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Sample records for cured state tobacco

  1. Fungi Isolated from Flue-Cured Tobacco Sold in Southeast United States, 1968-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Ronald E.

    1972-01-01

    Flue-cured tobacco leaves, from low- and middle-stalk positions, offered for sale in each of two markets, within each of five tobacco types, were evaluated for moisture content (MC) and filamentous fungi during August through October in 1968, 1969, and 1970. Alternaria alternata, Penicillium cyclopium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus repens, and Aspergillus flavus were most frequently isolated from cultured tissue. Other filamentous fungi that grew from the tissue included species from four genera of field fungi and seven species of storage fungi. Although the MC ranged from 11.0 to 22.5%, it averaged 16.4, 16.8, and 15.9% for samples taken in 1968, 1969, and 1970, respectively. Average populations of fungi per sample over the three years ranged from 0 to 1,528,500 colonies/g of tobacco. PMID:4627970

  2. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

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    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  3. Grey Disorder in Field Flue—Cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXIN; ZHAOQIBO; 等

    1999-01-01

    A field study was carried out on the grey disorder in flue-cured tobacco( Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.The results showed that low Eh and high available Fe content in the soils were responsible for the grey tobacco and dead roots.Grey disorder leaves produced low quality lamina,which was low in N,nicotine,reduced sugar and K contents,In this study,soil available Mn and leaf Mn contents were in a relatively low level and should not be an important factor in the occurrence of grey disorder in flue-cured tobacco.

  4. Heavy metal content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos from main production areas in Serbia

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    Radojičić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the influence of growing conditions on heavy metal content in virginia (flue cured and burley (air cured tobacco type. Moreover, some of these metals could appear in the tobacco cigarette smoke. This fact may cause negative consequences for cigarette consumers. Examinations were carried out in five various production areas, for each tobacco type, during two years, 1998 and 1999; those were extreme years for production.Considering the results, it can be concluded: The most important factor for heavy metal content in tobacco leaves are weather conditions especially the amount of rainfall, since there is a direct correlation between the rainfall and size of roots, a dominant vegetation organ. It is inevitable that the metals content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos grown at different experimental lots, is still below the legally prescribed values. Tobacco leaves from Šabac production area have a little higher metal content than tobacco grown in other production areas, because a larger amount of copper was found. The metal content in plants can increase because of its absorption from soil, atmosphere, or mineral fertilizers and pesticides, and, what is very important, the content of metals can be high due to the vicinity of large industrial centers.

  5. DNA methylation polymorphism in flue-cured tobacco and candidate markers for tobacco mosaic virus resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-hong ZHAO; Ji-shun ZHANG; Yi WANG; Ren-gang WANG; Chun WU; Long-jiang FAN; Xue-liang REN

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during plant growth,development,and polyploidization.However,there is still no distinct evidence in tobacco regarding the distribution of the methylation pattern and whether it contributes to qualitative characteristics.We studied the levels and patterns of methylation polymorphism at CCGG sites in 48 accessions of allotetraploid flue-cured tobacco,Nicotiana tabacum,using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique.The results showed that methylation existed at a high level among tobacco accessions,among which 49.3% sites were methylated and 69.9% allelic sites were polymorphic.A cluster analysis revealed distinct patterns of geography-specific groups.In addition,three polymorphic sites significantly related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance were explored.This suggests that tobacco breeders should pay more attention to epigenetic traits.

  6. Structure and Change of Costs for Flue-cured Tobacco Production:A Case Study of Liuyang Tobacco Growing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiafeng; CHEN; Kun; CHEN; Jianyong; LI; Liangjiao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of consulting related information and data,costs for flue-cured tobacco production were surveyed and analyzed with Liuyang tobacco growing areas as an example.Results showed that there is rise and fall in fertilizer cost for flue-cured tobacco production;change in pesticide and agricultural plastic film is little;other costs for flue-cured tobacco production rise rapidly in recent years.Besides,there is certain reduction in labor units per mu for flue-cured tobacco production;labor price has an annual growth rate of 15%-25%.The proportion of labor cost to total cost for flue-cured tobacco production is increasing,thus rise of labor cost is the major factor promoting rise of costs for flue-cured tobacco production.Through adjustment of purchasing price and various subsidies,the change of per mu yield is a decisive factor influencing benefits of flue-cured tobacco production.

  7. Activity of spinosad on stored-tobacco insects and persistence on cured tobacco stripst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel P; Panighini, Cécile; Gadani, Ferruccio; Rossi, Luca

    2004-11-01

    Every year raw tobacco and manufactured tobacco products are lost to two major storage pests, the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F) and the tobacco moth, Ephestia elutella (Hiibner). Post-harvest management of both insects is achieved through sanitation, insect monitoring and fumigation with phosphine. However, insect resistance to phosphine and control failures have been reported, and fumigants are under constant regulatory pressure. Here we report the evaluation of spinosad, a bioinsecticide derived from the fermentation of the soil micro-organism Saccharopolyspora spinosa Mertz & Yao. Spinosad was first registered in 1997 and is now widely used as a field pest control agent on many crops, including tobacco. The insecticidal activity of the fermentation product (technical spinosad, TS) was measured by diet incorporation assays against L serricorne and E elutella larvae. Mortality levels were determined on newly hatched larvae and over the whole insect life cycle. For both species, no emergence of adult insects was observed in cured tobacco sprayed with 50mg TS kg(-1) and inoculated with eggs or newly hatched larvae. These results indicated that spinosad has potential for the control of both species in stored tobacco, since 100% control of both pests could be achieved at 50 mg TS kg(-1), and with almost full control (90-95%) at 10 mg kg(-1). We also monitored the stability of the product on cured tobacco. The original concentration of the main active component of TS, spinosyn A, did not change significantly over 18 months, indicating no loss of spinosad during a typical leaf storage period of time. Bioassays against larvae confirmed that the bioinsecticidal activity of spinosad was retained.

  8. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  9. Temperature and humidity response in the curing and drying process for Burley tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Daniel Gomez Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the methodology development used for characterization and implementation of a control and automation of a camera for curing and drying of Burley tobacco, done with the purpose of analyzing its three stages: yellowing, color fixing and drying.As first step, the paper gives to know the process that is important for air curing of Burley tobacco. As second step, analysis of heating and humidification of system is presented, for determinate the most adequate control system for maintenance the ideal conditions for curing and drying of Burley. Results are presented through figures and tables.

  10. Relationship Between Hyperspectral Parameters and Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Flue-Cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-yang; LIU Guo-shun; YANG Yong-feng; ZHAO Chun-hua; YU Qi-wei; SONG Shi-xu

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was set up for examining the physiological and biological indexes quickly and exactly, for obtaining information of tobacco-field fertilizing and tobacco growing. The ASD Field spec FR 2500 was used to measure spectra reflectance of flue-cured tobacco and the relationship between hyperspectral parameters and biochemical contents (total nitrogen, chlorophyll, carotenoid), and physiological indexes (fresh weight, dry weight, moisture content) of flue-cured tobacco leaves was studied by correlation and stepwise regression statistic methods at different nitrogen and potassium levels. The results indicated that the spectra curves of different treatments had obvious rules and great diversities. There were high correlations between different types of spectra parameters and ten physiological and biochemical indexes of flue-cured tobacco leaves. Hyperspectral characteristic variables of ten physiological and biochemical indexes were found through stepwise regression, and SDr/SDb was the characteristic variable closest to seven biochemical contents. Simultaneously, the R2 and regression coefficient of equations reached 0.05 significant level and the equations had good estimating effects through the examination of other samples. Accordingly, this study suggested that the ten physiological and biochemical indexes could be estimated quickly by the estimating models, at the same time nitrogen-potassium fertilization and growth condition of flue-cured tobacco could be inspected.

  11. Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Field in a New Bulk Tobacco Curing Barn Based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhipeng; Guo, Duoduo; Li, Shoucang; Hu, Yaohua

    2017-01-01

    A new structure bulk tobacco curing barn was presented. To study the temperature and humidity field in the new structure tobacco curing barn, a 3D transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using porous medium, species transport, κ-ε turbulence and discrete phase models. The CFD results demonstrated that (1) the temperature and relative humidity predictions were validated by the experimental results, and comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed a fairly close agreement; (2) the temperature of the bottom and inlet area was higher than the top and outlet area, and water vapor concentrated on the top and outlet area in the barn; (3) tobacco loading density and thickness of tobacco leaves had an explicit effect on the temperature distributions in the barn. PMID:28146128

  12. Factors Influencing the Formation of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in French Air-Cured Tobaccos in Trials and at the Farm Level

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    deRoton C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several trials the results of which are compiled in this paper, were carried out at the Tobacco Institute of Bergerac (ITB and in the area nearby from 1996 to 2003. The objective was to study the formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA in dark air-cured and burley tobaccos during curing and post-curing treatment under the conditions of cultivation, curing and storage commonly applied by the growers in the south-western part of France. For experimental purposes special treatments were performed in certain trials.

  13. Regression Analysis of Nutrient Elements between Soil and Tobacco Leaves and Their Influences on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqin XU; Xiaolan LI; Zhiyan CHEN; Defen ZENG; Aifei XU

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between nutrient elements K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in tobacco-planting soils and tobacco leaves from six main tobacco-producing areas, and to investigate the influences of these elements on chemical composition and aroma components in tobacco leaves. Results showed that there were certain relationship between contents of nutrient elements in tobac-co-planting soils and contents of corresponding elements in tobacco leaves; various elements exhibited different influences on the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco. Based on the actual situation of nutrient contents in soils from different tobacco-producing areas, contents of various elements in tobacco leaves should be regulat-ed by soil fertilization and foliar spraying, thereby improving the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco.

  14. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... warehouse floors in designated markets. 29.75b Section 29.75b Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. Each lot of baled flue-cured tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have...

  15. Fungi Isolated from Flue-Cured Tobacco Inoculated in the Field with Storage Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Ronald E.

    1971-01-01

    Flue-cured tobacco inoculated in the field with A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. repens, A. ruber, and a species of Penicillium was rarely invaded by these fungi. Regardless of inoculum, the predominant fungi reisolated from green tissue were species of Alternaria and Cladosporium. After curing, A. repens, A. niger, and species of Alternaria and a species of Penicillium were the most commonly isolated fungi. The fungus used as inoculum was not the predominant fungus reisolated from green or cured tissue. Conditions during handling and storage prior to marketing probably determine when storage fungi become associated with the leaf and which species becomes predominant. PMID:5102779

  16. THE EFFECT OF THE MANNER OF HARVESTING AND CURING ON THE YIELD OF BURLEY TOBACCO

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    Ivan TURŠIĆ

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of producing Burley tobacco in the vicinity of the Rovinj Factory on the Istrian peninsula was investigated over a period of three years. The experiment was set up according to the split block method. One half of the trial field was topped. The other half of the field was untopped. The harvesting and curing was performed in three ways: 1. the tobacco was picked six times in insertions; 2. two harvests were performed and the remaining leaves were dried on the cut stalks; 3. all the leaves were dried on the on the stalks. The topped tobacco and the tobacco harvested by insertions gave the highest yields. The lowest yield was record in the case of untopped tobacco and when all the leaves were dried on the stalks.

  17. Canonical Correlation between the Leaf Quality Indicators of "Moderate Aroma" Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; MENG; Yuangang; DAI; Chengdong; WANG; Shusheng; WANG; Wenjing; SONG; Yuanhua; WU; Yimin; XU

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the correlation between tobacco quality evaluation indicators in China’s traditional " moderate aroma" tobaccoproducing areas and simplify the tobacco quality evaluation indicators,we evaluate the appearance quality and smoking quality of 143 flue-cured tobacco leaf samples in China’s " moderate aroma" tobacco-producing areas,test the physical traits and chemical component,and analyze the canonical correlation between four quality evaluation indicators. The results show that there is significant or extremely significant canonical correlation between four evaluation indicators( tobacco smoking quality,chemical component,appearance quality and physical trait quality); the cumulative variance contribution rate of evaluation indicators is in the order of chemical component( 69. 17%) > appearance quality( 68. 76%) > physical traits( 64. 13%); appearance quality is most closely related to physical traits( 93. 84%). The individual indicators for tobacco quality evaluation make different contribution to the correlation between quality evaluation indicators. The chemical component evaluation indicators mainly include total sugar and ratio of total sugar to betaine; sensory taste indicators mainly include aroma volume,smoke concentration,irritation and softness degree; physical trait evaluation indicators mainly include leaf weight,leaf length and leaf density; appearance quality indicators mainly include leaf organizational structure,color,maturity and identity. Studies have shown that in the large-scale ecoregion,using canonical correlation analysis to simplify tobacco quality evaluation indicators is feasible.

  18. Biochemical Studies on Curing and Fermentation Processing Periods of Different Tobacco Plant (Nicotianatabacum L. Cultivars

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    Szedljak I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the activity of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POX, the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds and soluble protein content in different tobacco cultivars (Virginia and Burley during curing. The curing procedure was a special combination of open-air-curing and fluecuring methods and a long fermentation period. In the curing period the changes in data suggested a combination of the biochemical processes and the direct effect of oxygen. A slight increase then a decrease in the concentrations of both total soluble phenolic compounds and the soluble protein content were detected. In this period we found no correlation between the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds, the decreasing PPO and the increasing POX activity. In the fermentation period a deactivation of the enzymes (PPO and POX and a decrease in the concentration of both total soluble phenolic compounds and soluble protein content were found, because the fermentation is not a biochemically-regulated process. Moreover, these results suggest that the end of curing period is the most favourable time for protein isolation from different tobacco cultivars.

  19. Effects of Php Gene-Associated versus Induced Resistance to Tobacco Cyst Nematode in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles S.; Eisenback, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-inducing compound acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and the plant-growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture Bacillus subtilis A13 and B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a (GB99+GB122) were assessed on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode (TCN- Globodera tabacum solanacearum) under greenhouse conditions. Two sets of two independent experiments were conducted, each involving soil or root sampling. Soil sample experiments included flue-cured tobacco cultivars with (Php+: NC71 and NC102) and without (Php-: K326 and K346) a gene (Php) suppressing TCN parasitism. Root sample experiments examined TCN root parasitism of NC71 and K326. Cultivars possessing the Php gene (Php+) were compared with Php- cultivars to assess the effects of resistance mediated via Php gene vs. induced resistance to TCN. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode reproductive ratio on both Php+ and Php- cultivars, but similar effects of ASM across Php- cultivars were less consistent. In addition, ASM application resulted in leaf yellowing and reduced root weight. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode development in roots of both Php+ and Php- cultivars, while similar effects of ASM were frequently less consistent. The results of this study indicate that GB99+GB122 consistently reduced TCN reproduction in all flue-cured tobacco cultivars tested, while the effects of ASM were only consistent in Php+ cultivars. Under most circumstances, GB99+GB122 suppressed nematode reproduction more consistently than ASM compared to the untreated control. PMID:22736824

  20. Handling and Curing Characteristics of Cut-Strip Tobacco. Part 2: Effect of Yellowing Time and Drying Potential

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    Johnson WH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Part 2 of a study on comparative handling and curing characteristics of cut-strip vs. whole leaf tobacco. Part 1 considered the effect of leaf size (cut-strip size vs. whole leaf, packing density and mode of leaf orientation on cured leaf chemistry and leaf quality; whereas, the present study considers further the effect of leaf form, two yellowing times and two drying potentials during yellowing. Results showed that leaf chemistry and quality were quite similar for cut-strip (15.2 × 22.9 cm and whole leaf. Insignificant differences were noted for cured leaf starch and sugars, although slightly lower levels of alkaloids (significant at the 0.01 level were observed for cut strip. Curing treatments significantly affected leaf chemistry. Increased yellowing time resulted in lower levels of starch and higher levels of sugar. Sugars were also higher for tobacco yellowed under the higher drying potential. The two forms of leaf responded similarly to different curing schedules (i.e. no interaction of leaf form with schedule. Also, government grade and price data were essentially unaffected by leaf form or curing schedule over the range of variables tested. Cured leaf starch was abnormally high on the average for both leaf forms. Interestingly, starch levels were lower when intact tobacco was bulk-cured in racks rather than box cured (6.35% vs. 9.02%. Since curing schedules were similar, air velocity in the two curing methods might be a factor. Also the cured leaf starch content was about 56% lower for tobacco produced at the Oxford Tobacco Research Station (in a secondary study than at the Central Crops Research Station. It is postulated that carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism during growth and maturation might be affected by excess rainfall events and/or nitrogen availability, with subsequent effects on starch-to-sugar conversion during curing.

  1. Changes of Polyphenols in Tobacco Leaves During the Flue-Curing Process and Correlation Analysis on Some Chemical Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chang-rong; WANG Ai-hua; WANG Song-feng

    2006-01-01

    The changes of polyphenols in tobacco leaves during the flue-curing process and correlation analysis on some chemical components were studied. Leaf samples were taken from different tobacco-producing regions in Henan Province, China.The results indicated that the content of total phenols increased during the first 24 h of curing, and then decreased. It reached the lowest value at 72 h of curing and increased rapidly after that. The content of chlorogenic acid also increased during 0-24 h of curing. But the lowest point occurred at 60 or 72 h of curing and then it increased till the end of the curing process. The content of rutin generally increased with curing, and showed little fluctuations. The changes of PPO and POD activity were the opposite. Rutin was found to have a highly significant positive correlation with total sugar (r=0.822**),but a highly significant negative correlation with starch, nicotine, and protein.

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  11. 新型电烤烟房的研究%Research on the New Electric Flue-cured Tobacco House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗锦; 胡建新; 郭川

    2012-01-01

    According to the basic principles of thermodynamics, the theoretical energy consumption of electric flue-cured tobacco house was obtained, based on which a standard flue-cured tobacco house was reconstructed and then compared with other traditional tobacco houses in Pingdi Town of Panzhihua City. The results showed that the new electric flue-cured tobacco house consumed less energy than the traditional house without much difference in their tobacco quality.%应用热力学基本原理,获取电烤房能耗的理论值,以此为依据,设计改造了攀枝花平地镇密集烤房群的一座标准烤烟房并进行了实际对比试验研究.结果表明,新烤房在能耗上低于传统烤房,而烤烟品质上无明显差异.

  12. Anti-TMV activity flavones from the leaves of Yunnan local air cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming-Ming; Li, Lan; Shen, Qin-Peng; Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yin-Ke; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Feng-Mei; He, Pei; Wang, Kun-Miao; Zhu, Rui-Zhi; Chen, Yong-Kuan; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Four new flavones, tobaflavones E-H (1-4), together with two known flavones (5 and 6), were isolated from the leaves of Dali Tiandeng tobacco (a variety of Yunnan local air cured tobacco). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D NMR techniques. Compound 2 is the first naturally occurring flavone bearing a (4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)methyl moiety. These compounds were also evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activity. The results revealed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 35.3% and 39.6%, respectively. The rates are higher than those of positive control. The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates in the range of 18.7-28.4%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Mechanism of Carotenoid Degradation in Flue-Cured Tobacco and Changes in the Related Enzyme Activities at the Leaf-Drying Stage During the Bulk Curing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-peng; LI Tong-shuai; ZHANG Yong-gang; CAO Hui-jing; GONG Chang-rong; ZHANG Wei-jian

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of carotenoid degradation and the changes in the activities of related enzymes in flue-cured tobacco at the leaf-drying stage during the bulk-curing process were studied in order to provide theoretical basis for optimization of curing technology.The effect of different rising speeds of temperature on the carotenoid degradation and the related enzymes activities at the color-fixing stage during the bulk curing process was studied by using the electric-heated fluecuring barn designed by Henan Agricultural University,China,based on curing technology with yellowing at low temperature and moderate humidity and leaf drying at moderate humidity.The results showed that the carotenoid degradation components(β-carotene,lutein,neoxanthin,and violaxthin)decreased gradually at the color-fixing stage during the bulk curing process.The carotenoid degradation components viz.,β-carotene,lutein,neoxanthin,and violaxthin at the slow heating curing(T1)were relatively higher than the rapid heating curing(T2)accounting for 10,2,32 and 32%respectively,but there were no differences among treatments(P>0.05).The effect of different conditions of curing on the activities of enzymes related to carotenoids degradation were significant.The lipoxygenase,phenylalanine ammonialyase,peroxidase,and polyphenol oxidase enzymes had a bidirectional effect on the quality of tobacco leaves and it was beneficial to form more premise matter of aroma based on the higher enzyme activities at the early leaf-drying stage.The slow heating could regulate the change in various enzymes' activities reasonably,making cell redox reaction to reach the dynamic balance and make the degradation of carotenoids adequately.Meanwhile,it could avoid the occurrence of browning reaction and provide foundation for improving the quality of tobacco and optimization of technology for bulk curing and further enhancing aroma.

  14. The Loading Density of Pre-air-curing Flue-cured Tobacco%预先晾制烤烟的装烟密度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卉; 周清明; 邓小华; 谢鹏飞; 张万良; 翟争光; 刘涛

    2013-01-01

    为明确预先晾制烤烟的装烟密度,以烤烟品种云烟97为试材,研究了预先晾制烤烟不同装烟密度对上部叶品质的影响.结果表明:4 000 kg装烟量烤后烟叶除外观质量与对照3 000kg装烟量差异不显著外,在物理性状、化学性状、经济性状及能耗方面均劣于对照;而3 500 kg装烟量烤后烟叶在外观质量、物理性状、化学性状、经济性状、能耗方面均优于对照3 000 kg装烟量.3 500 kg装烟量是上部叶预先晾制后最合适的装烟密度.%In order to explore the loading density of pre-air-curing flue-cured tobacco,Yunyan97 was taken as test material to explore the effects of different loading densities of pre-air-curing flue-cured tobacco on quality of upper leaves.The results showed that in comparison with control (loading density of 3 000 kg),the flue-cured tobacco leaves with 4 000 kg of loading density was worse in physical characteristics,chemical characteristics,economic characteristics and energy consumption,only the difference in appearance quality was not significant; the flue-cured tobacco leaves with 3 500 kg of loading density was better in all aspects (appearance quality,physical characteristics,chemical characteristics,economic characteristics and energy consumption).Therefore,the 3 500 kg of loading density is the optimum loading density for pre-air-curing upper tobacco leaves.

  15. Proteomics Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins Relevant for Nicotine Synthesis in Flue-Cured Tobacco Roots Before and After Decapitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-qun; GUO Hong-xiang; LI Hao

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine is a secondary substance synthesized in tobacco roots.In flue-cured tobacco planting,tobacco decapitation is an effective practice to promote nicotine biosynthesis by regulation of the redistribution of total nitrogen amounts,However,proteins relevant to nicotine synthesis in tobacco roots has not been identified and characterized yet.It is important to explore the regulation of nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco roots.To identify the proteins relevant to nicotine synthesis,the protein patterns in roots of flue-cured tobacco (cv.K326) before and after decapitation were analyzed.In the present study,the protein patterns in roots of flue-cured tobacco were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE),and the differentially-expressed spots were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Paired comparison of 2-DE maps revealed 26 spots of differentially-expressed proteins in roots before and after decapitation.Furthermore,nine differentially-expressed spots were identified.There were four proteins which were enzymes possibly involved in nicotine biosynthesis.In addition,the roles of the four enzymes in nicotine biosynthesis were discussed in a putative network.Our results would contribute to the understanding of the regulation pathway of nicotine biosynthesis and further to the molecular manipulation on the nicotine contents in flue-cured tobacco.

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses....

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  19. [Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF.

  20. 固态发酵降低上部低次烟叶中淀粉及蛋白质的含量%Decomposing of starch and protein of upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco by solid-state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士林; 许赣荣; 汤朝起

    2014-01-01

    The content of starch and protein in the upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco was decreased by solid-state fermentation, and the amount of the anaerobic bacteria and yeast during the fermentation process was also detected. Monofactorial and orthogonal experiments were carried out for the optimization of the condition of solid-state fermentation. The experimental results showed that the influential extent of decomposition rate of the starch and protein was in the order of fermentation time ( C ) > fermentation temperature(A) > moisture content of the tobacco (B). The best condition for solid-state fermentation was A2B2C3, i.e., fermentation temperature was 45 ℃,moisture content of the tobacco was 50% and fermentation time was 9 d. Under these conditions, the starch and protein decomposition rates were 20�41% and 12�35%, respectively. Therefore, the content of starch and protein in the upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco could be quickly decreased in a short time.%利用固态发酵的方法降低上部低次烟叶中淀粉和蛋白质的含量,并对发酵过程中的厌氧细菌和酵母的数量进行检测。采用单因素和正交试验对固态发酵的条件进行优化,结果表明:各因素对发酵上部低次烟叶影响显著性主次次序依次为发酵时间( C)、发酵温度( A)和发酵水分质量分数( B),固态发酵的最佳条件为A2 B2 C3,即温度45℃、水分质量分数50%、发酵时间9 d。在该发酵条件下,上部低次烟叶的淀粉降解率为20�41%,蛋白质降解率为12�35%。通过固态厌氧发酵的方法可取得较好的、短期内快速降解上部低次烟叶中淀粉和蛋白质含量的效果。

  1. Effects of Ph gene-associated versus induced resistance to tobacco cyst nematode in flue-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkunan, Venkatesan; Johnson, Charles S; Eisenback, Jon D

    2009-12-01

    Effects of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-inducing compound acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and the plant-growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture Bacillus subtilis A13 and B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a (GB99+GB122) were assessed on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode (TCN- Globodera tabacum solanacearum) under greenhouse conditions. Two sets of two independent experiments were conducted, each involving soil or root sampling. Soil sample experiments included flue-cured tobacco cultivars with (Ph(p)+: NC71 and NC102) and without (Ph(p)-: K326 and K346) a gene (Ph(p)) suppressing TCN parasitism. Root sample experiments examined TCN root parasitism of NC71 and K326. Cultivars possessing the Ph(p) gene (Ph(p)+) were compared with Ph(p)- cultivars to assess the effects of resistance mediated via Ph(p) gene vs. induced resistance to TCN. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode reproductive ratio on both Ph(p)+ and Ph(p)- cultivars, but similar effects of ASM across Ph(p)- cultivars were less consistent. In addition, ASM application resulted in leaf yellowing and reduced root weight. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode development in roots of both Ph(p)+ and Ph(p)- cultivars, while similar effects of ASM were frequently less consistent. The results of this study indicate that GB99+GB122 consistently reduced TCN reproduction in all flue-cured tobacco cultivars tested, while the effects of ASM were only consistent in Ph(p)+ cultivars. Under most circumstances, GB99+GB122 suppressed nematode reproduction more consistently than ASM compared to the untreated control.

  2. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  3. Dynamics of Environmental Humidity and Water Content in Tobacco Leaf and Metabolism of Starch During Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chang-rong; YUAN Hong-tao; CHEN Jiang-hua; WANG Na

    2003-01-01

    Effect of environmental humidity and water content in tobacco leaf on starch metabolism was studied by using the electric-heated auto-controlled flue-curing barn supplied by Henan Agricultural University, China. The results indicated that the degradation of starch and decrease of water content in tobacco leaf during early yellowing at low humidity was the most rapid, and the water loss was the highest while the lowest under high humidity. The duration for starch degradation under low humidity was longer than that of CK. So the starch residue in cured leaf of different treatment took the order of high humidity yellowing treatment>low humidity yellowing treatment> CK. When the leaf water content was decreased to around 50%, the starch degradation became slow and the content of starch was stable. Starch degradation and decrease of leaf water content was not synchronous. Starch in tobacco leaf during yellowing degraded more rapidly when humidity was decreased at a high speed, but the degradation stopped earlier at late stage. There was a quicker and higher degradation of starch under high environmental humidity. When the humidity decreased to 70 %,the content of starch was stable. The activity of amylase began to decrease when relative humidity was below 75 %, but it kept a high level of activity when the environmental humidity was below 70 %.

  4. Uptake of Cadmium by Flue-Cured Tobacco Plants: Exploring Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, I.; Robarge, W. P.; Vann, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific understanding of cadmium (Cd) cycling in North Carolina tobacco plants and soils has lagged, even as production of flue-cured tobacco remains an important part of the NC economy ($903 million in 2014). Cd is considered a tobacco contaminant. When tobacco is burned, Cd can exist as a fine aerosol and subsequent inhalation is linked to cancer. Tobacco root exudates enhance Cd uptake, even though the Cd concentration in NC soils is plants is crucial to understanding Cd bioavailability and implementing soil remediation efforts. The objective of this study was to develop a Cd mass balance for flue-cured tobacco grown under field conditions in NC. Whole plant samples were collected at transplanting and every 2 weeks thereafter until harvest. Individual plants were segregated into root, stalk and individual leaves (n = 15 whole plants/sampling date; composite samples were taken early in the growing season). After recording dry mass, samples were analyzed using ion-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry or ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lower leaves contained the highest Cd concentrations ( 7-10 mg/kg). Leaves occupying the upper 50% of the plant had Cd concentrations of 2 mg/kg. Uptake rate was greatest from day 27 to 66 ( 21.5 μg Cd/day). Selective Cd uptake appears evident between day 27 and 43, but overall the relative rate of Cd uptake was similar to other trace metals and micronutrients. Cd distribution within the plants mirrored the distribution of calcium, a macronutrient. Of the 8 mg of soil extractable Cd (0.075 mg/kg) in the rooting zone, 15.0% (1203 μg) is removed by uptake. Of this 15%, 64.2% (772.2 μg) is exported at harvest, and 35.8% (430.8 μg; lower leaves, roots, stalks) is returned to the soil. This study must be replicated to account for seasonal and soil variations. These results do inform selection of tobacco strains that limit uptake of trace metals, particularly Cd.

  5. REDESIGN OF COMMONLY USED TOBACCO CURING BARNS IN ZIMBABWE FOR INCREASED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPECIAL MUSONI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zimbabwe two types of barns are commonly used for tobacco curing, namely the traditional and Rocket barns. The traditional barn and the Rocket Barn loose 98.5% and 55.6% of the energy supplied respectively. The latter is 43.6% more thermally efficient than the traditional barn. There is, however, potential of increasing the energy efficiency of both barns. In this study, a design that incorporates structural changes to reduce heat loss as well as recovery of heat was developed. The design is a combination of commercially available components, and allows for ventilation heat re-use and increased heat transfer from furnace ducts to the drying chamber. The structure was found to be 54.7% more thermally efficient than the Rocket barn and 74.2% more efficient than the traditional barn. The new design needs to be field-tested so that it can be adopted by tobacco farmers.

  6. Comparative Study of Leaf Surface Texture and Ability to Expand of Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohr R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco leaf texture, appreciated by the difference of surface roughness of cured leaves, is studies with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leaf texture is obviously determined by the presence or absence of conical cellular protuberances on the adaxial side of the leaf. Considering the anatomic point of view, the leaf thickness, always more important when the leaf texture is open, is the only objective criterion which could be associated to the texture. The ultra-structural study with SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM demonstrates that the expansion capacity of tobacco doesn't rely on cytological factors such as cellular reserves or debris. The expansion capacity could be inversely proportional with the relative importance of the mesophyll comparing to palisade parenchyma. On the studied material, no direct relation between the leaf texture and the expansion capacity has been noticed.

  7. Polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars in air-cured tobacco leaves injured by ozone air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Chaplin, J.F.; Cheng, A.L.S.; Sorokin, T.

    1977-03-13

    Air-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves of several production types were analyzed chemically to determine the effects of ozone-induced weather fleck on polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars. Seven domestic cultivars provided leaf samples for analysis of polyphenols and phytosterols. Quantities of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin, free quinic acid, and phytosterols were higher in severely flecked leaves than in leaves flecked only minimally. Greenhouse studies disclosed that leaves grown in carbon-filtered air analyzed as greenpunch samples contained significantly higher levels of reducing sugars than leaves grown in polluted air, regardless of plant injury.

  8. RNA interference (RNAi)-induced suppression of nicotine demethylase activity reduces levels of a key carcinogen in cured tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Jack, Anne M; Morris, Jerry W; Robert, Vincent J M; Gavilano, Lily B; Siminszky, Balazs; Bush, Lowell P; Hayes, Alec J; Dewey, Ralph E

    2008-05-01

    Technologies for reducing the levels of tobacco product constituents that may contribute to unwanted health effects are desired. Target compounds include tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), a class of compounds generated through the nitrosation of pyridine alkaloids during the curing and processing of tobacco. Studies have reported the TSNA N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. NNN is formed via the nitrosation of nornicotine, a secondary alkaloid produced through enzymatic N-demethylation of nicotine. Strategies to lower nornicotine levels in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) could lead to a corresponding decrease in NNN accumulation in cured leaves. The major nicotine demethylase gene of tobacco has recently been isolated. In this study, a large-scale field trial was conducted to evaluate transgenic lines of burley tobacco carrying an RNA interference (RNAi) construct designed to inhibit the expression of this gene. Selected transgenic lines exhibited a six-fold decrease in nornicotine content relative to untransformed controls. Analysis of cured leaves revealed a commensurate decrease in NNN and total TSNAs. The inhibition of nicotine demethylase activity is an effective means of decreasing significantly the level of a key defined animal carcinogen present in tobacco products.

  9. Effects of Nematicides and Cuitivars on Rotylenchulus reniformis and Flue-cured Tobacco Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, T A; Powell, N T

    1991-10-01

    Main plots of tobacco cultivars were split into subplots treated or not treated with 1,3-D + chloropicrin. Some differences (P = 0.05) occurred for tobacco yield, value, and R. reniformis populations among the 12 cultivars tested. Treatment increased yields an average of 8.5%, but a significant cultivar x fumigation interaction did not occur. In a nematicide test, six of nine non-fumigant and fumigant nematicides significantly increased the value of tobacco cv. Coker 371-Gold by an average of $1,475/ha and decreased populations of Rotylenchulus reniformis. Similar results were not obtained using the cv. K 326 in another year. Nematode population levels often declined from the first sampling to the second, especially when initial numbers were relatively high. These are the first reported field studies involving management of R. reniformis on tobacco in the United States.

  10. Studies on Amylase and Degradation of Starch and Pigment of Tobacco Leaf During Process of Flue-Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chang-rong; YUAN Hong-tao; CHEN Jiang-hua; SONG Zhao-peng

    2004-01-01

    The changes in the activity of amylase and amylase-isoenzyme and the degradation of starch and pigment of tobacco leaf during flue-curing were studied by using the electric heated flue-curing barn designed and made by the Henan Agricultural University. The temperature and humidity of the barn were controlled automatically. The results indicated that starch in tobacco leaf decreased rapidly and leveled off after 48h of curring, in the meantime, the content of soluble sugar increased accordingly and reached a peak at the stage of color-fixing. Both of them had a rapid-changing stage in the first 36 hours of yellowing. The changes of starch and soluble sugar contents had highly significantnegative-correlation at 1% level (rNCc89=-0.8962**, RYY85=-0.9704**). The activity of amylase increased with the proceeding of curing and reached a peak after 36 hours of curing, then decreased. But the activity of amylase kept at a high level when the humidity of curing-environment was very iow, even if the tobacco leaf had been dried. The rapid degradation of starch showed a significantly negative correlation with the increase of activity of amylase at 5% level (rNC89=-0.8495*, RYY85=-0.7839*). The degradation of starch and pigment had the same regulation and had highly significant correlation at 1%level (rNC89=0.9649**, rYY85=0.9428**). There were mainly three amylase-isoenzyme bands -A, B, C respectively, in tobacco leaf during flue curing. They were identified as α -AMY, β -AMY, R-AMY, and the activity of β -AMY was the highest. The changes in amylase activity and contents of starch and pigment were affected by the tobacco leaf moisture and environmental humidity during curing.

  11. Study on Curing of the Tobacco Cutting Petiole%烤烟切柄烘烤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭曙光; 蒋笃忠; 汪桥钉; 唐善军; 李玉辉; 王灿

    2014-01-01

    为探索去除烟叶无使用价值叶柄的方式,更好地满足卷烟工业配方需要,开展了烟叶切柄烘烤试验。结果表明:烟叶在烘烤前切柄,一般能切去叶柄长度6~8 cm,重量降低12%~13%;可减少烟叶干筋时间16 h左右,干筋期最高温度较常规烘烤低3℃左右,有利于降低烟叶烘烤的能耗成本;上等烟比例和均价较常规烘烤均有提高;烤后烟叶淀粉含量较常规烘烤有偏高的趋势;切柄增加用工量每房1.5个左右。烘烤后切柄,切去叶柄长度6~8 cm,重量降低12%~13%,切柄需增加用工量每房13.4个左右,且操作难度大,切柄长度难以控制。%The test on curing of the tobacco cutting petiole was studied to explore the way of removing the useless tobacco petiole and preferably satisfy the recipe needs of the cigarette industry. The results showed that:the tobacco leaf weight re-duce 12-13% when the tobacco petiole was cut a length of 6~8cm before curing;the stem drying time may reduce 16h and the maximum temperature of stem drying stage was lower 3℃than routine curing in favor of reducing the cost of energy consumption;the ratio of first-class tobacco and average price were increased than routine curing;but the starch content of flue-cured tobacco was the trend of high and amount of cutting petiole labor used increase 1.5 d per curing room. The to-bacco leaf weight reduce 12~13%when the tobacco petiole was cut a length of 6-8cm after curing;the amount of cutting petiole labor used increase 13.4 d per curing room,and the operation is difficult,the cut length control difficultly.

  12. Suitable Region for Flue-cured Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L.) Planting Based on Spatial Scene Similarity%Suitable Region for Flue-cured Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L.) Planting Based on Spatial Scene Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxiang DONG; Danhuai GUO; Xiaodong SHAO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish a model based on spatial scene similarity, for which soil, slope, transport, water conservancy, light, social economic factors in suitable planting areas were all considered. A new suitable planting area of flue-cured tobacco was determined by comparison and analysis, with consideration of excellent area. [Method] Totaling thirty natural factors were chosen, which were clas- sified into nine categories, from Longpeng Town (LP) and Shaochong Town (SC) in Shiping County in Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture. [Result] According to weights, the factors from high to low were as follows: soil〉light〉elevation〉slope〉 water conservancy〉transport〉baking facility〉planting plans over the years〉others. The similarity of geographical conditions in the area was 0.894 3, which indicated that the planting conditions in the two regions are similar. If farmer population in unit area, farmland quantity for individual farmer, labors in every household, activity in planting flue-cured tobacco and work of local instructor were considered, the weights of different factors were as follows: farmer population in unit area〉farmland quantity for individual farmer〉farmers' activity in planting flue-cured tobacco〉educational back- ground〉labor force in every household〉instructor〉population of farmers' children at- tending school. The similarity of geographical conditions was 0.703 1, which indicated that it is none-natural factors that influence yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco. [Conclusion] According to analysis on suitable planting area of flue-cured tobacco based on assessment of spatial scene similarity, similarity of growing conditions in two spatial scenes can be analyzed and evaluated, which would promote further exploration on, influencing factors and effects on tobacco production.

  13. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil from flue-cured tobacco flower bud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils generally derived from one or more plant parts have been used throughout history for many great applications. In this study, the flue-cured tobacco flower buds were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus (4 h. The essential oil was characterized by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The yield of the oil was 0.57% (w/w. After identification of the components, 34 volatile compounds were identified, which contained 55.0% of the oil. β-Cembrenediol (12.24%, carotol (8.55%, isolimonene (7.37%, thunbergol (4.88% and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (4.09% were the major constituents of the oil. The essential oil was also tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil was particularly active against Bacillus subtilis, with the lowest Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration value (7 and 7 mg/mL. Furthermore, the essential oil and its main compounds showed a strong potent OH scavenging effect, when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene as a positive control. In conclusion, the tobacco flower bud oil is a potential source of novel antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  14. 烤烟秸秆压块代煤在烟叶烘烤中的应用效果研究%Research on Apllication Effect of Flue-cured Tobacco Straw Briquetting Replacing Coal on Tobacco Flue Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仕平; 谢良文; 曾淑华; 向金友; 张吉亚

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle the straw of flue-cured tobacco and find new fuel of flue curing which might substitute for coal,the straw was dried and crushed into blocks after tobacco leaves harvest for fuel of flue curing using the straw briquetting machine,and tests of flue curing replacing coal were carried out. The results showed that the flue curing curve of the straw briquetting was largely in line with that of coal,and it could satisfy the needs of flue curing,the grade qualities of tobacco leaves were equal to those by coal,and the straw briquetting consumption to coal was 1.64:1. The cost of flue curing reduced by 189 yuan/hm2. So it was possible to use straw briquetting instead of coal in tobacco flue curing,and also significant to reduce environmental pollution and develop circular economy of tobacco.%为了实现烤烟秸秆循环利用和寻找烟叶烘烤替代燃料,将烟叶采收后的秸秆晒干并粉碎,利用秸秆成型机压块制成烘烤燃料,进行了替代煤炭烘烤烟叶试验。结果表明:烤烟秸秆压块作燃料烘烤工艺曲线与煤炭基本吻合,可满足烟叶烘烤要求,烤后原烟等级质量与煤炭相当,秸秆压块消耗量与煤炭之比为1.64:1,可降低烘烤燃料成本约189元/hm2。因此,烤烟秸秆压块替代煤炭烘烤烟叶是可行的,对减少环境污染和促进烟叶循环经济发展也具有积极意义。

  15. 密集烤房在烤烟生产中的优势及效益分析%Advantage and Benefit Analysis of Bulk Curing Barn in Production of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗元雄; 蔡坤伦; 龚德勇

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the baking technologies and main operating points of bulk curing barn in the production of flue -cured tobacco. The bulk curing barn possesses the advantages of less labor cost, lower energy consumption, better quality, higher economic benefit and so on. The author puts forward the following suggestions: expediting the construction of bulk curing barn in Anlong county of Guizhou province, enhancing the study on the curing technologies of tobacco leaf, and gradually completing the operational mode of tobacco leaf specialization baking.%介绍了密集式烤房的烘烤工艺、操作要点比较优势和应用效益,提出了加快贵州安龙县密集烤房建设,加大对烟叶烘烤的技术工艺研究,逐步完善烟叶专业化烘烤运行模式的建议.

  16. Yield and Nicotine Content of Flue-Cured Tobacco as Affected by Soil Nitrogen Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiao-Tang; CHAO Feng-Chun; LI Chun-Jian; JIANG Rong-Feng; P.CHRISTIE; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply is the most important factor affecting yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco (FCT).A field experiment and an in situ incubation method were used to study the effects of soil N mineralization in the later stages of growth on yield and nicotine content of FCT in Fenggang and Jiusha,Guizhou Province.The yield and market value of FCT at Fenggang were much lower than those at Jinsha.However,the nicotine content of middle and upper leaves was much higher at Fenggang than at Jiusha when the same rate of fertilizer N was applied,which might be due to a higher N supply capacity at the Fenggang site.At later stages of growth (7-16 weeks after transplanting),the soil net N mineralization at Fenggang (56 kg N ha-1) was almost double that at Jiusha (30 kg N ha-1).While soil NHa-N and NO3-N were almost exhausted by the plants or leached 5 weeks after transplanting,the N taken up at the later growth stages at Fenggang were mainly derived from soil N mineralization,which contributed to a high nicotine content in the upper leaves.The order of soil N contribution to N buildup in different leaves was:upper leaves > middle leaves > lower leaves.Thus,soil N mineralization at late growth stages was an important factor affecting N accumulation and therefore the nicotine content in the upper leaves.

  17. Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p aroma types at national scale.

  18. 烤烟晾制变黄时间对烟叶烘烤效果的影响%Effects of Air-curing Time on Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光伟; 陈振国; 饶勇; 李建平; 孙敬国; 杨杨

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of air-curing time on flue-cured tobacco quality, air-curing of 24, 48, 72, 96 hours were carried out before flue-curing and compared with curing directly after harvest. Changes of the tobacco curing process, energy and economic traits, appearance quality, chemical composition and smoking quality of cured tobacco leaves were analyzed. The results showed that with air-curing, curing time of flue-cured tobacco could be reduced and so was energy consumption. Improved quality of tobacco leaf appearance, economic traits, chemical composition and smoking quality were also observed. However, with the extension of air-curing time tobacco quality increased firstly and then declined. After comprehensive comparison of flue-cured tobacco quality the best air-curing time was 48 h, which could reduce the curing barn yellowing time within 20 h, save 15% of the energy consumption, with improved appearance quality, 5% higher proportion of superior and middle class leaves, and coordinated chemical composition.%为深入研究烤烟晾制变黄时间对烟叶烘烤效果的影响,试验设置了24、48、72和96 h等4个晾制时间梯度,与采收后直接烘烤相对比,对烘烤过程中烟叶变化情况、能耗及烤后烟叶经济性状、外观质量、化学成分、感官质量进行了分析。结果表明,烤烟晾制变黄可缩短烤房内变黄时间,降低烘烤能耗,对烤后烟叶的烟叶外观质量、经济性状、化学成分、评吸质量也有一定的改善作用,其效果随晾制变黄时间的延长,呈先升高后下降的趋势。综合比较,烤烟晾制变黄48 h效果最好,可节省烤房内变黄时间20 h,有效缩短烤房使用周期,节约烘烤能耗15%,外观质量好,上中等烟比例提高5%,化学成分协调。

  19. Effects of X-ray irradiation on the microbial growth and quality of flue-cured tobacco during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.; Xu, Z. C.; Fan, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Tian, Z. J.; Chen, Y. T.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray irradiation was evaluated for improving microbial safety and the quality of flue-cured tobacco during aging. Tobacco samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy and stored for 12 months under normal storage conditions or in a high-humidity (RH>70%) room. Microbiological data indicated that the population of total aerobic bacteria was significantly decreased with increasing irradiation doses. In particular, a dose of 2 kGy was effective for the decontamination of fungi from the tested samples, with a 0.93 log CFU/g reduction for bacteria. The control and 1 kGy X-ray treated tobacco samples were became rotted and moldy after the 12th month, whereas those treated with 2, 3 and 5 kGy had no detectable mold during 12 months of storage at high humidity. Chemical measurements showed that irradiation up to 3 kGy did not affect the total nitrogen, nicotine, reducing and total sugars, ratio of total nitrogen to nicotine and sugar-to-nicotine ratio. Furthermore, sensory evaluation results also showed that X-ray irradiation did not affect sensory scores with irradiation at a dose <3 kGy. Based on these results, X-ray irradiation dose in the range of 2-3 kGy is recommended for the decontamination of fungi from flue-cured tobacco.

  20. Effects of selenium on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiang Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Selenium (Se supply (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 mg kg−1 on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, Se accumulation and distribution of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Results showed that low-dose Se treatments (≤6 mg kg−1 stimulated plant growth but high-dose Se treatments (≥12 mg kg−1 hindered plant growth. Optimal Se dose (6 mg kg−1 stimulated plant growth by reducing MDA content and improving photosynthetic capability. However, excess Se (24 mg kg−1 increased MDA content by 28%, decreased net photosynthetic rate and carboxylation efficiency by 34% and 39%, respectively. The Se concentration in the roots, stems, and leaves of the tobacco plants significantly increased with increasing Se application. A linear correlation (R = 0.95, P leaf > stem. The Se concentration in the roots was 3.17 and 7.57 times higher than that in the leaves and stems, respectively, after treatment with 24 mg kg−1 Se. In conclusion, the present study suggested that optimal Se dose (6 mg kg−1 improved the plant growth mainly by enhancing photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency and Rubisco content in the flue-cured tobacco leaves. However, the inhibition of excess Se on tobacco growth might be due to high accumulation of Se in roots and the damage of photosynthesis in leaves.

  1. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Classification of the fragrant styles and evaluation of the aromatic quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves by machine-learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li; Xue, Lichun; Song, Qi; Wang, Fengji; He, Huaqin; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2016-12-01

    During commercial transactions, the quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves must be characterized efficiently, and the evaluation system should be easily transferable across different traders. However, there are over 3000 chemical compounds in flue-cured tobacco leaves; thus, it is impossible to evaluate the quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves using all the chemical compounds. In this paper, we used Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm together with 22 chemical compounds selected by ReliefF-Particle Swarm Optimization (R-PSO) to classify the fragrant style of flue-cured tobacco leaves, where the Accuracy (ACC) and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were 90.95% and 0.80, respectively. SVM algorithm combined with 19 chemical compounds selected by R-PSO achieved the best assessment performance of the aromatic quality of tobacco leaves, where the PCC and MSE were 0.594 and 0.263, respectively. Finally, we constructed two online tools to classify the fragrant style and evaluate the aromatic quality of flue-cured tobacco leaf samples. These tools can be accessed at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/tobacco .

  3. 安康烤烟的烘烤特性及适宜成熟度研究%Curing characteristics and suitable harvest maturity of fresh flue-cured tobacco leaves in Ankang tobacco growing areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 沈始权; 孙福山; 任杰; 肖头杰

    2013-01-01

    以烤烟K326、云烟87和贵炯4号为材料,研究了陕西安康烟区烤烟烘烤特性和适宜采收成熟度的关系.结果表明:K326失水较慢,相对耐烤,但易烤性一般,云烟87和贵烟4号失水较快,易烤,但耐烤性一般;贵烟4号以CM1收缩率最大,K326和云烟87以CM2收缩率最大,CM1最小,但差异不显著;K326分别以XM2、CM2、BM2的上中等炯比例和均价最高,云烟87分别以XM1、CM3、BM2的上中等烟比例和均价最高;K326分别以XM2、CM2、BM2的化学成分协调性和感官质量总体表现最好.%Cultivars K326, Yunyan87 and Guiyansihao were used to investigate the curing characteristics and suitable harvest maturity of fresh flue-cured tobacco leaves in Ankang tobacco growing areas. The results indicated that the water loss of K326 was slow, and the leaves were resistant to curing and but relative easily to cure. The water loss of Yunyan87 and Guiyansihao were quick, and the leaves with normal resistance to curing were relative difficult to cure. For Guiyansihao, the shrinkage of CM1 maturity was the largest. For K326 and Yunyan87, the shrinkages of CM2 maturity were the largest while the shrinkage of CM1 maturity was the lowest, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The proportion of top-middle-grade tobacco leaves and average price for K326 were the highest with XM2, CM2 and BM2 maturity, and for Yunyan87 were XM1, CM3 and BM2 maturity. For K326, leaves with XM2, CM2 and BM2 maturity showed the balanced chemical components and the best smoking quality.

  4. Measuring Vapors To Monitor the State of Cure of a Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed noninvasive method of monitoring the cure path and the state of cure of an epoxy or other resin involves measurement of the concentration( s) of one or more compound(s) in the vaporous effluent emitted during the curing process. The method is based on the following general ideas: (1) The concentrations of the effluent compounds in the vicinity of the curing resin are approximately proportional to the instantaneous rate of curing. (2) As curing proceeds at a given temperature, subsequent decreases in the concentrations are indicative of approaching completion of cure; that is, the lower are the concentrations, the more nearly complete is the cure.

  5. 不同编烟方式对烤烟烘烤成本及经济性状的影响%Effect of Different Plaiting Methods on Curing Cost and Economic Characters of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建锋; 吴中华; 张振研; 毛建书; 武圣江

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive efficiency of plaiting tobacco leaves, this paper researched the using efficiency,curing cost and flue - cured tobacco leaf quality of 3 different plaiting methods ( traditional plaiting, plaiting with leaf folder and plaiting with machine) through the bulk curing test.The research results indicated that plaiting tobacco leaves with leaf folder could remarkably improve leaf-binding efficiency, reduce labor and working time, decrease curing cost, and enhance the ratio of first -rate and middling tobacco leaves.Plaiting tobacco leaves with machine could significantly lower work intensity, labor and time consumption of leaf- binding, and accelerate the speed of leaf - binding.The method of plaiting tobacco leaves with leaf folder had the highest comprehensive efficiency of plaiting tobacco leaves in three plaiting methods, so it could be popularized and applied in the Curing of tobacco leaves.%为提高烟叶编烟环节的综合效益,通过密集烘烤试验,对传统烟杆编烟、烟夹编烟和编烟机编烟3种方式的使用效率、烘烤成本及烤后烟叶经济性状进行了研究.结果表明,使用烟夹能够显著提高编烟的效率,降低用工耗时,减少烘烤成本,提高上中等烟的比例;使用编烟机能显著降低编烟环节的劳动强度、用工数量和编烟时间,加快编烟速度.烟夹编烟方式的效果最佳,可以明显提高编烟环节的综合效益,在烟叶烘烤中可以推广应用.

  6. Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Evaluate the Nitrogen Leaf Content in Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Contillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco N fertilizer is commonly applied during pre-planting, and very often applied again later as a growth-starter. It is generally held that the efficiency of N-fertilizer use can be improved by evaluating the leaf Nstatus after transplanting and until flowering stage. N use efficiency in this context does not refer merely to the yield but also to the quality, in the meanwhile minimizing the negative effects on the environment. To investigate these aspects, we evaluated the capacity of a Minolta model SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to estimate the N-status in flue-cured tobacco. The aims was to verify if a relationship exists between SPAD readings and leaf N content, and if a single leaf, in a well defined stalk position, could represent the nitrogen content of the whole plant. During the years 1995 and 1996, a pot experiment was conducted using two flue-cured tobacco varieties. SPAD values, total chlorophyll, total N contents and leaf area were measured throughout the growing season, on each odd leaf stalk position. SPAD values were well-correlated with both total chlorophyll and total N leaf concentration, and the regression coefficients were higher when relationships were calculated on a leaf-area basis. For both relationships, SPAD-total chlorophyll and SPAD-total N, the best fittings were obtained with quadratic equations. One leaf stalk position alone is able to monitor the N-status of the whole plant during the first six weeks after transplanting, without distinction of year and variety effects. The SPAD measurement of one leaf per plant, throughout the vegetative growing season, is therefore a valid tool to test the N-status of the crop in a period when a required N supply is still effective.

  7. Improvement of Drying Temperature Control Method in Tobacco-Flue-Cured Barn%烤烟烘烤房干温度控制方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英俊; 金珖龙

    2011-01-01

    为了提高烤烟烘烤房的干温度精度和烤烟的烘烤质量,降低耗煤量,对往复推动式烟叶烘烤仪的干温度的控制方法进行了改进.通过利用模糊控制技术控制推煤电动机工作时间和停止工作时间,实现了根据烘烤工艺的要求对烤烟烘烤房的干温度进行实时监测的精确控制目标.%To improve the precision of drying temperature control of tobacco-flue-cured barn and the quality of flue-cured tobacco,and to reduce coal consumption for flue-cured tobacco,the drying temperature control method for the flue-cured tobacco apparatus with reciprocating transport function was improved.The working time and halting time of a coal-transport electric motor were controlled by fuzzy control technology,with the technology above the real-time of the accuracy control of the drying temperature of tobacco flue-cured barn was realized.

  8. Application Study of Renewable Energy Sources in Curing of Flue -cured Tobacco%可再生能源在烟草调制中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骏; 杨征宇

    2012-01-01

    在介绍我国烤烟调制耗能现状的基础上,从生物质能、电能、太阳能、纳米及远红外技术4个方面综述了我国烟草调制中可再生能源应用进展,指出了可再生能源在烟草调制应用过程中存在的问题及发展方向.%Based on the introduction of the current situation of energy consumption in the curing of flue - cured tobacco in our country, the article summarized the advance in the application of renewable energy sources in the curing of flue - cured tobacco from 4 aspects: biomass energy, electric energy, solar energy, nanometer and far infrared technology, and pointed out the existing problems and developmental direction of renewable energy sources application in flue - cured tobacco curing.

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  11. On Aroma Type of Flue-cured Tobacco%关于烤烟香型问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐远驹

    2011-01-01

    提出了烟叶香型是"对燃吸烟叶烟气整体香气特征所划分的类别"的概念.根据前人的资料,对我国烤烟清香型、浓香型、中间香型的香韵进行了分析,并概括为烤烟香型构成的"二韵论".对"二韵论"、香型的命名、香型的标准和标样、中间香型等存在的问题以及改进意见进行了探讨.%The concept of tobacco aroma type is proposed, that is: the aroma type is the classifications of overall aroma characteristics from smoking tobacco leaves. With reference to previous studies, the composition of aroma type of flue-cured tobacco was summarized as Two Notes Theory based on the note analysis of clean aroma type, full-bodied type and moderate type used in China. Then, the problems existed in Two Notes Theory, nomenclature of aroma type, standard of aroma type and standard sample,and moderate aroma type are discussed, suggestions for improvement is also presented.

  12. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan shahhosseiny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB, is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON. Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over expression of yeast acetyl transferase gene (ScAYT1 encoding a 3-O trichothecene acetyl transferase that converts deoxynivalenol to a less toxic acetylated form, leads to suppression of the deoxynivalenol sensitivity in pdr5 yeast mutants. To identify whether ScAYT1 over-expression in transgenic tobacco plants can deal with mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol in fungal extract and studying the effect of dsRNA contamination on detoxification and resistance level, we have treated T1 AYT1 transgenic tobacco seedlings with complete extraction of normal F. graminearum isolate carrying dsRNA metabolites. First, we introduced AYT1into the model tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in an attempt to detoxify deoxynivalenol. Results: In vitro tests with extraction of dsRNA carrying and cured isolates of F. graminearum and 10 ppm of deoxynivalenol indicated variable resistance levels in transgenic plants. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the transgene expression AYT1 and Fusarium infection to dsRNA can induce tolerance to deoxynivalenol, followed by increased resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat.

  13. Behaviour of Potassium and Trace Elements in Rhizosphere of Flue—Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGUO-SONG; CAOZHI-HONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The study on the behaviour of potassium,phosphate and trace elements,Fe,Mn,Cu and Zn,in the rhizosphere of different varieties of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)with high and low potassium application rate with rhizobag technique showed that soil available K,soil available P,and slow available K was in depletion status,whereas DTPA extractable Fe,Mn,Zn and Cu accumulated obviously in rhizosphere.The depletion and accumulation rates of mineral nutrients differed in degree with K application rate,soil type,and tobacco variety.The content of available K in both rhizosphere and bulk soil and K concentration in tobacco leaf increased significantly,and the available P in rhizosphere dropped with more K application.The DTPA-Fe content of red soil much lower in pH was higher than that of calcareous soil in bulk soil.But the DTPA-Fe content of calcareous soil was much higher than that of red soil in rhizosphere,which was considered perhaps to be mainly related to releasing of Fe phytosiderophore.Nitrate coule increase depletion of a vailable K in rhizosphere and also soil pH in comparision with ammonium.

  14. Do state expenditures on tobacco control programs decrease use of tobacco products among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecierski, Christina Czart; Chatterji, Pinka; Chaloupka, Frank J; Wechsler, Henry

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of state tobacco control program expenditures on individual-level tobacco use behaviors among young adults. Data come from the 1997, 1999 and 2001 waves of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). Our findings indicate that a higher level of state spending on tobacco control programs in the prior year is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability that current daily smokers report at least one attempt to quit smoking in the past year. We also find evidence that higher state expenditures on tobacco control programs in the prior year are associated with reductions in the prevalence of daily smoking and 30-day cigar use among college students. We do not find any statistically significant association between state tobacco control program expenditures and the number of attempts to quit smoking among those with at least one attempt, or on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the past month.

  15. Studies of Leaning-type-air-distributing-plate Loose-leaf Bulk Curing Technology on Flue-cured Tobacco%烟叶背靠式分风板散叶密集烘烤技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹吉平; 卢雨; 杜超凡; 童旭华; 王峰吉

    2015-01-01

    The application effects of leaning-type-air-distributing-plate on loose-leaf bulk curing technology were studied in this paper. The results showed that: the application of leaning-type-air-distributing-plate technology on loose-leaf bulk curing increased the tobacco leaves loading capacity by 66.54%. The curing cost of dry tobacco leaves reduced 0.62 yuan per kg. The economic benefit of the cured tobacco leaves of one bulk curing barn increased by 8 559.06 yuan. The ratio of high quality leaves, average price, single leaf weight, output value of the cured tobacco leaves were all higher than that of the control. The smoking quality of it was improved.%研究了背靠式分风板散叶密集烘烤技术在烤烟上的应用效果,结果表明:应用背靠式分风板散叶密集烘烤技术,可增加密集烤房装烟容量61.51%,每千克干烟叶减少烘烤成本0.62元,单炉经济效益增加8559.06元;烤后烟叶上等烟比例、均价、单叶重、产值均高于对照,烟叶感官评吸质量有所提高。

  16. Fertilizer Strategy of Flue-cured Tobacco in Panzhihua City%攀枝花市烤烟施肥对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜男; 程江珂

    2015-01-01

    分析土壤养分对烤烟生长发育的影响,并结合攀枝花市植烟地区土壤养分含量情况,对攀枝花市烤烟施肥情况做出指导,即通过石灰或白云石粉来改善pH值较低的土壤,加强农家肥、饼肥等有机肥的施用,控制氮肥施用,合理增加磷、钾肥的施用。%This paper analyzed the influence of soil nutrients on the flue-cured tobacco growth,and combined with the soil nutrients in Panzhihua flue-cured tobacco planting area,made guidances on fertilization of flue-cured tobacco in Panzhihua.High yield and quality of flue cured tobacco fertilization scheme were as followsused lime or dolomite powder to improve the soil pH value,strengthened the application of organic fertilizers,as farm manure or cake fertilizer,controled the N application,and increased P and K applications.

  17. 不同采烤方式对烤烟上部6叶烘烤质量及可用性的影响%Effects of Different Harvesting and Curing Method on Curing Quality and Usability of Six Upper Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢已书; 武圣江; 潘登华; 程联雄; 张光强

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve usability of upper flue-cured tobacco leaves, effects of hanging-pole bulk curing (with stem) and loose leaves bulk curing (no stem) of the one-time harvest and curing of different six upper flue-cured tobacco leaves on barn loading amount, curing cost, economic character, appearance quality, physical properties, chemical composition and sensory quality of tobacco leaves were studied. The results showed that compared with hanging-pole bulk curing with stem of the one-time harvest six top flue-cured tobacco leaves of different position, loose leaves bulk curing could increase loading amount and density, reduce labor cost, enhance the average price and higher quality percentage, improve appearance quality, harmonize the chemistry compositions, improve sensory quality of tobacco leaves. In a word, loose leaves bulk curing of the one-time harvest and curing was beneficial to improving usability and economic benefit of six upper tobacco leaves. The usability and economic benefit of the top 1~2 leaves under different harvest and curing method was lower, and advice was to give up curing.%为了探索提高上部烟叶可用性的途径,采用连续流动法测定化学成分等方法,研究了不同采烤方式对烤烟上部6叶烘烤质量及可用性的影响.结果表明:与常规带茎挂杆密集烘烤比较,上部6叶一次性采收散叶堆积烘烤可增加装烟量和装烟密度,减少用工成本和耗能成本,提高烟叶均价和上等烟率,改善烟叶外观质量,协调烟叶化学成分,提高感官评吸质量,有助于提高上部烟叶的可用性和经济效益.不同采烤方式顶部1~2叶位烟叶可用性和经济效益较低,建议弃烤.

  18. Effects of Water Volume and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of Air-cured Burley Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascione S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a two-year field trial in the region of Campania (Southern Italy the effects of water volume and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of Burley tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L. were investigated with reference to the following traits: cured leaf yield, price index, yield value, leaf area, specific leaf weight, burning capacity, color parameters, total alkaloid, nitrate and chloride leaf content. The experimental design was a factorial comparison among three water volumes (40, 80 and 120% evapotranspiration (ET, four nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 and two genotypes (cv TN86 and the hybrid R7-11. The yield of cured leaves rose with the increase in water and nitrogen availability, albeit at a decreasing rate. With the increase in water volume, the price index, burning capacity, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrate content decreased, while leaf area and chloride content increased. Up to a rate of 160 kg ha-1, nitrogen fertilization increased the price index, yield value, burning capacity, leaf area, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrates, and reduced leaf chloride content especially at 40% ET water volume. Both, nitrogen fertilization and water volume had little influence on leaf color. The year had considerable effects on yield, leaf area and color parameters, with higher values in the rainier season. In the two years, genotype TN86 showed higher stability for yield and yield value, lower alkaloid and higher nitrate content in the leaf than the R7-11 hybrid.

  19. To explore and analysis the problems of cured tobacco leaves to deal with and countermeasures%烟叶烤后处理存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游小春

    2009-01-01

    围绕烤后烟叶质量不受损失,结合福建省三明市烟区实际,以烟农烟叶出烤、回潮、储存保管等生产工序为着眼点,调查、分析烟叶烤后处理存在的问题.从加强培训指导,提高人员素质;因时因地制宜,规范妥当处理烤后烟叶;努力提高集约化、专业化烟叶生产和经营管理水平等方面论述了解决烟叶烤后处理问题的途径和方法,以促进烟农正确处理烤后烟叶,保全和提高烟叶质量.%The impact on the quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves are many factors, including tobacco cured tobacco affect the quality of treatment is one of the important factors. Focus on the quality of cured tobacco leaves from the loss, combined with the actual Sanming tobacco> tobacco leaf tobacco growers in the roast, resurgence, storage and other production processes for keeping the focus of the investigation, analysis cured tobacco processing problems, from the objective, subjective, scale of production Analysis of leaf, etc. After baking the reasons to deal with the problem, from guidance to enhance the training and improve the quality of personnel; because when the light of local conditions and norms to deal with properly cured tobacco; strive to improve the intensive, specialized tobacco production and business management solution level on tobacco grilled to deal with the problem after the ways and means to promote the correct handling of cured tobacco growers of tobacco, to preserve and improve the quality of tobacco.

  20. 烤烟颜色与感官质量关系研究%Study on Relationship between Color and Sensory Quality of Flue- cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 马啸; 陈海涛

    2011-01-01

    分析了四川省主产烟区中部烟叶烤烟颜色与感官质量关系.结果表明:烤烟的颜色分值与杂气呈显著相关,而与其他感官质量指标相关性不大.感官质量指标多数与烤烟颜色分值呈显著或极显著的曲线关系.灰色关联分析结果表明,烤烟杂气与颜色分值的关联度最大,对颜色分值的影响最大,其次为香气量、香气质,最小的为余味.%The relationship between the color and sensory quality of middle tobacco leaves from the main tobacco - planting areas of Sichuan province was studied. The results showed that the score of flue - cured tobacco color was significantly correlated with offensive odor, but was not significantly correlated with the other sensory quality indexes. There were significant or very significant curve relations between most sensory quality indexes and the score of flue - cured tobacco color. Grey relation analysis indicated that the relation degree between offensive odor and score of flue - cured tobacco color was the largest. Offensive odor had the most important influence on the score of flue -cured tobacco color, and it was followed by aroma quantity, aroma quality and aftertaste.

  1. Impact of alleles at the Yellow Burley (Yb) loci and nitrogen fertilization rate on nitrogen utilization efficiency and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) formation in air-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Parker, Robert G; Danehower, David A; Andres, Karen; Jack, Anne M; Whitley, D Scott; Bush, Lowell P

    2012-06-27

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) formation in tobacco is influenced by alkaloid levels and the availability of nitrosating agents. Tobacco types differ in their potential for TSNA accumulation due to genetic, agronomic, and curing factors. Highest TSNA concentrations are typically measured in burley tobaccos. One of the main genetic differences between burley and all other tobacco types is that this tobacco type is homozygous for recessive mutant alleles at the Yellow Burley 1 (Yb(1)) and Yellow Burley 2 (Yb(2)) loci. In addition, burley tobacco is typically fertilized at higher nitrogen (N) rates than most other tobacco types. This study utilized nearly isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of dominant or recessive alleles at the Yb(1) and Yb(2) loci to investigate the potential influence of genes at these loci on TSNA accumulation. Three pairs of NILs were evaluated at three different nitrogen fertilization rates for alkaloid levels, nitrogen physiology measures, and TSNA accumulation after air-curing. As previously observed by others, positive correlations were observed between N application rates and TSNA accumulation. Recessive alleles at Yb(1) and Yb(2) were associated with increased alkaloid levels, reduced nitrogen use efficiency, reduced nitrogen utilization efficiency, and increased leaf nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N). Acting together, these factors contributed to significantly greater TSNA levels in genotypes possessing the recessive alleles at these two loci relative to those carrying the dominant alleles. The chlorophyll-deficient phenotype conferred by the recessive yb(1) and yb(2) alleles probably contributes in a substantial way to increase available NO(3)-N during curing and, consequently, increased potential for TSNA formation.

  2. [Determination of twenty free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves using ultra performance liquid chromatography-single quadruple mass spectrometry and pre-column derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoli; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Fu, Jiajun; Wang, Ying; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2013-12-01

    Free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves were investigated using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-single quadruple mass spectrometry detection and pre-column derivatization method. The validation results showed that the method could meet the analytical requirements. A total of 138 tobacco leaf samples were collected from 14 provinces in China in 2011 in which the free amino acids were determined. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the contents of free amino acids in different growing regions ranged from 28.50%-94.20%, and those of asparagine and glutamine were over 80%. The RSDs of the contents of free amino acids in full aroma tobacco leaves were larger than those in fresh aroma and medium aroma tobacco leaves. The principal component analysis (PCA) and non-parameter Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. The free amino acids of the same aroma type grown in different regions or different aroma types in the same province showed great variation. The contents of free amino acids of full aroma tobacco grown in Southeast region were much lower than those in Huanghuai region. The contents of free amino acids in Hunan province were much lower than the average contents. The results showed that free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves were affected by the growing region.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Main Polyphenol Contents of Flue-cured Tobacco in Southwest Tobacco-growing Areas%西南烟区烤烟主要多酚含量的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟维勇; 张艇; 李朝荣; 王耀; 朱立军; 卢红

    2012-01-01

    Main polyphenols of 364 flue-cured tobacco samples in southwest tobacco-growing areas were determined by HPLC and variations of main polyphenols contents were analyzed.The results showed that: (1) Average contents of chlorogenic acid and total polyphenols in flue-cured tobacco of Sichuan Province were the highest in southwest tobacco-growing areas,content of chlorogenic acid of Yunnan Province was the least and rutin content in flue-cured tobacco of Guizhou Province was the least.(2) Average contents of chlorogenic acid and total polyphenols in flue-cured tobacco of Sichuan Province were significantly higher than those of Yunnan Province among different stalk positions ( P < 0.05).(3) Average contents of chlorogenic acid and total polyphenols in flue-cured tobacco of Sichuan Province were higher than those of Yunnan Province among among different years.(4) Average contents of chlorogenic acid and total polyphenols in C3F flue-cured tobacco of Sichuan Province were higher than those of Yunnan Province.%为了掌握西南烟草种植区烤烟中主要多酚化合物含量的差异,采用高效液相色谱法测定了该烟区364个陈化烤烟样品中主要多酚化合物的含量,并对检测结果进行了统计分析.结果表明:(1)四川烤烟中的绿原酸和多酚总量最高,云南烤烟中的绿原酸含量最低,贵州烤烟中的芸香苷含量最低;(2)绿原酸和多酚总量在四川上、中、下部烟叶中含量均显著高于云南烟区相应部位的烟叶(P<0.05);(3)相同年份烟叶中绿原酸和多酚总量四川要普遍高于云南;(4)云南烤烟C3F中的绿原酸和多酚总量要明显低于四川烤烟C3F.

  4. Investimento em unidades de cura para tabaco tipo Virginia = Investments in tobacco curing barn for Virginia variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Boettcher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A fumicultura na região Sul do Brasil está fundamentada no sistema integrado de produção. Ao longo do processo produtivo, há a necessidade de utilização de unidades de cura e secagem (estufas, sendo um investimento oneroso ao produtor. Dois sistemas de estufas predominam e de funcionamento distintos, os de estufas convencionais (convecção natural do ar e com circulação forçada do ar. O sistema de circulação forçada é o modelo preferido pelos produtores que optam por fazer novos investimentos. A decisão em investir demanda criteriosa análise da viabilidade econômica por parte do produtor, para minimizar risco de endividamentos. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a viabilidade financeira de unidades de cura para tabaco nas modalidades de financiamento com juros de crédito rural e juros de crédito rural subvencionados. As ferramentas financeiras utilizadas foram Valor Presente Líquido [VPL], Taxa Interna de Retorno [TIR], payback simples e análise de sensibilidade do investimento em relação à variável produtividade (kg ha-1. Utilizando taxa mínima de atratividade [TMA] 7,16%, o investimento não apresenta viabilidade econômica nas duas modalidades de juros, considerando a produtividade média histórica, o modelo de estufa selecionado e prazo de amortização. A análise de sensibilidade confirmou a produtividade (kg ha-1 como fator determinante da viabilidade do projeto. O incremento de >10% na produtividade média, reverte o quadro e o projeto passa a ser economicamente viável nas duas modalidades de juros de amortização do investimento. = The tobacco production in the south of Brazil is based on the integrated production system. Along with this system, there is a need to use curing barn to cure and dry, bringing an expensive investment for farmers. Two distinct curing systems are predominant which are the conventional (convection and air force circulation system. The air force system is the preferred model by

  5. Trends and patterns of tobacco use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Scott L

    2003-10-01

    This review summarizes recent trends and current patterns of tobacco use in the United States. Although adult smoking dropped between 1965 and 1990, from 50% to 28% of men and from 35% to 23% of women, the past decade has seen little further progress. In 2000, 25.7% of US men and 21.0% of women were smokers. Adolescent smoking has been declining since the late 1990s, but nearly 30% of high school seniors still smoke. In 2000, 4.4% of US men and 0.3% of women used snuff or chewing tobacco. Although adolescent smokeless tobacco use has declined in recent years, 14.8% of male high school students were current users in 2001. In 2001, 22.1% of male high school students and 8.5% of women students were current cigar smokers. Bidis and kreteks may be gaining popularity among young people, and more than 15% of adolescent smokers use these tobacco products. Despite recent progress, tobacco use remains prevalent in the United States. State and local governments need to invest adequate resources in the full range of tobacco control activities.

  6. Epidemiology of tobacco use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A

    2002-10-21

    Efforts to understand trends in and patterns of lung cancer are well served by studies of trends in and patterns of tobacco use. In the United States, the manufactured cigarette emerged as the tobacco product of choice shortly after the turn of the twentieth century. Lung cancer emerged after years of inhalation of cigarette smoke, first among men and then among women. The massive public health education campaign that began after scientists recognized the dangers of cigarette smoking has contributed to large reductions in cigarette use and subsequent smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. Since 1965, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults has declined by almost half, with positive trends observed among persons in almost all sociodemographic groups and efforts to reduce disparities recognized as an important goal in public health. An epidemiologic approach to understanding and controlling patterns of tobacco use is proposed. The model focuses on the agent (tobacco products), host (consumer or potential consumer), vector (tobacco companies and other users), and environment (with influences from families, social sources, culture, history, politics, law, and media). Accelerating progress in reducing tobacco use will accelerate reductions in tobacco-attributable morbidity and mortality.

  7. Changes of tobacco leaf trichome exudates during curing under different curing regimes%不同烘烤方式烘烤过程中烟叶表面腺毛分泌物变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章海; 潘文杰; 朱晓兰; 赵会纳; 高芸; 谢已书; 杨俊; 朱显灵

    2011-01-01

    Content of trichome exudates in cured leaves from four different curing barns, I. E. , traditional rod-hanging barn, rod-hanging bulk-curing barn, loose-leaf bulk curing barn, and basket-holding bulk curing barn, were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID method to study effect of different curing regimes on changes of tobacco leaf trichome exudates. Results showed that total content of trichome exudates in cured leaves from rod-hanging bulk-curing and loose-leaf bulk-curing barns were roughly 50% and 60% of those from traditional rod-hanging curing barn. The loss was mainly occurred during stem-drying stage. Content of trichome exudates from basket-holding bulk curing barn leaf was almost e-qual to that of traditional rod-handing curing barn leaf. It seemed that basket-holding bulk curing was one of the effective measures to reduce aroma loss caused by rod-hang bulk curing.%为研究不同烘烤方式对烘烤过程中烟叶表面腺毛分泌物含量变化与损失的影响,选择了传统普通烤房、挂竿密集烤房、散叶密集烤房和框装密集烤房等4种烤房类型,采用GC-MS定性,GC-FID定量的方法,分析烟叶表面腺毛分泌物含量.结果表明,挂竿密集烤房和散叶密集烤房烤后烟叶腺毛分泌物总量分别约为传统普通烤房的50%和60%,并且损失主要发生在于筋期.框装密集烤房烤后烟叶腺毛分泌物总量与传统普通烤房相当.因此,框装密集烤房是解决目前挂竿密集烤房烟叶香气量损失较大的有效措施之一.

  8. 不同烘烤工艺对烟叶淀粉含量及淀粉酶活性的影响%Effects of Curing Means on Starch Content and Amylase Activity in Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潇骏; 王万能; 谭兰兰; 吕婧; 黄正斌; 戴亚; 许安定

    2015-01-01

    为降低初烤烟叶中淀粉的含量(质量分数,下同),以现行工艺为对照(CK),采用低温高湿延时(W)、外加纤维素酶烘烤(M)和高温诱导酶预激活烘烤工艺(BK)进行了对比试验,用碘显色法测定淀粉含量,用3,5-二硝基水杨酸(DNS)比色法测定淀粉酶活性。结果表明:①烘烤后,CK,W,M,BK 4种烘烤工艺烤烟烟叶中淀粉的含量分别为6.54%,6.06%,5.08%和3.13%。②鲜烟叶淀粉酶活性为0.25 U,CK工艺中,烘烤3 h后淀粉酶活性为0.31 U;在BK工艺中,高温预处理后淀粉酶活性为0.49 U,全程呈双峰型。高温诱导酶预激活烘烤工艺可为降低烟叶淀粉含量和提高烟叶品质提供方法参考。%In order to reduce the content of starch in flue-cured tobacco leaves, three curing means were tested and compared with current curing means(CK), including low temperature high humidity longer period flue-curing (W), cellulose-aid flue-curing (M) and high temperature-induced amylase pre-activating flue-curing (BK), separately. The starch content in tobacco leaf was determined by iodine colorimetry, and the activity of amylase by 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) colorimetry. The results showed that: 1) The starch contents in tobacco leaves cured by CK, W, M, BK were 6.54%, 6.06%, 5.08%, 3.13%, respectively. 2) The amylase activity in fresh tobacco leaf was 0.25 U, increased to 0.31 U after curing for 3 hours by CK. For BK, the amylase activity in tobacco leaf pre-activated by high temperature reached 0.49 U, the amylase activity during curing process exhibited a profile with two peaks. High temperature-induced amylase pre-activating flue-curing means reduced the starch content in tobacco leaf more obviously.

  9. 烤烟秸秆固体成型燃料的工艺优化%Process Optimization for Biomass Pellet of Flue-cured Tobacco Straws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾怀胜; 曾中林; 王邦; 刘燕; 王玉川; 杨健; 王大荣; 李阳; 曹廷茂

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective] In order to provide a theoretical basis for application of biomass pellet of straws in tobacco leaves production. [ Method] Flue-cured tobacco straws were used as materials to study the effects of the different process on the quality and productivity of biomass pellet of flue-cured tobacco straws. [Result] The results showed that;the process was the best for biomass pellet of flue-cured tobacco straws when the moisture content was 20% ,and the fermentation time was 5 days,and the aperture of screen was 12 mm. [ Conclusion] The study can provide reference for application of flue-cured tobacco straw biomass pellet in practical production.%[目的]将秸秆固体成型燃料应用于烟叶生产中.[方法]以烤烟秸秆为原料,研究了不同生产工艺对烤烟秸秆固体成型燃料生产率和质量的影响.[结果]试验表明,采用含水率为20%,发酵时间为5d的烤烟秸秆,筛网孔径为12 mm的工艺进行生产,所得秸秆固体成型燃料产品的质量较好,生产率较高.[结论]研究可为烤烟秸秆固体成型技术在实际生产中的推广应用提供合理的依据.

  10. 基于模糊DEMATEL的烤烟烘烤影响因素分析%Analysis of Factors Influencing Curing of Flue-cured Tobacco with Fuzzy DEMATEL Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路晓崇; 黄元炯; 宋朝鹏; 孙福山; 王松峰; 张铭真; 宫长荣

    2015-01-01

    烤烟烘烤效果受到诸多因素的影响,为在众多的影响因素中识别出烤烟烘烤的关键性影响因素,采用模糊DEMATEL(Fuzzy of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory)分析法对影响烤烟烘烤的5大类(烟叶生长环境、烘烤环境、烟叶属性、装烟状况以及烘烤人员素质)17个因素的原因度与中心度进行了分析.结果表明,影响烤烟烘烤的主要因素有光照、大气温度、降雨、干球温度与湿球温度,其中烟草大田生长期间的降雨量、光照与大气温度是影响烤烟烘烤效果的根本因素,对烤房内干球温度与湿球温度的控制是影响烤烟烘烤效果的直接因素,而干球温度对烤烟烘烤的影响最大.%To identify the key factors influencing the curing of flue-cured tobacco, fuzzy DEMATEL (Fuzzy of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) method was adopted to analyze the relation and prominence of seventeen factors in five major categories (growing environment, curing conditions, tobacco leaf characteristics, loading status and operators'skill) affecting curing. The results showed that the major factors affecting curing of flue-cured tobacco were light irradiation, atmosphere temperature, rainfall, dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature; among them, the rainfall, light irradiation and atmosphere at tobacco growing stage in field were fundamental factors, the control of dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature in barn was direct factor, and dry bulb temperature impacted the greatest influence on curing.

  11. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.

  12. [Difference of rhizosphere microbe quantity and functional diversity among three flue-cured tobacco cultivars with different resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiu-hua; Zuo, Jin-xiang; Li, Zhong-huan; Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhao, Yong-gang; Deng, Qiao; Ouyang, Jin; Huang, Jun-jie; Yu, Lu; Zou, Jian; Zhao, Zheng-xiong

    2015-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shilin and Xundian respectively to study the diffe- rence of rhizosphere microbe quantity and functional diversity with plate culture method and Biolog technique among Hongda (high susceptibility, S), Yun87 (middle resistance, MR) and K326 (high resistance, R) , three flue-cured tobacco cultivars with different resistance to bacterial wilt and black shank. The results indicated that the amounts of bacteria, actinomycetes and the total number of microbes in tobacco plants' rhizosphere were positively correlated with the cultivar' s re- sistance, while it was opposite for the fungi. The consistent tendency was obtained not only at 35 d, 55 d and 75 d after transplanting, but also at two experimental sites. Cultivar and experimental con- ditions greatly affected the utilization of six types of carbon source by rhizospheric microbes, as well as the AWCD value. In Xundian site, rhizospheric microbes' utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acids, polymers,. amines and the AWCD value were all higher at 55 d and 75 d after transplanting for the resistant cultivar than the susceptible one, but it was opposite at 75 d after transplanting for the phenolic acids. In Shilin, significant differences existed among the three culti- vars at 35 d, 55 d and 75 d after transplanting for the indices mentioned above, although they were not consistent with cultivars' resistance. Principal component (PC) analysis even showed that utili- zation of carbon sources by rhizosphere microorganisms differed significantly among the three culti- vars at the two sites, and it was better reflected by PC1 and PC2 at 55 d and 75 d after transplan- ting, respectively. In conclusion, rhizosphere microbial community structure and functional diversity were greatly affected not only by the cultivars' difference in resistance, but also by experimental conditions.

  13. Design and Implementation of Combined Mobile Flue-cured Tobacco Room%组合式活动烤烟房设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元庆

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the design characteristics, tectonic concept of combined mobile flue—cured tobacco room, meeting with National Bureau requirements through experiments, good results are achieved in promotion of tobacco and vegetable baking industry.%本文介绍了组合式活动烤烟房的设计特点、构造理念,通过测试实验符合国家局的规定要求,并在烟草和蔬菜烘烤行业中推广取得了良好的效果.

  14. 密集烤房不同装烟方式比较研究%Comparison of Tobacco Leaf Loading Methods in Bulk Curing Barn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙曙光; 周童; 顾会战; 彭毅; 汪健; 王鹏; 陈利平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索密集烤房的最佳装烟方式.[方法]以密集烤房挂杆方式为对照,比较研究了托架式烟夹、框架散叶、散叶插签装烟方式的配套设备成本、装烟量、用工量、烤后烟叶经济性状、能耗成本等状况.[结果]托架式烟夹、框架散叶、散叶插签装烟方式节能省工效果明显,3种装烟方式装烟量最大可提高71.43%,初烤烟经济性状均有所提高,符合现代烟草农业集约化和可持续发展要求.[结论]研究可为密集烤房不同装烟方式的优化提供参考依据.%[Objective] To explore the best tobacco leaf loading method. [Method] With hang poles as control group, bracket type smoke clamp, framework loose leaf and loose leaf cutting sign loading tobacco patterns were tested in bulk curing barn about corollary equipment cost, pack smoke volume, the employment quantity, roast tobacco leaf after economic characters, energy consumption cost. [Result] The results showed that bracket type smoke clamp, framework loose leaf and loose leaf cutting sign were much better than hang poles in energy and worker saving. Because largest amount of the three tobacco leaf loading method can be increased by 71. 43 % and initial flue-cured tobacco economic characters are improved so they accord with the modern tobacco agriculture. [Conclusion] The study provides reference basis for optimization of different tobacco loading method.

  15. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these countries are low- or middle-income countries. Mass media campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption by influencing ... have aired at least 1 strong anti-tobacco mass media campaign within the last 2 years. Ad bans ...

  16. 山东烟叶精益生产的探索与思考%Exploration on Lean Production of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴开成; 王暖春; 刘中庆

    2014-01-01

    During the process of advancing modern tobacco agriculture, some related measures for developing were proposed, such as changing operation ideas, innovating production mode, strengthening the guidance, exploring lean production and so on. After a few year exploration, the lean production mode for flue-cured tobacco leaves has been roughly developed, which includes accurate information, sophisticated technology, precision operation, and fine management. The application of this mode increased land output rate, resource utilization rate and labor productivity, improved the quality and profit of flue-cured tobacco leaves, promoted the development of modern tobacco agriculture in Shandong. The strategy and issues on lean production for flue-cured tobacco leaves were evaluated and summarized in this paper.%在推进现代烟草农业深化提升的过程中,山东烟区切实转变思想观念,创新生产方式,加强示范引导,积极探索烟叶精益生产。通过实践,初步形成了以信息精确化、技术精良化、作业精准化、管理精细化为主要内容的烟叶精益生产模式,提高了土地产出率、资源利用率和劳动生产率,提升了烟叶品质,较好地推动了山东现代烟草农业发展,促进了烟农持续增收和原料保障上水平,并对山东今后推进烟叶精益生产的思路进行了探讨。

  17. Comparative Analysis of Baked Effect of Flue-cured Tobacco Loaded by Different Patterns in Bulk Curing Barn%烤烟密集烤房不同装烟方式烘烤效果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张警予; 娄元菲; 王文超; 李昂; 董艳辉; 杨彦明; 贺帆; 宫长荣

    2014-01-01

    The comparative tests for the baked effect of flue -cured tobacco loaded by 3 different ways ( hanging rod , tobacco clamping, and dispersal leaf ) were carried out in bulk curing barn .The results indicated that: in comparison with the traditional hanging-rod baking , the dispersal-leaf baking could save labor and energy .The labor efficiency in tobacco -loading of hanging -rod way was basically the same as that of needle -type tobacco-clamping way , but the labor used in tobacco -weaving of the for-mer was 0.39 workers/667 m2 higher than that of the latter .The labor used in all links of dispersal -leaf way was 1.60 workers/667 m2 less than that of hanging -rod way, and 1.21 workers/667 m2 less than that of needle -type tobacco-clamping way.The energy-consumption cost in tobacco -baking of dispersal -leaf way and needle -type tobacco-clamping way was respectively 0.22 and 0.07 yuan/kg lower than that of hanging -rod way.The chemical compositions in the baked tobacco leaves loaded by tobacco -clamping way had the best harmony .The average price of baked dry tobacco leaves of needle -type tobacco-clamping way and dis-persal-leaf way was respectively 0.9 and 0.5 yuan/kg higher than that of hanging -rod way, and the medium-superior proportion of baked tobacco leaves of these two tobacco -loading ways was also higher than that of hanging -rod way .%挂竿、烟夹、散叶等3种装烟方式的烘烤对比试验表明:与传统挂竿烘烤相比,较散叶烘烤省工、节能,挂竿装烟和针式烟夹装烟环节用工效率基本一致,差异不明显,但编烟环节针式烟夹明显省工,总体节省了0.39个工/667 m2;散叶堆积较挂竿的各个环节均明显省工,散叶堆积较挂竿节省了1.60个工/667 m2,较针式烟夹节省用工1.21个工/667 m2。针式烟夹和散叶堆积较挂竿烘烤能耗成本略有降低,散叶堆积干烟较挂竿节省能耗成本0.22元/kg,针式烟夹干烟节省0.07元/kg。烟夹

  18. 氯化钾施用量在烤烟生产上研究%Study on Consumption of KCl in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤华; 谭雪庆; 张文建; 谢孔华

    2012-01-01

    2010年余庆县开展了氯化钾肥料施用量的田间试验工作,结果表明:氯化钾施用量为45.0~60.0 kg/hm2范围内,能显著提高烟叶产量和经济效益,烟叶外观质量、内在质量明显改善,化学成分较为协调,评吸质量较优。%The work of consumption of KCl in flue-cured tobacco production in Yuqing county in 2010 was carried out.The result showed that when fertilizing amount of KCl was 45.0~60.0 kg/hm2,it could increase tobacco production and economic benefits,improve appearance and quality of tobacco leaves,make chemical composition more harmonious and smoking quality more excellent

  19. 烟叶密集烘烤余热回收利用的可行性分析%Feasibility Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery of Tobacco Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟浩; 罗会龙; 李志民; 和智君; 崔国民

    2011-01-01

    分析了目前密集烤房烟叶烘烤的能耗现状;对密集烤房烟气及排湿气流余热回收节能潜力进行了初步估算,并以热管式余热回收器为例进行了经济性分析;在此基础上,初步分析了烟叶密集烘烤余热回收利用的可行性.%The current stares of energy consumption of bulk curing barn are briefly introduced in this paper. The energy-saving potentiality of waste heat recovery in bulk curing barn is estimated. And cost-effectiveness analysis of heat-pump heat recovery device is presented. Based on these, the feasibility of waste heat recovery of tobacco curing is also discussed.

  20. 调制对烟草香气物质含量的影响研究进展%Research Progress of Effects of Curing on Aromatic Substances Contents of Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广东; 孙军伟; 史宏志

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between curing technologies and the contents of aromatic substances of tobacco,the effects of curing technologies on the contents of aromatic substances in respect of curing fa-cilities,curing environment,curing methods were reviewed for flue-cured tobacco and burley tobacco. The existing problems and the results of the study on the flue-curing and air-curing facilities,curing tempera-ture and humidity,curing time and methods were summarized and analyzed. The outlook on research di-rection in this field was also given in the article.%为探究调制技术与烟草香气物质含量的关系,从调制设施、调制环境、调制方法等方面综述了调制对烤烟、白肋烟等不同烟草类型烟叶香气物质含量的影响,分析并总结了烤房设施、晾房设施及调制温湿度、调制时间、调制方法等烟草调制技术的研究成果及研究中存在的问题,并对该领域的研究方向进行了展望。

  1. Reigniting tobacco ritual: waterpipe tobacco smoking establishment culture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary V; Chang, Judy; Sidani, Jaime E; Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric; Balbach, Edith; Primack, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use in the United States. Its appeal may stem from its social, ritualistic, and aesthetic nature. Our aim in this study was to understand WTS as a social ritual with the goal of informing prevention efforts. We conducted a covert observational study consisting of 38 observation sessions in 11 WTS establishments in 3 U.S. cities. Data collection was based on an established conceptual framework describing ritualistic elements of tobacco use. Iterative codebook development and qualitative thematic synthesis were used to analyze data. Atmospheres ranged from quiet coffee shop to boisterous bar party environments. While some children and older adults were present, the majority of clientele were young adults. Men and women were evenly represented. However, there were 19 occurrences of a male smoking by himself, but no women smoked alone. The vast majority (94%) of the clientele were actively smoking waterpipes. All 83 observed groups manifested at least 1 of the ritual elements of our conceptual framework, while 41 of the 83 observed groups (49%) demonstrated all 4 ritual elements. Despite its heterogeneity, WTS is often characterized by 1 or more established elements of a tobacco-related social ritual. It may be valuable for clinical and public health interventions to acknowledge and address the ritualistic elements and social function of WTS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events - United States, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2016-08-19

    Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship of sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events using the tobacco brand name or anything identifiable with any brand of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco).(§) However, corporate-name tobacco sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship using the name of the corporation that manufactures regulated tobacco products) is still permitted under certain conditions.(¶) To monitor tobacco advertising and promotional activities in sports in the United States, CDC analyzed trends in sports-related marketing expenditures for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during 1992-2013 using data from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). During 1992-2013, sports-related marketing expenditures, adjusted by the consumer price index to constant 2013 dollars, decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to $0 in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). During 2010-2013, after the prohibition of tobacco-brand sponsorship in sports under the FSPTCA, cigarette manufacturers reported no spending (i.e., $0) on sports-related advertising and promotional activities; in contrast, smokeless tobacco manufacturers reported expenditures of $16.3 million on advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco in sports during 2010-2013. These findings indicate that despite prohibitions

  3. Research Status of Solar Energy Assisted Curing Tobacco Leaves in China%我国利用太阳能辅助烘烤烟叶研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永安; 徐增汉; 罗红香; 陆新莉; 李余湘; 王能如; 李章海

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the evolution of solar-assisted curing tobacco leaves in China, in order to provide information and reference for the relative research on solar-assisted curing. The solar energy was used by light-heat transfer in previous studies, but never been popularized and applied in tobacco curing. According to the status of infrequently use of solar energy in tobacco curing which is high energy consumption process in China, we put forward some constructive suggestions and propose to strengthen fundamental research, to control costs, and to steadily popularize the solar-assisted curing tobacco. The paper also prospects the application of solar energy assisted curing tobacco leaves, points out that we must use solar energy assisted curing tobacco leaves in China, so as to realize tobacco curing with energy saving, environment protection and lower cost.%为了给利用太阳能辅助烘烤烟叶的相关研究提供参考与借鉴,简介了我国利用太阳能辅助烘烤烟叶研究沿革,以往的研究主要采取光-热转换方式利用太阳能,但都没有推广应用;针对我国在高耗能的烟叶烘烤上很少利用太阳能的现状,提出了一些建设性建议,认为应加强基础研究、控制成本和稳步推广利用太阳能辅助烘烤烟叶;并展望了利用太阳能辅助烘烤烟叶的应用前景,指出我国必须利用太阳能辅助烘烤烟叶,使烟叶烘烤实现节能减排降本.

  4. Characteristics of Potassium-Enriched, Flue-Cured Tobacco Genotype in Potassium Absorption,Accumulation,and In-Ward Potassium Currents of Root Cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YNAG Tie-zhao; LU Li-ming; XIA Wei; FAN Jin-hua

    2007-01-01

    This study was to investigate the main traits of potassium-enriched,flue-cured tobacco genotypes related to potassium absorption,accumulation,and in-ward potassium currents of the root cortex.Hydroponic methods,K+-depletion methods,and patch-clamp,whole-cell recordings were conducted to study the accumulation of dry matter and potassium in different organs,and to measure potassium absorption and dynamic and in-ward potassium currents in potassium-enriched,fluecured tobacco genotypes.The average dry weights of leaves and whole plant of potassium-enriched,flue-cured tobacco genotype ND202 were 10.20,and 14.85g,respectively,higher than JYH(8.50 and 13.11g,respectively)and NC2326(8.39 and 12.72g,respectively),when potassium concentration in the solution ranged from 0.1 to 50mmol L-1.Potassium accumulation in the leaves of ND202 was 18.6% higher than JYH and 34% higher than NC2326 when potassium concentration in the solution was superior to 0.5mmol L-1.The Vmax(the maximum velocity)of ND202 was 118.11μmol FW g-1h-1,obviously higher than that of JYH(58.87 μmol FW g-1 h-1)and NC2326(64.40μmol FW g-1 h-1).In the in-ward potassium currents,the absolute value of current density(pA/pF)of ND202 was 60,higher than that of JYH(50)and NC2326(40).Potassium concentration in leaves,Vmax and in-ward potassium currents,could be used to screen potassium-enriched,flue-cured tobacco genotypes.

  5. Research Progress on Effects of Organic Fertilizer on Growth and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%有机肥对烤烟生长及产量品质影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 黄建国

    2011-01-01

    It is an important target of flue-cured tobacco cultivation and growth to enhance tobacco leaf quality, reduce harmful substance and lighten the harm caused by smoking by applying organic fertilizer in flue-cured tobacco cultivation. Scientific workers have done quite a lot of research. Effects of organic fertilizer on tobacco-planting soil, flue-cured tobacco growth and development, internal quality and exterior quality were reviewed, and the application of organic fertilizer in flue-cured tobacco production was prospected as well to further enhance the yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco, which are of great significance to improvement of tobacco-planting soil and rational fertilization of flue-cured tobacco.%利用有机肥种植烤烟,提高烟叶质量,降低有害物质含量,减轻吸烟造成的危害是烤烟栽培和卷烟生产的重要目标.为此,科学工作者做了大量研究.为进一步提高烤烟产量,改善烤烟品质,从有机肥对植烟土壤、烤烟生长发育、内在品质和外观品质的影响等方面研究进行了综述,并对有机肥在烤烟生产中的应用前景进行了展望,对植烟土壤的改良和烤烟的合理施肥具有重要意义.

  6. Biological and chemical induction of resistance to the Globodera tabacum solanacearum in oriental and flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkunan, Venkatesan; Johnson, Charles S; Eisenback, Jon D

    2009-09-01

    The effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and four combinations of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum solanacearum, and growth of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. K326 and Xanthi) were tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The PGPR included combinations of Bacillus subtilis A13 with B. pumilis INR7, B. pumilis SE34, B. licheniformis IN937b, or B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, respectively. Among the four rhizobacterial combinations, IN937a + A13 exhibited the most consistent reduction in G. t. solanacearum cysts under greenhouse and field conditions. No undesirable effects of IN937a + A13 were observed on tobacco growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Use of INR7 + A13 reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction on flue-cured tobacco cv. K326 but not on oriental tobacco cv. Xanthi. Application of ASM reduced final numbers of G. t. solanacearum cysts, but also resulted in phytotoxicity mainly under the greenhouse conditions. When oriental tobacco seedlings were pre-grown in a IN937a + A13-treated soil-less medium, a single application of ASM at 200 mg/L one week after transplanting significantly reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction in the field.

  7. Correlation between the state of cure of thermosetting resins and their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffane, N.; Benameur, T.; Granger, R.; Vergnaud, J.M. [Faculty of Sciences, University of St Etienne (France)

    1996-01-01

    Thermosetting resins, in the same way as polymers, are more and more used for coating metal sheets, in order to bring various interesting properties. An important problem arises with the cure of the thermoset, the process of cure being complex with heating conduction and convection and the heat generated by the cure reaction. The kinetics of the heat evolved from the overall cure reaction is determined through calorimetry experiments in scanning mode. The state of cure at time t is expressed by the heat generated by reaction up to time t as a fraction of the total heat generated. A numerical model taking all the facts into account is able to evaluate the profile of the state of cure developed through the thickness of the thermoset. The state of cure which derives from a theoretical point of view is correlated with some properties of interest for the coating, such as the hardness and the resistance to liquids. The resistance to water and ethanol is evaluated by determining the kinetics of absorption which is controlled by diffusion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. 分米波烘烤对烟叶品质及用工能耗的影响%Effect of Decimetric Wave Curing on Tobacco Quality,Labor Cost and Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹焱; 谢已书; 卢贤仁

    2011-01-01

    The decimetric wave curing technique was used in tobacco curing to overcome the disadvantages of long curing hours, high labor cost and high energy consumption in the traditional curing method and establish the new curing model with labor saving and energy conservation. The results showed that the length contractibility rate of tobacco leaves cured by decimetric wave was less than by the traditional curing method, but the width contractibility rate of tobacco leaves cured by decimetric wave was higher than by the traditional curing method, the decimetric curing method could increase single leaf weight and leaf structure thickness, and reduce fresh-dry weight ratio of tobacco leaves, leaf color, leaf oil content and leaf chromaticity, the total sugar and reducing sugar content of tobacco leaves cured by decimetric wave was lower than by the traditional curing method and the starch content of tobacco leaves cured by decimetric wave was higher than by the traditional curing method, there was no obvious difference in total nitrogen, nicotine, protein content, sensory quality and smoking quality between the decimetric wave curing method and traditional curing method, the sensory quality of the upper tobacco leaves cured by decimetric wave was poor but the sensory quality of the middle and bottom tobacco leaves was better. The labor cost and energy consumption of the decimetric wave curing method for lkg dry tobacco leaf is 26% lower than the traditional curing method.%针对烟叶常规挂竿烘烤耗时长、用工多、能耗大的情况,采用分米波技术烘烤鲜烟叶,为建立新型省工节能烟叶烘烤模式提供依据.结果表明,采用分米波烘的烤烟叶叶长收缩率小于常规,而叶宽收缩率则大于常规挂竿烘烤,且能增加烟叶单叶重和降低烟叶鲜千比;烟叶颜色偏淡,叶片结构和身份偏厚,油分偏少,色度偏弱;总糖和还原糖含量低于常规挂竿烘烤,淀粉含量则高于常规挂竿烘烤,但烟

  10. 烤烟香气物质的研究进展%Research Development of Aroma Components in Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琛玮

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the type and formation of aroma components in flue-cured tobacco, analyses the factors influencing the formation and contents of aroma components from four aspects of hereditary, ecological environment, cultural techniques and the preliminary processing of tobacco, and finally forecasts the research prospect of aroma components.%综述了烤烟香气物质的种类及其形成,并从遗传因素、生态环境、栽培技术以及烟叶初加工过程4个方面阐述了影响烤烟香气物质形成及含量的因素,最后对烤烟香气物质研究的前景进行了展望.

  11. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Methods Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. Findings The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. Conclusion The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for

  12. 烤烟烟叶水分快速检测仪的研制%Development of a Water Detection Instrument for Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华波; 翟丽华; 李志刚

    2014-01-01

    Water content of flue-cured tobacco leaves is directly related to the purchasing quality .A microcomputer-based portable detector for water content of tobacco leaves detector was designed and developed to achieve an objective and fast decision .The machine took MCU and photoelectric converter chip as the core components , using near-infrared light transmission analysis method .Combined with manual inputs , the instruments could establish discrimination model independently and perform data collection and modeling operations without PC .The real-time identification of tobacco leaf water content provides a helpful way for solving the objective detection of water content of flue -cured tobacco leaves .%烤烟烟叶水分含量的高低直接关系到烟叶的收购品质。为实现对烤烟水分含量进行客观、快速判定,设计开发了一种基于单片机的便携式烤烟烟叶水分含量检测仪。以微型单片机和光电转换器为核心,利用近红外光透射分析方法,采用机采和人工输入相结合的判别模型构建,能够脱离 PC 机完成数据采集和建模运算,即时判别烤烟烟叶水分含量是否达标,并具有判别模型存储、判别结果输出报警等功能,较好地解决了烟叶收购工作中水分含量客观判定的问题。

  13. 不同内衬袋对片烟醇化质量的影响%Effects of Different Lining Bag on Aging Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩仁

    2009-01-01

    研究了不同包装材料对片烟醇化质量的影响.结果表明,加衬塑料袋的片烟外观质量和感官质量明显优于牛皮纸袋和不加内衬袋处理,加衬激光微孔塑料袋的处理片烟质量最好;加衬内衬袋片烟的还原糖含量明显高于不加内衬袋片烟;加衬牛皮纸袋的片烟烟碱含量最低.%The effects of different lining bags on aging quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina were studied. TheResults showed that the appearance quality and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with plastic lining bag were better than those in treatments with kraft bag and without lining bag. The quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with laser microporous plastic bag was the best. The reducing sugar content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with lining bag was higher than that in treatments without lining bag. The nicotine content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with kraft bag was the lowest.

  14. 河南主产烟区烤烟化学成分分析%Analysis on Chemical Components in Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves from Henan Tobacco-growing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫洪洋; 刘春奎; 闫洪喜; 孔旭; 闫克玉; 王国良

    2012-01-01

    14 indexes of main chemical components from 37 samples were analyzed in flue-cured tobacco leaves from Henan tobacco-growing areas. The results indicated that: (i)The contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine, potassium, chlorin, sulfur, organic potassium, total petroleum ether extract, total ash and the ratio of total nitrogen to nicotine in flue-cured tobacco leaves were medium, protein content and the ratio of total sugar to nicotine were high, and the ratio of potassium to chlorine was low. (ii) Coefficient of variation ( 50. 15 %) of the ratio of total sugar to nicotine was the biggest, coefficient of variation (12.31 %) of potassium was the smallest, (iii) The contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine, protein, total ash and the ratio of total sugar to nicotine in flue-cured tobacco leaves had significant difference among different positions. (iv)The contents of potassium, chlorin, organic potassium, the ratio of total nitrogen to nicotine and the ratio of potassium to chlorine in flue-cured tobacco leaves had significant difference among different tobacco-growing areas. (v)The contents of total nitrogen, nicotine, total petroleum ether extract, protein, total ash, the ratio of total sugar to nicotine and the ratio of total nitrogen to nicotine in flue-cured tobacco leaves had significant difference among different colours.%对河南主产烟区37个烤烟样品的14项主要化学指标进行了分析.结果表明,①河南烤烟总糖、还原糖、总氮、烟碱、钾、氯、硫、有机钾、石油醚提取物总量、总灰分含量和氮碱比适宜,蛋白质含量和糖碱比略高,钾氯比稍低;②河南烤烟化学指标中糖碱比的变异系数(50.15%)最大,钾含量的变异系数(12.31%)最小;③烤烟总糖、还原糖、总氮、烟碱、蛋白质、总灰分、糖碱比在不同部位间差异显著;④烤烟钾、氯、有机钾含量、氮碱比和钾氯比在不同产区间

  15. 晾制时间对上部烟叶物理特性及主要化学成分的影响%Effect of Air- curing Time on Physical Characteristics and Major Chemical Components of Upper Tobacco Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 周清明; 邓小华; 谢鹏飞; 张万良; 翟争光

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different air - curing time on physical characteristics and major chemical components of flue -cured upper tobacco leaves were studied by using the flue - cured tobacco Yunyan97 as experimental material. The results showed that the proper air - curing time can reduced the consumption of tobacco dry matter and the contraction of leaf thickness, also can increased the balance water proportion, reduced the content of nicotine in tobacco leaves, and then can improved the quality of tobacco leaves, However, the content of total sugar, reducing sugar, starch and the two sugar difference was reduced in tobacco leaves along with the increase of air - curing time. The technology of first air - curing 36 hours and then flue - curing into the bam was appropriate.%以烤烟品种云烟97为材料,研究了不同晾制时间对烤烟上部烟叶物理特性及主要化学成分的影响.结果表明:适当的晾制时间可减少烟叶干物质的消耗和叶片厚度收缩,并能提高平衡含水率,降低烟叶烟碱含量,进而提高烟叶质量.但随着晾制时间的延长,烟叶总糖、还原糖、淀粉含量下降和两糖差减少.以晾制36h再入烤房烘烤较适当.

  16. 不同调制方式和施氮量下烤烟和白肋烟糖含量差异分析%Effects of Different Nitrogen Application Rate and Curing Methods on Contents of Sugars in Flue-cured Tobacco and Burley Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广东; 徐成龙; 史宏志

    2015-01-01

    为探究烤烟与白肋烟糖含量差异形成原因,以烤烟品种K326、中烟100和白肋烟品种达白1号、TN90为材料,研究了不同调制方式及施氮水平下烟叶糖含量的差异。结果表明,基因型对烤烟和白肋烟烟叶的水溶性总糖和还原糖含量影响最大,调制方式影响其次,施氮量影响相对较小。烤烟在晾制条件下水溶性总糖和还原糖含量较烘烤条件下明显下降,但仍处于较高水平;白肋烟在烘烤条件下水溶性总糖和还原糖含量较晾制条件下虽有所上升,但仍处于较低水平。中烟100中、上部烟叶还原糖与水溶性总糖比值均在0.95左右,且在不同调制方式间差异较小;而TN90中、上部烟叶还原糖与水溶性总糖比值在不同调制方式间差异较大,且均表现为烘烤>先晾再烤>晾制。%Field experiments with K326,Zhongyan 100,Dabai 1 and TN90 as materials were set up to ex-plore the reason for the differences of carbohydrate contents between flue-cured tobacco and burley tobac-co by investigating the changes of carbohydrate contents under the different conditions of nitrogen applica-tion rate and curing methods.Results showed that tobacco type had the most important influence on the contents of total sugars and reducing sugar,the second was curing methods,and the last was nitrogen ap-plication rate.The contents of total sugars and reducing sugar of K326 and Zhongyan 100 in air-curing condition showed a decreasing trend compared with flue-curing condition,but still at a higher level.Al-though the contents of total sugars and reducing sugar of burley tobacco in flue-curing had a certain rise, which was still at the low level.The ratios of reducing sugar and total sugars in both middle and upper leaves of Zhongyan 100 were approximately 0.95,and there was no significant difference among different curing methods.However, the significant difference was observed in both middle and upper leaves

  17. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  18. The Evaluation of North Carolina's State-Sponsored Youth Tobacco Prevention Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, K. L.; McCullough, A.; Summerlin-Long, S.; Agans, R.; Ranney, L.; Goldstein, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the state of North Carolina (NC) implemented a multi-component initiative focused on teenage tobacco use prevention and cessation. One component of this initiative is "Tobacco.Reality.Unfiltered." ("TRU"), a tobacco prevention media campaign, aimed at NC youth aged 11-17 years. This research evaluates the first 5 years…

  19. 亚氯酸钠对烤烟酶促棕色化反应及烟叶质量的影响%Effects of sodium chlorite on enzymatic browning reaction and curing quality of flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰; 李雨江; 包可翔; 赖成连; 冷平; 孙福山

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of sodium chlorite(SC) on enzyme browning reaction and curing quality,the PPO activity,polyphenol content,chemical composition,smoking quality and economic characters of cured leaves of K326 were investigated.The results indicated that changes of PPO activity of tobacco leaves treated with SC and the control tobacco leaves were similar,but PPO activity of tobacco leaves treated with SC was lower than control tobacco leaves.The scopoletin and chlorogenic acid contents of middle leaves treated with SC were higher than the control leaves,but there was no significant difference of total polyphenol contents between SC treated and the control leaves.The chlorogenic acid,neochlorogenic acid,cryptochlorogenic acid,rutin and total polyphenol contents were higher than the control leaves.SC increased the chlorine and reducing sugar contents obviously,and made the chemical composition more coordinated.SC improved the smoking quality slightly,and increased the economic characters obviously.In conclusion,SC inhibited the enzymatic browning reaction and improved curing quality of flue-cured tobacco.%为研究亚氯酸钠(SC)对烤烟烘烤过程中酶促棕色化反应及烟叶烘烤质量的影响,以K326为试验材料,通过烘烤试验分析了SC对烤烟烘烤过程中多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性、烤后烟叶多酚含量、常规化学成分、感官质量及经济性状的影响。结果表明:SC处理和对照烟叶在烘烤过程中多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性变化表现出基本相同的规律,但SC处理烟叶PPO活性均低于同期对照烟叶。SC处理中部叶莨菪亭和绿原酸含量显著高于对照,但多酚总量与对照无显著差异;SC处理上部叶绿原酸、新绿原酸、隐绿原酸、芸香苷、多酚总量均显著高于对照。SC处理显著提高了烤后烟叶的氯含量和还原糖含量,使化学成分更趋协调。SC处理烤后烟叶感官质量较对照有所改善,经济性状较对照显

  20. A Public Health Analysis of the Proposed Resolution of [the 1997 United States] Tobacco Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Brion J. J.D.; Lightwood, James M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed tobacco settlement agreement, as negotiated by some state attorneys general and the tobacco industry that was made public on June 20, 1997 (Appendix F), raises a complex array of public health, public policy, legal and economic issues. It was intended to be a blueprint for national tobacco control legislation that would end the most important litigation current and potential against the tobacco industry. As with most complex legislation, the deal, after it was announced, underwen...

  1. Consumption of Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco - United States, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teresa W; Kenemer, Brandon; Tynan, Michael A; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian

    2016-12-09

    Combustible and smokeless tobacco use causes adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and multiple types of cancer (1,2). Standard approaches for measuring tobacco use include self-reported surveys of use and consumption estimates based on tobacco excise tax data (3,4). To provide the most recently available tobacco consumption estimates in the United States, CDC used federal excise tax data to estimate total and per capita consumption during 2000-2015 for combustible tobacco (cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, small cigars, and large cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and dry snuff). During this period, total combustible tobacco consumption decreased 33.5%, or 43.7% per capita. Although total cigarette consumption decreased 38.7%, cigarettes remained the most commonly used combustible tobacco product. Total noncigarette combustible tobacco (i.e., cigars, roll-your-own, and pipe tobacco) consumption increased 117.1%, or 83.8% per capita during 2000-2015. Total consumption of smokeless tobacco increased 23.1%, or 4.2% per capita. Notably, total cigarette consumption was 267.0 billion cigarettes in 2015 compared with 262.7 billion in 2014. These findings indicate that although cigarette smoking declined overall during 2000-2015, and each year from 2000 to 2014, the number of cigarettes consumed in 2015 was higher than in 2014, and the first time annual cigarette consumption was higher than the previous year since 1973. Moreover, the consumption of other combustible and smokeless tobacco products remains substantial. Implementation of proven tobacco prevention interventions (5) is warranted to further reduce tobacco use in the United States.

  2. The breeding of lfue-cured tobacco variety Minyan9%烤烟新品种闽烟9号的选育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫升鑫; 程崖芝; 王涛; 郑宏; 顾钢; 周东新; 何宏仪; 陈志厚; 陈顺辉

    2013-01-01

    A newflue-cured tobacco variety Minyan9 was developed by recrossing combination (Cuibi 1×RG12)×(Yuyan 85×Yanyan 97) followed by pedigree selection from 1999 to 2012. Results of regionalfield trials in Fujian province and southeast China showed that the new variety had good adaptability, strong growth, and was easy to beflue-cured. It was resistant to tobacco black shank and tobacco bacterial wilt, slightly susceptible to tobacco climate spot. The cured leaf was rich in oil and had shining bright and well-distributed orange color. It has the favorable and well-proportioned chemical composition and good smoking-quality to meet the requirements of manufacturing cigarettes. The new variety had higher leaf yield, higher average price, higher ratio of high and middle class leaf and higher production value than check variety K326. In conclusion, Minyan9 was a new variety with good characters.%闽烟9号(FJ209)是1999年配制(翠碧1号×RG12)×(云烟85×岩烟97)复交组合,经常规杂交系谱法定向选育而成,福建省区试和全国区试试验结果表明:该品种田间长势强,适应性较强,易烘烤;抗黑胫病和青枯病,田间气候性斑点病发病轻;烤后原烟多呈桔黄色,油分较足,色泽均匀鲜亮,主要化学成分含量适宜,比例协调,烟叶评吸质量较好。多年试验结果表明,该品种产量、均价、上等烟比率、产值等均高于对照K326,是一个品质、抗性、产量等综合性状较能兼顾的优良烤烟新品种。

  3. Effects of curing methods on conversion rate of nicotine and TSNAs contents of tobacco%不同调制方法对烟草烟碱转化及TSNA的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗平; 覃光炯; 陈茂胜; 张俊杰; 彭灏; 吴哲宽; 杨丽萍

    2015-01-01

    nornicotine content is usually very low, the transformation of nicotine to nornicotine can occur through tobacco gene mutation, which activates and greatly increases the contents of nornicotine, NNN and total TSNA. The conversion of nicotine to nornicotine and nitrite reduction reactions occur during the processes of tobacco curing and storage. This is especially the case for the formation and accumulation of TSNA during the period of curing. In order to further clarify effects of tobacco types and varieties, curing methods on TSNA, TSNA contents and nicotine variations during curing were analyzed. The study used split-plot experimental design involving 4 tobacco types (burley, Maryland tobacco, flue-cured tobacco and sun-cured tobacco) and 8 varieties (lines) [B37LC (low nicotine conversion line) and B37HC (high nicotine conversion line) of burley; Md609LC (low nicotine conversion line) and Md609HC (high nicotine conversion line) of Maryland tobacco; 'Yunyan87' and 'K326' of flue-cured tobacco varieties; 'dark sun cured tobacco' and 'light colored sun cured tobacco' of sun-cured tobacco varieties] with 3 curing methods (flue-curing, air-curing and sun-curing) as secondary treatments. Then the 4 TSNA and alkaloid contents in leaves under both the main and secondary treatments were investigated. The results showed that tobacco varieties (lines) were the main factor influencing alkaloid content, nicotine conversion rate and contents of 4 kinds of TSNA. Nornicotine contents and nicotine conversion rates of HC lines of Maryland tobacco and burley tobacco were highest, and those of HC lines was lowest. NNN was the main TSNA in all the tobacco types, accounting for 54.35%-97.36% of total TSNA. It was followed by NAT (2.33%-38.46%), NNK (0.17%-5.47%) and NAB (0.14%-5.92%). Comparison of different tobacco types in terms of proportions of four forms of TSNA showed that NNN was highest in HC lines of burley tobacco and Mayland tobacco, accounting for 93.93% and 96.99% of total TSNA

  4. Optical techniques for determination of the state of cure of epoxy resin based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, W. C.; Thursby, G.; Johnstone, W.; Culshaw, B.

    1993-03-01

    Determination of the state of cure of epoxy resin based systems is of considerable interest to manufacturers of large carbon fiber reinforced plastic and glass reinforced plastic structures. Optical methods designed to indicate the cure state have been developed using a loss mechanism which is a function of the refractive index of the curing system. Such techniques are however subject to corruption from losses arising from other influences and consequently are limited in their measurement resolution. In this paper, two techniques which are able to provide a high degree of accuracy of measurement of refractive index are investigated as a means of performing cure measurements. The methods investigated involve the interaction of the evanescent field of a side polished optical fiber with an overlay waveguide or a surface plasmon. Coupling between the fiber and the overlay waveguide (or plasmon) is strongly influenced by the refractive index of the bulk superstrate above the overlay (in this case the curing resin system). Both sensing schemes are self referencing and are not influenced by loss.

  5. Tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Neff, Linda J; Kennedy, Sara M; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Jones, Christopher D

    2014-11-14

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, and nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood. Among U.S. youths, cigarette smoking has declined in recent years; however, the use of some other tobacco products has increased, and nearly half of tobacco users use two or more tobacco products. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of ever (at least once) and current (at least 1 day in the past 30 days) use of one or more of 10 tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], pipes, snus, bidis, kreteks, and dissolvable tobacco) among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2013, 22.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, and 12.6% reported current use of two or more tobacco products; current use of combustible products (i.e., cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, and/or hookahs) was substantially greater (20.7%) than use of other types of tobacco. Also, 46.0% of high school students reported having ever tried a tobacco product, and 31.4% reported ever trying two or more tobacco products. Among middle school students, 3.1% reported current use of cigars, and 2.9% reported current use of cigarettes, with non-Hispanic black students more than twice as likely to report current use of cigars than cigarettes. Monitoring the prevalence of the use of all available tobacco products, including new and emerging products, is critical to support effective population-based interventions to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs.

  6. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: an emerging health crisis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10-20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread.

  7. Comparation on Leaf Anatomy of Flue-cured Tobacco KRK26in Different Tobacco-growing Areas of Yunnan%云南不同烟区KRK26叶片解剖学的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玉兰; 丁灿; 杨焕文; 陈严平

    2012-01-01

    为深入了解津巴布韦引进烤烟品种KRK26特性,筛选出KRK26最佳种植区域,优化云南省烤烟种植布局,采用显微切片的方法研究了栽种于5个烟区(云南玉溪、保山、文山、临沧、普洱)KRK26上、中、下3个部位成熟期叶片的解剖结构.结果表明:不同烟区间KRK26的叶片解剖结构存在较大差异,文山烟区KRK26叶肉细胞发育良好、细胞间隙适中,叶厚、栅栏组织厚、组织比等高于或显著高于其他烟区,解剖特征优于其他烟区;临沧烟区KRK26叶厚、栅栏组织厚均最小,与其他烟区差异达到显著水平,组织比极显著低于文山和保山,解剖特征较其他烟区为差.从与烟叶品质较密切的解剖结构特性来看,文山为KRK26最适种植的烟区.%For defining the characteristics and selecting the ideal tobacco-growing areas of the flue-cured tobacco variety KRK26 introduced from Zimbabwe, optimizing distribution of flue-cured tobacco cropping in Yunnan. Using the method of slides observation under microscope, this study was conduced to investigate the anatomical structure of the mature fresh leaves from upper, middle and lower stalk positions of flue-tobacco KRK26 from five tobacco-growing areas of Yunnan. The results showed that: the leaf anatomical structure of KRK26 varied with the tobacco-growing areas. As the development and gap of mesophyll cells were well and moderate, the leaf thickness, palisade tissue thickness, thickness ratio of palisade to spongy of KRK26 from Wenshan growing areas were higher or significant higher than others, its leaf dissecting structure was the best among the five growing areas. By contrast, the leaves of KRK26 from Lincang had minimum leaf thickness and palisade tissue thickness, and the discrepancy reached remarkable level, furthermore the thickness ratio of palisade to spongy of which were extremely significant lower than Wenshan and Baoshan, therefore its leaf dissecting structure was worse than

  8. 贵州开阳烟区烤烟需水特征与烟田土壤水分变化研究%Flue-Cured Tobacco Water Requirement Characteristics and Soil Moisture Change in Kaiyang Tobacco Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷璐; 陆引罡

    2014-01-01

    Flue-cured tobacco water requirement characteristics and soil moisture condition have very significant effect on tobacco growth, physiological and biochemical process, the quality of tobacco and fertilizer use in tobacco fields. T his research through the field trials providedtechnicalsupportforthetobaccoplantingandwaterusingproject.Theresultsshowedthatithasobviousstagesondomesticdemand of water:it’s less consumption in root stretch period, significantly higher in vigorous growing period, gradually declined in mature period, flue-curedtobaccowaterrequirementcharacteristicsconsistentwiththegrowthtrendoftobacco.Thesoilmoisturecontentisgreaterthanthe tobaccowaterrequirementinrootstretchandleafmatureperiod,thusneedtopayattentiontodrainage;thesoilmoisturecontentlessthanthe waterrequirementsin vigorousgrowing period due to periodic drought,thistime should be timely to supplementalirrigation.%烤烟需水特征与烟田土壤水分变化状况对烤烟生长发育、生理生化过程、烟叶的品质特征和产量都有显著的影响。通过田间试验,研究优质烤烟需水特征和各生育期土壤水分的动态变化,结果表明,烤烟生长季内需水量具有明显的阶段性:伸根期消耗少,旺长期明显升高,成熟期逐步下降,烤烟需水特征与烟株的生长趋势相一致。烤烟伸根期、成熟期土壤含水量大于烤烟的需水量,需要注意排水,而旺长后期和成熟前期由于阶段性干旱,土壤含水量小于烤烟的需水量,这一时段应及时进行补灌。

  9. 禄丰基地烤烟生态环境和烟叶质量分析%Evaluation of Ecological Environment and Flue- cured Tobacco Quality in Tobacco -growing Areas of Lufeng Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    招启柏; 冯柱安; 周兴华; 胡钟胜; 杨佳雄

    2012-01-01

    利用云南省楚雄州江苏中烟禄丰烤烟生产基地的气候观测数据、土壤理化分析结果,分析了当地烤烟种植的气候适生性、气候相似性和土壤适宜性,通过分析禄丰基地烟叶外观质量、化学成分与感官质量,对烟叶质量作了综合评价.结果表明:(1)禄丰基地气候适生性指数(Climate Feasibility Index,CFI)为100%,为烟叶最适宜种植区;与国内烟区的气候相似性距离分布在0.50~0.99,与国外烟区的气候相似性距离分布在0.75~0.88,都达到高级相似.(2)禄丰基地的土壤适宜性指数(SFI)为0.73,达到2级水平,接近1级,土壤适宜于种植烤烟.(3)禄丰基地烟叶香型指数(K值)为0.26,为典型的清香型烟叶;烟叶成熟度好,叶片结构疏松,香气质较好,杂气和刺激性相对较小.%Based on the meteorological data and physicochemical properties of soil in Lufeng base of China tobacco Jiangsu industrial Co. , Ltd . , climate feasibility, climate similarity and soil feasibility were analyzed. By analyzing tobacco appearance, chemical components and sensory, comprehensive quality of tobacco leaves were evaluated. The results were as follows: (1) climate feasibility index (CFI) of Lufeng base was 100%. Lufeng base was the most suitable planting area of tobacco. The similarity of the climatic conditions of flue-tobacco for other tobacco-growing areas reached the higher degree. The value of similarity ranged from 0. 50 to 0. 99. (2) Soil feasibility index of Lufeng base was 0. 73. SFI reached 2 class levels, close to 1 class levels, which suggested soil of the region was suitable for planting flue-cured tobacco. ( 3 ) By analyzing meteorological data of Lufeng base, tobacco flavor index ( K value) was 0. 26. Tobacco leaves were typical of clear scent. Tobacco leaf structure osteoporosis maturity were better. Quality of aroma was high, undesirable taste and biting taste were small.

  10. 不同烘烤工艺对云烟87烟叶烘烤质量的影响%Effects of Different Flue-curing Processes on Tobacco Quality of Yunyan 87

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 叶为民; 王玉胜; 何宽信; 杏朝刚; 张海伟; 张根平; 李立新

    2016-01-01

    为探索江西省多雨生态条件下主栽烤烟品种云烟87的烘烤工艺操作,采用智能控制烘烤箱模拟密集烘烤条件开展了不同烘烤工艺对其烘烤质量的影响研究.结果表明,与传统烘烤工艺相比,针对多雨烟区烟叶烘烤特点的优化烘烤工艺有利于降低烟叶淀粉含量,提高总糖、还原糖含量和烟叶中质体色素的降解比例,对其他矿质元素含量等无明显影响.烟叶外观质量得到改善,烟叶等级结构、均价和上等烟叶比例有所提高.对烟叶感官评吸质量有较明显的改善作用,特别是在杂气、刺激性和余味方面.%During recent years, bulk curing barns were widely used in China. However, a number of problems, such as shortage of roasted aroma, tight structure and light color still exist. This is because that in recent years, the construction of the bulk curing barn has rapidly developed, but the flue-curing process is still mainly the regular barn flue-curing process, which is not suitable for all the regions and for the bulk curing barn. In order to explore the curing process of Yunyan 87 under rainy conditions in Jiangxi Province, an experiment was carried out to study the effect of different curing processes on the quality of flue-cured tobacco through the use of intelligent ovens. The results showed that: Compared with the traditional curing process, the optimized curing process that was optimized based on the curing characteristics of tobacco leaves in rainy areas was conducive to reduce starch content, increase contents of total sugar and reducing sugar, and increase the proportion of degradation of plastid pigment, but had no obvious effect on contents of other mineral elements. The appearance quality of tobacco leaves was improved, and grade structure, average price and the proportion of high class leaf increased. The smoking quality of tobacco leaves was significantly improved, especially in the aspects of offensiveness, irritation and

  11. Tobacco use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Singh, Tushar; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Choiniere, Conrad J; King, Brian A; Cox, Shanna; McAfee, Tim; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2015-04-17

    Tobacco use and addiction most often begin during youth and young adulthood. Youth use of tobacco in any form is unsafe. To determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of nine tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookahs, tobacco pipes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and bidis) among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS). In 2014, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (3.9%) and high (13.4%) school students. Between 2011 and 2014, statistically significant increases were observed among these students for current use of both e-cigarettes and hookahs (ptobacco use. Consequently, 4.6 million middle and high school students continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical window for brain development, might have lasting adverse consequences for brain development, causes addiction, and might lead to sustained tobacco use. For this reason, comprehensive and sustained strategies are needed to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among youths in the United States.

  12. Identiifcation of tobacco mildew pathogen which causes leaf rot during lfue-curing%烘烤期烟叶霉烂病的病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷英; 顾钢; 张绍升

    2014-01-01

    为明确烘烤期烟叶霉烂病病因和发病条件,进行了病原菌分离培养、病原菌形态特征观察、生长温度试验、致病性测定及病害发生条件观察。结果表明:病原菌为米根霉(Rhizopus oryzae),烟叶变黄期烤房温度达36~40℃,相对湿度75%~85%的条件下有利病菌的生长和侵染。首次确认烘烤期烟叶霉烂是由病原菌引起的一种新的侵染性病害,该病害命名为烟叶霉烂病(tobacco leaf mildew and rot)。%Causes and disease-inducing conditions were investigated through pathogen isolation and culture, morphological identification, growth temperature and pathogenicity test. Results showed that the pathogen wasRhizopus oryzae whose suitable growth and infection conditions being 36~40℃ and relative humidity 75%~85% during yellowing period. Leaf mildew and rot during flue-curing is then confirmed as a new infectious disease induced by pathogen named tobacco mildew disease.

  13. Study on Effect of Engran Series of Microbial Organic Fertilizers on Flue-cured Tobacco%"恩格兰"牌系列微生物有机肥在烤烟中效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛云; 田峰; 张明; 陈红丽; 钟军

    2016-01-01

    Objective] This study was conducted to provide theoretic support for im-proving yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco by applying microbial organic fertiliz-ers. [Method] A field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of the En-gran series of microbial organic fertilizers on growth and development, diseases and pests and economic traits of flue-cured tobacco. [Result] The result showed that the treatment of conventional fertilization + Engran microbial agent could promote the growth and dry matter accumulation of flue-cured tobacco during the growth period in the field, enhance the disease resistance of tobacco, and improve yield and out-put value of flue-cured tobacco and income of tobacco growers. Compared with T1, the proportion of high-grade tobacco, the proportion of mid-high grade tobacco, yield, output value and average price increased by 4.4%, 3.8%, 5.48%, 11.51% and 5.73% respectively. [Conclusion] The treatment of conventional fertilization + Engran microbial agent showed outstanding performance, is optimum for field production, and could be applied to Flue-cured tobacco.%[目的]为烟草生产中施用微生物有机肥等肥料提高烤烟的产质量提供理论技术支持。[方法]通过田间对比试验,研究了"恩格兰"牌系列微生物有机肥对烤烟生长发育、烟草病虫害及烤烟经济性状的影响。[结果]研究表明,常规施肥+恩格兰微生物菌剂处理在大田生育期能促进烤烟生长发育及烤烟干物质积累,增强烟株的抗病能力,提高烤烟的产量、产值及烟农收入。和 T1相比,上等烟比例、上中等烟比例、产量、产值和均价分别提高了4.4%、3.8%、5.48%、11.51%和5.73%。[结论]常规施肥+恩格兰微生物菌剂处理表现突出,最适宜大田生产,可在烤烟上推广应用。

  14. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  15. Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in U.S. Cigarettes -Three Decades of Remarkable Neglect by the Tobacco Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Irina; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Zhang, Liqin; Watson, Clifford; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    Modification of tobacco curing methods and other changes in cigarette manufacturing techniques could substantially reduce the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), a group of potent carcinogens, in cigarette smoke. In 1999, two major U.S. cigarette manufacturers stated their intent to move towards using tobaccos low in TSNA. Since there is no information available on current TSNA levels in tobacco of various cigarettes available in the U.S., we examined the levels of these carcinoge...

  16. Effects of Molybdenum Fertilizer on Yield and Quality of Sun -Cured Tobacco%钼肥对晒红烟产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺听听; 符云鹏; 李宝宝

    2016-01-01

    The sun -cured tobacco was selected to study the effects of foliar spraying molybdenum fertil-izer with different times on yield and main chemical compositions,neutral aromatic substances and sensory quality through a field experiment.The results showed that foliar spraying molybdenum fertilizer could signifi-cantly improve the output value,yield and proportion of 1 ~3 -level leaves.It could improve the contents of total sugar,reducing sugar,potassium and molybdenum,and reduce the contents of nicotine,total nitrogen and chlorine in tobacco leaves.The change trend was more evident with the foliar spraying molybdenum fertil-izer for twice.It also could improve the total content of neutral aromatic substances and sensory quality.And foliar spraying molybdenum fertilizer for one time was better to the upper leaves and that for twice was better to the middle leaves.Thus,foliar spraying molybdenum fertilizer could obviously improve the yield and quality of sun -cured tobacco.%通过大田试验,研究不同叶面喷施钼肥次数对晒红烟产量、主要化学成分、中性致香物质和感官质量的影响。结果表明:叶面喷施钼肥能够显著提高烟叶产值、产量和1~3级烟比例;提高烟叶中总糖、还原糖、钾和钼的含量,降低烟碱、总氮和氯的含量,以叶面喷施两次钼肥表现较明显;提高烟叶中性香气成分总量和感官质量,且叶面喷施一次钼肥对上部叶更好,叶面喷施两次钼肥对中部叶更好。因此,喷施钼肥能够明显提高晒红烟产量和品质。

  17. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel S; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  18. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. METHODS: Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. RESULTS: Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  19. 生物质压块燃料及煤炭燃料在烟叶烘烤中的应用效果对比研究%Practical Effect of Biomass Briquette Fuel and Coal for Tobacco Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭方利; 樊士军; 董艳辉; 姚秦; 卢航; 吴文信

    2014-01-01

    2013年在湖南郴州市对生物质压块燃料及煤炭燃料进行了对比研究,通过试验分析了2种燃料烟叶调制过程控制的特点、能耗成本以及对烟叶经济性状的影响。结果表明:生物质压块用于烟叶烘烤可以充分调控烟叶烘烤工艺,能够降低烟叶烘烤成本,节能减耗,提高烟叶质量。%For tobacco curing,the biomass briquette fuel and coal were compared in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province in 2013.Effect of the different materials on curing process characteristics,energy costs and the economic characters of tobacco leaves were examined.The results showed that biomass briquette used for tobacco baking could fully control tobacco baking process,reduce tobacco baking cost,energy conservation and consumption reduction,improve the quality of tobacco leaves.

  20. Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tushar; Arrazola, René A; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Homa, David M; King, Brian A

    2016-04-15

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths. Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among U.S. youths.

  1. Current tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, with nearly 443,000 deaths occurring annually because of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. Moreover, nearly 90% of adult smokers begin smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2011, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school and high school students was 7.1% and 23.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of current cigarette use was 4.3%, and 15.8%, respectively. During 2000-2011, among middle school students, a linear downward trend was observed in the prevalence of current tobacco use (14.9% to 7.1%), current combustible tobacco use (14.0% to 6.3%), and current cigarette use (10.7% to 4.3%). For high school students, a linear downward trend also was observed in these measures (current tobacco use [34.4% to 23.2%], current combustible tobacco use [33.1% to 21.0%], and current cigarette use [27.9% to 15.8%]). Interventions that are proven to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths include media campaigns, limiting advertisements and other promotions, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the availability of tobacco products for purchase by youths. These interventions should continue to be implemented as part of national comprehensive tobacco control programs and should be coordinated with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations restricting the sale, distribution, and marketing of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to youths.

  2. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  3. 密集烘烤后期湿度对烤烟香气品质的影响%Effects of Different Humidity During the Later Stage of Bulk Curing on Aroma Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹军; 周芳芳; 贺帆; 王涛; 李伟; 樊士军; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    为了进一步改善烟叶香气品质和优化密集烘烤工艺,在四川省凉山州以云烟85中部叶和上部叶为试验材料,研究了密集烘烤定色后期(47℃-54℃)、干筋前期(54℃-60℃)、干筋后期(60℃-68℃)不同湿度处理对烤后中上部烟叶致香物质和评吸质量的影响。结果表明,密集烘烤后期高湿(T6)能显著提高中部烟叶致香物质总量和新植二烯含量,低湿处理(T1)的大部分致香物质含量较低,但以T3(定色后期低湿度,干筋期高湿度)处理各类致香物质含量最高,且感官评吸质量最佳;在上部叶中,各类致香物质(除新植二烯)和致香物质总量以定色后期和干筋前期低湿,千筋后期高湿(T5)处理最高,评吸质量以T5处理最好,T6处理其次;相关分析表明,大部分评吸指标与各类致香物质之间呈正相关,且不同部位烟叶各指标间的相关性强弱有所不同,中部叶大部分指标间的相关性要好于上部叶。综合考虑,在试验中,中部叶烘烤后期湿球温度以T3(定色后期36℃-37℃,干筋前期39℃-40℃,干筋后期41℃-42℃)、上部叶以T5(定色后期36℃-37℃,干筋前期37℃-38℃,干筋后期41℃-42℃)处理为最佳,能改善烟叶香气品质。%To improve the aroma quality of tobacco leaf and optimize the curing technology, the middle and upper leaves of the flue-cured tobacco variety Yunyan 85 produced in Liangshan of Sichuan province wereused to study the effects of humidity during later process of bulk curing (47℃-68 ℃) on the aroma components and the smoking quality of the tobacco leaves. The results showed that the treatment of high hu-midity (T6) during later process of bulk curing remarkably increased the total content of aroma compo- nents and neophytadiene in the middle leaves; while the contents of most aroma components were the low-est in the low humidity

  4. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Combined Application on Growth, Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%有机无机肥配施对烤烟生长及产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海伟; 黄建; 唐民; 马占峰; 卢瑞杰

    2014-01-01

    The effects of organic , inorganic and chemical fertilizers combined application on the growth , yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco ( K326) were studied through a randomized block experiment in the field .The results showed that:in compari-son with other treatments , the treatment T4 ( applying Beisite organic and inorganic fertilizer ) and T3 ( applying Shengnong organic and inorganic fertilizer ) could promote the growth of tobacco plants , and significantly increase the yield and output value of flue -cured tobacco.In treatment T4, the appearance quality of tobacco leaves after flue -curing was better, their inherent chemical com-positions were more coordinated , and their sensory smoking quality was the best .%以K326为材料,通过田间试验,研究了有机无机肥与化肥配施对烤烟生长发育、产量及质量的影响。结果表明:施用贝斯特有机无机肥( T4处理)和圣农有机无机肥能够促进烟株生长,显著地提高烤烟的产量和产值。 T4处理的烤后烟叶外观质量较好,内在化学成分更协调,感官质量评吸结果最佳。

  5. Development of a solar-assisted curing process for cigar tobacco; Entwicklung eines solargestuetzten Trocknungsverfahrens fuer Zigarrentabak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bux, M.

    1996-12-31

    The newly developed solar-assisted drying plant permitted to reduce drying time from between 30 and 40 days to between 18 and 22 days, and to increase the amount filled in from approximately 27 to 67 kilogrammes per square metre. Leaf loss during drying was cut down from between 4 and 6 per cent as previously to about 0.2 per cent. Specific energy demand was by a factor of 12 lower than the demand of conventional driers: the actual demand was 4.8 MJ per kilogramme of tobacco as compared to 58 MJ per kilogramme previously. Taking into account capital, labour, energy and repair costs, a rise in proceeds from solar-dried tobacco of about US $ 1.50 per kilogramme, and the cost involved by higher leaf loss using the conventional technique, drying cost using the solar-assisted method was US $ 2.16 per kilogramme of tobacco. For the conventional method, drying cost was US $ 4.74 per kilogramme. Accordingly, the amortization period of the solar-assisted plant is only two to three years. The solar-assisted method would only cease to be economical if investment costs were increased by 64 per cent, if the interest rate went up to 44 per cent or if the costs arising from leaf loss dropped to US $ 0.8. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Durch den Einsatz der neu entwickelten solargestuetzten Trocknungsanlage konnte die Trocknungsdauer von bislang 30 bis 40 auf 18 bis 22 Tage reduziert und die Fuellmenge von ca. 27 auf 67 kg/m{sup 2} gesteigert werden. Die Blattverluste waehrend der Trocknung wurden von bislang 4 bis 6% auf ca. 0,2% gesenkt. Der spezifische Energiebedarf war mit 4,8 gegenueber 58 MJ/kg Tabak um den Faktor 12 geringer als der Bedarf konventionller Trockner. Unter Beruecksichtigung von Kapital-, Arbeits-, Energie- und Reparaturkosten, des im Mittel um 1,5 US Dollar/kg hoeheren Stueckerloeses solargetrockneten Tabaks, sowie der Kosten aufgrund der hoeheren Blattverluste beim konventionellen Verfahren, betrugen die Trocknungsstueckkosten des solargestuetzten Verfahrens 2,16 US

  6. Acoustic Imaging of Microstructure and Evaluation of the Adhesive's Physical, Mechanical and Chemical Properties Changes at Different Cure States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severina, I. A.; Fabre, A. J.; Maeva, E. Yu.

    Epoxy thermoset adhesives transform during cure from liquid state into the highly cross-linked solid. Cure state of the material depends on condition of the reaction (temperature, pressure, time etc.) and resin/hardener ratio. It is known that the cure degree of the adhesive correlates with adhesion strength, which is critical for structural adhesives used in automotive, aerospace and marine industries. In this work, characterization of cure process of the adhesive with acoustic methods is presented. Evolution of the acoustic and elastic properties (attenuation, sound velocity, density, elastic moduli) during cure reaction was monitored in relation to the substantial physical and chemical changes of the material. These macro parameters of the adhesive were compared with the material's microstructure obtained by high-resolution acoustic microscopy technique in frequencies range of 50-400 MHz. Development of the microstructure of the adhesive as it cures at different conditions has been investigated. Appearance and development of the granular structure on the adhesive interface during cure reaction has been demonstrated. Acoustic images were analyzed by mathematical method to quantitatively characterize distribution of the adhesive's components. Statistical analysis of such images provides an accurate quantitative measure of the degree of cure of such samples. Research results presented in this paper can be useful as a basis for non-destructive evaluation of the adhesive materials

  7. Methodology to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data using Tobacco Cancer Risk and Absolute Cancer Cure models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R. F.; Lederman, M.; Tai, P.; Wong, J. K. M.

    2002-11-01

    Three parametric statistical models have been fully validated for cancer of the larynx for the prediction of long-term 15, 20 and 25 year cancer-specific survival fractions when short-term follow-up data was available for just 1-2 years after the end of treatment of the last patient. In all groups of cases the treatment period was only 5 years. Three disease stage groups were studied, T1N0, T2N0 and T3N0. The models are the Standard Lognormal (SLN) first proposed by Boag (1949 J. R. Stat. Soc. Series B 11 15-53) but only ever fully validated for cancer of the cervix, Mould and Boag (1975 Br. J. Cancer 32 529-50), and two new models which have been termed Tobacco Cancer Risk (TCR) and Absolute Cancer Cure (ACC). In each, the frequency distribution of survival times of defined groups of cancer deaths is lognormally distributed: larynx only (SLN), larynx and lung (TCR) and all cancers (ACC). All models each have three unknown parameters but it was possible to estimate a value for the lognormal parameter S a priori. By reduction to two unknown parameters the model stability has been improved. The material used to validate the methodology consisted of case histories of 965 patients, all treated during the period 1944-1968 by Dr Manuel Lederman of the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, with follow-up to 1988. This provided a follow-up range of 20- 44 years and enabled predicted long-term survival fractions to be compared with the actual survival fractions, calculated by the Kaplan and Meier (1958 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 53 457-82) method. The TCR and ACC models are better than the SLN model and for a maximum short-term follow-up of 6 years, the 20 and 25 year survival fractions could be predicted. Therefore the numbers of follow-up years saved are respectively 14 years and 19 years. Clinical trial results using the TCR and ACC models can thus be analysed much earlier than currently possible. Absolute cure from cancer was also studied, using not only the prediction models which

  8. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  9. Agronomic Performance of Flue-Cured Tobacco F1 Hybrids Obtained with Different Sources of Male Sterile Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four cytoplasmic male sterile (cms F1flue-cured hybrids cv. Wiaelica × cv. Virginia Golta (VG, the male fertile analogue and the parental varieties were tested at two locations in Poland in a replicated field trial. The cms sources in the hybrids wereN. suaveolens,N. amplexicaulis,N. bigeloviiand aN. tabacumcms mutant. Under the slight to moderate pressure from black root rot present at the trial sites the hybrids showed a moderate tolerance of the disease characteristic of VG as opposed to medium strong susceptibility of Wislica. Apart from the effect of black root rot tolerance the vegetative vigor of the hybrids (plant height, leaf size, earliness was affected by cytoplasm source. The F1hybrid withN. suaveolens cytoplasm flowered approximately three days later than the remaining hybrids. Of the cms hybrids tested cmsN. bigelovii produced the tallest plants with largest mid-position leaves. Yields of cured leaves were largely influenced by black root rot and were generally higher in VG and in the hybrids than in Wislica. Leaf yields and curability were generally little affected by cms source under low pressure from black root rot. At the site with a relatively high level of black root rot infestation the yields of cmsN. suaveolens were slightly lower but the percentage of light grades slightly higher compared to those of other cms hybrids. CmsN. suaveolens was the best hybrid in terms of money returns at the low black root rot field but it was the poorest hybrid performer under high pressure from the disease. Contents of nitrogen, sugars, nicotine and ash was little affected by source of cms. There was an increased incidence of potato virus Y (PVY and white spots in cmsN. suaveolens and, to a lesser extent, in cmsN. bigelovii as compared to the remaining disease-free entries.

  10. Effects of Degradation Bacteria Suspension against Flue-cured Tobacco Root Exudates on Root Structure and Photosynthetic Features of Flue-cured Tobacco Seedlings%烤烟根系分泌物降解液对烤烟幼苗根系和光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 周冀衡; 宾俊; 王丰

    2015-01-01

    Two Lysine Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas strains were previously selected from exudates of flue-cured tobacco to be able to depredate effectively nicotine, salicylic acid and other secretions. A mixture of 5ml bacterial suspension and 45 mL secretions was added into the seedling trays to test their effects on flue-cured tobacco seedling photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, chlorophyll content and root growth. The results showed that the exudates containing degrading bacteria could improve photosynthesis during the process of seedling growth, and promote the growth of root. The degradation effect of flue-cured tobacco root exudates containing both Stenotrophomonas Bacillus and Lysine bacteria was the best, followed by the degradation solution that only contained Lysine Bacillus or Stenotrophomonas strains, and that the treating solution without degrading bacteria inhibited the growth of flue-cured tobacco seedlings. In the pot experiment, both bacteria were capable of reducing the inhibition of tobacco growth by root exudates, with the best effect observed when both bacteria were used.%从烤烟根系分泌物中筛选出能够有效降解烟碱和水杨酸等主要成分的赖氨酸芽孢杆菌和寡养单胞菌两种细菌,以5 mL菌液和45 mL分泌物混合施入育苗盘中进行幼苗培养并测定和分析其对烤烟幼苗光合特性、叶绿素荧光特性、叶绿素含量和幼苗根系生长的差异。结果表明,含有降解菌的处理液可提高幼苗生长过程中的光合作用,促进根系生长,同时含寡养单胞菌和赖氨酸芽孢杆菌的处理液对烤烟根系分泌物降解效果最佳,只含有降解水杨酸的寡养单胞菌和赖氨酸芽孢杆菌的降解液处理次之,不含降解菌的处理液对烤烟幼苗生长有抑制作用。盆栽试验中,两种菌均能够降低烤烟根系分泌物对烤烟生长的抑制作用,当两种菌混合后效果最好。

  11. Adult Tobacco Use Among Racial and Ethnic Groups Living in the United States, 2002–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Gfroerer, BA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionU.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups.MethodsWe used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002–2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1 use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes during the 30 days before each survey and 2 cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey.ResultsThe prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites.ConclusionThese results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.

  12. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  13. Going Tobacco-Free: Predictors of Clinician Reactions and Outcomes of the NY State OASAS Tobacco-Free Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner; George, Kerrin; Brown, B. Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to reduce patient tobacco dependence and create healthier work environments, New York State (NYS) mandated 100% tobacco-free addiction treatment programs for state funded or certified facilities in 2008. We present the results of a longitudinal study examining how local implementation features shape clinician reactions to the regulation and influence post-regulation clinician behavior and strain. A cohort of 147 clinicians associated with 13 treatment organizations throughout NYS completed a survey prior to the passage of the regulation and again approximately 1 year post-regulation. Findings reveal that local implementation features of clinician participation in the planning for change, the provision of change-related information, and perceived organizational support predicted perceptions of change management fairness, which in turn predicted clinical practice behaviors to support smoking cessation, as well as psychological and behavioral strain. In contrast, self-efficacy for change was neither related to local implementation or clinician outcomes. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:22959978

  14. Tobacco Control and Prevention in Oklahoma: Best Practices in a Preemptive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Rebekah R; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    For more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe strategies to reduce tobacco use despite a rare policy environment imposed by the presence of near-complete state preemption of tobacco-related law. Key outcome indicators were used to track progress related to state tobacco control and prevention programs. Data sources included cigarette excise tax stamp sales, statewide surveillance systems, Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data, and local policy tracking databases. Data were collected in 2001-2013 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Significant declines in cigarette consumption and adult smoking prevalence occurred in 2001-2012, and smoking among high school students fell 45%. Changes were also observed in attitudes and behaviors related to secondhand smoke. Community coalitions promoted adoption of local policies where allowable, with 92 ordinances mirroring state clean indoor air laws and 88 ordinances mirroring state youth access laws. Tobacco-free property policies were adopted by 292 school districts and 309 worksites. Moving forward, tobacco use will be prioritized as an avoidable health hazard in Oklahoma as it is integrated into a wellness approach that also targets obesity reduction.

  15. 云南地方晾晒烟化学成分研究%Study on Chemical Ingredients of Air-cured Tobacco in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文怡; 邓亮; 李兰; 徐兴梦; 郭亚东; 母多; 施建莲; 赵明智; 陈钰沁

    2015-01-01

    为研究云南大理云龙天登晾晒烟的化学成分,将烟叶用95%乙醇提取、浓缩,对浓缩液用乙酸乙酯萃取,将乙酸乙酯萃取部分进行系统化学成分分离,采用正相硅胶柱色谱及 MCI,PLgel,Sephadex LH-20,C18反相半制备高效液相色谱等柱色谱方法进行分离,根据理化性质和波谱数据对其结构鉴定。结果表明,从乙酸乙酯部分得到7个化合物,分别为7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-oneScopoletin(1),(7S,8R)-di-hydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol(2),N-trans-feruloyltyramine(3),N-cis-feruloyltyramine(4),香草酸(5),对羟基苯乙醇(6),3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(7)。其中除化合物5外,其余6个化合物均为首次从该烟草中分离鉴定。%To study the chemical constituents of Air-cured tobacco selected from Yunlong Tianden Dali,Yunnan province,95% ethanol was used to extract the tobacco leaf;the ethyl acetate part was isolated and purified by repeated column chromatography on silica gel, MCI,PLgel,Sephadex LH-20,C1 8 HPLC.The structures of chemical constituents were identified according to the physicochemical prop-erty and spectral data of compounds.The result showed that seven compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate part identified as 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1 -benzopyran-2-oneScopoletin(1 ),(7S,8R)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol(2),N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3),N-cis-feruloyltyramine (4),vanillic acid (5),tyrosol(6),protocatechuic acid(7).Among them except No.5,other six ones are the first to be isolated and identified from the tobacco.

  16. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

    2013-01-01

    Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government's sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations.

  17. Genetic characterization and molecular mapping of novel chlorophyll deficiency gene in air-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadati-Moghaddam Zeinalabedin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to genetical and morphological investigation of a novel chlorophyll deficiency gene in tobacco leaf. One low chlorophyll content (LCC variety (Urumieh 2 and high chlorophyll content (HCC variety (Burley Ree 103 from the Burley type was crossed and the F2 generation was grown on the field. One hundred plants were selected, contained low and high chlorophyll content. These plants were sampled and DNA was extracted. Sixty RAPD primers were tested on parents, LCC and HCC Bulks based on Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA. Chi-square test confirmed the monogenic segregation. Regresion analysis showed that there was strong relationship between greenness degree and chlorophyll contents. Four primers (OPE17, OPC09, OPB08 and OPR02 showed polymorphism and after the test on 97 samples from the F2 generation two markers were selected (OPB08-1050 and OPC09-1900. That showed 15.9 and 10.8 CM distance from chlorophyll locus respectively.

  18. Research Progress on Effect of Light and Te mperature on the Growth and Quality of Flue -cured Tobacco%光温条件对烤烟生长发育和品质形成的影响综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓杰; 戴林建; 杨苏; 周田

    2015-01-01

    Light and temperature are the important environmental factors in the process of crop growth,and they have a close relationship with the growth and quality of flue -cured tobacco.This paper reviewed recent research progress on effect of light and temperature on the growth、photosynthetic characteristics and interior quality of flue -cured tobacco during the field growing period,and puts forward the following research direction.%光温是作物生长过程中重要的环境因子,与烟草的生长发育和品质形成有着密切的关系。综述了光照和温度对烤烟大田期生长发育、光合特性及内在品质的影响,并分析展望了今后的研究方向。

  19. Tobacco use among middle and high school students --- United States, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    Tobacco use continues to be the single leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. More than 80% of established adult smokers begin smoking before age 18 years. To monitor trends in tobacco use among middle and high school students, CDC analyzed 2000-2009 data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS), a school-based survey that collects information on tobacco use and related behaviors and attitudes from middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. This analysis indicated that in 2009, 8.2% of middle school students and 23.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product; 5.2% of middle school students and 17.2% of high school students reported current use of cigarettes. Overall prevalence did not decrease from 2006 to 2009 for use of any tobacco product among either group. During 2000-2009, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school students declined (15.1% to 8.2%), as did current cigarette use (11.0% to 5.2%) and cigarette smoking experimentation (29.8% to 15.0%). Similar trends were observed for high school students (current tobacco use: 34.5% to 23.9%; current cigarette use: 28.0% to 17.2%; cigarette smoking experimentation: 39.4% to 30.1%). Overall, no change in susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking was observed for either group. To further decrease tobacco use and susceptibility to use among youths, restrictions on advertising, promotion, and availability of tobacco products to youths should be combined with full implementation of evidence-based, communitywide, comprehensive tobacco control policies.

  20. Tobacco product use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Nearly 90% of adult smokers in the United States began smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco product use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2012, the prevalence of current tobacco product use among middle and high school students was 6.7% and 23.3%, respectively. After cigarettes, cigars were the second most commonly used tobacco product, with prevalence of use at 2.8% and 12.6%, respectively. From 2011 to 2012, electronic cigarette use increased significantly among middle school (0.6% to 1.1%) and high school (1.5% to 2.8%) students, and hookah use increased among high school students (4.1% to 5.4%). During the same period, significant decreases occurred in bidi and kretek use among middle and high school students, and in dissolvable tobacco use among high school students. A substantial proportion of youth tobacco use occurs with products other than cigarettes, so monitoring and prevention of youth tobacco use needs to incorporate other products, including new and emerging products. Implementing evidence-based interventions can prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs. In addition, implementation of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, also is critical to addressing this health risk behavior.

  1. Tobacco counseling experience prior to starting medical school, tobacco treatment self-efficacy and knowledge among first-year medical students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui S; Hayes, Rashelle B; Waring, Molly E; Geller, Alan C; Churchill, Linda C; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Adams, Michael; Huggett, Kathryn N; Ockene, Judith K

    2015-04-01

    To explore students' tobacco dependence counseling experiences prior to medical school and their associations with tobacco counseling self-efficacy, and familiarity with and perceived effectiveness of tobacco dependence treatment among first-year medical students in the United States. In 2010, 1266 first-year medical students from 10 US medical schools completed a survey reporting their clinical experiences with specific tobacco counseling skills (e.g., 5As) prior to medical school. The survey also included questions on tobacco counseling self-efficacy, perceived physician impact on smokers, and familiarity and effectiveness of tobacco-related treatments. Half (50.4%) reported some tobacco counseling experiences prior to medical school (i.e. at least one 5A). Students with prior counseling experiences were more likely to have higher tobacco counseling self-efficacy, and greater familiarity with medication treatment, nicotine replacement treatment, and behavioral counseling for smoking cessation, compared to those with no prior experiences. Perceived physician impact on patient smoking outcomes did not differ by prior tobacco counseling experiences. Many first-year medical students may already be primed to learn tobacco dependence counseling skills. Enhancing early exposure to learning these skills in medical school is likely to be beneficial to the skillset of our future physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 肥料增效剂对烤烟生理特性的影响%Effects of Fertilizer Synergist on Physiological Characteristics of Flue -cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玲; 杨杰; 许自成; 鲜兴明; 耿宗泽; 阳苇丽; 张丽英; 牛慧伟

    2012-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of fertilizer synergist application at different nitrogen levels on the physiological characteristics of flue - cured tobacco. The results showed that the fertilizer synergist increased the content of chlorophyll , and improved the activities of nitrate reductase and invertase, but it had little influence on the root activity. In the whole growth and developmental period, the effects of all treatments were arranged as follows: T2 > T1 > T3 > T4 > T5, and the planting benefit of the treatment T3 was the best.%通过盆栽试验探讨在不同氮素水平条件下施用肥料增效剂对烤烟生理特性的影响.结果表明:肥料增效剂能提高烤烟叶绿素含量,硝酸还原酶和转化酶活性,但对根系活力的影响不大;从整个生育期来看,肥料增效剂各处理的影响为T2>T1 >T3 >T4 >T5;从种植效益来看,以T3处理为佳.

  3. 提高安徽烤烟上部叶可用性的技术思路与对策%Technical Strategies for Improvement Usability of Upper Leaves of Flue-cured Tobacco in Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王能如; 王东胜

    2001-01-01

    The necessities of improvement of usability of upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco in Anhui were analyzed in the paper. New technical strategies were advanced.%分析了提高安徽烤烟上部叶可用性的重要性;根据安徽实际,提出了新的技术思路与对策。

  4. 氯化胆碱提高烤烟K326种子活力研究%Using Choline Chloride to Improve Flue-cured Tobacco K326 Seed Vigor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永富; 王荔; 王绍坤

    2001-01-01

    Using 200mg/L Choline Chloride treated with seven different ranges vigor of flue-cured tobacco K326 seeds and its accelera ted-ageing seeds.At the sam e time,using physiological-chemical index to evluate their effects.It has been observed that the medium or low-vigor flue-cured tobacco seed can be increase d its vigor by Choline Chloride treatment respectively.But these treaments are l owering slightly to that of higher vigor.These treaments are effective methods t o improve the medium or low-vigor flue-cured tobacco K326 seeds.%用浓度为200mg/L的氯化胆碱处理7份不同活 力水平烤烟K326种子及其老化种子,并用生理及生化指标对不同处理进行测定与分析。结果 表明,氯化胆碱可提高中、低等活力水平种子的活力,而对高活力种子的活力则有轻微的抑 制作用。本法对提高中、低等活力水平烤烟K326种子的活力具有明显作用。

  5. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it.

  6. 烤烟香型间致香物质组成比例及其差异分析%Differential analysis of aroma component proportion in various aroma style flue-cured tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈江华; 詹军; 宫长荣; 陈振国

    2013-01-01

      以2009年收集的84份 C3F 烟样为材料,研究了浓香型、清香型和中间香型烟叶致香物质组成比例及其差异。结果表明:清香型烟叶中棕色化反应降解产物极显著高于其他香型,新植二烯显著或极显著低于其他香型,中间香型烟叶中苯丙氨酸类降解产物、类西柏烷类降解产物的组成比例极显著低于其他香型。%Aroma component proportion and their differences among enriched, clear, and intermediate in flue-cured tobacco were studied with 84 leaf samples (C3F) from main tobacco planting regions in 2009. Results showed that significant or extremely significant differences existed in some aroma components proportion among aroma styles. In general, clear aroma tobacco had significantly higher proportion of Maillard reaction products, and significant or extremely significant lower proportion of Neophytadiene than enriched and intermediate aroma style tobacco. Intermediate aroma tobacco contained extremely significant lower proportion of Phenylalanine products and Cemdrenoid products than enriched and clear aroma tobacco.

  7. Tobacco use among students in the eight North-eastern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To obtain baseline information about prevalence of tobacco use among school children in eight states in the North-eastern part of India. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A two-stage probability sample of students in grades 8-10 corresponding to 13 to 15 years of age was selected in each state and surveyed through an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS : Among the sampled schools, the school response rate was 100% in all states except Tripura (92% and Meghalaya (96%. Among the eligible students, over 80% participated in the survey. Among the respondents, the proportion of boys ranged between 50% to 55%. Ever tobacco users ranged from 75.3% (Mizoram to 40.1% (Assam. Over 65% of users reported initiation at 10 years of age or earlier in all states except Mizoram (23.1%. The range of current tobacco use (any product was 63% (Nagaland to 36.1% (Assam. Current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 49.9% (Nagaland to 25.3% (Assam. Mizoram reported the highest current smoking (34.5%, mainly cigarette and Assam reported the lowest (19.7%, again mainly cigarette. Current smoking among girls (8.3% to 28.2% was also quite high. Over half of current cigarette smokers (53.2% to 96.3% and a high proportion of current smokeless tobacco users (38.5% to 80.8% reported feeling like having tobacco first thing in the morning. Only about 20% of students reported having been taught in school about the dangers of tobacco use, except in Mizoram (around 50%. Tobacco use by parents and close friends was positively associated with students′ current tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS : Tobacco use including smoking was very high, even among girls, in all eight states in the North-eastern part of India. Signs of tobacco dependency were already visible in these students, more among those who smoked. In general schools did not educate students about the hazards of tobacco use.

  8. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Or¬ganization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of to¬bacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are ei¬ther directly engaged in tobacco industry oper-ations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that chal¬lenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy.Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian gov¬ernment’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advo¬cacy campaign (May to October 2010 to chal¬lenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy.Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsor¬ship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies in¬cluding en¬gaging all concerned government agencies from the be¬ginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes.Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strate¬gies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an impor¬tant advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for im¬provements in national tobacco control regulations.

  9. Comparison of Control Effect of Common Pestic-ides against Flue-cured Tobacco KRK26 Bacterial Wilt%烤烟品种KRK26青枯病常用药剂防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚永尉; 李艳琼; 李其久; 杨海燕

    2016-01-01

    针对生产中大面积推广种植的烤烟品种KRK26青枯病发生普遍严重和防效差的问题,选用7种常用杀菌剂进行田间药效试验。结果表明,72%农用链霉素SP 4000倍液+58%甲霜·锰锌WP 1000倍液,于移栽当天、发病初期及其后10 d施药,共施3次药对烤烟品种KRK26青枯病的防治效果最好。%Seven kinds of common bactericides were conducted in field test to the question of the seriousness and the bad control effect of the widespread tobacco wilt in the production of large-area planting flue-cured tobacco. The re-sults showed that the control effect for the flue-cured tobacco KRK26 tobacco wilt was the best applying with 72% a-gricultural streptomycin SP 4 000 times+ 58% metalaxyl, mancozeb WP 1 000 at the day of transplanting, in the early stages and 10 days later, a total of 3 times.

  10. 烤烟中非挥发性有机酸和高级脂肪酸研究进展%Research Progress in Nonvolatile Organic Acids and High Fatty Acids in Flue- cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骏

    2012-01-01

    The nonvolatile organic acids and high fatty acids have significant influences on the aroma quality of smoking gas and tobacco leaf quality of flue - cured tobacco. This article systematically introduced the influences of nonvolatile organic acids and high fatty acids on flue -cured tobacco, the physiochemical properties and distributive characteristics of nonvolatile organic acids and high fatty acids in tobacco leaves, and the control factors affecting the contents of nonvolatile organic acids and high fatty acids. The author also discussed the prospects of the future researches in this field.%非挥发性有机酸和高级脂肪酸影响烟气的香气质量,对烟叶品质有着重要作用.系统地介绍了非挥发性有机酸和高级脂肪酸对烤烟的影响、理化特点、分布特点及影响其含量的控制因子.并对今后的研究方向进行了展望.

  11. 不同专业化烘烤模式探索——以曲靖烟区为例%Explorations and practices of different specialization curing modes:To take qujing tobacco production area for an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚浩; 贺帆; 杨荣生; 孙建锋; 吴中华; 宫长荣

    2011-01-01

    To select specialization curing modes of flue-cured tobacco adapted to different production conditions, current different curing organization forms(curing service center, curing great family, lambs curing)of the economic benefit,appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco and the smoking quality, energy consumption and the cost were compared in Qujing in 2009.The result showed that the net income between different modes had significant differences.The net income of the curing service center was up to 2.27×104 yuan/hm2; and also the appearance quality of the tobacco leaves was the best, the score was 52.5, the highest; there were no obvious differences between the content of the regular chemical composition of service center and the curing great family, but the content of aroma of curing service center was the best; smoking quality was also the best; the amount of labor consumed in all links of the service center was 19.63 ports/hm2, which was the lowest; coal consumption and power consumptions of service center were the lowest, which were 1.58 kg and 0.38 (kW·h)/kg respectively; Total curing cost of the lavish curing was 3 276.32 yuan/hm2, which was the lowest, and also the difference between curing modes and the lambs curing reached the level of significance.%为筛选适合不同生产条件的烤烟专业化烘烤模式,2009年对云南曲靖市现行的不同烘烤组织形式(烘烤服务中心,大户烘烤,散户烘烤)的经济效益、烤烟外观质量和评吸质量、能耗、成本等进行了对比.结果表明:专业化烘烤模式之间的纯收入存在显著差异,烘烤服务中心的纯收入达到2.27×104元/hm2,且烤后烟叶的外观质量最好,所得分值最高,为52.5分.服务中心和大户的烘烤烟叶常规化学成分含量无明显区别,但各类致香物质含量以服务中心为好,评吸质量最优;烘烤各环节的用工以服务中心最低,为19.63个/hm2;服务中心的煤耗和电耗最低,分别为每千克干烟1

  12. Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Realized Market Shares Among Youths and Adults,” Journal of Marketing 60(2):1-16, April 1996. Evans, N, et al., “Influence of Tobacco Marketing and Exposure to Smokers on Adolescent Susceptibility to Smoking,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87(20):1538- ...

  13. Recognition of Tobacco Flue-Curing Phases Based on Image Features and GA-SVM Algorithm%基于图像特征和 GA-SVM 的烤烟烘烤阶段识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2016-01-01

    密集烤房内烤烟烘烤阶段的自动识别是建立智能化烟叶烘烤系统的重要环节.为了有效地识别烤房内烤烟的烘烤阶段,该文提出了一种基于图像特征和 GA-SVM(Genetic Algorithm-Support Vector Machine)相结合的方法.该方法将机器视觉系统提取的烤烟图像特征作为 SVM 的输入参数,通过 GA 全局搜索特性选取出模型的最优特征子集,最后通过多分类 SVM 实现对烘烤阶段的识别,同时验证了选取特征的有效性.仿真结果表明:从9个原始特征中筛选出5个图像特征,总体识别精度从93.7%提高到96.5%,能有效地识别烤烟的烘烤阶段,具有良好的在线应用前景.%The recognition of tobacco flue-curing phases in bulk curing barn is an important part of building intelligent tobacco curing system.In order to recognize the curing phase effectively,a combination method based on image features and GA-SVM algorithm has been proposed.The proposed method uses machine vision system to extract the tobacco images features which are input to SVM.The optimal feature subset has been selected thanks to the global search ability of GA.The curing phase has been recognized by multi-classifier SVM and the effectiveness been verified either.Simulation results demonstrate that 5 image fea-tures are selected from original 9 features,which makes the overall recognition accuracy increased from 93.7% to 96.5%.The proposed method can effectively recognize tobacco curing phases and has good pros-pects for online applications.

  14. Public health and agenda setting: determinants of state attention to tobacco and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Julianna; Boushey, Graeme

    2014-06-01

    What determines government attention to emerging health issues? We draw on research in agenda setting and policy diffusion to explore the determinants of public health attention in the fifty American states. We find that intergovernmental influence has a strong and consistent influence over state attention to tobacco and vaccines from 1990 to 2010. While national attention to tobacco or vaccines also sparks attention in the states, this effect is smaller than the internal impact of gubernatorial attention and the horizontal influence of neighboring state attention. We find some support that problem severity matters; however, these results are highly dependent on the measures used. Finally, we find no evidence that interest groups influence the attention that states pay to tobacco or vaccines. Our results suggest that institutions play a critical role in explaining government attention to health policy.

  15. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Biomass Compounded Coal and Anthracite for Tobacco Curing%生物质型煤与无烟散煤在烟叶烘烤中的应用效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成龙; 贺帆; 孙建锋; 武圣江; 杨少杰; 杨晓东; 宫长荣

    2011-01-01

    2010年在云南曲靖进行了生物质型煤与无烟散煤的对比研究,通过试验分析了不同类型燃料的燃烧效率、添加次数与耗煤量,以及对烤后烟叶质量、烘烤经济效益的影响.研究结果表明:生物质型煤升温均衡,主要表现在烘烤定色阶段和干筋阶段;生物质型煤稳温效果好,主要表现在变黄期关键温度点38℃和定色期47℃,但总体耗煤量大、加煤频繁;燃料燃烧效率比无烟散煤平均高出4.0个百分点;烤后烟叶油分足、色度好;在提高中上等烟比例的同时,每100 kg干烟净利润增收95元,比使用无烟散煤增值9.8个百分点.生物质型煤采用静态渗透式扩散燃烧方式,利用生物质与煤的互补燃烧,具有高效的燃烧特性.%For curing tobacco, the biomass compounded coal (BCC) and anthracite were compared in Qujing, Yunnan in 2010. Effect of the different materials on burning efficiency, coal refill frequency and fuel consumption, as well as quality of the cured tobacco and curing benefits were examined. The results showed that BCC raised temperature steadily, exhibiting the effect mainly during the color-fixing and drying stages. It could maintain the curing temperature evenly, which was critical mainly during the yellowing at 38℃ and color-fixation at 47℃. But, the coal quantity needed was greater and the requirement for coal refill more frequent than anthracite. The burning efficiency of BCC was 4. 0 percent higher than the anthracite. The tobacco cured by using the former retained enough oil and sustained an attractive color. Hence, there was an increased proportion of high quality tobacco with an improved profit margin by 95 yuan/100 kg cured tobacco, which was 9. 8 percent higher, of the product cured by using BCC than anthracite. Furthermore, BCC applied the static immersion diffusion combustion mode to complement biomass and coal resulting in a highly efficient combustion. Therefore, BCC could potentially

  18. Effects of Different Potassium Fertilizers on Main Chemical Components of Flue-cured Tobacco%不同钾肥对烤烟主要化学成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明乾; 范建立; 郭传滨

    2015-01-01

    With the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivar Yunyan 87 as material, the effects of dif-ferent varieties of potash fertilizer on the main chemical components of flue -cured tobacco were studied by field experiments .The results showed that under the potassium citrate treatment the total nitrogen and protein content had the most suitable value in each period of fresh tobacco , and the nitrogen metabolism was the most coordinating in tobacco plants;the content of reducing sugar and organic potassium of fresh tobacco were also improved .Among the chemical compositions and their ratio in flue -cured leaves , the protein content was the highest under the KNO 3 treatment .The potassium content , chloride ion and sulfate content were the highest under the K2 SO4 treatment, but the organic potassium content was the lowest .Under the potassium citrate treat-ment, the chloride ion and protein content was the lowest , while the content of organic potassium , reducing sug-ar and total sugar , and the ratio of K 2 O/Cl were the highest , so the quality of tobacco was the best .Overall , the quality of fresh leaves and flue -cured tobacco were both the best under the potassium citrate treatment .%采用田间试验,以烤烟品种云烟87为材料,研究不同钾肥对烤烟主要化学成分的影响。结果表明,柠檬酸钾处理鲜烟中总氮、粗蛋白含量在各时期最为适宜,烟株的氮代谢最为协调,并提高了鲜烟中还原糖、有机钾含量。烤后烟叶化学成分及其比值中,硝酸钾处理粗蛋白含量最高;硫酸钾处理钾含量最高,但有机钾含量最少,氯离子、硫酸根含量最高;柠檬酸钾处理氯离子、粗蛋白含量最少,有机钾、还原糖、总糖含量最多,K2 O/Cl 最高,烟叶的品质最好。总体来看,鲜烟和烤后烟叶在3个处理中均以柠檬酸钾的效果最好。

  19. Effect of One-time Harvest and Bundled Stacking Curing Technology about Upper Tobacco on Economic Benefits and Tobacco Quality%上部烟一次性砍采捆绑堆积烘烤对烤烟经济效益及烟叶质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁黔华; 王廷清; 仲维黔; 宋锡军; 贾子军; 邱坤

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of one-time harvest and bundled stacking curing technology about upper leaves on economic benefits and quality,the grade proportion,chemical composition,internal quality and economic benefits of cured tobacco were compared with those by ordinary one-time harvest and hang-ing pole curing. The results showed that the superior tobacco,lemon leaves,orange tobacco proportion of upper tobacco increased significantly,but the accumulation of medium tobacco and inferior tobacco de-creased significantly;there was no much difference in the chemical composition of tobacco,however the sensory quality improved; the installed tobacco amount of barn and economic benefits increased signifi-cantly,and the cost of dry tobacco curing reduced by 1. 67 RMB/kg,the average price increased by 0. 56 RMB/kg,and the profits increased by 2. 23 RMB/kg,with one-time harvest and bundled stacking curing. The use of one-time harvest and bundled stacking curing about upper leaves could simplify the process of production and operation,reduce labor consumption and the cost of curing,next improve the economic ef-ficiency and the quality of tobacco.%为探究上部烟叶一次性砍采捆绑堆积烘烤的经济效益及对烟叶质量的影响,对其与普通砍采挂竿烘烤烤后烟的等级比例、化学成分、内在质量以及烘烤经济效益进行了对比分析。结果表明:与普通砍采挂竿烘烤相比,上部烟一次性砍采捆绑堆积烘烤的烟叶上等烟、柠色烟、橘色烟比例显著提高,中、下等烟比例显著降低;烟叶化学成分含量差异不大,感官评吸质量提高;烤房装烟量与经济效益明显提高,干烟烘烤成本减少1.67元/kg,均价提高0.56元/kg,利润增加2.23元/kg。采用上部烟叶一次性砍采捆绑堆积烘烤可简化烟叶生产操作环节,减少用工量,降低烘烤成本,提高经济效益及烤后烟叶质量。

  20. Effects of Amino Acid Fertilizer on Flue-cured Tobacco Fertilizer Reducing and Efficiency Increasing%氨基酸肥对烤烟减肥增效的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪霞; 罗勇; 张燕; 金必志; 王云; 高松; 陶永萍; 查宏波; 游堂贵; 陆文林; 陈旭; 肖家繁; 陈淮

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探究氨基酸肥对烤烟生长发育和烟叶品质的影响。[方法]以云烟87为供试烤烟品种,采用同田对比的方式,设化学肥料(对照)、化学肥料+固态氨基酸肥、化学肥料+液态氨基酸肥3个处理,研究氨基酸肥对烤烟减肥增效的作用。[结果]施用固态氨基酸肥烤烟的农艺性状整体表现最好,液态氨基酸肥有利于烟株顶部叶片的开片;固态氨基酸肥处理的产量最高,而液态氨基酸肥处理的原烟外观质量最好,能提高均价和中上等烟比例,获得较好的经济效益。液态氨基酸肥处理的各部位烟叶糖碱比、双糖差均最适宜,化学成分协调性最好。与对照相比,氨基酸肥料处理的刺激性更小,余味更舒适,其中液态氨基酸肥处理的杂气较轻,感官质量整体表现最好。[结论]综合比较,施用化学肥料+液态氨基酸肥有助于促进烤烟生长发育和提高烟叶品质。%Objective] The aim was to explore effects of amino acid fertilizer on flue-cured tobacco growth, development and quality.[Meth-od] With Yunyan87 as tested flue-cured tobacco varieties, by means of the same field contrast, setting up three treatments:chemical fertilizer (control), chemical fertilizer+solid amino acid, chemical fertilizer+liquid amino acid, effects of amino acid fertilizer on flue-cured tobacco fertilizer reducing and efficiency increasing were studied.[ Result] Applying solid amino acid fertilizer, agronomic traits, yield had best per-formance; while applying liquid amino acid fertilizer, top leaf opening, raw tobacco appearance quality, mean price, proportion of middle and high quality tobacco, economic benefits, ratio of sugar and nicotine in tobacco leaves, disaccharide difference, coordination of chemical com-position had good performance.Compared with the control, tobacco treated by amino acid fertilizer had less irritating and more comfortable taste; tobacco treated

  1. Different Stages of Heating Rates in Bulk-curing for Burnt-sweetness Type Flue-cured Tobacco from Southern Hunan Tobacco-growing Area of Rice%湘南浓香型稻作烟区密集烘烤不同阶段升温速度组合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 邓井青; 邓小华; 周向平; 李玉辉; 刘正日; 邓满成; 骆君华

    2013-01-01

    为提高密集烘烤烟叶品质,优化密集烘烤工艺,以湘南浓香型稻作烟区的云烟97品种烟叶为材料,研究密集烘烤不同阶段升温速度组合对烟叶化学成分、经济性状的影响及能耗成本。结果表明,上部和下部烟叶在35~38℃以3 h升温1℃,38.1~42℃以2 h升温1℃,42.1~45℃或47℃以3 h升温l℃,45.1℃或47.1~54℃以2 h升温1℃,54.1~68℃以2 h升温1℃的升温速度组合较好;中部叶在35~38℃以2 h升温1℃,38.1~42℃以1 h升温1℃,42.1~47℃以2 h升温l℃,47.1~54℃以1 h升温1℃,54.1~68℃以1 h升温1℃的升温速度组合较好。各升温速度组合有利于协调烤后烟叶化学成分,提高上等烟比例和均价,降低能耗成本。%In order to improve the quality of bulk curing tobacco leaves and optimize bulk curing technology,the effects of different heating rates on chemical components and economic character and energy costs of Yunyan 97 in burnt-sweetness type from southern-Hunan flue-cured tobacco leavy were studied.The results revealed that:heat up 1℃ every 3 hours during 35~38℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 38.1~42℃,heat up 1℃ every 3 hours during 42.1~45 or 47℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 45.1 or 47.1~54℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 54.1~68℃ had the best effect for the upper and low leavy;Heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 35~38℃,heat up 1℃ every 1 hours during 38.1~42℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 42.1~47℃,heat up 1℃ every 1 hours during 47.1~54℃,heat up 1℃ every one hour during 54.1~68℃had the best effect for the middle leavy.The above heat rates combination was helpful to improve superior to-bacco proportion and average price and coordinate chemical composition and lower energy costs.

  2. 不同环剥时期对烤烟产质量的影响%Effects of Girdling at Different Stages on Quality and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春元; 刘正华; 李余湘; 时宏书; 张刚领; 葛永琴; 郭玉双

    2011-01-01

    为探讨不同环剥时期对烤烟产质量的影响,对打顶后的栽培品种云烟87进行不同环剥时期试验。结果表明:打顶后15d进行环剥烟草的产量、均价、产值、单叶重、上中等烟比例等综合表现较好。该研究进一步补充和完善了烤烟环剥技术的研究内容,为改进栽培措施对提高烟叶产质量的影响提供理论依据。%The effects of girdling at different stages on quality and yield of flue-cured tobacco were carried out using "Yunyan87" as the material.The results showed that girdling 15 days after topping had the best effect on yield,price,value,single-leaf weight and the proportion of classy leaves.The research could complement and improve the content of flue-cured tobacco girdling technology and provide a theoretical basis for improving cultivation practices for yield and quality of tobacco.

  3. 改善烤烟上部烟叶工业可用性研究进展%Research Progress on Improving Industry Usability of Upper Leaves of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊芬; 屠乃美; 王可; 周乾; 易镇邪; 易江; 张炜; 邹湘香

    2013-01-01

    Aimed to the existing problem of lower usability of the upper leaves in China' s tobacco production in the presence,the influencing factors for lower usability of upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco were analyzed,the ways and methods for improving the usability of upper leaves were summarized,and the research on improving the usability of upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco was prospected.%就我国当前烟叶生产中存在的上部烟叶可用性较低这一问题,综合国内外研究现状,分析了影响烤烟上部烟叶工业可用性的原因,综述了提高烤烟上部烟叶可用性的途径和方法,并就提高烤烟上部烟叶工业可用性研究进行了展望.

  4. 施用叶面肥对烤烟产质量影响的研究进展%Research Advance in Effects of Foliar Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹湘香; 樊芬; 傅淋; 屠乃美; 易江; 张炜; 刘泓翔

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fertilizer plays a complementary role in yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco. In this paper,the ab-sorption mechanism and variety of foliar fertilizer were reviewed,the effects of different foliar fertilizers on growth and de-velopment,physiological traits,economic characters, quality of flue-cured tobacco were analyzed,and the research direc-tion of foliar fertilizer of flue-tobacco in China was put forward.%大量研究表明,施用叶面肥对烤烟的产量提高和质量改善有一定的补充作用。综述了叶面肥的种类及吸收机制,分析了不同叶面肥对烤烟生长发育、生理特性、经济性状和品质的影响,并对烤烟叶面肥的研究方向进行了展望。

  5. Study on Effect of Microbial Organic Fertilizer on Comprehensive Properties of Flue-cured Tobacco%浅析施用生物有机肥对烤烟综合性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚军; 颜合洪; 贺化祥

    2011-01-01

    有机肥能够改良土壤物理性能、形成良好的土壤结构、增加土壤微生物的活力和为作物提供较为完全的养分等,有机肥和无机肥的恰当配合施用,能保证烟株生长正常,生产的烟叶有较高的产量和较好品质.从施用有机肥对烤烟生长发育、烟叶产量、经济性状、烟叶品质和土壤肥力等方面影响的研究进行了综述.%Fertilizing with microbial organic fertilizer can improve physical performance of soil, form better soil structure, increase soil microbial activity, provide complete nutrients for crops.Proper combined application of microbial organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer may ensure normal growth of tobacco plant, higher yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco leaf. In this paper, the effect of application of microbial organic fertilizer on growth and development, yield, economic characters, quality of flue-cured tobacco and soil fertility was reviewed.

  6. A Latent Class Analysis of Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    While there has been an escalating trend in the number of smokeless tobacco uses, mainly snuff, in the United States, it is unclear whether smokeless tobacco users are a homogenous class. The present investigation examines this question and identifies subtypes of smokeless tobacco users in order to better understand the characteristics of these individuals and guide appropriate intervention. Data on smokeless tobacco users (N = 2504) derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was employed. A range of antisocial behaviors, from reflecting non-violent deviant acts, irresponsibility, and a disengaged lifestyle, to aggression and violence were used to estimate the number of subtypes of smokeless tobacco users using latent class analysis. Four latent classes emerged: Normative Class (50.2 %), Deviant Class (21.9 %), Disengaging Class (17.2 %), and Antisocial Class (10.5 %). Logistic regression shows that major depression, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder were associated with Deviant Class (OR's from 2.0 to 10.5). The same array of psychiatric disorders and general anxiety disorder were associated with greater odds of membership in the Disengaging Class (OR's from 2.6 to 7.4). Aforementioned psychiatric disorders and illicit drug use disorder were associated with the Antisocial Class (OR's from 3.8 to 38.1). Findings indicate that smokeless tobacco users are a heterogeneous population that may benefit from differential intervention strategies.

  7. 气流干燥工序加工强度对烤烟烟叶感官质量的影响%Effect of Pneumatic Drying Process Intensity on Sensor Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔学义; 姚光明; 王兵; 申玉军; 刘晓萍

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of pneumatic drying process on sensor quality of flue-cured tobacco leaf and find the suitable processing conditions,the flue-cured tobacco leaf from major domestic and foreign production areas were treated by pneumatic drying process with different processing intensity and the sensor quality of tobacco leaf was evaluated and compared. The results showed almost 96% flue-cured tobacco samples which were treated by pneumatic drying process with the first processing intensity remained the same aromatic style; With an increase of the pneumatic drying process intensity, the proportion of flue-cured tobacco sample whose aromatic style changed increased gradually. The proportion with aroma quality,volume of ftroma,offensive taste, smoke concentration,smoke smooth and irritation improved respectively first increased and then decreased gradually,including the highest ones under the second processing intensity as follows: 49%,25%,72%,18%,62% and 23 % ; The proportion of flue-cured tobacco leaf of which physiological strength improved increased gradually,and the highest proportion was 9% ;The proportion of flue-cured tobacco leaf of which dryness and cleanness improved decreased gradually, and the highest proportion was 13% and 35%; The proportion of flue-cured tobacco leaf whose aroma characteristics,smoke characteristics,and taste characteristics deteriorated increased gradually. In summary,under the range of first to second processing intensity (air temperature 200 — 220 ℃), the proportion of flue-cured tobacco leaf whose sensor quality improved and remained was significantly higher than that whose sensor quality deteriorated. The pneumatic drying process setting between the first and second processing intensity is beneficial to maintain and improve the sensor quality of flue-cured tobacco leaf.%为明确气流干燥工序加工强度对烤烟烟叶感官质量的作用特点,寻求气流干燥工序加工烤烟烟叶的适宜条件,以国

  8. 云南烤烟钾含量特征及其与致香物质的关系%Relationship between Potassium Content and Aroma Components of Flue-cured Tobacco in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 周冀衡; 程昌新; 刘晓颖; 杨应明; 张一扬

    2015-01-01

    204 flue-cured tobacco samples were collected in Yunnan Province.The relationship between potassium content and aroma components of flue-cured tobacco were analyzed using correlation analysis,gray correlation analysis and regression analysis.The results indicated that,the mean potassium content was 1.96% with a variation between 0.70%-3.24%,with 52.45% of the samples having low potassium content.Significant difference in potassium content of flue cured tobacco was observed between elevation groups and soil pH groups.The variation in flue-cured tobacco aroma components was huge in Yunnan (3.41-10.50 times),and the aroma components were highly significantly correlated with potassium content,with the order of grey incidence coefficients being: ketones>aldehydes>alcohols>nitrogen heterocyclic>phenols>esters.Potassium content and all the aroma component conformed to linear equations with at the extremely significant level,that is,with the increase of flue cured tobacco potassium content,a linear increase of aroma components was observed.Aroma components of the lowest potassium content group (potassium content is 0.97%) was 71.89μg/g (30.77%) less than that of the highest potassium content group (potassium content is 2.96%).Potassium nutrition is an important factor that affects the aroma components in Yunnan flue-cured tobacco.%为研究云南烤烟钾含量与致香物质含量的关系,在云南省主要烟区采集烟叶样品204个,对烟叶钾含量和主要致香物质进行了分析测定,采用简单相关分析、灰色关联分析和回归分析等方法研究了云南烤烟钾含量特征及其与主要致香物质含量之间的关系.结果表明,云南烟区烤烟钾含量平均为1.96%,有52.45%的烟叶钾含量偏低,且变幅较大(0.70%~3.24%),在市(州)间、海拔分组间和土壤pH分组间均存在显著差异;云南烤烟致香物质含量变幅较大,最高值为最低值的3.41~10.50倍,6类致香物质含量均与烤烟钾含量呈极显

  9. Modeling of Aroma Quality Evaluation of Flue-cured Tobacco Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析法的烤烟香气品质评价模型构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华武; 贺帆; 李祖良; 张欣华; 刘建; 赵高坤; 黄维; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取与气相色谱质谱联用法分别测定20种烤烟样品中的69种香气成分,并以69种香气成分的含量为变量,利用主成分分析法建立烤烟香气品质评价模型,并应用该模型对20种样品的烤烟香气品质进行评价.结果表明,S10烤烟的香气品质最好,其后依次为S9、s4、S20、S16、S17、S18、S19、S1、S15、S2、S5、S3、S14、S6、S8、S12、S7、S13、S1l;通过感官评价法进一步对该模型评价结果进行检验,模型评价结果和感官质量评价结果具有很好的一致性.提出的烤烟香气品质评价模型不受主观因素的影响,能够做到标准化评价,且评判结果具有一定的客观性和可行性,能够真实区分烤烟香气品质的优劣.%This paper aimed to find a more objective method to evaluate flue-cured tobacco aroma quality than the traditional sensory evaluation method. The total of 69 aroma compounds in 20 different kinds of flue-cured tobacco was identified and determined by the Headspace Solid Phase Microextrac-tion-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Then a model was established based on principal component analysis method for assessing and ranking the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco with the 69 kinds of aroma components as variables. S10 was selected from 20 flue-cured tobacco samples for having best aroma by the model, followed by S9, S4, S20, S16, S17, S18, S19, S1, S15, S2, S5, S3, S14, S6, S8, S12, S7, S13 and Sll. The evaluation result of this model was tested further by sensory evaluation method, and the test result indicated that the model evaluation result was consistent with conventional sensory evaluation. The flue-cured tobacco aroma quality evaluation model proposed in this paper was not affected by subjective factors, and its standardization evaluation result had the objectivity and feasibility to some extent. Furthermore, it can definitely distinguish the quality of flue-cured tobacco aroma.

  10. Influences of Different Intercropping Modes on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%不同套作方式对烤烟产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泓翔; 屠乃美; 张炜; 易江; 尹虎成; 陈银建

    2015-01-01

    2014年在湖北省鹤峰县采用随机区组试验方法,研究了大蒜、小麦、大麦、甘薯4种作物与烤烟套作对云烟87植株农艺性状及产值产量的影响.结果表明:与单作烤烟相比,套作烤烟的各项指标明显较优,尤其套作大蒜处理,烟株长势长相、烟叶物理指标相对其他处理更好,各处理化学成分含量均在合适范围.套作对烟叶产量无明显影响,但使烟叶的产值提高了10.89%,中上等烟比例提高了12.03%.以烤烟套作大蒜效果最佳.%The effects of intercropping of flue-cured tobacco and garlic,wheat,barley,sweet potato respectively on agronomic traits,yield and output value of Yunyan 87 were studied in Hefeng county,Enshi,Hubei province in 2014.The results showed that mainly took the method of random area group experiment in Hefeng,Enshi,Hubei Province.The results showed that com-pared to monoculture tobacco,all indexes of flue-cured tobacco under intercropping were obviously better,and chemical components in leaves of intercropping treatments was rational,especially in treatment of intercropping with garlic,the growth potential of plant and physical properties of tobacco leaves were best.There was no clear effect of intercropping on leaf yield of tobacco,while the output was increased by 10.89%and the proportion of medium and superior tobacco leaves was in-creased by 12.03%.Among 4 intercropping modes,tobacco-garlic intercropping mode had the best effect.

  11. The evaluation of North Carolina's state-sponsored youth tobacco prevention media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, K L; McCullough, A; Summerlin-Long, S; Agans, R; Ranney, L; Goldstein, A O

    2013-02-01

    In 2003, the state of North Carolina (NC) implemented a multi-component initiative focused on teenage tobacco use prevention and cessation. One component of this initiative is Tobacco.Reality.Unfiltered. (TRU), a tobacco prevention media campaign, aimed at NC youth aged 11-17 years. This research evaluates the first 5 years of the TRU media campaign, from 2004 to 2009, using telephone surveys of NC youth. Overall, TRU campaign awareness was moderate among youth in its first year, with awareness significantly increasing over time. The majority of youth who saw the advertisements reported that they were convincing, attention grabbing and gave good reasons not to smoke. In 2009, logistic regression models revealed awareness of the TRU advertisements was associated with decreased odds of current smoking and experimenting with cigarettes for at-risk NC youth. Results from this research may help other states to define, evaluate and modify their own media campaigns, especially within financially or politically constraining environments.

  12. The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Curtin, G M; Swauger, J E

    2012-12-01

    Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting.

  13. Analysis on Comparative Advantages of Industrial Development of Flue-cured Tobacco Industry in Guizhou%贵州省发展烤烟产业的比较优势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤

    2012-01-01

    According to the comparative advantage theory, the author analyzes the tendency of Guizhou's flue-cured tobacco during 2004 ?2010 using the improved comparative advantage indexes. The results show that Guizhou's flue-cured tobacco industry comprehensive comparative advantage index(AAI) is higher than the national average. It has obvious advantages of scale advantage index (SAD, but the advantage is decreasing;The efficiency advantage index (EAI) is lower than the national average, but EAI shows an increasing trend; The benefit advantage index (BAD is higher, but fluctuating wildly. Based on this analysis, proposals for structure readjustment of Guizhou's flue-cured tobacco are put forward.%基于比较优势理论,利用改进的综合比较优势指数法,对2004-2010年贵州省烤烟的比较优势变动趋势进行了分析.结果表明:贵州省的烤烟产业的综合比较优势指数高于全国水平,具有一定的生产优势和市场竞争力;种植规模具有绝对优势,但呈现递减的趋势;生产效率低于全国平均水平,但呈现递增趋势;平均经济效益略高于全国平均水平,但波动较大.最后,在此基础上针对贵州省烤烟作物的种植情况提出了几点建议.

  14. Effects of Different Boron Application Methods on Main Chemical Compositions of Cured Tobacco Leaf%不同施硼方式对初烤烟叶主要化学成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕良; 刘有才; 徐建平; 徐志刚; 朱树良; 年夫照; 张庆刚

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different boron supply methods on the content of potassium, nicotine, total sugar and reducing sugar in leaf of flue-cured tobacco were studied under field condition. The results showed that foliage spray of borax could improve the content of total sugar, nicotine in leaf of cured tobacco; spray only on one part of flue-cured tobacco was most helpful for improving potassium content in leaf. Leaf potassium content in treatment of spraying borax on upper leaf were higher than that in other treatments, which showed that foliage spray with borax on upper leaf could promote the absorption, transportation and accumulation of potassium of the upper leaf.%通过大田试验,研究了不同施硼方式对初烤烟叶内在化学成分钾、烟碱、总糖、还原糖含量的影响.结果表明,硼肥的施用能提高烟叶的钾、总糖、烟碱的含量,且只对一个部位施用硼肥对提高该部位烟叶钾含量最为明显;P1处理上部叶钾含量较CK、P0、P2、P3、P4分别提高33.33%、32.35%、5.88%、4.65%和17.65%,说明P1处理可以增加上部叶对钾的吸收、运输及积累.

  15. 百色烟区烤烟合理种植密度及施肥量研究%Studies on Planting Density and Fertilizer Application Rate of Flue-cured Tobacco in Baise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文亮; 赖洪敏; 黄瑾; 林北森; 高华军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了掌握百色烟区合理的种植密度及施肥量,为烤烟生产提供科学指导和应用依据.[方法]研究了不同种植密度和施肥水平对烟株生长、烟叶产量和质量的影响.[结果]烤烟生育前期受种植密度和施肥量影响不大,但腰叶、顶叶成熟的时间随着施氮量的增大而变晚.不同种植密度和施肥量对烤烟农艺性状的影响较大,在种植密度相同时,随施肥量的增加,烟株株高、茎围、节距、有效叶片数和叶片长度呈递增趋势;减小种植密度有利于顶叶的开片生长及有效叶片数的增加.综合各经济性状及烟叶主要内在化学成分和评吸质量,A2B3处理(行株距120 cm×50 cm,施氮量112.5 kg/hm2,氮、磷、钾比例1∶1∶3)能够得到较好的经济效益和烟叶质量.[结论]在百色特定的气候、中等土壤肥力条件下,烤烟种植密度以行距120 cm,株距50 cm,纯氮用量112.5 kg/hm2(氮、磷、钾比例1∶1∶3)为宜.%[Objective] To explore the suitable planting density and fertilizer application rate of flue-cured tobacco and to provide the scientific basis and reference applications for guiding its production in Baise. [Method] The effects of different planting density and fertilizer application rate on the growth of tobacco plants, the yield and quality of tobacco leaves were studied. [ Result ] Planting density and fertilizer application rate had a little effects on the growth period of tobacco plants at early growth stage, but the mature stage of central and top leaves delayed with the increasing of fertilizer application rate. Different planting density and fertilizer application rate had significant effect on the agronomic characters, with the increasing fertilizer application rate, the plant height, stem diameter, node distance, effecttive number of leaves and length of leaf increased at the same planting density; when planting density was decreased, top leaves advantageous to growing and

  16. 不同氮肥形态培土对烤烟生长及产量与品质的影响%Effect of Different Nitrogen Forms on the Flue-cured Tobacco Growth, Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和; 周冀衡; 陈习羽; 张春

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The fertilization of the different nitrogen forms affecting of fertilizer and the flue-cured tobacco growth and the quality of its middle-positioned leaf was studied to optimize the agricultural production and ensure the tobacco leaf quality. [ Method] The difference in the growth and economic traits of flue-cured tobacco variety, Yunyan 85 as experimental material, and the quality of its middle-positioned leaf after its baking, which was resulted from the application of different nitrogen forms and its fertilization measures, was evaluated. [ Results] The fertilization combined with intertillage was advantage for the flue-cured tobacco growth. The application of NO3--N was helpful the early growth and rapid development of the flue-cured tobacco after the plastic film was removed, however in later period its growth was not as good as the tobacco plant treated with NH4+-N and the physical characteristics of its middle-positioned leaf from both two treatments was undesirable. The nitrogen-using efficiency of the tobacco plant treated with NH4+ -N was stronger with higher content of nicotine, but the absorption of plant to K was inhibited because of its unique chemical property, leading to the inconsistent chemical composition in plant. [ Conclusion] The reasonable application of the combination of NH4+ -N and NO3- -N could promote the best tobacco plant growth with the consistent chemical composition in the plant and the highest economic value.%[目的]研究不同氮肥形态培土对烤烟生长及中部叶品质影响,优化农业生产和保证烟叶质量.[方法]以烤烟品种云烟85为材料,不同氮肥形态及施肥方式对烤烟生长及经济性状以及中部叶烤后样品质的差异.[结果]中耕培土的同时,采取配套施肥对烤烟生长有利.以NO-3-N处理的烟株表现出有助于烤烟揭膜后的旱生快发,但后期生长状却不如NH+4-N处理的烟株,两种处理的烤烟中部叶片物理特性皆不理想;NH+4

  17. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (pcigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, restricting tobacco advertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance

  18. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  19. 烟机备件管理中的ERP系统应用研究%Research on Application of ERP System in Management of Tobacco-curing Machine Spare Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华

    2013-01-01

    The author expounded reasons of introducing ERP system to management of tobacco-curing machine spare parts, and discussed design scheme of ERP management system. Finally, the author analyzed application effect of ERP system.%  阐述了在烟机备件管理中引入ERP系统的原因,详细论述了烟机备件ERP管理系统设计方案,并分析了烟机备件ERP管理系统应用效果。

  20. 空气热-煤混合能源烤房在烟叶烘烤中的应用效果%Application Effect of Air Heat-Coal Mixed Energy Barn in Tobacco Flue-curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢云波; 罗定棋; 张永辉; 谢强; 雷晓; 何余勇; 张溢; 杜纯青

    2012-01-01

    为空气热-煤混合能源烤房在烤烟生产上的推广应用提供科学依据,进行了空气热-煤混合能源烤房与普通燃煤烤房对考后烟叶质量及经济效益的对比试验.结果表明:空气热-煤混合能源烤房的最佳经济结合点为50℃转火,即在50℃前用热泵加热,达到50℃后改用煤炉加热.与普通燃煤烤房相比,空气热-煤混合能源烤房可以节约能源资源消耗46.8%;每烤房单次节省烘烤费用128.9元,节省率20.7%;烤后烟叶上等烟比例较高,低次等烟比例很低,烟叶外观质量最佳,农民销售收入增加28.4%;烤房耗煤量低,产生的粉尘和大气污染物排放量减少57.8%.%To provide a scientific basis for air heat-coal mixed energy barn popularization and application in the production of flue-cured tobacco, a contrast test of flue-cured tobacco quality and economic benefits was conducted between air heat-coal mixed energy barn and ordinary coal-fired barn. The results showed that it was best to heat the barn using heat pump before 50℃ and then using coal stove. Compared with ordinary coal-fired barn, air heat-coal mixed energy barn could save energy and resources consumption by 46. 8%; Saved per barn baking costs 128. 9 Yuan(saving rate 20.7%); High-class flue-cured tobacco accounted for a higher proportion while low-class flue-cured tobacco accounted for a low proportion, the appearance quality was the best and peasants' incomes were enhanced by 28. 4%; the dust and air pollutant emissions was reduced by 57. 8% as the coal consumption decreased.

  1. Study on Modulation Effect of Sun-cured Tobacco by Ventilation in Shed%晒棚通风方式对晒黄烟调制效果影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛德勋; 谢丽华; 董华; 钱颖颖; 柴家荣

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the speed of tobacco leaf color changing,dry speed and quality changing during the sun-cured process to optimize the sun-cured technology,the designed different ventilation sheds are studied.The result showed that the cured tobacco leaf from basking shed with four-side ventilation and ridge damp-extraction has the good quality of outlook,good quality of single piece,good concord in chemicals and better comprehensive representation;the cured tobacco leaf from the shed with two-end ventilation,damp-ex-traction and four-side blocking has better quality of outlook,media quality of single piece,concord chemicals and good comprehensive representation;but the tobacco leaf from the shed with two-side ventilation,damp-extraction and two-end blocking has comparatively bad outlook,light single piece,non-concord chemicals and bad comprehensive representation.%为探索晒烟晒制过程烟叶变色干燥速度和烟叶质量的变化,优化晒烟晒制技术,对设计的晒棚不同通风方式进行研究,结果表明,以晒棚四进风、屋脊排湿的烟叶外观质量好,单叶质量较大,化学成分协调性好,综合表现较优;晒棚两头通风排湿四周封闭的烟叶外观质量较好,单叶质量适中,化学成分较协调,综合表现尚好;而晒棚两侧通风排湿两头封闭的烟叶外观质量稍次,单叶质量较轻,化学成分欠协调,综合表现较差。

  2. Correlation Between Water-soluble Sugars and Smoking Quality Indicators in Flue-cured Tobacco%烤烟水溶性糖含量与感官评吸指标的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向章敏; 蔡凯; 张长云; 周淑平; 葛永辉; 张婕; 耿召良; 黄荣茂

    2014-01-01

    A total of 42 flue-cured tobacco samples with C3F grades were collected from different regions of China,and correlation between water-soluble sugars and smoking quality in flue-cured tobacco were studied by adopting the analysis ways of simple correlation,canonical correlation and grey correlation to provide a reference for scientifically analyzing flue-cured tobacco quality.The results showed that the different water-soluble sugars had different influence in smoking quality,and the order was fructose>glucose>sucrose>maltose.There were positive correlations between fructose and glucose with offensive odor and smoke flexibility;there were positive correlations between sucrose with aftertaste,and negative correlations with irritation property;there were positive correlations between maltose with mouthfeel. Therefore,water-soluble sugars of the flue-cured tobacco were closely related to smoke taste,and had a relatively lower relationship to smoke aroma.%为科学评价烤烟的品质特征提供参考,以42份不同产区的 C3F 等级烟叶为材料,采用简单相关、典型相关和灰色关联度分析了烤烟水溶性糖含量与烟叶感官评吸指标的相关性。结果表明:烤烟水溶性糖对烟叶感官评吸指标影响的顺序为果糖>葡萄糖>蔗糖>麦芽糖。其中,果糖和葡萄糖与感官评吸指标中的杂气量和烟气细柔度呈正相关;蔗糖与余味呈正相关,与刺激性呈负相关;麦芽糖与口感呈正相关。烤烟的水溶性糖含量与感官评吸指标的吃味密切相关,而与香味的关系较小。

  3. Breeding of lfue-cured tobacco variety Yuyan 10 and characters thereof%烤烟新品种豫烟10号的选育及特征特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铁钊; 张小全; 殷全玉; 武云杰; 薛刚

    2015-01-01

    A new flue-cured tobacco variety Yuyan 10 was developed by hybridization method through pedigree selection with flue-cured tobacco lines Nongda 201 as the female parent and widely cultivated variety Yunyan 87 as male parent. Results of regional field trials in Henan province and national test showed that the new variety had stable genetic traits in the field, high tolerance to high nitrogen fertilizer, resistance to bacterial wilt, medium resistance to black shank disease and tobacco brown spot disease and was easy to be flue-cured and slightly susceptible to tobacco root knot nematode disease, TMV, CMV and PVY. Its cured leaf was rich in oil and had shining brightness and well-distributed orange color. The chemical composition was favorable and well proportioned to meet the requirements of manufacturing cigarettes with Chinese characteristics. The new variety had higher leaf yield, higher average price, higher ratio of high--rated leaf and higher production value than check variety NC89. In conclusion, Yuyan 10 was a new variety with good characters.%豫烟10号是以自选烤烟品系农大201为母本,云烟87为父本杂交,经系谱法定向选择培育而成。全国及河南省区域试验结果表明:该品种遗传性状稳定,田间生长整齐一致,田间长势强,耐肥性强,易烘烤;抗青枯病,中抗黑胫病和赤星病,中感根结线虫病、TMV、CMV和PVY;烤后原烟颜色均匀,结构疏松,油分较足,色泽均匀鲜亮,主要化学成分含量适宜,比例协调,烟叶感官质量较好。多年试验结果表明,该品种产量、产值、均价、上等烟比例等均高于对照NC89,是一个品质、抗性、产量、适应性等方面较能兼顾的优良新品种。

  4. 土壤改良剂对烤烟产质量和土壤理化性状的影响%Effects of Soil Conditioner on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco and Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富欣; 司贤宗; 张翔; 毛家伟; 桂炎伟; 陈启龙

    2014-01-01

    通过田间试验,研究了施用不同土壤改良剂对烤烟农艺性状、经济性状、产量、质量及土壤理化性状的影响。结果表明:与不施用土壤改良剂相比,施用土壤改良剂能增加烤烟的株高、叶长和叶宽;增加烤烟的产量和产值,分别增加54.00~315.00 kg/hm2、2703.00~6759.15元/hm2;增加上中等烟比例和均价;显著增加烟叶中总糖、钾和还原糖含量;能有效降低土壤pH值和土壤容重;以施用225 kg/hm2腐殖酸型土壤改良剂的效果最好。%The effects of applying different soil conditioners on the agronomic characters , economic traits, yield, and quality of flue-cured tobacco as well as the physicochemical properties of soil were studied through field tests .The results showed that: in comparison with the control ( not applying soil conditioner ) , applying soil conditioner could increase the plant height , leaf length and leaf width of flue-cured tobacco, could increase the yield and production value of flue -cured tobacco by 54.00~315.00 kg/hm2, 2703.00~6759.15 yuan/hm2, respectively, could enhance the proportion of superior and medium tobacco leaves , and aver-age price, could significantly increase the contents of total sugar , potassium and reducing sugar in tobacco leaf , and could effectively reduce soil pH-value and soil bulk density .Among the applications of different soil conditioners , the application of 225 kg/hm2 humic-acid-type soil conditioner acquired the best effects .

  5. Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms on Fermented Leaves of Flue-cured Tobacco%不同陈化烟叶叶面高温微生物多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 赖泳红; 米静; 文国松; 白红妹; 江越; 崔晓龙; 王永霞; 肖炜

    2012-01-01

    The thermophilic microorganisms of flue-cured tobacco leaves which were collected from different countries were investigated for understanding the role of thermophilic microorganisms in flue-cured tobacco fermentation. The results showed that the dominant thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the fermented leaves were bacteria, while mould fungi were much less, and actinomycetes and yeasts were not isolated. The total amount of thermophilic microorganisms on the aging tobacco leaf surface was 103~105/g. The main thermophilic bacteria were identified as Bacillus and Geobacillus, and Bacillus was dominant genus. The main thermophilic mould were identified as Penicillium and Aspergillus, and Aspergillus was dominant genus. The amount and species of the thermophilic microorganisms on the fermented leaves of flue-cured tobacco were related to the species, producing area and aging time of tobacco. Fig 4, Tab 4, Ref 20%以国内外不同品种、不同陈化时间的10个烟叶样品为材料,对其叶面高温微生物进行了分离纯化、鉴定和多样性研究,以了解表面高温微生物在烟叶陈化发酵中的作用.结果表明:陈化烟叶表面高温菌总量为103~105个/g,高温细菌占绝对优势,真菌很少,未能分离到放线菌和酵母菌;高温细菌主要包括芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)和地芽孢杆菌属(Geobacillus)两个属,芽孢杆菌属为优势菌属;高温霉菌主要包括青霉属(Penicillium)和曲霉属(AspergiUus),曲霉属为优势菌属.国内外烟叶表面微生物种类和数量有所差异,与陈化时间和烟叶品种等因素有着密切关系.

  6. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  7. 不同光质处理对云烟87生长及品质的影响%Influence of Different Light Qualities on the Growth and Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚婷; 查宏波; 黄韡; 魏世强; 王海珠; 何文高; 王凯; 宗学凤; 王三根

    2013-01-01

    通过对烟草植株覆盖红、黄、蓝滤膜获得红、黄和蓝光.研究了3种光质对云烟87生长及品质的影响.结果表明:①红光促进烤烟的生长,使株高和茎围增加,而黄光对烤烟的生长有抑制作用,使株高和茎围低于对照.②3种光质处理能使烤烟叶片最大叶长和最大叶宽增加,在处理的各个时间段,红光处理下的烟叶最大叶宽最宽,说明3种光质处理对叶片的形态有影响.③3种光质处理能使烤烟叶片数减少,在处理的15,45和60 d,黄光处理的烟叶叶片数最少,显著少于对照.④3种光质下的烟叶氮、氯、钾质量分数以及钾氯比均高于对照.⑤黄光处理能降低烟碱的质量分数,红光和蓝光处理使烟碱质量分数增加.⑥化学协调性评价分值结果表明,黄光和红光处理的烟叶属于较协调,蓝光处理和对照的属于协调.%In order to clarify the influences of different light qualities on the growth and quality of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) , the cultivar Yunyan 87 was grown under different illuminant conditions by covering the plants with red, yellow or blue plastic films. Red light treatment tended to promote tobacco growth and increase plant height and stem circumference, while yellow light trended to inhibit the growth of tobacco, resulting in lower plant height and stem circumference than those of the control. All the three light treatments increased the maximum leaf length and maximum leaf width of flue-cured tobacco leaves, and in various treatment stages the red light treatment gave the largest width of maximum leaf width, suggesting that the light quality treatments may influuence the morphology of tobacco leaves. All light quality treatments reduced the number of flue-cured tobacco leaves. Recorded on the the 15 th, 45 th and 60 th day after the commencement of the treatment, the yellow light treatment had the smallest number of leaves, which was significantly lower than the control

  8. Widespread inequalities in smoking & smokeless tobacco consumption across wealth quintiles in States of India: Need for targeted interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: India is a large country with each State having distinct social, cultural and economic characteristics. Tobacco epidemic is not uniform across the country. There are wide variations in tobacco consumption across age, sex, regions and socio-economic classes. This study was conducted to understand the wide inequalities in patterns of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption across various States of India. Methods: Analysis was conducted on Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India (2009-2010 data. Prevalence of both forms of tobacco use and its association with socio-economic determinants was assessed across States and Union Territories of India. Wealth indices were calculated using socio-economic data of the survey. Concentration index of inequality and one way ANOVA assessed economic inequality in tobacco consumption and variation of tobacco consumption across quintiles. Multiple logistic regression was done for tobacco consumption and wealth index adjusting for age, sex, area, education and occupation. Results: Overall prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption was 13.9 per cent (14.6, 13.3 and 25.8 per cent (26.6, 25.0, respectively. Prevalence of current smoking varied from 1.6 per cent (richest quintile in Odisha to 42.2 per cent (poorest quintile in Meghalaya. Prevalence of current smokeless tobacco consumption varied from 1.7 per cent (richest quintile in Jammu and Kashmir to 59.4 per cent (poorest quintile in Mizoram. Decreasing odds of tobacco consumption with increasing wealth was observed in most of the States. Reverse trend of tobacco consumption was observed in Nagaland. Significant difference in odds of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption with wealth quintiles was observed. Concentration index of inequality was significant for smoking tobacco -0.7 (-0.62 to-0.78 and not significant for smokeless tobacco consumption -0.15 (0.01to-0.33 Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our analysis

  9. State monopoly, Chinese style : a case study of the tobacco industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a historical institutionalist approach, this study focuses on the tobacco industry as a case study to explore why competition would happen in this state-monopoly regime from its outset and how it evolved during the past three decades in China. I argue that the emergence of competition in th

  10. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke and...

  11. Effects of Replacing 50% Tobacco Compound Fertilizer by Yak Dung Organic Fertilizer in Tibetan Area on the Growth of Flue-cured Tobacco%藏区牦牛粪有机肥替代50%用量烟草复合肥对烤烟生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴树成

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究烤烟生产中,利用无污染藏区牦牛粪发酵生产的有机肥,替代50%用量烟草复合肥的可行性。[方法]以烟草复合肥为对照,用750、1000和2250 kg/hm2牦牛粪有机肥和1500 kg/hm2商品有机肥替代50%用量复合肥,考察了烤烟生长农艺性状、病害调查、技术经济指标、化学成分和感官评吸质量。[结果]牦牛粪有机肥替代烟草复合肥50%用量促进了烤烟正常生长,减少病虫害发生,提高烟叶上中等烟比例,增加产量,调整烟叶化学成分和改善烟叶评吸质量,其中以1500 kg/hm2牦牛粪有机肥替代50%用量复合肥的效果最好。[结论]该研究为改善烟田环境,提高烟叶产量和品质提供了理论依据。%Objective] To research the possibility of replacing 50% tobacco compound fertilizer by yak dung organic fertilizer in Tibetan Area during the production of flue-cured tobacco. [ Method] With tobacco compound fertilizer as the control, the 50% compound fertilizer was re-placed by 750, 1 000 and 2 250 kg/hm2 yak dung organic fertilizer and 1 500 kg/hm2 commercial organic fertilizers, respectively. Then, we investigated the agronomic characters, disease survey, technical and economical index, chemical component and sensory smoking quality of flue-cured tobacco. [ Result] Replacing 50% tobacco compound fertilizer by yak dung organic fertilizer promoted the normal growth of flue-cured tobacco, reduced the occurrence of diseases and insect pests, enhanced the yield and proportion of first-and middle-class tobacco, ad-justed the chemical component of tobacco leaves, and improved the smoking quality of tobacco leaves. Among them, replacing 50% tobacco compound fertilizer by 1 500 kg/hm2 yak dung organic fertilizer had the best effects. [ Conclusion] This research provides theoretical founda-tion for improving the environment of tobacco area and enhancing the yield and quality of tobacco leaves.

  12. Application of Qianhefu Water-soluble Foliar Fertilizer on Flue-cured Tobacco Leaf Production%仟禾福水溶肥料在烤烟烟叶生产的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春平; 贾可; 郑坚强; 毛多斌

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to investigate the effects of Qianhefu water-soluble foliar fertilizer on tobacco leaf production. [Method] A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of foliar fertilizers on flue-cured tobacco growing development, chemical constituents and physical indexes by different fertilizer concentration and spraying time. [Result] The foliar fertilizer played a better role on improving agronomic traits of tobacco, promoting the physical indexes such as equilibrium moisture content and leaf weight, coordinating the intrinsic chemical composition of tobacco leaf and increasing the total aroma. [Conclusion] The use of leaf-surface fertilizer Qianhefu could increase the quality of tobacco leaves and the economic benefit greatly.%[目的]为了探讨仟禾福水溶肥料对烤烟种植的影响.[方法]通过大田小区试验,采用不同剂量和不同喷施时期,对烟株的大田农艺性状、烤后烟叶物理指标和化学指标进行对比.[结果]该叶面肥可以改善烤烟大田农艺性状,对平衡含水率、叶质重、叶厚均有促进作用,同时对协调烟叶化学成分、增加香气总量有明显的作用.[结论]喷施仟禾福水溶肥料是提高烤烟品质和增加经济效益的有效措施.

  13. Changes of Key Enzymes in Sucrose Metabol ism of Flue-cured Tobacco in Different Ecological Regions%不同生态区烤烟蔗糖代谢关键酶活性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任竹; 赵会纳; 曾陨涛; 元野; 韦成才; 冯小芽; 冯先情; 李伟鹏; 雷波

    2014-01-01

    为了解不同生态区与烤烟蔗糖代谢关键酶活性变化的差异,采集关键生产时期K326的烟样,对不同生态区烟叶的蔗糖代谢关键酶活性进行测定与分析。结果表明:淀粉酶(AMS)、蔗糖合成酶(SS)与不同生态区之间和不同生长时期间的差异均达到极显著水平,生态区与生长时期的交互作用对淀粉酶(AMS)、蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)、蔗糖合成酶(SS)活性的影响均达极显著水平。%In order to explore the changes of key enzymes in sucrose metabolism of flue-cured tobacco in different ecological regions,the key enzymes activity in sucrose metabolism of K326 flue-cured tobacco collected in key production period from different ecological regions was detected and analyzed.Results:the difference of AMS and SS in different ecological region and growth stage reached extremely significant level.The interaction of ecological region and growth stage had very significant influence on AMS,SPS and SS.

  14. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Taylor, Jeff; Sylla, Laurie; Evans, David; Dee, Lynda; Burton, Alasdair; Willenberg, Loreen; Rennie, Stuart; Skinner, Asheley; Tucker, Joseph D.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Greene, Sandra B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists. Methods We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015–2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory. Results We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1) Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2) Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3) Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4) PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders. Conclusion Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement

  15. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Taylor, Jeff; Sylla, Laurie; Evans, David; Dee, Lynda; Burton, Alasdair; Willenberg, Loreen; Rennie, Stuart; Skinner, Asheley; Tucker, Joseph D; Weiner, Bryan J; Greene, Sandra B

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists. We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory. We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1) Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2) Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3) Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4) PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders. Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement among regulators, researchers, clinicians

  16. Relationships between sensory quality and main chemical components in different leaves of flue-cured tobacco%烤烟不同部位烟叶主要化学成分与感官质量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟; 张楠; 许自成; 戴亚; 李东亮; 秦璐

    2011-01-01

    选取我国主产烟区161份烤烟样本,研究了不同部位烟叶主要化学成分与感官质量的关系.结果表明:各部位烟叶化学成分含量总体适宜,总体评吸质量较好,评吸总分变异系数较低.各主要化学成分及评吸总分在不同部位间的差异均达到了显著水平.对评吸总分与主要化学成分进行灰色关联分析,结果表明:对烟叶总体评吸质量影响最显著的化学指标为氛、烟碱、还原糖.随着评吸总分的增加,各个部位烟叶的烟碱含量呈现先增加后降低的趋势,中部叶还原糖含量随着评吸总分的增加逐渐增加,钾含量和钾氯比对评吸总分具有较大的正效应,而氛含量则具有较大的负效应.%161 samples of flue-cured tobacco leaves from main tobacco-growing areas of China were used as materials to investigate the relationship between sensory quality and main chemical components in different leaves flue-cured tobacco. The results indicated that the chemical components was suitable in different leaves flue-cured tobacco. The smoking quality was good and the CV of total scores in smoking evaluation was low. The chemical components and total scores in smoking evaluation reached the significant level in different leaves. The relationship between sensory quality and main chemical components was analyzed with grey incidence analysis. The maximal factors influencing total scores in smoking evaluation were the chlorine ,the nicotine, the reducing sugar. The nicotine content increased at first then decreased along with increasing of total scores in different leaves. The middle leave of reducing sugar content increased along with increasing of total scores. The potassium content and ratio of potassium/chlorine had positive effects on the total scores. The chlorine content had negative effects on the total scores.

  17. 基于NIR-PCA-SVM联用技术的烤烟烟叶产地模式识别%NIR-PCA-SVM Based Pattern Recognition of Growing Area of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束茹欣; 孙平; 杨凯; 张建平; 刘太昂

    2011-01-01

    To accurately identify the growing area of flue - cured tobacco, the contents of chemical components, including total sugar, reducing sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine, total chlorine and total potassium, in 402 cured tobacco samples collected from Yunnan, Henan, Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou and Jilin Provinces in 2010 were tested, and the samples were scanned by near infrared spectrometer. The near infrared spectra (NIR) pattern recognition models of growing area were developed by principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms, and the growing areas of the samples were recognized. The results indicated that: 1) The prediction accuracy recognized by NIR-PCA-SVM models reached 97%, while that by chemical component-SVM and NIR-SVM models were lower. 2) The NIR - PCA - SVM, and chemical component - SVM models all offered better recoginition for Yunnan tobacco samples. NIR-PCA-SVM model could be applied to pattern recognition of flue-cured tobacco samples of different origins.%为了更准确地对烟叶样品进行产地模式识别,检测了云南、河南、安徽、福建、贵州、吉林6省2010年生产的402个初烤烟叶样品的总糖、还原糖、总氮、烟碱、总氯、总钾含量,同时进行了近红外( NIR)光谱扫描,利用主成分分析( PCA)法和支持向量机算法(SVM)建立了烟叶产地模式识别模型,并对云南、河南、安徽、福建、贵州、吉林6省烟叶样品进行了产地模式识别.结果表明:①NIR-PCA-SVM模型对6省烟叶样品识别的预报正确率高达97%,而化学成分-SVM模型和NIR-SVM模型对6省烟叶产地的识别效果差;②NIR-PCA-SVM、化学成分-SVM和NIR-SVM 3个模型对云南省烟叶都有着较好的识别效果.NIR-PCA-SVM模型可用于不同烟叶样品产地的模式识别.

  18. Effects of bio-organic fertilizer's application on flue-cured tobacco planted on continuous cropping soil%生物有机肥改良连作土壤及烤烟生长发育的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵孝侯; 刘旭; 周永波; 于静

    2011-01-01

    The effects of compost mixed with earthworm fertilizer and effective microorganism on continuous cropping soil was studied. It discussed the effects of bio-organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer's mixing application by different ratios on fluecured planting and the soil chemical properties with pot experiment. The result indicated that: the fertilization significantly promoted the growth of flue-cured tobacco, the best proportion of bio-organic fertilizer was fifty percent, followed by seventy percent, while the yield of flue-cured tobacco was the highest when the proportion was fifty percent, the growth and yield of flue-cured tobacco of pure bio-organic fertilizer treatment was better than pure fertilizer treatment, the bio-organic fertilizer could promote the nitrogen and potassium absorption when the proportion was between thirty percent and fifty percent, and was more propitious to the production of high quality tobacco, the application of organic fertilizer could significantly increase the cropping soil's pH, organic matter content and available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content.%以蚯蚓肥和有效微生物制剂堆置发酵制成生物有机肥,采用盆栽试验研究了生物有机肥和化肥按不同配比混合施用后对烤烟生长发育及植烟土壤理化性质的影响.结果表明,施肥显著促进烤烟的生长发育,以生物有机肥比例为50%时最佳,70%次之,同时生物有机肥比例为50%时烤烟产量最高;纯生物有机肥施用后烤烟的生长指标和产量均优于纯化肥处理;生物有机肥比例为30%~50%时可以促进烤烟对氮素、钾素的吸收,更有利于优质烟叶的生产;施用生物有机肥可显著提高连作土壤的pH值、有机质含量和碱解氮、速效磷及速效钾的含量.

  19. Cost analysis of three different seedling systems for flue-cured tobacco%烤烟育苗三种方式的育苗成本解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    腊贵晓; 肖建国; 谢德平; 刘国顺

    2011-01-01

    Cost analysis of three different seedling systems for flue-cured tobacco were carried out. The three seedling systems are traditional arched plastic house nutrition bags seedling system (System I ) , earliest floating-seedling system (System II ), and modem intensive floating-seedling system ( System ID ). Results indicated that although the cost factors of three seedling systems were the same, with development of seedling systems, relative proportions of different cost factors changed, and the total cost and labor intensity decreased because of the application of new technology and improvement of mechanization. Total cost of system I , II , and IE were 82.10 RMB/666.67 m2, 57.09 RMB/666.67 m2, and 39.14 RMB/666.67 m2, respectively, and the labor required was 1.96 unit/666.67 m2, 0.64 unit/666.67 m2, and 0.18 unit/666.67 m2, respectively.%解析了我国烟叶生产不同发展阶段烤烟育苗3种方式(传统小拱棚营养袋育苗、初期漂浮育苗和现代集约化漂浮育苗)的育苗成本.结果表明:尽管育苗3种方式的成本构成要素仍主要为占地费、材料费、配套设备折旧费和管理费,但是随着烤烟育苗方式的发展,因新技术的应用,机械化、集约化程度的提高,各构成要素在总成本所占比例发生了变化,使育苗总成本及劳动强度不断下降;育苗总成本由传统小拱棚营养袋育苗方式的82.10元/666.67 m2降低到初期集约化育苗方式的57.09元/666.67 m2,最后降低到现代集约化漂浮育苗方式的39.14元/666.67 m2;用工数由传统小拱棚营养袋育苗方式的1.96个/666.67 m2降低到初期集约化育苗方式的0.64个/666.67 m2,最后降低到现代化漂浮育苗方式的0.18个/666.67 m2.

  20. Isolation, Identification and Characteristics of Nicotine-degrading Bacterium from Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves During Aging%烟叶醇化过程中烟碱降解菌的分离鉴定与特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天丽; 周亚维; 汤朝起; 瞿永生; 李朋富

    2012-01-01

    从醇化烟叶中分离到具有降解烟碱活性的菌群(Q6),16S rDNA片段的PCR-DGGE(变性梯度凝胶电泳)分析显示,菌群由8种细菌组成.从菌群Q6中分离出1株烟碱降解菌D1,经菌落形态、生理生化和16S rDNA序列分析鉴定为根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens).在低温(20℃)、偏酸或偏碱(pH=5或者pH≥9)及高烟碱浓度(>1g/L)条件下,菌群Q6均表现出比单菌D1更强的降解活性.烟叶发酵和加入静息细胞试验表明,菌群和单菌均可降解醇化烟叶中的烟碱.在菌群和单菌的烟碱代谢产物中都检测到烟碱烯、2,3’-联吡啶和可替宁.结果显示:醇化过程中烟叶表面微生物可能对烟碱有降解作用,从而影响烟叶的醇化效果,可以利用分离到的菌群或单菌在烟叶醇化过程中降解烟碱,以改善烟叶品质;同时也可以利用烟碱降解菌处理烟草废弃物中的烟碱.%A bacterial community named Q6 with the ability of nicotine degrading was isolated from flue-cured tobacco leaves during aging. The results of PCR-DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA segment suggested that the bacterial community Q6 consisted of eight species. A bacterium named Dl was isolated from Q6 and identified as Agrobacterium tumefaciens by means of 16S rDNA sequence identification, morphological analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization. Comparing with bacterium Dl, bacterial community Q6 presented better nicotine degrading activity at low temperature (20 X), pH=5 or pH&9, and high initial nicotine concentration (>1 g/L). The tests of tobacco leaf fermentation and resting cell inoculation showed that both Q6 and Dl were able to degrade nicotine in flue-cured tobacco leaves during aging. Nicotyrine, 2,3'-dipyridyl and cotinine, were detectable in the nicotine metabolites of both Q6 and Dl. The results showed that the microorganisms on tobacco leaf surface might be able to degrade nicotine in tobacco leaves during aging, and further affect the

  1. Effects of Plastic Mulching Film on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco in High Altitude Area%地膜覆盖对高海拔地区烤烟产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德钧; 潘文杰; 熊晶; 马敏伦; 丁福章

    2011-01-01

    为明确威宁烤烟种植地区最佳的地膜使用方法,研究了不覆膜、35d揭膜和全生育期覆膜对烤烟产量和品质的影响.结果表明,35d揭膜和全生育期覆膜均能促进烟株早生快发,提高烟叶产量和产值,以全生育期盖膜处理效果最好,烟叶产量和产值分别较不盖膜处理提高20.9%和48.6%;但35d揭膜处理和全生育期覆膜处理均导致烟碱含量升高、钾含量降低,对烟叶品质不利.%Effect of non mulching, mulching for 35 days, and mulching for whole growing period on yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco was studied to find out the optimal mulching method of plastic mulching film in Weining tobacco growing areas. The results showed that both the treatments of mulching for 35 days and mulching for whole growing period, promoted the germination and growth, and improved the yield and output value, especially mulching for whole growing period was optimal, yield and output value increased 20. 9% and 48. 6% compared with non mulching; However, mulching for 35 days and mulching in whole growing period resulted to higher nicotine content and lower potassium content, both treatments negatively affected the quality of flue-cured tobacco.

  2. 大理烤烟苹果酸含量的空间变异分析%Spatial variability of malic acid content of flue-cured tobacco in Dali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周喜新; 周冀衡; 武德传; 樊在斗; 李文璧; 杨程

    2011-01-01

    采用GPS定位,在云南大理州主要烟区选取100个采样点,分别于2007、2008年采集C3F烤烟样品各100份.将各取样点2年烤烟样品苹果酸含量的平均值作为原始统计数据,对苹果酸含量的原始数据、对数转化和Box-Cox转换后的数据进行正态分布性检验,采用地统计学进行烤烟苹果酸含量的空间趋势和空间变异分析.结果表明:大理烤烟苹果酸含量经对数转换后服从正态分布,在进行普通Kriging插值时宜选择1阶趋势效应和指数理论模型;大理烤烟苹果酸含量具有中等的空间相关性和线性空间趋势效应;大理烤烟苹果酸含量为41.26~124.45 mg/g,平均含量为81.00 mg/g,背景值为65.01~80.00 mg/g,苹果酸含量最高(100.01~123.45 mg/g)的板块分布在南涧县、巍山县和弥渡县;大理州南部烟区烤烟苹果酸含量自南向北呈梯度状由高到低分布.%Dali flue-cured tobacco plays an important role in formula of several core cigarette brands. Malic acid is one of major nonvolatile organic acids of tobacco leaf, and it is one of common aroma additives for high-grade cigarettes, so researchers highly focus on tobacco malic acid. The objective of the study was to investigate spatial distribution of malic acid content of Dali flue-cured tobacco, and to provide references for layout of tobacco planting and using of tobacco leaf. The main tobacco planting areas in Dali were selected as the experiment sites. 200 flue-cured tobacco samples of C3F grade were collected from 100 sites in 2007 and 2008 via global position system (GPS). Malic acid contents of tobacco samples were determined. The mean value of tobacco malic acid content of samples in each site was regarded as the original data. The original data, data obtained after logarithmic transformation and Box-Cox transformation were tested for normal distribution. Surface trend and spatial distribution of tobacco malic acid content were analyzed by geostatistical

  3. Accumulative characteristics of heavy metal for various types of flue cured tobacco%不同烤烟品种富集土壤重金属的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳武; 邓祥; 汤若云; 杨虹琦; 陈颐; 匡传富; 丁志平

    2016-01-01

    To understand accumulative differences of heavy metals among different varieties of flue cured tobacco, field experiment was conducted to measure plumbum( Pb) , cadmiun( Cd) and arsenic( As) concentrations in tobacco leaves at bottom, middle and upper side of stem by single factor randomized block design. Agronomic characteristics were measured to compare potential impact of heavy metal on quality of flue cured tobacco. Results revealed that heavy metal enrichments differed among tobacco varieties. Heavy metal enrichments were relatively higher in Yunyan 87, Yunyan 97, Yueyan97 and K326 than NC71, NC297, CZ43 and Yunyan 99. Varieties which had stronger heavy metal enrichment effect usually had predated foot leaf yellowing, shorter developmental peri-od, and poor agronomic performance especially in vigorous growth period, however, delayed foot leaf yellowing, lengthened develop-mental period, and good term agronomic performance in vigorous growth period occurred in tobacco varieties which were low in heavy metal accumulation.%采用单因素随机区组设计,通过田间试验方法,测定了各个品种农艺性状及烤后不同部位烟叶中的铅、砷和镉的含量。结果表明:不同烤烟品种对重金属的富集作用存在显著差异;云烟87、云烟97、粤烟97和K326品种富集重金属的效应比较强;nc71、nc297、cz43、云烟99品种富集重金属的效应相对比较弱。脚叶落黄较早、大田生育期较短、旺长期农艺性状表现较差的烤烟品种,反而对重金属的富集作用较强;脚叶落黄较慢、大田生育期较长、旺长期农艺性状表现较好的烤烟品种,对重金属的富集作用相对较弱。

  4. 不同纯氮用量对烤烟生长和产质量的影响%Influence of Different Pure Nitrogen Content on the Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco Growth and Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the pure nitrogen consumption in different nitrogen content field on flue-cured tobacco 85. [Method] Drain 85 varieties tested respectively grown in available nitrogen different plot. Test of the single factor randomized was designed, the growth period, and agronomic characters and economic characters, tobacco leaf chemical constituents were observed. [ Result] Through reasonable of nitrogen fertilizer, the growth and development of tobacco plant were promoted and agricultural and economic characters were im proved, excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, led to reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves and sugar content in phloem, ratio of sug ar and nicotin disordered. [ Conclusion ] In the available nitrogen content of soils with high, pure nitrogen 97.5 - 127.5 kg/hm2 improved the quality and total output value of the tobacco plant, when pure nitrogen content reached 157.5 km/hm2,tobacco production value reduced. In available nitrogen content of the soils with low , 127.5 kg/hm2 pure nitrogen, tobacco economic benefit increased.%[目的]研究云烟85在速效氮含量不同的田块的纯氮用量.[方法]将供试品种云烟85分别种植在速效氮不同的地块.采用单因素随机区组设计,对生育期、农艺性状、经济性状、烟叶化学成分进行观察测定.[结果]适量施用氮肥,促进烟株生长发育,改善烟株农艺和经济性状;过量施用氮肥,导致烟叶烟碱含量降低,还原糖含量降低,糖碱比失调.[结论]在速效氮含量高的土壤上,施用纯氮97.5~127.5 kg/hm2,烟叶总量和产值趋于稳定,当纯氮用量达到157.5 kg/hm2时,烟叶产值降低.在速效氮含量低的土壤上施用纯氮127.5 kg/hm2,烟叶增产效果明显.

  5. 密集烤房不同装烟方式对比试验研究%Comparative Test for Different Methods of Loading Tobacco Leaves in Bulk Curing Barn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶志国; 杨占伟; 陈献勇; 王鹏; 郑仕发

    2013-01-01

    为了选出减工增效的装烟方式,对3种不同的装烟方式进行了对比试验.结果表明:与常规的绑竿装烟方式相比,采用散叶、烟夹装烟方式,烤房装烟容量分别增加了57.89%和18.42%,装烤效率分别提高了63.53%、49.02%,卸烤效率分别提高了77.66%、39.30%,烘烤每千克干烟分别节省了能耗成本0.70、0.28元,烘干100 kg鲜烟叶的用时分别减少了0.83、0.27 h;采用烟夹装烟方式的烤后烟的上等烟比例高,散叶方式烤后烟的外观质量较好.%In order to reduce the labor cost and increase the benefit, we compared three different methods of loading tobacco leaves in bulk curing bam. Compared with the traditional leaf - loading method with pole, using loose - leaf method and tobacco -clip method increased bam loading capacity by 57. 89% and 18.42% , respectively, enhanced loading efficiency by 63. 53% and 49.02% , respectively, improved unloading efficiency by 77.66% and 39.30% , separately, saved the energy consumption cost of roasting 1 kg dry tobacco leaf by 0.70 and 0.28 yuan, respectively, and reduced the time for drying 100 kg fresh tobacco leaf by 0.83 and 0.27 h separately. The proportion of high - class tobacco leaf roasted with tobacco - clip leaf - loading method was higher, and the appearance quality of tobacco leaf roasted with the loose - leaf method was better.

  6. Evaluation of Climatic Feasibility to Flue-cured Tobacco Transplanted on Different Dates in Pingdingshan Area and Its Similarity to That in Foreign Tobacco-growing Areas%平顶山烟区不同移栽期下烤烟气候适生性评价及与国外烟区的相似性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐光辉; 孔银亮; 宋瑞芳

    2014-01-01

    分析了平顶山烟区不同移栽期条件下的气候状况,通过定量估算气候适生性指数( CFI),合理评价了烤烟种植的气候适生性,并对该烟区不同移栽期的气候条件与国外优质烟区进行相似性分析,结果表明:(1)移栽期在4月30日之后的大田期温度符合优质烟叶对气温的要求。7个移栽期处理≥10℃・ d的活动积温和大田期日照时数均能满足优质烟叶生长需要。不同移栽期处理伸根期和旺长期降雨量符合优质烤烟对水分的需求,成熟期降雨量偏多。(2)随着移栽期的推迟,气候适生性指数呈先升高后下降的趋势,其中以5月5日的适生性指数最高。(3)平顶山烟区与美国、巴西和津巴布韦的相似距离最小的移栽期分别为:5月5日、5月15日和5月10日。%We analyzed the climatic status during flue -cured tobacco growth in Pingdingshan area , evaluated the climatic fea-sibility to flue-cured tobacco transplanted on different dates in this area through quantitatively estimating climatic feasibility index (CFI), and analyzed the similarity of climatic feasibility in this area to that in foreign high -quality tobacco-growing areas.The results indicated that:(1) The field temperature met the requirements of high -quality tobacco leaf to air temperature when the transplanting date was after April 30th.The active accumulated temperature which was greater than or equal to 10 ℃and the sun-shine duration at field tobacco growth stage in 7 transplanting date treatments all were quite propitious to the growth of fine tobacco leaves.The rainfall at the stages of root elongation and vigorous growth in different treatments conformed to the demands of good -quality flue-cured tobacco to moisture , but the rainfall in mature period was relatively more .( 2 ) As the transplanting date was postponed, CFI increased firstly and then declined , and that in the treatment of transplanting on May

  7. Effects of Different Fertilization Ways on Growth and Development of Early Planting Flue-cured Tobacco%不同施肥方式对早植烟生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辉树光; 彭坚强; 江皓; 杨晓; 马阳红; 秦蔚

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the technical level of early planting tobacco transplanting fertilizer, through the field plot comparative test on three kinds of fertilization methods, as bulking farmyard manure application, banding middle fertilizer, aroundding middle fertilizer. The results showed that layer of fertilization in circulation application could make flue-cured tobacco growth peak in advance, the whole growth stages could extended about 10 d, agronomic characters, economic characters and the control group had significant difference. It had certain guiding significance for promoting the level of tobacco planting.%为提高早植烟移栽施肥技术水平,通过对早植烟移栽时散施农家肥、条施中层肥、环施中层肥3种施肥方式进行大田小区对比试验。结果表明:环施中层肥能使早植烟生长高峰期提前,整个生育周期延长约10 d,农艺性状、经济性状与对照组差异显著,环施中层肥对提升早植烟种植水平有一定指导意义。

  8. Examining physicians’ preparedness for tobacco cessation services in India: Findings from primary care public health facilities in two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA total of 275 million tobacco users live throughout India and are in need of tobacco cessation services. However, the preparation of physicians to deliver this service at primary care health facilities remains unknown.AimsThe study aimed to examine the primary care physicians’ preparedness to deliver tobacco cessation services in two Indian states.MethodResearchers surveyed physicians working in primary care public health facilities, primarily in rural areas using a semistructured interview schedule. Physicians’ preparedness was defined in the study as those possessing knowledge of tobacco cessation methods and exhibiting a positive attitude towards the benefits of tobacco cessation counselling as well as being willing to be part of tobacco prevention or cessation program.ResultsOverall only 17% of physicians demonstrated adequate preparation to provide tobacco cessation services at primary care health facilities in both the States. The findings revealed minimal tobacco cessation training during formal medical education (21.3% and on-the-job training (18.9%. Factors, like sex and age of service provider, type of health facility, location of health facility and number of patients attended by the service provider, failed to show significance during bivariate and regression analysis. Preparedness was significantly predicted by state health system.ConclusionThe study highlights a lack of preparedness of primary care physicians to deliver tobacco cessation services. Both the curriculum in medical school and on-the-job training require an addition of a learning component on tobacco cessation. The addition of this component will enable existing primary care facilities to deliver tobacco cessation services.

  9. Variance Analysis and Integrated Evaluation on Sensory Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco in Tobacco planting Areas of Liaoning Province%辽宁烟区烤烟感官质量的差异分析和综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦敬华; 陈晓波

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to analyze the difference on the sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco in different tobacco planting areas of Liaoning Province. [ Method] With 9 tobacco planting counties as the objects, 86 samples of upper, middle and lower tobacco leaves were collected to make the variance analysis and comprehensive evaluation on the sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco in tobacco-planting areas of Liaoning Province. [ Result] Among the various tobacco planting areas, the comprehensive sensory quality score of upper leaves in Beipi-ao County was the highest, while that in Kaiyuan and Fengcheng counties were relatively lower. The total sensory assessment and comprehensive evaluation score of middle leaves in Beipiao and Kuandian counties were better and the total sensory assessment and usability and comprehensive evaluation score of lower leaves in Xifeng, Changtu, Beipiao and Jianping counties were better. Smoking quality comprehensive evaluation scores of middle leaves showed a same trend among different tobacco planting areas in 2007, 2008 and 2009 and had a increasing trend annually. The average smoking quality scores of middle leaves in all around the province had a little increase with the year. [ Conclusion] On the total, in different tobacco planting areas of Liaoning Province, the sensory quality of the flue-cured tobacco produced in Beipiao County was better and that in Fengcheng County was poor. The smoking quality of middle leaves showed a trend of increasing year by year.%[目的]分析辽宁各烟区烤烟感官质量的差异,为当地烟草生产提供理论依据.[方法]以辽宁省9个植烟县为对象,采集了烟株上、中、下部叶烟叶样品共86个,对辽宁烟区烤烟感官质量进行差异分析和综合评价.[结果]辽宁各烟区烤烟上部叶感官质量综合评价得分以北票最高,开原和凤城的综合评价得分均较低;中部叶以北票和宽甸总体感官评定和综合评价得分表现较好

  10. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2016-01-05

    Purpose . Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. Approach . A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Setting . Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. Participants . No human subjects. Method . Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Results . Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Conclusion . Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  11. Effect of Weak Light Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism of Flue-cured Tobacco%弱光胁迫对云南烤烟碳水化合物代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭振兴; 徐向丽; 徐双红; 易克; 韩定国; 朱毅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed o discuss the effect of weak light stress on the carbohydrate metabolism of Yuannan flue-cured tobaccos during the period from topping to baking. [Method] The flue-cured tobaccos was covered by using the sunshade net with the shading rate of 75% and the effect of weak light stress on the carbohydrate metabolism in the middle and upper leaves of Yuanyan 87. [Result] The weak light stress in the different time reduced the contents of starch, total sugar, reducing sugar and sucrose, but had no significant effect on the contents of glucose and fructose in the upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco; its influence on middle leaves was significant than that on the upper leaves, it reduced the contents of starch, total sugar and reducing sugar, increased the sucrose content, and had no notable effect on the contents of glucose and fructose in the middle leaves. [Conclusion] Under the weak light stress, the contents of starch, total sugar and reducing sugar in the tobacco leaves was decreased obviously. The influence of the weak light stress on the middle leaves was greater than that on the upper leaves, and the influence was enhanced with the prolonging of the stress tine, so in the production it should using the way with the reasonable density could reduce the influence of weak light stress on the flue-cured tobacco.%[目的]探讨弱光胁迫对云南烤烟打项至采烤期间碳水化合物代谢的影响,为云南烤烟提质增效提供理论依据.[方法]利用遮阳网(遮光率75%)对烤烟进行遮盖,研究弱光胁迫对云烟87中部及上部烟叶碳水化合物代谢的影响.[结果]不同时间的弱光胁迫降低了烤烟上部叶中淀粉、总糖、还原糖、蔗糖的含量,对葡萄糖、果糖含量无显著影响;对中部叶影响比上部叶显著,降低了中部烟叶中淀粉、总糖、还原糖的含量,增加了蔗糖含量,对葡萄糖、果糖含量无显著影响.[结论]在弱光胁迫下,烟叶中的淀粉

  12. Effects of Different Irrigation Modes on Internal Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves%不同灌溉方式对初烤烟叶内在品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓龙; 常寿荣; 朱海滨; 郑武; 吕凯; 符秀华; 敖金成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究不同灌溉方式对烤后烟叶化学成分、致香物质含量及感官评吸质量的影响。[方法]采用田间试验,设浇灌和喷灌2个处理。浇灌处理分别在团棵期(5月26日)、旺长期(6月18日)各人工根灌1次,灌水量1 kg/(株·次);喷灌处理在团棵期(5月26日)进行人工根灌1次,灌水量1L/株。[结果]与浇灌方式相比,喷灌处理极显著提高中上部位烟叶主要致香物质,中橘三( C3F)等级烟叶主要致香物质非挥发性有机酸、挥发性有机酸、石油醚提取物、新植二烯、中性致香物质总量分别增加24.4%、32.6%、20.7%、33.8%、26.3%,上橘二(B2F)等级烟叶主要致香物质非挥发性有机酸、挥发性有机酸、石油醚提取物、新植二烯、中性致香物质总量分别增加16.3%、6.0%、6.1%、10.8%、8.1%;极显著降低中上部位烟叶烟碱含量,提高烟气协调性、醇和性及持火力。[结论]烤烟生产中,微喷灌技术是一种改善烤后烟叶内在品质的重要途径,在季节性干旱频繁烟区,烟草微喷灌溉可有效解决烟叶成熟期气候干旱导致烟叶品质下降的问题。%[Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effects of different irrigation modes on chemical constituent and aroma substance contents and sensory quality in flue-cured tobacco leaves. [Method] Field experiments were conduced with two treatments, including watering irrigation and micro-spraying irrigation. In watering irri-gation treatment, flue-cured tobacco seedlings were respectively watered by artificial root irrigation once at rosette stage (May 26) and vigorous growth stage (June 18), 1 kg/plant each time; in micro-spraying treatment, flue-cured tobacco seedlings were watered by artificial root irrigation once at rosette stage (May 26), 1 L/plant. [Result] Compared to watering irrigation mode, micro-spraying irrigation could extremely signif-icantly increase the

  13. Analysis on Chemical Components and Similarity of Flue-cured Tobacco in Panxi%攀西烤烟化学成分状况及相似性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许淑红; 张梦楚; 朱波; 王娓娓; 闫凯龙; 马君红; 叶贤文; 史双双; 于建军

    2013-01-01

    In order to make clear the flue-cured tobacco quality in different areas of Panxi and provide a guidance for industry of cigarette blend of alternative, the chemical components of 87 flue-cured tobacco samples were studied from 17 areas in Panxi by comparative analysis and similarity analysis of of flue-cured tobacco in the region. The result showed that, in Panxi region, the starch, reducing and total sugar content were high. The total nitrogen, nicotine, K+ and Cl- content were low. The ratio of reducing sugar and total sugar was relatively low, and the maturity needed to be upgraded; The quality of tobacco in Renhe, Yanbian, Zhaojue, Miyi, Xichang, Huidong, Yanyuan, Huili, Mianning were similar. The total sugar content, starch content, and sugar nicotine ratio were high and the total nitrogen, nicotine, potassium and ratio of reducing sugar and total sugur were low. The quality of tobacco in Ganluo, Puge, Meigu and Yuexi were similar. In these areas, the total nitrogen, nicotine content were high, but the two sugar content, starch content and sugar alkali ratio were small. The quality of tobacco in Ningnan, Xide, Dechang and Butuo were similar. In these areas, the reducing sugar, potassium content and sugar / nicotine ratio were large.%为明确攀西烟区不同县市烤烟质量状况,以攀西17个县市87个烟叶样品为材料,采用对比分析、相似性分析研究了该区域烤烟化学成分,以期为工业卷烟配方替代性提供指导.结果表明,攀西地区淀粉、还原糖和总糖含量较高,总氮、烟碱含量较低;K+,Cl-含量较低,还原糖/总糖较低,成熟度有待提升;攀西烟区仁和、盐边、昭觉、米易、西昌、会东、盐源、会理、冕宁烟叶质量相近;该区总糖、淀粉含量、糖碱比较高,总氮、烟碱、钾含量及还原糖/总糖较低;甘洛、普格、美姑、越西质量相近,该区总氮、烟碱含量较高,但是还原糖和总糖含量、淀粉含量、糖碱

  14. The tobacco industry's code of advertising in the United States: myth and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, J. W.; Tye, J. B.; Fischer, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The major American tobacco companies developed and agreed to abide by the Cigarette Advertising Code in 1964. The stated aims of the code were to prohibit advertising directed at young people, to prohibit advertising that used fraudulent health claims, and to assure compliance with the code's provisions through the establishment of an administrative arm and enforcement mechanism to prescreen and monitor all cigarette advertising. In the 32 years since the Cigarette Advertising Code's ad...

  15. Interaction of Se and S on uptake of Se by flue-cured tobacco (Nicotina tabacum L.)%硒硫相互作用对烤烟(Nicotina tabacum L.)吸收硒的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马友华; 丁瑞兴; 张继榛; 竺伟民

    2001-01-01

    采用硒硫二因素二次饱和D-最优设计进行烟草盆栽试验。结果表明,烟草各部位硒含量随施硒量的增加而增多,烟草生长前期根部硒含量高于地上部,成熟期烟叶和根部硒含量高于茎部,尤以上二棚烟叶硒含量最高。施硫对烟草硒的吸收和积累量的影响随烟草生育期、生长器官和硒硫浓度不同而异。前期烟草全株及地上部的硒积累量在低硫(<75 μg*g-1)条件下随施硫增加而增多,硒硫表现为协同作用;在高硫(>75 μg*g-1)条件下,烟草硒积累量则随施硫的增加而减少,表现为拮抗作用。不施硒时施硫会降低成熟烟叶硒含量,施硒时成熟烟叶硒含量则随施硫量的增加而增多,前者表现为硒硫拮抗作用,而后者则呈硒硫协同作用。%The Se and S pot experiment with flue-cured tobacco (Nicotina tabacum L.)was carried out using optimum design for two-factorial quadratic saturating D.The results showed that SeO2-3 application raised Se contents in different parts of tobacco.The contents of Se in tobacco roots at early growth were higher than those of Se in stalks and leaves,while the contents of Se in roots and leaves of tobacco at mature were higher than those of Se in stalks.The highest Se concentration appeared in upper leaves of tobacco.The infl uence of SO2-4 on the uptake and accumulation of SeO2-3 by to bacco changed with the growth period,organs of tobacco and the concentrations of added SeO2-3 and SO2-4.The Se accumulated amount of the stalks,leaves and total plant of tobacco at early growth stage raised with increasing of the SO2-4 application at lower S levels(<75 μg*g-1),sho wing the synergism interaction between Se and S;and while at higher S levels( >75 μg*g-1)the Se accumulated amount decreased with increasing of SO2-4,showing the ant agonistic interaction between Se and S.In the absence of added Se,SO2- 4 application reduced Se contents

  16. TOBACCO TIGHTROPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  17. Effect of Fertilization with Rapeseed Meal on Rhizosphere Microorganism Quantity and Community of Flue-cured Tobacco%施用菜籽粕对烤烟根际微生物数量及种群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华; 熊晶; 石俊雄

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of rapeseed meal on community structure of rhizosphere microorganism of flue-cured tobacco, in order to understanding the mechanism of promoting quality of flue-cured tobacco when fertilizing with rapeseed meal. Results showed that treats with rapeseed meal (both rotted and unrotted) promoted the quantities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. And the same treats impacted the quantities of azotobacter, phosphorus bacteria and potassium bacteria in different extent respectively, which does not consistent with the effect on the quantities of bacteria. Unrotted rapeseed meal exhibits selectivity to rihzobactera of flue-cured tobacco, in which the mainly two genera of bacteria isolated were Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Besides, the treat with rotted rapeseed meal improve the diversity characteristics of azotobacter and phosphorus bacteria, while unrotted rapeseed meal not.%为了解菜籽粕能够提高烤烟品质的效用机理,采用盆栽方法研究菜籽粕对烤烟根际微生物群落结构的影响.结果表明,施用腐熟和未腐熟的菜籽对烤烟根际细菌、放线菌及真菌均有促进作用;对自生固氮菌、磷细菌和钾细菌的数量也有一定影响,但与施用菜籽粕对烤烟根际细菌总体数量的影响不完全一致;未腐熟菜籽粕对烤烟根际细菌具有一定的选择作用,从该处理烤烟根际分离到的有益细菌主要为芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)和假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas).另外,腐熟菜籽粕对烤烟根际有益细菌种群多样性有促进作用,而未腐熟菜籽粕则不同.

  18. Analysis of Correlation between Climatic Factors and Conventional Chemical Composition of Flue-cured Tobacco%气候因子与烤烟常规化学成分相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 王勇军; 蔡凤梅

    2014-01-01

    为了明确气候因子与烤烟品质之间的关系,对卢氏县2005~2012年度气象数据与当地烤烟常规化学成分含量数据进行了相关性分析。结果表明:平均气温与中部叶氯元素累积、中部叶钾氯比、下部叶糖碱比显著相关;空气相对湿度与上部叶钾元素累积显著相关,降雨量与上部叶钾、氯元素的累积和中部叶还原糖含量显著相关。在今后的烟叶生产中,可有针对性地调整烤烟的播种时间或是采取其他管理措施,来平衡烟叶中的化学成分含量,提高烟叶品质。%In order to determine the correlation between climatic factors and quality of flue-cured tobacco, a correlation analysis was conducted to the annual climate data in Lushi County from 2005 to 2012 and the conventional chemical composition content of local tobacco. The results showed that average temperature was significantly correlated with chlorine accumulation in middle leaves, ratio of potassium to chloride in middle leaves, and ratio of sugar to alkali in lower leaves; air relative humidity was significantly correlated with potassium accumulation in upper leaves; rainfall was significantly correlated with potassium accumulation and chloride accumulation in upper leaves, and reducing sugar content in middle leaves. In the future tobacco-leaf production, it could adjust sowing time of tobacco or adopting the other managing measures accordingly to balance the contents of chemical compositions in the tobacco leaves in order to improve the quality of tobacco leaves.

  19. 有机种植方式对烟叶产量和内在品质的影响%Effect of Organic Cultivation on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖金成; 赵剑华; 戴勋; 胡保文; 郑武; 张晓龙; 邓国宾

    2012-01-01

    对K326、KRK26、红花大金元3个烤烟品种开展有机和常规种植,研究有机种植方式对烤后烟叶内在品质及工业可用性的影响.结果表明:与常规种植相比,烤烟有机种植产量显著下降(P<0.01),平均减产17.7%,均价平均提高25.6%,上等烟比例平均提高19.2%,中上等烟比例平均提高9.8%,产值变化规律不明显;烟叶总糖(TS)、还原糖(RS)含量极显著增加(P<0.01),烟碱(NIC)、总氮(TN)、钾(K)含量及主要中性致香物质、总致香产物含量显著降低(P<0.05).评吸结果表明,有机烟叶烟气醇和度、燃烧性稍差,香气量略显不足,但烟气舒适性较好,香气质细腻,烟碱含量适中,刺激性较小,其工业可用性整体优于常规烟叶.%Effect of organic cultivation on the quality and commercial value of the flue-cured tobacco varieties, K326, KRK26 and HD, was studied. As compared with the conventional method, the organic cultivation caused significant tobacco yield decline (P<0. 01) with an average reduction of 17.7%. On the other hand, its average market price increased 25. 6%. The proportion of high-grade tobacco increased 19. 2%, the proportion of medium-grade tobacco increased 9. 8%, and the production value was not significantly different. The contents of TS and RS increased significantly (P<0. 01); NIC, TN, K+ , main neutral aroma substances and total aroma substances decreased very significantly (P<0. 01) or significantly (P<0. 05). Sensory evaluation on the tobacco samples indicated that the organic tobacco leaves gave slight more alcoholic scent, slightly lower combustibility, less fragrant but more pleasant and delicate aroma, and less astringent nicotine flavor than its conventional counterpart, suggesting a possible somewhat superior commercial value.

  20. Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn O; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2014-05-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular. Researchers need to understand multiple tobacco product use to assess the effects of these products on population health. We estimate national prevalence and examine risk factors for multiple product use. We calculated prevalence estimates of current use patterns involving cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus using data from the 2012 RTI National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=3627), a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 and over. Associations between use patterns (exclusive single product and multiple products) and demographic characteristics were examined using Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. 32.1% of adults currently use 1 or more tobacco products; 14.9% use cigarettes exclusively, and 6.6% use one noncigarette product exclusively, 6.9% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), 1.3% use two noncigarette products, and 2.4% use three or more products (polytobacco use). Smokers who are young adult, male, never married, reside in the West, and made prior quit attempts were at risk for multiple product use. Over 10% of U.S. adults use multiple tobacco products. A better understanding of multiple product use involving combustible products, like cigars and hookah, is needed. Multiple product use may be associated with past quit attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence between sulfur nutrition boron nutrition and the synthesis of flue-cured tobacco petroleum extract%硫硼营养对烟叶石油醚提取物合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余洁; 陆引罡; 周建云; 肖丽娜

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur nutrition and boron nutrition are closely related with the synthesis of flue-cured tobacco petroleum extract. The experiment was conducted to study the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, phosphatidate phosphatase related to tobacco petroleum extract with sulfur nutrition and boron nutrition and the actual effect of improving the content of petroleum extract. The results indicated that, proper sulfur nutrition and boron nutrition fertilization would help to improve the content of tobacco petroleum extract- When the fertilization with 75 kg/hm2 sulfur nutrition and 3 kg/hm2 boron nutrition, the content of flue-cured tobacco petroleum extract was the highest during different developmental stages, the content of cental foliage petroleum extract after baking was 7. 84% ; The activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, phosphatidate phosphatase were the highest.%硫素和硼素营养对烟叶石油醚提取物的合成起着重要作用.通过田间试验研究硫素、硼素营养对与烟叶石油醚提取物合成有关的6-磷酸葡萄糖脱氢酶、异柠檬酸裂解酶、磷脂酸磷酸酯酶活性的影响及提高石油醚提取物含量的实际效果.试验结果表明,适量的硫、硼营养配合施用对于提高烟叶中石油醚提取物含量有一定的促进作用,当硫素和硼素分别为75、3 kg/hm2时,烤烟不同生育期石油醚提取物含量最高,烘烤后烟叶中部叶石油醚提取物含量为7.84%;6-磷酸葡萄糖脱氢酶、异柠檬酸裂解酶、磷脂酸磷酸酯酶的活性最强.

  2. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Čavlek, M.; Boić, M.; Kristina Gršić; V. Kozumplik

    2008-01-01

    Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11%) and, energy for bulk-curing (89%)....

  3. Influence of Multivalent Vaccines Against Tobacco Virus Disease on Flue-cured Tobacco Plant Traits%多价抗烟草病毒病疫苗对烤烟植物性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洪彰; 刘西金; 曹光辉; 王伟; 岳秀峰; 孙昌友; 李峰; 魏代福; 裴军; 王文杰; 刘文涛

    2016-01-01

    For the situation that tobacco virus disease affected tobacco plant traits and production,set up different virus disease vaccine and control group sprayed tobacco seedlings,to explore the prevention effect of weak poison vaccine on tobacco virus disease, through the selection of terrain height consistent, balanced soil fertile, plot contiguous, surrounding crop not multifarious, plot size consistent conduct comparison test,excluded the interference of external factors, investigated and analyzed the disease in the resettling stage,prosperous stage,flat period,to conclud the effects of weak tobacco virus vaccine on tobacco disease resistance.The results showed that the control effect of TVBMV-TCP treatment was the best,could effectively reduce the occurrence of virus disease,promote tobacco normal growth,tobacco plant traits were the best,PVX-PT treatment was superior to the control, comprehensive evaluation concluded that tobacco plant spraying polyvalent virus vaccine grew well, with strong disease resistance and good plant traits.%针对烟草病毒病影响影响烟叶植物性状和产量的实际,设置不同病毒病疫苗与对照组对烟草幼苗进行喷施,探索弱毒疫苗对烟草病毒病的防治效果,通过选取地势高低一致、土质肥沃程度均衡、地块连片、周边作物不繁杂、地块大小一致的烟田进行对比试验,排除外界因素的干扰,分别在团棵期、旺长期、平顶期进行病害调查分析,得出烟草弱病毒疫苗对烟草抗病性的影响。结果表明:TVBMV-TCP处理的防治效果最好,能够有效降低病毒病的发生,促进烟叶正常生长,植物性状最好。PVX-PT处理优于对照处理。综合评价喷施多价抗病毒病疫苗的烟株大田长势良好,抗病性较强,植物性状表现优良。

  4. 不同香型烤烟CO2膨胀前后品质的比较研究%Research on Quality of Different Odor Type Flue-Cured Tobacco before and after CO2 Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范自众

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] To compare the quality of different odor type flue-cured tobacco before and after CO2 expansion. [ Method ] Three main odor type tobacco C02 expansion test were carried out to compare the physical properties, chemical composition, flue gas index and inner quality. [Results] The results showed that: after CO2 expansion, the clear scent tobacco' s reducing sugar, volatile acid, tar and nicotine content average dropped most significantly, sweet permanent, aroma quantity and degree improved or maintained the best; the average change of strong flavor tobacco' s expansion effect was most obvious, total sugar, total nitrogen content average changing was the biggest, the mixed gas, pungent, permeability and concentration of improving or maintaining were the best; intermediate scent tobacco' s total vegetable base, chlorine and protein content average changed obviously, weight, puffs, TPM and CO four index dropped most, sweetness, aftertaste index had a better promotion. [ Conclusion ] The effects of expansion on qualities of various odor type tobacco were different, flue-cured tobacco odor has a certain correlation with CO2 expansion.%[目的]比较不同香型烤烟CO2膨胀前后品质变化.[方法]开展了3种主要香型烟叶CO2膨胀试验,对各样品烟丝膨胀前后的物理性能、化学成分、烟气指标和内在质量进行检测分析.[结果]清香型烟叶经过CO2膨胀,还原糖、挥发酸、焦油和烟碱含量平均降幅最大,香气质、香气量和柔细度改善或保持最佳;浓香型烟叶的平均膨胀效果最明显,总糖、总氮含量平均变化最大,杂气、刺激性、透发性和浓度改善或保持最佳;中间香型烟叶CO2膨胀后总植物碱、氯和蛋白质含量平均变化明显,重量、口数、总粒相物以及CO 4项指标降幅最大,甜度、余味指标有更好提升.[结论]不同香型烤烟各项理化、感官指标受膨胀影响程度有所差别,烤烟香型与CO2膨胀具有一定的关联性.

  5. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Combined with Soil Conditioner on Growth and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco%氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文汇; 司贤宗; 毛家伟; 杨立均; 徐敏; 张翔

    2014-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner on agronomic characters, leaf SPAD value,yield,output value and proportion of superior tobacco leaves were studied by field split-plot randomized block design experiment,so as to provide theoretical and technical basis for soil improvement and reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer.Results showed that,plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate;the application of soil conditioner could increase plant height,stem girth,leaf number and leaf area of flue-cured tobacco.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,leaf SPAD values increased at vigorous growth stage,and first increased and then decreased at resettling stage and round top stage;the application of soil conditioner could decrease leaf SPAD values.With the increase of nitrogen application rate,tobacco leaf yield and output value increased,average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves both first increased and then decreased with the peak value at nitrogen application rate of 45·0 kg/ha,67·5 kg/ha, respectively;the application of soil conditioner could increased yield and output value,but when the nitrogen application rate was greater than or equal to 67·5 kg/ha,the application of soil conditioner decreased the average price and proportion of superior tobacco leaves.Overall,the application of nitrogen fertilizer combined with soil conditioner could promote the growth of tabacco,and increase the yield of tobacco.%通过裂区随机区组设计田间试验,研究了氮肥与土壤改良剂配施对烤烟农艺性状、叶片SPAD 值、产量、产值、上等烟比例的影响,以期为烟区土壤改良、合理施用氮肥提供理论和技术依据。结果表明,随着施氮量增加,烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积均增加;土壤改良剂能促进烤烟株高、茎围、叶片数、叶面积增加。随着

  6. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds’ Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds’ marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February–July 2011 and April–August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  7. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  8. Nitrogen Uptake of Flue-Cured Tobacco in Typical Types of Soil in Southwest China%我国西南烟区典型植烟土壤烤烟氮素的吸收规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青丽; 陈阜; 张云贵; 李志宏; 焦永鸽; 谷海红

    2013-01-01

      通采用15N同位素示踪方法,研究我国西南烟区典型红壤、黄壤、水稻土烤烟的氮素吸收规律.结果表明,烤烟氮素的累积与烟叶产量显著正相关,西南烟区烤烟氮适宜需求量为60~100 kg hm–2.不同土壤类型上种植的烤烟,其氮吸收差异显著,云南红壤烤烟生长前期的氮素吸收速率最高,其次是水稻土烤烟,黄壤烤烟最低;相应氮素吸收高峰分别在移栽后7、9和11周.烤烟中总氮、土壤氮、肥料氮的吸收速率均呈单峰曲线变化,且肥料氮的吸收高峰早于土壤氮;烤烟进入旺长期以后,土壤氮的吸收速率逐渐高于肥料氮,转入以吸收土壤氮为主.西南烟区烤烟打顶前土壤氮的累积比例为59.8%,肥料氮为72.1%,不同土壤类型烤烟打顶前氮素累积比例差异显著,红壤、黄壤、水稻土烤烟分别为87.8%、47.3%和49.2%.因此,根据不同土壤类型烤烟氮素吸收动态,在适宜的氮素需求量下,应以烤烟打顶前氮素需求量和土壤氮素供应量来计算烤烟氮肥需求量.%The aims of this study were to ascertain the difference of nitrogen uptake and verify the absorption law of the nitrogen from soil and fertilizer for tobacco grown in southwest China with red soil, yellow soil, and paddy soil by 15N tracer. The results showed a significant positive correlation between N accumulation amount and yield in flue-cured tobacco, and a suitable nitrogen demand of 60–100 kg ha–1 for tobacco in southwest zone. Absorption dynamics of nitrogen were different for flue-cured tobacco planted in various types of soil. For rate of nitrogen absorption before topping, the highest was for the tobacco planted in red soil, followed by that in paddy soil and the lowest was for that in yellow soil. N uptake peaks of tobacco planted in red soil, paddy soil and yellow soil were peaked in 7 weeks, 9 weeks, and 11 weeks after transplanting respectively. The

  9. Nicotine Concentration in Leaves of Flue-cured Tobacco Plants as Affected by Removal of the Shoot Apex and Lateral Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Sheng Wang; Qiu-Mei Shi; Wen-Qing Li; Jun-Fang Niu; Chun-Jian Li; Fu-Suo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the nicotine concentration in tobacco is closely correlated with the amount of nitrogen (N) supplied.On the other hand,N uptake mainly occurs at the early growth stage,whereas nicotine concentration increases at the late growth stage,especially after removing the shoot apex.To identify the causes of the increased nicotine concentration in tobacco plants,and to compare the effects of different ways of mechanical wounding on nicotine concentration,field experiments were carried out in Fuzhou,Fujian Province in 2003 and 2004.Excision of the shoot apex had almost no influence on N content in the plant;however,it caused dramatic increases in nicotine concentration in leaves,especially in the middle and upper leaves.An additional increase of the nicotine concentration was obtained by removal of axillary buds.The wounding caused by routine leaf harvests,however,did not change the leaf nicotine concentration,and neither did reducing leaf harvest times.The present results revealed no direct relationship between N supply and nicotine concentration in tobacco leaves,and indicate that not all kinds of mechanical wounding were capable of stimulating nicotine synthesis in tobacco plants.Since nicotine production is highly dependent on the removal of apical meristems and hence on the major sources of auxin in the plant,and application of 1-naphthylacetic acid onto the cut surface of the stem after removing the shoot apex markedly decreased the nicotine concentration in different leaves and the total nicotine content in the plant,the results suggest that decreased auxin supply caused by removal of the shoot apex as a kind of mechanical wounding might regulate nicotine synthesis in the roots of tobacco plants.

  10. State legislators' intentions to vote and subsequent votes on tobacco control legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, B S; Dana, G S; Goldstein, A O; Bauman, K E; Cohen, J E; Gottlieb, N H; Solomon, L J; Munger, M C

    1997-07-01

    The predictive validity of state legislators' behavioral intentions in relation to their votes on tobacco control legislation was assessed by using the theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1991). Intentions to vote for cigarette tax increases were measured through interviews in the summer of 1994. A bill containing cigarette tax increases was considered about 8 months later. Votes were compared with intentions and were found to be consistent for 78% of these legislators (N = 120). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed a strong independent relationship between intentions and voting and a similar effect of political party; results suggested but did not confirm that votes were predicted by interactions between intentions and perceived control. Legislator surveys that use this conceptual model can provide results relevant to understanding tobacco policy development.

  11. Agronomic Attributes and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flue-cured Tobacco with Guizhou Characteristics%贵州特色烤烟农艺性状与光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武圣江; 赵会纳; 王松峰; 邹焱; 卢贤仁; 潘文杰; 谢已书; 涂永高

    2014-01-01

    In order to further understand the growth characteristics of Guizhou flue-cured tobacco, the difference of agronomic attributes and photosynthetic characteristics in different growth stages (35, 70, 105 d after transplanting) with K326, Bina 1, Guiyan 1, Guiyan 2 and organic tobacco K326 as material were studied. The result showed that Guiyan 2 had better agronomic attributes in field growth stage, and dry weight was 349.46 g/plant on 105 d after transplanting, and Bina 1 was 323.59 g/plant. Photosynthetic characteristic parameters of Guiyan 2 were the best, which could be used as potential material for variety breeding, then the next were K326 and Guiyan 1. The chlorophyll content of K326 on 35 d and 70 d was 35.72 and 46.75, while Bina 1 was 47.32 on 70 d after transplanting. Both agronomic attributes and photosynthetic characteristics of organic tobacco K326 were worse. However, they were easy to cured. Agronomic attributes and photosynthetic characteristics and the content of chlorophyll were good judgment indices for guiding tobacco production, meanwhile they had a close relationship with variety breeding, curing characteristic and tobacco quality.%为了进一步了解贵州特色烤烟生长特性,以K326、毕纳1号、贵烟1号、贵烟2号和K326有机烟为材料,研究了不同烤烟大田生育期(35、70、105 d)烟株农艺性状和光合特征的差异。结果表明,大田生长期贵烟2号农艺性状较好,移栽后105 d干质量为349.46 g/株,其次是毕纳1号(323.59 g/株);贵烟2号光合特性最好,可作为品种选育的良好材料,其次是K326和贵烟1号;K326移栽后35 d和70 d的SPAD值(35.72、46.75)均较大,毕纳1号移栽后75 d值最大(47.32);无论是农艺性状指标,还是光合特性参数,K326有机烟均较差,但其易烤性较好。农艺性状、光合特性及色素含量与品种选育、烘烤特性及烟叶品质密切相关,可作为判断指标指导烤烟生产。

  12. Effects of Soil Conditioner on Tobacco Soil and Flue-cured Tobacco Quality%土壤调理剂对植烟土壤和烤烟质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 李进平; 饶雄飞; 何波; 陈振国

    2012-01-01

    [目的]应用“免深耕”土壤调理剂,为烟株根系生长创造良好的外部环境条件,以达到提高烟叶质量的目的.[方法]在田间设置4个处理,测定土壤的田间持水量、土壤容重,计算土壤总孔隙度,同时测定烟叶叶绿素的合成效率、经济性状、质量性状.[结果]施用“免深耕”土壤调理剂对改善烟田土壤物理性状有较明显的效果,团粒结构得到改善,透气性增强;对烟叶农艺性状有较大的影响,通过改善根际营养状况和发育环境,促进烟株的生长发育,以处理B(起垄前在田块表面喷施+垄体喷施)效果最佳;对提高烟叶的产量和质量均具有明显的促进作用,以处理B最佳,处理A(喷施一次调理剂在垄体)次之;对烟叶感官质量影响较大,各处理明显优于对照,其中以处理A最好,处理B次之.[结论]“免深耕”土壤调理剂的应用可以改善烟田土壤物理性状,促进烟株的生长发育,提高烟叶产质量.%[ Objective ] In order to improve the quality of the tobacco, a favorable external environment conditions for the root growth of the tobacco were created using Mianshengeng soil conditioning agent. [Method] Four treatments were set in the field test. Soil field capacity, soil bulk density were measured and the total soil porosity was calculated. Tobacco leaf chlorophyll synthesis efficiency, economic traits, and quality traits were determined. [ Result ] Soil physical properties, granular structure and permeability in tobacco fields were improved obviously applying Mianshengeng soil conditioner. Tobacco agronomic traits were influenced significantly. By improving the nutritional status of the rhizo-sphere and development environment, the growth and the development of the tobacco plant were promoted. Treatment B (ridging plots surface before spraying + the ridge body spraying) had the best effect followed by treatment A ( spTaying a conditioning agent ridges). Chemical composition

  13. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  14. Factors associated with serological cure and the serofast state of HIV-negative patients with primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Li Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some syphilis patients remain in a serologically active state after the recommended therapy. We currently know too little about the characteristics of this serological response. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using the clinical database from Zhongshan Hospital, Medical College of Xiamen. In total, 1,327 HIV-negative patients with primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis were enrolled. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were utilised to identify factors associated with a serological cure and serofast state in syphilis patients one year after therapy. Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences in the serological cure rate across different therapy time points. RESULTS: One year after the recommended therapy, 870 patients achieved a serological cure, and 457 patients (34.4% remained in the serofast state. The serological cure rate increased only within the first 6 months. The bivariate analysis indicated that male or younger patients had a higher likelihood of a serological cure than female or older patients. Having a baseline titre ≤ 1∶2 or ≥ 1∶64 was associated with an increased likelihood of a serological cure. The serological cure rate decreased for the different disease stages in the order of primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis. A distinction should be drawn between early and late syphilis. The multivariate analysis indicated that a serological cure was significantly associated with the disease phase, gender, age, and baseline rapid plasma reagin (RPR titre. CONCLUSIONS: The serofast state is common in clinical work. After one year of the recommended therapy, quite a few syphilis patients remained RPR positive. The primary endpoint of the study indicated that disease phase, gender, age and baseline RPR titre were crucial factors associated with a serological cure.

  15. 烤烟品种间烟叶化学成分含量对海拔高度的响应%Different Response of Chemical Substances to Altitude in Leaves of Different Flue-cured Tobacco Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军营; 方敦煌; 宋春满; 李向阳; 逄涛; 邓建华; 刘腾飞

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨品种间烤烟化学成分与海拔高度的相关性,在云南不同海拔( 706 ~ 2356m)植烟区采集182个烤烟中部烟叶样品,品种涉及云烟87、云烟85、K326和红大,检测了样品中的34种化学成分,通过相关分析和聚类分析,比较了化学成分及其与海拔高度相关性在品种间的差异.结果表明,4个品种中红大可溶性糖类和有机酸类含量最低,总氮、烟碱、质体色素和多酚类物质含量最高,明显区别于其他3个品种.相关分析表明,K326中总耱、总氮、烟碱、石油醚提取物等指标与海拔高度的相关性明显不同于其他3个品种,类似的结果也体现在丙二酸、丁二酸和亚油酸、β-胡萝卜素、单双糖含量等指标.因此,烟叶的化学成分及其随海拔高度的变化情况存在着较大的品种差异.%In order to study the correlation between contents of chemical substances and altitude, 182 of flue-cured tobacco cutter leaf samples were collected from different altitudes in Yunnan. The sampling altitude ranged from 706 m to 2356 m and the tobacco cultivars included Yunyan87, Yunyan85, K326 and Honghuadajinyuan (HD). The main chemical substances and aroma precursors such as organic acids, polyphenols, were detected in these samples. The difference in chemical substance contents and their correlation with altitude were studied through correlation and cluster analysis. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugars, organic acid in HD were the lowest in four tobacco cultivars, while total nitrogen, nicotine, plastid pigments and polyphenols were the highest. The correlations between contents of total sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine and petroleum ether extracts and altitude in K326 were different from the other three tobacco cultivars. The same results were found in the correlation between organic acids (malonic acid, succinic acid, linoleic acid), plastid pigments (beta renieratene), monosaccharide and disaccharide and

  16. Effects of Girdling on Physical Characters and Smoking Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves%截流对烟叶物理性状和吸食品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春元

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve cultivation practices and promote leaf quality, the stalk of tobacco plant was girdled after topping. The results showed that the girdling affected physical characters and smoking quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves greatly. The maturity of upper and middle leaves increased, the proportion of light yellow middle leaves was reduced, the proportion of orange upper and middle leaves, aroma quantity and quality were raised, the taste and intrinsic quality of leaves were obviously improved by girdling.%为改进栽培措施、提高烟叶品质,对打顶后的烤烟茎进行截流(环割)处理.结果表明,截流对初烤烟叶物理性状和吸食品质有重要影响.截流可提高中上部烟叶的成熟度,降低中部淡黄烟比率,增加中上部桔黄烟的比率及香气质和香气量,明显改善吃味,提高烟叶的内在品质.

  17. Study on Nitrogen Absorption and Distribution Patterns in Flue-cured Tobacco by 15N Trace%15N示踪探究烤烟氮素吸收分配规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜庆; 林开创; 王旭峰; 王林芝; 时向东

    2013-01-01

    通过大田试验,利用15N示踪研究了烤烟大田各生育期对肥料氮的吸收分配规律.结果显示:烟株偏向吸收硝态氮,且吸收的硝态氮主要分布在叶片和茎中;烟株吸收的追肥氮占吸收肥料氮的比例随生育期的推进而不断增加;成熟叶片中肥料氮占总氮的比例不足两成,且随叶位上升而不断下降.%Nitrogen absorption and distribution patterns in flue - cured tobacco at different growth stages were studied through 15N - labelled field experiment. The results showed that the tobacco plants absorbed more nitrate nitrogen than ammonium nitrogen, and the absorbed nitrate nitrogen was mainly accumulated in leaves and stems. The ratio of the absorbed top dressing nitrogen to the absorbed total nitrogen fertilizer gradually increased with the advance of growth period. The ratio of nitrogen fertilizer to total nitrogen in mature leaves was less than 20% , and it continued to decline with the rising of leaf position.

  18. 不同生长期烤烟各器官C、N、P生态化学计量学特征%C, N, P stoichiometry traits of different flue-cured tobacco organs at different growth stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 王昌全; 袁大刚; 李启权; 曾建; 罗茜; 兰兴梅; 唐杰

    2015-01-01

    -pathogen interactions, symbiosis, comparative ecosystem analysis and consumer-driven nutrient cycle. The research on plant C, N, P stoichiometry traits has immensely contributed to the understanding of the allocation of C, N and P contents in different plant organs and the determination of correlations between the theories of GRH and homeostasis. Flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is one of the most important economic crops in China. The main planting areas of flue-cured tobacco cover seven provinces, including Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province and Guizhou Province. The study of stoichiometric characteristics of different flue-cured tobacco organs (leaf, stem and root) is highly significance in understanding the mechanisms of growth and nutrient utilization of flue-cured tobacco. In a field experiment in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan Province, three tobacco varieties (‘Yunyan 87’,‘Chuanyan 1’ and‘KRK26’) were used to determine C, N and P contents and stoichiometry traits of different organs of tobacco varieties at different growth stages. It was found that: 1) above-ground biomass increased gradually and reached maximum at maturity stage. The specific growth rate of tobacco decreased initially and then increased and again decreased gradually, reaching maximum value at vigorous growth stage. Also the C︰N, C︰P and N︰P ratios increased significantly at vigorous growth stage. These results were not consistent with the theory of GRH, according to which the higher growth rates of plant corresponded to lower C︰N, C︰P and N︰P ratios. 2) C content of tobacco increased initially and then decreased, reaching highest values at vigorous growth stage. Also N and P contents continuously decreased from root elongation stage to maturity stage. The ratios of C︰N and C︰P of root and leaf increased gradually during the entire growth period while C︰N ratio of stem decreased gradually throughout the growth period. The overall trend in stem increased initially before

  19. Influence of Foliar Fertilizer-spraying on Growth and Development of Flue -cured Tobacco Yield and Quality%喷洒叶面肥对烤烟生长发育及产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锡春; 刘典三; 林小菲; 肖先仪; 杨庆根

    2016-01-01

    of middle and top level tobacco leaf.The foliar fertilizer-spraying greatly affected the chemical composition in different position of leaf growth and the concentrations of 0.2% foliar fertilizer could promoted the quality of tobacco leaf based on the integrated evaluation of smoking testing of top, middle and low position leaves.[Conclusion] In general, it was more appropriate to spray the foliar fertilizer with the concentration of 0.3% in flue-cured tobac-co seedling stage and 0.2%, in field stage.

  20. 氮肥基追比对烤烟生长及产量和品质的影响%Effects of Top-dressing to Basal Ntrogen on Growth Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 符云鹏; 张常兴; 禹宗汉; 石栓成; 翟文汇; 温玉转

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同氮肥基追比对烤烟生长发育、物理特性、化学成分、烟叶产量和品质的影响.结果表明,基肥占60%、追肥占40%,且追肥在移栽后30 d追施(T2处理)能提高烟叶的产量和改善烟叶的品质,与全部作基肥(T1处理)、基肥占40%和追肥占60%(T3处理)相比,烟叶的产量分别增加5.59%、2.21%,中上等烟比例分别增加4.89%、7.54%,且各处理间差异显著;其均价、产值也有不同程度的增加;烟叶化学成分的比例更为协调,感官质量总分显著高于其他处理.%Under cropland conditions ,the impacts of top-dressing to basal nitrogen fertilizer used on the flue-cured tobacco's quality was analyzed.The results showed that the base fertilizer or top dressing account for 60% and 40% apply top dressing in 30 days after transplanting can improve the volume of production and change the quality of tobacco leaves.Compared with totally for base fertilizer or base fertilizer accounts for 40 % and 60% topdressing,the production of tobacco,the proportion of medium and good,average price and output are increased in different degrees, the proportion of chemical components are more coordinated, the quality of appearance are more welldistributed and internal quality are more consummate.

  1. 《烟草调制学》课程教学策略改革探讨%Study on Reform of Teaching Strategy of Tobacco Curing Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺帆; 宋朝鹏; 景延秋; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    The problems of teaching under the current teaching model and reform of strategy about curriculum textbook, curriculum teaching, practical teaching and testing mode were studied in order to provide guidance for the tobacco professional education and adapting to the development of tobacco disciplines, under the enrollment expansion of students of tobacco professional in higher agricultural universities and the increasing gap between the professional skill and market demand.%在我国各高等农业院校烟草专业大规模扩招,而专业技能的学习与市场需求的差距导致就业压力不断增加的情况下,对烟草调制学现行教学模式下产生的问题以及课程教材、课程教学、实践教学和考核方式改革策略进行了探讨,以期为我国烟草专业人才教育更好地适应未来烟草学科的发展提供指导.

  2. Using the chronic care model to address tobacco in health care delivery organizations: a pilot experience in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Schauer, Gillian; Zbikowski, Susan; Thompson, Juliet

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a Washington State-based Systems Change Pilot Project in which the chronic care model and the model for improvement were used as tools to promote tobacco cessation-related changes within a health care system. Three diverse sites participated in the pilot. Site teams tailored plan-do-study-act tests to site circumstances, addressing current resources and barriers to implementing change. Teams tested system changes that incorporated tobacco use documentation into the routine health services provided. Findings from this pilot suggest that (a) even simple changes with minimal disruption of services can make a difference in improving documentation of tobacco use status; (b) changes to routine practices of health organizations may not be sustainable if ongoing quality assurance mechanisms are not developed; and (c) systems implemented for other disease states within the same organization or patient population are not instinctively applied to tobacco, because of a multitude of factors.

  3. 海拔高度对陆良烤烟物理特性和化学品质的影响%Effect of Altitude on Physical Properties and Chemical Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco in Luliang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方舟; 李志伟; 周冀衡; 张涛; 王瑞宝; 罗维; 李强

    2016-01-01

    为了研究云南烟区海拔高度对烤烟品质的影响,采用定位种植、取样的方法,研究了不同海拔陆良烟区烤烟的基本理化性质。结果表明:1900~2000 m海拔区间上部叶和下部叶氯含量最低,中部叶氯含量适中,氮碱比中部叶最低,上部叶和下部叶氮碱比含量适中,糖碱比为上部叶最低,中部叶和下部叶糖碱比含量适中;2000~2100 m海拔区间的总糖、还原糖含量最高,但1900~2000 m海拔区间的总糖、还原糖含量最低,并呈现出随海拔的上升总糖、还原糖逐渐递增的趋势。在陆良县1800 m以上的海拔条件下,海拔高度与氮、烟碱、钾呈负相关关系,与还原糖、总糖呈正相关关系。%In order to study the effect of altitude on the quality of lfue cured tobacco in Yunnan tobacco growing area, the basic physical and chemical properties of flue-cured tobacco in different altitudes were studied by using the method of location and sampling. The results showed that 1 900-2 000 m altitude range upper leaves and lower leaves chlorine content lowest, middle leaf chloride content was moderate, nitrogen base than middle leaves lowest upper leaves and lower leaf nitrogen to nicotine than moderate content, sugar, alkali ratio of upper leaves lowest middle leaves and lower leaves of sugar to nicotine than moderate content; 2 000-2 100 m elevation range of total sugar, reducing sugar content was the highest, but 1 900-2 000 m altitude range of total sugar, reducing sugar content lowest, and presented with the altitude increasing total sugar, reducing sugar gradually increasing trend. In Luliang County 1 800 m above the altitude and elevation was negatively correlated with the consent of nitrogen,nicotine and potassium, but there was positive correlation with the consent of sugar and total sugar.

  4. State of art an Overview on the Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength of Concrete in different Curing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Allen Paul Edson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concrete is made of different ingredients such as cement, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate but it is a homogeneous material when it is in a harden concrete. The strength of concrete decides the life span of any concrete structure. The factors which affect the strength of concrete are the type of material used, size of aggregate, water cement ratio, improper compaction and improper curing. Curing is one of the major factors in the failure of concrete. Curing is defined as the process of promoting the hydration of cement. The grade used in the manufacture of concrete may be M20, M30 grade. This paper deals with the overview on the tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete when the concrete is exposed to various curing methods such as Water curing (Ponding and Immersion, Air Curing (Dry air curing, and plastic film curing at 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 56 days. It is studied that the tensile and flexural strength of concrete during immersion method is high when compared with Air curing and plastic film curing. It is found that the water curing is the most effective method of curing with the maximum of 10% increase in tensile strength and 15% increase in flexural strength of concrete when compared with other curing methods. On comparison with self compacting concrete (SCC and Normal cement concrete (NCC under different curing methods the tensile strength and flexural strength of SCC is high than NCC.

  5. Experimentation and use of cigarette and other tobacco products among adolescents in the Brazilian state capitals (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence establishes itself more rapidly among adolescents than among adults. Tobacco occupies the fourth place in the rank of main risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the continent. Studies reveal that other forms of tobacco use have increased among adolescents. METHODS: Were included the 9th grade students from the 26 State Capitals and the Federal District. who were participants of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), in 2012. ...

  6. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-06-12

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. 土壤水势对烤烟生长及其耗水特性的影响%The Effects of Soil Water Potential on the Growth and Water Consumption of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖海强; 刘学勇; 龙怀玉; 杨虹琦; 赵百东; 管恩森; 王大海; 岳现录

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of soil water potential on the growth, water consumption characteristics, dry matter accumulation and distribution, water use efficiency (WUE) of flue-cured tobacco was studied. With 3 levels of soil water potential maintained by using a negative pressure irrigation device, pot experiments in situ field were carried out. The results showed that, the botanic traits of tobacco was well when soil water potential was in the range of-20~-10 kPa; Water consumption, water consumption intensity, total dry matter accumulation (DMA) and the ratio of leaf dry weight decreased when soil water potential increased, while water consumption modulus of different growth periods changed little with changed soil water potential;WUE increased when soil water potential decreased, and increased as the periods of flue-cured tobacco growing in the same soil water potential. For efficient utilization of irrigation water, different soil water potential should be maintained in the different growth periods, the suitable soil water potential for flue-cured tobacco at various growth stages as follows:the range of-30~-20 kPa at root stretch stage, about-10 kPa at fast growing stage, and about-20 kPa at mature stage.%为筛选负压灌溉条件下烤烟适宜的土壤水势,于2012年在山东诸城市利用负压灌溉装置设置了3个不同的土壤水势,在田间原位盆栽条件下考察了土壤水势对烤烟生长、耗水特征、干物质积累与分配、水分利用效率(WUE)的影响。结果表明,在负压灌溉条件下,土壤水势维持在-20~-10 kPa范围内,能使烤烟植物学性状生长优良;烟株耗水量、耗水强度、干物质积累总量(DAM)及叶干重比例均随土壤水势增大而增加,但各生育期的耗水模数与灌溉方式无关;WUE随土壤水势降低而增大,在同一土壤水势条件下随生育期推移而增加。从潜在产量和水资源高效利用等角度综合分析,提出基

  8. Study on effect of flue-cured tobacco nicotine accumulation and distribution in fermented soybean cake%大豆饼肥对烤烟烟碱积累和含量影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 张吉立; 彭友; 李洋; 叶义; 张云贵

    2012-01-01

    To determine the ermented soybean cake best use ratio in Heilongjiang tobacco chernozem, the test studied flue-cured tobacco effect of flue-cured tobacco nicotine accumulation and distribution in ermented soybean cake in different uses proportion. The test with random block design in the field, three treatments were applied for the pure inorganic fertilizer, 50% of the ermented soybean cake and 50% inorganic fertilizer application, 100% use ermented soybean cake, repeat 3 times. The results showed that: Flue-cured tobacco total nicotine accumulation with growth period delay became increasing and when harvest that 3 treatment accumulation respectively 89. 80 kg · hm -2, 92. 22 kg · hm-2, 117. 49 kg · hm -2, between 50% fermented soybean cake treatment and control have no significant difference and 100% fermented soybean cake treatment have significant difference with the control; 100% fermented soybean cake treatment stem, lower leaves, middle leaves nicotine content was significantly higher than the control, 50% fermented soybean cake treatment all organs nicotine content with the control were not significantly different; Smoking results showed that 50% fermented soybean cake treatment was highest score that was 31. 50 points, control the lowest was 29. 00 points. Comprehensive analysis that fermented soybean cake used ratio in 50% ~ 100% was appropriate in Heilongjiang smoke area.%为了确定黑龙江省黑钙土烟区大豆饼肥的最佳施用比例,试验研究不同大豆饼肥使用比例对烤烟烟碱积累以及分配的影响,从而为大豆饼肥的合理施用提供参考依据.采用田间小区试验,设3个处理,分别为纯施无机化肥(对照)、50%大豆饼肥与50%无机化肥混合施用、100%施用大豆饼肥,3次重复.结果表明:烤烟烟碱总积累量随生育期延后逐渐增加,收获时3个处理积累量分别达到89.80、92.22、117.49kg ·hm-2,50%比例大豆饼肥处理与对照之间无显著差异,100%饼肥

  9. Effect of Pythium oligandrum broth on growth promotion and black shank control of flue-cured tobacco%寡雄腐霉发酵液对烤烟的促生及防黑胫病效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞莲; 耿明明; 李艳; 段玉琪; 杜如万; 吴叶宽; 黄建国

    2016-01-01

    为了研制高效、无毒、成本低廉的生物农药,安全有效地防治烟草黑胫病,利用自主分离的寡雄腐霉生防菌株(Pythium oligandrum CQ2010)制备发酵液(Pythium oligandrum broth,POB),通过拮抗、盆栽和田间试验研究了POB对烤烟生长和黑胫病的防治效果,以及对小鼠的急性毒性.拮抗试验表明,POB能显著抑制离体烟草黑胫病菌的菌丝生长和孢子萌发.在盆栽试验中,POB能显著提高烟草叶片叶绿素含量(质量分数),增强烟株根系活力,增加烤烟对氮、磷、钾的吸收,促进烟苗生长,生物量比对照提高58.91%,效果优于寡雄腐霉卵孢子制剂.POB还能激活烟草叶片中与抗病性相关酶如过氧化物酶和过氧化氢酶的活性,诱导烟株产生抗病性反应,有利于消除活性氧和过氧化氢,使病害减轻.烤烟幼苗接种黑胫病菌后,施用POB使烟株发病率下降42.95%~65.77%,相对防治效果达到46.99%~57.32%,并显著降低烟草叶片中丙二醛含量,减轻病原菌对细胞膜的伤害.在田间试验中,POB对烟草黑胫病的防治效果达47.91%,烟叶产量提高44.47%,产值增加36.33%.小鼠急性毒性试验表明,用POB大剂量灌胃给药对小鼠体质量无显著影响,供试小鼠外观和行为均无异常,心、肝、肾、肺等器官未见病理改变.因此,POB能有效防治烟草黑胫病,促进烟株生长,提高烟叶产量和产值,且对动物安全无毒.%In order to develop efficient, nontoxic and cost-effective bio-control agents against tobacco black shank, antagonism, pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effects of fermentation broth produced from a self-isolated Pythium oligandrum (strain CQ2010) on the growth and control of black shank for flue-cured tobacco, and its acute toxicity to mice. The results of antagonism experiment indicated that Pythium oligandrum broth (POB) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination of in vitro Phytophora nicotiana

  10. 烟田有机肥配施对烤烟抗病性和品质的影响%Effects of Application of Organic Fertilizer Combined with Chemical Fertilizer on Disease Resistance and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉国; 李小杰; 王海涛; 李淑君; 李成军; 朱景伟; 王留臣; 宋鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    为探讨有机无机肥配施对烤烟生长、抗病性及品质的影响,为烤烟降焦、增香、减害提供技术支撑,通过田间试验,在主要营养元素氮、钾施用量相等条件下,设置有机氮施用量占总施氮量不同配比处理,研究腐熟的牛圈粪、有机芝麻饼肥、豆浆对烤烟生长、抗病性和品质的影响。结果表明,与纯施化肥(对照)相比,配施腐熟牛圈粪、芝麻饼肥和豆浆且有机氮施用量占总施氮量64%处理能够显著促进烟株生长发育,改善烟株的农艺性状;烟株对病毒病的抗性增强,其发病率和病情指数较对照降低31.03%和38.63%,对赤星病的防效也达到了46.91%;烤烟质量和产值显著增加,与对照相比,其上等烟比例、上中等烟比例、均价和产值分别提高31.84%、19.45%、24.40%、26.34%。各有机肥处理烤后烟叶化学成分含量适中,还原糖/总糖比值、还原糖/烟碱比值、K2 O/Cl比值趋于协调,可明显改善烟叶香气质,增加烟叶香气量。%In order to explore the effects of organic fertilizer combined with chemical fertilizer on tobacco growth,disease resistance,quality and provide technical support for reducing coke and harm,the field ex-periment was done to investigate the growth,disease resistance and quality of flue-cured tobacco by app-lying different types of organic fertilizer such as full well-rotted cow dung, sesame-seed cake and soya-bean milk in the condition of the same supply of N,K and different percent of organic-N in total N. The results showed that the full well-rotted cow dung,sesame-seed cake and soya-bean milk under the organic-N amount of 64%,could significantly promote the flue-cured tobacco growth and improve agronomic traits. The resistance of tobacco plant to the virus disease was enhanced,with the disease incidence and index were reduced by 31. 03% and 38. 63% compared with the control(only chemical fertilizer),and its con

  11. State political ideology, policies and health behaviors: The case of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Feng, Wenhui; Yumkham, Rakesh

    2017-05-01

    Anti-smoking campaigns are widely viewed as a success case in public health policy. However, smoking rates continue to vary widely across U.S. states and the success of anti-smoking campaigns is contingent upon states' adoption of anti-smoking policies. Though state anti-smoking policy is a product of a political process, studies of the effect of policies on smoking prevalence have largely ignored how politics shapes policy adoption, which, in turn, impact state health outcomes. Policies may also have different effects in different political contexts. This study tests how state politics affects smoking prevalence both through the policies that states adopt (with policies playing a mediating role on health outcomes) or as an effect modifier of behavior (tobacco control policies may work differently in states in which the public is more or less receptive to them). The study uses publicly available data to construct a time-series cross-section dataset of state smoking prevalence, state political context, cigarette excise taxes, indoor smoking policies, and demographic characteristics from 1995 to 2013. Political ideology is measured using a validated indicator of the ideology of state legislatures and of the citizens of a state. We assess the relationship between state political context and state smoking prevalence rates adjusting for demographic characteristics and accounting for the mediating/moderating role of state policies with time and state fixed effects. We find that more liberal state ideology predicts lower adult smoking rates, but that the relationship between state ideology and adult smoking prevalence is only partly explained by state anti-smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 29.6010 - Cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured. 29.6010 Section 29.6010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6010 Cured. Tobacco dried of its sap by either natural or...

  13. Correlation Analysis of Sensory Coziness and Main Chemical Indices of Flue-cured Tobacco%烤烟主要化学指标与感官舒适度的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱保昆; 朱东来; 王明锋; 赵建华; 廖头根

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the influence of main chemical indices of flue-cured tobacco on overall sensory coziness. 35 tobacco chemical indices in 50 domestic and imported representative tobacco leaves were analyzed and verified. Meanwhile, a comprehensive sensory coziness evaluation was conducted on the 50 samples. The data of chemical indicators and sensory evaluation were analyzed by multiple correlation coefficient method. The results showed that: nicotine, ratio of N to nicotine, the ratio of reducing sugar to nicotine, petroleum ether extracts and sensory comfort as a whole was significantly related (P0.05). According to the multiple correlation coefficient and significance level, the specific influence degree order of main chemical components of tobacco on the sensory comfort was nicotine > ratio of N to nicotine > the ratio of reducing sugar to nicotine > petroleum ether extract.%为了分析烤烟主要化学指标对其感官舒适度的影响,利用复相关系数分析方法对50个涵盖国内主要烟叶产区及进口烟叶原料的35个主要化学指标检测数据与感官舒适度评价数据进行分析与验证.结果表明,烤烟烟碱、氮碱比和糖碱比与感官舒适度整体上呈极显著相关(P<0.01),石油醚提取物含量与感官舒适度整体上呈显著相关(P<0.05),其余化学指标与感官舒适度10个指标得分的相关性统计上不显著(P>0.05);根据复相关系数的大小及显著性水平,烤烟主要化学成分对其感官舒适度的影响程度为:烟碱>氮碱比>糖碱比>石油醚提取物.

  14. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  15. Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among High School Athletes - United States, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Jones, Sherry Everett; King, Brian A; Jamal, Ahmed; Neff, Linda; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2015-09-04

    Athletes are not a typical at-risk group for smoking combustible tobacco products, because they are generally health conscious and desire to remain fit and optimize athletic performance (1). In contrast, smokeless tobacco use historically has been associated with certain sports, such as baseball (2). Athletes might be more likely to use certain tobacco products, such as smokeless tobacco, if they perceive them to be harmless (3); however, smokeless tobacco use is not safe and is associated with increased risk for pancreatic, esophageal, and oral cancers (4). Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern, because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18 years (5). To examine prevalence and trends in current (≥1 day during the past 30 days) use of combustible tobacco (cigarettes, cigars) and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip [moist snuff]) products among athlete and nonathlete high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2001–2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Current use of any tobacco (combustible or smokeless tobacco) significantly declined from 33.9% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2013; however, current smokeless tobacco use significantly increased from 10.0% to 11.1% among athletes, and did not change (5.9%) among nonathletes. Furthermore, in 2013, compared with nonathletes, athletes had significantly higher odds of being current smokeless tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.77, p<0.05), but significantly lower odds of being current combustible tobacco users (AOR = 0.80, p<0.05). These findings suggest that opportunities exist for development of stronger tobacco control and prevention measures targeting youth athletes regarding the health risks associated with all forms of tobacco use.

  16. 不同采收方式与烤烟上部叶品质的关系%Relationship Between Picking Methods and Quality of Upper Leaf in Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江厚龙; 谢会川; 杨通华; 许安定; 代先强; 杨超; 王红峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the chemical composition and content of volatile aromatic matter of upper leaves and increase the usability of the upper leaves in flue-cured tobacco. The experiment in the effects of threes different harvesting ways [including common picking method (T1), concentrated picking method (T2), and harvesting with stalk (T3)] by tobacco variety 'Yunyan 87' were studied. The results indicated that: (1) compared with the commonly used picking method, the harvesting with stalk could increase total sugar content, reducing sugar content and K content, and decrease total N and nicotine, but the content of chlorine did not show large difference between the harvesting with stalk and common picking method. The effects of concentrated picking method (T2) treatment between common picking methods (T1) and harvesting with stalk (T3). (2) The harvesting with stalk could increase significantly the degrading level of chromoplast pigments, the neoplytadiene content of T3 (harvesting with stalk) was 1.61 times for T1, and the content of degraded by carotene of T3 (harvesting with stalk) was 1.61 times for T1 in upper leaf in flue-cured tobacco. (3) The degrading level of non-chromoplast pigment was accelerated markedly with harvesting with stalk in upper leaf in flue-cured tobacco. The content of solanone, maillard reaction and products of aromatic amino acid metabolism by the harvesting with stalk were higher than the common picking method, increased by 28.64%, 28.94%, and 31.79%, respectively. Therefore, it was an effective way to coordinate the chemical composition of cured leaf and to improve the quality of upper leaves by harvesting with stalk, and to increase the usability of upper flue-cured tobacco leaved.%为了改善上部烟叶化学成分和主要挥发性香气物质含量,提高上部叶的可用性,以烤烟品种‘云烟87’为材料,研究了上部烟叶采用常规采烤(T1)、一次性采烤(T2)和带茎砍烤(T3)等3种方法对烤烟上部

  17. Comparison of carbon and nitrogen metabolism of flue-cured tobacco in different altitudes in Wumeng tobacco-growing area of Guizhou%贵州乌蒙烟区不同海拔烤烟碳氮代谢的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连培康; 许自成; 孟黎明; 刘炳清; 翟欣; 陈雪; 黄化刚

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] Carbon and nitrogen metabolism is affected by the activities of various enzymes,their variations directly or indirectly affect the contents and proportions of various chemical constituents of tobacco, impacting the quality of tobacco. In this paper, tobacco cultivar “ Yunyan 97” was used as materials, and the activity differences of some enzymes affected by the growing altitudes were investigated to provide references for high quality tobacco cultivation in Wumeng hilly area, Yunnan Province. [ Methods] Tobacco leaf samples were collected in different growing stages. The conventional chemical components of flue-cured tobacco were analyzed. The cell ultra structure was observed using transmission electronic microscope, the activity of nitrate reductase was measured using sulfa colorimetric method, and the activities of amylase and invertase by 3,5 -dinitrosalicylic-acid method, the activities of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase using conventional methods. [Results]The sugar contents is higher, the nicotine and total nitrogen contents are at a reasonable level, and the chemical components’ coordination is satisfactory in the Wumeng hilly areas. The ratio of sugar to nicotine and that of total nitrogen to nicotine in the middle altitude areas are higher than in the high and low altitudes. At the 60 th day of the transplanting, the number and size of starch particles in the leaves are significantly different among tobaccos in different altitudes. The volume and number increase of the starch particles in the middle altitude areas are significantly higher than in the high and low altitudes at the same stage. From 30 to 50 d after transplanting, the activity of invertase in the middle altitude areas is greater than in the high altitude areas, while those of sucrose synthase and amylase in the middle altitude areas are less than in the high altitude areas. Around 70 d after the transplanting, the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in

  18. 烤烟烟梗和叶片中性香味成分的分析%Analysis of neutral flavor components in stem and lamina of flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炎强; 郝建辉; 赵明月; 景延秋; 胡有持

    2002-01-01

    采用同时蒸馏萃取装置、装有火焰检测器(FID)的气相色谱仪(GC)和气相色谱/质谱联用仪(GC/MS),对河南烤烟(C3F)烟梗和叶片、云南烤烟(C3F)烟梗的主要中性香味成分进行了分析。分析结果表明:(1)大多数中性香味成分在叶片中的含量比在烟梗中的明显偏高,较为突出的有苯甲醇、p一大马酮、巨豆三烯酮、新植二烯和叶绿酮等;(2)在烟梗中的含量比在叶片中高的中性香味成分主要是醛类物质,如糠醛和苯乙醛,其醛类物质的总量约是叶片中的2.31倍;(3)云南C3F烟梗中含量较高的中性香味成分主要有苯甲醇、苯乙醛、乙酰基吡咯和β-苯乙醇,其总量约是河南烤烟烟梗的2.7倍;(4)河南C3F烟梗含量较高的中性香味成分主要是芳樟醇、异佛尔酮、氧化异佛尔酮和β-二氢大马酮,其总量约是云南烤烟烟梗的3倍多。%The neutral flavor components in stem and lamina of flue-cured tobacco were respectively extracted by the simultaneous distillation and extraction(SDE)apparatus and determined by GC and GC/MS.Some neutral flavor components in stem and lamina of flue-cured tobacco were compared quantitatively.The level of most neutral flavor components,notably benzyl alcohol,β-damascenone,megastigmatrienones,neophytadiene and phytone,was high in lamina than in stem.The content of aldehydes,such as furfural and phenylacetic aldehyde,was high in stem than in lamina.The total amount of aldehydes determined in stem was 2.31 times as high as that in lamina.In addition,the neural flavor components in stem of flue-cured tobacco grown in two provinces of China,Yunnan and Henan,were compared.

  19. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State for enforcing such law during the fiscal year for which the grant is sought; and (5) the identity... toward reducing use of tobacco products by children and youth, data showing that the State has... requirements such as the development of the sample design and the conducting of the inspections....

  20. 不同养地方式下烤烟根系差异蛋白质组学分析%Analysis of root differential proteomics in flue-cured tobacco from soils under different management methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤垂淮; 唐莉娜; 陈冬梅; 陈顺辉; 黄锦文; 周阳; 张重义; 林文雄

    2013-01-01

      通过分子生物学手段即根系差异蛋白质组学分析不同养地方式处理对烤烟生长的影响。结果表明,共有39个蛋白质表达丰度发生明显变化,LC-MS/MS成功鉴定24个差异蛋白质点。经生物信息学分析,其中22个蛋白质的功能得到鉴定,其中2个与香气有关的蛋白,转酮醇酶、GDP-甘露糖-3',5'-表异构酶(GME),这两个蛋白在稻草回田上调表达,有助于烟草品质提高,而紫云英处理下调表达,不利于品质提高。还鉴定到涉及多种信号转导、物质运输、蛋白质代谢、能量代谢等途径的蛋白,均对烟草生长发育起重要作用,这些酶在稻草回田处理和紫云英回田处理上调表达,促进烟草的生长,而在冬闲处理下调表达,生长较弱。研究结果显示,稻草回田有利于烟草的生长,有利于提高烟草产量和品质且经济效益较好。%  Root differential proteomics was employed to explore the impact of different soil management methods on growth of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum L). Results showed that a total 39 protein spots in tobacco root at late vigorous growing stage displayed significantly different expression as compared to control. 24 protein spots were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis and database searching. Among which, two proteins related to aroma formation, i.e. transketolase, GDP-mannose 3',5'-epimerase (GME) were up-regulated under treatment of rice straw returned to field (RS), which was helpful to enhance tobacco quality. While under AS treatment, they were down-regulated with reduced tobacco quality. Other proteins involved in signal transduction, translocation of solute, protein metabolism, and energy metabolism were also identified. They were very important for growth development and all up-regulated under both RS and AS treatments. While under WF treatment they were all down-regulated and thus tobacco growth was weak. In conclusion, RS

  1. Effect of Neutral Aroma Components in Stalk Positions Under Different Fertility Conditions for Flue-cured Tobacco%土壤肥力对烤烟不同部位中性香气成分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国显; 邸慧慧; 王廷晓; 张大纯; 马永建; 史宏志; 王维超; 曹晓涛; 刘国顺

    2011-01-01

    以烤烟(Nicotiana tabacum L.)品种中烟100为材料,通过田间试验研究了土壤肥力对烤烟不同部位中性香气成分含量的影响,并对不同肥力条件下烤烟各部位烟叶进行单料烟感官评吸鉴定.结果表明,类胡萝卜素类降解产物总量在中部叶(腰叶、上二棚)及顶叶以高肥力条件下较高;茄酮含量在除顶叶外均以低肥力条件下较高,顶叶以高肥力条件下含量较高;非酶棕色化反应产物总量在烟株的大部分位置高、中肥力处理间没有显著差异;芳香族氨基酸类降解产物总量在除底脚叶外的其他部位均以高肥力处理最高,中肥力处理次之,低肥力处理最低:新植二烯含量在下部叶以中肥力条件下最高,其他部位以高肥力条件下最高;在烟株的中部高、中肥条件下烟叶的除新植二烯外香气物质总量无显著差异,在顶叶高肥力条件下香气物质总量显著高于中肥力.评吸结果以中肥力条件下腰叶得分最高.综合认为,中肥力土壤有利于生产出优质烟叶.%Field experiment was carried out in Xiangcheng to study the effect of neutral aroma components in stalk positions under different fertility conditions for flue-cured tobacco leaves and the differences in the sensory evaluation on aroma quality of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L)cultivar Zhongyanl00.The results showed that tobacco leaves from higher fertility conditions had high levels of carotenoid catabolite in the middle and upper positions.The content of solanone from lower fertility condition had high levels in all stalk positions except upper leaves, in which position the content of solanone from higher fertility condition had high levels.The content of maillard reaction in tobacco leaves from higher and lower fertility conditions had no significant differences in most positions.The content of phenylalanine cracking from higher fertility conditions had the highest levels, followed by middle and lower fertility

  2. 贵州不同产区烤烟多酚类物质的分析%Analysis on Polyphenols in Flue-cured Tobacco from Different Producing Areas in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉霞; 徐光军; 牟兰; 刘仁祥; 周萍; 肖志达; 张庆民

    2012-01-01

    为探索贵州典型烟区的烤烟多酚含量在地区间的分布特征及其多酚类物质含量对烟叶质量风格特征的影响,为产区烤烟风格特色的清晰界定和细分提供参考.对贵州7个不同产区的125个烟草样品中绿原酸及其异构体、芸香苷、咖啡酸和莨菪亭等代表性多酚物质采用高效液相色谱法进行测定和差异分析.结果表明:在研究的取样范围内,7种成分中莨菪亭的变异系数最大,新绿原酸的变异系数最小;不同产区烟叶的各多酚类物质质量分数存在显著性差异,其中,六盘水地区和遵义地区单宁类多酚质量分数显著高于黔南地区,毕节地区的黄酮类多酚质量分数显著高于黔东南地区;多酚总量以毕节和六盘水两地区最高,分别为32.78 mg/g和32.76mg/g.同时还发现,不同产区的多酚组成比例有一定差异,烟叶的香型风格与多酚含量之间有一定关系,产地归属于贵州清甜香型烟区的烟叶单宁类多酚及多酚总量均高于归属于醇甜香型烟区的烟叶.%The polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid and its isomers, rutin, caffeic acid and scopletin of flue-cured tobacco from seven producing areas in Guizhou were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to explore the distribution characteristics polyphenols and their effects on tobacco quality and provide a reference for clear definition and classification of tobacco style. The results showed that scopoletin had the maximum coefficient of variation while neochlorogenic acid had the minimum one. There were remarkable differences in the mass fraction of polyphenol from different producing areas in Guizhou. The mass fraction of tannin polyphenols of Liupanshui and Zuiyi regions was significantly higher than that of Qiannan region. The mass fraction of flavonoids polyphenols of Bijie tobacco samples was significantly higher than that of Qiandongnan region. The tobacco samples of Bijie and Liupanshui

  3. Study on Best Transplanting Density of Flue-cured Tobacco Cultivar K326 in Chongqing%重庆烟区烤烟品种K326的最佳栽植密度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何从利; 左万琦; 彭友兵; 徐安定; 杨超; 戴秀梅; 张建奎

    2012-01-01

    为满足卷烟工业企业对烤烟品种K326的需求,扩大重庆K326种植面积,为K326在重庆的高产优质栽培提供依据,在彭水县靛水乡新田村进行了K326栽植密度试验,分析栽植密度对K326烟株生长和烟叶产量、产值、均价、品质的影响,以此确定K326的最优栽植密度.试验设置了13500、15 000、16 500株/hm23个密度水平,采取3重复随机区组设计.试验结果表明,①烟叶产量、均价、产值、上中等烟率等经济指标在3种密度下的差异都达到显著或呈极显著水平,其中以密度为16 500株/hm2时,产量、均价、产值最高.②总氮、还原糖、钾、氯、糖碱比等化学品质指标在3种密度下无显著性差异,其烟叶的化学成分协调性均达到较协调水平.③综合分析3种密度下K326的烟叶产量、产值、均价、化学品质表现,认为K326的最适密度为16 500株/hm2.%In order to provide evidence tor high yield and quality cultivation of flue-cured tobacco cultivar K326 and thus to expand its planting areas in Chongqing so as to meet the needs of cigarette industrial enterprise of tobacco leaf of K326, the transplanting density test of K326 was conducted in Xintian Village, Dianshui Town, Pengshui County of Chongqing City. The test set three transplanting density levels, i.e. 13 500, 15 000, 16 500 plants per hm2, respectively, in a randomized block design with three replications. In this paper, the growth of plant and the tobacco leaf yield, production value, average price and chemical quality of K326 at different transplanting density were analyzed to determine the best transplanting density of K326. The results showed that all the differences of tobacco leaf yield, production value, average price and high-class leaves proportion among different transplanting density were significant at P≤0.05 or P≤0.01. At transplanting density of 16 500 plants per hm2, the tobacco leaf yield, production value, average price and high

  4. 烤烟不同叶位叶片有机酸含量的差异分析%Difference Analysis of the Nonvolatile Organic Acids and Higher Organic Acids of the Different Leaf Position in Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景延秋; 张欣华; 刘剑君; 杨宇熙; 李广良; 张红立; 金磊; 李怀奇

    2011-01-01

    The pre-treatment of sulfuric acid methyl ester with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) analysis techniques was utilized to study the difference of the organic acid content in different flue-cured tobacco leaf (L8-L12: from the bottom of the eighth leave up to the twelfth leave) and its influence on fluecured tobacco'quality. The results showed that malic acid, γ-e ketone acid, citric acid, malonic acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid had a higher content relatively in different flue-cured tobacco leaves and they were the main acidic components, what's more, the difference between organic acids, malic acid and other organic acids content in different leaf was significantly obvious. The differencce of total organic acids content from the eighth to the twelfth leave was L8 > L9 > L12 > L10 > L11; The content proportion ranges of non-volatile acid, senior saturated fatty acid and senior unsaturated fatty acid in total organic acids were 88.49% -94.38% ,3.01% -5. 10% and 2.61% -6. 40% , respectively. The difference analysis of organic acids content in different leaf position indicated that the organic acids content in the eighth and twelfth leaves was moderate and they could be considered as the superior and slap-up tobacco raw materials.%采用硫酸甲酯化前处理,结合气相色谱-质谱( GC/MS)分离分析技术,研究了烤烟不同叶位叶片(L8-L12,即从底部第8位叶向上到第12位叶)有机酸含量的差异.GC/MS定量分析结果表明:烤烟不同叶位叶片中,苹果酸、γ-戊酮酸、柠檬酸、丙二酸、乙二酸、亚麻酸和软脂酸含量相对较高,是烤烟中主要的有机酸成分;并且不同叶位叶片有机酸、苹果酸与其他有机酸含量差异明显;不同叶位叶片有机酸总量表现为:L8> L9> L12> L10> L11;L8-L12叶片中,非挥发性有机酸、高级饱和脂肪酸、高级不饱和脂肪酸总量分别在有机酸总量中所五比例范围是:88.49% ~94.38%,3.01% ~5

  5. Evaluation of novalak resins as a precursor for fabrication of carbon - carbon composites. Pt. 1. Optimization of curing states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, A.; Golestani Fard, F. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Material Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Curing of novalak resin has been investigated by applying different thermal analysis methods and solvent extraction technique. Results revealed that cure can be optimized by finding the critical steps in cure and hold resin in these steps for appropriate time. Best results were also achieved by using resins which contained lower free phenol and hexamine amount. Application of pressure is necessary in initial stages of cure but found to be harmful in the final stages. It was also found that due to the defects produced in the final stages of curing, this process cannot be completed and long time post cure should be applied on these resins. By applying a special curing regime, it was proved that defects during pyrolysis stage could be decreased profoundly and a carbon residue of more than 67 percent expected. The results are explained by emphasis on carbon - carbon applications. (orig.)

  6. 基质浸润施硼对烟草硼吸收及其生长发育相关指标的影响%The Influence on Growth of Flue-Cured Tobaccos, Boron Absorption and Related Indicators by Stromal Invasion of Boron Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和; 周冀衡; 何伟; 陈习羽; 张一扬; 杨中义; 张发明; 肖志新

    2012-01-01

    以烤烟品种K326为材料,研究了基质浸润法施用硼肥对烟草生长发育及相关生理生化指标的影响.结果显示:硼酸溶液浸润基质的处理,烟株各项农艺性状和生理指标表现好,烟株体内各器官营养比例最为平衡.表明在适宜浓度下,通过基质浸润增施硼肥可明显促进烤烟生长,相对于叶面喷施硼有用量少、操作简单、肥料利用率高的优势.%Flue-cured tobacco variety K326 was taken as the material to study the stromal infiltration method of boron fertilizer application on tobacco growth and related physiological and biochemical indexes. The results showed that: the handle of using boric acid solution infiltration matrix, the agronomic performance of tobacco was the best, tobacco plant nutrition proportion of the various organs of the body was the most balance. Studies showed that in appropriate concentration, through stromal infiltration by boron could obviously promote the growth of flue-cured tobacco, relative to the spraying boron have less dosage, simple operation, good effect of promoting the growth of the advantage.

  7. Main Chemical Composition Changes of Flue-cured Tobacco among Years in China%全国初烤烟叶常规化学成分年度间变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦玉青; 张伟峰; 刘新民; 翟波; 付秋娟; 张忠锋; 程森

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the main chemical compositions change of flue-cured tobacco among years in China, from 2007 to 2013 we collected 40 139 samples from 12 Provinces, and determined their main chemical component contents. The results showed that the variation coefficients of chlorine content and K/Cl of flue-cured tobacco were greatest among all of the indicators, followed by variation coefficient of K content, ratio of reduce sugar to nicotine and nicotine content. Variation coefficient of total sugar, reduce sugar, total nitrogen and ratio of reduce sugar to total sugar. The main chemical components contents were suitable and harmonious. It was considered that change in reduce sugar content, chlorine content and ratio of reduce sugar to total sugar were obvious, and reduce sugar content and ratio of reduce sugar to total sugar decreased gradually, chlorine content increased gradually.%为探明全国初烤烟叶的常规化学成分年度间变化和现状,对2007—2013年我国12个烟草主产区的初烤烟叶常规化学成分含量和协调性指标进行了初步分析。结果表明,2007—2013的7年时间内,全国初烤烟叶氯含量和钾氯比两项指标的离散程度较大,初烤烟叶的糖碱比、总钾含量、烟碱含量变异系数中等,总糖、还原糖、总氮、两糖比4项指标的变异系数最小;全国初烤烟叶常规化学成分含量适宜、协调性较好,钾离子呈现上升趋势;初步认为全国初烤烟叶还原糖含量、氯离子含量、两糖比年度间变化明显。在全国范围内,初烤烟叶还原糖含量呈下降趋势,氯离子含量呈升高趋势,两糖比呈下降趋势。

  8. 应用AMMI模型分析烤烟区试品种稳定性%Analysis on the Stability of Flue-cured Tobacco Varieties in Regional Trail by AMMI Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙计平; 李雪君; 关照辉; 孙焕

    2011-01-01

    AMMI模型在分析基因型与环境互作效应方面有明显的优势,可定量地描述各品种稳定性差异以及各地点对品种鉴别力的大小.为筛选适应河南省特定生态条件下的优良烤烟新品种,应用AMMI模型对2010年河南省烤烟区域试验4个试点7个参试品种的丰产性及稳产性进行分析.结果表明,所有参试新品种产量均值均高于对照NC89,其中,Y106和H8190具有丰产稳产的特性,Y102产量最高,但稳定性较差;8182丰产性差,稳定性好;8122丰产性较差,稳定性较差;‘优选一号’丰产性差,稳定性较好;对照NC89丰产性差,稳定性一般.%AMMI model has obvious advantages of analyzing the interactions between varieties and locations, and it can describe the differences in the stability of varieties and the discriminability of varieties in different locations quantitatively. In order to select quality flue-cured tobacco varieties which adapted specific ecological conditions in Henan, the prolificacy and yielding stability of 4 pilots and 7 varieties were analyzed for flue-cured tobacco regional trial in Henan Province with AMMI model. The results showed that all the mean yield of new varieties tested was higher than control NC89. The variety Y106 and H8190 had high and stable yield with wide adaptability. Y102 had highest yield, but it had a poor stability. The yielding dependability of variety 8182 was better, but it had a poor prolificacy. The variety 8122 and 'Youxuanyihao' had poor prolificacy and yielding dependability. The prolificacy of variety NC89 was poor, and it had a general yield stability.

  9. Sulfation and Antioxidative Activity of Polysaccharides from Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves%烤烟多糖的硫酸化修饰及抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春平; 赵珊珊; 杨琛琛; 吴双双; 孙斯文; 卫园园; 刘绍华

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the conditions of polysaccharide sulfation and improve the antioxidative activity of flue-cured tobacco polysaccharides, the polysaccharides were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and sulfated by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. The technical conditions of sulfation reaction were optimized with single factor experiment and orthogonal experiments. The antioxidative activity of sulfated polysaccharides was studied by DPPH method and phenanthroline method. The results showed that: 1) The optimized technical conditions for sulfation reaction were the volume ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine 1∶6, and reacting at 80 ℃ for 3 hours. The sulfate group content in sulfated polysaccharides obtained under the above conditions reached 20.03% with the substitution degree of 2.587. 2) The antioxidative activity of flue-cured tobacco polysaccharides was significantly improved after sulfation.%为了优选烤烟多糖硫酸化修饰的最佳条件,提高烤烟多糖抗氧化活性,采用超声辅助法提取烟叶多糖,并通过氯磺酸-吡啶法对其进行了硫酸化修饰;通过单因素实验和正交实验,确定了硫酸化反应的最佳工艺条件。采用DPPH(1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼)法和邻二氮菲法进行了抗氧化活性研究。结果表明:①硫酸化反应的最佳工艺条件为氯磺酸与吡啶的体积比l∶6,反应时间3 h,反应温度80℃。在此条件下多糖硫酸酯的硫酸基质量分数为20.03%,取代度为2.587。②烤烟多糖经硫酸化修饰后,其抗氧化活性显著提高。

  10. The Analysis of Difference of Aroma Type and Polyphenol Content in Different Flue-cured Tobacco Varieties%不同烤烟品种香型风格与多酚类物质含量差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗浩; 刘洪祥; 杨程; 陈刚; 米建华; 徐发华; 邹加明; 朱凯; 李世祥; 刘彩云

    2011-01-01

    6 major polyphenol in 5 main flue-cured tobacco cultivars for Hongta group in Dali was carried out using HPLC. The relationships between aroma type and polyphenol content were analyzed using the points of aroma type. The results showed that, chlorogenic acid and rutin were the major polyphenol, which were accounted for 92%. Polyphenol in different position and different varieties were different obviously. Different kinds of fen-flavor significant with tobacco the polyphenol content was a positive correlation significantly. The correlation between the points of aroma type and polyphenol content was positive significantly.%应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)分析测定红塔集团大理差异化原料基地5个主要栽培烤烟品种烟叶中6种主要多酚物质,通过对香型风格进行量化赋分,研究分析不同品种的香型风格与多酚类化合物含量之间的关系.结果表明,绿原酸和芸香苷占烤烟多酚类物质的92%以上,是主要的多酚类物质;不同部位与不同品种烟叶间的多酚含量均存在较明显差异;不同品种的清香型风格显著性与烟叶中的多酚类物质含量之间呈显著正相关;‘红大’的多酚总含量明显高于其他4个品种,清香型风格更显著.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A

    2016-09-28

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Soong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11 and the US (10. Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities. PMID:27690072

  14. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  15. Study on the Correlation between the Appearance Quality and Sensory Quality of Yunnan Dali Flue-cured Tobacco%云南大理烤烟外观质量与感官质量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉松毅; 闫洪洋; 张志明; 闫洪喜; 闫克玉; 邓国宾

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to study the correlation between the appearance quality and sensory quality of Yunnan-Dali flue-cured tobacco. [ Method ] The appearance and sensory qualities of 37 levels of tobacco cultivated in Dali, Yunnan Province were quantitatively evaluated in terms of the National Tobacco Grading Standard (GB2635-92). A statistical analysis was also conducted to examine whether the data delivers indicative reference values. The correlations among indicators were assessed using simple correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis. [Result] The results indicate that while the selected 37 levels of tobacco vary in appearance quality, the evaluation of sensory quality shows a normal distribution. The appearance qualities are indicative in assessing the sensory qualities. According to the simple correlation analysis, the appearance qualities, including color, maturity, oil content, chromaticity, and total score appearance qualities, are significantly and positively related to each of the following sensory qualities, I. E. , aromatic quality, aromatic quantity, thickness, strength, offensive odor, irritation, aftertaste , combustibility, color of ash, and total score of sensory qualities. The result derived from the canonical correlation analysis is basically consistent with that of simple correlation analysis. The correlation between appearance qualities and sensory qualities can be summarized as a correlation between two sets of canonical variables, with canonical correlation coefficients of 0.972 6(P<0.01)and 0.848 8(P<0. 01), respectively. [Conclusion] The study provides reference for establishing the quality evaluation system of flue-cured tobacco and production of high quality flue-cured tobacco.%[目的]对云南大理烤烟的外观质量与感官质量的相关性进行分析.[方法]以云南大理烤烟仿制样品为材料,根据GB2635 -92烤烟分级标准及有关研究结果,对37个等级烟叶外观质量和感官质量进

  16. Best practices for enforcing state laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, Joseph R

    2005-01-01

    To determine best practices for enforcing public health laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors. The author compared annual merchant compliance surveys to identify the 10 highest and the 10 lowest performing states. State and federal documents describing state efforts to improve compliance with their laws from 1995 to 2004 were systematically reviewed for evidence concerning the effectiveness of 26 enforcement strategies. These were rated as essential, recommended as a best practice, not recommended, or unable to rate. The following strategies appear essential to high performance: a law enforcement strategy with a state agency coordinating enforcement, state funding of test purchases for enforcement, prosecution of offenders with penalties for violating the law, and effective merchant education. The following features are not recommended: warnings in lieu of penalties for offenders, reliance upon nonfunded local enforcement, and limitations placed on enforcement authority or the conduct of test purchases. Some states have achieved high compliance with the law by pursuing a variety of strategies employing common elements. Others have hampered their efforts by pursuing counterproductive strategies.

  17. Effect of Harvesting Way on Quality and Yield of Upper Leaf of Flue-cured Tobacco%采收方式对烤烟上部叶产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂建; 李成杰; 蔡寒玉; 朱卫星; 张树堂; 李兰周

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]In order to improve the quality of upper leaf, so as to increase the utilization rate of upper leaf in the high-end cigarette brand. [ Method] Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of harvesting way on chlorophyll content, moisture content of fresh tobacco,exterior quality,contents of chemical components,sensory quality. [Result] The results showed that compared with two times harvested , the exterior quality, sensory quality and the proportion of the middle grades leaves increased of top six leaves harvesting one time, and the chemical compositions were coordinated; The chlorophyll contents decreased compared with two times harvested, and the chlorophyll contents would decreased more with the increasing of the part of flue-cured tobacco leaf; The finest grades leaves and the yield decreased compared with two times harvested; The harvesting way had little or no effect on moisture content of fresh tobacco and average value. [Conclusion] The way of top six leaves harvested one time can increase the quality of upper leaf,whereas,the economic benefits declined.%[目的]为进一步改善上部烟叶质量,提高上部烟叶在高端卷烟品牌中的使用率.[方法]通过大田试验,研究了不同采收方式对顶6片烟叶叶绿素含量、含水率及烤后烟叶的外观质量、化学成分和感官评吸质量的影响.[结果]顶6片叶一次性采收,烟叶外观质量、中等烟比例和感官评吸效果较分次采收有明显提高,内在化学成分更趋于协调;采收时烟叶叶绿素含量较分次采收有所下降,且烟叶部位越高,下降幅度越大;上等烟比例、产量较分次采收有所下降;采收方式对采收后鲜烟叶含水率及烟叶均价影响不大.[结论]顶6片烟叶一次采收能提高上部烟叶质量,但经济效益略有下降.

  18. The application of GGE biplot analysis in neutral lfavor type lfue-cured tobacco%GGE双标图在中间香型烟叶特色彰显度分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰宏; 谢升东; 王轶; 蒲文宣; 王毅; 戴秀梅; 孙渭; 张玉芹

    2013-01-01

    为探讨各产区中间香型烟叶的特色彰显程度,及其与感官质量、化学成分或外观特征的关系,首次引入GGE分析模型,直观比较分析了7个试点、11个烤烟新材料的中间香型特色彰显度。结果表明,各试点中与特色彰显度相关性较大的指标有:还原糖/总糖(RS/TS,-0.873**)、总氮/烟碱(N/NIC,-0.822*)、烟碱(NIC,0.704*);根据特色彰显度与感官质量,可以把7个试点分为4个区:区1(e1)、区2(e3、e7、e2、e6)、区3(e4)和区4(e5),其中区1的特色彰显度较高,区3和区4的较低;不同试点的烟叶在评吸指标、化学成分或外观特征方面各具典型性特征。不同试验材料的风格特色差别较大,其中g3在不同试点的特色彰显度最高。这将为中间香型烟叶产区的烟叶品质区划和特色品种筛选提供借鉴。%GGE biplot was used to analyze tobacco leaf characteristics of 11 flue-cured tobacco cultivars or lines from 7 growing areas. Characteristics and their correlation with sensory quality, chemical components and appearance quality were evaluated. Results showed that characteristics were significantly correlated with the ratio of reducing sugar to total sugar (-0.873**), the ratio of total nitrogen to nicotine (-0.822*), and nicotine (0.704*). Tobacco leaves showed different characteristics from different planting areas. All these were useful for determining best suitable growing areas as well as variety development.

  19. 7 CFR 29.6002 - Air-cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air-cured. 29.6002 Section 29.6002 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6002 Air-cured. Tobacco cured under natural atmospheric...

  20. Effect of different fan frequency on quality of middle flue-cured tobacco leaves with laminated loading%不同风机频率对叠层装烟烤后中部烟叶质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柱石; 张晓龙; 何永菊; 李翠红; 毛春堂; 周芳芳; 詹军

    2014-01-01

    以K 326中部烟叶为试验材料,研究了密集烤房叠层加密装烟条件下不同风机频率对烤后烟叶外观质量、物理特性、常规化学成分及协调性和评吸质量的影响,结果表明,与对照相比,在烘烤过程中适当降低循环风机频率,烤后烟叶的外观质量、物理特性有所改善;淀粉、蛋白质和烟碱含量降低,糖含量和石油醚提取物增多,常规化学成分的协调性更好.总体上,密集烘烤过程中变频风机在变黄期以30 Hz-35 Hz-40 Hz和35 Hz-35 Hz-40Hz,定色期以45 Hz-30 Hz-30 Hz和50 Hz-35 Hz-25 Hz,干筋期以30 Hz和25 Hz,烤后烟叶香气量足,香气质较好,烟气浓度合适,刺激性小,杂气较少,余味较舒适.%The effects of different fan frequency on the appearance quality,physical property,chemical components and smoking quality on the basis of laminated loading bulk curing were studied,with the middle leaves of K326 as the materials.The results showed that reducing fan frequency appropriately during the bulk curing could improve appearance quality and the physical property compared with the control.Besides,the contents of starch,protein and nicotine reduced and the contents of sugar and petroleum ether extract increased with better harmony of conventional chemical composition.In all,the frequency of inverter was suitable at 30 Hz-35 Hz-40 Hz and 35 Hz-35 Hz-40 Hz in the yellow periods,45 Hz-30 Hz-30 Hz and 50 Hz-35 Hz-25 Hz in the leaf drying stage and staining 30 Hz and 25 Hz in the stem-drying stage,in the situations,the sensory evaluation of cured tobacco indicated that aroma quality was much better with sufficient content,good aroma quality,suitable smoke concentration,small bitting taste,less offensive odor,and comfortable aftertaste.

  1. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  2. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Possible EVERY DOLLAR SAVES LIVES. Donate Now Vascular Cures innovates patient-centered research, catalyzes breakthrough collaborations and empowers people in their vascular health journey. what is vascular disease PATIENTS see ...

  3. 不同氮钾配施对烤烟香气成分及评吸品质的影响%Effects of nitrogen application combined with potassium on aroma composition and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦建玉; 曾祥难; 李桂湘; 金亚波; 邓宾玲

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The effects of the combined application of N and K fertilizer on aroma composition and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco were studied in order to improve the tobacco quality and its industrial usability.[ Methods ] Field experiment was carried out using tobacco variety K326 as test material. Three nitrogen levels, viz., low nitrogen ( 45 kg/ha ), medium nitrogen (90 kg/ha ) and high nitrogen (135 kg/ha ), and three potassium levels, viz., low potassium (180 kg/ha), medium potassium (270 kg/ha) and high potassium (360 kg/ha) were applied in 9 combinations and their effects were observed on aroma composition and tobacco quality. [Result]The combined application of medium nitrogen (90 kg/ha ) with high potassium (360 kg/ha) was found good for the formation of neutral aroma composition, while the treatment of high nitrogen with low potassium (180 kg/ha) was good for the formation of acid aroma composition. The treatment of high nitrogen (135 kg/ha) with high potassium (360 kg/ha) enhanced the formation of saturated fatty acid and decreased the formation of unsaturated fatty acid. The smoking evaluation score of leaves was highest in treatments with medium nitrogen and medium potassium, while that of treatments with low nitrogen and potassium, and low nitrogen and medium potassi-um recorded lowest scores. [Conclusion]Considering several factors, such as yield, score of smoking evaluation, aroma composition and chemical composition, the medium nitrogen (90 kg/ha) application with high potassium (360 kg/ha) was the best, and the treatment of middle nitrogen (45 kg/ha) with high potassium (180 kg/ha) was not suitable for tobacco production.%[目的]研究不同氮钾配比对烤烟香气成分及评吸品质的影响,探索出合理的氮钾配比,为提高卷烟工业可用性提供技术支撑.[方法]以K326为试验材料进行田间试验.设置低氮(45 kg/ha)、中氮(90 kg/ha)和高氮(135 kg/ha)3个氮水平与低钾(180 kg/ha)、中钾(270 kg

  4. 有机肥与化肥配施对烤烟品质及土壤的影响%Effect of Applying Organic Fertilizer with Chemical Fertilizer on Flue-cured Tobacco Leaf Quality and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树会; 纳红艳; 陈发荣; 赵宪凤

    2011-01-01

    为了改善植烟土壤的理化性状,提高土壤质量,研究了在高肥力土壤上几种有机肥(秸秆、菜籽饼和猪粪)与化肥配施对烤烟品质及土壤的影响.结果表明:与单施化肥相比(对照),化肥+秸秆处理有利于烟株的生长发育和提高烟叶的产量产值和上等烟比例;而化肥+菜籽饼处理对烟株前期的生长表现不佳,尽管产量比单施化肥增加12%,但上等烟比例较低;化肥+猪粪处理处于两者之间.有机肥与化肥配施明显提高了烟叶中的总糖、还原糖、糖碱比、氮碱比以及钾含量,同时降低了烟叶中总氮、烟碱和氯离子含量,从而使烟叶中的化学成分得到协调和平衡.有机肥与化肥配施后增加了土壤中有机质、全氮、全磷、全钾和有效锌含量,在一定程度上改善了土壤的理化性状.%In order to improve the physicochemical characters and quality of soil, this experiment studies the effect of applying several organic fertilizers with chemical fertilizer on the flue-cured tobacco leaf quality and soil fertility. The results showed that straw mulch + chemical fertilizer treatment could not only improve tobacco growth and development, but also increase the yield and the ratio of super-grade tobacco leaves. While rapeseed cake + chemical fertilizer treatment impeded tobacco plant growth at the early stage. Although this treatment increased the yield by 12% compared with the CK, the ratio of super-grade leaves was relatively low. The effect of pig manure + chemical fertilizer treatment was between the above mentioned 2 treatments. Applying organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizer could distinctively increase the contents of total sugar, reduced sugar and potassium in leaves, and the ratios between sugar and nicotine, between nitrogen and nicotine. At the same time, it decreased the contents of total nitrogen, nicotine and chloride, thus to adjust and balance the chemical components in tobacco leaf

  5. 有机-无机复混肥对烤烟生长及产质量的影响%Effect of Organic-inorganic Compound Fertilizer on Growth,Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    光映霞; 曹良波

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different types of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer on yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco was studied,in order to screen the best fertilizer varieties and the optimum amount of fertilization for tobacco production of Yunnan Zhaotong City.The results showed that: the application of organic-inorganic fertilizer could promote tobacco plant's growth and development,promote the leaves' growth,enter the vigorous growing period fast.The 'Zhenfa' organic-inorganic fertilizer was better in the field performance,yield increased by 0.79%~7.60%,output value increased by 4.48%~10.58% using the organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.Fertilier amount with 50% tobacco special fertilizer and 50% organic-inorganic fertilizer showed good performance in each index.The yield,output value,price and the proportion of high-quality leaves reached respectively 2 989.35 kg/hm2,40 007.85 yuan/hm2,13.39 yuan/kg,44.88% using 'Zhenfa' fertilizer.Application of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer could greatly improve the economic benefit of tobacco.%研究不同类型有机-无机复混肥对烤烟产质量的影响,筛选出适合云南昭通市烤烟生产上施用效果好的肥料品种及最佳施肥量,试验结果表明:施用有机-无机复混肥能促进烟株早生快发,叶片开片好,进入旺长期快,以"珍发"牌有机-无机复混肥田间表现较好,施用有机-无机复混肥烟叶产量提高0.79%~7.60%,产值提高4.48%~10.58%。以50%烟草专用肥+50%有机-无机复混肥施肥处理的各项指标较好,其中以50%烟草专用肥+50%"珍发"牌有机-无机复混肥处理最佳,产量、产值、均价及上等烟比例分别为2 989.35 kg/hm2、40 007.85元/hm2、13.39元/kg、44.88%。施用有机-无机复混肥能大幅提高烟叶的经济效益。

  6. 打顶后喷施油菜素内酯和生长素对烤烟田间生长、碳氮代谢及烟叶品质的影响%Effects of brassinolide and auxin on growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism and tobacco quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves after topping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健忠; 薛立新; 朱金峰; 许自成; 许仪; 金磊; 郝浩浩; 苏谦

    2015-01-01

    Afield experiment was conducted in Jiyuan Tobacco Area of Henan Province, to study the effects of brassinosteroid (BR) and auxin (indole acetic acid, IAA) on growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism and leaves quality of flue-cured tobacco. The aim of the experiment was to explore the rational managements of flue-cured tobacco after topping in the study area. The experiment included 6 treatments, which were spraying water(T1), spraying 10 mg×kg-1 BR (T2), spraying 10 mg×kg-1 IAA (T3), spraying 20 mg×kg-1 IAA (T4), spraying 10 mg×kg-1 IAA and 10 mg×kg-1 BR (T5) and spraying 20 mg×kg-1 IAA and 10 mg×kg-1 BR (T6), after topping of tobacco. The area of the top 5 leaves, dry matter of different organs of flue-tobacco were investigated at the day of topping, 15 days and 30 days after topping, the activities of enzymes relative to carbon and nitrogen metabolism of flue-cured tobacco were investigated at the day of topping and 10 days, 20 days, and 30 days after topping. The results showed that: 1) spaying BR and IAA after topping promoted leaves expansion, root growth, upper leaves production. Combined spring of BR and IAA showed better effect. 2) Under BA and IAA treatments, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities first raised then dropped, while invertase and amylase activities first decreased then slightly increased. This suggested that spaying BR and IAA after topping enhanced carbon and nitrogen metabolism, delayed tobacco maturity and fall time of yellow to a certain extent. Correspondingly, the growth period of tobacco with BR and IAA spraying was extended. 3) Spaying BR and IAA after topping effectively increased potassium content, potassium-chlorine ratio and organic potassium index of tobacco leaves. The nicotine and chlorine contents of middle and upper leaves were reduced by spraying BR and IAA, especially for the upper leaves. Applying both BR and IAA at the same time showed best effects on leaves quality. 4) Among five BR and IAA

  7. 几种烟草育苗替代基质育苗效果研究%Research on FIoating SeedIing Effects of SeveraI Substitute Matrix in FIue -cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭思思; 黄银章; 姚强; 向鹏华; 张小良; 郭维; 龙世平

    2015-01-01

    从减少环境污染与资源节约出发,采用漂浮育苗方式研究了由不同物料配比的半成品有机肥与稻壳生物炭、珍珠岩、蛭石混配成的新型替代基质对烤烟育苗的影响,为稻壳生物炭替代基质在生产实际中的应用提供理论依据。试验结果表明,以原料按干基重量配比60%牛粪+40%食用菌渣(T3)、50%牛粪+20%沼渣+10%稻草+20%鸡粪(T4)、30%鸡粪+60%食用菌渣+10%谷壳(T5)为主要原料发酵完全后,与30%稻壳炭+15%膨胀珍珠岩+5%蛭石混合配制成的替代基质,这3个处理的基质理化性状、烟苗出苗率、出苗天数、成苗期、成苗率等各项指标与对照接近,总体出苗效果相对较好。综合比较发现,T3处理育苗效果及幼苗各农艺性状与商品基质相比无显著性差异,可替代市售烟草专用泥炭类育苗基质。%To provide the theoretical basis of demonstration and application for rice husk biochar seedling matrix in tobacco practical production,based on reducing environmental pollution and resource conservation,the float seedling was employed to explore the effects of different ratios of rice husk biochar and several semi -finished organic fertilizers,perlite,vermicu-lite on the seedling of flue -cured tobacco in this study.The results showed that,60% cow dung +40% mushroom residue (T3),50% cow dung +20% biogas residue +10% straw +20% poultry manure(T4),30% poultry manure +60% mush-room residue +10% rice husk were mixed separately for compost fermentation below the ratio of 30 for C and N,after that, which were mixed with 30% rice husk biochar +15% perlite +5% vermiculite,respectively,formed 3 kind of seedling ma-trix.The physical and chemical properties and emergence rate,emergence days,seedling,seedling rate of treatments,plant height of the 3 kind of seedling matrix were similar to CK,General effect of seedling emergence was relatively good.We can

  8. Study on Suitable Range Indices of Major Chemical Components in Enshi Flue-cured Tobacco Region%恩施烟区烤烟主要化学成分适宜指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申国明; 时鹏; 向德恩; 刘光亮; 高林; 王瑞; 向必坤; 陈红华; 高欣欣

    2011-01-01

    对恩施烟区2008和2009年烤烟中部烟叶主要化学成分进行了分析,发现烤烟质量适宜范围指标年度间整体上相差不大,建议质量指标平均范围为:还原糖27.20%~30.54%,总糖32.03%~36.30%,总植物碱2.20%~2.76%,总氮1.66%~1.99%,两糖差3.73%~6.88%,还原糖碱比10.29~13.35,总糖碱比12.12~15.88,两糖比0.81~0.89,总糖氮比16.46~21.48,还原糖氮比14.09~17.93;与贵州、山东和云南省中部烟叶相比,恩施烟区中部烟叶化学成分及比值处于中等水平,且还原糖、总糖、总植物碱含量及两糖差、还原糖碱比和两糖比均接近于云南省烟叶.整体上,恩施烟区烤烟中部烟叶化学成分及比值比较协调,满足优质烟叶的要求.%We analyzed the main chemical components in middle leaves of the flue-cured tobacco in Enshi of the year 2008 and 2009. The results showed that the differences of quality suitable range index was little between 2008 and 2009. The average quality suitable range index are as follow: reducing sugar 27.20%-30.54%, total sugar 32.03%-36.30%, totalalkaloids 2.20%-2.76%, total nitrogen 1.66%-1.99%, the difference between the total sugar and reducing sugar 3.73%-6.88%, the ratio of reducing sugar to total alkaloids 10.29-13.35, the ratio of total sugar to total alkaloids 12.12-15.88, the ratio of reducing sugar to total sugar 0.81-0.89, the ratio of total sugar to total nitrogen 16.46-21.48, and the ratio of reducing sugar to total nitrogen 14.09-17.93. Compared with Guizhou, Shandong and Yunnan province, the chemical components and ratios in Enshi were at middle level, and the reducing sugar, total sugar, total alkaloids, the difference between the total sugar and reducing sugar, the ratio of reducing sugar to total alkaloids and the ratio of reducing sugar to total sugar were closed to Yunnan province. The chemical components and ratios of the flue-cured tobacco middle leaves in Enshi were harmonious, which

  9. 不同覆盖方式对烤烟农艺性状及土壤温度的影响%Effect of Different Mulching Methods on Flue-cured Tobacco Agronomic Characters and Soil Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭万辉; 刘挺; 余瑜; 邱光华; 龙岗

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different mulching methods on agronomic characters and soil temperature of flue-cured tobacco were studied under field conditions.The results showed that straw mulching and film mulching could significantiy promote growth of flue-cured tobacco in early stage and improve the soil temperature.Compared with straw mulching,plastic film mulching could promote early growth more effective,the case was just the opposite for straw mulching.The effect of straw mulch 500 kg/hm2 treament was beter then 300 kg/hm2 treatment.Various mulching methods showed that the effect of warming on soil temperature decreased in late stage,straw mulching could delay the parietal mature period of 2~3 d,while film mulching could advance it 5 d,moreover,The two mulching methods could significantiy increased the plant height of 35~45 d,also enlarged the tobacco leaf area over the same period,but there was no significant difference was found between straw mulching and film mulching.Moreover,the difference of leaf area between different straw mulching treatment was significant.The findings indicated that the effect of different mulching methods on leaf number was not significant.%采用了不同覆盖量的稻草覆盖和地膜覆盖方式,在大田条件下研究了覆盖方式对烤烟农艺性状及土壤温度的影响。结果表明:稻草覆盖和地膜覆盖均可显著促进烤烟前期的生长发育以及提高土壤温度,其中地膜覆盖对烤烟的早期生长促进最大,但稻草覆盖在烤烟旺长期后优于地膜覆盖,且稻草覆盖量500 kg/hm2处理优于覆盖量300 kg/hm2处理,各种覆盖方式均表现为生育后期气温高时对土壤的增温效果降低,稻草覆盖会延缓顶叶成熟期2~3 d,而地膜覆盖会提前顶叶成熟期5 d左右,稻草覆盖和地膜覆盖都显著增加了烟株35~45 d的株高,45 d之后对株高的影响不显著,地膜覆盖和稻草覆盖均增加了同期烟叶的叶面积,移栽后55 d

  10. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  13. Temperature induced structural transitions from native to unfolded aggregated states of tobacco etch virus protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Fei; Ren, Si-Yan; Xi, Lei; Du, Lin-Fang; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) is widely used to remove fusion tags from recombinant proteins because of its high and unique specificity. This work describes the conformational and the thermodynamic properties in the unfolding/refolding process of TEVp3M (three-point mutant: L56V/S135G/S219V) induced by temperature. With temperature increasing from 20 to 100 °C, the CD spectra showed a transition trend from α-helix to β-sheet, and the fluorescence emission, synchronous fluorescence, ANS and RLS spectroscopy consistently revealed that the temperature-induced unfolding process behaved in a three-state manner, for there was a relatively stable intermediate state observed around 50 °C. The reversibility of thermal unfolding of TEVp3M further showed that the transition from the native to the intermediate state was reversible (below 50 °C), however the transition from the intermediate to the unfolded state was irreversible (above 60 °C). Moreover, aggregates were observed above 60 °C as revealed by SDS-PAGE, Thioflavin-T fluorescence and Congo red absorbance.

  14. 光质对烤烟生长发育、主要经济性状和品质特征的影响%Effects of light quality on the growth and development, major economic properties and quality characters of flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 蒋卫; 梁贵林; 邱雪柏; 潘文杰

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of light quality on growth and development, major economic properties and quality characters of flue-cured tobacco by using flue-cured tobacco Yunyan 87 as the test material. We used colored films of similar transmittance to conduct shadings treatment on the bird-nest stage and at the topping period of flue-cured tobacco until the end of growth. Results showed blue light could promote the reproductive growth of tobacco plants and delay maturation of tobacco leaves. While red, yellow and white light did not influence the development progress of tobacco significantly, and the growth period of tobacco would be extended when the shading was conducted at topping period. Light quality has the strongest significant effect on the growth of tobacco leaves, the influence of red and blue light was stronger during the earlier stages of growth, while the influence of yellow and white light was stronger at later growing periods. Agronomic traits of the tobacco plant achieved to the best overall performance under natural light and red film. Red light could improve the growth of the tobacco stem and leaves, as well as blue and yellow lightcould restrain the growth of tobacco stem and reduce leaf area. Increasing the proportion of red light on the tobacco during the earlier growing stage improved the major economic properties of cured tobacco leaves, the effects of blue light became more obviously important during the latter stage of growth. The proper combination of red light and yellow light may play an important role in improving the tobacco leaf quality in different growing period. Increasing the proportion of red light on the tobacco during the earlier growing stage reduced the content of nicotine and protein in cured tobacco leaves as well as improved the carbohydrate content and the smoking quality of cured tobacco leaves, however, which was found to negatively affect the potassium oxide content. While enhancing yellow light proportion during later

  15. Month-wise estimates of tobacco smoking during pregnancy for the United States, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Anthony, James C

    2015-05-01

    The timing of prenatal exposure to tobacco cigarette smoking can be crucial for the developing fetus. Pushing the field beyond prior pregnancy trimester-focused smoking estimates, we estimated month-specific prevalence proportions for tobacco cigarette smoking among pregnant and non-pregnant women of the United States, with consideration of tobacco dependence (TD) as well. In advance, we posited that pregnancy onset might prompt smoking cessation in early months, before the end of the 1st trimester, and that TD might account for sustained smoking in later months, especially months 8-9, when there are added reasons to quit. Estimates are from the 2002-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health Restricted-Data Analysis System (R-DAS), with large nationally representative samples of US civilians, including 12-44 year old women (n ~ 70,000) stratified by pregnancy status and month of pregnancy, with multi-item assessment of TD as well as recently active smoking. Age was held constant via the Breslow-Day indirect standardization approach, a methodological detail of potential interest to other research teams conducting online R-DAS analyses. Among 12-44 year old women in Month 1 of pregnancy, as well as non-pregnant women, just over one in four was a recently active smoker (26-27 %), and approximately one-half of these smokers qualified as a TD case (52 %). Corresponding estimates for women in Month 3 were 17.6 % and two-thirds, respectively, lending some support for our advance hypotheses. Nonetheless, our a priori TD hypothesis about Months 8-9 seems to be contradicted: an increased concentration of TD among smokers surfaced early in pregnancy. Evidence of a possible ameliorative pregnancy effect on smoking prevalence as well as TD's effect on smoking persistence might be seen quite early in pregnancy. Substitution of a month-specific view for the traditional trimester view sheds new light on how pregnancy might shape smoking behavior before the end of trimester 1

  16. Effects of Different Organic Fertilizer on Growth, Yield, Quality and Bacterial Wilt of Flue-cured Tobacco%不同有机肥对烤烟生长发育、产质量及青枯病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健钦; 徐智; 宋建群; 张云伟; 殷红慧; 李艳红; 达布希拉图; 汤利

    2013-01-01

    通过田间试验,比较研究了不同有机肥(精制有机肥和生物有机肥)与化肥配施对烤烟农艺性状、叶绿素含量、产质量及烤烟青枯病的影响.结果表明:与当地常规施肥(100%化肥)相比,精制有机肥、生物有机肥配施80%化肥,可促进烤烟生长,显著提高烤烟产质量,减轻青枯病的危害.与当地常规施肥(100%化肥)相比,在化肥减量20%的基础上,配施生物有机肥烤烟产量提高了4.5%,产值提高了9.8%,上中等烟比例提高了8.4%,烤烟青枯病病情指数降低了47.3%;配施精制有机肥烤烟产量提高了5.3%,烤烟青枯病病情指数降低了15.8%.与配施精制有机肥处理相比,配施生物有机肥烤烟产值提高了9.5%,上中等烟比例提高了6.2%,烤烟青枯病病情指数降低了37.5%.%The field experiments were carried out to compare and study the effect of combining applica-tion of different organic fertilizer (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) with chemical fer-tilizer on agronomic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and quality and bacterial wilt of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that; compared with the local conventional fertilization (100% chemical fertilize) , combining application of refined organic fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer with 80% chemical fertilizer could promote the growth of tobacco; significantly improve the yield and quality of the flue-cured tobacco; reduce the hazards of bacterial wilt. Compared with the local conven-tional fertilization (100% chemical fertilize) , on the basis of the reduction of chemical fertilizer by 20% , the treatment that was combined application of chemical fertilizer with biological organic fertiliz-er produced the following results; yield of flue-cured tobacco increased by 4. 5% ; output value in- creased by 9. 8% ; the proportion of mid-high grade tobacco leaves increased by 8. 4% ; bacterial wilt disease index of flue-cured

  17. Biomedical loopholes, distrusted state, and the politics of HIV/AIDS "cure" in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadare, Ebenezer; Okeke, Iruka N

    2011-01-01

    As socio-medical phenomena, epidemics are revealing of the cultures in which they are experienced. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa exposes antecedent tensions between state and society, and, on a broader canvas, between the global north and south. As a contribution to the emerging literature on the social ramifications of HIV/AIDS, this article examines the saga of the Nigerian physician and immunologist, Dr Jeremiah Abalaka, who like other innovators in sub-Saharan Africa claims to have developed a curative HIV vaccine. Whilst articulating the social conditions that enabled Abalaka to thrive, the article explores the marked differences in the reaction to his "discovery" among state representatives, the scientific establishment, the general public, people living with HIV, and the media. Finally, the article valorizes the emergence of new actors in the African health sector, and the diversity of strategies used by ordinary people to achieve and maintain wellness.

  18. Smokeless tobacco use among working adults - United States, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Syamlal, Girija; King, Brian A; Castellan, Robert M

    2014-06-06

    Smokeless tobacco causes cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data to estimate the proportion of U.S. working adults who used smokeless tobacco in 2005 and 2010, by industry and occupation. This report describes the results of that analysis, which showed no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among workers from 2005 (2.7%) to 2010 (3.0%). In 2010, smokeless tobacco use was highest among adults aged 25-44 years (3.9%), males (5.6%), non-Hispanic whites (4.0%), those with no more than a high school education (3.9%), and those living in the South (3.9%). By industry, the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use ranged from 1.5% in education services to 18.8% in mining industries, and by occupation from 1.3% in office and administrative support to 10.8% in construction and extraction. These findings highlight opportunities for reducing the health and economic burdens of tobacco use among U.S. workers, especially those in certain industries (e.g., mining) and occupations (e.g., construction and extraction) where use of smokeless tobacco is especially common. CDC recommends best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs, including effective employer interventions, such as providing employee health insurance coverage for proven cessation treatments, offering easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and establishing and enforcing tobacco-free workplace policies.

  19. Effect of Slowly-released Potassium Fertilizers on Potassium Content and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco%几种缓释钾肥对烤烟钾含量及产量产值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金; 李进平; 涂书新; 陈振国; 彭孟祥; 魏文娟

    2014-01-01

    采用农艺技术措施提高烤烟钾素含量是提高烤烟烟叶品质和产值的重要途径。通过缓释钾肥钾养分释放试验及大田肥效试验,研究了包膜硝酸钾、腐殖酸氯化钾、包膜腐殖酸氯化钾等缓释肥料的钾营养释放特征,以及对烤烟钾含量和产量、产值的影响。结果表明,标准条件下,上述3种缓释钾肥28 d钾养分累积释放率分别为67.2%、100%和87.5%,缓释能力以包膜硝酸钾肥最好。与常规钾肥相比,大田缓释钾肥处理的土壤速效钾含量在烤烟生长后期并未降低且有增加趋势,施用缓释钾肥提高烟叶钾含量13%~39%,烤烟产量6%~32%,产值7%~32%。缓释钾肥对提高烤烟钾含量及产量产值有重要作用,可以在生产上推广应用。%Agronomic measures can be adapted to increase plant K content, which is one of important strategies to improve the quality and output value of flue-cured tobacco. Experiments on K release and field crop response of slowly-released K fertilizers, i.e., PV Coated potassium nitrate, Humic matter coated potassium chloride, and PV and humic coated potassium chloride, were conducted to investigate the K release characteristics and their effects on yield and output value of tobacco. The results showed that the accumulative solubility rates of K of three slowly-released K fertilizers in 28 days under standard conditions were 67.2%, 100%and 87.5%, respectively, of which the performance of PV coated potassium nitrate was the best. The content of soil available K increased at late growth stage of plant treated with the slowly released fertilizers. Compared with the control (common K fertilizer), application of slowly-released potassium increased leaf K content by 13%-39%, yield by 7%-32%, and production value by 7%-32%. In conclusion, the slowly-released potassium fertilizers tested have positive effects on increasing K content and output value of tobacco, and has high potential in

  20. Effects of Durations of Disclosing Plastic Film on the Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%不同揭膜时间对烤烟产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂建; 蔡寒玉; 李成杰; 李兰周; 范业晨; 李佛琳; 杨焕文

    2011-01-01

    为了综合评价丽江烟区地膜覆盖对烤烟生产的作用,采用灰色关联分析法研究了不覆盖地膜、移栽后20 d揭膜培土、移栽后35 d揭膜培土、移栽后50 d揭膜培土、全生育期盖膜共5个不同揭膜时间的处理对烟叶产量、均价、上等烟比例、总糖含量、烟碱含量、K2O含量、香气量、香气质、杂气、刺激性的综合影响.结果表明,移栽后35 d揭膜为最优处理,其烟叶产值量最优,烟叶内在化学成分协调,评吸得分高,品质好,其产量、均价、上等烟比例、总糖、烟碱、K2O、香气量、香气质、杂气、刺激性分别为167.25 kg/666.7m2,12.13元/kg,56.4%,38.36%,2.52%,2.13%,6,6,5.5,5.5.分析结果与生产实际表现一致.%Aim to evaluate effect of plastic film on the flue-cured tobacco in Lijiang, a field experiment were carried out that effects of different durations of disclosing plastic film with 5 treatments on tobacco leaf production, average price, the proportion of quality tobacco, the total sugar content, nicotine content , K2O content, aroma, fragrant qualities, mixed gas and irritating were studied by the way of using gray relational analysis, which included No Film, 20 days after transplanting removing film, 35 days after transplanting removing film, 50 days after transplanting removing film, whole field duration film. The results showed that 35 days after transplanting removing film was the best process which had a optimal tobacco leaf; more coordination in chemical quality; high score in smoking assessment and good quality. Its yield, average price, high grades proportion, total sugar, nicotine, K2O, volume of aroma, quality of aroma, offensive odor, irritation respectively fellow as 167.25 kg/666. 7m2, 12. 13 Yuan/kg, 56.4%, 38.36%, 2.52%, 2.13%, 6, 6, 5.5, 5.5. The analysis was consistent with the actual production.

  1. 曲靖烟叶物理性状与海拔及经纬度的关系分析%Relationship Between Physical Properties of Qujing Flue-cured Tobacco and Altitude, Longitude and Latitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马继良; 肖雅; 刘彦中; 王瑞宝; 殷寿安

    2011-01-01

    以曲靖烟区主栽烤烟品种K326为材料,采用相关分析、通径分析和逐步回归分析的方法,探讨了烟叶的单叶重、长度、宽度、含梗率、平衡含水率与海拔、经度、纬度之间的相互关系.结果表明:在达到显著或极显著水平的相关性中,叶长与经度呈正相关,与纬度呈负相关;叶宽与经度呈正相关,与海拔呈负相关;单叶重与纬度呈负相关;含梗率与纬度呈正相关;平衡含水率与经度呈负相关;叶长受地理指标的影响最大,而纬度对烟叶物理性状的影响最大.地理指标对物理性状的影响以直接效应为主,间接效应为辅,海拔、经度、纬度之间有弱的交互作用.叶长、单叶重与海拔及经纬度的多元逐步回归方程达极显著水平且拟合度较好.%Taking K326, a flue-cured tobacco cultivar widely planted in Qujing, as a sample, the relationship of single leaf weight, length, width, stem content, and equilibrium moisture content of tobacco leaf with altitude, longitude and latitude where the tobacco was planted was studied with correlation analysis, path analysis and .stepwise regression analysis. The results indicated that leaf length significantly positively correlated with longitude and extremely significantly negatively correlated with latitude; the correlation of leaf width with longitude was significantly positive, while with altitude was extremely significantly negative; single leaf weight extremely significantly negatively correlated with latitude; stem content extremely significantly positively correlated with latitude; equilibrium moisture content extremely significantly negatively correlated with longitude. Of all the physical properties, leaf length was susceptible to altitude, latitude and longitude the most. Of all the geographic factors, the influence of latitude was higher than the other factors on physical properties. The geographic factors influenced physical properties of tobacco

  2. How Medicaid and Other Public Policies Affect Use of Tobacco Cessation Therapy, United States, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Leighton; Brantley, Erin; Bysshe, Tyler; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K

    2016-10-27

    State Medicaid programs can cover tobacco cessation therapies for millions of low-income smokers in the United States, but use of this benefit is low and varies widely by state. This article assesses the effects of changes in Medicaid benefit policies, general tobacco policies, smoking norms, and public health programs on the use of cessation therapy among Medicaid smokers. We used longitudinal panel analysis, using 2-way fixed effects models, to examine the effects of changes in state policies and characteristics on state-level use of Medicaid tobacco cessation medications from 2010 through 2014. Medicaid policies that require patients to obtain counseling to get medications reduced the use of cessation medications by approximately one-quarter to one-third; states that cover all types of cessation medications increased usage by approximately one-quarter to one-third. Non-Medicaid policies did not have significant effects on use levels. States could increase efforts to quit by developing more comprehensive coverage and reducing barriers to coverage. Reductions in barriers could bolster smoking cessation rates, and the costs would be small compared with the costs of treating smoking-related diseases. Innovative initiatives to help smokers quit could improve health and reduce health care costs.

  3. Effect of cure period in the giant catus pear cladodes on root emission in neossol in Lagoa Seca County, State Of Paraìba, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In semi-arid region of Northeast, Brazil, the giant cactus pear is a forage that contains, on average, 90% water and helps to relieve the thirst of the catlle, mainly in the dry season. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica as fodder for animals has been gaining space, especially in the states of Alagoas, Pernambuco and Paraiba. This study aimed to investigate the effects of curing of cladodes in root emission in giant cactus pear. An experiment was established composed of 300 cladodes, planted with spacing of 0.5 x 0.5 m, a total area of 100 m2 where the soil was classified as Neossol Regolithic Eutrophic. The cure of cladodes was conducted in the shade for a period of 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 days. The results showed that the best treatment and that provided the greatest number of roots was the period of curing for 32 days and planted at 15 days. The greatest length of giant cactus pear roots was obtained when the cladodes were subjected to a cure period of 32 days and planted to 25 days after cure. Cladodes planted and harvested the same day, even in dry soil, rotting due to infection caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora atroseptica sub-species.

  4. 烤烟烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度的关系%Relationship Between Physical-chemical Indexes and Burnt Sweet Taste of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均; 姜均停

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Sixty flue-cured tobacco leaf samples were collected from Zhumadian, the relationships between physical-chemical indexes and level of burnt sweet taste were studied with correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that:l) per leaf area weight,nicotine,megastigmatrienone A,B,C and D significantly positively correlated to, leaf thickness, volatile base, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methyl furfural extremely significantly positively correlated to, while reducing sugar, linalool, farnesylacetone, geranyl acetone,β-ionone, 2-acetyl furan, dihydroactinidiolide extremely significantly negatively correlated to the level of burnt sweet taste; 2) there was an extremely significant regression relationship between furfural, 5-methyl furfural, 2-acetyl furan, geranyl acetone and the level of burnt sweet taste, they were the major factors affecting the level of burnt sweet taste of tobacco leaves and determined about 89.9% of the change of the later.%以河南省驻马店烟区的60个烤烟烟叶为材料,检测评价了烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度,并采用相关分析、逐步回归分析等方法研究了烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度的关系.结果表明:①烟叶叶面密度、烟碱、巨豆三烯酮A,巨豆三烯酮B,巨豆三烯酮C,巨豆三烯酮D与焦甜感程度显著正相关,厚度、挥发 性碱、山奈酚糖苷、糠醛、糠醇、5-甲基糠醛与焦甜感程度极显著正相关,还原糖、芳樟醇、金合欢基丙酮、香叶基丙酮、β-紫罗兰酮、2-乙酰呋喃、二氢猕猴桃内酯与焦甜感程度极显著负相关;②糠醛、5-甲基糠醛、2-乙酰呋喃、香叶基丙酮与烟叶焦甜感程度存在极显著回归关系.糠醛、5-甲基糠醛、2-乙酰呋喃、香叶基丙酮是影响烟叶焦甜感程度的主要指标.

  5. 不同烤烟品种(基因型)氮效率及耐低氮能力的差异%Differential Analysis of Nitrogen Utilization and Tolerance to Low Nitrogen Level Between Flue-cured Tobacco Cultivars (Genotypes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元炯; 张生杰; 马永建; 杨铁钊

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen utilization and tolerance to low nitrogen level were investigated on flue-cured tobacco cv. Yuyan 5, Yuyan 6, Yuyan 7 and Zhongyan 100. The results showed that there were significant differences of nitrogen utilization and tolerance to low nitrogen level between different tobacco genotypes, and the maximum difference was observed under low nitrogen level. The leaf weight per plant, response index to nitrogen, dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen utilization of cv. Yuyan 5 were the highest, while those of cv. Zhongyan 100 the lowest; which indicated that cv. Yuyan 5 possessed a strong ability of nitrogen uptake and accumulation, it was a cultivar with higher tolerance to low nitrogen level and higher nitrogen utilization; however, Zhongyan 100 was a cultivar with lower nitrogen utilization and susceptible to low nitrogen level.%以豫烟5号、豫烟6号、豫烟7号、中烟100烤烟品种为材料,研究了不同烤烟品种(基因型)氮效率及耐低氮能力的差异.结果表明:不同烤烟品种间氮效率及耐低氮能力差异显著,且低氮水平下表现出的差异最大.豫烟5号品种单株叶质量、氮素反应指数、干物质积累量、氮素积累量、氮效率均最高,中烟100品种均最低,说明豫烟5号品种具有较强的氮素吸收与积累能力,是氮高效品种,耐低氮能力强,属耐低氮的种质;中烟100为氮低效品种,耐低氮能力弱,属于不耐低氮的种质.

  6. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation.

  7. An overview of tobacco related cancers in Patan district, Gujarat state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivarajani Parimal J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tobacco is the single most important cause of avoidable morbidity and early mortality in many countries. In India approximately 700,000-900,000 new cancers are diagnosed every year. Nearly half of all cancers in men and one fifth of cancers in women are tobacco related cancers. The present study was conducted to examine the proportion of tobacco related cancers, their age distribution and geographical variations in Patan district, Gujarat. All new cases of tobacco related cancers diagnosed during the year 2011 were included in the study. Apart from Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, cancer data were also obtained from government hospitals, private hospitals& consultants, pathology laboratories and death registration units of Patan district and other districts. During the year 2011, a total of 472 new cases (Males: 310; Females: 162 were registered. Among them 214 cases were tobacco related cancers with a male preponderance (189 cases. Majority of the cases were in the age group of 35-64 years. Tongue Cancer was the commonest site in both sexes. Patan taluka had highest tobacco related cancers. This study implies an urgent need for tobacco control among the population of Patan district as tobacco is the most common risk factor of cancer occurrence.

  8. Frequency of Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students -- United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pkg/PLAW-111publ31/html/PLAW-111publ31.htm . CDC. Best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs—2014. Atlanta, GA: ... Available at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/best_practices/pdfs/2014/comprehensive.pdf . Summary What is already ...

  9. 烤烟两段式少基质漂浮育苗对烟苗素质的影响%Effects of Two-stage Little Medium Floating System of Flue-cured Tobacco on Quality of Tobacco Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾淑华; 熊成文; 胡永龙; 刘雷; 郭仕平; 覃太友

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide theory evidence for popularization and application of two-stage little medium floating system studies of tobacco seedling quality were carried out to compare two-stage little medium floating system with common floating system. Agronomic traits and some physiological and biochemical indexes were determined respectively on the two kinds of seedling methods. The results showed that plant height, stem circumference, stem height and leave number had no significant difference. Chlorophyll content of the two kinds of seedling methods was equal to each other. However, the root number and root activity of little medium floating system were significantly higher than those of common floating system. The medium was saved by 85% in two-stage little medium floating system. Meanwhile, the cost and peat (non-renewable resources) were dramatically reduced, which played an important role in protecting ecological environment.%为了给实际生产中推广应用烤烟两段式少基质漂浮育苗提供理论依据,研究了烤烟两段式少基质漂浮育苗与常规漂浮育苗对烟苗素质的影响,分别测定了两种育苗方式烟苗成苗主要农艺性状指标和生理生化指标.结果表明:两种育苗方式烟苗的株高、茎围、茎高、有效叶片数等农艺性状无明显差异;两种育苗方式成苗期烟苗叶片叶绿素含量相当,但两段式少基质漂浮育苗的根系数量及根系活力均明显高于常规漂浮育苗.两段式少基质漂浮育苗可节约85%左右的基质用量,育苗基质成本大幅降低,同时有效减少草炭(泥炭)不可再生资源的消耗,对保护生态环境具有重要意义.

  10. State of art an Overview on the Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength of Concrete in different Curing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    J. Allen Paul Edson; M. Kamesh Amudhan

    2014-01-01

    The concrete is made of different ingredients such as cement, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate but it is a homogeneous material when it is in a harden concrete. The strength of concrete decides the life span of any concrete structure. The factors which affect the strength of concrete are the type of material used, size of aggregate, water cement ratio, improper compaction and improper curing. Curing is one of the major factors in the failure of concrete. Curing is defined as the process o...

  11. State Medicaid Expansion Tobacco Cessation Coverage and Number of Adult Smokers Enrolled in Expansion Coverage - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Anne; Haddix, Meredith; Jump, Zach; Babb, Stephen; Schecter, Anna; Williams, Kisha-Ann S; Asman, Kat; Armour, Brian S

    2016-12-09

    In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3). Insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatments is associated with increased quit attempts, use of cessation treatments, and successful smoking cessation (3); this coverage has the potential to reduce Medicaid costs (4). However, barriers such as requiring copayments and prior authorization for treatment can impede access to cessation treatments (3,5). As of July 1, 2016, 32 states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),*(,†) which has increased access to health care services, including cessation treatments (5). CDC used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System (MBES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the number of adult smokers enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. To assess cessation coverage among Medicaid expansion enrollees, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of, and barriers to accessing, evidence-based cessation treatments. As of December 2015, approximately 2.3 million adult smokers were newly enrolled in Medicaid because of Medicaid expansion. As of July 1, 2016, all 32 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility under ACA covered some cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion enrollees, with nine states covering all nine cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion

  12. 有机肥对烤烟干物质积累及分配的影响%Effect of Flue-cured Tobacco Dry Matter Accumulation and Distribution in Organic Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟巍; 范雪微; 夏厚禹; 郭宇; 陈乔; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了有机肥对烤烟各器官干物质积累的影响,以为黑龙江重茬栽培烤炯合理施用有机肥提供理论依据。本试验设在肇州县永胜乡,采用田间小区试验设计,4个处理,分别为对照B1,常规施肥B2,有机肥B3,有机HE+饼肥处理B4,所有处理氮、P2O5、K2O用量分别为52.50、78.75、105.00kg·hm^-2,3次重复。结果表明:根系、茎内B4处理干物质积累量比B2处理提高33.85%、17.51%,B3处理分别提高15.30%、10.19%;下部叶、中部叶、上部叶B4处理干物质积累量分别达到1061.17、865.73、601.58kg·hm^-2,显著高于B2处理;B3处理下部叶干物质积累量显著高于B2处理,中部叶、上部叶与B2之间无显著差异;B4处理有利于干物质在下部叶中的分配,B2处理有利于干物质在中部叶中的分配。综合分析认为B4为最佳处理。%The test studied effect of flue-cured tobacco dry matter accumulation and distribution in organic fertilizer that provided a theoretical basis for the production of flue-cured tobacco rational application of organic fertilizer. The test with random block design in the field of Yongsheng Township, Zhaozhou county, four treatments were applied for the control (B1), conventional fertilizer (B2), organic tertilizer (B3), organic fertilizer and fermented soybean cake treatment (B4), B2 to B4 treatment N, P2O5,K2O tertilizer were 52.50,78.75,105.00 kg·hm^-2,repeat 3 times. The results showed that the B4 treatment dry matter accumulation increased than B2 was 33.85%, 17.51% and organic fertilizer treatment increased 15.30%, 10.19% in root and stem; lower leaves, middle leaves, upper leaves dry matter accumulation reached 1 061.17,865.73,601.58 kg·hm^-2 and significantly higher than the conventional fertilizer treatment with organic cropping fertilizer; organic fertilizer treatment significantly higher than the conventional fertilizer in lower leaves

  13. 定向发酵饼肥对烤烟钾积累及烟叶钾含量影响%Effect of Fermented Soybean Cake on Flue-cured Tobacco Potassium Accumulation and Its Leaf Potassium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 张吉立; 孙海人; 吉玮蓉; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    In this trial, flue-cured tobacco potassium accumulation and changes of flue-cured tobacco leaf potassium content were studied with different proportion of application fermented soybean cake to provide a theoretical basis for its rational application of fermented soybean cake in production, the test was designed with random block in the field of Yongsheng township of Zhaozhou county, three treatments were applied with the pure inorganic fertilizer,50 % of the fermented soybean cake and 50 % inorganic fertilizer application, 100 % fermented soybean cake. In all treatments, the application amounts of NPK were52.50, 52.50 and 105.00 kg o hm-2, respectively, and the test was repeated 3 times. The results showed that root potassium accumulation increased in 3 -11 weeks and later reduced, and 3 treatments had no significant difference. The potassium accumulation in stem was the same as that in root and the accumulation reached 51.57 kg o hm -2 with 50 % fermented soybean cake treatment; lower leaves potassium accumulation indicated the increase all the time and three treatments had no significant difference in harvest; the potassium accumulation of the middle leaves and upper leaves with 100 % fermented soybean cake treatment was the highest, which reached 41.79 and 42.95 kg o hm -2, respectively. Comprehensive analysis indicated that the proportion of fermented soybean cake applied at 50 % -100 % did not significantly affect the potassium accumulation.%试验研究了不同饼肥施用比例对烤烟钾积累以及烟叶含钾量的变化规律,为生产中合理施用发酵饼肥提供理论依据.本试验设在肇州县永胜乡,采用田间小区试验设计,3个处理,分别为当地常规施肥处理,50%发酵饼肥与50%无机化肥混合,100%施用发酵饼肥,所有处理氮磷钾施用量分别为52.50,52.50,105.00kg ·hm-2,3次重复.结果表明:3~11周根系钾积累呈现出增加的变化,后期降低,3个处理之间无显著差异;茎内

  14. The Ultra-structure Observation of Glandular Hairs Secretory Cell of Flue-cured Tobacco%烤烟腺毛分泌细胞的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓明; 张晶; 于丽杰

    2011-01-01

    为了解和掌握烤烟腺毛分泌细胞中分泌物产生、转运及分泌的过程和规律,通过透射电子显微镜观察了烤烟的长柄腺毛和短柄腺毛分泌细胞的超微结构.结果表明:2种类型腺毛的分泌细胞在超微结构上特性比较相似,但优势细胞器的分布不同,结构完整的发达的叶绿体在长柄腺毛分泌细胞的细胞质内大量存在,可以初步认定叶绿体参与了腺毛分泌产物的生物合成;在2类腺毛中均有大量的内质网、线粒体、液泡和少数的高尔基体,这些细胞器与腺毛的分泌活动有密切的关系.2种腺毛中都观察到细胞间隙和胞质外空间的产生和扩大,以及其中存在的嗜锇物质,2处是分泌产物的临时储藏所,分泌产物在细胞中的分布可得到分泌物的储存和释放途径.%Ultra-structure of the flue-cured tobacco was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand and master the process and regulation of generation, transportation and secretion of the secretion from glandular hairs secretory cell of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that the ultra-structure of the long-stem glandular hairs was very similar to the short-stem glandular hairs, but the distribution of advantageous cell was different and there were plenty of well structured and developed chloroplasts in the long-stem glandular cell. It can be affirmed that chloroplast has been involved in the biosynthesis of glandular secreta. A large amount of endoplasmic, reticulum, mitochondria, vacuole and a few of golgiosome existed in the two kinds of glandular hairs. These organelles were greatly related with the secretory of glandular hairs cell. With the space appearance and expansion of intercellular and cytoplasm external and osmiophilic materials, it was proved that the two places were both temporary storage sites of secreta and the pathway of secreta storage and release can be investigated by observing the secreta's distribution

  15. 烤烟胞质雄性不育杂种农艺性状的遗传分析%Genetic Analysis of Agronomic Traits in Flue-cured Tobacco Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡日生; 曾中; 周劲波

    2011-01-01

    为明确新选育的烤烟胞质雄性不育系农艺性状的遗传效应及杂种优势利用潜力,以3个烤烟胞质雄性不育系和4个推广烤烟品种为材料,配成12个杂种,利用简单加性-显性遗传模型对烤烟株高、有效叶数、叶长、叶宽、叶长宽比、茎围、节距和单叶重农艺性状进行遗传分析.结果表明,8个农艺性状受环境的影响大,遗传率较低;农艺性状主要受显性或加性与环境互作效应控制,株高、叶长、叶宽和叶长宽比的显性效应显著高于加性效应,而有效叶、茎围、节距和单叶重的显性效应和加性效应几乎相当;MsYZ203-6、MsYZ216-1和MsYZ206-9烤烟胞质雄性不育系的重要农艺性状存在较大的显性效应,在配制的组合中有较强的杂种优势表现.%In order to understand the genetic effects and hybrid vigor potential of newly developed flue-cured tobacco cytoplasmic male sterile lines, twelve hybrids crossed among 3 cytoplasmic male sterile lines and 4 flue-cured tobacco varieties were used to determine the genetic effects in economic characters including stem height, leaf quantity, leaf length, leaf width, ratio of leaf length to width, stem girth, pitch and weight of single leaf. The results in the present paper showed that the 8 agronomic traits were largely affected by environment, and all had low heritability. The agronomic traits mainly controlled by interaction of dominance or addiction and environment. Stem height, leaf length, leaf width and ratio of leaf length to width had distinctly larger dominant effects than additive effects, while leaf quantity, stem girth, pitch and weight of single leaf had nearly the same dominant effects as additive effects. The 3 cytoplasmic male sterile lines, MsYZ203-6, MsYZ216-land MsYZ206-9 with high dominant effects in agronomic traits had strong heterosis in their hybrids.

  16. Effects of Nitrogen Application Regimes on Nitrogen Uptake, Accumulation and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%施氮方式对烤烟氮素吸收积累及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张本强; 石屹; 张忠锋; 马兴华; 王术科; 王毅; 孙刚; 管恩森; 吴元华; 陈向东; 张艳艳

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了不同施氮量和基追肥比例对烟株氮素吸收累积、土壤硝态氮、品质及产量的影响.结果表明,不同处理对烤烟生长前期干物质积累量、烟株氮素含量和氮素累积量无明显影响,减少氮肥用量与基肥用量降低了成熟期叶片氮素含量和氮素累积量,减少氮肥用量显著降低了生长前期和后期的土壤硝态氮含量.随施氮量的增加,烤后烟叶还原糖含量、糖碱比表现为下降趋势,而总植物碱、总氮含量表现为增加趋势.相同施氮量基追肥比例为30∶70处理的还原糖含量、糖碱比较大,总植物碱含量、总氮含量较小,香气质、余味得分较高.施纯氮90 kg/hm2,基追肥比例为50∶50和30∶70的处理经济效益明显增加.本试验条件下,兼顾烟叶产量与品质的最佳氮肥运筹模式为施纯氮90 kg/hm2,基追肥比例为30∶70.%A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of different nitrogen rate and ratio of base and topdressing on nitrogen uptake, accumulation, soil NO3- -N contents, and leaf quality and yield. The results showed that, the effects were not obvious in dry matter accumulation amounts, nitrogen content and nitrogen accumulation amounts of different treatments in early growth stage of flue-cured tobacco, reducing nitrogen application rate and basal dosage reduced nitrogen content and nitrogen accumulation amounts in the mature leaves, and reducing nitrogen application rate made soil NO3- -N contents in early and late growth stage of flue-cured tobacco decreased obviously. As the nitrogen increased, the reducing sugar contents and the ratio of total sugar to total plant alkaloid contents decreased, but total plant alkaloid and total nitrogen contents increased. The reducing sugar contents and the ratio of total sugar to plant alkaloid contents of the 30:70 of base and topdressing were larger than those of other treatments, the total plant alkaloid and total nitrogen

  17. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  18. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  19. 烟苗陶管增温壮苗培育试验初报%Preliminary Study on Strong Seedling Cultivation of Flue-Cured Tobacco by Terracotta Fire-Tube Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美水; 马琳; 杨勇; 金云华; 宋艳; 张继

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively improve the temperature of seedling shed on seedling stage and improve the level of strong seedling cultivation,an experiment of terracotta fire-tube air heating was done,which aimed to study the effect of air heating on seedling quality of flue-cured tobacco.The result showed that,compared with the conventional seedling methods,terracotta fire-tube air heating could upgrade the seedling shed temperature 3.8~5.6 ℃ and nursery pond water temperature 1.7~3.4 ℃,advance the time of the seedling emergence 10 days,advance the seedling time 15 days,and advance the transplanting period about two weeks.%为改善烤烟育苗前期低温寡照天气对烟苗成苗的影响,提高壮苗培育水平,通过陶瓦火管空气加热方式,研究其对烟苗素质的影响.结果表明,与常规育苗方式相比,通过陶瓦火管对育苗棚进行供热,可将棚内温度提高3.8~5.6℃,苗池水温提高1.7~3.4℃,烟苗出苗提早10d,成苗时间缩短15d,进而可将烟苗移栽期提前两周左右.

  20. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Penang State and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Noordin Noorliza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population. Methods Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers. Results Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817 and 13.95% (114/817, respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate. The mean (± SD total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 ± 2

  1. The Impact of School Suspension on Student Tobacco Use: A Longitudinal Study in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: School suspension may have unintended consequences in contributing to problem behaviors, including dropping out from school, substance use, and antisocial behavior. Tobacco use is an early-onset problem behavior, but prospective studies of the effects of suspension on tobacco use are lacking. Method: Longitudinal school-based survey of…

  2. 新型烟草有机肥对烤烟产质量的影响%Effects of New Type of Organic FertiIizer on YieId and QuaIity of FIue -cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 向鹏华; 张大伟

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of new type of tobacco organic fertilizer on growth,disease resistance,yield and quality of flue -cured tobacco in Changsha and Yongzhou in 2014.The results showed that when new type of organic fertilizer was used as basal fertilizer,the growth of tobacco plant was promoted,vegetable growth duration was prolonged,agronomic traits were improved,virus disease index was decreased,and yield was enhanced.At Yongzhou experimental base,output value of T2 was the highest,which reached 54 030.0 yuan/hm2 ,which was higher 1 952.3 yuan/hm2 than that of CK.At Changsha experimental base,output value of T1 was the highest,which reached 46 059.3 yuan/hm2 ,which was significantly higher than that of T3 and CK.New type of organic fertilizer could improve the appearance quality and coordination of chemical components.T1 and T2 had more suitable sugar alkali ratio,potassium chloride ratio, higher potassium content and better sensory quality.Smoking assessment scores of T1 and T2 at two sites were 2% higher than that of CK.Comprehensively,the effects of No.1 and No.2 new type of organic fertilizer were better.%利用大田试验,2014年在永州和长沙研究了施用新型烟草有机肥对烤烟生长、抗病能力及产质量的影响。结果表明:在烤烟生产中,将新型有机肥作基肥施入,能有效促进植株生长发育,延长烤烟的营养生长时间;增强生长势,改善农艺性状;降低花叶病病情指数和提高烟叶经济产量,在永州点,2号有机肥产值最高,为54030.0元/hm2,较对照高1952.3元/hm2,在长沙点,1号有机肥产值最高,为46059.3元/hm2,显著高于3号有机肥和对照;能改善烤后烟叶外观质量和烟叶内在化学成分协调性,施用1、2号有机肥的烟叶糖碱比、钾氯比更适宜,钾含量更高;烟叶感官质量更好,两个试验点1、2号有机肥处理评吸得分均比对照高2

  3. 河南省不同土壤类型烤烟吸钾特性比较研究%Study on the Characteristic of Potassium Absorption of Flue-cured Tobacco in Different Types of Soil in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛家伟; 韩锦峰; 张翔; 李国平; 高畅

    2012-01-01

    The effect of potassium absorption of flue-cured tobacco in different types of soil was investigated by pot experiments to provide scientific basis for reasonable potassium application in the tobacco-growing area of Henan province. The results showed that the potassium application in yellow cinnamon soil, cinnamon soil and red clay had an increase trend in agronomic characters compared with no-patassium treatment after transplanting 60 days. The dry matter accumulation rate of the three different types of soil by potassium application followed the order;red clay?cinnamon soil>yellow cinnamon soil. The total potassium content in different parts of tobacco significantly increased with the potassium application,among which potassium application in cinnamon soil could significantly improve the content of potassium (3. 404%) in leaves after transplanting 90 days. The content of available K in three different types of soil increased rapidly at the initial stage and reduced gradually at the later stage, which declined most (33. 0 mg/kg) in cinnamon soil. The utilization percent of potassium fertilizer of yellow cinnamon soil, cinnamon soil and red clay were 15. 24%,40. 96% and 38. 85% respectively. Therefore,we should pay more attention to the supply of potassium fertilizer in cinnamon soil.%为探讨不同土壤类型对烤烟钾吸收特性的影响,给河南省各烟区科学合理施用钾肥提供理论依据,采用盆栽试验研究了黄褐土、褐土和红黏土3种土壤类型烤烟的钾吸收状况.结果表明,黄褐土、褐土和红黏土施钾处理与不施钾相比,在移栽后60d烤烟生物学性状指标都有一定的提高,3种土壤类型的施钾处理烤烟干物质积累强度表现为红黏土>褐土>黄褐土.施用钾肥能显著提高烟株中各部位全钾含量,褐土施用钾肥对叶片中钾含量的提高最显著,移栽后90d的烤烟叶片钾含量为3.404%.3种土壤类型施钾处理土壤中速效钾含量均呈现初期

  4. Study on Chemistry of Different Portions of Robust Flavor Style Flue-cured Tobacco Leaf from Sangzhi, Zhangjiajie%张家界桑植浓香型烤烟烟叶分切研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符再德; 张其龙; 张晖; 胡新林; 石大章; 李辉

    2012-01-01

    The robust flavor type flue-cured tobacco leaf from Sangzhi in Zhangjiajie was sliced into three portions, including tip, middle portion, and base portion. Their routine chemical components, thermal reaction and volatile constituents were analyzed by TG-DTA and GC-MS. On the basis of routine chemical components and volatile constituents, cluster analysis for whole leaf and each leaf portion was carried out. The results showed that: 1) the three portions differed significantly in terms of the contents of routine chemical components, the relative contents of volatile constituents and thermo-gravimetric loss rate. The nicotine content in the tip was the highest, while the contents of reducing sugar and total sugar in the tip and middle portion and the contents of potassium, chloride and total nitrogen in the base portion were higher. The contents of solaventone and palmitic acid in the tip, the contents of benzyl alcohol, geranyl acetone and myristic acid in the middle portion, and the contents of neophytadiene. 3-furaldehyde, megastigmatrienone and methyl linolenate in the base portion were higher. The thermal weight loss rate was highest in the middle portion and less in the base portion of the leaf. 2) Different portions of the leaf could be clustered into different categories. Each portion of tobacco leaf could be integrated into different formulation modules, whereby to widen the range of tobacco to be used in cigarette production.%采用TG-DTA、GC/MS等技术对湖南桑植浓香型烤烟烟叶分切后的叶尖、中间及叶基部位进行热反应分析以及常规化学成分、挥发性成分检测,并以烟叶常规化学成分和挥发性成分为指标进行分切段及全叶烟叶聚类分析.结果表明:①烟叶分切后,各段烟叶常规化学成分含量、挥发性成分相对百分含量、热失重比存在明显差异.叶尖部分烟叶的烟碱含量最高,叶尖和中间部分烟叶的还原糖和总糖含量较高,叶基部分烟叶的钾

  5. 江西烤烟主要化学特性的适宜性评价和聚类分析%Suitability Evaluation and Cluster Analysis of Main Chemical Properties of Flue-cured Tobacco in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王能如; 何宽信; 黎茶根; 王东胜; 徐庆凯; 李立新

    2012-01-01

    为研究江西烤烟品质特征和区域特点,对江西省16个县烤烟烟叶的主要化学特性进行了检测、评价和聚类分析.结果表明:①江西烤烟烟叶钾、磷、烟碱、钾氯比、还原糖、两糖比等化学特性符合优质烤烟烟叶要求的样本比例分别为100%,89.03%,87.10%,90.32%,67.10%和61.29%,钾含量均在2%以上,烟碱均在3.5%以下,主要化学特性均较适宜和协调.②烟叶总氮、烟碱、还原糖、钾含量、糖碱比等在部位间差异显著,符合部位分布一般规律.③安福、会昌、永丰、泰和、乐安、峡江等6县烟叶可聚为一类,此类烟叶还原糖、糖碱比、两糖比较高,烟碱含量较低;赣县、资溪、兴国3县可聚为一类,此类烟叶总氮、烟碱含量、两糖比较高,糖碱比较低;广昌、石城、信丰、黎川、瑞金、宁都、宜黄等7县可聚为一类,此类烟叶还原糖、两糖比较低,其它化学特性中等.江西烤烟主要化学特性具有明显区域性特点.%In order to study the quality properties and regional specialities of flue-cured tobacco in Jiangxi Province, the main chemical properties of tobacco leaves from 16 counties in Jiangxi Province were tested, evaluated and cluster analyses conducted. The results showed that: 1) The samples in which the level of potassium, phosphorus, nicotine, potassium/chloride ratio, reducing sugar, or total sugar/reducing sugar ratio matched that required by quality tobacco, accounted for 100%, 89.03%, 87.10%, 90.32%, 67.10% and 61.29%, respectively, of the total samples; the potassium contents in all samples were more than 2%, and the nicotine contents were all lower than 3.5%; the chemistry was suitable and harmonious by and large. 2) The differences of contents of total nitrogen, nicotine, reducing sugar and potassium, and sugar/alkali ratio among leaves from different stalk positions were significant and followed the general rule of distribution. 3) The leaves

  6. Effects of mixed application of effective microorganisms (EM) and soil amendments on agronomic characteristic and quality of flue-cured tobacco%混施有效微生物群(EM)及土壤改良剂对烤烟农艺性状及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦克苏; 胡婷婷; 李德仑; 涂永高; 于良骥; 涂光军

    2015-01-01

    为研究有效微生物群( effective microorganisms ,EM )和土壤改良剂混施在烤烟生产上的效果,采用田间随机区组试验调查了混施EM菌和土壤改良剂对烤烟大田期农艺性状及烟叶产量和质量的影响.结果表明:混施EM菌和土壤改良剂可促进烟株田间长势,在烤烟成熟期表现尤为明显;在常规地膜移栽和井窖式移栽模式下,混施EM菌和土壤改良剂可提高烟叶产量并优化其等级结构,其中,产量分别达到1909.31 kg/hm2和2134.91 kg/hm2,较对照分别提高5.21%和7.13%,产值分别达到29460.69元/hm2和35162.05元/hm2,除去EM 菌和土壤改良剂施用成本后,产值较对照分别提高3.84%和8.72%;在化学成分方面,混施EM菌和土壤改良剂可提高初烤烟叶烟碱、钾和氯含量,降低总糖含量、施木克值和糖碱比,提高两糖比(还原糖/总糖),降低两糖差值;混施EM菌和土壤改良剂可提高烟叶评吸质量,评吸总得分分别提高2.30和2.67.综上所述,混施 EM 菌和土壤改良剂在优化烟叶等级结构、提高烟叶产质量上具有实用价值.%Summary Flue‐cured tobacco is a major cash crop in China . Due to the scarcity of land resources , continuous cropping of tobacco was very common all over the country . However , the continuous cropping phenomenon would lead to change of soil properties and nutrient imbalance , seriously affecting yield and economic merits of tobacco . Therefore , it was quite necessary to optimize the soil microbial environment and promote the effective absorption and utilization of fertilizers , to improve the yield and quality of flue‐cured tobacco . It has been reported that soil amendments could improve the physical and chemical properties of soil , as well as the nutrient status , which could also regulate pH and organic matter of soil to increase the availability of N , P and K contents . In a word , soil amendments were effective to promote the productivity of

  7. Analysis of the Appearance Quality of Tobacco Leaves in the Tobacco-growing Areas of Qujing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijuan; BAO; Folin; LI; Jun; WANG; Jiahe; JIANG; Binjie; DAI

    2014-01-01

    In order to set up the digitization indices system of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves in Qujing. According to the relevant standards,the quantitative analysis on appearance quality of 39 cutter and upper tobacco leaf samples which were collected from eight fluecured tobacco production regions of Qujing City,Yunnan Province were carried out in 2011,respectively. The results showed that the difference in evaluation score of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco in eight regions was not significant. The tobacco leaves had high maturity,high oil content,loose structure and good appearance quality. The scores of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco in Shizong County and Malong County are higher than other regions. The two regions are suitable for tobacco plantation. The preliminary digitization indices provide reference and guidance to tobacco production and standards system of tobacco leaves base.

  8. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  9. 不同香型、基因型烤烟致香物质含量与感官质量差异研究%Study on Differences in Aroma Constituent Content and Sensory Quality among Different Aroma-types and Genotypes of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小红; 刘国顺; 贾方方; 丁松爽; 王兵

    2015-01-01

    为了研究不同香型、基因型烤烟致香物质含量与感官质量差异,用气相色谱/质谱联用仪( GC/MS)对烤烟品种K326和云烟87烟叶的香味物质含量进行了检测。结果表明:不同香型烟区烤烟中的致香物质含量差异较大,致香物质总量表现为贵州>四川>河南;不同基因型烤烟中的致香物质含量也存在差异,河南烟区云烟87略大于K326,贵州烟区K326远高于云烟87,四川会理烟区云烟87高于K326,四川会东烟区K326高于云烟87。采用雷达分析法对烤烟感官质量的综合评定认为,四川、贵州烟区烟叶感官质量较好,河南较差。%In order to study the differences in aroma constituent content and sensory quality among different aroma -types and genotypes of flue-cured tobacco, the author detected the contents of aroma constituents in the leaves of flue -cured varieties K326 and Yunyan 87 by using gas chromatography /mass spectrometry ( GC/MS) .The results indicated that there were large differences in aroma constituent content among flue -cured tobacco leaves from various aroma -type tobacco-growing areas , and the total con-tent of aroma constituents revealed the following order:Guizhou >Sichuan >Henan.The content of aroma constituent in different genotypes of flue-cured tobacco was also different , Yunyan 87 had slightly higher aroma constituent content than K 326 in Henan tobacco-growing area , and K326 had considerably higher aroma constituent content than Yunyan 87 in Guizhou tobacco -growing area;the aroma constituent content in Yunyan 87 in Huili of Sichuan was higher than that in K 326, while that in K326 in Huidong of Sichuan was higher than that in Yunyan 87.The comprehensive evaluation of sensory quality of flue -cured tobacco by radar anal-ysis considered that the tobacco leaves in Sichuan and Guizhou had better sensory quality , while those in Henan had worse sensory quality.

  10. 禄丰县不同植烟乡镇初烤烟叶主要化学成分比较与聚类分析%Main Chemical Properties and Cluster Analysis of Flue-cured Tobacco in Different Tobacco-growing Regions of Lufeng County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海峰; 钟庆华; 杨旸; 董玉西; 许建明

    2015-01-01

    The main chemical properties and cluster analysis of 180 tobacco samples from 60 points of 13 to-bacco-growing regions in Lufeng County were conducted in the present work. Results showed that the main chemical components of tobacco in Lufeng were moderate, and the ratio of total nitrogen, nicotine, and NIT/NIC were within the appropriate ranges of high quality flue-cured tobacco, which characterized in high sug-ar, low chloride and low potassium. The contents of total sugar, reducible sugar and starch of ‘Yunyan 87’ were better than those of‘K326’, while the total nitrogen, nicotine and sugar alkali of the latter were better than that of the former. The main chemical components varied highly among the three grades, and B2F was more suitable than C3F based on the comprehensive evaluation. The main chemical indexes diversified signif-icantly among 13 tobacco-growing regions in exception of the nicotine and chlorine. According to the analy-sis of main chemical properties, the tobacco were divided into four types, i. e. 1) Zhongcun and Tuguan;2) Renxing;3) Jinsan, Gaofeng, Guangtong, Yipinglang, Konglongshan, Heping, Bicheng and Qinfeng; and 4) Tuoan and Heijin.%本文对禄丰县13个植烟乡镇60个取样点180个烤烟样品的主要化学成分进行了特征分析、主成分分析和聚类分析。结果表明:禄丰烤烟主要化学成分比较适宜和协调,各植烟乡镇的总氮、烟碱、氮碱比均在优质烤烟的适宜范围内,高糖、低氯和低钾特征比较明显;云烟87的总糖、还原糖和淀粉含量均比K326好,而K326在总氮、烟碱和糖碱比这3个指标优于云烟87;3个等级烟叶的主要化学成分指标差异均为显著,综合比较B2F比C3F更为适宜;除烟碱和氯外,13个植烟乡镇烟叶的主要化学成分指标差异在0.05的水平上均为显著。根据13个植烟乡镇烟叶的化学成分主成分分析的结果,聚类可分为4种类型,中村、土官为第1类;仁兴为第2类

  11. Community-based advocacy opportunities for tobacco control: experience from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaruki, Lutgard K

    2010-06-01

    Tanzania is third in Africa in tobacco production after Malawi and Zimbabwe. In spite of increased production, Tanzania remains a poor country, with tobacco farmers getting poorer and the country losing more than 16,500 hectares of forests annually from tobacco curing alone. Tanzania grows fire-cured and air-cured tobacco. Regarding tobacco use, 35% of Tanzanians smoke tobacco regularly and about 32% of all cancers at Ocean Road Cancer Institute are attributed to tobacco use, with the country spending more than $30m annually to treat tobacco-related cancers. Unfortunately, knowledge on tobacco-related hazards is limited even among policy/decision makers. However, surveys indicate that more than 65% of resource-poor tobacco farmers favour alternative livelihoods when assured of sustainable markets. There is need of intensifying advocacy campaigns against tobacco, in order to improve the socio-economic status of tobacco farmers, enhance public health and sustain the environment in Tanzania.

  12. Effects of Drought-resistant Moist-locking Measures on Growth and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%抗旱保水措施对烤烟生长发育及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段卫东; 杨焕文; 王廷晓; 刘茂林; 申洪涛; 张大纯; 吴运峰; 黎佳富; 胡小曼; 李佛琳

    2011-01-01

    针对丽江市永胜县片角乡旱区干旱的实际情况,寻找烤烟抗旱技术措施.采用随机区组设计,通过不覆盖、增施保德微生物土壤改良剂、隔垄秸秆全覆盖、覆膜+行间秸秆覆盖、覆膜+全表面秸秆覆盖的处理,以云97为材料,研究不同覆盖方式对烤烟生理特性、产量及品质的影响.结果表明:(1)覆盖处理能促进烟株生长,各处理大田生育期较CK分别提前了2,4,4,5d.(2)覆膜对烟株在全生育期均有增加地温的效果,而秸秆覆盖降低地温,因此覆膜+全表面秸秆覆盖各土层积温比覆膜+行间秸秆覆盖高2.38 ~9.25℃,除增施土壤改良剂处理外,各处理土壤含水量分别提高了2.44%,2.99%,4.58%,覆盖措施促进烟株叶绿素合成,前期效果更为明显. (3)各覆盖处理产量、均价及上中等烟比例分别提高375,675,750,900 kg/hm2,产值分别提高7 703.2,13 252.5,13 978.5,17 386.5元/hm2,均价分别提高1.68,2.37,2.24,2.77元/kg,上等烟比例分别提高6%,4.8%,10.2%,16.8%,上中等烟比例分别提高6.7,7.3,14.5,15.8%.(4)增施土壤改良剂使总糖、还原糖含量降低4.77,4.7%,各处理均使总氮含量分别增加0.14,0.02,0.23,0.42%,除增施土壤改良剂的处理外,其他各处理分别增加钾含量0.05%,0.09%,0.09%,烟叶化学成分更协调,其中,覆膜+全表面秸秆覆盖的处理具有最高的经济效益,是最优处理.%In terms of actual situation of drought in arid regions of Pianjiao in Iijiang Yongsheng, looking for drought technical measures. By adopting randomized block design, using treatment of no mulching, applying Baode microorganism soil conditioner, full coverage with straw stalk every other ridging, plastic-mulched and straw stalk mulching in inter row, plastic-mulched and straw stalk mulching on whole surface,Yunyan 97 as material, to study effects of different mulching methods on physiological property, yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco

  13. Clearing the air: the evolution of organized labor's role in tobacco control in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Jennifer; Campbell, Richard; Levenstein, Charles; Balbach, Edith

    2008-01-01

    As efforts to make U.S. worksites smoke-free took shape in the 1980s, the tobacco industry sought to defeat them by forming alliances with organized labor. The alliance between the tobacco industry and organized labor was based on framing the regulation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a threat to jobs, an example of management unilateralism, and an issue that divided smoking and nonsmoking union members. The dynamics of organized labor and tobacco control began to change in the late 1980s with attempts to ban smoking on airlines and in the hospitality industry. Flight attendants, bar and restaurant workers, and casino dealers-all subject to ETS in their work environments-confronted ETS as an occupational health issue. Against the backdrop of increasing awareness of the hazards of ETS, and the acceptance of tobacco control policy, this framing changed the basis of organized labor's role in tobacco control. Because service workers share the workplace with the general public, their occupational health issues are also public health issues. This fact presents new opportunities for coalition building to protect the health of service workers and the public alike.

  14. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poluyi EO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1% of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%, Yoruba (50.2% or Igbo (40.3% ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%. A majority (90.1% of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8% were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4% and esophageal (68.9% cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%, bladder cancer (47.2%, peripheral vascular disease (35.8% and sudden death (31.1%. Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. A little over half of the respondents (53.8% were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%, in public places (79.2%, and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%. For

  15. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluyi, Edward O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2015-01-01

    There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily

  16. Effects of Microbial Agents on Enzyme Activities in Soil After Continuous Cropping of Flue-cured Tobacco%微生物菌剂对植烟连作土壤酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红杰; 习向银; 刘朝科; 熊淑萍; 罗维; 谢小波; 张重义

    2011-01-01

    采用盆栽试验,研究了微生物复合肥、摩西球囊霉、幼套球囊霉、根内球囊霉对烤烟连作土壤酶活性的影响.结果表明:1)微生物复合肥、摩西球囊霉和根内球囊霉处理的脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性,幼套球囊霉处理的脲酶和磷酸酶活性,CK的脲酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性均在烤烟整个生育期中呈"升-降-升-降"的双峰变化趋势,且它们均在移栽后65 d和98 d时出现活性高峰.2)与CK相比,微生物复合肥、摩西球囊霉、幼套球囊霉均能不同程度地提高连作土壤中蔗糖酶、脲酶、磷酸酶和过氧化氢酶活性,而根内球囊霉只对连作土壤中蔗糖酶、磷酸酶和过氧化氢酶活性有明显的提高作用.综合评价不同微生物菌剂处理对烤烟连作土壤中4种酶活性的影响,认为微生物复合肥、摩西球囊霉改善烤烟连作土壤酶活性的效果较好,其次为幼套球囊霉和根内球囊霉.3)4种酶的相关分析显示,蔗糖酶与磷酸酶和过氧化氢酶与脲酶呈极显著正相关,脲酶与磷酸酶、蔗糖酶呈显著正相关,表明4种酶之间在酶促反应时存在着相互促进的作用.%The response of enzyme activities in the soil after continuous cropping of flue-cured tobacco, brought about by microbial agents, including microbe-manure, Glomus mosseae, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus intraradices, was studied with pot experiments.The results showed that: 1) The urease, phosphatase, invertase and catalase activities of microbe-manure, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices treatments, the urease and phosphatase activities of Glomus etunicatum treatment , and the urease , invertase and catalaseactivities of the control displayed the same double-peak profiles throughout the growth Mage of tobacco plants, and the two peaks appeared respectively at 65d and 98d after transplanting.2) Comparing with the control, the activities of the mentioned enzymes in the soil

  17. GGE双标图在烤烟新品种重要经济性状筛选布局中的初步应用%Application of GGE Biplot to Evaluate Economic Characters of Flue-cured Tobacco Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰宏; 谢升东; 蒲文宣; 王毅; 戴秀梅; 孙渭; 张玉芹; 王轶

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the yield ability, stability, and eco-distribution of tobacco cultivars effectively, genotype main effect and genotype-environment interaction (GGE) biplot was introduced as a new and powerful approach to analyze the leaf yields of 11 flue-cured tobacco (cultivars or lines) tested at 7 planting areas of middle flavor type. The results showed that the GGE biplot was highly representative, which explained 71.9%of the total variation of production value and 64.4%of the total yield variation. The cultivars with highest yields and of most stability and most adaptability were“Bina 1”and“Guiyan 1”. The 7 test sites were broadly classified into 3 environments, as region one including Zunyi, Wulong, and Sangzhi, region two including Xunyang, and Mengyin, region three including Guiding and Xianfeng, in which the best genotypes were“Bina 1”,“Qinyan 98”, and“HB032”respectively. The result of some genotypes specifically adapted to certain environments is useful for special cultivars screening.%为深入研究和评价烤烟新品种的丰产性、稳定性和品种生态布局,通过引入新型分析工具 GGE 模型,对2011年中间香型烟叶产区7个试点、11个烤烟新品种(系)的产量和产值进行了直观比较分析。结果表明,GGE双标图解释了产量总变异的71.9%和产值总变异的64.4%,具有真实代表性。GGE双标图显示,参试材料间丰产和稳产性差异很大,有些材料对某些环境具有特殊适应性。11个新品种(系)中,毕纳1号和贵烟1号总体表现为丰产、稳定和广适,同时毕纳1号、秦烟98和HB032分别为区1(遵义、武隆、桑植)、区2(旬阳、蒙阴)和区3(贵定、咸丰)的丰产新品种(系)。这为中间香型烟叶产区烤烟新品种的筛选和评价提供了借鉴。

  18. Agri土壤调理剂用量对烟叶香气质量的影响%Effects of Application Rate of Agri Soil Conditioner on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different Agri soil conditioner application rates (0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/ha) on aroma components,sensory quality and economic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco leaves. The results showed that increasing soil conditioner application rates, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites,aromatic amino acid catabolites and total aroma components, aroma quality and yield of leaf increased, output value, average price and proportion of high grade leaf raised at first and then reduced. At the conditioner application rate of 11.25 kg/ha, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites, aromatic amino acid catabolites, and total aroma components,aroma quality and yield of leaf were higher,and output value,average price and high grade leaf proportion were the highest.%通过田间试验研究了Agri土壤调理剂不同用量(0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/hm2)对烟叶香味物质、感官质量和经济性状的影响.结果表明:随土壤调理剂用量的增加,烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量和香气质量提高,烟叶产量增加,烟叶产值、均价和上等烟比例先提高再降低.土壤调理剂用量11.25 kg/hm2时烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量、香气质量得分和产量较高,产值、均价和上等烟比例最高.

  19. Partial least squares regression analysis of the alkaloids of flue-cured tobacco in Guizhou%贵州烤烟中生物碱的偏最小二乘回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡凯; 向章敏; 周淑平; 耿召良; 葛永辉; 张婕

    2013-01-01

    采用多元统计分析方法,对贵州2010和2011年124个烤烟样品中的8种生物碱进行偏最小二乘回归分析.结果表明:假木贼碱、二烯烟碱、新烟草碱及可替宁对烟碱含量的影响最大;通过偏最小二乘回归方程对烟碱含量进行预测,训练集119个样本的预测值与测定值之间的相对标准偏差都小于17.04%,其中有109个样本小于10.00%;用检测集5个样本进一步对方程进行验证,其预测值与测定值之间的相对标准偏差都小于6.72%.%Using the method of multivariate statistical analysis,we have conducted the partial least squares regression analysis(PLSRA) of 8 kinds of alkaloids of 124 flue-cured tobacco samples in 2010 and 2011 in Guizhou.The result shows that nornicotine,nicotyrine,anatabine and cotinine have the greatest influence on nicotine content.By partial least squares regression equation to predict the content of nicotine.We have found that the relative standard deviation between predicted value of 119 samples of the training set and their measured value is less than 17.04% and that in 109 of them is less than 10.00%.At last,5 samples of the detecting set have been applied to validate the partial least squares regression equation.The result shows that the relative standard deviation between predicted value and measured value is less than 6.72% and a good fitting has been obtained.

  20. Study on Correlation of Aboveground Biomass with Canopy Reflectance Spectrum Parameters of Flue-cured Tobacco%烤烟冠层光谱参数与地上生物量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾保顺; 马宇; 李鹏; 张扬; 李树人

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to confirm the correlation of aboveground biomass with canopy reflectance spectrum parameters of flue -cured tobacco. [Method] Five nitrogen fertilizer amount was applied in field,the correlation between aboveground biomass and canopy reflectance parameters was analyzed. [ Method ] The results showed that to the specified extent, the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application amount showed significant promotion effect on aboveground biomass in spherical plant stage and fast growing stage. The single band reflectivity wavelength -with the highest correlation with aboveground biomass was 550 nm,R = - 0. 949 0, while the vegetation index with the highest correlation with aboveground biomass was RVI( 1 050,550) ,R =0.983 1. [Conclusion] The study provides a research basement and data support for development of growth vigor monitoring instrument.%[目的]明确烤烟(Nicotiana sanderae)地上生物量与冠层光谱参数的相关性.[方法]大田条件下设置5个氮肥施用梯度,利用相关分析对地上鲜生物量和冠层光谱参数的相关性进行分析.[结果]一定范围内,施氮量增加,对团棵期和旺长期的烤烟地上鲜生物量表现出较明显的促进效应.与地上鲜生物量相关性最强的单波段反射率波长均为550 nm,R=-0.949 0;相关性最强的植被指数为RVI(1 050,550),R=0.983 1.[结论]该研究可为开发基于冠层光谱的烤烟长势监测仪器提供研究基础和数据支撑.

  1. 烤烟新品种粤烟98的选育及其特征特性%Breeding of new lfue-cured tobacco variety Yueyan98 and its characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟才; 邱妙文; 陈杰; 罗慧红; 王维

    2013-01-01

    烤烟新品种粤烟98以Coker206为母本,K326为父本杂交获得F1,经自交,系谱选育,回交聚合,再次的系谱选育而成。该品种大田生长整齐、长势强、株型较好、适应性广、遗传性状稳定;成熟度较好,叶片结构疏松,叶片厚度适中,油份多;烟叶内在化学成份协调,香气质较好,香气量足;中抗黑胫病、青枯病、根结线虫病,中感TMV、CMV,感赤星病;产量、均价、产值、上等烟比例、上中等烟比例均显著或极显著高于对照K326。烟叶具有浓香型风格特征。%A new variety of flue-cured tobacco Yueyan98 was developed though selfing, pedigree breeding, backcross polymerization, and again pedigree breeding of the F1 hybrid variety cultivated by Coker206 as female parent and K326 as male parent. The new variety was characterized by uniform and strong growth, better plant type, strong adaptability, steady genetic character, good maturity, loose leaf structure, proper vane thickness, rich oil, coordinated internal chemical composition, good smoking aroma quality, and sufficient aroma quantity. Resistance to black shank, bacterial wilt, root knot nematode disease and the infection with TMV and CMV was moderate, while infection by brown spot was found. Yield, average price, output value, high quality ratio, and high or middle quality ratio were higher or significantly higher than those of K326. Leaf was characterized by strong flavor.

  2. Effectiveness Comparative Study of Tobacco Curing on Different Alternative Energy Intensive Barn%不同替代能源密集烤房烟叶烘烤效能对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭大仰; 刘尚钱; 肖志新; 刘芮; 彭坚强; 胡志明; 曹娜; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探索烟叶烘烤燃煤的替代能源。[方法]对生物质压块、生物质颗粒和醇基3类燃料与常规燃料(褐煤)的烟叶烘烤效能进行对比研究。[结果]3种替代能源在燃烧烟气中主要污染物的排放明显低于常规燃料,烘烤过程中升温速度、稳温性能明显提高(除生物质压块外),整个烘烤工艺时间可缩短6~14 h,对初烤烟叶外观质量无明显影响;醇基燃料成本较高,烘烤综合成本约是褐煤成本的2.4倍,经济效益较差。[结论]生物质颗粒燃料可作为常规燃料(褐煤)的替代能源应用于烟叶实际烘烤工艺中。%Objective] The aim was to explore alternative energy of coal for baking.[Method] The baking efficiency of biomass briquetting, biomass particles, alcohol and conventional fuel (lignite) was comparatively studied.[Result] The results showed that alternative energy dur-ing combustion flue gas emissions of major pollutants were significantly lower than conventional fuel, heating speed, stable temperature per-formance was improved significantly (except fot biomass briquetting), baking process could be shorten 6-14 hours, no significant effect on the appearance quality of cured tobacco leaves, alcohol baking overall costs were increased by approximately 2.4-fold compared with lignite. [Conclusion] Biomass particles can be used as alternative energy of conventional fuel(lignite).

  3. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  4. 土壤调理剂及复合微生物菌剂防治烟草青枯病盆栽试验%Pot Experiment of Prevention and Cure of Tobacco Bacterial Wilt with Soil Conditioner and Complex Microbial Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕锦津; 马柱文; 谢锐鸿; 李淑玲

    2014-01-01

    通过盆栽试验研究了土壤调理剂及复合微生物菌剂对防治烟草青枯病的效果,并与PPF促生真菌试验效果进行了对比。试验结果表明,复合微生物菌剂和土壤调理剂对烟草青枯病均有较好的防治效果,其中复合微生物菌剂在促进烟株生长和防治烟草青枯病方面表现更好。%A pot experiment is carried out to study the effect of soil conditioner and complex microbial agent to control tobacco bacterial wilt, and comparison is made with the experiment effect of PPF growth promoting fungi.The experimental results show that both complex microbial agent and soil conditioner have good effect on prevention and cure of tobacco bacterial wilt, among them, complex microbial agent performs better at promoting growth of tobacco plant and control of tobacco bacterial wilt.

  5. The Research of Flue-cured Tobacco Varieties’ (Strains) Important Economic Characters Fertility and Stability Evaluation%烤烟新品种(系)重要经济性状丰产性和稳定性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史跃伟; 郎胜勇; 王志红; 张吉顺; 曹廷冒; 邱萍

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the high yield ,stability and adaptability of flue-cured tobacco varieties objectively , and provide scientific proofs for the cognizance and spread of varieties .In this paper ,GGE biplot was introduced into flue-cured tobacco regional trial analysis .GGE biplot method and AMMI model were used to analyze the yields and production values from the regional trials for flue-cured tobacco in 2011 .Thirteen lines of flue-cured tobacco were tested in eight sites .The results showed that both the methods could objectively evaluate the high yield and stabili -ty,but GGE biplot reflected the most suitable regions of variaties more accurately .YQ-1 had the highest yield and the best production value .GY1007 ,A18 and 2010 A4 had special suitability .GY1007 and A18 had expansion value in Dejiang,while 2010A4 had expansion value in Daozhen .%为客观评价烤烟新品种(系)的丰产性、稳定性和品种生态布局,为贵州烤烟新品种(系)的审定和推广提供科学依据。将GGE方法引入烤烟区域试验分析中,同时采用GGE双表图及AMMI模型,对2011年度贵州省烤烟区域试验8个生态区域、13个烤烟新品种(系)的产量和产值进行分析。结果表明,2种分析方法均能客观评价烤烟新品系的丰产性和稳定性,GGE双标图方法能更直观准确地反映各品系的最佳适应区域。新品系YQ-1的产量和产值均表现最好,GY1007、A18和2010 A4具有特殊适应性,GY1007和A18在德江地区有推广价值,而2010 A4在道真地区具有推广价值。

  6. Relationship between Appearance Quanlity and Deliveres of Main Harmful Compounds in Mainstream Smoke from Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves%初烤烟叶外观质量与其主流烟气有害成分释放量关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付秋娟; 刘加红; 张怀宝; 张忠锋; 侯小东; 郑成鹏; 杜咏梅; 赵友根

    2015-01-01

    218 samples of flue-cured tobacco leaves of representative area in China were collected to investigate relationship between major appearance characteristic and deliveries of harmful compounds in mainstream smoke of flue-cured tobacco leaves.Variance analysis was used to study the difference of deliveries of tar,nicotine and seven harmful ingredients (carbon monoxide,benzopyrene,phenol,hydrogen cyanide,NNK,ammonia,crotonaldehyde) in mainstream smoke between different characteristic of maturity,color,body,oil,leaf structure,color intensity of flue-cured tobacco leaves.Results showed that color,body,leaf structure of tobacco leaves had significant influence on deliveries of harmful compounds in mainstream smoke,but that of the maturity,oil and color intensity had a little influence .The deliveries of tar,nicotine,phenol,ammonia,hydrogen cyanide in mainstream smoke of orange tobacco leaves were greater than that of lemon tobacco leaves.In general,the deliveries of nicotine,phenol in mainstream smoke of fleshy tobacco leaves were larger than that of less thin tobacco leaves.With the tobacco leaves structure tending to be loose,The deliveries of tar,nicotine and phenol in mainstream smoke were significant decrease,and the deliveries of crotonaldehyde were significant increase.%为明确初烤烟叶主要外观质量与其主流烟气有害成分释放量的关系,收集我国代表产地初烤烟叶样品218份,应用方差分析,研究了不同成熟度、颜色、身份、油分、叶片结构、色度特征的初烤烟叶主流烟气烟碱、焦油及7项有害成分(一氧化碳、苯并芘、苯酚、氰化氢、NNK、氨、巴豆醛)释放量的差异.结果表明,烟叶颜色、身份、叶片结构对主流烟气有害成分释放量的影响较大,成熟度、油分、色度对主流烟气有害成分释放量的影响较小;橘黄烟叶主流烟气焦油、烟碱、苯酚、氨、氰化氢释放量显著或极显著大于柠檬黄烟叶;身份较厚的烟叶

  7. Analysis of Relationships between Soil Available Potassium Content and Appearance Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco in Luohe Tobacco-growing Area%漯河烟区土壤速效钾含量与烤烟外观质量的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅杰; 朱金峰; 黄海棠; 许自成

    2015-01-01

    以漯河市具有代表性的临颍、舞阳和郾城3个烟区的91个土壤样品及对应的烤后烟叶样品为材料,研究了漯河烟区土壤速效钾含量的数量特征及其与烤烟外观质量各指标间的关系。结果表明:漯河烟区土壤速效钾含量处于46.46~248.07 mg/kg范围内,平均112.51 mg/kg,其中有67.03%集中在低水平,处于适中的占8.79%,仅有1.10%处于高水平,土壤速效钾含量明显偏低。其中,郾城烟区的土壤速效钾含量最低,平均仅为92.20 mg/kg;舞阳烟区的最高,均值为126.80 mg/kg。在漯河烟区烤烟的外观质量各指标中,叶片结构的得分最高,平均8.59分,其次为叶片颜色和身份,叶片色度得分最低,仅为4.69分。土壤速效钾含量与叶片的颜色、成熟度、身份、油分以及外观质量总分之间呈极显著的正相关关系,相关系数分别为0.8079、0.4458、0.6466、0.4551和0.7474,与叶片的结构、色度和正反色差之间虽也存在一定的正相关,但并未达到显著水平。%On the basis of 91 soil samples and corresponding baked tobacco leaf samples in three representative tobacco -grow-ing areas (Linying, Wuyang and Yancheng) of Luohe city, the quantitative characteristics of soil available potassium content as well as the relationships between soil available potassium content and appearance quality of flue -cured tobacco were analyzed through descriptive statistical analysis and correlation analysis .The results indicated that the soil available potassium content of Luohe ranged from 46.46 mg/kg to 248.07 mg/kg, and the average content was 112.51 mg/kg.Among all the tested soil samples , 67.03%had low-level potassium content (80 ~160 mg/kg), 8.79% had moderate content (160 ~240 mg/kg), and only 1.10% possessed high-level content (240~350 mg/kg).Among the three main tobacco -growing areas, the soil available potas-sium content of

  8. 湖北十堰烟区不同海拔高度烤烟气候适生性分析%Analysis of Flue-cured Tobacco Climate Feasibility in Different Altitudes for Shiyan Tobacco-growing Areas of Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王得强; 许自成; 毕庆文; 汪健; 王豹祥

    2012-01-01

    分析了湖北十堰烟区低、中、高3个不同海拔高度的气候状况,并运用主成分分析法确定了烤烟各生育期的平均气温、降雨量、≥10℃的积温和大田期日照时数等气候指标的权重.通过定量估算气候适生性指数(CFI),对湖北十堰烟区气候适生性进行了综合评价,并把不同海拔高度下的气候条件与国外烟区进行了相似性分析.结果表明:十堰烟区低海拔的CFI变幅为0.699 ~0.708、平均为0.704、变异系数为0.46%,中海拔的CFI变幅为0.634~0.688、平均为0.671、变异系数为3.65%,高海拔的CFI变幅为0.617 ~0.627、平均为0.621、变异系数为0.34%;CFI表现出随海拔的升高而减小的趋势.不同海拔高度下气候条件与国外优质烟区的相似程度最高的是巴西(低海拔为0.995、中海拔为0.997、高海拔为0.997),津巴布韦次之(低海拔为0.993、中海拔为0.995、高海拔为0.995),与美国的相似程度最低(低海拔为0.989、中海拔为0.992、高海拔为0.992).%The climate conditions of low, medium and high altitudes of Shiyan tobacco -growing areas were analyzed. Principal component analysis was conducted to determine the weight value of climate indicators in the growing period of flue-cured tobacco such as average temperature, rainfall,≥10℃ accumulated temperature and daylight hours. The climate feasibility indexes (CFI) were quantitatively estimated, and analyses were conducted on similarity between climatic conditions of tobacco - growing areas in different altitudes in Shiyan and corresponding climate conditions in foreign tobacco-growing areas. The results indicated that: (1) The CFI of low altitude ranged from 0.699 to 0.708, with the mean of 0.704 and the variation coefficient of 0.46% , the CFI of medium altitude ranged from 0. 634 to 0.688, with the mean of 0. 671 and the variation coefficient of 3.65% , the CFI of high altitude ranged from 0. 617 to 0.627, with the mean of 0

  9. The Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Pattern in Modern Tobacco Agriculture in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.

  10. 不同光照强度对烤烟生长及品质的影响%Effect of Different Light Intensity on Growth and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峥嵘; 杨焕文; 魏建荣; 周兴华; 赵勇; 周适荔; 段树苍; 尹剑藤; 胡小曼; 李佛琳

    2011-01-01

    为找出光照强度对烤烟的影响规律,为烤烟适生性分析及种植区划提供一定的理论基础,以云烟87为材料,进行透光率为24.4%,57.6%,73.2%,100%(对照)的处理,研究了光照强度对烤烟生育期、农艺性状、叶片组织结构、产质量及化学成分的影响.结果表明:(1)光照不足延迟了烤烟生育期进程,各处理大田生育期比对照分别延迟了10,8,5d.弱光促进株高生长,抑制烤烟叶片数的增加,促进叶片的纵向生长,抑制其横向生长,适度遮光促进面积增加,节距则随着光照的减弱而增加.(2)随着遮阳程度的增加,光照减弱,叶片上表皮厚度、栅栏组织厚度和海绵组织厚度均呈减小的趋势,最厚的为对照,108.64 μm,最薄的为透光率24.4%的处理,50.40 μm.(3)各遮光处理烟叶的产量、产值、均价和上中等烟比例随着遮光程度的加深而显著减小.其中,产量分别减少了496.5,739.5,1 096.5 kg/hm2,产值分别减少了23 087.3,32 174.6,39 265.4元,均价分别减少了5.0,7.3,8.9元,上中等烟比例分别降低了17.1%,47.2%,80.8%.(4)光强的减弱降低了烟叶总糖、还原糖和多酚类物质的含量,而总氮、烟碱、钾、氯和类胡萝卜素含量则随光照强度降低表现出增加的趋势.%In order to find out influence law of light intensity to flue-cured tobacco, and provide certain theoretical basis for adaptability analysis and planting districts, taken Yunyan 87 as test material to conducted field experiment which treatments were light transmittance of 24. 4% , 57. 6% , 73. 2% and 100%(CK) to study effects of light intensity on growth period, agronomic characters, leaf tissue struc-ture, yield, quality and chemical composition. The results showed: (1) Growth progress was delayed with light inadequate, field growth period of each treatments were deferred 10, 8and 5 d separately. Weak light promoted plant height to grow, while restrained increase of leaf number of

  11. Effects of Different Microbial Inoculants Application Amounts on Growth of Flue -Cured Tobacco and Key Enzyme Activities in Leaves%微生物菌剂不同用量对烤烟生长和叶片关键酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冲; 王小东; 郭传滨; 李友军; 梁洪涛; 刘领; 苏亚丽

    2015-01-01

    In order to ascertain the application effects of microbial inoculants on flue -cured tobacco, with Zhongyan 100 as tested materials,the pot experiments with four different treatments were conducted to study the effects of different application amounts of microbial inoculants on the growth of flue -cured tobacco and key enzyme activities in leaves.The results showed that:① the growth and development of flue -cured to-bacco were promoted by applying microbial inoculants;the plant height,leaf number of single plant,maxi-mum leaf area and stem girth of T1,T2 and T3 treatments were significantly higher than those of the control (CK),especially in the middle and late period,the leaf number of single plant under T2 and T3 treatments were significantly higher than that of the control (CK).② The activity of antioxidant enzymes in flue -cured tobacco leaves were increased by applying microbial inoculants,and the content of peroxide substance in to-bacco leaves was reduced.Compared with the other treatments,the tobacco plants under T3 treatment grew well,had the highest SOD and POD activities and the lowest MDA content,so the best application amount of microbial inoculants was 21.0 g per pot for tobacco.%为了探明微生物菌剂对大田烤烟的应用效果,以中烟100为供试材料,设置4个不同微生物菌剂用量处理,采用盆栽方式研究其对烤烟生长和叶片关键酶活性的影响。结果表明:①施用微生物菌剂促进了烤烟生长发育,T1、T2和 T3处理烤烟株高、单株叶数、最大叶面积和茎围等农艺性状指标均高于对照(CK),尤其是烤烟生长中后期 T2和 T3处理的烤烟单株叶数显著高于对照(CK);②施用微生物菌剂提高了抗氧化类酶活性,降低了膜脂过氧化类物质含量。各处理相比,以 T3处理的烟株长势较好,叶片 SOD 和 POD 活性最强,MDA 含量最低,其对应的微生物菌剂用量(21.0 g/盆)效果最佳。

  12. Identification and effect of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium in flue-cured tobacco rhizosphere%一株具有固氮功能的烟草根际微生物的鉴定及其初步效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑君; 王豹祥; 张朝辉; 席淑雅; 刘天翔; 曹育博; 邱立友

    2011-01-01

    The Azotobacter N05 isolated from flue-cured tobacco rhizosphere is identified as Alcaligenes sp, likely Alcaligenesfaecalis, by using the phylogenetic tree constructed from 16S rRNA gene sequences, its physiological indexes and biochemical reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on azotobacter Alcaligenes faecalis in flue-cured tobacco rhizosphere. Applying to transplanted flue-cured tobacco, the numbers of azotobaeter under the combination of N05 azotobaeter fertilizer (30 kg/ha) and 80% N dosage of the full fertilizer amount ( B + 80% N) are 3.6 times of those of the full N fertilizer (FN) treatment, while the numbers of actinomyces under the combination treatment are significantly deceased. In addition, compared to the FN, the soil available contents of P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in tobacco rhizosphere at the tobacco toping stage under the B + 80% N are increased by 2.51%-46.08%. The average contents of N in de-enzyme tobacco leaves at different growth stages under the B + 80% N are higher than those under the FN. These results indicate that the amount of azotobacter and availability of mineral elements are enhanced by using azotobacter fertilizer in flue-cured tobacco production when N dosage is reduced moderately .%应用16SrDNA序列分析构建系统发育树,结合生理指标、生化反应,对分离自烤烟根际的固氮菌菌株N05进行了分类鉴定,并通过小区试验探讨其对烤烟生产的效应。结果表明,自生固氮菌N05属于产碱菌属(Alcaligenes),粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)。将固氮菌N05制成菌肥,烤烟移栽时施人(30kg/hm^2)同时施用80%的氮肥(B+80%N),与全量施用氮肥(FN)相比,B+80%N烤烟根际固氮菌的数量平均提高3.6倍,放线菌的数量显著降低;圆顶期烤烟根际土壤中除Mg元素的有效性略有降低外,P、K、Ca、Cu、Zn、Fe和Mn等元素的有效性均有不同程

  13. Solid-state 31P NMR spectroscopy of bacteriophage M13 and tobacco mosaic virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magusin, P.C.M.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of various 31P NMR experiments observed for intact virus particles of bacteriophage M13 and Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), are presented. To explain the results in a consistent way, models are developed and tested. 31

  14. 不同装烟密度对散叶密集烘烤烟叶品质及能耗的影响%Effect of Different Loading Density of Flue Bulk Curing by Loose-leaf Stacking on Quality of Tobacco Leaves and Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢贤仁; 谢已书; 李国彬; 姜均

    2011-01-01

    Effect of 3 fresh tobacco loading densities(55~60, 60~65, and 65~70kg/m2 from low to high density) on tobacco leaves' quality and energy consumption were studied in the bulk curing barn to explore the most suitable loading density of tobacco by loose-leaf stacking. The results showed that compared with low density both mid to high density of loading density, especially mid density could improve the economic character of tobacco, harmonize the chemical composition, and improve the quality of tobacco leaves. Increasing the loading density could reduce the energy consumption cost, total cost of mid density reduced by more than 8%, and high density reduced by more than 14% compared with low density. In conclusion, the fresh tobacco leaves loading density of 60~65 kg/m2could be optimum in bulk curing barn by loose-leaf stacking.%为探索散叶堆放最佳装烟密度范围,研究了装鲜烟低(55~60kg/m2)、中(60~65kg/m2)、高(65~70 kg/m2)3种装烟密度对烟叶的品质和能耗效果的影响.结果表明:与低密度散叶堆放装烟相比,中密度和高密度装烟均可提高烟叶经济性状,协调烟叶化学成分和改善烟叶品质,以中密度处理效果较为明显.增加装烟密度均可以降低烟叶的能耗成本,与低密度处理相比,中密度处理的总成本降低8%以上,高密度降低14%以上.综合认为,散叶堆放装鲜烟密度以60~65kg/m2最佳.

  15. 毕节烟区烤烟糖碱比的区域分布特点及与感官品质的关系%Regional Distribution Characteristics of Reducing Sugar/Nicotine Ratio of Flue-cured Tobacco in Bijie Tobacco Growing Areas and Relationship Thereof with Sensory Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻奇伟; 符云鹏; 李炜; 杨双剑; 施守杰; 杨欣玲; 郑登峰

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the distribution characteristics of reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of flue-cured tobacco in Bijie tobacco growing areas and relationship thereof with sensory quality, the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 342 samples of C3F from Bijie was analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis and cluster analysis. Regression analysis was conducted between reducing sugar/nicotine ratio and sensory quality. The results showed that the mean value of reducing sugar/nicotine ratio was 9.64 ± 3.80 with the coefficient of variation of 39.36%, and the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 96.4% of the samples fell in the range of 4.00 to 20.00. With the ascent of altitude, the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of tobacco increased. Reducing sugar/nicotine ratio significantly differed between tobaccos from different areas and altitudes. Eight tobacco growing counties in Bijie were clustered into three categories on the basis of reducing sugar/nicotine ratio, Zhijin, Qianxi, Nayong and Qixingguan counties belonged to Category Ⅰwith the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 8.39 ± 2.48, Dafang and Jinsha counties were in CategoryⅡwith the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 9.82 ± 4.62, Hezhang and Weining counties in Category Ⅲ with the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 11.59±3.74. In the range of 4.00 to 28.00, the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio posed an extremely significant regression relationship with sensory quality indicators (except for combustibility). Tobacco offered better sensory quality when its reducing sugar/nicotine ratio was in the range of 8.00-22.00.%为阐明毕节烤烟糖碱比的地域分布特点及其与感官品质的关系,对毕节烟区的342份C3F初烤烟叶样品糖碱比进行了描述性统计分析和聚类分析,并对烟叶糖碱比与感官品质指标进行了回归分析。结果表明:毕节烟区烤烟中部叶糖碱比平均值为9.64±3.80,变异系数39.36%,其中96.4%的样品烟叶糖碱比在4.00~20.00之间;随海拔高度

  16. Study on Effects of Compound Foliar Fertilizer on Reducing Nicotine Content, Improving Aroma and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L.)%烤烟复合型叶面肥对烟叶降碱增香提质的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文旭; 靳志丽; 李振武

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to grasp the effects of two types of foliar fertilizers on appearance and inter quality of flue-cured tobacco. [Method] Contrast test with foliar fertilizers in field was conducted. [Result] The results indicated that spraying tobacco leaves with compound foliar fertilizer twice could promote tobacco upper leaves spreading speed, upper leaves area growth rate was 7.9% - 20. 2% ; Tobacco leaves'appearance quality, such as structure, oil content, chromaticity and identify, were progressed evidently; Nicotine content of leaves was proper; harmony of chemistry component was improved; Leaves' key aroma matter content and suck quality were progressed evidently. [ Conclusion ] Tobacco compound foliar fertilizer is significantly superior to other alike products, which are recommended to further popularized in leave fertilizer production.%[目的]为了掌握2种叶面肥对烤烟(Nicotiana glauca L.)外观和内在品质的作用效果.[方法]进行烤烟叶面肥大田对比试验.[结果]烟株打顶后进行2次复合型叶面肥喷施处理,能够明显促进上部叶开片,上部叶面积增幅7.9% ~20.2%;烟叶结构、油分、色度、身份等外观质量得到明显改善;烟碱含量适宜,化学成分协调性得到改善,烟叶关键香味物质含量和评吸质量明显提高.[结论]烤烟复合型叶面肥的使用效果明显优于同类叶面肥,具有较高的推广应用价值.

  17. Countermeasures for Tobacco Branding and Industrial Development in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as " Tobacco Kingdom" and " World Capital of Selenium". It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco,burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then,it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and industrial development. Finally,it comes up with several constructive recommendations.

  18. 有机无机肥配施对烤烟叶面分泌物数量及烟叶产质的影响%Effects of Mixing Application with Organic fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Leaf Surface Secretion Quantity and Quality and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 周清明; 杨铁钊; 胡宏坤; 陆中山

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨有机肥和无机肥配施对烤烟叶片腺毛密度、叶面分泌物数量及烟叶主要化学成分和经济性状的影响.[方法]在大田设置施用100%化肥、70%化肥+30%芝麻饼肥、30%化肥+70%芝麻饼肥、100%芝麻饼肥4种试验处理,研究有机无机肥配施对烤烟叶片腺毛密度和分泌物数量及烟叶产质的影响.[结果]除100%芝麻饼肥处理外,随着施用处理中芝麻饼肥比例的提高,烤烟叶片腺毛密度和叶面分泌物数量逐渐增大;烟叶中主要化学成分含量比例的协调性逐渐增强,烤后烟叶的单产、均价、产值及上中等烟比例逐渐增大.[结论]有机肥和无机肥配施有利于烤烟叶片表面分泌物的形成及烟叶产质的提高,其中30%化肥+70%饼肥配施综合表现最优.%[Objective] The study aimed to investigate the effects of mixing application with the organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the leaf glandular hair density, leaf surface secretion quantity, main chemistry component and economic character of the flue-cured tobacco. [Method] In the field test, 4 fertilization treatments of 100% chemical fertilizer, 70% chemical fertilizer + 30% sesame cake fertilizer, 30% chemical fertilizer +70% sesame cake fertilizer and 100% sesame cake fertilizer were set up to study the effects of mixing application with the organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the leaf glandular hair density, leaf surface secretion quantity, and the yield and quality of the flue-cured tobacco. [ Result] Except the treatment of 100% cake fertilizer, as the proportion of cake fertilizer to total fertilizer was enhanced, both the glandular hair density and the surface secretion quantity was increased gradually; the coordination for the proportion of the main chemistry component in the tobacco leaf was enhanced gradually and the single yield, average price and output value of tobacco leaf and the proportion of superior and

  19. Correlation Analysis on Important Aroma Components and Smoking Quality of Red Sun-cured Tobacco%晒红烟重要致香物质与其感官质量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善民; 王允白; 包艳; 冯俊喜; 钟青; 曹建敏; 石翔; 岳珩

    2016-01-01

    Simple correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between important aroma components and aroma quality, aroma quantity, aftertaste, mixed gas, irritancy and total score of smoking quality in red sun-cured tobacco leaves from in Sichuan, Jilin, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Zhejiang, Shandong, and Heilongjiang. The results showed that 22 aroma components were closely related to smoking quality, among whichβ-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-2-damascenone, 3-methyl crotonaldehyde, amyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, furfural, 2-acetyl furan, 2-pentyl furan, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-3-one, 5-methyl furfural, solanone, safranal, indole, gamma butyrolactone , pyrrole, norsolandion and 1,3,7,7-four methyl-2-oxygen double ring [4.4.0] decyl-9-one had a positive effect while isophorone, benzaldehyde, benzene acetaldehyde, phytol-2, 3- acetyl pyridine,2-methyl-2-hepten-6-one and 2-ethylpyridine had a negative effect on smoking quality.%为研究晒红烟中致香物质含量与感官评吸质量的相关关系,采用简单相关分析和典型相关分析对我国四川、吉林、江西、湖南、贵州、浙江、山东和黑龙江8个产区晒红烟烟叶中重要致香物质与感官评吸指标香气质、香气量、余味、杂气、刺激性和总得分的关系进行了研究.结果表明,与感官评吸质量关系较密切的致香物质有22种,其中β-大马酮、3-羟基-二氢大马酮、3-甲基巴豆醛、戊醇、异戊醇、糠醛、2-乙酰基呋喃、2-正戊基呋喃、2-甲基四氢呋喃-3-酮、5-甲基糠醛、茄酮、藏红花醛、吲哚、γ-丁内酯、吡咯、降茄二酮和1,3,7,7-四甲基-2-氧双环[4.4.0]癸-9-酮对感官评吸质量有正面效应,异佛尔酮、苯甲醛、苯乙醛、叶绿醇-2、3-乙酰吡啶、2-甲基-2-庚烯-6-酮和2-乙基吡啶对感官评吸质量有负面效应.

  20. 烤烟烟叶理化指标与浓香型风格程度的关系%Relationship Between Physical-chemical Indexes and Full Flavor Style Degree of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均

    2012-01-01

    检测评价了河南省驻马店烟区60个C3F烟叶样品的理化指标与浓香型风格程度,并采用相关分析、逐步回归分析等方法研究了烟叶理化指标与浓香型风格程度的关系.结果表明:①烟叶厚度、钾、巨豆三烯酮A,巨豆三烯酮B,巨豆三烯酮C与浓香型风格程度显著正相关,挥发性碱、山奈酚糖苷、糠醛、糠醇、5-甲基糠醛、巨豆三烯酮D与浓香型风格程度极显著正相关,还原糖与浓香型风格程度显著负相关,芳樟醇、金合欢基丙酮、香叶基丙酮、β-紫罗兰酮、2-乙酰呋喃与浓香型风格程度极显著负相关;②糠醛、5-甲基糠醛、2-乙酰呋喃、香叶基丙酮与烟叶浓香型风格程度存在极显著回归关系,共同决定了烟叶浓香型风格程度变化的88.7%,是影响烟叶浓香型风格程度的主要指标.%Sixty C3F samples of flue-cured tobacco leaves were collected from Zhumadian to analyze the relationship between physical-chemical indexes and full flavor style degree of leaves with correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that: 1) the full flavor style degree of leaves significantly positively correlated with leaf thickness, potassium, megastigmatrienone A, megastigmatrienone B, and megastigmatrienone C; extremely significantly positively correlated with volatile base, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, furfural, furfural alcohol, 5-methyl furfural, and megastigmatrienone D; while significantly negatively correlated with reducing sugar; extremely significantly negatively correlated with linalool, farnesylacetone, geranyl acetone, p-ionone, 2-acetyl furan; 2) there was an extremely significant regression relationship between full flavor style degree of leaves and furfural, 5-methyl furfural, 2-acetyl furan, geranyl acetone, which were the major components affecting the full flavor style degree of leaves, and determined about 88.7% of the changes of full flavor style degree of leaves.

  1. Sensory-oriented analysis of key sweet taste components in cured tobacco extract%初烤烟叶提取物中关键甜味成分的感官导向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启东; 宗永立; 张建勋; 柴国璧; 鲍峰玉; 刘俊辉; 张文娟; 卢斌斌; 张海燕; 迟广俊; 毛健; 王丁众; 孙世豪

    2016-01-01

    以感官导向分析方式研究了一种浓香型初烤烟叶提取物中的关键甜味成分。利用凝胶渗透色谱分离烟叶提取物,对各分离流份的滋味特征进行评价,合并甜味流份得到初烤烟叶提取物的甜味特征组分;建立了甜味特征组分中果糖、葡萄糖、肌糖和蔗糖4种甜味成分的高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射(HPLC-ELSD)定量方法;依据定量结果,复配上述甜味成分的混合溶液,分别对甜味特征组分溶液和甜味成分复配溶液进行了滋味稀释分析(TDA);利用三点选配法(3-AFC)测定上述4种甜味成分在水中的味觉阈值,结合其在甜味特征组分中的含量,计算滋味活性值(TAV),并对比了4种物质的甜度。结果表明:所考察的4种甜味成分是决定甜味特征组分味觉特征的主要因素;根据TAV和甜度推测这4种物质对甜味的贡献排序为果糖、蔗糖>葡萄糖>肌糖。%Sensory-oriented analysis was carried out to investigate the key sweet taste components in the extract of cured tobacco of a robust flavor style. The leaf extract was separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), the taste character of each separated fraction was estimated, and the sweet taste characteristic component(STCC) in the extract was obtained by categorization. A quantitative method based on HPLC-ELSD was developed to determine the contents of four sweet components (glucose, fructose, inositol and sucrose) in the STCC. On the basis of quantitative data, mixed solutions of the four sweet components were recombined, and the taste dilution analysis (TDA) of STCC and the recombined solutions were conducted. The taste thresholds of the four sweet components in water were determined by three-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) method, in addition their taste activity values(TAVs) were calculated by taking their contents in STCC into account, and their sweetness was compared. The results showed that the

  2. GGE双标图对抗寒烤烟品种区域试验的分析%Application of GGE Biplot Analysis on Cold Resistant Flue-cured Tobacco Variety Regional Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志厚

    2013-01-01

      利用2012年南平市抗寒烤烟品种区域试验中各品种在3个不同试验点上的平均产量和平均产值,经过环境中心化后的数据,以GGE双标图的图谱形式阐述了参试品种在各试验点的表现、各试验点环境间关系、各试验点的区分力和代表性及各参试品种平均表现和稳定性。结果表明:(1)CB-1在延平试验点平均产量、平均产值最高,NF-1在邵武、浦城试验点平均产值最高;(2)邵武和浦城试验点之间存在紧密正相关,且与延平试验点均表现为负相关;(3)延平、浦城、邵武各试验点对参试品种均具有较强的区分能力,作为抗寒品种筛选的试验点,浦城和邵武具有较强代表性;(4)5个参试品种中NF-2表现既高产量、高产值又稳定的品系,NF-1表现相对高产和稳定的品系。%Using 2012 cold resistant flue-cured tobacco varieties regional trial in Nanping City, the average yield and average output value of all varieties in three different test points, after the data environment centered. To the GGE biplot map form described the performance of the varieties tested at each test point, the relationship between environmental points, the areas of distinguish between discrimination and representative and the tested varieties mean vs. stability. The results showed that: (1) CB-1 variety in Yanping the trial point average yield, the average output value of the highest, NF-1 strain in Shaowu, Pucheng test point average highest value. (2) Close positive correlation between test points in Shaowu and Pucheng, both with the Yanping test point showed a negative correlation. (3) Yanping, Pucheng, Shaowu each test point had strong ability to distinguish between the varieties tested. As cold resistant varieties screening test points, Pucheng and Shaowu had the fairly typical. (4) Five varieties tested the performance of high-yield, high value and stable strain of NF-2 , NF-1

  3. NIR models for predicting total sugar in tobacco for samples with different physical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhua; Gong, Huili

    2016-07-01

    Due to the spectra variation of the inhomogeneous tobacco flakes results the inaccuracy and instability of the near infrared model. This paper presented the strategies of calibration transfer and hybrid modeling for determining total sugar content in tobacco based on the homogeneous powder model. The necessity judgments and acceptance criteria of the calibration transfer were also proposed. Calibration transfer methods include Slope/Bias Correction (S/B), Piecewise Direct Standardization (PDS), double window piecewise direct standardization (DWPDS), and Shenk's were adopted, a transfer set of 15 samples were chosen for each methods, and the results showed that Shenk's is the adequate transfer method as only one indicator did not fulfill the acceptance criteria of the transfer. Other methods were all dissatisfied with the acceptance criteria and cannot be applied to the calibration transfer between the tobacco flake and powder. While the hybrid model of adding some flake samples to the powder model achieved preferred prediction ability. The study showed that adding around 10% variation samples caused the average prediction error of total sugar content (range 12.1-37.2%) in flake samples from 7.25% (predicted by a flake model) significantly dropping to 4.98%, even close to the prediction of the same powder samples (4.21%) by the powder model. It will valuable for the promotion of the NIR network and online analysis.

  4. Continued benefits of a technical assistance web site to local tobacco control coalitions during a state budget shortfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Young, Walter F; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Borland, Ron; Walther, Joseph B; Helme, Donald; Andersen, Peter A; Cutter, Gary R; Maloy, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    A state budget shortfall defunded 10 local tobacco coalitions during a randomized trial but defunded coalitions continued to have access to 2 technical assistance Web sites. To test the ability of Web-based technology to provide technical assistance to local tobacco control coalitions. Randomized 2-group trial with local tobacco control coalitions as the unit of randomization. Local communities (ie, counties) within the State of Colorado. Leaders and members in 34 local tobacco control coalitions funded by the state health department in Colorado. Two technical assistance Web sites: A Basic Web site with text-based information and a multimedia Enhanced Web site containing learning modules, resources, and communication features. Use of the Web sites in minutes, pages, and session and evaluations of coalition functioning on coalition development, conflict resolution, leadership satisfaction, decision-making satisfaction, shared mission, personal involvement, and organization involvement in survey of leaders and members. Coalitions that were defunded but had access to the multimedia Enhanced Web site during the Fully Funded period and after defunding continued to use it (treatment group × funding status × period, F(3,714) = 3.18, P = .0234). Coalitions with access to the Basic Web site had low Web site use throughout and use by defunded coalitions was nearly zero when funding ceased. Members in defunded Basic Web site coalitions reported that their coalitions functioned worse than defunded Enhanced Web site coalitions (coalition development: group × status, F(1,360) = 4.81, P = .029; conflict resolution: group × status, F(1,306) = 5.69, P = .018; leadership satisfaction: group × status, F(1,342) = 5.69, P = .023). The Enhanced Web site may have had a protective effect on defunded coalitions. Defunded coalitions may have increased their capacity by using the Enhanced Web site when fully funded or by continuing to use the available online resources after defunding

  5. Effects of Planting Density and Nitrogen Fertilization Amount on Growth, Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%种植密度和施氮量互作对烤烟生长发育及产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠楠; 崔国贤; 孙敬钊; 皮本阳; 孙智勇; 李强; 白玉超; 李雪玲; 黄敏升; 郭婷

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究不同种植密度和氮肥用量互作对烤烟生长发育及产质量的影响,为提高常德烟区烟草生产水平和烟叶质量提供指导。[方法]采用两因素随机区组设计,以云烟87为试验材料,设置3个水平种植密度,3个水平氮肥用量,共9个组合处理,研究不同处理对烤烟生长发育和产质量的影响。[结果]烤烟生育期主要受氮肥用量的影响,而种植密度对生育期基本没有影响。种植密度和氮肥用量对烤烟单株叶面积、株高、茎围、单叶重和节距的影响显著,对叶片总糖含量和还原糖含量影响显著,对上部叶和下部叶烟碱含量影响显著,对烤烟上等烟比例、产量和均价的影响显著。其交互作用对上部叶烟碱含量和还原糖含量影响显著,对中部叶和下部叶还原糖含量和总钾含量影响显著。氮肥用量是单株叶面积、株高、单叶重、节距、烟叶总氯含量、烟叶总钾含量、烟叶总氮含量、烤烟产量、烟叶均价和产值有关参数的主要决定因子,种植密度是茎围、烟叶烟碱含量、烟叶总糖含量、烟叶还原糖含量和上等烟比例有关参数的主要决定因子。[结论]烟叶产量以D3 N3(种植密度1.80万株/hm2,施氮量135 kg/hm2)处理最高,为2104.6 kg/hm2;烟叶产值以D2 N2(种植密度1.65万株/hm2,施氮量120 kg/hm2)处理最高,为52729.7元/hm2。%Objective] To study the effects of the interaction of planting density and nitrogen fertilization amount on the growth and develop-ment, yield, quality and production value of flue-cured tobacco, and provide guidance for improving the production level and tobacco leaf quality in Changde tobacco-growing areas.[Methods] Two-factor randomized block design was applied, Yunyan 87 was taken as experimental material, and planting density was set to 3 levels, to explore the effects of the planting density and nitrogen

  6. 不同品种晒烟叶片发育过程中碳氮代谢对施肥的响应%Response of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Leaf Development Process of Different Sun-cured Tobacco Varieties to Fertilization Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱宝平; 康雪莉; 郭世英; 单加杰; 侯振武; 张鹏; 符云鹏

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization levels on the key enzymes activities and main products of carbon and nitrogen metabolism during leaves development of three sun-cured tobacco varieties in Northeast China .Result showed that the NR activities were the single peak curve during tobacco leaves development under different treatments ,the peak value was in the 27 d,and the sucrose invertase activities had decreasing trend .Under the same fertilization levels,the nitrogen metabo-lism was stronger and the content of total nitrogen and nicotine in the both varieties of Qinghuangye and Dabaihua , while the carbon metabolism was stronger and the content of total sugar was higher in Tobacco vari -ety Dayehuang .On the basis of traditional fertilization , properly decreasing fertilizer levels can effectively reg-ulate the intensity of sun -cured carbon and nitrogen metabolism and adjust the chemical composition of tobac-co, laying foundation for improving the quality of tobacco .%以东北典型产区种植的3个晒烟品种为供试材料,采用双因子裂区设计,研究了不同施肥水平对晒烟叶片发育过程中碳氮代谢关键酶活性及其代谢产物含量的影响。结果表明:3个晒烟品种中部叶发育过程中NR活性呈单峰曲线,高峰在叶龄27 d;Inv活性呈下降趋势;同一施肥水平下青黄叶、大白花品种氮代谢较强,总氮和烟碱含量较高,而大叶黄碳代谢较强,烟叶糖含量较高;在传统施肥基础上,适当降低施肥水平可有效调控晒烟碳氮代谢,协调烟叶化学成分,改善烟叶品质。

  7. 不同包膜控释肥对烤烟小苗膜下移栽生长发育及产质量的影响%Effects of Different Coated Controlled-release Fertilizers on Growth,Development,Yield and Quality of Transplanting Flue-cured Tobacco Seedlings Under Plastic Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高爱生; 孟凡真; 高强; 张文慧

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different coated controlled-release fertilizers on growth ,development,yield and quality of transplanting flue-cured tobacco seedlings under plastic film were studied.The results showed that treatment of applied fertilizers of 105 kg/hm 2 pure nitrogen performed the best. The agronomic characters of tobacco were the best ,incidence rate of plant disease was low ,the chemical compositions tended to be coordinative ,and the tobacco had high economic benefits.%不同包膜控释肥对烤烟小苗膜下移栽生长发育及产质量的影响研究结果表明,以施用纯氮量为105 kg/hm2的包膜控释肥烟株农艺性状最好,烟株叶部病害发生率低,化学成分趋于协调,经济效益高。

  8. 滤减UV-B辐射对烤烟蛋白质组变化的影响%Effects of reduced UV-B radiation on the variation of flue-cured tobacco proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗瑜; 毕婷; 吴潇潇

    2012-01-01

    To understand the effects of different UV-B radiation intensity on the physiological metabolism and its regulatory pathways of flue-cured tobacco, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrum technique was adopted to study the physiological traits and protein expression profiles of Nicotina toboxcum L cv. "K326" , a flue-tobacco cultivar commonly planted in Yunnan Province, under the covering of different transparent films to reduce UV-B radiation. Two treatments were installed, i. e. , covering with polyethylene (treatment 1, 75. 8% UV-B radiation intensity) and Mylar (treatment II, 37.5% UV-B radiation intensity). In the two treatments, ten protein spots expressed significantly different. As compared in treatment I, five protein spots were up-regulated while the other five were down-regulated in treatment II. Among the ten protein spots, three were redox-related, three were photosynthesis-related, one was a kinase involved in energy metabolism, one was RNA-binding, and the other two were to be further identified. A preliminary research was also made on the effects of different UV-B radiation intensity on the physiological metabolism of "K326" at proteome level. During the physiological mature period, transition period, and process mature period of "K326" , the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was significantly higher in treatment II than in treatment I, which was in accordance with the result mentioned above (three up-regulated proteins related with photosynthesis in treatment II). Comparatively, the "K326" in treatment I grew faster, and most of the morphological parameters such as stem girth and specific leaf mass were higher.%为研究不同UV-B辐射强度对烤烟生理代谢及调控途径的影响,应用蛋白质双向电泳联用质谱技术,以云南普遍种植的烤烟K326为试验材料,通过覆盖不同透明薄膜滤减UV-B辐射的方式,对75.8%(聚乙烯膜,处理1)和37.5%(麦拉膜,处理2)UV-B辐射透过率处理下K326的蛋白质

  9. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E Novotny; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Arti...

  10. Tobacco Use and Its Relationship to Social Determinants of Health in LGBT Populations of a Midwestern State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, Aja D Kneip; Fisher, Christopher M; Irwin, Jay A; Coleman, Jason D; McCarthy, Molly A

    2015-03-01

    Researchers have documented that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have a higher proportion of tobacco use as compared to general population smoking rates. This study examined the relationships between tobacco use and social determinants of health in a sample of self-identifying LGBT people who spend time in Nebraska. A community-based participatory research approach was used to develop an online survey to assess the physical, mental, social, and sexual health of LGBT populations who live, work, or play in Nebraska. Chi-squared and logistic regression analyses explored the use of tobacco among respondents. Of the 770 people who completed the survey, 763 respondents completed questions about smoking status. The prevalence of current smoking among these 763 respondents was 26.47%. Some LGBT-specific social determinants of health had significant relationships to smoking status. However, after controlling for known risk factors of smoking in logistic regression models, these variables were not related to smoking status. This study shows that there is a significant relationship between smoking and several general social determinants of health, including employment status, education, and income as well as binge drinking. Limitations include lack of adequate survey respondents to divide subgroups of LGBT individuals and inherent limitations of convenience sampling, which may not allow for an accurate representation of the situation faced by LGBT in Nebraska. In addition to this, the list of LGBT-specific determinants of health used in the survey may not be exhaustive, and there may be additional factors facing LGBT individuals. Public health professionals can use this information in designing smoking reduction campaigns for LGBT populations in Nebraska and culturally similar regions of the United States. These programs and interventions may want to consider a more holistic approach to smoking cessation grounded in the social-ecological model.

  11. Study on Influence of Different Comprehensive Drought Resistance Technology on Flue-cured Tobacco Agronomic and Economic Characters%不同综合抗旱技术对烤烟农艺性状和经济性状的影响比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高福宏; 詹莜国; 张晓海; 马溪; 李跃平; 岳绍起

    2012-01-01

    为了解决昆明烟区烤烟移栽季节烟垄墒情差,保苗促早发困难的问题,在昆明市嵩明县杨林镇采用随机区组试验研究了地膜覆盖、秸秆覆盖、地膜覆盖+保水剂、秸秆覆盖+保水剂、前膜后秸覆盖、保水剂、裸栽烟等几种抗旱技术对烤烟农艺性状和经济性状的影响.试验结果表明:(1)前地膜+后秸秆的双覆盖、地膜覆盖+保水剂、秸秆覆盖+保水剂均可改善烟株生长的环境条件,有效降低烟株生育前期的干旱胁迫,促进烟株早长快发,提高烤烟的产量、产值和品质,以前地膜+后秸秆的双覆盖处理最好.(2)盖膜、移栽时施用保水剂和秸秆覆盖3种处理,随着干旱时间的延长而抗旱作用力减弱.(3)无抗旱措施的裸栽烟生长缓慢,经济性状和农艺性状均最差.%In order to solve the problem of low soil moisture of tobacco field' s ridge during transplanting season and saving seedlings as well as promoted the tobacco plants to grow rapidly in Kunming Flue-cured Tobacco Area. We adopted randomized block experiment in Yanglin, Songming Country of Kunming City to study the effect that the drought-resistance techniques such as film mulching, straw mulching, film mulching with water retaining agent, straw mulching with water retaining agent, double mulch with film before and straw after, water retaining agent and no film mulching have on the agronomic and economic characters of flue-cured tobacco. The experiment result showed that: (1) double mulch with film before and straw after, plastic mulch + SAP, straw mulch + SAP, all these could improve the environmental condition of tobacco growth, effectively reduced the drought stress of tobacco in early growth period, and promoted tobacco growth as soon as possible, also increased the production, output value and quality, among the best was double mulch with film before and straw after. (2)For applying SAP, straw mulch while covering with film, transplanting

  12. 烤烟毕纳1号在毕节不同生态区酚类化合物变化的研究%Research on Changes of Polyphenols Content in Flue-cured Tobacco Variety Bina No.1 in Different Ecological Regions of Bijie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武丹风; 姬小明; 赵铭钦; 赵文; 叶金果

    2013-01-01

    Through field experiments , the author studied the dynamic changes of polyphenols content in flue -cured tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) variety Bina No.1 at different growth stages in 3 ecological regions of Bijie, and explored the impacts of different ecological conditions on the composition accumulation of flue -cured tobacco .The results showed that:in Bijie ecological tobacco area, Bina No.1 had a high content of phenolic compounds , and five kinds of phenolic compounds contents all showed a gradual upward trend in whole growth period , especially around maturing period .For flue-cured tobacco in different ecological re-gions, the content of phenolic compounds had the following order:Jinsha county >Weining county >Dafang county.The content of different kinds of polyphenols showed the following sequence :chlorogenic acid >rutin >4-O-coffee nique acid >new chlo-rogenic acid >scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid and rutin contents accounted for more than 79%of the total polyphenols content .In different ecological regions , as the altitude increased , the climatic conditions changed obviously , and they had a great impact on the formation and accumulation of phenolic compounds in flue -cured tobacco .%通过大田试验,研究了烤烟品种( Nicotiana tobacum L.)毕纳1号在毕节地区3个生态区烤烟不同生育期的多酚类化合物的动态变化规律,探索了不同生态条件对烤烟的物质成分积累的影响。结果表明,毕节地区烤烟酚类化合物含量较高,烤烟在整个生育期内,5种酚类化合物均呈现逐步上升的趋势,一般在成熟期前后增幅较大。不同生态区烤烟中,酚类化合物含量高低均为金沙县>威宁县>大方县,不同酚类物质含量的大小为绿原酸>芸香苷>4-O-咖啡尼奎酸>新绿原酸>莨菪亭,其中绿原酸和芸香苷的含量占多酚总量的79%以上,是多酚中重要的组成成分。不同生态区随着海拔高度的升高

  13. Optimal Composite Curing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Paul; Guerin, Daniel

    The Optimal Composite Curing System (OCCS) is an intelligent control system which incorporates heat transfer and resin kinetic models coupled with expert knowledge. It controls the curing of epoxy impregnated composites, preventing part overheating while maintaining maximum cure heatup rate. This results in a significant reduction in total cure time over standard methods. The system uses a cure process model, operating in real-time, to determine optimal cure profiles for tool/part configurations of varying thermal characteristics. These profiles indicate the heating and cooling necessary to insure a complete cure of each part in the autoclave in the minimum amount of time. The system coordinates these profiles to determine an optimal cure profile for a batch of thermally variant parts. Using process specified rules for proper autoclave operation, OCCS automatically controls the cure process, implementing the prescribed cure while monitoring the operation of the autoclave equipment.

  14. Dynamic area-partition evaluation of flue-cured tobacco planting climates in Yunnan based on GIS%基于GIS的云南烤烟种植气候动态分区评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄中艳

    2011-01-01

    基于气象、烟叶化学成分含量的大样本数据,通过完善烤烟种植气候适宜性定量评价指标体系,构建气象条件对烟叶品质影响的定量评判标准,在精细化模拟推算基本气象要素地理空间分布的基础上,应用GIS技术实现了烤烟种植气候的动态分区评估。以云南省两个典型气候年份为例,在GIS平台下将统计模型推算与空间插值技术方法有机结合,尝试突破传统"空间静态性"作物气候区划,实现"空间+时间动态性"作物种植气候精细化分区评估;直观形象地展现了区域地理"面"气候年际波动变化及其对烤烟种植适宜性和烟叶品质的影响。两种动态分区评估相结合,%The research mainly focuses on improving the effect of crop-climate regionalization and promoting perfect meteorological service.Based on a large sample of metorological data and chemical composition contents of tobacco leaf,the dynamic climate zoning evaluation of tobacco planting was accomplished by improving quantificational estimate criterion about climatic suitability in tobacco planting,constituting qualificationally-graded evaluation criteria about the effects of meteorological condition on tobacco ingredients,subtly simulating and calculating the geographical distribution of essential meteorological elements with the support of GIS software. With a view to speaking concisely and clearly,two typical years with different climates were taken as examples to demonstrate the two refined dynamic regionalization estimates considering mainly the temporal and spatial changes of meteorological conditions.On one hand,the paper carried out climate-suitability zoning evaluation,in which the proportion of each suitability-grade subarea for the two typical years was compared with the zoning results of the climatic mean in Yunnan.On the other hand,the zoning maps of the relative change grades for two chemical ingredients of tobacco between the two

  15. Sugar Content in Flue-cured Tobacco in Dali and Its Relationship with Smoking Quality%大理烤烟品种K326糖含量及其与评吸质量的关系初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞燕; 郑武; 杨玉标; 杨德海; 贾冬冬; 张晓龙

    2012-01-01

    为了进一步探讨大理烤烟糖含量与评吸质量的关系,以大理4个烟叶主产区50份K326烤烟样品为供试材料,应用最优曲线回归拟合和灰色关联度等分析方法,研究了烤烟品种K326在大理州的糖含量状况及其与评吸质量的关系.结果初步表明,K326品种的两糖含量稍高,两糖比略小.K326的总糖含量在28%~32%,还原耱含量在23% ~ 27%较为适宜.两糖比在糖含量指标中与烤烟评吸质量灰色关联度最大.大理州烤烟品种K326糖含量与评吸质量关系密切,其中两糖比与评吸质量的关系最为密切,值得进一步研究.%In order to further explore the relationship between the sugar content in flue-cured tobacco in Dali and smoking quality, 50 samples of flue-cured tobacco K326 from four Dali tobacco-growing areas were taken. By means of fitting curve estimation and grey correlation analysis, the relationship between the sugar content and smoking quality was investigated. The results showed that: tobacco K326 had slightly high total sugar and reducing sugar contents, but the ratio of the reducing sugar to the total sugar was slightly low. In dali, the optimal total sugar content in K326 was 28%-32%, and reducing sugar content 23%-27%. The sugar content in K326 in Dali had closely relationship with the smoking quality, the ratio of reducing sugar to total sugar was most closely correlated with smoking quality, which worth further studying.

  16. Analysis of flavor precursors and degradation products content in flue-cured tobacco of different color and maturity%不同颜色及成熟度烤烟香气前体物及降解产物含量的差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席元肖; 宋纪真; 杨军; 李锋; 蔡宪杰; 王信民; 魏春阳

    2011-01-01

    为研究不同颜色及成熟度烤烟香气前体物及降解产物含量的差异,选用河南和福建的初烤烟叶,按照部位、颜色、成熟度等外观质量指标制备不同外观特征的样品,采用HPLC及GC/MS法测定了不同外观烤烟质体色素及其降解产物、多酚和类西柏烷的含量差异.结果表明,类胡萝卜素含量随颜色的加深而升高,随成熟度的提高而降低,郏县和宁化类胡萝卜素降解产物总量分别以浅桔黄和浅红棕烤烟最高,成熟时含量最高;多酚总量随颜色的加深而降低,随成熟度的提高先增加后减少,以成熟时最高;西柏烷类含量随颜色加深有逐渐升高的趋势,随成熟度变化没有规律.%Content of flavor precursors and degradation products in flue-cured tobacco of different color and maturity from Henan and Fujian provinces were analyzed by HPLC and CC/MS. Results showed that carotenoids content increased as leaf color deepened and deceased as maturity increased. The color of mature tobacco leaf was light orange and light reddish brown in two provinces respectively, and degradation products content were the highest. Polyphenols content decreased as color deepened and when maturity increased, its content first climbed up and then declined. Mature tobacco leaf has the highest content. Content of duvatrienediols increased as color deepened, while there was no regularity as to the maturity. Differences and regularity existed between flavor precursors and degradation products content in flue-cured tobacco of different color and maturity.

  17. A decade of work on organized labor and tobacco control: reflections on research and coalition building in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Delaurier, Gregory; Kelder, Graham; McLellan, Deborah; Sorensen, Glorian; Balbach, Edith D; Levenstein, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Labor unions can and should make strong allies in tobacco control efforts. Through much of the 1980s and 1990s, however, the organized labor and tobacco control communities rarely formed coalitions to achieve mutual gains. Recently, labor unions and tobacco control organizations have begun to work together on smoking cessation programs, smoke-free worksite policies, and increased insurance coverage for cessation treatments. This paper explores the historic and present-day intersections among organized labor and tobacco control advocates. We summarize research in this area and report on our recent programmatic efforts to promote collaboration between the labor and tobacco control communities. We discuss lessons learned with the aims of promoting deeper understanding among tobacco control and labor advocates of how each views tobacco control issues, and most importantly, stimulating further collaboration toward mutual gains in protecting workers' health.

  18. Labor and the tobacco institute's labor management committee in new york state: the rise and fall of a political coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Charles; Delaurier, Gregory F; Ahmed, Safi; Balbach, Edith D

    2005-01-01

    In 1984 the Tobacco Institute and the Bakery, Confectionary and Tobacco Workers Union formed a Labor Management Committee. From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, this LMC worked to elicit labor support in New York by framing issues in terms that made them salient to unions: tobacco excise taxes as regressive taxation, workplace smoking restrictions as an intrusion into collective bargaining. By the late 1990s, however, most of labor in New York had shifted to support for anti-tobacco policies. The reasons for this shift include the growing size and influence of public-sector unions, and their generally favorable stances on tobacco control issues; the policy-making autonomy of the unions; the growing body of scientific knowledge concerning the dangers of tobacco use; and the rise in public awareness of such dangers. Nevertheless, for two decades, the LMC contributed to mutual suspicion between labor and tobacco control advocates that prevented collaboration between them.

  19. Composite cure monitoring with Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Kerry T.; Corona-Bittick, Kelli; Dorr, Donald J.

    1998-03-01

    Residual stress is induced in fiber composite materials during the cure process because the thermal expansion coefficient of the fiber is generally much lower than that of the polymer matrix. The two materials are 'locked' together at the cure temperature. Then, as they cool, the matrix attempts to contract more than the fiber leading to tension in the matrix and compression in the fiber. This can lead to the formation of microcracks parallel to the fibers in thick composite piles or yarns. The magnitude of residual stress can be reduced by modifying the cure cycle; however, optimizing the cure cycle requires a complete understanding of the state of cure throughout the composite. This is a complex problem -- especially in thick composites. Pilot studies have been performed placing Bragg gratin sensors in glass fabric preforms and monitoring the response of the grating during resin infusion and cure. The typical response shows the initial thermal expansion of the Bragg grating, a rapid contraction of the grating as the resin gels, slower contraction during cure, and thermal contraction at the composite thermal expansion coefficient during cool down. This data is then sued with micromechanical models of the fiber/matrix interaction during cure to establish material parameters for cure simulation. Once verified, these cure simulation methods will be used to optimize tooling design and cure cycles in composite components.

  20. 基肥一次性供氮对烤烟氮素吸收利用的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Application on N Absorption and Utilization of Flue-Cured Tobacco Under the Fertilizer Applied as Only Basal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 陈能场; 谢玉华; 李斌; 顾学文; 柯油松; 徐胜光

    2011-01-01

    为探讨基肥一次性供氮条件下的烤烟优化施氮问题,采用大田小区试验,探讨了基肥一次性供氮条件下不同化学施氮量对烤烟氮素吸收利用的影响.结果表明:1)在基肥一次性供氮条件下,经过一个生长季之后基施的化学氮基本消耗殆尽,48~ 168 kg·hm-2范围内增施化学氮没有促进植烟土壤氮素积累的作用;2)与不施化学氮处理比,48、108、168 kg·hm-2的不同化学氮处理均显著促进了烤烟的氮素吸收(P<0.01),烤烟产量分别为不施化学氮处理的170%、152%和149%,起到有效促进烤烟生长、提高烤烟产量的显著作用(P<0.0l);3)在48~168 kg·hm-2范围内不同化学氮处理间烤烟氮吸收量差异不显著(P>0.05),随着化学氮量增加,烤烟产量、产值呈下降趋势,烤烟氮肥利用率和氮素农学利用率直线下降;4)基肥一次性供氮条件下增施化学氮有降低烤烟总糖、还原糖含量和提高烟碱含量的作用,但试验供氮范围内烤烟糖碱比仍在合理范围.从基肥一次性供氮的试验结果看,低化学氮处理(48 kg· hm-2)能有效地满足烤烟氮养分需求,显著提高烤烟化学氮的利用效率.%To study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer applied as only basal on N absorption and utilization of flue-cured tobacco,a field experiment was conducted using flue-cured tobacco, Nicotiana tobacum L. , cultivar Yue 97 grown in a completely randomized block design at Nanxiong Tobacco Science Institute of Guangdong in 2009. The results showed that;1) Under nitrogen fertilizer applied as only basal,the soil supplying nitrogen capacity at late growth period of tobacco was not promoted evidently by the increasing of nitrogen application in the range of 48 -168 kg · hm-2.2) Nitrogen uptake by tobacco could be pro-moted significantly from artificial nitrogen application, the yield of tobacco applied with artificial nitrogen fertilizer at 48,108,168 kg · hm-2 was equivalent to

  1. Effects of long-term fertilization on microorganisms in flue-cured tobacco grown soil%长期施肥对植烟土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁伟; 叶江平; 蒋卫; 霍沁建; 陈晓明; 梁永江; 张长华; 袁玲

    2012-01-01

    利用7年的定位施肥试验,研究了不施肥(CK)、 单施化肥(CF)和有机无机肥配施(MCF)对植烟土壤微生物的影响。平板计数、 微生物碳、 氮含量和磷脂脂肪酸的测定结果均表明,土壤微生物数量以有机无机配施的处理最多,单施化肥次之,不施肥最少。在3种施肥处理的土壤中,分别检测出20(CK)、 27(CF)和31种(MCF)磷脂脂肪酸; 施肥提高了代表细菌(1220碳)和放线菌(10Me17: 0和10Me18: 0)的磷脂脂肪酸; 但是,代表真菌的磷脂脂肪酸18: 1ω9c无显著变化(CF)或显著降低(MCF)。有机无机肥配施处理显著提高了土壤微生物的多样性指数和优势度指数,说明有机无机配施改善了土壤生态环境,微生物种群丰富,优势种群突出。在土壤自生固氮菌、 磷细菌和钾细菌中,分离率最高的是芽孢杆菌属,在26%50%之间变化。有机无机肥配施还提高了这3种有益微生物的数量,单施化肥则无显著影响。此外,在有机无机肥配施的土壤中,自生固氮菌、 磷细菌和钾细菌的多样性指数、 均匀度指数和优势度指数均较高。从土壤微生物的角度看,生产上采用有机无机肥配施很有必要。%A 7-year experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of no fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (CF) and the mixture of manure and chemical fertilizer (MCF) on microorganisms in flue-cured tobacco grown soils. Plate count, microbial C and microbial N as well as phosphor lipid fatty acids (PLFAs) showed highest microorganisms in the soil treated with MCF, less with CF and lowest with CK. There were 20 (CK), 27 (CF) and 31 types of PLFAs (MCF) in soils, respectively. Fertilization increased the PLFAs contained in bacteria (12–20C) and actinomycetes (10Me 17:0和10Me18:0). There were no obvious changes in fungal PLFAs (18:1ω9c) in

  2. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  3. 氮、磷、钾对烤烟碳氮代谢关键酶活性及其经济效益的影响%Effects of N,P, K on Activity of Key Enzymes for Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism and Economic Benefit of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宪凤; 刘卫群; 王树会

    2012-01-01

    为探讨氮、磷、钾肥对烤烟碳氮代谢关键酶活性及其经济效益影响,采用田间小区试验,测定了缺氮、缺磷、缺钾和氮磷钾正常(CK)处理烤烟不同生育时期碳氮代谢关键酶即硝酸还原酶(NR)、谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)、蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS))、蔗糖合成酶(SS)和转化酶(INV)的活性变化.结果表明:在烟叶的氮代谢过程中,NR活性主要在烟叶生长发育前期起作用,与CK相比,氮、磷、钾素缺乏分别使烟叶NR活性下降35.9%,13.4%,19.5%,但移栽后85 d无差异显著性;在碳代谢过程中,SPS,SS和INV活性主要在烟叶生育中期起作用,缺氮能显著降低碳代谢关键酶活性,而缺磷、钾素则表现不明显,很可能与试验田磷钾含量较高有关.缺氮处理对烟叶的产量、产值影响最大,与CK处理相比,分别降低了19.7%,13.2%,缺磷、钾素处理与CK差异不显著.因此,烤烟为达到优质高产,首先要确保氮肥供应充足,同时要适当控制磷钾肥用量.%The purpose of the paper was to study the effect of N, P, K fertilizer on the activeness of key enzymes involved in C and N metabolism during leaf development and the economic benefit of flue-cured tobacco. Four different treatments (i. e. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium deficiency and CK) were designed in a field experiment to study the enzyme activeness of nitrate reductase ( NR ) , Glutamina synthetase ( GS ) , sucrose phosphate syhthase (SPS) , sucrose synthase ( SS) and invertase (Inv). The results showed that NR was majored at the early growth stage of flue-cured tobacco. Compared with CK,the NR activity of N,P and K lack treatments decreased by 35. 9% , 13.4% and 19. 5% , respectively, but no significant difference was detected after 85 d of transplanting. In the process of carbon metabolism,the key enzymes SPS.SS and INV played a major role at the middle growth stage. N deficiency could decrease significantly the activeness of key enzyme, while P

  4. 等氮条件下饼肥与无机肥配合施用对烤烟生长与土壤养分淋失的影响%Effects of Cake Fertilizer/Chemical Ratio on Flue-cured Tobacco Growth and Loss of Soil Nutrients Under Same Nitrogen Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春江; 胡钟胜; 施旭; 招启柏; 钱志宏

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted in Yurman Province of China.Six different treatments with mixed chemical and cake fertilizers,included no fertilization (CK),cake fertilizers only (100M),75% organic manure and 25% chemical fertilizers (75M+25F),50% organic manure and 50% chemical fertilizers (50M+50F),25% organic manure and 75% chemical fertilizers (25M+ 70F) with their replications and N,P and K chemical fertilizers only (100F) were examined.N application rate was the same in all the treatments (except no fertilization in CK).The effects of the fertilization modes on flue-cured tobacco,as well as nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium accumulation,losses of N and P were investigated.The results showed that application of cake fertilizers fermented could promote the growth of flue-cured tobacco plant,enhance leaf yield,increase ratio of high quality and economic benefits level leaves,while no fertilization resulted in soil fertility degeneration.There was a significant increase of soil fertility with balanced fertilization while cake fertilizers application combined with chemical fertilizers increased soil fertility most.Both the concentrations of N and P in different treatments decreased first and then increased during the whole growing period.At the same applied amount of N fertilizer,soil nitrogen leakage amount decreased with the increase of the ratio of cake fertilizers applied,but the more proportion of cake fertilizers,the higher accumulative leaching amount of P in leacheate.Based on the point of flue-cured tobacco growth and environment protection consideration,1 ∶ 1 of organic nitrogen/inorganic nitrogen was recommended in the flue-cured tobacco fertilization.%为综合评价在植烟土壤上有机肥与无机肥配合施用对烤烟生长及土壤养分的效应,通过盆栽试验,比较等氮养分条件下饼肥与无机肥不同配比处理的烤烟生长、土壤养分以及氮磷流失变化.结果表明:通过增施有机饼肥,能促进

  5. 氮磷钾配施对烤烟农艺性状和主要化学成分的影响%EFFECT OF COMBINED APPLICATION N,P AND K FERTILIZER ON AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND THE MAIN CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鹏达; 赵丽娜; 朱文旭; 焦玉生; 赵光伟; 孙广玉

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the secondary influence relationships of the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers on the agronomic characters and the main chemical composition, using the gray correlation analysis method, during growth and development of flue cured tobacco leaves. Results showed that agronomic characters nitrogen fertilizer with the association order of single - leaf weight 〉 leaf length 〉 leaf width 〉 plant height 〉 remained leaves; with phosphorus fertilizer, the order is the single -leaf weight 〉 plant height 〉 leaf length 〉 leaf width 〉 remained leaves; for potassium fertilizer, it followed the order of the single leaf weight 〉 leaf length 〉 plant height 〉 leaf width 〉 remained leaves. Leaf nitrogen content was closely related to phosphorus fertilizers, and leaf potassium content was closely related to potassium fertilizer. The impact of nitrogen and phosphorus were also more significant than potassium. The main factor affecting starch was phosphorus fertilizer and the main factors affection total sugar and reducing sugar content were potassium and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively. Potassium fertilizer was the main factors affecting free amino acids. Therefore, in flue - cured tobacco cultivation, a reasonable proportion of N, P and K fertilizer can effectively coordinate flue - cured tobacco agronomic characters and the content of main chemical components, which in turn provide basis for high yield and quality of flue - cured tobacco.%采用灰色关联分析法,通过大田试验,研究了氮磷钾肥在影响烤烟生长发育中农艺性状和叶片主要化学成分的主次关系。结果表明,烤烟农艺性状与氮肥的关联序为:单叶重〉叶长〉叶宽〉株高〉留叶数;与磷肥为:单叶重〉株高〉叶长〉叶宽〉留叶数;与钾肥为:单叶重〉叶长〉株高〉叶宽〉留叶数。叶片含氮量与磷肥密切相关;

  6. Effects of Mixed Organic Fertilizer Amount on Root Vigor and Rhizosphere Soil Biological Characteristics of Flue-cured Tobacco%混合有机肥用量对烤烟根系活力及根际土壤生物特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳平; 刘国顺; 丁松爽; 李静静; 阎海涛; 阎申

    2016-01-01

    The application of organic fertilizer has a great impact on the soil rhizosphere ecological area. In order to study the effects of a mixed organic fertilizer (peat, sesame cake, humic acid and mineral fertilizer) on the flue-cured tobacco rhizosphere, a potted plant experiment was conduced to investigate the effects of application rates of the mixed organic fertilizer on root vigor of flue-cured tobacco, soil enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass. The results showed that: (1) Application of the mixed organic fertilizer at the rate of 500 g per plant showed the greatest improvement of flue-cured tobacco root vigor, and it enhanced the root vigor of flue-cured tobacco by up to 200.06% 60 days after transplanting. (2) The activities of soil urease, invertase and catalase were increased most significantly at the application rate of 500 g per plant, and 60 days after transplanting the enzyme activities were increased by 53.45%, 33.98% and 61.90%, respectively. Application of the mixed organic fertilizer at 750 g per plant had the most obvious effect on soil microbial biomass carbon, followed by the application rate of 500 g per plant. At the time of 60 days after transplanting these two application rates improved the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon by 97.51% and 82.04% respectively. (3) The flue-cured tobacco root vigor, soil enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass carbon all showed a peak 60 d after transplanting for all the treatments, suggesting that application of the mixed organic fertilizer can significantly enhance root vigor, soil enzyme activities and soil microbial biomass carbon, and that the appropriate application rate is 500 g/plant for the purpose of improving rhizosphere soils of flue-cured tobacco.%有机肥施用对土壤根际生态区域的影响关系密切,为探讨混合有机肥(草炭、芝麻饼肥、腐植酸、矿质肥)作用下烤烟根际的动态变化,采用盆栽试验,研究了混合有机肥用

  7. The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Catalano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.

  8. Implementation of effective cigarette health warning labels among low and middle income countries: state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    We investigates the effects of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FTCT), state capacity, path-dependency and tobacco industry activity on the implementation of effective health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packs among low and middle income countries (LMIC). Using logistic regression in separate analyses for FCTC Article 11 compliant HWLs and graphic HWLs (GHWL), we found that the odds of FCTC compliance increased by a factor of 1.31 for each year after FCTC entered into force in the country (p industry efforts for voluntary agreements in other areas of public health as well, such as alcohol and junk food.

  9. Effect of nitrogen forms on yield,quality and main chemical components of flue-cured tobacco%不同铵态氮硝态氮配比对烤烟产量、质量及其主要化学成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晋; 王维; 严玛丽; 陈建军; 吕永华; 邓世媛; 蔡一霞; 陈泽鹏; 邱妙文; 陈永明

    2014-01-01

    [Objectives]Nitrogen supplying forms affect the yield of flue cured tobacco and the main chemical component contents, thus, affecting the economic quality. In this paper, the proper form of nitrogen and the ratios of different nitrogen fertilizers were studied in order to provide a theoretical basis for rational application of nitrogen.[Methods]A field experiment with five different ratios of NH4+/NO3- in fertilizer was conducted to study the effect of different ratios on the yield, quality of the flue-cured tobacco. The changes of the main chemical components in the flue-cured tobacco caused by the ratio of NH4+/NO3- were investigate at the same time. [Results]The application of nitrogen fertilizer with higher nitrate ratio can promote the early growth and quick tiller of flue-cured tobacco, but this effect becomes negligible at the late stages of growth. With the ratio of 50% nitrate nitrogen+50% ammonium nitrogen, the percentages of high grade tobacco are significantly increased, and the scores of mid-high grade proportion and high grade proportion reach 0. 88 and 0. 55. The contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, starch, potassium, fructose, sucrose and maltose are positively correlated with the ratio of NO3- significantly. On the contrary, the contents of total nitrogen, nicotine, nitrogen-nicotine ratio, nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine show significant negative correlation with it. The lowest score of flue-cured tobacco quality is obtained with the 100% nitrate nitrogen treatment ( Score 82. 5 ) , the highest score with treatment of 50% nitrate nitrogen with 50%ammonium nitrogen ( Score 97. 8 ) . Therefore, when the level of nitrogen application is 150 kg/ha, the ratio of 50% ammonium to 50% nitrate will be the most suitable ratio for the tobacco-growth and quality, profit in Nanxiong area, Guangdong province.%【目的】不同形态的氮素营养影响着烤烟的一些有机成分的含量和产量,本文对烤烟适宜的氮素形态以及比例

  10. Effects of different bulk curing technologies on polyphenol content and PPO activity in tobacco leaves%密集烘烤工艺对烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松峰; 王爱华; 王先伟; 管恩森; 徐秀红; 王传义; 任杰; 孙福山

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes of polyphenol substance contents and PPO activity during 3 different curing processes were studied using electric-heated flue-curing barn. Results showed that content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, implicit chlorogenic acid, and Rutin increased during all curing processes. After curing, K2 treatment resulted in the highest content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, and implicit chlorogenic acid, while K3 treatment resulted in the highest content of rutin and scopoletin. K2 treatment showed the lowest PPO activity during the sensitive period (45℃-47℃) of the brown reaction while K3 treatment showed the highest. Those indicated that K2 treatment can effectively inhibit enzymatic browning reaction and regulate polyphenol content during bulk curing, and produced higher level of polyphenol substances after curing.%为密集烘烤有针对性地调控多酚含量和优化完善烘烤工艺,采用电热式温湿自控密集烤烟箱,研究了3个密集烘烤工艺烘烤过程中烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的变化。各密集烘烤工艺处理烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸、隐绿原酸、芸香苷含量随着烘烤进程总体呈升高趋势。烤后烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸和隐绿原酸含量以K2工艺处理较高,芸香苷和莨菪亭含量以K3工艺处理较高。棕色化反应的敏感时期(45℃-47℃)的PPO活性以K2工艺处理最低,K3工艺处理最高。研究表明K2工艺处理能很好地抑制酶促棕色化反应的发生,调控密集烘烤过程中多酚类物质的变化,烤后烟叶多酚类物质含量高。

  11. Effects of Drought Stress on Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Flue- cured Tobacco from Seedlings Cultured by Different Seedbed Systems%干旱胁迫对不同育苗方式烤烟生长和生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁宇; 周冀衡; 邓小刚; 张一扬; 李春林; 牛丽娜; 江子勤; 陈浩

    2011-01-01

    为明确干旱胁迫对不同育苗方式下烟苗移栽后的生长状况及生理生化特性的影响,通过盆栽控制土壤含水率试验,研究了干旱缺水环境下烤烟的适宜育苗方式.结果表明:干旱胁迫下,烟株脯氨酸含量和过氧化物酶活性两项指标均呈现出上升趋势.随着干旱时间的持续以及干旱程度的加深,烟株的硝酸还原酶活性则呈下降趋势.在轻度干旱条件下,漂湿育苗方式培育的烟苗移栽后生长状况好于漂浮育苗方式培育的烟苗.在极端干旱条件下,烟苗移栽14d后,两种育苗方式的烟株生长均停滞并出现叶片变黄枯萎等现象.%For investigating the influence of drought stress on the growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of transplanted seedlings cultured in different seedbed systems, the pot trials with controlled soil moisture content were conducted to study the seedbed systems for flue - cured tobacco seedlings adaptable to drought conditions. The results showed that the proline content and POD activity in tobacco plants presented a rising trend under drought stress. With the increase of duration and degree of drought, the activity of NR in tobacco plants decreased. Under the condition of moderate drought, the growth status of transplanted tobacco seedlings from float-moist seedbed was better than that from floating system; while under extremely drought condition, the growth of tobacco plants from both two seedbed systems stagnated, yellowing and wilting leaves emerged 14 days after transplanting.

  12. Analysis of Relationship between Sucrose Content and Sucrose Metabolism Key Enzyme Activity of Flue-cured Tobacco in Different Areas of Henan Province%河南不同地区烤烟蔗糖含量及其代谢关键酶之间的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏庆华; 杜铮; 刘卫群; 贾峰

    2011-01-01

    The paper studied the relationships between the activity of sucrose metabolism key enzymes, namely sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS) and invertase (INV), and the content of sucrose in eighteen leaves of flue -cured tobacco variety NC89 at different growth stages in the field in Queshan and Baofeng of Henan province. The results showed that the changeable trends of the activity of SPS, SS and INV were similar in the process of sucrose accumulation of tobacco leaf, the activity of SPS and INV in the metaphase of tobacco growth in Baofeng area was obviously higher than that in Queshan area, and the activity of SS was similar in two areas, but the sucrose content in tobacco leaves of Queshan was remarkably higher than that of Baofeng. All these results revealed that the carbohydrate metabolism level of tobacco leaves in Baofeng was significantly higher than that in Queshan.%通过河南确山和宝丰两地区烤烟蔗糖含量及其代谢关键酶的对比分析,研究了NC89不同发育时期18片叶蔗糖代谢相关酶即蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)、蔗糖合成酶(SS)、转化酶(INV)的活性变化与蔗糖含量的变化.结果表明:烟叶蔗糖积累过程中,SPS、SS和INV活性的变化趋势是基本相同的,SPS、INV活性在烟叶生长中期宝丰烟叶均明显高于确山烟叶,蔗糖合成酶活性差别不显著,而确山烟叶蔗糖含量明显高于宝丰烟叶,说明了宝丰烟叶的碳代谢远远高于确山烟叶.

  13. Modeling HIV Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  14. Effects of transplanting date on quality and unique style of flue-cured tobacco cultivar ‘Yunyan 85’%不同移栽期对‘云烟85’烟叶质量风格特色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义强; 范坚强; 郑湖南; 包可翔; 陈少滨; 叶想青; 崔振伟; 张恩仁; 齐凌峰

    2014-01-01

    采用随机区组试验,研究了不同移栽期对‘云烟85’烟叶质量风格特色的影响。结果表明:当地提早移栽的烟叶外观质量总体上比对照烟叶好,表现为烟叶颜色橘黄,结构疏松,成熟度成熟,身份较适中,油分较足,色度较均匀、饱满。特别是中上部烟叶,表现出随着当地移栽期的提前,烟叶外观质量逐渐变好的趋势。推迟移栽的烟叶外观质量均比对照烟叶差。试验中随着当地移栽期的提前,‘云烟85’烟叶香型呈现由浓香逐步向清香转变的趋势,烟叶甜感呈现由焦甜逐步向清甜转变的趋势;烟叶香气质变好,香气量更足,杂气变轻,烟气变细腻,浓度增大,劲头更适中,刺激性变小,余味变好,感官质量综合得分增高。不同移栽期处理对烟叶常规化学成分含量的影响不明显。方差分析表明,4个移栽期处理在烟叶感官质量特征各指标上的差异均达到显著或极显著水平,在烟碱、总糖、还原糖、钾和氯含量的差异均不显著。%In order to highlight the unique style and improve the quality of tobacco leaves by give full play to the climatic resource advantages,two randomized block experiments were conducted to research the effects of transplanting date on quality and unique style of flue-cured tobacco cultivar‘Yunyan 85’.The re-sults showed that the appearance quality of tobacco leaves of early transplanting were better than that of control group leaves,especially in the middle leaves and upper leaves with orange color of uniform and plump,loose structure,mature feature,moderate identity,enough oil.On the contrary,the appearance quali-ty of tobacco leaves of delaying transplanting were inferior to that of control group leaves.The full-bodied flavor and baking-sweet flavor of flue-cured tobacco leaves faded down,the fen-flavor and fen-sweet inten-sified,the aroma quality smelled better,the aroma quantity become more plentiful,the offensive odor

  15. 一定碳氮比条件下不同有机物对烤烟生长及烟叶品质的影响%Effect of Different Organic Matter on Growth and Flue-cured Tobacco Quality under Same Carbon-nitrogen Ratio Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世亮; 刘增俊; 介晓磊; 化党领; 刘芳; 张弘韬; 朱金峰

    2011-01-01

    With sucrose,starch,cellulose,fulvic acid etc.organic matter to regulate the soil carbon-nitrogen ratio value as 20,the effects of organic materials were studied on the growth,physiological characteristics and chemical components of flue-cured tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L.) by the method of pot experiment.The result indicated that the different organic matter could promote the growth of flue-cured tobacco,and also increase the chlorophyll content of flue-cured,with more remarkable effects in sucrose and fulvic acid treatments.In maturity stage,different organic matter treatments could decline the content of leaves chlorophyll and the activities of nitrate reductase and invertase of leaves.The amylase activity was higher than that of flourishing growth stage,which promoting the starch decomposition and translation and increasing the single leaf weight of flue-cured.The organic matter could increase flue-cured leaves' N,P and K content and accumulation,and the effects of sucrose and fulvic acid treatment were better.And they also remarkably increased flue-cured leaves' total sugar,and reduced sugar and nicotine content,and declined starch content.And the sucrose treatment was better among all treatments.The sugar treatment was the best treatment on the aroma component total content in tobacco leaves,and the content of the aroma component was in the order of sugar treatment HA treatment starch treatment CK fiber treatment,and the kinds of preferential aroma matters of sugar treatment were the maximum,and followed by HA treatment.%通过选用蔗糖、淀粉、纤维素和腐殖酸等4种有机物质,调节土壤碳氮比为20的情况下,研究了不同有机物对烤烟生长、烟叶生理生化特性及烟叶化学成分的影响。结果表明,不同有机物均能有效地促进烟株生长,且不同程度地提高了烤烟叶绿素的含量,以蔗糖和腐殖酸处理表现较好;成熟期各处理可以降低烤烟中叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶活

  16. 不同质地土壤主要养分动态变化及其对烤烟的影响分析%Analysis on Effect of Dynamic Changes of Main Nutrients in Different Texture Soils on Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈懿; 潘文杰; 陈伟; 张纪利

    2011-01-01

    Flue-cured tobacco was planted in silty loam collected from Weining and loam clay collected from Kaiyang under the same cultivated pattern in Kaiyang county to study the effect of dynamic changes of main nutrients in different texture yellow soils from Cuizhou on the yield and qualities of tobacco leaves in the growth and development cycle. The results showed that silty loam in the middle fertility level mineralized more, as the contents of inorganic nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher, which was beneficial to the storage of applied ammonia nitrogen; the density of nitrogen and potassium, potassium-chlorine ratio and the yield of tobacco leaves were higher compared with loam clay in the high fertility level. Loam clay had higher content of active potassium, which was beneficial to the storage of applied nitrate nitrogen, the sugar-nicotine ratio was more coordinate.%研究不同质地贵州黄壤主要养分在烤烟生长发育周期内的动态变化及其对烟叶产量、品质的影响.将威宁粉壤土、开阳壤粘土同置于开阳气候下,采用统一栽培措施种植烤烟.研究发现,与高等肥力的壤粘土比较,中等肥力的粉壤土矿化率更高,无机氮、有效磷含量更高,利于保存施入的铵态氮,烟叶氮素、钾素浓度更大,烟叶钾氯比更大,烟叶产量更高.而高等肥力的壤粘土速效钾含量更高,利于保存施入的硝态氮,烟叶糖碱比更协调.

  17. 改良剂施用量对Cd污染土壤修复及烤烟Cd积累的影响%Effects of Combined Amendment on Soil Remediation and Cd Accumulation in Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸慧慧; 施河丽; 吴文昊; 蔡章春; 向必坤; 孙玉晓; 李平; 谭军; 樊俊; 霍光

    2015-01-01

    为了研究改良剂施用量对重金属Cd污染植烟土壤的修复效果,在湖北恩施“清江源”科技园区采取盆栽方法,人工模拟Cd污染,试验研究了不同改良剂用量对土壤中总Cd、交换态Cd及烤烟叶片中Cd含量的影响。结果表明,施用改良剂使植烟土壤pH值升高,阳离子交换量显著增加,交换性Cd含量显著降低。施用改良剂显著降低了烤烟中部叶Cd积累量,最大降幅达51.59%%In order to study the dosage of conditioner on remediation results in Cd polluted soils, pot experiments were conducted in the Greenhouse of Qingjiangyuan Modern Tobacco Agricultural Science Park in Hubei, China. Dosage effects of conditioner on soil physical and chemical properties, soil total Cd, soil exchangeable Cd and tobacco leaves Cd content were studied. The results indicated that application of combined amendment significantly increased soil pH and CEC, and reduced exchangeable soil Cd. Application of combined amendment resulted in reducd contents of Cd in tobacco leaves, and the maximum reduction of Cd content was 51.59%.

  18. 饼肥配施对神农架周边烟区烤烟产量和质量的影响%Impact of Cake Fertilizer Application on Yield and Quality of Flue- cured Tobacco around Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 李进平; 秦铁伟; 胡功军; 范进修; 陈振国

    2012-01-01

    The comparative test for the combined application of cake fertilizer and inorganic chemical fertilizer in different proportions was carried out in the main tobacco -planting areas of Shennongjia, Hubei province. The results indicated that the application rate of cake fertilizer had a certain impact on the growth period and agronomic traits of tobacco, but there was little difference among different treatments. The treatment of applying 25% cake fertilizer together with 75% inorganic fertilizer could obtain the best tobacco leaf economic characters, appearance quality, main chemical compositions, sensory quality and smoking quality.%在湖北省神农架烟叶主产区进行了饼肥与无机肥不同配比用量对比试验,结果表明:不同的饼肥用量对烟叶生育期和农艺性状有一定的影响,但处理间差异不大;综合烟叶经济性状、外观质量、主要化学成分、感官评吸质量等指标,以25%饼肥配+75%无机肥的效果最佳.

  19. Primary application report of PULI bio-fertilizer on flue-cured tobacco%普利生物肥在烤烟上的应用研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦玉青; 刘永中; 姜鹏超; 牛纪军; 玉树声; 石屹

    2000-01-01

    Two years multiple location study indicated that effect of PULI bio-fertilizer' s raw material on tobacco was less than that of combination fertilizer of nitrogen and phosphorus and potassium. With special bacteria put in, the effect exceeded that of the compination. By using PULI bio-fertilizer, the yield and quality of