist. These revolutionary papers on the light-quantum hypothesis, Brownian motion, and special relativity, were published in the journal "Annalen der Physik". All three are now established as pillars of modern science and its applications in technology and are an indispensable part of the modern world. This volume presents some of the most significant original papers which Albert Einstein ever wrote. It includes the facsimiles of the three revolutionary papers of 1905. In addition it contains papers which show the consequences of the ground-breaking ideas of these seminal papers from E=mc² to the quantum theory of specific heats. It also features Einstein's first exposition of his new general theory of relativity. Introducing the original German papers the science historians Jürgen Renn (MPI for the History of Science, Berlin), David C. Cassidy (Hofstra University, Hempstead), Michel Janssen (University of Minnesota), and Robert Rynasiewicz (John Hopkins University) complement and comment the collection with topical articles.

  6. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  7. Human Dynamics: The Correspondence Patterns of Darwin and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J G

    2005-01-01

    While living in different historical era, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were both prolific correspondents: Darwin sent (received) at least 7,591 (6,530) letters during his lifetime while Einstein sent (received) over 14,500 (16,200). Before email scientists were part of an extensive university of letters, the main venue for exchanging new ideas and results. But were the communication patterns of the pre-email times any different from the current era of instant access? Here we show that while the means have changed, the communication dynamics has not: Darwin's and Einstein's pattern of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. Their communication belongs, however, to a different universality class from email communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena capturing human dynamics.

  8. The "inedito" of Einstein and his 1925 visit to Buenos Aires

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    In an article published by Mauricio Nirenstein in 1925, a few months after the visit of Albert Einstein to Argentina, the author wrote various comments and references relative to the scientist's visit. In particular, Nirenstein mentioned a personal conversation he had with Einstein in which the sage expressed many interesting ideas on the epistemology of physical sciences. In a note to that article, it was indicated that Einstein would have left in the hands of Nirenstein some notes of a speech he wanted to deliver at the University of Buenos Aires. From 1931 onwards there appeared in a few journals of this city, different versions of what became known as the "inedito" of Einstein. In this paper we discuss both the facts and the individuals. We analyse briefly the "inedito" and we compare it with the two introductory lectures Einstein delivered at the University of Buenos Aires and at the Faculty of Science.

  9. Einstein's aborted attempt at a dynamic steady-state universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In June 1930 Einstein visited Cambridge where he stayed with Eddington who had just shown that Einstein's supposedly static universe of 1917 was not stable. This forced Einstein to rethink his cosmology. He spent January and February 1931 at Pasadena. There, he discussed cosmology intensely with Tolman, conscious that he had to replace his original model of 1917. However, at the end of February he still had not made up his mind about an alternative. The Albert Einstein Archives of Jerusalem (AEA) hold an undated draft, handwritten by Einstein, which I date to the beginning of January 1931. In this draft Einstein hopes to have found a solution to the cosmological problem: a stationary, dynamic universe in expansion. His model was stationary because particles leaving a given volume were replaced by particles created out of the vacuum, anticipating an idea of Bondi, Gold and Hoyle published in 1948. He saw the cosmological term as energy reservoir. However, he realised that his calculations contained a numerical...

  10. Marie and Pierre Curie. Life in extremes; Marie and Pierre Curie. Leben in Extremen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roethlein, Brigitte

    2008-07-01

    In Paris in 1894, two young physicists fall in love: Marie Sklodowska and Pierre Curie. They get married and make great contributions to science, research radioactivity and discover new chemical elements. The marriage of Marie and Pierre Curie is quite modern: They work together as equals, share their thoughts and pursue their plans together as partners. They share an absolute interest in science, a love of nature, and a sceptic attitude towards the sophisticated society of the Belle Epoque. They are together 24 hours a day with hardly ever any disagreement. Whenever one of them is ill - which is quite often because of the high level of radioactivity in their laboratory -, the other will nurse him or her. After only twelve years of mutual love, Pierre Curie dies. Marie raises their two daughters on her own and continues her research. In 1911, she will be the first scientist that ever gets a second Nobel Prize. (orig.) [German] Im Paris des Jahres 1894 verlieben sich zwei junge Physiker: Marie Sklodowska und Pierre Curie. Sie heiraten und leisten gemeinsam Grosses fuer die Wissenschaft, erforschen die Radioaktivitaet und entdecken neue chemische Elemente. Zusammen erhalten sie den Nobelpreis. Marie und Pierre Curie fuehren eine Ehe, die ihrer Zeit weit voraus ist: Sie arbeiten gleichberechtigt miteinander, teilen ihre Gedanken und verfolgen ihre Plaene gemeinsam. Beiden eigen ist die absolute wissenschaftliche Neugier, die Liebe zur Natur und die Skepsis gegenueber der mondaenen Gesellschaft der Belle Epoque. Fast jeden Tag sind sie rund um die Uhr zusammen, dabei gibt es selten Spannungen. Wenn einer von beiden gesundheitliche Probleme hat - und das haben sie wegen der radioaktiven Belastung im Labor oft - ist der andere fuer ihn da und pflegt ihn. Nach nur zwoelf gemeinsamen Jahren der Liebe und Arbeit stirbt Pierre Curie. Marie zieht ihre beiden Toechter alleine gross und fuehrt die Forschungen weiter. 1911 erhaelt sie als erster Mensch zum zweiten Mal den

  11. El destino del asteroide Albert (719)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, R. B.; Melita, M. D.; Brunini, A.

    Albert is the only numbered asteroid that remains lost at present. This object has been discovered while it was making a close apporach to the Earth by Johann Palisa in the Imperial Observatory of Vienna. According to the standard procedure of the time, a number was assigned to it shortly after a preliminar orbit has been obtained and it was named after a great benefactor of Imperial Observatory, Baron Albert von Rothschild. In this work we analyze why this body could not be recovered in its subsequent approaches to the Earth. Basicaly the cause of the loss can be summarized as follows. Given the high absolute magnitude of the object it can only be observed when it is close to the Earth. But naturally, at the close approches, the uncertanty in the position in the celestial sphere is the greatest due to a parallax effect. We have estimated the uncertanty in R.A. and declination by the non-linear propagation of the initial obervational uncertanty. We have determined that, when the aparent magnitude was low enough to observe the object with the instruments available at the time, the uncertainty region exceeded noticeably the region where it was searched. Regarding its possible recovery at present, the uncertainty in its position practicaly covers the whole sky. Nevertheless, the plane of the orbit is bounded in a narrow strip for a considerable length of time, which makes its recovery posible in old plates. The causes of the loss of Albert (719) are common to all NEO's, which is distintive about it is that it was numbered after just a few obervations, while at present the standard procedure requires that the orbit should be very well established before a denomination is given. Given the almost imposibility of its systematic recovery, in the future Albert (719) might be the first asteroid whose denomination is reassigned to another object.

  12. Marie Curie's contribution to Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Claude, Rosenwald; Nüsslin, Fridtjof

    2013-09-01

    On occasion of its 50th anniversary, the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) from now on is going to celebrate annually an International Day of Medical Physics for which the 7th November, the birthday of Marie Sklodowska Curie, a most exceptional character in science at all and a pioneer of medical physics, has been chosen. This article briefly outlines her outstanding personality, sketches her fundamental discovery of radioactivity and emphasizes the impact of her various achievements on the development of medical physics at large.

  13. Einstein today; Einstein aujourd'hui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspect, A.; Grangier, Ph. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique a Orsay, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouchet, F.R. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 75 - Paris (France); Brunet, E.; Derrida, B. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France); Cohen-Tannoudji, C. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France); Dalibard, J.; Laloe, F. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel. UMR 8552 (ENS, UPMC, CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Damour, Th. [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 91 - Bures sur Yvette (France); Darrigol, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Groupe Histoire des Sciences Rehseis, 75 - Paris (France); Pocholle, J.P. [Thales Research et Technology France, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2005-07-01

    The most important contributions of Einstein involve 5 fields of physics : the existence of quanta (light quanta, stimulated radiation emission and Bose-Einstein condensation), relativity, fluctuations (Brownian motion and thermodynamical fluctuations), the basis of quantum physics and cosmology (cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe). Diverse and renowned physicists have appreciated the development of modern physics from Einstein's ideas to the knowledge of today. This book is a collective book that gathers their work under 7 chapters: 1) 1905, a new beginning; 2) from the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen's article to quantum information (cryptography and quantum computers); 3) the Bose-Einstein condensation in gases; 4) from stimulated emission to the today's lasers; 5) Brownian motion and the fluctuation-dissipation theory; 6) general relativity; and 7) cosmology. (A.C.)

  14. Einstein, Picasso --Science, Art%爱因斯坦、毕加索,科学、艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.I.米勒

    2005-01-01

    @@ That Maxwell' s electrodynamics the way in which it is usually understood leads to asymmetries that do not appear in the phenomena is well known. Albert Einstein The painter' s studio should be a laboratory. There one does not make art in the manner of a monkey, one invents. Painting is a play of the mind.

  15. Einstein was right!

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Karl

    2014-01-01

    All modern books on Einstein emphasize the genius of his relativity theory and the corresponding corrections and extensions of the ancient space-time concept. However, Einstein's opposition to the use of probability in the laws of nature and particularly in the laws of quantum mechanics is criticized and often portrayed as outdated. The author of Einstein Was Right! takes a unique view and shows that Einstein created a ""Trojan horse"" ready to unleash forces against the use of probability as a basis for the laws of nature. Einstein warned that the use of probability would, in the final analys

  16. Einstein solvmanifolds and the pre-Einstein derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolayevsky, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An Einstein nilradical is a nilpotent Lie algebra, which can be the nilradical of a metric Einstein solvable Lie algebra. The classification of Riemannian Einstein solvmanifolds (possibly, of all noncompact homogeneous Einstein spaces) can be reduced to determining, which nilpotent Lie algebras are Einstein nilradicals and to finding, for every Einstein nilradical, its Einstein metric solvable extension. For every nilpotent Lie algebra, we construct an (essentially unique) derivation, the pre...

  17. The life and legacy of Marie Curie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Marie Curie was a remarkable woman whose discoveries broke new ground in physics and chemistry and also opened the door for advances in engineering, biology, and medicine. She broke new ground for women in science: she was, for example, the first woman to receive a doctor of science degree in France, the first woman to win Nobel Prize, the first woman to lecture at the Sorbonne, the first person to win two Nobel Prizes, and the first Nobel Laureate whose child also won a Nobel Prize. Her life offers insights into the changing role of women in science and academia over the past century. It also offers examples of many ways in which scientists can, and should, work to improve the educational programs and career opportunities available to those who follow in their footsteps.

  18. El universo de Einstein: 1905 - annus mirabilis - 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Year 2005 was the World Year of Physics, and it was commemorated worldwide as the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's legendary works in which the foundations of at least three areas of modern physics were laid: statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity. These works turned year 1905 in what deservedly was called the "miraculous year" (annus mirabilis) of Einstein. However, the influence of this great mind was not limited to science. As it is well known, his fingerprint remains engraved in many aspects of our daily life. Because of that, in this work we have tried to cover almost all the subjects in which Einstein was involved during the last century and, of course, try and reveal the future projection his actions will have in this new century that has just begun. Among the subjects covered in the volume one can find the possible connection between Einstein and the artistic vanguard movement, his religiosity, his days in Argentina, the Nobel Prize, the Einstein-Freud correspondence, hi...

  19. The scientific impact of Einstein's visit to Argentina, in 1925

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The arrival of Albert Einstein in Argentina in 1925 had an impact, equally relevant, on the scientific community and on the general public. In this paper we discuss that visit from three different perspectives. Firstly, we consider the conditions that allowed for such visit to be possible. Then we focus on the institutional actors that facilitated it, as well as on the expertise and written references on topics related to relativity theory circulating at the time in the local community. In the last section we consider the implications of that visit for the local scientific environment.

  20. Bruno, Galileo, Einstein: The Value of Myths in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.

  1. [Maria Skłodowska-Curie and Piotr Curie an epoch-makingin year 1898].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielogórski, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    For many reasons the year 1898 was unusual for Maria Skłodowska-Curie and her husband. After defining the subject of the doctoral thesis and choosing Henri Becqerel as thesis supervisor, Maria started intensive experimental work. In the allotted room called storeroom, in conditions that were far too inadequate, they managed to put up a unique measuring equipment composed of instruments whose originator was Pierre Curie. In the ionization chamber and in the piezoelectric quartz charges formed, whose mutual neutralization was shown by the quadrant electrometer. Ionization current, which was measured quantitatively, was proportional to the radiation of the sample. Studying many elements, their compounds and minerals enabled Maria to state that uranium is not the only element endowed with the power of radiation; the second one turned out to be thorium. Anomaly detected in the radiation of uranium minerals made it possible for Maria to draw an extremely important conclusion: radioactive uranium and thorium are not the only elements endowed with such an attribute. Pitchblende, which was studied by the Curie couple, had to contain also other radioactive substances. Gustave Bémont also participated in the chemical analysis of the uranium ore and it is worth reminding that he was involved in the discovery of polonium and uranium. The phenomenon of radioactivity couldn't have been explained if it was not for the sources of strong radioactivity. Those sources undoubtedly could have been the discovered elements but their scanty content in the uranium ore made their isolation very difficult and laborious. Access to industrial remains after procession of pitchblende from Jachymov (Sankt Joachimstahl), obtained owing to the mediation of Eduard Suess, provided the source of this raw material. From it, in a shack also called le hangar, the Curie couple isolated the first samples of the radium salt. This element, later extracted by discoverers on a grand scale and handed over in a

  2. Einstein's static universe

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Domingos Savio

    2012-01-01

    Einstein's static model is the first relativistic cosmological model. The model is static, finite and of spherical spatial symmetry. I use the solution of Einstein's field equations in a homogeneous and isotropic universe -- Friedmann's equation -- to calculate the radius of curvature of the model (also known as "Einstein's universe"). Furthermore, I show, using a Newtonian analogy, the model's mostly known feature, namely, its instability under small perturbations on the state of equilibrium.

  3. Little Albert from the Viewpoint of Abnormal Psychology Textbook Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeUnes, Arnold

    1983-01-01

    Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert and conditioned emotional reactions is unquestionably a classic in psychology. Observations are made on what authors of 27 college textbooks in abnormal psychology have to say or not to say about Little Albert. (RM)

  4. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    "Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…

  5. Dr. Albert Carr--Science Educator 1930-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The very first issue of "Educational Perspectives" was published in October of 1962. Dr. Albert Carr wrote one of the inaugural essays on the topic of current developments in science education, and he went on to write several other articles for the journal. This article shares why Dr. Albert Carr's colleagues remember him for his…

  6. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    1999-09-01

    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  7. Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R.

    2013-04-01

    Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.

  8. The ultimate quotable Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.

  9. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-07-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  10. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  11. Spin dynamics in a Curie-switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A F; Tovstolytkin, A I; Dzhezherya, Yu I; Polishchuk, D M; Kozak, I M; Korenivski, V

    2015-11-11

    Ferromagnetic resonance properties of F1/f/F2/AF multilayers, where weakly ferromagnetic spacer f is sandwiched between strongly ferromagnetic layers F1 and F2, with F1 being magnetically soft and F2-magnetically hard due to exchange pinning to antiferromagnetic layer AF, are investigated. Spacer-mediated exchange coupling is shown to strongly affect the resonance fields of both F1 and F2 layers. Our theoretical calculations as well as measurements show that the key magnetic parameters of the spacer, which govern the ferromagnetic resonance in F1/f/F2/AF, are the magnetic exchange length (Λ), effective saturation magnetization at T  =  0 (m0) and effective Curie temperature (T(C)(eff)). The values of these key parameters are deduced from the experimental data for multilayers with f  =  Ni(x)Cu(100-x), for the key ranges in the Ni-concentration (x = 54 ÷ 70 at. %) and spacer thickness (d = 3 ÷ 6 nm). The results obtained provide a deeper insight into thermally-controlled spin precession and switching in magnetic nanostructures, with potential applications in spin-based oscillators and memory devices.

  12. Maria Sklodowska-Curie - scientist, friend, manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, A.

    2009-01-01

    Great names in science represent an inexhaustible source and richness of inspiration, satisfaction and consolation, a moving and victorious force. Throughout her exemplifying life, Maria Sklodowska remained modest but with a keen sense of humor, of an outstanding style, a mine of knowledge and experience, of innovative ideas and a rich inner life. Full of love, of passion to give and to share, of natural optimism, mixed with a light melancholy, so typical for sages. She vehemently defended the love of scientific research, of the spirit of adventure and entrepreneurship and fought for international culture, for the protection of personality and talent. Maria Sklodowska left her passion to science, her dedication to work including education and training of young people, her passionate adherence to her family, her belief in her friends, her pure and profound humanity and warmth! The paper should be a homage to her, an appreciation of her work over the years, but not less a correspondence, a conversation with her! On the other hand, the present solemn occasion resuscitates the personalities of Maria and Pierre Curie and their work, in particular of Maria Sklodowska in her own native land! In this manner, it truly contributes to her immortality!

  13. Einstein's jacket: evidence for long-term perceptual specificity in mental imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G; Hollings, James

    2013-03-01

    To what extent are visual fantasies constrained by our perceptual experience of the real world? Our study exploits the fact that people's knowledge of the appearance of individuals from the early 20th Century (e.g., Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill) derives predominantly from viewing black-and-white media images. An initial experiment shows that mental imagery for individuals from this period are experienced as significantly less colourful than imagery for individuals from the era of colour media. A second experiment manipulated whether participants were instructed to explicitly imagine using colour or not (i.e., "imagine Albert Einstein wearing a green jacket" vs. "imagine Albert Einstein wearing a jacket"). Results show that colour manipulation only influences imagery for black-and-white era individuals, with no comparable effect on imagery for colour era individuals. This finding is replicated in a third experiment that includes an additional control condition of imagining generic characters (i.e., "Imagine a knight wearing a cloak" vs. "imagine a knight wearing a red cloak"). Again, only imagery for black-and-white era individuals is affected by the colour manipulation. Overall these results provide evidence for long-term perceptual specificity effects in mental imagery. We argue that visual fantasies can be constrained by surface features of underlying representations in memory, even when imagining something we have never directly perceived.

  14. Policing epistemic deviance: Albert Von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862-1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862-1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an 'occult complex'. Moll's analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll's treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll.

  15. Einsteins Hollandse cirkel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk van Delft

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s Holland Circle. Introduction.While he was formulating his General Theory of Relativity and working out its implications, Einstein liked to test his ideas against the accumulated experience of Dutch colleagues. As an offspring of the exhibition ‘Einstein & Friends’ in Museum Boerhaave, we present a collection of essays about Einstein’s contacts in the Netherlands.

  16. Einsteins Hollandse cirkel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Einstein’s Holland Circle. Introduction.While he was formulating his General Theory of Relativity and working out its implications, Einstein liked to test his ideas against the accumulated experience of Dutch colleagues. As an offspring of the exhibition ‘Einstein & Friends’ in Museum Boerhaave, we present a collection of essays about Einstein’s contacts in the Netherlands.

  17. Einstein and Boltzmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2005-03-01

    In 1916 Einstein published a remarkable paper entitled ``On the Quantum Theory of Radiation''ootnotetextA. Einstein ``On the Quantum theory of Radiation,'' Phys. Zeitschrift 18 (1917) 121. First printed in Mitteilungender Physikalischen Gesellschaft Zurich. No 18, 1916. Translated into English in Van der Waerden ``Sources of Quantum Mechanics'' (North Holland 1967) pp. 63-77. in which he obtained Planck's formula for black-body radiation by introducing a new statistical hypothesis for the emmision and absorption of electromagneic radiation based on discrete bundles of energy and momentum which are now called photons. Einstein radiation theory replaced Maxwell's classical theory by a stochastic process which, when properly interpreted, also gives well known statistics of massless particles with even spin.^2 This quantum distribution, however, was not discovered by Einstein but was communicated to him by Bose in 1924. Like Boltzmann's classical counterpart, Einstein's statistical theory leads to an irreversible approach to thermal equilibrium, but because this violates time reversal, Einstein theory can not be regarded as a fundamental theory of physical process.ootnotetextM. Nauenberg ``The evolution of radiation towards thermal equilibrium: A soluble model which illustrates the foundations of statistical mechanics,'' American Journal of Physics 72 (2004) 313 Apparently Einstein and his contemporaries were unaware of this problem, and even today this problem is ignored in contemporary discussions of Einstein's treatment of the black-body spectrum.

  18. Interview with Albert Ziegler about Gifted Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Z. Leana-Tascilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Albert Ziegler is the chair of Educational Psychology and Research on Excellence at the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg and one of the most productive and cited academicians in gifted education in Europe and also all over the world. Prof. Ziegler has contributed different theories about gifted education and education in general. One of his well-known theories is The Actiotope Model of Giftedness and the 7-Step-Cycle of Self-Regulated Learning. Since last year I had the chance to be with him and his colleagues in Germany, thus I decided to share with you the interview that we had about his theories and his recommendations for Turkey.

  19. Test of time: what if little Albert had escaped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Andy P; Nightingale, Zoë C

    2009-04-01

    Watson and Rayner's (1920) ;Little Albert' experiment has become one of the most famous studies in psychology. It is a staple of many general psychology textbooks and is part of the very fabric of the discipline's folklore. Despite this fame, the study has been widely criticized in the nearly 90 years since it was published for its lack of methodological rigour. This article attempts to evaluate the contribution of the ;little Albert' study to modern clinical psychology by speculating on what theories and treatments of child anxiety would look like in a parallel universe in which the study never took place because ;little Albert' escaped from the hospital in which Watson tested him.

  20. Einstein y la filosofía del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ron, José Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical influences that helped Albert Einstein to build the special relativity theory are studied as his philosophical opinions changed as time passed to adapt to the content of his physics: this characteristic was particularly notorious in connection with the general theory of the relativity. The reception of Einstein’s relativity in the Philosophy World is studied too, first of all in the German-speaking world (Schlick, Cassirer, Reichenbach, Carnap y Popper, next in the British one (Russell, idealism versus realism, then in the US (Bridgman, operationalism and also in the Spanish world (Ortega y Gasset.Se analizan las influencias filosóficas que ayudaron a Albert Einstein en la construcción de la teoría de la relatividad especial, y cómo sus opiniones filosóficas cambiaron con el tiempo para adecuarlas al contenido de su física, un rasgo que es especialmente notorio con relación a la teoría general de la relatividad. Asimismo, se considera la recepción de la relatividad einsteiniana en el mundo filosófico; primero en el de habla alemana (los casos, especialmente, de Schlick, Cassirer, Reichenbach, Carnap y Popper, británico (Russell, idealismo versus realismo, estadounidense (operacionalismo, Bridgman y español (Ortega y Gasset.

  1. Einstein, Bose and Bose-Einstein Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2005-05-01

    In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8πυ^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift für Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8πυ^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.

  2. A bust of Marie Sklodowska Curie at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The Polish Deputy Minister of Energy and Nuclear Power, J. Felicki, presented the Directors General with a bust of Mme Marie Sklodowska Curie on behalf of physicists of Poland (CERN Courier 19 (1979) 164).

  3. Marie Curie's Doctoral Thesis: Prelude to a Nobel Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the life and research techniques of Marie Curie's doctoral dissertation leading to the discovery and purification of radium from ore. Reexamines the discoveries of other scientists that helped lead to this separation. (ML)

  4. A jolly good call for Marie Curie Fellows

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A new funding opportunity to train young researchers has just been announced by the European Commission. One of the calls within FP7 Marie Curie Actions requests proposals for Initial Training Network (ITN) projects, with a deadline of 22 December 2009. Project proposals are strongly encouraged at CERN and authors can receive support and guidance from the Marie Curie Steering Group. Winnie Wong: "I wouldn’t have considered a PhD if I hadn’t been a Marie Curie fellow" Dan Savu: "It’s the best of both worlds: training plus working in an international organisation" ITN projects have one key aim: training. Academic and industrial partners work together to form a network to recruit and train Marie Curie Fellows. Fellows are young researchers (typically PhD-level) from any country who combine project-based research with tailor-made training programmes, ...

  5. Bose-Einstein Hypernetworks

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a Bose-Einstein hypernetwork model, and studies evolving mechanisms and topological properties of hyperedge hyperdegrees of the hypernetwork. We analyze the model by using a Poisson process theory and a continuous technique, and give a characteristic equation of hyperedge hyperdegrees of the Bose-Einstein hypernetwork. We obtain the stationary average hyperedge hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork by the characteristic equation. The paper first studies topological properties of hyperedge hyperdegrees. Bose-Einstein condensation model can be seen as a special case of this kind of hypernetworks. Condensation degree is proposed, in particular, the condensation of particles can be classified according to the condensation degree.

  6. Einstein's Clocks and Langevin's Twins

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    In 1905 Einstein presented the Clock Paradox and in 1911 Paul Langevin expanded Einstein's result to human observers, the "Twin Paradox." I will explain the crucial difference between Einstein and Langevin. Einstein did not present the so-called "Twin Paradox." Later Einstein continued to speak about the clock paradox. Einstein might not have been interested in the question: what happens to the observers themselves. The reason for this could be the following; Einstein dealt with measurement procedures, clocks and measuring rods. Einstein's observers were measuring time with these clocks and measuring rods. Einstein might not have been interested in so-called biology of the observers, whether these observers were getting older, younger, or whether they have gone any other changes; these changes appeared to be out of the scope of his "Principle of relativity" or kinematics. The processes and changes occurring within observers seemed to be good for philosophical discussions. Later writers criticized Einstein's c...

  7. Perseverance Pays Off: Albert Bowie, Doctor of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshul, Barbra

    1997-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Albert Bowie of San Juan Pueblo, who became the first Native American to graduate from the University of New Mexico's Doctor of Pharmacy program. A sidebar discusses academic opportunities in the field of pharmacy. (TD)

  8. Albert Paltser 17. I 1931-29. I 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    In memoriam Albert Paltser, Tartu Ülikooli õppejõud, dotsent, kriminaalõiguse ja -protsessi kateedri juhataja, õigusteaduskonna dekaan, ülikooli kriminoloogialabori juhataja, üks kriminoloogia rajajaid Eestis

  9. The Pasteurization of Marie Curie: A (meta)biographical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtén, Eva Hemmungs

    2015-08-01

    Biographies of scientists occupy a liminal space, highly popular with general readers but questioned in academia. Nonetheless, in recent years, historians of science have not only embraced the genre with more enthusiasm and less guilt, they have also turned to the metabiography in order to renew the study and story of scientists' roles. This essay focuses on Marie Curie, the world's most famous female scientist, in order to unpack some of the theoretical and methodological claims of the science biography, and especially to address the sexing mechanisms at play in the construction of the biographical subject. Pierre Curie (1923), Marie's biography of her husband Pierre, paid tribute to her dead husband and collaborator, but also allowed Curie a legitimate outlet to construct her own persona and legacy. Categories such as personhood, person, and persona are not only central to the biography genre but also are essential to the sense of self and self-fashioning of scientists. Looking at how Marie Curie negotiated these categories in Pierre Curie not only gives new insight into Curie's self-fashioning strategies but may also shed some light on the more general analytical lacunae of the science biography.

  10. Referrals to the Marie Curie nursing service in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, B; Feather, J; Ward, C

    2000-01-01

    District and Marie Curie nurses participated in a small-scale study to describe referrals to a Marie Curie service in one English health district over a 3-month period. The number of new patients referred was small; they were geographically clustered and had widely differing life expectancies. Anecdotal reports of difficulties with the 'Nurselink' referral system were not confirmed, and in situations where the system was in operation, Marie Curie nurses were more likely to speak directly to the referring nurse. The most frequently cited reason for referral was general nursing needs; however, Marie Curie nurses felt that they were most often involved to provide family support. These findings suggest that there may not be a shared understanding of the Marie Curie nurse's role, and that equity in community palliative nursing care merits examination. Defining and publicizing the role of the Marie Curie nurse, providing guidance for referrals and prioritizing communication between professionals are proposed not only to enhance the service locally but to ensure that the service is available to all. This article illustrates the value of research to identify ways to improve service delivery.

  11. The Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship: Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeff; Wheeler, Sam

    2017-02-01

    In an ideal world, education policy and practice would exist as parts of a coherent system. Effective practice would inform policy and that policy would, in turn, promote the tenets of effective practice at the local, state, and national levels. Policymakers and practitioners would collaborate and, by extension, have familiarity and respect for one another's perspective. Unfortunately, our current education system is a far cry from the ideal, a fact that we as practitioners know all too well.

  12. Il était sept fois la révolution Albert Einstein et les autres...

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    Certaines révolutions sont lentes et ne font pas couler de sang. Entre 1925 et 1935, la physique a connu un tel bouleversement : les atomes, ces petits grains de matière découverts quelques années plus tôt, n'obéissaient plus aux lois de la physique classique. Il fallait en inventer de nouvelles, penser autrement la matière. Une décennie d'effervescence créatrice, d'audace, de tourments, une décennie miraculeuse suffit à un petit nombre de physiciens, tous jeunes, pour fonder l'une des plus belles constructions intellectuelles de tous les temps : la physique quantique, celle de l'infiniment petit, sur laquelle s'appuie toujours la physique actuelle. Originaux, déterminés, attachants, pathétiques parfois, ces hommes ont en commun d'avoir été, chacun à sa façon, des génies. Dispersés aux quatre coins de l'Europe, à Cambridge, Copenhague, Vienne, Göttingen, Zurich ou Rome, ils se rencontraient régulièrement et s'écrivaient souvent. Leurs travaux se faisaient écho, suscitant l'admiration...

  13. Evolution of brain and culture: the neurological and cognitive journey from Australopithecus to Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2016-06-20

    Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking. The delay in ancestral babies' physical development eventually precipitated an evolutionary reversal in which they became increasing unable to cling independently to their mothers. For the first time in prehistory, babies were, thus, periodically deprived of direct physical contact with their mothers. This prompted the emergence of a second evo-devo trend in which infants sought contact comfort from caregivers using evolved signals, including new ways of crying that are conserved in modern babies. Such signaling stimulated intense reciprocal interactions between prehistoric mothers and infants that seeded the eventual emergence of motherese and, subsequently, protolanguage. The third trend was for an extreme acceleration in brain growth that began prior to the last trimester of gestation and continued through infants' first postnatal year (early "brain spurt"). Conservation of this trend in modern babies explains why human brains reach adult sizes that are over three times those of chimpanzees. The fossil record of hominin cranial capacities together with comparative neuroanatomical data suggest that, around 3 million years ago, early brain spurts began to facilitate an evolutionary trajectory for increasingly large adult brains in association with neurological reorganization. The prehistoric increase in brain size eventually caused parturition to become exceedingly difficult, and this difficulty, known as the "obstetrical dilemma", is likely to constrain the future evolution of brain size and, thus, privilege ongoing evolution in neurological reorganization. In modern babies, the brain spurt is accompanied by formation and tuning (pruning) of neurological connections, and development of dynamic higher-order networks that facilitate acquisition of grammatical language and, later in development, other advanced computational abilities such as musical or mathematical perception and performance. The cumulative evidence suggests that the emergence and refinement of grammatical language was a prime mover of hominin brain evolution.

  14. Confusion and Clarification: Albert Einstein and Walther Nernst's Heat Theorem, 1911-1916

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the early history of Walther Nernst's Heat Theorem and the first stages of its development into the Third Law of Thermodynamics. In addition to published papers, informal discussions were important in shaping the understanding of the meaning and validity of the Theorem. Special

  15. ISO 9002 no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrico do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pourrat Dal Gé Lacerda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A implantação do programa de qualidade no CTI-P, do HIAE, iniciou em Jan/96, visando melhoria contínua da assistência à criança e família e o desenvolvimento profissional. Utilizamos como ferramenta a Norma ISO 9002/94, que necessitou ser interpretada para a realidade hospitalar. Definimos o cronograma de trabalho, a política de qualidade norteada pela missão da Instituição e consolidada na finalidade de trabalho do serviço. Atendendo aos vinte itens da Norma, procedemos a documentação, através da elaboração do Manual da Qualidade, da revisão e padronização de rotinas e procedimentos. A equipe multiprofissional foi sensibilizada e envolvida a participar de todo o processo de implantação e avaliação do programa de Qualidade. Em Mar/98, após auditoria pela British Standards Institution foi conferido ao CTI-P - HIAE certificado ISO 9002. Ressaltamos a importância do papel do enfermeiro como líder em todo este processo. Cabe à equipe o desafio permanente da manutenção do programa de qualidade.

  16. Einstein's theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    2012-01-01

    Semi-technical account includes a review of classical physics (origin of space and time measurements, Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, laws of motion, inertia, more) and of Einstein's theories of relativity.

  17. Pere Albert: Barcelona Canon, Royal Advocate, Feudal Theorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagay, Donald K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the life and career of one of Catalonia's greatest medieval legists is discussed. Using notarial and court documentation, the author explores the work of Pere Albert as judge and advocate. The Customs of Catalonia and other of Pere Albert's treatises form the basis for the review of the legist's career as a theorist in feudal law. The basis for this article is the collection of documents pertaining to Pere Albert, which the author includes in an appendix.

    En este artículo se estudia la vida y la carrera de uno de los jurisconsultos medievales más importantes de Cataluña. Utilizando la documentación notarial y judicial, el autor analiza la labor de Pere Albert como juez y abogado. ElsCostums de Catalunya y otros tratados de Pere Albert constituyen la base para el estudio de la carrera del jurisconsulto, como teórico en ley feudal y real. El artículo se basa en una colección de documentos originales relativos a Pere Albert, que el autor incluye en un apéndice.

  18. Marie and Irene Curie. The first female Nobel Prize winners; Marie en IreneCurie. De eerste vrouwelijke Nobelprijswinnaars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordenbos, G. [Joke Smit Instituut voor Vrouwenstudies, Universiteit Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1903 and in 1911. Also her daughter, Irene Joliot-Curie, received a Nobel Prize for science in 1935. In this book an overview is given of the academic world at that time: limited access to universities for women, the carriers of both women in physics and their pioneering research and discoveries, the refusal of Marie Curie by the French Academy of Sciences, the awarding of the Nobel Prize and the assignment of Irene Joliot-Curie as the first female minister in France, the impact of the two World Wars, their married and private lives and the constant smear campaign of the press against both women. The lives and works of both women are hold against the light of the present position of women in physical sciences. [Dutch] In 1903, precies honderd jaar geleden, ontving Marie Curie als eerste vrouw de Nobelprijs voor de Wetenschap, gevolgd door een tweede Nobelprijs in 1911. Ook haar dochter Irene Joliot-Curie kreeg de Nobelprijs voor de wetenschap in 1935. Marie and Irene Curie schetst een breed beeld van de academische wereld waarin beide vrouwen zich bewogen: de beperkte toegang van vrouwen tot de universiteit, hun carrisres in de natuurkunde en baanbrekende ontdekkingen, de afwijzing van Marie door de Franse Academie des Sciences, de toekenning van de Nobelprijs en de benoeming van Irene als eerste vrouwelijke minister in Frankrijk, de invloed van de twee Wereldoorlogen, hun huwelijks- en priveleven en de niet aflatende hetze van de pers tegen beiden. In de door mannen gedomineerde wereld van de natuurwetenschappen liep de uitzonderingspositie van beide vrouwen als rode draad door hun curieuze levens. Het leven en werk van de Curies wordt geactualiseerd door deze tegen het licht te houden van de huidige positie van vrouwen in de natuurwetenschappen. Het bereiken van de top van de wetenschap door vrouwen blijkt nog steeds uitzonderlijk.

  19. Joliot-Curie School of Nuclear Physics, 1997; Ecole Joliot-Curie de Physique Nucleaire, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, Y. [L`Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS (India2P3), 75 - Paris (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the lectures of the Joliot-Curie International School of Nuclear Physics held at Maubuisson, France on 8-13 September 1997. The following lectures of nuclear interest were given: The N-body problem (relativistic and non-relativistic approaches); The shell model (towards a unified of the nuclear structure); Pairing correlations in extreme conditions; Collective excitations in nuclei; Exotic nuclei (production, properties and specificities); Exotic nuclei (halos); Super and hyper deformation (from discrete to continuum, from EUROGAM to EUROBALL); and The spectroscopy of fission fragments. Important new facts are reported and discussed theoretically, concerning the nuclei in high excitation and high states and of the nuclei far off stability. Important technical achievements are reported among which the production of radioactive beams, sophisticated multi-detectors as well as significant advances in the nuclear theoretical methods. The double goal of training of young researchers and of permanent formation and information of the older ones seems to have been reached

  20. Prince Albert II of Monaco visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    With a strong curiosity for the work of CERN, HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco visited CMS and the CERN Control Centre on 2 September. "The Prince is interested in and sensitive to what CERN is doing. Monaco is closely linked to France, which is an important member of CERN. He wishes to express his help to the scientific community in every trip. He wants to meet scientists and to be really personally involved," explained Francois Chantrait, Head of the Press Service of the Prince’s Palace. CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer welcomed the Prince of Monaco to Point 5 with a presentation about CERN before they descended 100 metres underground to see the CMS experiment. Although the detector was closed up for test runs, he was able to see its grand scale as well as look at some of the intricate sample parts exhibited by CMS Spokesperson, Jim Virdee. The Prince wrote in the CERN Visitors’ Book that he perceives a realisation of promisin...

  1. Policing Epistemic Deviance: Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862–1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862–1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an ‘occult complex’. Moll’s analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll’s treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll. PMID:23002296

  2. EINSTEIN E LA SINDROME IONICA. OLTRE LA RELATIVITÀ GENERALE, LA RICERCA DI UNA TEORIA UNITARIA DI CAMPO CONTINUO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Greco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Physics and Reality (1936, Albert Einstein wrote about his General Theory of Relativity: “It is similar to a building, one wing of which is made of fine marble (left part of the equation, but the other wing of which is built of low grade wood (right side of equation”. Why the author of one of the highest achievement of human thinking was so critical? Two the main metaphysical reasons: the trust in unity of nature; the trust in continuity of nature. So Einstein was in searching for a more general theory to unify its two fundamental forces, gravity and electromagnetism. So Einstein wanted to realize the “Maxwell program” and so to uncover a general theory of continuum field. The left part of the general relativity equation is fine marble because states a continuum field. The right side of equation is low grade wood because states discrete particles that are disturbing Einstein metaphysics.

  3. The interpretation of the Einstein-Rupp experiments and their influence on the history of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    The Einstein-Rupp experiments were proposed in 1926 by Albert Einstein to study the wave versus particle nature of light. Einstein presented a theoretical analysis of these experiments to the Berlin Academy together with results of Emil Rupp, who claimed to have successfully carried them out. However, as the preceding paper has claimed (HSPS 37 Suppl. (2007), 73-121), Rupp's success was the result of scientific fraud. This paper will argue, after exploring their interpretation, that the experiments were a relevant part of the background to such celebrated contributions to quantum mechanics as Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Yet, the Einstein-Rupp experiments have hardly received attention in the history of quantum mechanics literature. In part, this is a consequence of self-censorship in the physics community, enforced in the wake of the Rupp affair. Self-censorship among historians of physics may however also have played a role.

  4. On the Fulfillment of Curie's Law in Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernovoi, A. I.; Dyachenko, S. V.

    2015-05-01

    A fulfillment of Curie's law in magnetic fluids provides an option of their thermometric applications to measure thermodynamic temperature. On the other hand, it was shown elsewhere that the initial magnetic susceptibility χ of magnetic fluids follows Curie-Weiss's law rather than Curie's law. To obtain its values, use was made of the formula χ = M/N0, where M is magnetization, and N0 is the external magnetic field strength without any specimen. This work deals with investigations of the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of magnetic fluid on temperature for the cases where its values are found via the following formulas: 1) χ = M/N0, and 2) χ = Mμ0/M, where M is the magnetic field induction inside the specimen. It is found that in the first case the temperature dependence of χ obeys Curie-Weiss's law while in the second case - Curie's law. The reason for this results from the fact that induction M acting on the particles of magnetic fluid is noticeably higher than that of the external field, M0.

  5. Tiempo y Cosa: la Influencia de Einstein en el Pensamiento de Zubiri en torno al Tiempo Lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Durán Allimant

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar la concepción del tiempo lineal de Xavier Zubiri en su obra Espacio. Tiempo. Materia. Y en tal concepción del tiempo podemos ver la impronta radical del pensamiento de la Teoría de la Relatividad Restringida de Albert Einstein. Por tanto, para comprender más acabadamente lo que se entiende por tiempo a la luz de las cosas tendremos que estudiar someramente cómo el propio Zubiri lee a Einstein en este tema.

  6. Tiempo y Cosa: la Influencia de Einstein en el Pensamiento de Zubiri en torno al Tiempo Lineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Durán Allimant

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar la concepción del tiempo lineal de Xavier Zubiri en su obra Espacio. Tiempo. Materia. Y en tal concepción del tiempo podemos ver la impronta radical del pensamientode la Teoría de la Relatividad Restringida de Albert Einstein. Por tanto, para comprender más acabadamente lo que se entiende por tiempo a la luz de las cosas tendremos que estudiar someramente cómo el propio Zubiri lee a Einstein en este tema.

  7. Maria Sklodowska Curie - the precursor of radiation sterilization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluszewski, Wojciech; Zagorski, Zbigniew P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tran, Quoc Khoi; Cortella, Laurent [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, Atelier Regional de Conservation, Grenoble (France)

    2011-06-15

    A resolution of the 63rd Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry. The coordinators of the event are UNESCO and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The patroness of this event is Marie Curie, nee Sklodowska. Among women scientists, she was the first recipient of the Novel Prize, and among all scientists, she is the only one who has received this award in different scientific fields (in 1903 in the field of physics with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, in 1911 in the field of chemistry). Considering the former Polish nationality of Marie Curie, the year 2011 has been proposed by the Polish Parliament as her year, using the name Maria Sklodowska Curie, under which she is known in Poland. Celebrating the International Year of Chemistry is a good opportunity to remember the importance of the work of Maria Sklodowska Curie for the emergence and development of many fields of science. This article is an attempt to present a view of science, as taught through modern applications of the radiation chemistry of polymetric materials and radiation sterilization. Although the real development of both ''cold'' sterilization and polymer technology occurred in the 1950's long after the death of Marie Curie Sklodowska, the original ideas go back to ther work performed in the 1920s. Sometimes, and that is the present case, a single scientist creates a new field, in spite of the fact that at the time of discovery there are no applications. The parallel development of other branches of science and technology helps the application of the original idea. (orig.)

  8. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  9. The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nosanchuk, Murphy D; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Carvalho, Antonio C Campos de; Weiss, Louis M; Spray, David C; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2015-01-01

    A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries.

  10. The Media of Relativity: Einstein and Telecommunications Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Jimena

    2015-07-01

    How are fundamental constants, such as "c" for the speed of light, related to the technological environments that produce them? Relativistic cosmology, developed first by Albert Einstein, depended on military and commercial innovations in telecommunications. Prominent physicists (Hans Reichenbach, Max Born, Paul Langevin, Louis de Broglie, and Léon Brillouin, among others) worked in radio units during WWI and incorporated battlefield lessons into their research. Relativity physicists, working at the intersection of physics and optics by investigating light and electricity, responded to new challenges by developing a novel scientific framework. Ideas about lengths and solid bodies were overhauled because the old Newtonian mechanics assumed the possibility of "instantaneous signaling at a distance." Einstein's universe, where time and space dilated, where the shortest path between two points was often curved and non-Euclidean, followed the rules of electromagnetic "signal" transmission. For these scientists, light's constant speed in the absence of a gravitational field-a fundamental tenet of Einstein's theory-was a lesson derived from communication technologies.

  11. Size and shape effects on Curie temperature of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A simplified model was developed to describe the Curie temperature suppression of ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Based on a size and shape dependent model of cohesive energy, the critical temperature variations of ferromagnetic nanoparticles were deduced. It is predicted that the Curie temperature of nanoparticles depends on both size and shape conditions, among which the temperature suppression is strongly influenced by the particle size and the shape effect is comparably minor. The calculation values for freestanding nanoparticles are in good agreement with other theoretical model and the experimental results. The model is also potential for predictions for the nanoparticles embedded in different substrates.

  12. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  13. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  14. [Interculturality in the medical practice of Dr. Albert Schweitzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Ruiz-Llanos, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was a young and promising German who at age 29 decided to undertake the profession of Medical Doctor at the University of Strassburg after finishing a career in musical studies in Paris (1899) and obtaining in Berlin a doctoral degree in Philosophy and Theology. Surprisingly, Albert Schweitzer, despite his comfortable life in Europe, decided in 1913 to practice his medical career in a remote and small Equatorial African country. He devoted nearly 50 years of his life caring for the Black population at Lamaberene, where he built a hospital. In this paper, we attempt to develop some theoretical aspects related with interculturality in the medical practice of Dr. Albert Schweitzer. We begin by considering certain sociocultural variables in hospitals that give care to patients with cultural characteristics that are substantially different from those of the health care personnel who organize, administer, and execute medical functions.

  15. Einstein's greatest mistake abandonment of the aether

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, Sid

    2006-01-01

    If a child wants proof, we can think of 10 different ways to show that we are surrounded by air, but we are, of course, normally unaware that we live at the bottom of an “ocean” of air. It is claimed, in this book, that we are unaware, similarly, that we are surrounded by an atmosphere of aether. There is one major difference, however: We have not been able to detect the aether. Nevertheless, the aether provides a solution to the following mystery: How can light, or any electromagnetic wave, travel for billions of years across the vastness of the Universe, without losing any energy? The answer is that the Universe is filled with a light-transmitting medium, The Aether. The proof that there is an aether is the subject of the present book. An intriguing…exploration of a fringe scientific theory. Luminiferous aether—or "light-bearing aether," a theory first postulated by Isaac Newton in the 18th century, later refined by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th century and ultimately replaced by Albert Einstein'...

  16. Albert Hirschman e la scienza socio-morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Trigilia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is part of the special issue of the journal, including the proceedings of the conference "Albert Hirschman scienziato sociale" held in Rome at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.The author discusses the "sociological" aspects of Hirschman's thought, stressing at the same time Hirschman's strong commitment to intellectual cross-fertilisation across the social sciences or, even better, the social science.JEL codes: B32, B26, N14Keywords: Albert Hirschman, market economy, individual behaviour 

  17. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  18. PARTNER: A Marie Curie Initial Training Network for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN BULLETIN; Nathalie Hospital; Manuela Cirilli

    2011-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network.

  19. Einstein and Bose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2005-04-01

    In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8πυ^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift für Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8πυ^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.

  20. Once Upon Einstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetto, E [Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' , via A Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2007-07-20

    Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conte (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein 'those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within A la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: 'time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a

  1. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  2. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  3. Affect, Albert Ellis, and Rational-Emotive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. Barry

    1989-01-01

    Contends affect is integral component of Rational Emotive Therapy model. Reviews affective aspect of the model in terms of theoretical constructs and therapeutic techniques. Makes references to author-observed interactions of Albert Ellis and describes his life-style to permit inferences regarding the role of affect. Includes commentary by Ellis…

  4. Let's Nuke the Transpersonalists: A Response to Albert Ellis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Responds to Albert Ellis' 1986 article which proposed to use rational-emotive therapy (RET) to save the world from religious and psychological fanatics and nuclear war. Attempts to provide a more balanced view of religion, RET, non-RET therapies, and the role of psychology in averting nuclear war. (Author/ABL)

  5. Albert Ellis's Theoretical Ark: Reactions of a Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Earl J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief reaction to Albert Ellis's "Postmodern Ethics for Active-Directive Counseling and Psychotherapy," which appears in this issue. Offers a condensed review of what has led up to Ellis's article. Pays special attention to the phrase "and/also" in relation to its implication for theory building and practice. (RJM)

  6. Albert Ellis's Theoretical Ark: Reactions of a Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Earl J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief reaction to Albert Ellis's "Postmodern Ethics for Active-Directive Counseling and Psychotherapy," which appears in this issue. Offers a condensed review of what has led up to Ellis's article. Pays special attention to the phrase "and/also" in relation to its implication for theory building and practice. (RJM)

  7. Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…

  8. The Continuing Saga of Little Albert in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Inaccuracies, especially concerning the stimulus generalization findings, in textbook descriptions of the Little Albert study have been well documented since the 1970s. However, there has not been a systematic examination of introductory psychology textbooks since the 1980s to determine whether such inaccuracies still persist. This study filled…

  9. Bohr's Electron was Problematic for Einstein: String Theory Solved the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, William

    2013-04-01

    Neils Bohr's 1913 model of the hydrogen electron was problematic for Albert Einstein. Bohr's electron rotates with positive kinetic energies +K but has addition negative potential energies - 2K. The total net energy is thus always negative with value - K. Einstein's special relativity requires energies to be positive. There's a Bohr negative energy conflict with Einstein's positive energy requirement. The two men debated the problem. Both would have preferred a different electron model having only positive energies. Bohr and Einstein couldn't find such a model. But Murray Gell-Mann did! In the 1960's, Gell-Mann introduced his loop-shaped string-like electron. Now, analysis with string theory shows that the hydrogen electron is a loop of string-like material with a length equal to the circumference of the circular orbit it occupies. It rotates like a lariat around its centered proton. This loop-shape has no negative potential energies: only positive +K relativistic kinetic energies. Waves induced on loop-shaped electrons propagate their energy at a speed matching the tangential speed of rotation. With matching wave speed and only positive kinetic energies, this loop-shaped electron model is uniquely suited to be governed by the Einstein relativistic equation for total mass-energy. Its calculated photon emissions are all in excellent agreement with experimental data and, of course, in agreement with those -K calculations by Neils Bohr 100 years ago. Problem solved!

  10. Reassessing the Ritz-Einstein debate on the radiation asymmetry in classical electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Mathias; Pietsch, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the debate between Walter Ritz and Albert Einstein on the origin and nature of the radiation asymmetry. We argue that Ritz's views on the radiation asymmetry were far richer and nuanced than the oft-cited joint letter with Einstein (Ritz & Einstein, 1909) suggests, and that Einstein's views in 1909 on the asymmetry are far more ambiguous than is commonly recognized. Indeed, there is strong evidence that Einstein ultimately came to agree with Ritz that elementary radiation processes in classical electrodynamics are non-symmetric and fully retarded. (Sommerfeld, 1968, p. 290; italics in the original). That is, what Sommerfeld is looking for is a mathematical condition that can restrict the solution space of the equation to those solutions that are physically possible. Rather than taking the wave equation as delimiting the range of what is physically possible and then looking for an explanation of why a large class of physically possible solutions is not actualized, the problem for Sommerfeld seems to be with the mathematics: the wave equation has 'too many' solutions. The Sommerfeld radiation condition, according to this view, does not explain the asymmetry, but is merely the mathematical condition imposing a restriction on the electromagnetic field in large distances that enables us to exclude non-physical solutions of the wave equation and restrict the solutions to the physically plausible purely diverging waves.

  11. Einstein's Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2011-01-01

    In 1905, Einstein formulated his special relativity for point particles. For those particles, his Lorentz covariance and energy-momentum relation are by now firmly established. How about the hydrogen atom? It is possible to perform Lorentz boosts on the proton assuming that it is a point particle. Then what happens to the electron orbit? The orbit could go through an elliptic deformation, but it is not possible to understand this problem without quantum mechanics, where the orbit is a standing wave leading to a localized probability distribution. Is this concept consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance? Dirac, Wigner, and Feynman contributed important building blocks for understanding this problem. The remaining problem is to assemble those blocks to construct a Lorentz-covariant picture of quantum bound states based on standing waves. It is shown possible to assemble those building blocks using harmonic oscillators.

  12. Einstein y la complejidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou, David

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We study Einstein’s contributions to thermodynamics and statistical physics and their influence on some fields of physics which have led to current studies on complexity. We focus our attention on the use of fluctuations and entropy as a common framework for light and matter, whcich leds him to some of his fundamental contributions (phtoelectric effect, Brownian motion, specific heat of solids, stimulated light emission, Bose-Einstein condensation. We underline some aspects of Einstein’s research style: extrapolations, analogies, simplifications. We underline the relationship between light and matter as a common link of his researches in statistical physics.Presentamos las contribuciones de Einstein a la termodinámica y la mecánica estadística y su resonancia en ramas de la física que han conducido hasta la consideración actual de lo complejo. Nos referimos especialmente al uso de las fluctuaciones y de la entropía como marco común y nexo de unión entre luz y materia, que le conducen a algunas de sus aportaciones fundamentales (efecto fotoeléctrico, movimiento browniano, calor específico de los sólidos, emisión estimulada de la luz, condensación de Bose-Einstein. Consideramos también algunas facetas del estilo de investigación de Einstein, que se manifiestan con especial claridad en este campo: extrapolaciones, analogías, simplificaciones. Destacamos especialmente la importancia de la relación entre luz y materia en sus investigaciones.

  13. Is Einstein Still Right?

    CERN Document Server

    Yunes, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This is an article commissioned by the Spanish Physics Magazine ("Revista Espa\\~nola de F\\'isica") for the Centennial Anniversary of the discovery of General Relativity. The article reviews experimental and observational efforts to test Einstein's theory of General Relativity in a variety of scenarios (from the Solar System to binary pulsars, from the Sag A* to binary black hole and neutron star coalescences).

  14. Einstein the searcher his work explained from dialogues with Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Moszkowski, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This volume, first published in 1921, presents a series of portraits of Einstein, thus offering glimpses in the character and private reflections of the man who changed the course of modern science. Intended neither as a biography, nor as a résumé of Einsteinian physics, Einstein: The Searcher instead focusses on Einstein's relationship with the scientific project as he himself conceived it, and so is still of contemporary significance for those puzzled by the spirit of scientific enquiry.

  15. Microcosmos the world of elementary particles : fictional discussions between Einstein, Newton, and Gell-Mann

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction into the field of particle physics for the general reader through virtual discussions among prominent physicists, Albert Einstein, Murray Gell-Mann, Issac Newton and a modern physicists. Matter is composed of quarks and electrons. The electrons interact with the atomic nuclei by the exchange of photons. The forces between the quarks are generated by the exchange of gluons, which leads to the confinement of the quarks. The weak bosons provide the weak forces among the leptons and quarks. The book is suitable for non-experts in physics. Readership: General readers, students and researchers in physics.

  16. Einstein's genius club the true story of a group of scientists who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Burton

    2011-01-01

    As World War II wound down and it became increasingly clear that the Allies would emerge victorious, Albert Einstein invited three close friends-all titans of contemporary science and philosophy-to his home at 112 Mercer Street in Princeton, New Jersey, to discuss what they loved best-science and philosophy. His guests were the legendary philosopher and pacifist, Bertrand Russell; the boy wonder of quantum physics, Wolfgang Pauli; and the brilliant logician, Kurt Gödel. Their casual meetings took place far from the horrific battlefields of the war and the (then) secret lair of exp

  17. Einstein's Third Paradise%爱因斯坦的第三乐园

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerald Holton

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Historians of modern science have good reasons to be grateful to Paul Arthur Schilpp, professor of philosophy and Methodist clergyman but better known as the editor of a series of volumes on" Living Philosophers", including several on scientist-philosophers. His motto was:"The asking of questions about a philosopher's meaning while he is alive." And to his everlasting credit, he persuaded Albert Einstein to do what he had resisted all his years: to sit down to write, in 1946 at age sixty-seven, an extensive autobiography-forty-five pages long in print.

  18. Einstein and Picasso . The art of science and the science of art

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Almost simultaneously, in the first decade of the 20th century Albert Einstein discovered relativity and Pablo Picasso cubism. How - and why? This fascinating story involves their often turbulent personal lives; the high drama of their struggles to achieve new ideas in the face of opposition from contemporaries; and the unlikely sources for their creative leaps, ignored by everyone else. To fully understand what happened involves coming to grips with wide-ranging questions such as: Are there similarities in creativity between artists and scientists? What do artists and scientists mean by 'aesthetics' and 'beauty'? Can we unravel creativity at its highest level?

  19. Crystal structure and low-energy Einstein mode in ErV2Al20 intermetallic cage compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarski, Michał J.; Klimczuk, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of a new ternary aluminide ErV2Al20 were grown using a self-flux method. The crystal structure was determined by powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld refinement, and physical properties were studied by means of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. These measurements reveal that ErV2Al20 is a Curie-Weiss paramagnet down to 1.95 K with an effective magnetic moment μeff =9.27(1) μB and Curie-Weiss temperature ΘCW =-0.55(4) K. The heat capacity measurements show a broad anomaly at low temperatures that is attributed to the presence of a low-energy Einstein mode with characteristic temperature ΘE =44 K, approximately twice as high as in the isostructural 'Einstein solid' VAl10.1.

  20. The legacy of Maria Curie Skłodowska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Maria Skłodowska Curie left us a great legacy. Her discovery of polonium and radium was incomparably greater than the mere discovery of new elements. Its significance lay in the discovery of a new form of matter, namely radioactive one, but also in her unveiling of the internal property of its atoms. Subsequently emitted radiation went on to play the role of a "natural accelerator" for both scientific research and in medical radiotherapy. It was thanks to these discoveries that the field of nuclear physics arose just a few decades later. As importantly the work of Maria Curie Skłodowska during the Great War demonstrated how important pure scientific discovery can be for society and its welfare.

  1. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210004_1: Prof. Ugo Amaldi, University of Milano Bicocca and Tera Foundation, Italy. Addressing the Marie Curie Workshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Research Developments on Medical Physics". Photo 0210004_2: Marie Curie Fellows at CERN. Participating in Marie Curie Workshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002.

  2. Curie and Pauli Spins in Lithium Intercalated MCMB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ESR signal of lithium intercalated MCMB can be well simulated by combination of a Lorentz curve and a Gauss curve. The ESR intensity of the Lorentz component is essentially independent of temperature while the Gauss component shows a linear change with the reciprocal of temperature, indicative of Pauli spin and Curie spin, respectively. The former is probably associated with the ordered (graphitized) structures while the latter with the disordered structures in the sample.

  3. Einstein's Jury: Trial by Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crelinsten, Jeffrey

    2007-03-01

    While Einstein's theory of relativity ultimately laid the foundation for modern studies of the universe, it took a long time to be accepted. Between 1905 and 1930, relativity was poorly understood and Einstein worked hard to try to make it more accessible to scientists and scientifically literate laypeople. Its acceptance was largely due to the astronomy community, which undertook precise measurements to test Einstein's astronomical predictions. The well-known 1919 British eclipse expeditions that made Einstein famous did not convince most scientists to accept relativity. The 1920s saw numerous attempts to measure light-bending, as well as solar line displacements and even ether-drift. How astronomers approached the ``Einstein problem'' in these early years before and after the First World War, and how the public reacted to what they reported, helped to shape attitudes we hold today about Einstein and his ideas.

  4. Exhibition: Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The exhibition "Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie” will be held at CERN (Pas Perdus Corridor, 1st floor, building 61) from the 8 to 24 March.   It is organised under the auspices of the Ambassador R. Henczel, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the UN Office at Geneva to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to Maria Sklodowska-Curie. The exhibition is also one of the events celebrating the 20th anniversary of Poland joining CERN as a Member State. Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Nobel Prize winner both in physics and chemistry, is one of the greatest scientists of Polish origin. The exhibition, consisting of 20 posters, presents her not only as a brilliant scientist, but also an exceptional woman of great heart, character and organizational talents, sensitive to contemporary problems. The authors are Mrs M. Sobieszczak-Marciniak, the director of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Museum in Warsaw and Mrs H. Krajewska, the direct...

  5. The contribution of women to radiobiology: Marie Curie and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasinska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Marie Sklodowska-Curie, an extraordinary woman, a Polish scientist who lived and worked in France, led to the development of nuclear energy and the treatment of cancer. She was the laureate of two Nobel Prizes, the first woman in Europe who obtained the degree of Doctor of Science and opened the way for women to enter fields which had been previously reserved for men only. As a result of her determination and her love of freedom, she has become an icon for many female scientists active in radiation sciences. They are successors of Maria Curie and without the results of their work, improvement in radiation oncology will not be possible. Many of them shared some elements of Maria Curie's biography, like high ethical and moral standards, passionate dedication to work, strong family values, and scientific collaboration with their husbands. The significance of Tikvah Alper, Alma Howard, Shirley Hornsey, Juliana Denekamp, Helen Evans, Eleanor Blakely, Elizabeth L. Travis, Fiona Stewart, Andree Dutreix, Catharine West, Peggy Olive, Ingela Turesson, Penny Jeggo, Irena Szumiel, Eleonor Blakely, Sara Rockwell and Carmel Mothersill contribution to radiation oncology is presented. All the above mentioned ladies made significant contribution to the development of radiotherapy (RT) and more efficient cancer treatment. Due to their studies, new schedules of RT and new types of ionizing radiation have been applied, lowering the incidence of normal tissue toxicity. Their achievements herald a future of personalized medicine.

  6. On Einstein, Hermitian 4-Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    LeBrun, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Let (M,h) be a compact 4-dimensional Einstein manifold, and suppose that h is Hermitian with respect to some complex structure J on M. Then either (M,J,h) is Kaehler-Einstein, or else, up to rescaling and isometry, it is one of the following two exceptions: the Page metric on CP2 # (-CP2), or the Einstein metric on CP2 # 2 (-CP2) constructed in Chen-LeBrun-Weber.

  7. From conformal to Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Giorgos; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    We provide a simple derivation of the equivalence between Einstein and conformal gravity (CG) with Neumann boundary conditions given by Maldacena. As Einstein spacetimes are Bach flat, a generic solution to CG would contain both Einstein and non-Einstein parts. Using this decomposition of the spacetime curvature in the Weyl tensor makes manifest the equivalence between the two theories, both at the level of the action and the variation of it. As a consequence, we show that the on-shell action for critical gravity in four dimensions is given uniquely in terms of the Bach tensor.

  8. From Conformal to Einstein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    We provide a simple derivation of the equivalence between Einstein and Conformal Gravity (CG) with Neumann boundary conditions given by Maldacena. As Einstein spacetimes are Bach flat, a generic solution to CG would contain both Einstein and non-Einstein part. Using this decomposition of the spacetime curvature in the Weyl tensor, makes manifest the equivalence between the two theories, both at the level of the action and the variation of it. As a consequence, we show that the on-shell action for Critical Gravity in four dimensions is given uniquely in terms of the Bach tensor.

  9. Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.

  10. The Einstein dossiers science and politics - Einstein's Berlin period with an appendix on Einstein's FBI file

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made...

  11. Einstein's Impact on Theoretical Physics in the 21st Century%爱因斯坦对21世纪理论物理学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振宁

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is a great honor to be invited to give this talk on Albert Einstein in the city of Ulm where he was born one hundred and twenty five years ago. I wish I could give this talk in German, but I realize if I try, it would lead, probably to my misuse of German words, and certainly to great strains on your auditory nerve systems. So, with your permission, I shall stay with English.

  12. Albert's test: a neglected test of perceptual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, K J; McSherry, D; Stout, R W

    1986-02-22

    Disorders of perception are thought to be important in predicting the outcome from stroke, but their exact significance is difficult to define because of lack of standardised terminology and diagnostic methods. In a prospective study of 205 unselected stroke patients, perceptual neglect, assessed by a standardised test battery, was found in 49% of patients with lesions of the non-dominant hemisphere and in 25% with lesions of the dominant hemisphere. One component of the test battery was a simple test described by Albert in which patients cross out lines ruled in a standard fashion on a sheet of paper; this was easy to administer and related closely to neglect diagnosed by the test battery as a whole. Results of Albert's test were a significant predictor of both mortality and functional activity six months after the stroke, independent of the influence of other clinical, neurological, laboratory, and social factors. The full test battery for perceptual neglect was of no significant additional predictive value.

  13. Majority-Vote on Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Majority-vote model with noise is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition of the order parameter is well defined in this system. We calculate the value of the critical noise parameter qc for several values of connectivity z of the directed Barabási-Albert network. The critical exponentes β/ν, γ/ν and 1/ν were calculated for several values of z.

  14. Einsteins of the future on a visit to CERN?

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The five pupils of the Gymnasium Appenzell high school who won a visit to CERN. In 1896 a 17-year-old named Albert Einstein joined ETH Zurich. Here, he was to spend the next four years building the foundation for his brave new vision of the physical world. Fast-forward almost 110 years and on 17 June 2005, ETH Zurich's Department of Physics organized a “Night of Physics”, a special event open to the public. This formed part of a series of activities at ETH to celebrate its 150th anniversary, as well as the World Year of Physics. It gave thousands of visitors a chance to experience the excitement of doing experiments, learning about Einstein's breakthroughs, visiting world-class labs or observing galaxies through high-quality telescopes. Amongst these were about five-hundred high school students from all over German-speaking Switzerland, who participated in a physics competition. They were highly motivated to win, not least because of the first prize: a trip to CERN! The winners visited CERN on the 21st S...

  15. EINSTEIN, SCHROEDINGER, AND ATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Einstein’s atom model has been developed, and proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves

  16. Through Einstein's Eyes

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; Altin, P A; Bennet, F H; Hush, M R; Searle, Antony C.; Savage, Craig M.; Altin, Paul A.; Bennet, Francis H.; Hush, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a relativistically-accurate computer graphics code and have used it to produce photo-realistic images and videos of scenes where special relativistic effects dominate, either in astrophysical contexts or in imaginary worlds where the speed of light is only a few metres per second. The videos have been integrated into our under-graduate teaching programme for several years. Recently we took the next step, encouraging undergraduate students to use the code to explore relativity, develop their own videos, and eventually package them together into Through Einstein's Eyes, a multimedia CD.

  17. Prince Albert Ii:座位告急

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李紫婷

    2010-01-01

    NPrince Albert Ii启航后,亚洲旅游人士日渐喜爱我们崭新的海上探险旅程。经两季额满的佳绩后,亚洲地区,尤其是中国和新加坡均获得骄人利润,而中国内地的提前预订市场为主要动力

  18. The Hamburg Humanist Albert Krantz's Use of Saxo Grammaticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Jensen, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Albert Krantz indkorporerer Saxos lange latinske digt (ca. 1200) om Starkads død i sin Nordenshistorie (ca. 1500). Saxos tekst af digtet findes kun i én afskrift, mens Krantz' version af digtet findes både i et tryk og et håndskrift. Krantz-håndskriftet udnyttes for første gang til at rette fejl...

  19. Albert Hirschman e la scienza socio-morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Trigilia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is part of the special issue of the journal, including the proceedings of the conference "Albert Hirschman scienziato sociale" held in Rome at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. The author discusses the "sociological" aspects of Hirschman's thought, stressing at the same time Hirschman's strong commitment to intellectual cross-fertilisation across the social sciences or, even better, the social science.

  20. Einstein's idealism and a new kind of space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M. A.

    In 1935, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen made an attempt to imagine quantum experimental nonsense or some impossible experiment (EPR-experiment) in order to justify their local realism in physics. However, in the mid-1960s, John Bell showed that it is possible to realize this kind of nonsense in laboratory. Today, when EPR-refutation of local realism is routine in modern experimental physics (Clauser and Freedman [1972]; Aspect, Dalibard and Roger [1982]; Zeilinger et al. [1998]), we must; nevertheless, remark that Albert Einstein was not always a realist. As is known, in his Special Relativitz A. Einstein introduced some pure idealistic principle which K. Godel developed in famous "Remark about the relationship between Relativity theorz and Idealistic Philosophy" (1949). Kurt Godel for the first time showed an existence of special-relativistic solipsism, assuming that objective simultaneity in experimental science "loses its objective meaning". Correspondingly, there is only subjective simultaneity, that is provable by calculations with the finite velocity of light and astronomical observations. In particular, this space solipsism means that when we observe the sun, we can see only what happend on Sun 8.33 minutes ago; in other words, we percieve only certain sensations or a certain collections of ideas of the past, but not the present. Similarly, when astronomers observe galaxies estimated to be two billion light years from the Earth, they see these galaxies as they were two billion light years ago not as they are Now. Thus, in accordance with this, we may await that in this context for some pairs of astronomical objects we cannot prove they exist NOW. Moreover, this new kind of space research could be connected with introduction of the Cognitive Dark Matter, or, what is associated with manifold of the large-scale events of the Universe as a whole which are realizing Now, beyond consciousness of the observers-humans. Because we cannot know

  1. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  2. Einstein's cosmological considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Janzen, Daryl

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is not simply to present an historical overview of Einstein's cosmological considerations, but to discuss the central role they played in shaping the paradigm of relativistic cosmology. This, we'll show, was a result of both his actions and, perhaps more importantly, his inactions. Accordingly, discussion won't simply be restricted to Einstein's considerations, as we'll analyse relevant contributions to the relativistic expansion paradigm during the approximately twenty years following Slipher's first redshift measurements in 1912. Our aim is to shed some light on why we think some of the things we do, with the idea that a better understanding of the reasoning that fundamentally influenced the common idea of our expanding universe might help to resolve some of the significant problems that modern cosmology now faces; and we eventually use this knowledge to probe the foundations of the standard model. Much of the information we present, including many of the historical details, we e...

  3. Einstein Chases a Light Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This is a prelude to a book which I intend to publish. This paper describes my temporary thoughts on Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity. See my papers on my thoughts on Einstein's pathway to his general theory of relativity. Never say that you know how Einstein had arrived at his special theory of relativity, even if you read his letters to his wife and friends, and some other primary documents. Einstein gave many talks and wrote pieces, but at the end of the day, he told very little geographical, historical and biographical details pertaining to the years he had spent in the patent office. I thus bring here my jigsaw puzzle and warn the reader again, this is my creation and not Einstein's...

  4. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, John (Washington University)

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  5. Utilizing Materials With Controllable Curie Temperatures for Magnetic Actuation Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic force between a permanent magnet and different blocks of ferromagnetic materials was measured and calculated as a function of distance and temperature in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of the materials. The calculations were carried out using a 3-D finite-element model...... of the system. On the basis of forces predicted by the model a number of equilibrium points were calculated for a system where the magnetic force on a ferromagnetic block of material is balanced by a linear spring force. It is shown how these calculation procedures can be used as a tool for designing autonomous...

  6. Einstein's cosmic model of 1931: a translation and analysis of a forgotten model of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Raifeartaigh, C O

    2013-01-01

    We present a translation and analysis of a cosmic model published by Einstein in 1931. The paper, which is not widely known, features a model of a universe that undergoes an expansion followed by a contraction, quite different to his static model of 1917 or the monotonic Einstein-de Sitter model of 1932. The paper offers many insights into the cosmology of Albert Einstein in the light of the first evidence for an expanding universe, and we discuss his views of issues such as the curvature of space, the cosmological constant, the singularity and the timespan of the expansion. We argue that retrospective descriptions of this model as cyclic or periodic are not historically or mathematically accurate. We find that calculations in the paper of the matter density and radius of the universe contain a numerical error, a finding that is supported by writing on a blackboard used by Einstein during a lecture at Oxford University in May 1931. Our article concludes with a general discussion of his philosophy of cosmology...

  7. [Chronological table of Mr. and Mrs. Curie and Mr. and Mrs. Joliot-Curie--in connection with the 100-year anniversary since Dr. H. Becquerel discovered radial ray in 1896].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M

    1996-01-01

    This year (1996) is the 100th year since Dr. Henri Becquerel discovered radial rays in 1896 in France. In 1897, Dr. Pierre Curie and Marie Curie preliminarily reported the existence of polonium and radium which have radioactivity. H. Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie were awarded the Nobel Chemical Prize for discovering artificial radioactivity in 1935. I report herein the chronological table of Mr. and Mrs. Curie and Mr. and Mrs. Joliot-Curie spanning about one century.

  8. Frederic Joliot-Curie: the scientist and politics; Frederic Joliot-Curie: le savant et la politique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinault, M

    2000-07-01

    This book presents the biography of the French scientist, founder of the French nuclear research, in its social, political, and scientific context. Frederic Joliot-Curie, with his wife Irene, discovered the artificial radioactivity in 1934, won the Nobel price of chemistry in 1935, and demonstrated the existence of the fission phenomenon. He studied the chain reactions and the conditions of realization of a nuclear reactor, called 'Zoe', which was built in 1948. He was the very first chief-commissary of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). (J.S.)

  9. Phase Transition in Conditional Curie-Weiss Model

    CERN Document Server

    Opoku, Alex A; Ansah, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a conditional Curie-Weiss model as a model for opinion formation in a society polarized along two opinions, say opinions 1 and 2. The model comes with interaction strength $\\beta>0$ and bais $h$. Here the population in question is divided into three main groups, namely: Group one consisting of individuals who have decided on opinion 1. Let the proportion of this group be given by $s$. Group two consisting of individauls who have chosen opinion 2. Let $r$ be their proportion. Group three consisting of individuals who are yet to decide and they will decide based on their environmental conditions. Let $1-s-r$ be the proportion of this group. We show that the specific magnetization of the associated conditional Curie-Weiss model has a first order phase transition (discontinuous jump in specific magnetization) at $\\beta^*=\\left(1-s-r\\right)^{-1}$. It is also shown that not all the discontinuous jumps in magnetization will result in phase change. We point out how an extention of this model could...

  10. Controlling temperature in magnetic hyperthermia with low Curie temperature particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Dumitru, Ioan; Chiriac, Horia; Stancu, Alexandru

    2014-05-01

    Hyperthermia induced by the heating of magnetic particles (MPs) in alternating magnetic field receives a considerable attention in cancer therapy. An interesting development in the studies dedicated to magnetically based hyperthermia is the possibility to control the temperature using MPs with selective magnetic absorption properties. This paper analyzes the temperature field determined by the heating of MPs having low Curie temperature (a FeCrNbB particulate system) injected within a malignant tissue, subjected to an ac magnetic field. The temperature evolution within healthy and tumor tissues was analyzed by finite element method simulations in a thermo-fluid model. The cooling effect produced by blood flowing in blood vessels was considered. This effect is intensified at the increase of blood velocity. The FeCrNbB particles, having the Curie temperature close to the therapeutic range, transfer the heat more homogeneous in the tumor keeping the temperature within the therapeutic range in whole tumor volume. Having the possibility to automatically control the temperature within a tumor, these particle type opens new research horizons in the magnetic hyperthermia.

  11. Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Regularly Einstein's equations can be reduced to a wave form (linearly dependent from the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. As shown here, the origin of the problem is that one uses the general covariant theory of measurement. Here the wave form of Einstein's equations is obtained in the terms of Zelmanov's chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer's time line and spatial section. The obtained equations depend on solely the second derivatives even if gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. The correct linearization proves: the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.

  12. [A biographical sketch of Albert Szent-Györgyi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Zoltán; Berger Salinas, Alexandra; Szánthó Pongrácz, György

    2015-08-01

    Albert Szent-Györgyi was a Hungarian biochemist and physiologist. He identified the structure and function of vitamin C, naming it as ascorbic acid. His research on cellular respiration and oxidation provided the basis for Krebs' citric acid cycle. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1937. With his collaborators, he discovered the biochemical basis of muscle contractility, isolating the basic proteins, giving them the name myosin and actin. Later on, he worked on the theory of carcinogenesis, linked to electron movements. He was one of the first researchers to describe the connection between free radicals and cancer. He lived a long, very complete life, defending always his opinion and freedom.

  13. Scanning transmission electron microscopy: Albert Crewe's vision and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Chisholm, Matthew F; Murfitt, Matthew F; Dellby, Niklas

    2012-12-01

    Some four decades were needed to catch up with the vision that Albert Crewe and his group had for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in the nineteen sixties and seventies: attaining 0.5Å resolution, and identifying single atoms spectroscopically. With these goals now attained, STEM developments are turning toward new directions, such as rapid atomic resolution imaging and exploring atomic bonding and electronic properties of samples at atomic resolution. The accomplishments and the future challenges are reviewed and illustrated with practical examples.

  14. Remembering Albert deutsch, an advocate for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2011-12-01

    Albert Deutsch, journalist, advocate for the mentally ill, and honorary APA Fellow died 50 years ago. Author of The Mentally Ill in America and The Shame of the States, he believed in the obligation of individuals and institutions to advocate for patients. In 1961, he was in the midst of a vast project to assess the state of the art in psychiatric research. This article recalls aspects of Deutsch's life and work and places him in the historical context of individuals who have shown great compassion for disabled persons.

  15. [Albert Fromme (1881-1996) and his circle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, V

    1996-12-01

    Among Saxony's schools of surgery, Albert Fromme's in Dresden attain importance. On the basis of his work as a university professor in Göttingen for 10 years, he was able to train a large circle of surgeons in a major hospital. However, this did not detract from his clinical and scientific work. A. Fromme reached the top of German surgery and his crowning achievement was gaining the full professorship and rectorship of the Medical Academy "Carl Gustav Carus" in Dresden (today the Medical Faculty of the Technical University.

  16. Aspectos históricos da visita de Marie Sklodowska Curie a Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássius Klay Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2011 it is celebrated the Marie Sklodowska Curie Nobel Prize centenary and the International Year of Chemistry. However, it is not generally known that Marie Sklodowska Curie, one of the greatest scientists of all time, visited Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. She arrived by train at Belo Horizonte city on 16 August 1926, coming from Rio de Janeiro and accompanied by her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie. The scientists visited the Institute of Radium of Belo Horizonte. The approach in this work emphasizes the presence of Marie Sklodowska Curie in Belo Horizonte, exploring the admiration and respect that people had for her.

  17. Einstein's steady-state cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2014-09-01

    Last year, a team of Irish scientists discovered an unpublished manuscript by Einstein in which he attempted to construct a "steady-state" model of the universe. Cormac O'Raifeartaigh describes the excitement of finding this previously unknown work.

  18. EDITORIAL: Squeeze transformation and optics after Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel

    2005-12-01

    With this special issue, Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics contributes to the celebration of the World Year of Physics held in recognition of five brilliant papers written by Albert Einstein in 1905. There is no need to explain to the readers of this journal the content and importance of these papers, which are cornerstones of modern physics. The 51 contributions in this special issue represent current trends in quantum optics —100 years after the concept of light quanta was introduced. At first glance, in his famous papers of 1905, Einstein treated quite independent subjects—special relativity, the nature and statistical properties of light, electrodynamics of moving bodies and Brownian motion. We now know that all these phenomena are deeply related, and these relations are clearly shown in many papers in this issue. Most of the papers are based on the talks and poster contributions from participants of the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'05), which took place in Besançon, France, 2-6 May, 2005. This was the continuation of a series of meetings, originating with the first workshops organized by Professor Y S Kim at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in 1991 and by Professor V I Man'ko at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow in 1992. One of the main topics of ICSSUR'05 and this special issue is the theory and applications of squeezed states and their generalizations. At first glance, one could think that this subject has no relation to Einstein's papers. However, this is not true: the theory of squeezed states is deeply related to special relativity, as far as it is based on the representations of the Lorentz group (see the paper by Kim Y S and Noz M E, S458-S467), which also links the current concepts of entanglement and decoherence with Lorentz-covariance. Besides, studies of the different quantum states of light imply, after all, the study of photon (or photo

  19. Some notes on Einstein relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael P.; Masters, Andrew J.

    Transport coefficients are often expressed in the form of an Einstein relationship. In this report we point out some possibly surprising properties of the correlation functions appearing in such expressions and we discuss under what conditions the relationships are true. We further consider the Einstein relationship for the shear viscosity proposed by McQuarrie [in Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row), 1976]. On the basis both of theoretical analysis and computer simulation, we conclude that this expression is incorrect.

  20. The Einstein Genome Gateway using WASP - a high throughput multi-layered life sciences portal for XSEDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Aaron; McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; O Broin, Pilib; Moskowitz, David; Zhang, Zhengdong; Suzuki, Masako; Hargitai, Joseph; Calder, R Brent; Greally, John M

    2012-01-01

    Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies and their diverse applications in genomics and epigenomics research have yielded enormous new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of the human genome. The biggest hurdle remains the magnitude and diversity of the datasets generated, compromising our ability to manage, organize, process and ultimately analyse data. The Wiki-based Automated Sequence Processor (WASP), developed at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (hereafter Einstein), uniquely manages to tightly couple the sequencing platform, the sequencing assay, sample metadata and the automated workflows deployed on a heterogeneous high performance computing cluster infrastructure that yield sequenced, quality-controlled and 'mapped' sequence data, all within the one operating environment accessible by a web-based GUI interface. WASP at Einstein processes 4-6 TB of data per week and since its production cycle commenced it has processed ~ 1 PB of data overall and has revolutionized user interactivity with these new genomic technologies, who remain blissfully unaware of the data storage, management and most importantly processing services they request. The abstraction of such computational complexity for the user in effect makes WASP an ideal middleware solution, and an appropriate basis for the development of a grid-enabled resource - the Einstein Genome Gateway - as part of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) program. In this paper we discuss the existing WASP system, its proposed middleware role, and its planned interaction with XSEDE to form the Einstein Genome Gateway.

  1. Curie temperature rising by fluorination for Sm2Fe17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matahiro Komuro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine atoms can be introduced to Sm2Fe17 using XeF2 below 423 K. The resulting fluorinated Sm2Fe17 powders have ferromagnetic phases containing Sm2Fe17FY1(0Curie temperature from 403 K for Sm2Fe17 to 675 K. This increase can be explained by the magneto-volume effect.

  2. Curie law for systems described by kappa distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-01-01

    We derive the magnetization of a system, Pierre Curie's law, for paramagnetic particles out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions. The analysis uses the theory and formulation of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems with a non-zero potential energy. Among other results, emphasis is placed on the effect of kappa distribution on the phenomenon of having strong magnetization at high temperatures. At thermal equilibrium, high temperature leads to weak magnetization. Out of thermal equilibrium, however, strong magnetization at high temperatures is rather possible, if the paramagnetic particle systems reside far from thermal equilibrium, i.e., at small values of kappa. The application of the theory to the space plasma at the outer boundaries of our heliosphere, the inner heliosheath, leads to an estimation of the ion magnetic moment for this space plasma, that is, μ ≈ 138+/-7 \\text{eV/nT} .

  3. Albert Camus : colonisateur de bonne volonté ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousse Allouche

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les raisons qui expliquent l'intérêt bénévole qu'Albert Camus avait démontré à l'endroit des Kabyles dans une série de reportages publiés dans Alger Républicain en juin 1939. Malgré une dénonciation franche et sincère de la souffrance dont les Kabyles étaient victimes, les écrits de Camus soulèvent des questions liées à la perception du sujet colonial. La représentation que Camus se faisait des Kabyles était entachée de préjugés et de stéréotypes coloniaux. Le présent article tentera d'établir que le contenu du reportage d'Albert Camus sur les Kabyles évoque à l'esprit l'attitude du colonisateur bienveillant.

  4. Para ver entre las sombras: la mirada de Albert Camus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Rubio, Luciano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some free persons that have something like a magnetic needle, so in a dark time we need what Albert Camus offers: a living example (not a list of answers of integrity, compassion and wise judgment. He had to choose (maybe like everybody between nonsense and rebelliousness, and after between a daily attitude of fear or confidence. Finally, Camus tells us that the nature of human being and the beauty of the world must balance the historical ambitions.

    Hay algunas personas libres que tienen algo semejante a una brújula, por eso en tiempos oscuros necesitamos lo que Albert Camus ofrece: un ejemplo vivo (no una lista de respuestas de integridad, compasión y buen juicio. Tuvo que elegir (quizá como todos entre el absurdo y la rebeldía, y después entre una actitud cotidiana de miedo o confianza. Finalmente, Camus nos dice que la naturaleza del ser humano y la belleza del mundo deben equilibrar las ambiciones históricas.

  5. 'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-04-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll.

  6. Psychology's Lost Boy: Will the Real Little Albert Please Stand Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with the recent debate about the identity of psychology's lost boy-Little Albert, the infant subject in Watson and Rayner's classic experiment on fear conditioning. For decades, psychologists and psychology students have been intrigued by the mystery of Albert's fate. Now two evidentiary-based solutions to…

  7. Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…

  8. Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…

  9. Meet Cover Directors--Steve Albert, Rainbow School, Kahuku, Hawaii; Chuck Larson, Seagull Schools, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Profiles Chuck Larson and Steve Albert, each of whom directs a multi-site child care organization in Hawaii. Larson directs Rainbow School, dedicated to the idea that learning is a natural, joyful accomplishment of living. Albert directs Seagull School, responding to the early educational needs of Hawaii's diverse community by offering affordable,…

  10. The Einstein nanocrystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoldi, D S; Miranda, E N

    2016-01-01

    We study the simplest possible model of nanocrystal consisting in a simple cubic lattice with a small number of atoms (NA ~ 10-10^3), where each atom is linked to its nearest neighbor by a quantum harmonic potential. Some properties (entropy, temperature, specific heat) of the nanocrystal are calculated numerically but exactly within the framework of the microcanonical ensemble. We find that the presence of a surface in the nanocrystal modifies the thermostatistic properties to a greater extent than the small number of atoms in the system. The specific heat Cv behaves similarly to the Einstein solid, with an asymptotic value for high temperatures that differs from that of the Dulong-Petit law by a term of the order of NA^(-1/3) and that can be explained easily in terms of the surface. The entropy is non-additive, but this is due to the presence of the surface and we show that the additivity is recovered in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we find that, when calculations follow the canonical ensemble, results...

  11. The Einstein Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.

  12. A tale of two icons: "the Jews all over the world boast of my name, pairing my with Einstein" (Freud, 1926).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, John

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein, including the parallels in the trajectories of their scientific careers, starting with the 'annus mirabilis' of 1905. Noting how they shared much in common, the paper underlines that it was as "great Jewish thinkers" that they were most often twinned, and proceeds to compare and contrast the development of their self-consciousness of being Jewish. It then traces their relationship in one meeting and in correspondence, both private and public, from 1926 to their deaths, emphasizing Freud's envy of Einstein and Einstein's ambivalent admiration of Freud. The paper ends with a consideration of the significance of the figure of Moses in both of their final years.

  13. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210006_07a: Prof. L. Maiani, Director General of CERN. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Function of Large-scale Facilities and Centres of Excellence". Photo 0210006_14a: Prof. L. Maiani, Director General of CERN. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Function of Large-scale Facilities and Centres of Excellence". Photo 0210006_22: Dr. David Plane (CERN) introducing Dr. Theodore Papazoglou from the European Commission. Addressing the Marie Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Marie Curie Fellowships in the 6th Framework Programme". Photo 0210006_28a: Dr. Nora Brambilla, Vice-President of Marie Curie Fellow Association, INFN and Dept. of Physics, University of Milan. Addressing the Marie-Curie Worshop held at CERN 3-4 October 2002. Title of this talk:"Marie Curie Fellows Association". Photo 0210006_29a: Dr. Nora Brambilla, Vice-President of Marie Curie Fellow Association, INFN a...

  14. Detecting Einstein geodesics: Einstein metrics in projective and conformal geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2013-01-01

    Here we treat the problem: given a torsion-free connection do its geodesics, as unparametrised curves, coincide with the geodesics of an Einstein metric? We find projective invariants such that the vanishing of these is necessary for the existence of such a metric, and in generic settings the vanishing of these is also sufficient. We also obtain results for the problem of metrisability (without the Einstein condition): We show that the odd Chern type invariants of an affine connection are projective invariants that obstruct the existence of a projectively related Levi-Civita connection. In addition we discuss a concrete link between projective and conformal geometry and the application of this to the projective-Einstein problem.

  15. Marie Curie nurses: enabling patients with cancer to die at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Wilkinson, Susie

    2002-05-01

    Marie Curie Cancer Care established its nursing service in 1958; however, the service has had little formal evaluation. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the care provided by Marie Curie nurse, and in particular to determine whether patients in their care remained and died at home. Two existing data sets were used: data on all patients referred to the Marie Curie Nursing Services in 147 areas of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland for 26 months, and data on cancer death registrations in England. A request for a Marie Curie nurse was made for 26,632 patients, 97% of whom had cancer and 11% of whom lived alone. The amount of care provided varied enormously (Marie Curie nurses facilitated home death for many patients. Services need to ensure that mechanisms are in place to achieve data collection. Rigorous prospective evaluation is needed in the future.

  16. Relativity in Transylvania and Patusan: Finding the roots of Einstein's theories of relativity in "Dracula" and "Lord Jim"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Brian Shane

    This thesis investigates the similarities in the study of time and space in literature and science during the modern period. Specifically, it focuses on the portrayal of time and space within Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) and Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim (1899-1900), and compares the ideas presented with those later scientifically formulated by Albert Einstein in his special and general theories of relativity (1905-1915). Although both novels precede Einstein's theories, they reveal advanced complex ideas of time and space very similar to those later argued by the iconic physicist. These ideas follow a linear progression including a sense of temporal dissonance, the search for a communal sense of the present, the awareness and expansion of the individual's sense of the present, and the effect of mass on surrounding space. This approach enhances readings of Dracula and Lord Jim, illuminating the fascination with highly refined notions of time and space within modern European culture.

  17. The mysterious malleability of titanomagnetite Curie temperatures: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Bowles, J.; Lappe, S. C.; Berquo, T. S.; Solheid, P.

    2015-12-01

    Intermediate-composition titanomagnetites (TM30-TM50) have recently been shown to have Curie temperatures (Tc) that depend not only on composition but also quite strongly on thermal history, with increases of 100°C or more in Tc produced by moderate-temperature (300-400° C) annealing in the lab or in slow natural cooling, and equally large decreases produced by more rapid cooling ("quenching") from higher temperatures [e.g., Bowles et al 2013, Nature Communications]. The phenomenon is robustly defined and repeatable, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic, although it presumably involves some rearrangement of metal cations within the spinel lattice. New high-and low-temperature measurements, including hysteresis, frequency-dependent AC susceptibility (k(f,T)) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, were carried out to help shed light on the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in Tc. Fabian et al [2015, GJI] have shown for ferrimagnetic compositions in the hematite-ilmenite system that high-T hysteresis measurements exhibit a peak in high-field slope at the Curie temperature, and that the magnitude (area) of this peak is a strong function of cation ordering degree. Our data for synthetic titanomagnetites in quenched and annealed states show some indications of this, although the relationship is not perfectly systematic. On the other hand, our new low-T Mössbauer spectra, measured in the quenched and annealed states, are indistinguishable and argue against any change in site occupancy. Church et al [2011, G3] have proposed that the sharp change in low-T magnetic behavior of intermediate titanomagnetites is a "pinning transition" due to redistribution and localization of ferrous ions within the octahedral sites. Our new k(f,T) results show that the pinning transition in some samples is strongly affected by prior annealing or quenching, suggesting that these treatments affect the intrasite cation distributions. Such an idea is consistent with

  18. A TENTATIVE INTERPRETATION OF ALBERT CAMUS’THE GUEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汝仪

    1982-01-01

    <正> Albert Camus(1913-1960)was a noted French essayist,novelist and playwright,whose talent as a writer and an artist won him the Nobel Prize for literature in 1957.World War I bereaved him of his father and he was brought up by his mother in strai-tened circumstances.Through education,Camus was able to overstep the boundariesof his environment.Under the influence of the philosopher Jean Grenier,he deve-loped a lifelong interest in literature and philosophy.The fact that he was a victimof tuberculosis,a disease that dogged him all his life,forced him to give up half way

  19. Einstein's E = mc^2 mistakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ohanian, Hans C

    2008-01-01

    Although Einstein's name is closely linked with the celebrated relation E = mc2 between mass and energy, a critical examination of the more than half dozen "proofs" of this relation that Einstein produced over a span of forty years reveals that all these proofs suffer from mistakes. Einstein introduced unjustified assumptions, committed fatal errors in logic, or adopted low-speed, restrictive approximations. He never succeeded in producing a valid general proof applicable to a realistic system with arbitrarily large internal and external (that is, translational) speeds. The first such general proof was produced by Max Laue in 1911 (for "closed" systems with a time-independent energy-momentum tensor) and it was generalized by Felix Klein in 1918 (for arbitrary time-dependent "closed" systems).

  20. Twisted spacetime in Einstein gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We find a vacuum stationary twisted solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity. Its frame dragging angular velocities are antisymmetric with respect to the equatorial plane. It possesses a symmetry of joint inversion of time and parity with respect to the equatorial plane. Its Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass and angular momentum are zero. It is curved but regular all over the manifold. Its Komar mass and Komar angular momentum are also zero. Its infinite red-shift surface coincides with its event horizon, since the event horizon does not rotate. Furthermore we extend this solution to the massive case, and find some similar properties. This solution is a stationary axisymmetric solution, but not Kerr. It explicitly proves that pure Einstein gravity permits different rotational mode other than Kerr. Our results demonstrate that the Einstein theory may have much more rich structures than what we ever imagine.

  1. Curie depth vs. flat subduction in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2010-05-01

    Forearcs located above active subduction zones are generally characterized by low heat flow values, and this is considered a consequence of the subduction of cold slabs beneath continental plates. In the case of Central Mexico, the geometry of the subducting Cocos plate is quite unusual, the slab runs flat for several hundreds of kilometers before plunging into the asthenosphere. This particular geometry has a strong influence on the temperature distribution of the overriding plate where very low heatflow values are recorded (15-30 mW/m2). In this paper we use the aeromagnetic map of Mexico in order to infer the maximum depth of magnetic source, regarded as Curie depth and corresponding to a temperature of 575-600C°. Our spectral analysis revealed the existence of a deep magnetic source (30-40 km). We compare these results with the thermal structure associated with flat slab subduction in the area. We obtained a good agreement between the two estimates and we conclude that flat slab subduction in Central Mexico controls the maximum depth of magnetic sources in the overriding plate.

  2. Einstein Gravity-Supergravity Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Sharakin, S A; Chen, Chiang-Mei; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Sharakin, Sergei A.

    1999-01-01

    A correspondence between the three-block truncated 11D supergravity and the 8D pure Einstein gravity with two commuting Killing symmetries is discussed. The Kaluza-Klein two-forms of the 6D theory obtained after dimensional reduction along the Killing orbits generate the four-form field of supergravity via an inverse dualization. Thus any solution to the vacuum Einstein equations in eight dimensions depending on six coordinates have 11D-supergravity counterparts with the non-trivial four-form field. Using this proposed duality we derive a new dyon solution of 11D supergravity describing the M2 and M5-branes intersecting at a point.

  3. Einstein metrics in projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, A; Macbeth, H R

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that pseudo-Riemannian metrics in the projective class of a given torsion free affine connection can be obtained from (and are equivalent to) the solutions of a certain overdetermined projectively invariant differential equation. This equation is a special case of a so-called first BGG equation. The general theory of such equations singles out a subclass of so-called normal solutions. We prove that non-degerate normal solutions are equivalent to pseudo-Riemannian Einstein metrics in the projective class and observe that this connects to natural projective extensions of the Einstein condition.

  4. Un lugar entre la tierra y las estrellas. Luces y sombras en la Torre Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guridi García

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The Einstein Tower was built in 1921 at the Telegraphsberg in Potsdam with an unique purpose: the empirical demonstration (or refutation of the basis for the Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein.
    Established already from its origen as a monument that time has consolidated as the icon of an emerging Modernity, the Einstein Tower is at the same time the story of a triple failure: Its explicit objective was never met (concluding results were never arrived at, its location was inadequate (the main observatory was transferred afterwards; first to Lucerne, and later to the Teide mountain, and, on the personal and architectural side, it proved a point of inflection for the career of Erich Mendelsohn, even though it gave him fame and recognition. This article describes this first project not so much as the start of a professional career, but rather as the necessary closure to a path initiated with his war drawings.
    A building almost entirely devoid of openings which springs up from the ground in order to follow the trajectory of an object 150 million kilometers away with its only eye. A scientific program, where human presence is reduced to a minimum (even today in order to protect the sofisticated equipment. The Einstein Tower is above all a fixed telescope mounted on a building. Its biggest contribution, a horizontal spectrographic laboratory halfburied beneath the main vertical support of the tower, is due to its promoter, Professor Erwin Finlay- Freundlich. This astrophysicist knew how to orchestrate an entire media campaign associated to the recent prestige of Albert Einstein, who never worked in the tower (but who did not hesitate to have a picture taken next to it.
    Initially conceived as a mere technical container, the young Mendelsohn soon established that the project for the Einstein Tower, limited in practice to the design of an outer covering shell the interior (there was strongly conditioned to the requirements set by

  5. Einstein does it still reason?; Einstein sigue teniendo razon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunes, N.

    2015-07-01

    Even today there is no concrete evidence that indicates that Einstein was wrong, but the continued search because general relativity is incompatible with the theory of quantum mechanics. the various hypotheses that try to unify these two theories require a fundamental change in any of the basic pillars of one of the two. (Author)

  6. Einstein for Schools and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…

  7. Exact Solutions for Einstein's Hyperbolic Geometric Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chun-Lei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow and obtain some interesting exact solutions for this kind of flow. Many interesting properties of these exact solutions have also been analyzed and we believe that these properties of Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow are very helpful to understanding the Einstein equations and the hyperbolic geometric flow.

  8. El Aumento de la Masa Inercial; Einstein y las Coordenadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Ernesto Cala Vitery

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los años de gestación de la Teoría General de la Relatividad (TGR y de la subsiguiente cosmología relativista, Albert Einstein esperaba que su teoría de gravitación satisficiera las ideas de Mach sobre la inercia. Para esto calculó un par de efectos que debían garantizar la consonancia de TGR con el origen material de la inercia à la Mach. Estos efectos fueron: (A El aumento de la masa inercial cuando se aglomera materia en su vecindad y (B el arrastre de los marcos inerciales. En este articulo se hace un estudio histórico-conceptual del primero(A. Mientras que el arrastre es considerado como una predicción real de TGR, el aumento de la masa inercial ha llegado a desecharse como un artificio de coordenadas no impugnable a la variedad espacio-temporal estudiada. Una revisión técnica con clarificaciones conceptuales es presentada

  9. Einstein's general theory of relativity with modern applications in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Grøn, Øyvind

    2007-01-01

    Many of us have experienced the same; fallen and broken something. Yet supposedly, gravity is the weakest of the fundamental forces; it is claimed to be 10-15 times weaker than electromagnetism. Still, every one of us has more or less had a personal relationship with gravity. Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity: With Modern Applications in Cosmology by Oyvind Gron and Sigbjorn Hervik is about gravity and the concept of gravity as Albert Einstein saw it- curved spaces, four-dimensional manifolds and geodesics. The book starts with the 1st principals of relativity and an introduction to Einstein’s field equations. Next up are the three classical tests of the relativity theory and an introduction to black holes. The book contains several topics not found in other textbooks, such as Kaluza-Klein theory, anisotropic models of the universe, and new developments involving brane cosmology. Gron and Hervik have included a part in the book called "Advanced Topics." These topics range from the very edge of resea...

  10. Thermal expansion of gadolinium in the vicinity of the Curie point. [270 to 320/sup 0/K, Curie point exponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolejsi, D.A.

    1977-02-01

    The c- and a-axis linear thermal expansivities of high purity single crystals of gadolinium were measured in the temperature range 270/sup 0/K to 320/sup 0/K. Length changes were translated to capacitance changes with a modified normal geometry 3-terminal capacitance dilatometer. An ac 3-terminal capacitance bridge was employed to measure nominal 10 pF capacitances to a precision of 10/sup -7/ pF, which corresponds to a relative length change sensitivity of 10/sup -10/. A 25 ohm platinum resistance thermometer was used to detect the dilatometer temperature to a precision of 10 ..mu..K with an ac resistance bridge. The c-axis expansivity was negative and had a large (approximately equal to 10/sup -4/ K/sup -1/) peak at 293.435/sup 0/K, while the a-axis expansivity was positive and had a smaller (approximately equal to 10/sup -5/ K/sup -1/) peak at 293.363/sup 0/K. The values of the Curie temperatures (T/sub c/'s) and critical point exponents for the c- and a-axis crystals were obtained from fitting power law equations to the expansivities.

  11. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  12. Einstein Metrics on Complex Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, C

    1995-01-01

    We consider compact complex surfaces with Hermitian metrics which are Einstein but not Kaehler. It is shown that the manifold must be CP2 blown up at 1,2, or 3 points, and the isometry group of the metric must contain a 2-torus. Thus the Page metric on CP2#(-CP2) is almost the only metric of this type.

  13. Les horloges d'Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Galison, P L

    1999-01-01

    Dans la version traditionnelle de l'Histoire de la relativitÂ? restreinte,la reformulation par EINSTEIN de la simultanÂ?itÂ? est vue comme une intervention quasi-philosophique,rendue possible par le fait qu'il ait pris ses distances par rapport Â? la physique de l'Â?poque. D'autre part,l'emploi d'Einstein au Bureau des Brevets entre dans l'histoire comme un travail bassement quotidien, lui permettant une formation technique certes,mais peu pertinente pour son travail sur la relativitÂ?. Le confÂ?rencier montrera que,bien au contraire,le travail d'Einstein sur les brevets l'a placÂ? au beau milieu de trÂ?s riches discussions culturelles et de brevets menant Â? la synchronisation des horloges le long des voies de chemin de fer reliant les villes d'Europe centrale.Une fois que l'on a compris l'histoire des horloges synchronisÂ?es, le travail d'Einstein sur la relativitÂ? en mai 1905 brille d'un feu trÂ?s diffÂ?rent.

  14. Absurd ja lootus Albert Camus' lühiproosas / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Pagendus ja kuningriik : kogutud lühiproosa / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Triinu Tamm, Krista Vogelberg, Tanel Lepsoo, Henno Rajandi. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 78-79

  15. THE MYTHE NOVEL PLAGUE OF ALBERT CAMUS, ITS INSPIRATION SOURCES AND ITS EVOCATIVE SYMBOLS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuat BOYACIOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    .... In the XXth the french writers such as Jean Giraudoux, André Gide, Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus interpreted again the antique mythes in their works by making evocations to the events occured in their epoch...

  16. Absurd ja lootus Albert Camus' lühiproosas / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Pagendus ja kuningriik : kogutud lühiproosa / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Triinu Tamm, Krista Vogelberg, Tanel Lepsoo, Henno Rajandi. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 78-79

  17. [Gaston Bachelard and Albert Flocon the meeting of a philosopher and an engraver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the collaboration between the philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard and the copper engraver Albert Flocon during the first decade after World War II. The exchange resulted in a number of books whose content is discussed.

  18. Albert Camus, écrivain français d’Algérie

    OpenAIRE

    Stępniak, Maria

    2000-01-01

    This study is about the Algerianity of Albert Camus, the greatest French writer of Algeria. The topic tackled has three aspects: Algeria as source of work, Camus’s Algerian political philosophy and the deterioration of his relationships with the native Algerian writers. The authoress leads to the following thesis: Albert Camus inscribes himself into the history of North African literature at the decline of the colonial age. His work is situated between a French colonial literat...

  19. Special Workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on Research and Training in Physics and Technology.

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210008_05a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator. Photo 0210008_06a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator. Photo 0210008_08a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator. Photo 0210008_09a: Dr, Rolf Landua (CERN) explaining to participants of the Marie Curie Workshop (held at CERN 3-4 October 2002) the ATHENA experiment and the Antiproton Decelerator.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Once Upon Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, E.

    2007-07-01

    Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conté (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein `those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within À la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: `time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour

  1. Curie-point Depths Estimated from Fractal Magnetization Models in the Indian-Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.; Lei, J., Sr.; Zhang, G.; Sun, C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates has developed the world's extreme topography and has also resulted in the occurrence of large earthquakes in the region. The April 25, 2015 (Mw 7.8) earthquake in central Nepal is the largest earthquake that has been recorded in the Nepal Himalaya since 1934. The earthquake caused thousands of people to die and massive destruction of famous heritage-structures in and around kathmandu and was attributed to the interations between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The crustal thermal structure which can be inferred from the Curie-point depths is critial to understand the seismotectonics and subduction in the Indian-Himalayan region. We present our inversion of Curie-point depths of the Indian-Himalayan region based on fractal spectral analyses both from aeromagnetic and satellite data. The first magnetic anomaly model used for estimatiion of Curie-point depths is the EMAG2 model, which has a resolution of 2-arc minute and an altitude of 4 km above the geoid. The second magnetic anomaly model is the CHAMP lithospheric model MF6. The third and the last magnetic anomaly model is the NGDC-720 lithospheric model, which is based on both the EMAG2 and MF6 models, has the smallest wavelength of 56 km. We first test variable windows sizes of 100.8×100.8 km2, 201.6×201.6 km2 and 302.4×302.4 km2 to estimate the Curie-point depths and then take the average of the results from these three different window sizes as the final Curie depths for the EMAG2 and MF6 models, respectively. The differences between the two Curie depths estimations from the EMAG2 and MF6 models mostly range within about ±4 km except for that in the Central Tibetan Plateau and Northeast India. This result shows that the NGDC-720 lithospheric model which contains both the EMAG2 and MF6 models is valid for the Curie-point estimation in the Indian-Himalayan region. The average Curie depths estimated from the NGDC-720 lithospheric model show small values in

  2. The behaviour of physical quantities in thin films near the Curie point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1982-05-01

    The Valenta model of a thin ferromagnetic film in the critical region above the Curie point has been considered. Spatial and temperature dependence for spin correlation time and magnetic susceptibility has been obtained and discussed. The results have been generalized and expressions describing the behaviour of any physical quantity in more complicated models of a thin ferromagnetic film near the Curie temperature have been given.

  3. Effect of Gd doping and O deficiency on the Curie temperature of EuO

    KAUST Repository

    Jutong, Nuttachai

    2015-01-27

    The effect of Gd doping and O deficiency on the electronic structure, exchange interaction, and Curie temperature of EuO in the cubic and tetragonal phases is studied by means of density functional theory. For both defects, the Curie temperature is found to exhibit a distinct maximum as a function of the defect concentration. The existence of optimal defect concentrations is explained by the interplay of the on-site, RKKY, and superexchange contributions to the magnetism.

  4. Albert B. Sabin and the development of oral poliovaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horaud, F

    1993-12-01

    There are many reasons for the modern interest in viral vaccines, but there is no doubt that the key role played by viral vaccines in public health is the major factor since other prophylactic or therapeutic anti-viral products simply do not exist. Viral vaccines have a long history that has been marked by successful events and by tragic accidents. Live viral vaccines are an extraordinary category of biologicals since, despite their reputed efficacy, they were developed by empirical experiments and patient epidemiological observation. From this point of view oral polio vaccine should be considered a 'miracle' since it became a major tool for public health in the 20th century, before we were able to understand the molecular basis of polio virus neurovirulence attenuation. The first evidence that polio virus can be attenuated was provided in the early 1940s by Max Theiler, but it was Hilary Koprowsky who demonstrated further in 1952, that a rodent adapted strain was safe and able to immunise a limited number of volunteers. Koprowsky studies were confirmed later during a mass field trial in Africa. However it is undeniable that the patient and systematic work of Albert B. Sabin was primordial in developing live oral attenuated poliovaccine. The excellence of Sabin's testing of poliovirus neurovirulence in the accurate studies that he developed, enabled him to select, after the cloning of viral populations by plaque assay, the best attenuated variants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Gravitational Lensing - Einstein's Unfinished Symphony

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational lensing - the deflection of light rays by gravitating matter - has become a major tool in the armoury of the modern cosmologist. Proposed nearly a hundred years ago as a key feature of Einstein's theory of General Relativity, we trace the historical development since its verification at a solar eclipse in 1919. Einstein was apparently cautious about its practical utility and the subject lay dormant observationally for nearly 60 years. Nonetheless there has been rapid progress over the past twenty years. The technique allows astronomers to chart the distribution of dark matter on large and small scales thereby testing predictions of the standard cosmological model which assumes dark matter comprises a massive weakly-interacting particle. By measuring distances and tracing the growth of dark matter structure over cosmic time, gravitational lensing also holds great promise in determining whether the dark energy, postulated to explain the accelerated cosmic expansion, is a vacuum energy density or a...

  6. Polymer Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, E., E-mail: ecastellanos@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, A.P. 14-740, México D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Chacón-Acosta, G., E-mail: gchacon@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Matemáticas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, México D.F. 01120 (Mexico)

    2013-05-13

    In this work we analyze a non-interacting one-dimensional polymer Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose–Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for λ{sup 2} up to ≲10{sup −16} m{sup 2}. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  7. Lorentz transformations: Einstein's derivation simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Rothenstein, B; Popescu, Stefan; Rothenstein, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Lorentz transformations for the space-time coordinates of the same event are a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and of Einstein's distant clocks synchronization procedure. In our approach, imposing the linear character of the Lorentz transformations we guess that the transformation equation for the space coordinate has the form x=ax'+cbt'. Imposing the condition that it accounts for the time dilation relativistic effect and taking into account the fact that due to the clock synchronization a la Einstein the space-time coordinates of the same event in the two frames are related by x=ct and x'=ct', we find out expressions for a and b. Dividing the transformation equation for the space coordinate by c we obtain the transformation equation for the time coordinate t=at'+b/cx'. Combining the two transformation equations we obtain directly the inverse Lorentz transformations.

  8. Hyperbolic Methods for Einstein's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reula Oscar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available I review evolutionary aspects of general relativity, in particular those related to the hyperbolic character of the field equations and to the applications or consequences that this property entails. I look at several approaches to obtaining symmetric hyperbolic systems of equations out of Einstein's equations by either removing some gauge freedoms from them, or by considering certain linear combinations of a subset of them.

  9. Einstein-Kalb-Ramond cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Gleiser, M.

    1986-11-15

    We study possible cosmological solutions to a higher-dimensional model of gravity with a three-form taking values in the physical space, and show that it is possible to integrate Einstein's equations exactly for flat physical and internal spaces. We then present a detailed analysis of the possible trajectories in the phase plane of the Hubble factors and find the allowed regions for a physically acceptable cosmology. These turn out to be rather small.

  10. Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2010-01-01

    We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...

  11. A Note on Discrete Einstein Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    In this short note, we prove that the space of all admissible piecewise linear metrics parameterized by length square on a triangulated manifolds is a convex cone. We further study Regge's Einstein-Hilbert action and give a much more reasonable definition of discrete Einstein metric than our former version in \\cite{G}. Finally, we introduce a discrete Ricci flow for three dimensional triangulated manifolds, which is closely related to the existence of discrete Einstein metrics.

  12. Einstein's Jury The Race to Test Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Crelinsten, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to p

  13. Calculation of exchange integrals and Curie temperature for La-substituted barium hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke; Nie, Jinlan; Guo, Rongdi; Liu, Hai; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen

    2016-10-01

    As the macro behavior of the strength of exchange interaction, state of the art of Curie temperature Tc, which is directly proportional to the exchange integrals, makes sense to the high-frequency and high-reliability microwave devices. Challenge remains as finding a quantitative way to reveal the relationship between the Curie temperature and the exchange integrals for doped barium hexaferrites. Here in this report, for La-substituted barium hexaferrites, the electronic structure has been determined by the density functional theory (DFT) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). By means of the comparison between the ground and relative state, thirteen exchange integrals have been calculated as a function of the effective value Ueff. Furthermore, based on the Heisenberg model, the molecular field approximation (MFA) and random phase approximation (RPA), which provide an upper and lower bound of the Curie temperature Tc, have been adopted to deduce the Curie temperature Tc. In addition, the Curie temperature Tc derived from the MFA are coincided well with the experimental data. Finally, the strength of superexchange interaction mainly depends on 2b-4f1, 4f2-12k, 2a-4f1, and 4f1-12k interactions.

  14. Relationship between Curie isotherm surface and Moho discontinuity in the Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; Alotaibi, Abdulrahman M.; Saud, Ramzi

    2016-10-01

    The Arabian shield is a Precambrian complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks located approximately one-third of the way across the western Arabian Peninsula, with uncommon exposures along the Red Sea coast. We used aeromagnetic data acquired by others over the past several decades to estimate the depth to the Curie temperature isotherm throughout this region. Our goal was to further understand the lithospheric structure, thermal activity, and seismicity to assist in geothermal exploration. We also compared the Curie temperature isotherm with the crustal thickness to investigate the possibility that mantle rocks are magnetic in some parts of the Arabian shield. Depths to the Curie isotherm were estimated by dividing the regional aeromagnetic grid into 26 overlapping windows. Each window was then used to estimate the shape of the power spectrum. The windows had dimensions of 250 × 250 km to allow investigation of depths as deep as 50 km. The results show the presence of a Curie isotherm at a depth of 10-20 km near the Red Sea, increasing to 35-45 km in the interior of the Arabian shield. The Curie isotherm generally lies above the Moho in this region but deepens into the mantle in some locations, notably beneath the Asir Terrane.

  15. Buchi neri nel mio bagno di schiuma l’enigma di Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2008-01-01

    "Le bolle stavano turbinando tutto intorno a me e massaggiavano il mio corpo ... Mentre me la godevo in questo fantastico bagno di bolle, i miei occhi si fecero pesanti e mi lasciaii trasportare in un dormiveglia sublimamente estatico". Così inizia l’incontro di Alfie con una vasca da bagno eccezionale e rivelatrice, acquistata da un vicino misterioso di nome Al. L’Enigma di Einstein, ovvero buchi neri nel mio bagno di schiuma, racconta la storia della teoria della gravitazione, dai suoi primordi fino agli ultimi sviluppi in astrofisica, focalizzandosi sulla teoria della relatività generale di Albert Einstein e sulla fisica dei buchi neri. Tramite conversazioni avvincenti e diagrammi scarabocchiati su tovaglioli di carta, si susseguono a ruota i rudimenti della relatività, dello spazio-tempo e di molti aspetti della fisica moderna. In scenette narrate con abilità pedagogica e notevole talento letterario, il lettore s’imbatterà nelle lezioni informali che un astrofisico cosmopolita tiene al suo amic...

  16. Measuring Starlight Deflection during the 2017 Eclipse: Repeating the Experiment that made Einstein Famous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Donald

    2016-05-01

    In 1919, astronomers performed an experiment during a solar eclipse, attempting to measure the deflection of stars near the sun, in order to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity. The experiment was very difficult and the results were marginal, but the success made Albert Einstein famous around the world. Astronomers last repeated the experiment in 1973, achieving an error of 11%. In 2017, using amateur equipment and modern technology, I plan to repeat the experiment and achieve a 1% error. The best available star catalog will be used for star positions. Corrections for optical distortion and atmospheric refraction are better than 0.01 arcsec. During totality, I expect 7 or 8 measurable stars down to magnitude 9.5, based on analysis of previous eclipse measurements taken by amateurs. Reference images, taken near the sun during totality, will be used for precise calibration. Preliminary test runs performed during twilight in April 2016 and April 2017 can accurately simulate the sky conditions during totality, providing an accurate estimate of the final uncertainty.

  17. Scientific Potential of Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B; Acernese, F; Andersson, P Amaro-Seoane N; Arun, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsuglia, M; Beveridge, M Beker N; Birindelli, S; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Bulik, T; Calloni, E; Cella, G; Mottin, E Chassande; Chelkowski, S; Chincarini, A; Clark, J; Coccia, E; Colacino, C; Colas, J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S; Danzmann, K; Salvo, R De; Dent, T; Rosa, R De; Fiore, L Di; Virgilio, A Di; Doets, M; Fafone, V; Falferi, P; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Friedrich, D; Fulda, P; Gair, J; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Glampedakis, K; Gräf, C; Granata, M; Grote, H; Guidi, G; Gurkovsky, A; Hammond, G; Hannam, M; Harms, J; Heinert, D; Hendry, M; Heng, I; Hennes, E; Hild, S; Hough, J; Husa, S; Huttner, S; Jones, G; Khalili, F; Kokeyama, K; Kokkotas, K; Krishnan, B; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Lück, H; Majorana, E; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Martin, I; Michel, C; Minenkov, Y; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Müller--Ebhardt, H; Murray, P; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Oshaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Palomba, C; Paoli, A; Parguez, G; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pinard, L; Plastino, W; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Prato, M; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D; Racz, I; Rapagnani, P; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Rezzolla, L; Ricci, F; Richard, F; Rocchi, A; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Santamaría, L; Sassolas, B; Schnabe, R; Schwarz, C; Seidel, P; Sintes, A; Somiya, K; Speirits, F; Strain, K; Strigin, S; Sutton, P; Tarabrin, S; Thüring, A; Brand, J van den; Veggel, M van; Broeck, C van den; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Vyatchanin, S; Willke, B; Woan, G; Yamamoto, K

    2011-01-01

    Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope (ET) is a design study funded by the European Commission to explore the technological challenges of and scientific benefits from building a third generation gravitational wave detector. The three-year study, which concluded earlier this year, has formulated the conceptual design of an observatory that can support the implementation of new technology for the next two to three decades. The goal of this talk is to introduce the audience to the overall aims and objectives of the project and to enumerate ET's potential to influence our understanding of fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  18. Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B S; Broeck, Chris Van Den

    2009-01-01

    Einstein Telescope (ET) is a 3rd generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector that is currently undergoing a design study. ET can detect millions of compact binary mergers up to redshifts 2-8. A small fraction of mergers might be observed in coincidence as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance and red-shift to the source. By fitting these measured values to a cosmological model, it should be possible to accurately infer the dark energy equation-of-state, dark matter and dark energy density parameters. ET could, therefore, herald a new era in cosmology.

  19. Einstein equations with fluctuating volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-07-01

    We develop a simple model to study classical fields on the background of a fluctuating spacetime volume. It is applied to formulate the stochastic Einstein equations with a perfect-fluid source. We investigate the particular case of a stochastic Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show that the resulting field equations can lead to solutions which avoid the initial big bang singularity. By interpreting the fluctuations as the result of the presence of a quantum spacetime, we conclude that classical singularities can be avoided even within a stochastic model that include quantum effects in a very simple manner.

  20. Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.

  1. Albert Eckstein (1891-1950): modernizer of Turkey's paediatrics in exile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Nejat; Reisman, Arnold; Oral, Aysu

    2007-11-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective on Ordinarius Professor Albert Eckstein. He was the architect of modern paediatrics in Turkey. The year 2005 was the 55th anniversary of Professor Albert Eckstein's death and the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Paediatric Clinics at Ankara University, where he served for five years as the founding director while in forced exile from Nazi Germany. This is a tale of an individual caught at the crossroads and in the crossfire of history. His native land was in the throes of discarding him. His life was saved because (to him) an alien country was discarding a societal culture inherited from the Ottomans. Turkey recognized the need to modernize its society. The Nazis came to power. Albert Eckstein, a noted German paediatrician, was Jewish.

  2. Einstein in love a scientific romance

    CERN Document Server

    Overbye, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    At its height, Einstein's marriage to Mileva was an extraordinary one - a colleague and often fierce adversary, Mileva was brilliantly matched with the scientific genius. Dennis Overbye seeks to present this scientific romance in a vivid light, telling the private story of the young Einstein.

  3. New details emerge from the Einstein files

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, D

    2002-01-01

    For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).

  4. Einstein as a Missionary of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed…

  5. Exact Vacuum Solutions to the Einstein Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a framework for getting a series of exact vacuum solutions to the Einstein equation. This procedure of resolution is based on a canonical form of the metric. According to this procedure, the Einstein equation can be reduced to some 2-dimensional Laplace-like equations or rotation and divergence equations,which are much convenient for the resolution.

  6. Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian

    2009-01-01

    A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the…

  7. Variations in Moho and Curie depths and heat flow in Eastern and Southeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The Eastern and Southeastern Asian regions witness the strongest land-ocean and lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions. The extreme diversity of geological features warrants a unified study for a better understanding of their geodynamic uniqueness and/or ubiquity from a regional perspective. In this paper we have explored a large coverage of potential field data and have detected high resolution Moho and Curie depths in the aforementioned regions. The oldest continental and oceanic domains, i.e. the North China craton and the Pacific and Indian Ocean have been found thermally perturbed by events probably linked to small-scale convection or serpentinization in the mantle and to numerous volcanic seamounts and ridges. The thermal perturbation has also been observed in proximity of the fossil ridge of the western Philippine Sea Basin, which shows anomalously small Curie depths. The western Pacific marginal seas have the lowest Moho temperature, with Curie depths generally larger than Moho depths. The contrary is true in most parts of easternmost Eurasian continent. Magmatic processes feeding the Permian Emeishan large igneous province could have also been genetically linked to deep mantle/crustal processes beneath the Sichuan Basin. The regionally elongated magnetic features and small Curie depths along the Triassic Yangtze-Indochina plate boundary suggest that the igneous province could be caused by tectonic processes along plate margins, rather than by a deep mantle plume. At the same time, we interpret the Caroline Ridge, the boundary between the Pacific and the Caroline Sea, as a structure having a continental origin, rather than as hotspot or arc volcanism. The surface heat flow is primarily modulated by a deep isotherm through thermal conduction. This concordance is emphasized along many subduction trenches, where zones of large Curie depths often correspond with low heat flow. Local or regional surface heat flow variations cannot be faithfully used in inferring

  8. Enhancement of Curie temperature of barium hexaferrite by dense electronic excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Curie temperature of polycrystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19, prepared by conventional solid state technique, is anomalously and significantly enhanced (by nearly 15% by energetic heavy ion irradiation (150 MeV, Ag12+ at ambient temperature due to dense electronic excitations Moderate fluence (1 × 1012 ions/cm2 induces structural defects giving rise to above enhancement. As established by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman studies, higher fluence (1 × 1013 ions/cm2 has structurally transformed the sample to amorphous phase with marginal change in magnetization and Curie temperature.

  9. Enhancement of Curie temperature of barium hexaferrite by dense electronic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manju; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Gupta, Hem C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dimri, Mukesh C. [Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad - 201009 (India); Asokan, K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Curie temperature of polycrystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), prepared by conventional solid state technique, is anomalously and significantly enhanced (by nearly 15%) by energetic heavy ion irradiation (150 MeV, Ag{sup 12+}) at ambient temperature due to dense electronic excitations Moderate fluence (1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) induces structural defects giving rise to above enhancement. As established by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman studies, higher fluence (1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) has structurally transformed the sample to amorphous phase with marginal change in magnetization and Curie temperature.

  10. Ciencia e industria en el desarrollo de la radiactividad: el caso de Marie Curie

    OpenAIRE

    Roqué, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    Not available.Se argumenta que Marie Curie desarrolló sus investigaciones en radiactividad en estrecha relación con la industria de los radioelementos. Esta relación incluyó desde el desarrollo de procedimientos de extracción para diversas sustancias radiactivas, hasta la promoción de su propio laboratorio industrial. La actividad industrial de Curie se aviene mal con su imagen heroica de científica pura, sacrificada y carente de medios, imagen que, paradójicamente, se retrotrae a las campaña...

  11. Curie Transition of NC Nickel by Mechanical Spectroscopy and Magnetization Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping-Yun; CAO Zhen-Hua; ZHANG Xi-Yan; WU Xiao-Lei; HUANG Yi-Neng; MENG Xiang-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical spectroscopy measurement is performed to study the internal friction of nanocrystalline (NC) nickel with an average grain size of 23 nm from room temperature to 610 K.An internal friction peak is observed at about 550 K,which corresponds to the Curie transition process of the NC nickel according to the result of magnetization test.Moreover,the fact that the Curie temperature of NC nickel is lower than that of coarse-grained nickel is explained by an analytical model based on the weakening of cohesive energy.

  12. Curie temperatures of dilute magnetic semiconductors from LDA+U electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. [ISIR, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: ksato@cmp.sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Dederichs, P.H. [IFF, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Katayama-Yoshida, H. [ISIR, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2006-04-01

    The magnetic properties of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are calculated by using the local density approximation +U(LDA+U) method. In the LDA+U, occupied d-states in (Ga, Mn)As are predicted at lower energy than in the LDA and p-d exchange interaction explains calculated concentration dependence of Curie temperature very well. In (Ga, Mn)N, unoccupied d states are predicted at higher energy by LDA+U, resulting in higher Curie temperatures than in LDA at high concentrations due to the suppression of the anti-ferromagnetic super-exchange interaction.

  13. Finding Pulsars with Einstein@Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Benjamin; Allen, B.; Cordes, J.; Deneva, J.; Anderson, D.; Aulbert, C.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bock, O.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Demorest, P. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Hammer, D.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kasian, L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; Machenschalk, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Messenger, C.; Nice, D. J.; Papa, M. A.; Pletsch, H. J.; Prix, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.; Desvignes, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Einstein@Home project is a global distributed computing project and aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to "mine" large data sets. Its long-term goal is the detection of continuous gravitational waves in data from the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Since March 2009 about a third of Einstein@Home's computation cycles is also used to search for tight binary pulsars in PALFA radio data from the Arecibo observatory. In July 2010, two new pulsars were found by Einstein@Home, J2007+2722 and J1952+26, the latter in a binary system with 9.4 hours orbital period. Here, we present an overview of the status of the Einstein@Home project and describe its search for radio pulsars in binaries with periods larger than 11 minutes. Further, we briefly review Einstein@Home's pulsar discoveries.

  14. Analytical estimates and proof of the scale-free character of efficiency and improvement in Barabasi-Albert trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.es; Marco-Blanco, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain); Romance, M. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-02-23

    Estimates for the efficiency of a tree are derived, leading to new analytical expressions for Barabasi-Albert trees efficiency. These expressions are used to investigate the dynamic behaviour of such networks. It is proved that the preferential attachment leads to an asymptotic conservation of efficiency as the Barabasi-Albert trees grow.

  15. The Canarias Einstein Ring: a Newly Discovered Optical Einstein Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bettinelli, Margherita; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Cassisi, Santi; Walker, Alistair R; Piotto, Giampaolo; Valdes, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of an optical Einstein Ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. It is an almost complete ring ($\\sim 300^{\\circ}$) with a diameter of $\\sim 4.5\\, {\\rm arcsec}$. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the $10.4$ m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of ${\\rm z}=0.581$ while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of ${\\rm z}=1.165$. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be ${\\rm M_{tot}=(1.86 \\pm 0.23) \\,\\cdot 10^{12}\\, {\\rm M_{\\odot}}}$.

  16. Einstein Ring in Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, Rémi Cabanac and his European colleagues have discovered an amazing cosmic mirage, known to scientists as an Einstein Ring. This cosmic mirage, dubbed FOR J0332-3557, is seen towards the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), and is remarkable on at least two counts. First, it is a bright, almost complete Einstein ring. Second, it is the farthest ever found. ESO PR Photo 20a/05 ESO PR Photo 20a/05 Deep Image of a Region in Fornax (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 434 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 867 pix - 276k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1859 x 2015 pix - 3.8M] ESO PR Photo 20b/05 ESO PR Photo 20b/05 Zoom-in on the Newly Found Einstein Ring (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 575 pix - 168k] [Normal - JPEG: 630 x 906 pix - 880k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 20a/05 is a composite image taken in two bands (B and R) with VLT/FORS1 of a small portion of the sky (field-of-view 7x7' or 1/15th of the area of the full moon). The faintest object seen in the image has a magnitude 26, that is, it is 100 million times fainter than what can be observed with the unaided eye. The bright elliptical galaxy on the lower-left quadrant is a dwarf galaxy part of a large nearby cluster in the Fornax constellation. As for all deep images of the sky, this field shows a variety of objects, the brightest ponctual sources being stars from our Galaxy. By far the field is dominated by thousands of faint background galaxies the colours of which are related to the age of their dominant stellar population, their dust content and their distance. The newly found Einstein ring is visible in the top right part of the image. ESO PR Photo 20b/05 zooms-in on the position of the newly found cosmic mirage. ESO PR Photo 20c/05 ESO PR Photo 20c/05 Einstein Ring in Distant Universe (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 584 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1168 pix - 292k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1502 x 2192 pix - 684k] Caption of ESO PR Photo 20c/05: The left image is magnified and centred

  17. Curie-point pyrolysis of sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Selected sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids were subjected to Curie-point pyrolysis and their pyrolysis products subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to study the thermal dissociation mechanisms of lipid moieties in bio- and geomacromolecules. Pyrolysis of t

  18. Book Review: The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2012-01-01

    truth about nature. In The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science, Julie Des Jardins does not seek to discredit the work of Archimedes; rather, she demonstrates that the image of the superman-scientist saturated the public mindset from the late nineteenth century through the 1960s...

  19. Near-Curie magnetic anomaly at the Ni/C interface observed by Electron Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Loris; Matteucci, Giorgio; Schofield, Marvin A

    2010-01-01

    We analyze with electron holography carried out in a transmission electron microscope the near-Curie behavior of magnetism at the edge of a Nickel thin film coated with Carbon. In-situ experiments with finely controlled variations of the sample temperature reveal an anomaly in the ferromagnetic t...

  20. On the dielectric curie-weiss law and diffuse phase transition in ferroelectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple derivation of parabolic 1/εr-T curves is obtained by reconsidering the origin of the dielectric Curie-Weiss law. The only assumption needed is the introduction of a non-linear temperature dependance of the macroscopic dielectric polarization in the macroscopic Clausius-Mossotti equation

  1. Difficulties in teaching electromagnetism: an eight year experience at Pierre and Marie Curie University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Roussel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We will begin by outlining the details of how electromagnetics are taught in the  electrical engineering program offered at Pierre and Marie Curie University (a French example from the undergraduate to the Masters degree levels.  We will also discuss how our methods are and should be adapted to teach waves propagation without discouraging students.

  2. The Marie Curie Actions at CERN – reaching out beyond particle physics and Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    EU Projects Office

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission’s Marie Curie Actions have been a pillar of the EU Framework Programmes for several decades as a means of promoting career development and enhancing mobility of researchers in Europe. This corresponds nicely to one of CERN’s main missions: to train the next generation of scientists and engineers.   The European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism, Sport, Media and Youth, Androulla Vassiliou (centre) met the Marie Curie Fellows on her visit to CERN in April 2013. CERN has been pleased to be a major player in the Marie Curie Actions under the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes (FP6 from 2002 to 2006 and FP7 from 2007 to 2013), being one of the most successful participants in Europe. Under FP7, CERN was ranked first in Switzerland and fifth in Europe against stiff competition in terms of overall funding. Participation was in all of the Marie Curie Actions: Initial Training Networks, Industry-Academia Partnership Pathways, IRSES, CO...

  3. Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Mariotti, Chiara; Vicinanza, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui Conférence par Hélène Langevin-Joliot Avec la participation de l'Echo du Reculet de Thoiry. L'enregistrement et la liste d'attente sont déjà complets... Mais il n'est pas rare que des personnes réservent et ne viennent pas. Nous réassignerons les places libérées selon la règle "premier arrivé, premier inscrit". Au vu de la forte demande, la conférence sera également disponible en vidéoconférence : lien d'accès "webcast" disponible en bas de cette page. Hélène Langevin-Joliot, directrice de recherche émérite en physique nucléaire fondamentale au CNRS à Orsay, est aussi la fille de Frédéric et Irène Joliot-Curie (prix Nobel de chimie en 1935) et la petite-fille de Pierre Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903) et de Marie Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903 et prix Nobel de chimie en 1911). Hélène Langevin-Joliot nous parlera de sa vie scientifique, de l’histoire extraordinai...

  4. Ciencia e industria en el desarrollo de la radiactividad: el caso de Marie Curie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqué, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Se argumenta que Marie Curie desarrolló sus investigaciones en radiactividad en estrecha relación con la industria de los radioelementos. Esta relación incluyó desde el desarrollo de procedimientos de extracción para diversas sustancias radiactivas, hasta la promoción de su propio laboratorio industrial. La actividad industrial de Curie se aviene mal con su imagen heroica de científica pura, sacrificada y carente de medios, imagen que, paradójicamente, se retrotrae a las campañas de Curie en los años 1920 por dotar a su laboratorio con «medios de acción industriales». Se verá que los valores dominantes del medio científico francés favorecieron la propagación selectiva de la imagen heroica de Curie, que fue luego aceptada acríticamente por la historiografía de la física del siglo XX.

  5. Living Proof: What Helen Keller, Marilyn Monroe, and Marie Curie Have in Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1986-01-01

    Examines biographies of Marie Curie written for children and discusses two types of distortions: simple misrepresentations of fact and selective retelling of the past. It is concluded that biographies of minority or female success should deal specifically with strategies used by the hero or heroine to combat prejudice. (EM)

  6. Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui - English

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui Conférence par Hélène Langevin-Joliot Avec la participation de l'Echo du Reculet de Thoiry. L'enregistrement et la liste d'attente sont déjà complets... Mais il n'est pas rare que des personnes réservent et ne viennent pas. Nous réassignerons les places libérées selon la règle "premier arrivé, premier inscrit". Nous envisageons la possibilité de faire un webcast de la conférence. Plus d'information bientôt. Hélène Langevin-Joliot, directrice de recherche émérite en physique nucléaire fondamentale au CNRS à Orsay, est aussi la fille de Frédéric et Irène Joliot-Curie (prix Nobel de chimie en 1935) et la petite-fille de Pierre Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903) et de Marie Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903 et prix Nobel de chimie en 1911). Hélène Langevin-Joliot nous parlera de sa vie scientifique, de l’histoire extraordinaire de sa famille et en particulier du rôle des ...

  7. Living Proof: What Helen Keller, Marilyn Monroe, and Marie Curie Have in Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1986-01-01

    Examines biographies of Marie Curie written for children and discusses two types of distortions: simple misrepresentations of fact and selective retelling of the past. It is concluded that biographies of minority or female success should deal specifically with strategies used by the hero or heroine to combat prejudice. (EM)

  8. Attracting Talented Researchers to Ireland: A review of The European Marie Curie Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Giordani, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED The purpose of this publication is to illustrate how researchers in academia and industry in Ireland have successfully secured funding from Europe in the Marie Curie Programme and to highlight the impact this has had in furthering their R&D ambitions.

  9. Variational description of Gibbs-non-Gibbs dynamical transitions for the Curie-Weiss model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; den Hollander, F.; Martinez, J.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions for the Curie- Weiss model subject to independent spin-flip dynamics (“infinite-temperature” dynamics). We show that, in this setup, the program outlined in van Enter et al. (Moscow Math J 10:687–711, 2010) can be fully completed, namely, Gi

  10. The Marie Curie programme at the Institute of Archaeology 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Rehren

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marie Curie Early Stage Training (MEST projects, run by the European Commission, offer training opportunities to young scientists from EU member states and sometimes also from non-European countries. The Institute of Archaeology hosted one such project between 2004 and 2008, which is described here by its Principal Investigator.

  11. PARTNER: A Marie Curie Initial Training Network for hadron therapy (with english subtitles)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN BULLETIN; Manuela Cirilli; Nathalie Hospital

    2011-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network.

  12. PARTNER: A Marie Curie Initial Training Network for hadron therapy (with french subtitles)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN BULLETIN; Manuela Cirilli; Nathalie Hospital

    2011-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network.

  13. Bose and Einstein Meet Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Lawton, Wayne M

    2011-01-01

    We model the time evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate, subject to a special periodically excited optical lattice, by a unitary quantum operator U on a Hilbert space H. If a certain parameter alpha = p/q, where p and q are coprime positive integers, then H = L^2(R/Z,C^q) and U is represented by a q x q matrix-valued function M on R/Z that acts pointwise on functions in H. The dynamics of the quantum system is described by the eigenvalues of M. Numerical computations show that the characteristic polynomial det(zI - M(t)) = Prod_j=1^q (z - lambda_j(t)) where each lambda_j is a real analytic functions that has period 1/q. We discuss this phenomena using Newton's Theorem, published in Geometria analytica in 1660, and modern concepts from analytic geometry.

  14. Non-thermal Einstein relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichardaz, Robin; Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We consider a particle moving with equation of motion \\dot x=f(t) , where f(t) is a random function with statistics which are independent of x and t, with a finite drift velocity v= and in the presence of a reflecting wall. Far away from the wall, translational invariance implies that the stationary probability distribution is P(x)∼ \\exp(α x) . A classical example of a problem of this type is sedimentation equilibrium, where α is determined by temperature. In this work we do not introduce a thermal reservoir and α is determined from the equation of motion. We consider a general approach to determining α which is not always in agreement with Einstein's relation between the mean velocity and the diffusion coefficient. We illustrate our results with a model inspired by the Boltzmann equation.

  15. Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei M

    2013-01-01

    We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. The most convenient way to s...

  16. Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Routinely, Einstein’s equations are be reduced to a wave form (linearly independent of the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel’s symbols. As shown herein, the origin of the problem is the use of the general covariant theory of measurement. Herein the wave form of Einstein’s equations is obtained in terms of Zelmanov’s chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer’s time line and spatial section. The equations so obtained depend solely upon the second derivatives, even for gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel’s symbols. The correct linearization proves that the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.

  17. Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyaprakash, B S [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Schutz, B F [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, The Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, Golm, D-14476 (Germany); Van Den Broeck, C, E-mail: B.Sathyaprakash@astro.cf.ac.u, E-mail: B.F.Schutz@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: vdbroeck@nikhef.n [Nikhef - National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-07

    The Einstein Telescope, a third-generation gravitational-wave detector under a design study, could detect millions of binary neutron star inspirals each year. A small fraction of these events might be observed as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance D{sub L} to and redshift z of the source. By fitting these measured values of D{sub L} and z to a cosmological model, it would be possible to infer the dark energy equation of state to within 1.5% without the need to correct for errors in D{sub L} caused by weak lensing. This compares favourably with 0.3-10% accuracy that can be achieved with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (where weak lensing will need to be dealt with) as well as with dedicated dark energy missions that have been proposed, where 3.5-11% uncertainty is expected.

  18. Projective Compactifications and Einstein metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    For complete affine manifolds we introduce a definition of compactification based on the projective differential geometry (i.e.\\ geodesic path data) of the given connection. The definition of projective compactness involves a real parameter $\\alpha$ called the order of projective compactness. For volume preserving connections, this order is captured by a notion of volume asymptotics that we define. These ideas apply to complete pseudo-Riemannian spaces, via the Levi-Civita connection, and thus provide a notion of compactification alternative to conformal compactification. For each order $\\alpha$, we provide an asymptotic form of a metric which is sufficient for projective compactness of the given order, thus also providing many local examples. Distinguished classes of projectively compactified geometries of orders one and two are associated with Ricci-flat connections and non--Ricci--flat Einstein metrics, respectively. Conversely, these geometric conditions are shown to force the indicated order of projectiv...

  19. Visions of Savage Paradise : Albert Eckhout, Court Painter in Colonial Dutch Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brienen, Rebecca Parker

    2006-01-01

    Visions of Savage Paradise is the first major book-length study of the Dutch artist Albert Eckhout to be published since 1938. This book, which draws extensively on the author's doctoral dissertation, examines the fascinating works of art produced by Eckhout while he was court painter in Dutch Brazi

  20. In the Beginning--Albert McKinley and the Founding of "The Social Studies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Oliver M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the founding of "The Social Studies" by Albert E. McKinley. The author briefly introduces McKinley's life and examines the evolution of the magazine. He identifies the conflicts and struggles between the historians and social studies educators for the magazine. The author concludes that the magazine has served both history…

  1. Democracy's Champion: Albert Shanker and the International Impact of the American Federation of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Albert Shanker (1928-1997) is known mainly for his successful struggle to obtain collective bargaining for teachers, his leadership of teacher unions, and his championship of education reform. Shanker built large and powerful city, state, and national unions of teachers and other public employees that still stand as models both for union democracy…

  2. Belgia kuningas Albert II ja kuninganna Paola jõudsid Eestsse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eestisse saabusid riigivisiidile Belgia kuningas Albert II ja kuninganna Paola. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves võtsid külalised vastu Kadriorus. Päeva ametliku osa lõpetas galaõhtusöök Mustpeade majas, kus riigipead kõne pidasid

  3. Distorting the Historical Record: One Detailed Example from the Albert Shanker Institute's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a detailed example from the Albert Shanker Institute's report that shows the error of U.S. history textbooks and how it is distorting the historical record. One of the most glaring errors in textbooks is the treatment of the role that unions and labor activists played as key participants in the civil rights movement. The…

  4. In the Beginning--Albert McKinley and the Founding of "The Social Studies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Oliver M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the founding of "The Social Studies" by Albert E. McKinley. The author briefly introduces McKinley's life and examines the evolution of the magazine. He identifies the conflicts and struggles between the historians and social studies educators for the magazine. The author concludes that the magazine has served both history…

  5. Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ted

    2016-05-20

    A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.

  6. Einstein Manifolds and Extremal Kahler Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    LeBrun, Claude

    2010-01-01

    In joint work with Chen and Weber, the author has elsewhere shown that CP2#2(-CP2) admits an Einstein metric. The present paper presents a new and rather different proof of the existence of such an Einstein metric, using a variational approach which simultaneously casts new light on the related uniqueness problem. Our results include new existence theorems for extremal Kahler metrics, and these allow one to prove the above existence statement by deforming the Kahler-Einstein metric on CP2#3(-CP2) until bubbling-off occurs.

  7. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  8. Boundary conditions for the Einstein-Christoffel formulation of Einstein's equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas N. Arnold

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Specifying boundary conditions continues to be a challenge in numerical relativity in order to obtain a long time convergent numerical simulation of Einstein's equations in domains with artificial boundaries. In this paper, we address this problem for the Einstein-Christoffel (EC symmetric hyperbolic formulation of Einstein's equations linearized around flat spacetime. First, we prescribe simple boundary conditions that make the problem well posed and preserve the constraints. Next, we indicate boundary conditions for a system that extends the linearized EC system by including the momentum constraints and whose solution solves Einstein's equations in a bounded domain.

  9. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  10. Perturbed Einstein field equations using Maple

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, M

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the perturbed components of affine connection and Ricci tensor using algebraic computation. Naturally, the perturbed Einstein field equations for the vacuum can written. The method can be used to obtain perturbed equations of the superior order.

  11. Einstein constraints on a characteristic cone

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Martín-García, José M

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the Cauchy problem on a characteristic cone, including its vertex, for the Einstein equations in arbitrary dimensions. We use a wave map gauge, solve the obtained constraints and show gauge conservation.

  12. A Class of Homogeneous Einstein Manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifang KANG; Ke LIANG

    2006-01-01

    A Riemannian manifold (M,g) is called Einstein manifold if its Ricci tensor satisfies r=c·g for some constant c. General existence results are hard to obtain,e.g., it is as yet unknown whether every compact manifold admits an Einstein metric. A natural approach is to impose additional homogeneous assumptions. M. Y. Wang and W. Ziller have got some results on compact homogeneous space G/H. They investigate standard homogeneous metrics, the metric induced by Killing form on G/H, and get some classification results. In this paper some more general homogeneous metrics on some homogeneous space G/H are studies, and a necessary and sufficient condition for this metric to be Einstein is given. The authors also give some examples of Einstein manifolds with non-standard homogeneous metrics.

  13. Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)

  14. Boson Condensation in an Einstein Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Altaie, M. B.; Malkawi, Ehab

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of massive spin-1 particles in an Einstein universe. The system is considered under relativistic conditions taking into consideration the possibility of particle-antiparticle pair production. An exact expression for the charge density is obtained, then certain approximations are employed in order to obtain the solutions in closed form. A discussion of the approximations employed in this and other work is given. The effects of finite-...

  15. [Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska (1867-1934)--contribution to the development of radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Rade R; Babić, Gordana Stanković

    2011-01-01

    Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw (Poland). She suffered from leukaemia and died on June 4, 1934. She was buried with full honours at Pantheon. Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie discovered the radioactive elements Polonium (84Po210), Thorium (90Th232) and Radium (88Ra226). Marie Curie introduced the term radioactivity into science. She was the first woman who got Ph.D. in France, the first woman professor at Sorbonne, Paris and Medical Academy. Of all the women who have ever won the Nobel Prize, Marie Curie was the only who received it twice. During World War I Marie Curie designed a mobile x-ray room "radiologic car". Marie Curie had an x-ray machine installed into a car and demonstrated how to use its dynamo for electric power production necessary for the x-ray machine to work. She had 20 cars with moving radiological lab made and trained 150 people to work on them. She brought something radically new into military medicine--mobile x-ray diagnostics. With the discovery of radioactive elements a new medical branch, radiotherapy, was developed.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Einsteins Kosmos. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Kosmologie Relativitatstheorie und zu Einsteins Wirken und Nachwirken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    This book collects about 15 papers (most of them by one single author) on Einstein and the history of general relativity (GR) and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues (opposing as well as supporting personalities). As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. K. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. Brosche. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld (1919) and to Einstein (1934). In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D.B. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E.G. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. M. Schemmel discusses

  17. Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They

  18. Anomalous curie response of impurities in quantum-critical spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Kaj H; Sandvik, Anders W

    2007-07-13

    We consider a magnetic impurity in two different S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnets at their respective critical interlayer couplings separating Néel and disordered ground states. We calculate the impurity susceptibility using a quantum Monte Carlo method. With intralayer couplings in only one of the layers (Kondo lattice), we observe an anomalous Curie constant C*, as predicted on the basis of field-theoretical work [S. Sachdev, Science 286, 2479 (1999)10.1126/science.286.5449.2479]. The value C* = 0.262 +/- 0.002 is larger than the normal Curie constant C=S(S+1)/3. Our low-temperature results for a symmetric bilayer are consistent with a universal C*.

  19. Radioisótopos e sociedade : o legado de Marie Curie 100 anos depois

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    No ano em que se comemora o centenário da atribuição do Prémio Nobel da Química a Marie Curie e o Ano Internacional da Química, é oportuno recordar e analisar a herança deixada à Humanidade por esta cientista excepcional. Trata-se de um legado que não só revolucionou a ciência como igualmente teve impactos profundos e incontornáveis na sociedade. A aplicação clínica dos radioisótopos, por ela e por Pierre Curie preconizada, constitui uma das armas mais poderosas para o combate ao cancro actua...

  20. Critical behavior of the resistivity of GaMnAs near the Curie temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Yunusov, Z. A.; Kwon, Y. H.; Lee, S. H.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the magnetization fluctuations on the resistivity of GaMnAs near the Curie temperature TC was experimentally studied. It is shown that the determination of TC from the maximum of the temperature derivative of the resistivity is valid for the samples with a high concentration of free carries. Whereas, for the samples with low concentration of free carriers the TC coincides with the resistivity maximum. The magnetic specific heat for T>TC demonstrates the crossover from the one dimensional to the three dimensional critical behavior when the temperature become closer to the Curie temperature. This is explained by the formation of the ferromagnetic phase in the paramagnetic side of the phase transition which is started from Mn-Mn dimers oriented along one direction.

  1. Radioisótopos e sociedade : o legado de Marie Curie 100 anos depois

    OpenAIRE

    André, João P.; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    No ano em que se comemora o centenário da atribuição do Prémio Nobel da Química a Marie Curie e o Ano Internacional da Química, é oportuno recordar e analisar a herança deixada à Humanidade por esta cientista excepcional. Trata-se de um legado que não só revolucionou a ciência como igualmente teve impactos profundos e incontornáveis na sociedade. A aplicação clínica dos radioisótopos, por ela e por Pierre Curie preconizada, constitui uma das armas mais poderosas para o combate ao cancro actua...

  2. High Curie temperature BiInO3-PbTiO3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Wang, Wei; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2014-06-14

    High Curie temperaturepiezoelectricthin films of xBiInO3-(1-x)PbTiO3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25) were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. It was found that the tetragonality of films decreased with increasing BI content. The dielectric constant and transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f ) exhibit the highest values of 665 and -13.6 C/m(2) at x = 0.20. Rayleigh analyses were performed to identify the extrinsic contributions to dielectric nonlinearity with different x. The composition with x = 0.20 also exhibits the largest extrinsic contributions to dielectric nonlinearity. The Curie temperature (TC ) is increased with increasing x content from 558 to 633 °C; TC at x = 0.20 is about 584 °C.

  3. The research school of Marie Curie in the Paris faculty, 1907-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L

    1995-07-01

    As the most famous woman scientist of the twentieth century, there has been no shortage of books and articles on the life and career of Marie Curie (1867-1934). Her role as director of a laboratory-based research school in the new scientific field of radioactivity, a field which embraced both chemistry and physics, however, has never been examined. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the question of research schools, and Morrell, Ravetz, Geison, and Klosterman, amongst others, have written on this subject. Using, in part, the methodology of Morrell, this paper investigates the role of Marie Curie as a school director in the Paris Faculty in the years 1907-14, examining the work and characteristics of her school and assessing her effectiveness as a director.

  4. Influence of inherent strain on the curie temperature of rare earth ion-doped bismuth vanadate

    OpenAIRE

    Sooryanarayana, K; Row, TNG; R. Somashekar; Varma, KBR

    1998-01-01

    X-ray line broadening is found to be an effective parameter to estimate the strain associated with rare earth ion (Gd3+)-doped polycrystalline bismuth vanadate(Bi2VO5.5). The strain increases with increasing Gd3+ concentration. It is anisotropic and found to be maximum in (111) plane. The Curie temperature which is known to decrease with increase in the rare earth ion concentration in these compounds is correlated with increase in strain.

  5. Investigations on electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Song, Ting; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Su, Hao; Deng, Jian-Bo; Zhu, Xing-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Using full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis along with spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker methods, we study the electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy. The alloy with Li2AgSb and Cu2MnAl structures are compared in terms of magnetic properties, and the electronic structures in two structures are also discussed. According to the calculated electronic states, it finds that the Zr2CoAl with Li2AgSb structure is half-metallic ferromagnet with an integral magnetic moment of 2.00μB , meanwhile we also notice the d-d and p-d hybridizations are responsible for the formation of minority-spin gap, furthermore, the fat-bands are applied to discuss the mixture between d and p electrons in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The Fermi surfaces related to the valence bands are constructed, and it is found that the spin-up valence bands 26, 27 and 28 across the Fermi energy dominate the nature of electrons. By mapping the system onto a Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we obtain the exchange coupling parameters, and observe that the Zr(A)-Co(C) and Zr(A)-Zr(B) interactions provide a major contribution for exchange interactions. Based on the calculated exchange coupling parameters, the Curie temperature is estimated to be 287.86 K at equilibrium, and also the dependence of Curie temperature on lattice constant related to the tunable Curie temperature in Zr2CoAl alloy is studied. Finally, we report the optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy, and present the photon energy dependence of the absorption, the optical conductivity and the loss function.

  6. A new approach to increase the Curie temperature of Fe-Mo double perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi, D. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Frontera, C. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roig, A. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Nogues, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Munoz, J.S. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail: fontcuberta@icmab.es

    2006-01-25

    Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} and related double perovskites are nowadays intensely investigated due to their potential in the field of spintronics. It has been previously shown that the Curie temperature (T {sub C}) of double perovskites can be increased by injecting carriers in the conduction band. We report here on an alternative approach to reinforce the magnetic interaction, and thus raise T {sub C}. It can be suspected that the introduction of Fe excess in the Fe-Mo sub-lattice, which would lead into the appearance of nearest neighbour Fe-O-Fe antiferromagnetic spin coupling, could reinforce the next-near neighbour Fe-O-Fe-O-Fe ferromagnetic ordering and thus raise the Curie temperature. The plausibility of this mechanism was checked, in the first place, by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Afterwards, Nd{sub 2x}Ca{sub 2-2x}Fe{sub 1+x}Mo{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} series was prepared and fully characterized, being found that the Curie temperature rises as much as {delta}T {sub C} {approx} 75 K when the Fe content is increased. We argue that this is a genuine magnetic exchange effect, not related neither to steric distortions nor band filling.

  7. Ising Critical Behavior of Inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss Models and Annealed Random Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; van der Hofstad, Remco; Prioriello, Maria Luisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the critical behavior for inhomogeneous versions of the Curie-Weiss model, where the coupling constant {J_{ij}(β)} for the edge {ij} on the complete graph is given by {J_{ij}(β)=β w_iw_j/( {sum_{kin[N]}w_k})}. We call the product form of these couplings the rank-1 inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss model. This model also arises [with inverse temperature {β} replaced by {sinh(β)} ] from the annealed Ising model on the generalized random graph. We assume that the vertex weights {(w_i)_{iin[N]}} are regular, in the sense that their empirical distribution converges and the second moment converges as well. We identify the critical temperatures and exponents for these models, as well as a non-classical limit theorem for the total spin at the critical point. These depend sensitively on the number of finite moments of the weight distribution. When the fourth moment of the weight distribution converges, then the critical behavior is the same as on the (homogeneous) Curie-Weiss model, so that the inhomogeneity is weak. When the fourth moment of the weights converges to infinity, and the weights satisfy an asymptotic power law with exponent {τ} with {τin(3,5)}, then the critical exponents depend sensitively on {τ}. In addition, at criticality, the total spin {S_N} satisfies that {S_N/N^{(τ-2)/(τ-1)}} converges in law to some limiting random variable whose distribution we explicitly characterize.

  8. Albert Luthuli Municipality community-based labour-intensive IRMA infrastructure provision: Findings of an impact study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the community-based labour-intensive construction of the Integrated Rural Mobility and Access (IRMA) transportation infrastructure projects using selected beneficiary villages in Albert Luthuli local municipality as case...

  9. Einstein-Rosen "Bridge" Needs Lightlike Brane Source

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Kaganovich, Alexander; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    The Einstein-Rosen "bridge" wormhole solution proposed in the classic paper [1] does not satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations at the wormhole throat. We show that the fully consistent formulation of the original Einstein-Rosen "bridge" requires solving Einstein equations of bulk D=4 gravity coupled to a lightlike brane with a well-defined world-volume action. The non-vanishing contribution of Einstein-Rosen "bridge" solution to the right hand side of Einstein equations at the throat matches ...

  10. Einstein-Rosen "Bridge" Needs Lightlike Brane Source

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    The Einstein-Rosen "bridge" wormhole solution proposed in the classic paper [1] does not satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations at the wormhole throat. We show that the fully consistent formulation of the original Einstein-Rosen "bridge" requires solving Einstein equations of bulk D=4 gravity coupled to a lightlike brane with a well-defined world-volume action. The non-vanishing contribution of Einstein-Rosen "bridge" solution to the right hand side of Einstein equations at the throat matches precisely the surface stress-energy tensor of the lightlike brane which automatically occupies the throat ("horizon straddling") - a feature triggered by the world-volume lightlike brane dynamics.

  11. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  12. ALBERT, HANS, Racionalismo crítico. Por Juan A. Estrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Estrada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autor: Hans Albert (2002 Editorial: Síntesis, Madrid, 238 pp.   Desde su tratado sobre la razón crítica, Albert no ha cesado de precisar su concepción filosófica, desde un diálogo constante con Popper y respondiendo a las diversas críticas de la hermenéutica y la fenomenología, de la teoría crítica y de la misma teología. En este volumen ofrece varios trabajos con el subtítulo de «Cuatro capítulos para una sátira del pensamiento ilusorio», precedida de un denso y buen prólogo de Ángeles J. Perona.

  13. Albert Memmi: retrato de un extranjero. Crisis de identidad y creación literaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Marco Vega

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Albert Memmi’s first autobiographical novel, called La statue de sel, was published in 1953. Born in a Jewish family, Memmi grows up in Tunisia at a time where this Muslim majority country was still a French protectorate. Growing up in such an exceptional environment causes him a serious identity crisis. At 35, Memmi realizes that only literature can help him understand his place in the world. In this paper, we would like to analyze the feeling of strangeness Albert Memmi grew up with, paying special attention to his books: La statue de sel and the Portrait du colonisé, an essay published in 1957 as a theoretical complement to the novel.

  14. The Loneliness of the self and the Moral immanent in Albert Camus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington José Santana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The world, the way we grasp, is not understandable and we do not know how the world will come to an end or what comes after. The present article analyses critically a moral based upon immanence only when man find out that the self is alone and the other is an outsider according to French Philosopher Albert Camus. God keeps far and speechless and human being and in this scenario appears the absurd that challenges all types of hope. In this regard freedom reveals itself as a blessing and curse because can lead us to nothing or to the hope of finding something more. Analysing the text of Albert Camus, one will find out that maybe there is something that is not only immanent.

  15. Ising Model Spin S = 1 ON Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model with spin S = 1/2 was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Ising model spin S = 1 is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition is well defined in this system. We have obtained a first-order phase transition for values of connectivity m = 2 and m = 7 of the directed Barabási-Albert network.

  16. Analytic solutions for links and triangles distributions in finite Barabási-Albert networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo M.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.

    2017-01-01

    Barabási-Albert model describes many different natural networks, often yielding sensible explanations to the subjacent dynamics. However, finite size effects may prevent from discerning among different underlying physical mechanisms and from determining whether a particular finite system is driven by Barabási-Albert dynamics. Here we propose master equations for the evolution of the degrees, links and triangles distributions, solve them both analytically and by numerical iteration, and compare with numerical simulations. The analytic solutions for all these distributions predict the network evolution for systems as small as 100 nodes. The analytic method we developed is applicable for other classes of networks, representing a powerful tool to investigate the evolution of natural networks.

  17. Parameter specification for the degree distribution of simulated Barabási-Albert graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Zaid, Fairul; Kabban, Christine M. Schubert; Deckro, Richard F.; White, Edward D.

    2017-01-01

    The degree distribution of a simulated Barabási-Albert graph under linear preferential attachment is investigated. Specifically, the parameters of the power law distribution are estimated and compared against the theoretical values derived using mean field theory. Least squares method and MLE-nonparametric method were utilized to estimate the distribution parameters on 1000 simulated Barabási-Albert graphs for edge parameter m ∈ { 2 , 4 , 6 } and size n ∈ {2k : k = 5 , 6 , … , 14 , 15 } . Goodness of fit metrics were computed on a second set of simulated graphs for the median of the estimated parameters and other hypothetical values for the distribution parameters. The results suggest that the distribution of the parameters from simulated graphs are significantly different from the theoretical distribution and is also dependent on m. Further results confirm the finding that the parameter of the power law distribution, β, increases as m increases.

  18. MARIE CURIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDGAR SERNA MONTOYA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available María Sklodowska ‒Marie Curie‒ fue pionera en la ciencia de la radiactividad; es mejor conocida como la descubridora de los elementos radiactivos polonio y radio, y como el primer científico en ganar dos premios Nobel: Física y Química. Para sus colegas y el público en general, el radio fue la clave para un cambio fundamental en nuestra comprensión de la materia y la energía. Su trabajo no sólo influyó en el desarrollo de la ciencia fundamental, sino que también marcó el comienzo de una nueva era en la investigación y los tratamientos médicos.

  19. Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazibwe, F.; Makanga, B.; Rubaire-Akiiki, C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite ongoing preventive chemotherapy campaigns, intestinal schistosomiasis is hyper-endemic in shoreline communities living along Lake Albert, Uganda. To provide a deeper insight into the local epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, a variety of field-based studies were undertaken focusing upon ...... environmental modification(s), i.e. improvement in sanitation and hygiene and control of snail populations, is needed to bolster the impact of chemotherapy-based interventions....

  20. A Modified Earthquake Model Based on Generalized Barabási-Albert Scale-Free Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; WANG Gang; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2006-01-01

    A modified Olami-Feder-Christensen model of self-organized criticality on generalized Barabási-Albert (GBA) scale-free networks is investigated. We find that our model displays power-law behavior and the avalanche dynamical behavior is sensitive to the topological structure of networks. Furthermore, the exponent τ of the model depends on b, which weights the distance in comparison with the degree in the GBA network evolution.

  1. Finite-size effects on semi-directed Barabási-Albert networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, M. A.; Sumour, Muneer A.; Elbitar, A. M.; Shabat, M. M.; Lima, F. W. S.

    2016-04-01

    In scale-free Barabási-Albert (BA) networks, we study the finite-size effect at different number m of neighbors. So, we investigate the effects of finite network size N for the recently developed semi-directed BA networks (SDBA1 and SDBA2) at fixed 2≤m≤300) and show and explain the gap in the distribution of the number k(i) of neighbors of the nodes i.

  2. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  3. Albert Hofmann and Steve Myers honoured by the University of Geneva

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Albert Hofmann (top) and Steve Myers (bottom) receive the title of Doctor Honoris Causa from the hands of Maurice Bourquin, Rector of the University of Geneva and President of CERN Council.   In front of Geneva University's crowded auditorium, Albert Hofmann and Steve Myers received title of Doctor Honoris Causa last Friday 8 June. The two members of CERN thereby received the University's highest distinction. This honour comes in recognition of their careers in the service of accelerator physics and their essential contribution to the success of LEP. Steve Myers joined CERN in August 1972 to work as engineer-in charge of the Intersecting Storage Rings collider (ISR). He was responsible for the acceleration by phase displacement of the high intensity beams to 31 GeV/c. He also worked on many other topics, notably the beam-beam effect in the ISR. Albert Hofmann arrived at CERN from the Cambridge Electron Accelerator (CEA) near Boston, USA, in 1973 - already with an excellent reputation as accelerato...

  4. Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History Robert V. Steiner, Ph.D. Project Director, Seminars on Science American Museum of Natural History The American Museum of Natural History, in collaboration with Hebrew University and the Skirball Cultural Center, has created a major exhibit on Albert Einstein, including extensive coverage of his contributions to relativity, quantum mechanics and unified field theories as well as the social and political dimensions of his life. Leveraging the assets of this exhibit as well as the expertise of the Museum's Department of Astrophysics and its Education Department, a six-week online professional development course for K-12 teachers has been created, providing inquires into some of the frontiers of physics through rich media resources, facilitated discussion forums and assignments. The course, which requires only minimal Web access, offers a unique opportunity for teachers across the United States to explore modern physics guided by a working scientist and a skilled online facilitator. The course includes original essays by Museum scientists, images, video, simulations, web links and digital resources for classroom use. The course design, development, implementation and evaluation are reviewed.

  5. Einstein Critical-Slowing-Down is Siegel CyberWar Denial-of-Access Queuing/Pinning/ Jamming/Aikido Via Siegel DIGIT-Physics BEC ``Intersection''-BECOME-UNION Barabasi Network/GRAPH-Physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh-Siegel Percolation GLOBALITY-to-LOCALITY Phase-Transition Critical-Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, Otto; Falcon, Pat; Alexander, G.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Einstein[Dover(03)] critical-slowing-down(CSD)[Pais, Subtle in The Lord; Life & Sci. of Albert Einstein(81)] is Siegel CyberWar denial-of-access(DOA) operations-research queuing theory/pinning/jamming/.../Read [Aikido, Aikibojitsu & Natural-Law(90)]/Aikido(!!!) phase-transition critical-phenomenon via Siegel DIGIT-Physics (Newcomb[Am.J.Math. 4,39(1881)]-{Planck[(1901)]-Einstein[(1905)])-Poincare[Calcul Probabilités(12)-p.313]-Weyl [Goett.Nachr.(14); Math.Ann.77,313 (16)]-{Bose[(24)-Einstein[(25)]-Fermi[(27)]-Dirac[(1927)]}-``Benford''[Proc.Am.Phil.Soc. 78,4,551 (38)]-Kac[Maths.Stat.-Reasoning(55)]-Raimi[Sci.Am. 221,109 (69)...]-Jech[preprint, PSU(95)]-Hill[Proc.AMS 123,3,887(95)]-Browne[NYT(8/98)]-Antonoff-Smith-Siegel[AMS Joint-Mtg.,S.-D.(02)] algebraic-inversion to yield ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-statistics (BEQS) with ZERO-digit Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION(BEC) ``INTERSECTION''-BECOME-UNION to Barabasi[PRL 876,5632(01); Rev.Mod.Phys.74,47(02)...] Network /Net/GRAPH(!!!)-physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh(1881)-Polya(21)-``Anderson''(58)-Siegel[J.Non-crystalline-Sol.40,453(80)

  6. ESR study of thermal demagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles with Curie temperatures between 40 and 60 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kuznetsov_oa@yahoo.com; Sorokina, Olga N. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Leontiev, Vladimir G. [Institute of Metallurgy, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Shlyakhtin, Oleg A. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kovarski, Alexander L. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Anatoly A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    Thermal demagnetization in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of silver and sodium manganite nanoparticles, as well as copper-nickel and palladium-nickel alloy nanoparticles were studied by both static magnetic measurements and by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR data indicate that some magnetic ordering remains even above the Curie temperature, determined by static magnetometry. Mechanisms of thermal demagnetization in alloy nanoparticles appear to be different from that in manganites.

  7. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  8. Partially massless graviton on beyond Einstein spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Hinterbichler, Kurt; von Strauss, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    We show that a partially massless graviton can propagate on a large set of spacetimes which are not Einstein spacetimes. Starting from a recently constructed theory for a massive graviton that propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom on an arbitrary spacetime, we first give the full explicit form of the scalar constraint responsible for the absence of a sixth degree of freedom. We then spell out generic conditions for the constraint to be identically satisfied, so that there is a scalar gauge symmetry which makes the graviton partially massless. These simplify if one assumes that spacetime is Ricci symmetric. Under this assumption, we find explicit non-Einstein spacetimes (some, but not all, with vanishing Bach tensors) allowing for the propagation of a partially massless graviton. These include in particular the Einstein static Universe.

  9. Metric perturbations in Einstein-Cartan Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia de Andrade, L C

    2002-01-01

    Metric perturbations the stability of solution of Einstein-Cartan cosmology (ECC) are given. The first addresses the stability of solutions of Einstein-Cartan (EC) cosmological model against Einstein static universe background. In this solution we show that the metric is stable against first-order perturbations and correspond to acoustic oscillations. The second example deals with the stability of de Sitter metric also against first-order perturbations. Torsion and shear are also computed in these cases. The resultant perturbed anisotropic spacetime with torsion is only de Sitter along one direction or is unperturbed along one direction and perturbed against the other two. Cartan torsion contributes to the frequency of oscillations in the model. Therefore gravitational waves could be triggered by the spin-torsion scalar density .

  10. The Einstein-Boltzmann system and positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ho

    2012-01-01

    The Einstein-Boltzmann system is studied, with particular attention to the non-negativity of the solution of the Boltzmann equation. A new parametrization of post-collisional momenta in general relativity is introduced and then used to simplify the conditions on the collision cross-section given by Bancel and Choquet-Bruhat. The non-negativity of solutions of the Boltzmann equation on a given curved spacetime has been studied by Bichteler and by Tadmon. By examining to what extent the results of these authors apply in the framework of Bancel and Choquet-Bruhat, the non-negativity problem for the Einstein-Boltzmann system is resolved for a certain class of scattering kernels. It is emphasized that it is a challenge to extend the existing theory of the Cauchy problem for the Einstein-Boltzmann system so as to include scattering kernels which are physically well-motivated.

  11. PBR theorem and Einstein's quantum hole argument

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2013-01-01

    This note discusses the latest hot topic: Quantum states: ontic or epistemic? and the PBR theorem. Upon reading Einstein's views on quantum incompleteness in publications or in his correspondence after 1935 (the EPR paradox), one gets a very intense feeling of deja-vu. Einstein presents a quantum hole argument, which somewhat reminds of the hole argument in his 1914 "Entwurf" general theory of relativity. In their paper, PBR write the following: "an important step towards the derivation of our result is the idea that the quantum state is physical if distinct quantum states correspond to non-overlapping distributions for [the set of possible physical states that a system can be in]", and they then refer to Einstein's argument and views.

  12. Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits

    CERN Document Server

    McManus, Ryan; Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar fi...

  13. Robinson-Trautman solutions to Einstein's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, William

    2017-02-01

    Solutions to Einstein's equations in the form of a Robinson-Trautman metric are presented. In particular, we derive a pure radiation solution which is non-stationary and involves a mass m, The resulting spacetime is of Petrov Type II A special selection of parametric values throws up the feature of the particle `rocket', a Type D metric. A suitable transformation of the complex coordinates allows the metrics to be expressed in real form. A modification, by setting m to zero, of the Type II metric thereby converting it to Type III, is then shown to admit a null Einstein-Maxwell electromagnetic field.

  14. Comment on "Scalar Einstein-Aether theory"

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Ted; Speranza, Antony J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper studies a modification of Einstein-aether theory in which the aether vector is restricted, at the level of the action, to be the gradient of a scalar. In this comment we note that this scalar version of Einstein-aether theory is equivalent to the projectable version of the IR limit of Ho\\v{r}ava gravity when the potential for the scalar is constant. This provides a generally covariant formulation for projectable Ho\\v{r}ava gravity.

  15. Boson Condensation in an Einstein Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Altaie, M B; Malkawi, Ehab

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of massive spin-1 particles in an Einstein universe. The system is considered under relativistic conditions taking into consideration the possibility of particle-antiparticle pair production. An exact expression for the charge density is obtained, then certain approximations are employed in order to obtain the solutions in closed form. A discussion of the approximations employed in this and other work is given. The effects of finite-size and spin-curvature coupling are emphasized.

  16. Lorentz breaking terms from Einstein gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hirayama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    We construct an action which is invariant under the foliation preserving diffeomorphism from the Einstein Hilbert action. Starting from the Einstein Hilbert action, we introduce the gauge invariance under the anisotropic rescaling by using the St\\"uckelberg method. We then introduce the gauge field corresponds to the anisotropic rescaling, and the St\\"uckelberg field turns out to be the Nambu-Goldstone boson. The Nambu-Goldstone boson, however, is not completely eaten by the massive gauge field and the Nambu-Goldstone boson can be integrated out from the action. Then the resultant action is a Horava-Lifshitz type action which contains $R^3$ term.

  17. Mechanocaloric and Thermomechanical Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, G. C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Muniz, S. R.; Spehler, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid He-4, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fl...

  18. Einstein and a century of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, D. J.

    2005-09-01

    In a world overabundant in information, a subject is defined by its iconography. Physics is the falling apple, the planetary atom, the laser, the mushroom cloud and the image of the later Einstein - images that represent, respectively, gravity, atomic theory, quantum theory, mass-energy and the scientist who had a hand in all four. It is therefore appropriate that World Year of Physics is called Einstein Year in the UK. Of course one can argue that progress in science depends on the contributions of many people; that there are other geniuses in physics, even some colourful personalities. Nevertheless there are fundamental reasons why Einstein's early achievements stand out even in their company. When at last the thought came to him that 'time itself was suspect', Einstein had found a new insight into the nature of the physical universe. It is this: that the universal properties of material objects tell us about the nature of space and time, and it is through these properties, not philosophical logic or common sense, that we discover the structure of spacetime. The later Einstein turned this successful formula on its head and sought to use the properties of spacetime to define those of material objects, thereby seeking to abolish matter entirely in favour of geometry. Before I introduce this special feature of European Journal of Physics I will say a few words about what is not here. Like all great geniuses Einstein can be seen as the climax of what went before him and the initiation of what was to follow. Looking back we can see the influence of Mach's positivism, according to which the role of science is to relate observations to other observations; hence only observations can tell us what is 'real'. But Einstein also grew up with the family electromechanical businesses, which testifies to the reality of the Maxwellian electromagnetic fields: thus only theory can tell us what is real! As is well known, Einstein himself refused to accept the full consequences of

  19. Einstein 1905-1955: His Approach to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault

    We review Einstein's epistemological conceptions, and indicate their philosophical roots. The particular importance of the ideas of Hume, Kant, Mach, and Poincaré is highlighted. The specific characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics are underlined. Lastly, we consider the practical application of Einstein's methodological principles to the two theories of relativity, and to quantum theory. We emphasize a Kantian approach to quantum theory.

  20. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.