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Sample records for curcumin ginkgo biloba

  1. Ginkgo biloba and Memory: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, B H; Vadnal, R

    1998-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract has been increasingly popular for the treatment of memory problems. However, it is not commonly understood that this extract is composed of numerous chemicals, including flavonoid glycosides, terpene lactones, biflavones, and other miscellaneous components. It remains to be established exactly which components are biologically helpful. The extracts come from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree which is cultivated extensively for this purpose. Our aging population will consist of approximately 79 million people 65 y.o. or older in the year 2050. Since memory disorders increase dramatically with age, this poses a major challenge to both the pharmaceutical and nutritional industries to provide products which improve or prevent problems with memory. Our culture is based on the ability to recall information, therefore problems with memory are fundamental to our entire social system. Dementias are disorders that affect memory and intellectual functioning, and are caused primarily by Alzheimer's disease and vascular disorders (multi-infarct dementia). New drug therapies have been developed to improve cognition, through stimulation of the cholinergic system. In recent decades, an extract of the leaves of the tree Ginkgo biloba L. has been used to improve memory in these disorders. The European experience with Ginkgo extract is much greater than that of the U.S. Clinical studies to date have indicated a probable therapeutic benefit of Ginkgo biloba extract. Further human studies are needed to identify which clinical population is most responsive to Ginkgo treatment. In addition, it would be very useful to identify which chemical compound or compounds provide therapeutic effects in memory disorders. These bioactive components may be further concentrated for increased benefit in increasing cognitive memory capabilities. In addition, pharmaceutical companies might be able to modify memory-enhancing Ginkgo-derived molecules to increase potency and

  2. Chemistry and biology of terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree, is the oldest living tree, with a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the leaf extracts have been widely sold as phytomedicine in Europe and as a dietary supplement worldwide. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts have been postulated ...

  3. Chromatographic profiles of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected products

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was developed to obtain chromatographic profiles for the flavonoids and terpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected G. biloba products. The method was used to identify 46 glycosylated flavonols and flavones, 3 free flavonol aglycones, catechin, 10 biflavones, a dihy...

  4. Evaluation of the allergenic potential of Ginkgo biloba extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossabeb, R; Kraft, D; Valenta, R

    2001-08-16

    Ginkgo biloba extracts are used for the treatment of central and peripheral malperfusion, cerebral insufficiency and dementia. Between 1996 and 1998, several patients in Austria who had received parenteral Ginkgo extracts were reported to have developed allergy-like symptoms. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Ginkgo biloba extracts contain type I allergens. The protein content of Ginkgo biloba extracts was determined by BCA protein determination and SDS-PAGE. We used sera from 95 polysensitized plant-allergic patients (the sera contained IgE antibodies against most plant allergens), and rabbit antisera raised against defined recombinant plant allergens. The presence of allergens in Ginkgo extracts was determined by dot-blotting and Wester blot. Neither rabbit antisera nor IgE antibodies of patients reacted to the Ginkgo extracts. In addition, it was shown that prick testing of the skin could be conveniently used to study Gingko extracts for allergenic activity. In conclusion, no evidence for the presence of type I allergens in Ginkgo extracts was found. We recommend serological and/or skin testing to exclude sensitisation to components of Ginkgo biloba extracts.

  5. Gezondheidsclaims voor kruidenpreparaten op basis van Ginkgo biloba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom SMGJ; Fransen HP; Rompelberg CJM; Rooij EK de; Pronk MEJ; Baars AJ; Kaste D de; Verhagen H; SIR; CVG; KCF

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with Ginkgo biloba. Besides, analysis of 29 Ginkgo products showed that most of these products did not comply with the declaration on the label. Furtermore, safety can not be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. This was observed i

  6. Gezondheidsclaims voor kruidenpreparaten op basis van Ginkgo biloba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom SMGJ; Fransen HP; Rompelberg CJM; de Rooij EK; Pronk MEJ; Baars AJ; de Kaste D; Verhagen H; SIR; CVG; KCF

    2007-01-01

    Er is onvoldoende bewijs voor drie geclaimde gezondheidseffecten bij het gebruik van kruidenpreparaten op basis van de Japanse notenboom Ginkgo biloba. Ook toont een analyse van 29 Ginkgo-preparaten aan dat het merendeel niet bevat wat op het etiket vermeld staat. Daarnaast kan bij de aanbevolen d

  7. Detection of adulterated Ginkgo biloba supplements using chromatographic and spectral fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fingerprints of 18 commercially available Ginkgo biloba supplements, 12 samples of raw Ginkgo biloba leaves, and 3 Ginkgo biloba Standard Reference Materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were acquired directly (no chromatography) by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry a...

  8. Phytochemical and medicinal importance of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Tamboli, Yasinalli; Zubaidha, P K

    2014-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L., also popularly known as living fossil, possesses a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. The leaf extract of G. biloba L. (EGb 761) has been used for years to treat age-related memory-deficit problems, including Alzheimer's and dementia. Experimental and clinical studies have revealed its beneficial effects on a wide range of pathological conditions including hepatoprotective, photoprotective effects, DNA repair mechanism, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies have also suggested that leaf extract of G. biloba L. may exert beneficial effects on cancer. This review focuses on recent scientific evidence of the reported medicinal effects of G. biloba L.

  9. Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers for Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Xu, L A; Cao, F L; Zhang, H J; Yu, F X

    2015-07-13

    Ginkgo biloba is considered to be a living fossil that can be used to understand the ancient evolutionary history of gymnosperms, but little attention has been given to the study of its population genetics, molecular phylogeography, and genetic resources assessment. Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers are powerful tools for genetic studies of plants. In this study, a total of 30 perfect cpSSRs of Ginkgo were identified and characterized, including di-, tri, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeats. Fifteen of 21 designed primer pairs were successfully amplified to yield specific polymerase chain reaction products from 16 Ginkgo cultivars. Polymorphic cpSSRs were further applied to determine the genetic variation of 116 individuals in 5 populations of G. biloba. The results showed that 24 and 76% genetic variation existed within and among populations of this species, respectively. These polymorphic and monomorphic cpSSR markers can be used to trace the origin and evolutionary history of Ginkgo.

  10. Cytoskeleton in Pollen and Pollen Tubes of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Mei LIU; Hong ZHANG; Yan LI

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of F-actin and microtubules was investigated in pollen and pollen tubes of Ginkgo biloba L. using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence and immunofluorescence labeling. A dense F-actin network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen. When Ginkgo pollen was germinating,F-actin mesh was found under the plasma membrane from which the pollen tube would emerge. After pollen germination, F-actin bundles were distributed axially in long pollen tubes of G. biloba. Thick F-actin bundles and network were found in the tip of the Ginkgo pollen tube, which is opposite to the results reported for the pollen tubes of some angiosperms and conifers. In addition, a few circular F-actin bundles were found in Ginkgo pollen tubes. Using immunofluorescence labeling, a dense microtubule network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen under confocal microscope. In the Ginkgo pollen tube, the microtubules were distributed along the longitudinal axis and extended to the tip. These results suggest that the cytoskeleton may have an essential role in the germination of Ginkgo pollen and tube growth.

  11. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  12. Seasonal Variations of the Flavonoid Content from Ginkgo biloba Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, A; Rietsch-Jako, L; Haag-Berrurier, M; Anton, R

    1991-10-01

    An HPLC method for the separation and the quantitative determination of flavonol glycosides, acylflavonol glycosides, and biflavones in crude leaf extracts from GINKGO BILOBA is described. The results, expressed in percentage of rutine, kaempferol P-coumaroyl glucorhamnoside, and bilobetin showed a higher amount of acylflavonol glycosides in buds, of flavonol glycosides in spring leaves, and of biflavones in autumn leaves.

  13. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K. (Univ. to Tennessee, Martin (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  14. Chromatographic fingerprints analysis for evaluation of Ginkgo Biloba products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba has purported value for improving mental capacities in Alzheimer’s patients. The flavonoids and the terpene lactones are considered to be the two main active components that influence human health. This paper compared an LC/UV chromatographic fingerprint method wi...

  15. [Component analysis on polysaccharides in exocarp of Ginkgo biloba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G; Xu, A; Chen, H; Wang, X

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the content and component analysis on polysaccharides in exocarp of Ginkgo biloba. The results show that the content of total saccharides is 89.7%; content of polysaccharides is 84.6%; content of reductic saccharides is 5.1%; the polysaccharides are composed of glucose, fructose, galactose and rhamnose.

  16. A new sesquiterpene trilactone from the roots of Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yu; Jing Yu Liang

    2009-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene trilactone, named bilobanol (1), along with four known terpene trilactones (ginkgolide A, B, C and bilobalide) were isolated from the roots of Ginkgo biloba collected in Jiangsu Province, China. The structure elucidation was accomplished by 1D and 2D NMR methods, HR-ESI-MS, and CD spectrum.

  17. Female Plant Types of Ginkgo biloba L. in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; He Fengren; Tao Jun; Qian Bolin; Wei Jun; Ling Yuping; Wang Li

    2003-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious and unique species within Ginkgo family and Ginkgo genus, but it shows a big variability. From 1950s, resources of female plants in China were investigated and collected, and the seed anatomical structure and morphological characters at different development stages were observed. According to the shape, length, width and thickness of ovule bracket and seed stone, as well as the characteristics of both sides and top of the stone, the female plants of Ginkgo biloba have been divided into five types, long-stone, Buddha-finger, horse-bell, mume-stone and round-stone. In addition, the important cultivars belonging to different types were also determined. The stone weight, index of stone shape, and contents of dry matter, amylose, amylopectin, starch, rough protein, soluble sugar and hydrocyanic acid in seed kernel of each type were measured, and the qualities of seed stone were appraised, which lays a foundation for the improvement and utilization of female plant resources in Ginkgo biloba.

  18. 孑遗植物银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)雌雄株水分生理特征研究%Preliminary Study on Water Physiological Characters of Male and Female Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹全; 江洪; 曾波; 余树全; 王彬; 蒋馥蔚

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to study the difference of water physiology of male and female Ginkgo biloba L. for discussing the strategy of water utilization as well as the important role of this difference during evolution process. [Method] The stem sap flow, stomatal conductance(Gs), transpiration rate(Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE) of male and female Ginkgo biloba L. were comparatively studied. [Result] The day-night processes of flow on male and female Ginkgo biloba L. were similar. The flow on male and female Ginkgo biloba L. in day were almost same while the flow at night on male Ginkgo biloba L. was bigger than that on female Ginkgo biloba L. The Tr and Gs of male and female Ginkgo biloba L. were high in morning and at night but low at noon ,while Tr and Gs of female Ginkgo biloba L. in morning and at night were higher than these of male Ginkgo biloba L. at the same time point. However, these indexes of female plant were lower than these of male plant from 11:00 to 14:00. WUE changing trends of male and female Ginkgo biloba L. were similar, while average water utilization rate of female Ginkgo biloba L. was slightly lower than that of male Ginkgo biloba L. [Conclusion] Compared with other companion plants, water physiology of male and female Ginkgo biloba L. had strong homoplasy. The phenomenon might be a survival strategy of dioecious plants under long term evolutionary pressure.

  19. Purification and Characterization of a Novel ~18 kDa Antioxidant Protein from Ginkgo biloba Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Chen; Jianzhong Ye; Chengzhang Wang; Hao Zhou; Xijuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba seeds are widely used as a food and traditional medicine in China. In the present study, a novel antioxidant protein named GBSP was purified from Ginkgo biloba seeds. The protein (GBSP) was purified by homogenization of Ginkgo biloba seed powder in saline solution, 70% ammonium sulphate precipitation, filtration on a DEAE-Cellulose52 anion exchange column, gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column, and preparative chromatography on a C18 column using RP-HPLC. GBSP showed an appar...

  20. Historical Changes of Ginkgo Biloba L.Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng-jie; FAN Bao-min

    2012-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba L.is a rare species endemic to China,strengthening the study of Ginkgo culture is of great significance to eco-economic development.This paper uses the historical research methods to study the Ginkgo and its cultural development process in China.According to the characteristics of the development of Ginkgo culture,the process can be divided into three stages:Shang and Zhou Dynasties to the Northern and Southern Dynasties(which is named theological era),Sui and Tang Dynasties to early Qing Dynasty(which is named the literature era),and the modern China which is named the scientific era.The history of Ginkgo culture is a history of Ginkgo being gradually recognized,and the Ginkgo culture’s connotation and extension are gradually deepened and developed.The construction of Ginkgo today’s culture should be in the inheritance of historical culture,and combined with the needs of the times comprehensive innovation,take the science and human harmonious development road.

  1. Chloroplast phylogenomics indicates that Ginkgo biloba is sister to cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo-cycad sister-group hypothesis.

  2. Phenolic compounds among the bioactive molecules in Ginkgo biloba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The interest for natural antioxidants has been increasing over the years. Phenolic compounds comprise a very large group of biologically active molecules, being appreciated for their beneficial effects on health (physiologically active compounds with anti-allergic, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects) [1-3]. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic compounds of Ginkgo biloba L...

  3. Rethinking Ginkgo biloba L.: Medicinal uses and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Tasiu

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba) is an ancient medicinal tree species that has been in existence for millennia without undergoing modifications due to its resistance to environmental stresses. Palaeobotanical history showed a wide distribution of the species across the globe but declined over geological time, becoming restricted to narrow geographical range with few surviving individuals in the modern day. The tree is slow growing, adapted to many ecological conditions and shows numerous adaptation in developmental patterns. Medicinal use of the species is attracting research interest, especially the various parts of the tree that are used in orthodox or traditional medicine to treat diseases due to the many bioactive compounds. The primary compounds receiving increasing research interest are the triterpene lactones and flavonoids; these are the target of biotechnological strategies being employed to enhance production. Many genetic and environmental factors have contributed to the endangered status of the species; conservation measures are required to protect it from extinction. In many countries, the cultivation of plantations for the supply of ginkgo leaf-based pharmaceutical formulations is in progress, and efforts to standardize ginkgo leaf extract as herbal medication for human use are being made. Microcuttings and cuttings, cryopreservation, and plant tissue culture have all aided to conserve G. biloba. PMID:26392712

  4. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on an experimental model of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilija Vladimir I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The active ingredients of ginkgo biloba extracts were determined by biochemical analyses in the last ten years and they are widely used in classical medicine. The active substances of ginkgo biloba extract, mostly affect muscarinic receptors and adrenergic receptors to a lesser degree. Recently, potential effects of ginkgo biloba on NMDA receptors and on epileptogenic seizures have been considered. The main goal of this research was to investigate effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on the experimantal model of epilepsy. Material and methODS The research was carried out on chinchilla rabbits. GINGIUM solution was used with 40 mg in 1 ml of dry extract of ginkgo biloba leaves. The epileptogenic area was formed by stimulating hippocampus. Bioelectrical activity was registered 60 minutes before the epileptogenic area was formed as well as 90 minutes later. Ginkgo biloba extract was given via IM, in a single daily dose of 1ml/kg/BW. RESULTS A statistically significantly higher frequency of paroxysmal seizures was established after usage of ginkgo biloba. CONCLUSION According to the results obtained in this research, we can conclude that ginkgo biloba extracts have a proconvulsive activity.

  5. Forced Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides Extraced from Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ye; ZHANG Wei-yu; MENG Qing-fan; LI Dan-hui; GARG Sajay; TENG Li-rong; WEN Jing-yuan

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of flavonol glycosides extracted from Ginkgo biloba was performed under different conditions and the degraded products were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.Four stress conditions including acid(0.1 mol/L HCl),base(0.1 mol/L NaOH),temperature (70 ℃) and oxidation(0.03% H2O2,volume fraction) were used for the forced degradation studies.The pH stabilities of the flavonol glycosides were determined in phosphate buffers of varying pH values from 4.5 to 7.4.The degradation rate constants and half-life of three Ginkgo flavonol aglycones(quercetin,kaempferol and isorhamnetin) which represent Ginkgo flavonol glycosides were calculated in forced degradation and pH-stability studies of them.The resuits indicate that the three substances were more stable when incubated under acid condition and showed pH-dependent stability.The degradation was observed to follow first-order kinetics in all degradation studies.The stability results could provide important bases on development,preparation and storage of products of Ginkgo biloba extract and should be significantly considered during the further formulation development.

  6. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yanbo Cheng; Jiale Yin; Qian Lu; Xingshun Xu; Xiaoxing Yin

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis in a model of Parkinson's disease. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract had a potent cytoprotective action and inhibited apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 and markedly inhibited the activation of p53 and caspase-3. These experimental findings indicate that Ginkgo biloba extract may significantly reduce the effects of oxidative stress induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in PC12 cells and suppress cell apoptosis. The potential effects of Ginkgo biloba extract might be greater than those of levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  7. A novel substance with allelopathic activity in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka; Kimura, Fukiko; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-12-15

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the oldest living tree species and has been widely used in traditional medicine. Leaf extracts of ginkgo, such as the standardized extract EGb761, have become one of the best-selling herbal products. However, no bioactive compound directed at plants has been reported in this species. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic activity and searched for allelopathically active substances in ginkgo leaves. An aqueous methanol leaf extract inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seedlings. The extract was purified by several chromatographic runs and an allelopathically active substance was isolated and identified by spectral analysis to be the novel compound 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid. The compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and timothy at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The activity of the compound was 10- to 52-fold that of nonanoic acid. These results suggest that 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid may contribute to the allelopathic effect caused by ginkgo leaf extract. The compound may also have potential as a template for the development of new plant control substances.

  8. Establishing a leaf proteome reference map for Ginkgo biloba provides insight into potential ethnobotanical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ginkgo (Maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba L.) is an ancient medicinal and ornamental tree, there has not previously been any systematic proteomic study of the leaves. Herein we describe results from the initial study identifying abundant ginkgo leaf proteins and present a gel reference map. Pr...

  9. The use of Ginkgo biloba in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Heinrich, Isabel; Lieb, Klaus; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    To promote health-conscious behavior in the aging society and gain insight into the sources of knowledge on which preventive strategies are based, analyzing the behavior of elderly people who are recognized as highly health conscious may be useful. We focused on the use of Ginkgo biloba, which is commonly considered to be effective in preventing cognitive decline and dementia, among elderly adults. A total of 1,672 questionnaires were distributed among geriatric participants (60-94 years) who attended university lectures at 22 universities throughout Germany. Response rate was 36.1 %. We collected data on demographic characteristics, preventive strategies (use of Ginkgo and other supplements), health-conscious behavior, sources of knowledge concerning health behavior, and factors associated with the participants' concept of aging. The prevalence of Ginkgo use was 15.3 %. Ginkgo was assumed to be effective for cognitive enhancement and the treatment of cognitive decline by two thirds of the surveyed participants and one third believed Ginkgo to be effective for preventing dementia. Ginkgo use was significantly higher among participants using natural remedies and herbal and food supplements. The use of Ginkgo was recommended by physicians (57.3 %), chemists (16 %), and healthcare magazines (10.7 %). Food supplements were taken by 65.8 % of the sample: this percentage was significantly higher among subjects who exhibited health-conscious behavior. "Knowledge" about strategies to enhance cognition or prevent cognitive decline among the elderly do not appear to be evidence based. Thus, there is a need to establish reliable and independent sources of scientific information for healthcare professionals and the general public.

  10. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  11. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-05-07

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

  12. Ginkgo biloba extract alleviates oxidative stress and some neurotransmitters changes induced by aluminum chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Naglaa El-Shahat; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed E

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, twenty four adult male albino rats were classified into four groups. The control group received normal diet and water; the second group was treated daily with oral dose of Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) for 3 mo; the third group was treated daily with oral dose of aluminum chloride (10 mg/kg b.wt) for 3 mo; and the fourth group was treated with both Ginkgo biloba and aluminum chloride (200 and 10 mg/kg b.wt, respectively) using a stomach tube for 3 mo. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 to rats induced significant increase (P Ginkgo biloba group. It could be concluded that the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  13. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  14. Ginkgo biloba extracts: a review of the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Christian; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Wurglics, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is among the most favourite and best explored herbal drugs. Standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba represent the only herbal alternative to synthetic antidementia drugs in the therapy of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's diseases. The clinical efficiency of such standardized Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) is still controversial, but authors of numerous international clinical studies recommended the use of GBE in the described therapies.Extracts of Ginkgo biloba are a mixture of substances with a wide variety of physical and chemical properties and activities. Numerous pharmacological investigations lead to the conclusion that the terpene trilactones (TTL) and the flavonoids of GBE are responsible for the main pharmacological effects of the extract in the therapy of cognitive decline. Therefore, the quality of GBE products must be oriented on a defined quantity of TTL and flavonoids. Furthermore, because of their toxic potential the amount of ginkgolic acid should be less than 5 ppm.However, data on pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, especially related to the central nervous system (CNS), which is the target tissue, are relatively rare. A few investigations characterize the TTL and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba pharmacokinetically in plasma and in the brain. Recent investigations show that significant levels of TTL and Ginkgo biloba flavonoids cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the CNS of rats after oral application of GBE. Knowledge about the pharmacokinetic behaviour of these substances is necessary to discuss the pharmacological results on a more realistic basis.

  15. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba extracts, Ginkgo biloba extract phospholipid complexes and Ginkgo biloba extract solid dispersions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-peng; Sun, Jun; Chen, Hong-xuan; Xiao, Yan-yu; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jun; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-chang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through preparing G. biloba extract phospholipid complexes (GBP) and G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBS). Firstly we prepared the GBP and GBS and studied their physicochemical properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dissolution. Then we studied the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability in rats. The results showed that the bioavailability of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rats was increased remarkably after oral administration of GBP and GBS comparing with GBE. The bioavailabilities of GBP increased more than that of GBS.

  17. The Comparison of Ginkgo biloba and Cinnarizine effectiveness in tinnitus intensity of patients with subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Khazraei

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It was found that after two months of treatment with Ginkgo biloba (120-140 mg daily tinnitus severity and the adverse changes on quality of life significantly decreased in the patients, whereas Cinnarizine did not reduce the latter significantly. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (Cinnarizine & Ginko biloba.

  18. Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Drabaek, H; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to validate possible vasodilating effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract with a secondary aim of finding a pharmacodynamic signal relating to the active component of these extracts. We studied the effect of G. biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in 16 healthy subjects (nine females, s...

  19. Determination of Ginkgolides and Flavonols in Ginkgo Biloba Products and NIST Ginkgo Reference Standard by LC/UV/MS (Experimental Biology, April, 2007, Washington, D.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba has purported value for improving mental capacities in Alzheimer’s patients. The flavonols and the terpene lactones are considered to be the two main active components that influence human health. Almost all the clinical studies regarding Ginkgo biloba used either...

  20. Natural substances in psychiatry (Ginkgo biloba in dementia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T; Martorano, D

    1995-01-01

    Natural substances and/or their synthetically developed active ingredients are frequently used in medicine. In psychiatry, two of the most well known natural compounds are reserpine and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb). EGb is among the most popular over-the-counter medicines in Europe and is also available in the United States, primarily in health food stores. Already the European medical community has recognized EGb as an effective compound in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency. In a pilot bioequivalency study, the effects of three different commercially available EGb products were examined. Findings indicated significant quantitative central nervous system (CNS) effects in, at least, one of the three. Furthermore, the CNS effects of Ginkgold were similar to other psychoactive compounds classified as cognitive activators. Recent studies in which EGb 761 demonstrated therapeutic effects in the treatment of dementia have earned EGb the approval of the German BGA (Bundesgesundheit Amt) for use in the treatment of dementia.

  1. Review of Ginkgo biloba-induced toxicity, from experimental studies to human case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Ren, Zhen; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Keiji; Guo, Lei

    2017-01-02

    Ginkgo biloba seeds and leaves have been used as a traditional herbal remedy for thousands of years, and its leaf extract has been consumed as a botanical dietary supplement for decades. Ginkgo biloba extract is a complex mixture with numerous components, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones, and is one of the most widely sold botanical dietary supplements worldwide. Concerns about potential health risks for the general population have been raised because of the widespread human exposure to Ginkgo biloba and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities in rodents. The National Toxicology Program conducted 2-year gavage studies on one Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and concluded that there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of this extract in mice based on an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. Recently, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects from experimental studies both in vitro and in vivo to human case reports (caused by ginkgo seeds or leaves), and also summarizes the negative results from relatively large clinical trials.

  2. Estaquia de Ginkgo biloba L. utilizando três substratos Ginkgo biloba L. cutting using three substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Bitencourt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba é arbórea, decídua, cuja folhagem se torna amarelada no outono antes da queda das folhas, o que a torna valorizada em jardinagem. A estaquia é um método de propagação vegetativa baseado na capacidade das células em retomarem o processo de divisão celular, formando raízes em estacas destacadas de ramos provenientes de plantas matrizes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência de diferentes substratos, assim como, a aplicação da auxina sintética o ácido indol butírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas de Ginkgo biloba. No inverno de 2005, ramos foram coletados e transportados até o Laboratório de Macropropagação, onde foram confeccionadas estacas sem folhas, com 10-12 cm de comprimento. Os tratamentos com regulador vegetal (T foram T1- 0 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T2- 4000 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T3- 8000 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T4- 0 mg kg-1 AIB em talco; T5- 4000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco e T6- 8000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados três diferentes substratos (S, S1- areia, S2- fibra de casca de coco (coxim e S3- casca de arroz carbonizada. Após 120 dias da instalação, foram avaliadas as porcentagens de estacas enraizadas, vivas, com calos e mortas; o número de raízes por estaca e o comprimento das três maiores raízes por estaca. Os melhores resultados no enraizamento foram obtidos com estacas tratadas com 4000 e 8000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco, utilizando o coxim como substrato (45,00 e 46,25% de enraizamento, respectivamente.Ginkgo biloba is an arboreal and deciduous species, the foliage of which becomes yellowish in the autumn, before leaf drop, increasing its value for gardening. Cutting is a method of vegetative propagation based on the capacity of cells to recover the cell division process, originating roots in cuttings detached from branches of stock plants. This study aimed to verify the influence of different substrates, as well as the application of the

  3. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  4. Mechanistic evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity in L5178Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haixia; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Suhui; Dial, Stacey L; Guo, Lei; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2014-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for many thousand years as a traditional herbal remedy and its extract has been consumed for many decades as a dietary supplement. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is a complex mixture with many constituents, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones. The National Toxicology Program 2-year cancer bioassay found that G. biloba leaf extract targets the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rodents; however, the mechanism of G. biloba leaf extract-associated carcinogenicity remains unclear. In the current study, the in vitro genotoxicity of G. biloba leaf extract and its eight constituents was evaluated using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and Comet assay. The underlying mechanisms of G. biloba leaf extract-associated genotoxicity were explored. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequency and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Western blot analysis confirmed that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol activated the DNA damage signaling pathway with increased expression of γ-H2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 and Chk1. In addition, G. biloba leaf extract produced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in L5178Y cells. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mutants indicated that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol treatments resulted in extensive chromosomal damage. These results indicate that G. biloba leaf extract and its two constituents, quercetin and kaempferol, are mutagenic to the mouse L5178Y cells and induce DSBs. Quercetin and kaempferol likely are major contributors to G. biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity.

  5. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  6. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) for 3 weeks (120 mg twice daily). Trough concentrations of drugs were measured before and after ginkgo biloba treatment using LC-MS/MS. Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Trough concentrations before and after treatment with ginkgo biloba were not significantly different for tamoxifen (93.5 ± 29.0, 86.5 ± 25.3 ng/mL; p=0.16), letrozole (91.1 ± 50.4, 89.6 ± 52.14 ng/mL; p=0.60) or anastrozole (29.1 ± 8.6, 29.1 ± 7.6 ng/mL; p=0.97). Ginkgo biloba was well tolerated, with no difference in toxicity during ginkgo biloba. Co-administration of ginkgo biloba does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole. There was no difference in the toxicity profile of hormone therapy with ginkgo biloba use in women with early stage breast cancer.

  7. The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Biao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollination drop (PD is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. Results In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240 h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1 h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100 h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4 h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48 h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus. Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. Conclusions We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator

  8. Biochemical and molecular evidences for the antitumor potential of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; El-Mezayen, Hatem A; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Sayed, Alaa H; Ramadan, Aesha R

    2016-10-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest primary cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of 10% or less. This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms in favor of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the aim of this work was extended to explore the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in deterioration of HCC in rats. In the current study, HCC group experienced significant downregulation of ING-3 gene expression and upregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. Treatment of HCC groups with Ginkgo biloba leaves extract resulted in upregulation of ING-3 and downregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. In addition, there was significant increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and glypican-3 (GPC-3) levels in HCC group versus the negative control group. In contrast, the groups with HCC subjected to either high or low dose of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited significant reduction (P Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited marked improvement in the histological feature of liver tissue in HCC groups. In conclusion, this research indicated that the carcinogenic potency of N-nitrosodiethylamine targeted multiple systems on the cellular and molecular levels. In addition, the results of the current study shed light on the promising anticancer activity of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced chemically in the experimental model through its apoptotic and antiproliferative properties.

  9. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of tinnitus: An updated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian-Sani, Mohammad Reza; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Yang, Qian

    2017-06-01

    Tinnitus is one of the common diseases of the ear that is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders. One of the known mechanisms in the tinnitus area with unknown reason is oxidative events. Based on the prevalence and economic costs and physical- psychological side effects caused by tinnitus and the importance of finding a suitable solution for its prevention and treatment, the need for further studies becomes more obvious in this context. This review article aimed to review studies on the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba as a medicinal plant on patients with tinnitus. Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), PubMed, LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. There are many studies on the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba on patients with tinnitus. Most findings are in contrast with each other so that some of studies reported that Ginkgo biloba is effective in the treatment of tinnitus and other studies referred to it as ineffective herbal medicine. Generally, according to the previous studies and the present study, it can mention that the Ginkgo biloba may somewhat improve tinnitus. Since tinnitus is multifactorial, it is recommended to evaluate patients individually based on the cause of tinnitus, treatment formulas, and different doses of Ginkgo biloba at the more extensive level in future studies.

  10. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Ong Lai Teik

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement.Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24 received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg (N = 24, and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo.These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  11. Efficient Purification of Ginkgolic Acids from Ginkgo biloba Leaves by Selective Adsorption of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ma, M.; Chen, B.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ginkgolic acids (GAs; anacardic acids; 6-alkylsalicylic acids) are both unwanted constituents in standardized Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo) extracts and desirable constituents for pharmacological assays. Thus, for the quality control of Ginkgo extracts, the availability of pure GAs is important. In this in

  12. Efficient Purification of Ginkgolic Acids from Ginkgo biloba Leaves by Selective Adsorption of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ma, M.; Chen, B.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ginkgolic acids (GAs; anacardic acids; 6-alkylsalicylic acids) are both unwanted constituents in standardized Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo) extracts and desirable constituents for pharmacological assays. Thus, for the quality control of Ginkgo extracts, the availability of pure GAs is important. In this in

  13. Screening and Identifying Antioxidative Components in Ginkgo biloba Pollen by DPPH-HPLC-PAD Coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Xiangyan; Netrusov, A I; Zhou, Qingxin; Guo, Danyang; Liu, Xiaoyong; He, Hailun; Xin, Xue; Wang, Yifen; Chen, Leilei

    2017-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba is one of ancient trees that exists from billions of years ago, its leaf and nut are used as herbs and foods in China, while so far its pollen does not have any application except pollination. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba pollen, and rapidly screen its antioxidative components, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, total flavonoid, total phenol, and proanthocyanidin of Ginkgo biloba pollen were determined and compared with those of Ginkgo biloba leaf and nut, and the off-line DPPH-HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI-MS2 were applied for screening and identifying the antioxidant flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba pollen. The results showed that the DPPH scavenging ability of Ginkgo biloba pollen was much higher than Ginkgo biloba nut, but lower than Ginkgo biloba leaf, while the total content of flavonoid in Ginkgo biloba pollen was approximately 4.37 times higher than in Ginkgo biloba leaf. Further studies found that the major flavonol aglycone in Ginkgo biloba pollen was kaempferol, which accounted for 96.71% of the total aglycones (includes quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), and the main flavonoid components in Ginkgo biloba pollen were flavonoid glycosides. Finally, ten antioxidant peaks were screened and identified to be flavonoids (including kaempferol and nine flavonoid glycosides), so flavonoids were likely to be the main antioxidant components in GP, and among them, three novel kaempferol glycosides (peaks 1, 2, and 3) were found in Ginkgo biloba pollen for the first time, which had never been found in Ginkgo biloba.

  14. Screening and Identifying Antioxidative Components in Ginkgo biloba Pollen by DPPH-HPLC-PAD Coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netrusov, A. I.; Zhou, Qingxin; Guo, Danyang; Liu, Xiaoyong; He, Hailun; Xin, Xue; Wang, Yifen; Chen, Leilei

    2017-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba is one of ancient trees that exists from billions of years ago, its leaf and nut are used as herbs and foods in China, while so far its pollen does not have any application except pollination. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba pollen, and rapidly screen its antioxidative components, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, total flavonoid, total phenol, and proanthocyanidin of Ginkgo biloba pollen were determined and compared with those of Ginkgo biloba leaf and nut, and the off-line DPPH-HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI-MS2 were applied for screening and identifying the antioxidant flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba pollen. The results showed that the DPPH scavenging ability of Ginkgo biloba pollen was much higher than Ginkgo biloba nut, but lower than Ginkgo biloba leaf, while the total content of flavonoid in Ginkgo biloba pollen was approximately 4.37 times higher than in Ginkgo biloba leaf. Further studies found that the major flavonol aglycone in Ginkgo biloba pollen was kaempferol, which accounted for 96.71% of the total aglycones (includes quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), and the main flavonoid components in Ginkgo biloba pollen were flavonoid glycosides. Finally, ten antioxidant peaks were screened and identified to be flavonoids (including kaempferol and nine flavonoid glycosides), so flavonoids were likely to be the main antioxidant components in GP, and among them, three novel kaempferol glycosides (peaks 1, 2, and 3) were found in Ginkgo biloba pollen for the first time, which had never been found in Ginkgo biloba. PMID:28095510

  15. Effect of ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonk, Maren; Colbers, Angela; Poirters, Anne; Schouwenberg, Bas; Burger, David

    2012-10-01

    Medicinal herbs may cause clinically relevant drug interactions with antiretroviral agents. Ginkgo biloba extract is a popular herbal product among HIV-infected patients because of its positive effects on cognitive function. Raltegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, is increasingly being used as part of combined antiretroviral therapy. Clinical data on the potential inhibitory or inductive effect of ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir were lacking, and concomitant use was not recommended. We studied the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in an open-label, randomized, two-period, crossover phase I trial in 18 healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to a regimen of 120 mg of ginkgo biloba twice daily for 15 days plus a single dose of raltegravir (400 mg) on day 15, a washout period, and 400 mg of raltegravir on day 36 or the test and reference treatments in reverse order. Pharmacokinetic sampling of raltegravir was performed up to 12 h after intake on an empty stomach. All subjects (9 male) completed the trial, and no serious adverse events were reported. Geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from dosing to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) and the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of raltegravir with ginkgo biloba versus raltegravir alone were 1.21 (0.93 to 1.58) and 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02). Ginkgo biloba did not reduce raltegravir exposure. The potential increase in the C(max) of raltegravir is probably of minor importance, given the large intersubject variability of raltegravir pharmacokinetics and its reported safety profile.

  16. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of the Ginkgo biloba 11S seed globulin ginnacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Chen, Yu-Wei; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu, E-mail: zhangy@iit.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The crystallization of ginnacin, the 11S seed storage protein from G. biloba, is reported. Ginkgo biloba, a well known ‘living fossil’ native to China, is grown worldwide as an ornamental shade plant. Medicinal and nutritional uses of G. biloba in Asia have a long history. However, ginkgo seed proteins have not been well studied at the biochemical and molecular level. In this study, the G. biloba 11S seed storage protein ginnacin was purified by sequential anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. A crystallization screen was performed and well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. There are six protomers in an asymmetric unit. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  17. The behavior of pollination drop secretion in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Di; Zhang, Lei; Wan, Yinglang; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Pollination drop (PD) secretion plays a critical role in wind pollination in many gymnosperms. We conducted detailed investigations on PD secretion in Ginkgo biloba, and found that PDs could not form when the micropyle was removed, but were able to form after removal of the shoot, leaves, ovular stalk, or ovular collar. The duration and volume of the PD increased under high relative humidity, but addition of salt or sugar did not affect PD secretion, its size, or its duration. Morphological and anatomical observations showed that many secretion cells at the nucellus tip contributed to secreting the PD after the formation of pollen chamber. Under laboratory conditions, the PD persisted for approximately 10 d if not pollinated, and re-formed five times after it was removed, with the total volume of PDs reaching approximately 0.4 μL. These results suggested that PDs can be continuously secreted by the tip of the nucellus cells during the pollination stage to increase the chance of capturing pollen from the air. Importantly, PD secretion is an independent behavior of the ovule and PDs were produced apoplastically. PMID:22899081

  18. [Seed growth characteristics of Ginkgo biloba and its physiological change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wang, J; Xin, X

    2000-08-01

    The length, width, volume and weight of Ginkgo biloba seed were measured, and the concentrations of water, sugars, fatty acids and amino acids in seed growth process were analyzed. A typical "S" seed growth curve was found, and the length, width, volume, weight and absolute water content all showed the similar changes during growing period. With the growing of ssed, the concentrations of physiological substances in seeds showed regular changes and had their own characteristics. The total amount of sugars appeared to be an increasing trend at the later stage of seed growth, indicating that sugars are the main nutrition substance accumulated in seeds. The concentrations of various substances in matured seeds were starch 8.4%, glucose 6.7%, fructose 4.2%, polysaccharide 0.02%, disaccharide 0.01%, myristic acid 10.6%, palmitic acid 4.1%, flax acid 2.4%, stearic acid 1.9%, oleic acid 1.1%, and linoleic acid 0.4%. Fifteen types of free amino acids were detected in matured seeds, with total content of 1.56 g.100 g-1FW. Among them, lysine aspartic acid, alanine, arginine, histidine, glutamic acid, and isoleucine were dominant, and their concentrations were 0.287%, 0.163%, 0.136%, 0.133%, 0.123%, 0.115%, 0.095%, respectively.

  19. Therapeutic mechanism of ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Hua Xu; Hua-Sheng Chen; Bu-Chan Sun; Xiao-Ren Xiang; Yun-Fei Chu; Fan Zhai; Ling-Chang Jia

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides (GBEP) on gastric cancer.METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric cancer were treated with oral GBEP capsules. The area of tumors was measured by electron gastroscope before and after treatment, then the inhibitory and effective rates were calculated. The ultrastructures of tumor cells were examined by transmissional electron microscope. Cell culture, MTT, flow cytometry were performed to observe proliferation, apoptosis and changes of relevant gene expression of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.RESULTS: Compared with the statement before treatment,GBEP capsules could reduce the area of tumors, and the effective rate was 73.4 %. Ultrastructural changes of the cells indicated that GBEP could induce apoptosis and differentiation in tumor cells of patients with gastric cancer.GBEP could inhibit the growth of human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells following 24-72 h treatment in vitro at 10-320 mg/L,which was dose- and time-dependent. GBEP was able to elevate the apoptosis rate and expression of c-los gene,but reduce the expression of c-myc and bcl-2 genes also in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSION: The therapeutic mechanism of GBEP on human gastric cancer may relate to its effects on the expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and c-los genes, which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and differentiation of tumor cells.

  20. Spatial structuring of bacterial communities within individual Ginkgo biloba trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Jonathan W; Del Tredici, Peter; Friedman, William E; Fierer, Noah

    2015-07-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms affect the health of their hosts in diverse ways, yet the distribution of these organisms within individual plants remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the spatial variability in bacterial community diversity and composition found on and in aboveground tissues of individual Ginkgo biloba trees. We sampled bacterial communities from > 100 locations per tree, including leaf, branch and trunk samples and used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine the diversity and composition of these communities. Bacterial community structure differed strongly between bark and leaf samples, with bark samples harbouring much greater bacterial diversity and a community composition distinct from leaves. Within sample types, we observed clear spatial patterns in bacterial diversity and community composition that corresponded to the samples' proximity to the exterior of the tree. The composition of the bacterial communities found on trees is highly variable, but this variability is predictable and dependent on sampling location. Moreover, this work highlights the importance of carefully considering plant spatial structure when characterizing the microbial communities associated with plants and their impacts on plant hosts.

  1. Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Boetticher A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexander von BoetticherEar, Nose and Throat Surgery, Lueneburg, GermanyAbstract: Tinnitus is a symptom frequently encountered by ear, nose, and throat practitioners. A causal treatment is rarely possible, and drug and nondrug treatment options are limited. One of the frequently prescribed treatments is Ginkgo biloba extract. Therefore, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of Ginkgo biloba extract preparations were searched for and reviewed systematically. There is evidence of efficacy for the standardized extract, EGb 761® (Dr Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co KG Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany, in the treatment of tinnitus from three trials in patients in whom tinnitus was the primary complaint. Supportive evidence comes from a further five trials in patients with age-associated cognitive impairment or dementia in whom tinnitus was present as a concomitant symptom. As yet, the efficacy of other ginkgo preparations has not been proven, which does not necessarily indicate ineffectiveness, but may be due to flawed clinical trials. In conclusion, EGb 761®, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, is an evidence-based treatment option in tinnitus.Keywords: tinnitus, Ginkgo biloba, EGb 761®, systematic review

  2. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayder M. al-kuraishy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers was enrolled to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects,the central cognitive effect was assessed by Critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFFF, Psychomotor vigilance Task (PVT and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure p>0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea improve psychomotor vigilance task and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on psychomotor vigilance task, all levels of short term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker p<0.01, more than of Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on cognitive function than either Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 7-13

  3. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  4. Otoproteção em cobaias expostas a agrotóxico e ginkgo biloba Otoprotection in guinea pigs exposed to pesticides and ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dulor Finkler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os agrotóxicos são amplamente utilizados na agricultura e, atualmente, fazem parte do grupo de agentes químicos que podem levar à perda auditiva. A identificação de drogas que, associadas aos ototóxicos, possam atuar como otoprotetores é objeto de estudo. OBJETIVO: Analisar a existência de efeito otoprotetor do extrato de Ginkgo biloba aos possíveis danos cocleares causados pelo agrotóxico do grupo dos organofosforados - metamidofós, avaliando-se as alterações anatômicas por meio da microscopia eletrônica de superfície. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo experimental prospectivo utilizando 21 cobaias, que sofreram ação da administração de soro fisiológico, agrotóxico e ginkgo biloba isoladamente e associadas, durante sete dias consecutivos. Após, as cócleas foram removidas e avaliadas anatomicamente pela microscopia eletrônica de varredura. RESULTADOS: As cobaias submetidas ao agrotóxico apresentaram alterações morfológicas cocleares, com lesões nas três espiras analisadas na microscopia eletrônica, intensificadas de acordo com a dosagem recebida do agente. As cobaias tratadas com agrotóxico e Ginkgo biloba apresentaram uma manutenção da arquitetura ciliar nas células ciliadas externas em todas as espiras da cóclea. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato de Ginkgo biloba, por sua ação antioxidante, atuou como fator otoprotetor à ototoxicidade pelo agrotóxico em cobaias.Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, despite the risk of hearing loss related to the exposure to their chemical components. This study looks into protective drugs to counteract the ototoxicity of pesticides. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the effect ginkgo biloba extract may have in protecting against possible cochlear damage caused by organophosphate pesticides (methamidophos. Anatomic changes are assessed through surface and electron microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective experimental study. Twenty-one guinea pigs were given saline

  5. Cloning and Analysis of Telomere-associated Sequences of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Di; Lu Hai; Ji Fei-teng; Li Feng-lan; Guo Hui-hong

    2005-01-01

    Total genomic DNA was extracted from leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. by the method of hot CTAB. After determining quantification of DNA sample by microclorimetric spectrophotography, Arabidopsis-type telomere primer and Sau3A I cassette primer were used to isolate telomere-associated sequences from G. biloba L. by the method of cassette-ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using this method, two telomere-associated sequences, TAS 1 and TAS2, were isolated. The authors preformed Southern hybridization ofEcoR I -treated G. biloba genomic DNA with each clone. The hybridization pattern showed that the clones obtained were derived from G. biloba genomic DNA. There are the Arabidopsis-type TTTAGGG tandem repeats in telomeres of G.biloba.

  6. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cytoprotective factors in rats with duodenal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane C.-J. Chao; Huei-Chen Hung; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Chia-Lang Fang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cytoprotective factors in rats with duodenal ulcer.METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation without ginkgo, sham operation with ginkgo, duodenal ulcer without ginkgo, and duodenal ulcer with ginkgo. Rats with duodenal ulcer were induced by 500 mL/L acetic acid. Rats with ginkgo were intravenously injected with Ginkgo biloba extract from the tail at a dose of 0.5 mg/(kg.d) for 7 and 14 days.RESULTS: Pathological result showed that duodenal ulcer rats with ginkgo improved mucosal healing and inflammation compared with those without ginkgo after 7 d treatment. After 14 d treatment, duodenal ulcer rats with ginkgo significantly increased weight gain (34.0±4.5 g versus 24.5±9.5 g,P<0.05) compared with those without ginkgo. Duodenal ulcer rats significantly increased cell proliferation (27.4l±4.0and 27.8±2.3 BrdU-labeled cells in duodenal ulcer rats with and without ginkgo versus 22.4±3.5 and 20.8±0.5 BrdUlabeled cells in sham operation rats with and without ginkgo,P<0.05) compared with sham operation rats. Mucosal prostaglandin E2 concentration significantly increased by 129% (P<0.05) in duodenal ulcer rats with ginkgo compared with that in those without ginkgo. Duodenal ulcer rats without ginkgo significantly decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the duodenal mucosa and erythrocytes (19.4±6.7 U/mg protein versus 38.1±18.9 U/mg protein in the duodenal mucosa,and 4.87±1.49 U/mg protein versus 7.78±2.16 U/mg protein in erythrocytes, P<0.05) compared with sham operation rats without ginkgo. However, duodenal ulcer rats with ginkgo significantly increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity (8.22±1.92 U/mg protein versus 4.87±1.49 U/mg protein,P<0.05) compared with those without ginkgo. Duodenal ulcer rats without ginkgo significantly increased plasma lipid peroxides (4.18±1. 12 μmol/mL versus 1.60±1.10 μmol/mL and 1.80±0.73

  7. Purification and Characterization of a Novel ~18 kDa Antioxidant Protein from Ginkgo biloba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba seeds are widely used as a food and traditional medicine in China. In the present study, a novel antioxidant protein named GBSP was purified from Ginkgo biloba seeds. The protein (GBSP was purified by homogenization of Ginkgo biloba seed powder in saline solution, 70% ammonium sulphate precipitation, filtration on a DEAE-Cellulose52 anion exchange column, gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column, and preparative chromatography on a C18 column using RP-HPLC. GBSP showed an apparent molecular weight of 18 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analyses. The amino acid sequence obtained by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis showed GBSP was a novel protein, as no matching protein in was found the database. The protein exhibited significant antioxidant activities against free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion and showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in a linoleic acid emulsion assay system. Furthermore, GBSP exhibited notable reducing power and a strong chelating effect on Cu2+and Fe2+. Therefore, the present study demonstrates, for the first time, that this novel protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds is an excellent antioxidant.

  8. Purification and characterization of a novel ~18 kDa antioxidant protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Xijuan; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Chen, Hongxia

    2012-12-11

    Ginkgo biloba seeds are widely used as a food and traditional medicine in China. In the present study, a novel antioxidant protein named GBSP was purified from Ginkgo biloba seeds. The protein (GBSP) was purified by homogenization of Ginkgo biloba seed powder in saline solution, 70% ammonium sulphate precipitation, filtration on a DEAE-Cellulose52 anion exchange column, gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column, and preparative chromatography on a C(18) column using RP-HPLC. GBSP showed an apparent molecular weight of 18 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analyses. The amino acid sequence obtained by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis showed GBSP was a novel protein, as no matching protein in was found the database. The protein exhibited significant antioxidant activities against free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion and showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in a linoleic acid emulsion assay system. Furthermore, GBSP exhibited notable reducing power and a strong chelating effect on Cu(2+) and Fe(2+). Therefore, the present study demonstrates, for the first time, that this novel protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds is an excellent antioxidant.

  9. [An efficacy comparison of betahistin, trimetazidine and ginkgo biloba extract in patients with tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Israfil; Aydın, Salih; Altın, Gökhan; Yılmaz, Fahrettin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the efficacy of trimetazidine, betahistine and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus. Complete clinical data of 90 patients (48 males, 42 females; mean age 52.3±15.1 years; range 20 to 61 years) who received betahistine, trimetazidine and ginkgo biloba extract for three months were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into three groups including 30 in each group according to treatments received. Pre-treatment and post-treatment scores of tinnitus disability questionnaire were compared statistically. There was no statistically significant difference between pre-treatment scores of tinnitus disability questionnaire among all three groups (p>0.05), while there was a statistically significant difference among the groups following treatment (p=0.019, pbetahistine group, and 3.80±5.9 units in ginkgo biloba extract group were found to be statistically significant, compared to the mean pretreatment tinnitus disability questionnaire scores (p=0.002, pbetahistin and ginkgo biloba extract reduce tinnitus symptoms. However, symptomatic relief can be mostly achieved with trimetazidine treatment.

  10. Effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on Alzheimer' s Disease Model of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGQi-Hai; WUQin; HUANGXie-Nan; SUNAn-Sheng; SHIJing-Shan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on the learning and memory in the Alzheimer disease (AD) model induced by aluminum salt in rats, and to examine the potential mechanisms. METHODS. The AD model of rats was induced by administration and drinking of aluminum chloride solution. The abilities of spatial leafing and

  11. Additional information to the in vitro antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugasi, A; Horvahovich, P; Dworschák, E

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extract from Ginkgo biloba L. was examined in different systems. The extract showed hydrogen-donating ability, reducing power, copper-binding property, free radical scavenging activity in a H2O2/.OH-luminol system and it co

  12. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on corticosterone stress responses after inescapable shock exposure in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Extracts from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree (GBE) are found to be clinically effective in neuroprotection, cerebral and cardiovascular function and cognitive processing. Recent animal findings suggest that GBE also may improve stress adaptation and prevent learned helplessness, as evidenced b

  13. Effect of ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, M.I.; Colbers, A.; Poirters, A.; Schouwenberg, B.J.; Burger, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal herbs may cause clinically relevant drug interactions with antiretroviral agents. Ginkgo biloba extract is a popular herbal product among HIV-infected patients because of its positive effects on cognitive function. Raltegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, is increasingly being used as part

  14. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebel-von Sandersleben, Henrik; Rothenberger, Aribert; Albrecht, Björn; Rothenberger, L Geza; Klement, Stephan; Bock, Nathalie

    2014-09-01

    Fragestellung: Unerwünschte Arzneimittelwirkungen, fehlende Wirksamkeit und Vorurteile gegenüber herkömmlichen medikamentösen Behandlungsformen verlangen nach alternativen medizinischen Behandlungsmöglichkeiten der ADHS. Eine erfolgversprechende, bislang kaum untersuchte Möglichkeit zur Behandlung kognitiver Aspekte ist die Gabe von Ginkgo biloba. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Prüfung klinischer Wirksamkeit und deren Zusammenhang mit hirnelektrischer Aktivität unter der Gabe von Ginkgobiloba-Extrakt EGb 761® bei Kindern mit ADHS vom kombinierten Subtyp nach DSM-IV. Methodik: EGb 761® wurde in einer offenen, klinischen Studie 20 Kindern mit ADHS über 3 bis 5 Wochen verabreicht. Die Dosis wurde bis maximal 240 mg täglich erhöht, solange klinisch relevante Aufmerksamkeitsprobleme bestanden. Klinische Wirksamkeit wurde auf mehreren Ebenen untersucht und beinhaltete klinische Untersuchung, Lebensqualität und Verhaltens- und hirnelektrische Aktivitätsparameter während eines Continuous Performance Tests (Cue-CNV im CPT). Ergebnisse: Im Beobachtungszeitraum traten nur wenige leicht ausgeprägte unerwünschte Wirkungen auf. Nach Gabe von EGb 761® kam es zu möglichen Verbesserung von Lebensqualität, ADHS-Kernsymptomatik und Leistung im CPT. Verbesserungen der Kernsymptomatik waren gleichzeitig mit erhöhter CNV-Amplitude korreliert. Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, dass EGb 761® mit einer Dosis von bis zu 240 mg täglich eine verträgliche und klinisch wirksame alternative Behandlungsmöglichkeit für Kinder mit ADHS darstellt, wenngleich weitere Studien erforderlich sind, um diese vorläufigen Befunde zu stützen.

  15. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  16. Adulteration of Ginkgo biloba products and a simple method to improve its detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Hans; Savage, Kate; Dowell, Ashley; Mouatt, Peter

    2014-05-15

    Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract.

  17. Dual effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Lin, Juan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Sun, Xue-Min; Zeng, Cheng-Ming

    2009-02-01

    Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Today, various standardized preparations from G. biloba leaf extract have been developed. G. biloba leaf extract, which contains flavonoids and terpenoids as the major biologically active components, has become one of the most popular and commonly used herbal remedies due to its wide spectrum of beneficial effects on health. In this study, we investigated the effects of G. biloba leaf extract on the properties of human red blood cells in the presence and absence of amyloid peptide (Abeta25-35), peroxide and hypotonic stress. The results suggest that G. biloba leaf extract has a dual action, both protective and disruptive, on red blood cells, depending on whether an exogenous stress is present. G. biloba leaf extract has a protective role on red blood cells against Abeta- and hypotonic pressure-induced haemolysis, peroxide-induced lipoperoxidation, as well as glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation. On the other hand, G. biloba leaf extract also exhibited damage to red blood cells by increasing cell fragility, changing cellular morphology and inducing glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation, especially when applied at high doses. These anti- and pro-oxidative activities of polyphenolic substances are thought to be involved in the dual function of G. biloba leaf extract. The results of this study suggest that high doses of herbal remedies and dietary supplements can be toxic to cells.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on lantadenes-induced hepatotoxicity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimoo, Haroon A; Sharma, Rinku; Patil, Rajendra D; Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of freeze-dried methanolic leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba was evaluated against lantadenes-induced hepatic damage in guinea pigs. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of lantadenes confirmed the presence of 72.82% of lantadene A. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence of ginkgolide B, C, bilobalide and traces of ginkgolide A and J in G. biloba extract. The concentration of ginkgolide B in the sample was found as 0.29%. The elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase due to lantadenes were significantly restored towards normal values by G. biloba extract in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of lantadenes and G. biloba extract on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate the antioxidant activity. G. biloba extract in a dose-dependent manner produced significant decrease in lantadenes-induced increased levels of LPO. The lantadene-induced decreased levels of SOD, GSH and catalase were elevated by G. biloba extract. The findings of biochemical and antioxidant enzyme levels were supported by gross and histopathological observations. Moreover, liver sections of G. biloba group also showed a marked decrease in apoptosis in comparison to lantadenes group. This study suggested that G. biloba could be used as a promising hepatoprotectant against lantadenes-induced hepatic damage. Future studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of hepatoprotection for practical application.

  19. Study on the Functional Characteristics of Ginkgo Biloba Protein%银杏蛋白功能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 李盼盼; 董海洲; 张馨文

    2013-01-01

    The functional characteristics of Ginkgo biloba protein were studied compared with the relevant properties of SPI. The results showed that: pI of Ginkgo biloba protein was 4.4, which was higher than SPI which was 4.0; Solubility of Ginkgo biloba protein was lower than SPI; FC、 EAI and ES of Ginkgo biloba protein were better, FS of Ginkgo biloba protein was weaker. There were greater effect of pH on Solubility、 FC and FS, EAI of Ginkgo biloba protein, but there was less influence on ES. The concentrations of NaCl had greater effect on EAI, ES of Ginkgo biloba protein, and had less effect on solubility, FC and FS; The concentrations of sucrose had larger influence on solubility、 FS of Ginkgo biloba protein, but the effect of concentrations of sucrose on FC, EAI and ES was not significant.%以大豆分离蛋白为对照,对银杏蛋白的功能特性进行研究.结果表明:银杏蛋白的等电点(pI)为4.4,高于大豆分离蛋白(pI 4.0).银杏蛋白的溶解度低于大豆分离蛋白.在试验条件下,银杏蛋白具有较好的起泡性(FC)、乳化性(EAI)与乳化稳定性(ES),但泡沫稳定性(FS)较差.pH对银杏蛋白的溶解度、FC、FS、EAI影响较大,对ES影响较小;NaCl浓度对银杏蛋白EAI、ES影响较大,对溶解度、FC和FS影响较小;蔗糖浓度对银杏蛋白的溶解度、FS影响较大,对FC、EAI和ES影响较小.

  20. Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Vauth Christoph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefit of Ginkgo biloba has been discussed controversially. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease as well as vascular and mixed dementia covering a variety of outcome domains. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane databases, CINAHL and PsycINFO for controlled trials of ginkgo for Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia. Studies had to be of a minimum of 12 weeks duration with at least ten participants per group. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analysis results were expressed as risk ratios or standardized mean differences (SMD in scores. Results Nine trials using the standardized extract EGb761® met our inclusion criteria. Trials were of 12 to 52 weeks duration and included 2372 patients in total. In the meta-analysis, the SMDs in change scores for cognition were in favor of ginkgo compared to placebo (-0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.14; -0.01, p = 0.04, but did not show a statistically significant difference from placebo for activities in daily living (ADLs (SMD = -0.32, 95% CI -0.66; 0.03, p = 0.08. Heterogeneity among studies was high. For the Alzheimer subgroup, the SMDs for ADLs and cognition outcomes were larger than for the whole group of dementias with statistical superiority for ginkgo also for ADL outcomes (SMD = -0.44, 95% CI -0.77; -0.12, p = 0.008. Drop-out rates and side effects did not differ between ginkgo and placebo. No consistent results were available for quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the study populations. Conclusions Ginkgo biloba appears more effective than placebo. Effect sizes were moderate, while clinical relevance is, similar to other dementia drugs, difficult to determine.

  1. Mass spectrometric imaging of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sebastian; Stengel, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. is known to be rich in flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. However, the distribution within specific plant organs (e.g. within leaves) is not known. By using HPLC-MS and MS/MS we have identified a number of previously known G. biloba flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids from leaves. Namely, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, laricitrin/mearnsetin and apigenin glycosides were identified. Furthermore, biflavonoids like ginkgetin/isoginkgetin were also detected. The application of MALDI mass spectrometric imaging, enabled the compilation of concentration profiles of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in G. biloba L. leaves. Both, flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids show a distinct distribution in leaf thin sections of G. biloba L.

  2. Development of the First Chloroplast Microsatellite Loci in Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae

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    Chun-Xiang Xie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: To investigate population genetics, phylogeography, and cultivar origin of Ginkgo biloba, chloroplast microsatellite primers were developed. Methods and Results: Twenty-one chloroplast microsatellite markers were identified referring to the two published chloroplast genomes of G. biloba. Polymorphisms were assessed on four natural populations from the two refugia in China. Eight loci were detected to be polymorphic in these populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus varied from 0.441 to 0.807. Conclusions: For the first time, we developed 21 chloroplast microsatellite markers for G. biloba, including 13 monomorphic and eight polymorphic ones within the assessed natural populations. These markers should provide a powerful tool for the study of genetic variation of both natural and cultivated populations of G. biloba, as well as cultivars.

  3. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Aqueous Extract on Carbon

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    Hala A.H. Khattab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bachground: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of various liver diseases. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GbE have been proved to be an effective antioxidant, thereby can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GbE on acute liver injury induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal (i.p injection of CCl4 1mL/ kg body weight (b.w. for every 72 h for 14 days, GbE was administered orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w., daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Results: CCl4 caused acute liver damage in rats, as evidenced by significant increase serum enzymes activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT & AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as significant decrease in weight gain percent, serum total protein (TP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH. Pretreatment with GbE prior to CCl4 injection elicited hepatoprotetcive activity by significant decreased the activities of liver enzymes and hepatic MDA, and significant increased the levels of TP, and hepatic GSH, as well as induced significant ameliorated in weight gain percent and lipid profile parameters as compared with CCl4 group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of hepatic necrosis associated with cells infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, while the pretreatment with GbE overcome these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of GbE against CCl4-induced oxidative damage may be due to its potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, GbE could be of potential

  4. Antioxidant activities of Ginkgo biloba extracts: application in freeze stored meat dumplings

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    Joanna Kobus-Cisowska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The following paper is a report from research on the influence of addition of natural antioxidants applied in the form of ethanol extracts from green and yellow leaves of Ginkgo biloba(0.05% on the rate of lipid oxidation in meat dumplings stored under freezing conditions. Material and methods. Experimental material comprised meat dumplings were prepared from materials purchased in a retail store in the city of Poznań. Extracts from ground green and yellow Ginkgo leaves were produced by single extraction with ethanol.Oxidation stability of meat dumplings was analysed using such indexes as anisidine value, peroxide value, as well as test with thiobarbituric acid. Results. On the basis of the obtained results it was observed that the usage of antioxidants combined with vacuum packaging of the product was most effective in slowing down the formation of oxidation products. The added ethanol extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves limited the rate of oxidation of the fats in the product; however, their efficacy was similar as that obtained with the usage of the BHT synthetic antioxidant used for comparative purposes. Conclusions. The added extracts did not cause negative changes in the sensory analysis of the meat, it is claimed that ethanol extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves may be used as antioxidants to prolong stability of meat dumplings.

  5. The health state of Ginkgo biloba L. in the presence of microfungi

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    Adamčíková Katarína

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health state of Ginkgo biloba L. and damage caused by microscopic fungi were evaluated over the 2010-2011 time period, in selected localities of Slovakia and Czechia. The trees were assessed and put into two categories of health. Trees in very good (category 1 or good vitality and health with no or only light damage (category 2. A total of seven species of microscopic fungi were identified from samples taken from branches, fruits, and leaves. The following fungal genera were detected: Epicoccum, Fusarium, Alternaria, Phomopsis, Cylindrosporium, Phyllosticta, and Cladosporium. This present study is the first report about microscopic fungi determined on G. biloba for Slovakia

  6. Larvicidal activity of extracts of Ginkgo biloba exocarp for three different strains of Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lixin; Dong, Huiqin; Guo, Chongxia; Qian, Jin; Sun, Jing; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang

    2006-03-01

    Ethanolic extracts from the Ginkgo biloba L. exocarp from the Chinese ginkgo were assayed against larvae of three strains of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett. The chemical compositions were detected using a Hewlett-Packard 6890/5973 mass spectrometric detector. The larvicidal bioassay was carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The analysis of the essential oil of ginkgo exocarp showed that its major components are ginkgo acid (85.3%) and ginkgo phenolic (5.69%). The larvicidal bioassay showed that extracts of ginkgo exocarp have LC50 of 18.6, 12.7, and 25.0 mg/liter for deltamethrin-susceptible, deltamethrin-resistant, and field strains, respectively. The acute toxicity concentrations of the ginkgo extracts that killed 50% (LD50) of Wistar rats within 2 wk and young carp within 96 h were 4947.2 mg/kg and 557.9 mg/liter, respectively. These results are promising in creating new, effective, and affordable approaches to mosquito control.

  7. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on Ginkgo biloba have appeared, and about 400 of them pertain to chemical analysis in a broad sense and are cited herein. The more important ones are discussed and, where relevant, compared with the b...

  8. Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba

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    Hans Verhagen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Regulation 1924/2006 states that all health claims made on foods need to be substantiated scientifically. Objective: To apply the PASSCLAIM criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods to herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Evaluation of three selected claimed health effects for G. biloba (improvement of blood circulation, improvement of symptoms of old age, and improvement of memory was achieved through review of publicly available scientific data. A total of 35 human intervention studies were evaluated. Commercially available products claimed to contain mainly G. biloba (N=29 were randomly sampled in the Netherlands and analyzed for their content on ginkgo extract. Also, a toxicological risk assessment was performed. Results: The three selected health claims investigated could not be substantiated. This was mainly because of a lack of data from studies in healthy volunteers. In most studies results performed with a 24% standardized G. biloba extract were described. However, our chemical analysis showed that 25 of the 29 sampled products did not contain the required minimum 24% standardized extract. Moreover, in most preparations the content of substances typical for G. biloba did not conform to what was declared on the label. Since toxicity data for G. biloba are very limited, a safety limit could not be established. Conclusions : Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with G. biloba. Neither safety nor efficacy can be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. The multidisciplinary approach described in this paper provides good insight into issues that are relevant for the evaluation of health claims for herbal food supplements.

  9. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

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    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla, with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  10. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  11. Extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 inhibits cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiejun Jiao; Jiannong Jiang; Bin Du; Yuan Mo; Ming Zhou; Hongquan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of ginkgo biloba extract have been shown in rats following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the precise protective mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, low-acid water-soluble extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 was used to treat rats with SCI. Xanthin oxidase, thiobarbituric acid, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay, and immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect lipid peroxidation, neural cell apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in rats with SCI. Results revealed significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity, decreased malondialdehyde content, apoptotic index, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in SCI rats following EGb761 treatment. Therefore, EGb761 suppressed lipid peroxidation following SCI, relieved neural cell apoptosis, inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and ultimately exerted protective effects on SCI.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba against Brown Planthopper

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    Xiao Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant which has potent insecticidal activity against brown planthopper. The MeOH extract was tested in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory assay with IC50 values of 252.1 μg/mL. Two ginkgolides and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. It revealed that the 13 isolated flavonoids were found to inhibit AChE with IC50 values ranging from 57.8 to 133.1 μg/mL in the inhibitory assay. AChE was inhibited dose dependently by all tested flavonoids, and compound 6 displayed the highest inhibitory effect against AChE with IC50 values of 57.8 μg/mL.

  13. Análise das bulas de medicamentos à base de Ginkgo biloba L.

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    Alexsandro Branco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba L. atua no aumento do fluxo sanguíneo dos tecidos protegendo-os contra os danos causados pela hipóxia, além de inibir a agregação plaquetária. Sua indicação terapêutica consiste em casos de desordens e sintomas decorrentes da deficiência do fluxo sanguíneo no cérebro e que podem acarretar na perda de memória, alteração da função cognitiva, tonturas, dor de cabeça, vertigens, estágios iniciais de demência, zumbidos, estágios iniciais de Alzheimer e demências mistas, entre outros. Neste sentido os medicamentos à base de Ginkgo biloba L. configuram entre os fitoterápicos mais vendidos do Brasil. As bulas têm como objetivo central esclarecer e informar, pacientes e profissionais da saúde, sobre seus benefícios e seus riscos com intuito de promover o uso racional de medicamento. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as informações contidas nas bulas de medicamentos à base Ginkgo biloba L., comercializadas no Brasil, frente à legislação nacional referente. Assim, em uma amostragem correspondente a 30 % de medicamentos registrados na ANVISA, pode-se constatar que nenhuma bula analisada neste trabalho encontra-se totalmente de acordo com as exigências da legislação vigente no Brasil. Palavras-chave: Ginkgo biloba. Fitoterápicos. Bula de medicamentos. Legislação. ABSTRACT Analysis of the package inserts for medicines to the base of Ginkgo biloba L. Ginkgo biloba L. acts by increasing the blood flow in the tissues, thus protecting them against damage caused by hypoxia, besides inhibiting platelet aggregation. It is therapeutically indicated in cases of disorders and symptoms arising from deficient blood flow in the brain, such as memory loss, changes in cognitive function, dizziness, headache, vertigo, early stages of dementia, tinnitus, early stages of Alzheimer's and other types of dementia. These symptoms occur mainly in elderly patients and there is a continuous rise in the consumption of this

  14. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yan-yu [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yang, Hui, E-mail: 549456369@qq.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Tao [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Chuang [Department of Highway & Bridge, Shaanxi Railway Institute, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2016-11-25

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag{sup +} (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO{sub 3}) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO{sub 3} concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV–vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10–16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of −NH{sub 2}, −OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications. - Highlights: • Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were first prepared by a green synthetical way through Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract. • The synthesized AgNPs is of high crystallinity, stable and good dispersion with smaller sizes between 10–16 nm. • The achieved AgNPs exhibits good antibacterial activities. • The biosynthesis method is advantageous for its cost effectiveness, availability, portability, nontoxic and environmentally benign.

  15. The effects of Ginkgo biloba on nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy protocols in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Okuyan, Betül; Izzettin, Fikret Vehbi; Bingöl-Ozakpinar, Özlem; Turan, Pınar; Ozdemir, Zarife Nigar; Sancar, Mesut; Cirakli, Zeynep; Clark, Philip Martin; Ercan, Feriha

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the possible renoprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba on nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin w/wo other antineoplastic agents (etoposide and gemcitabine) in rats. The animals were randomly divided into eight groups each consisting of six rats. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values at baseline and after drug administration, kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels, and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) were measured, an...

  16. Meta-analysis of Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yang; Wenjie Li; Tao Huang; Jianmin Chen; Xiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Alzheimer's disease using meta-analysis.DATA SOURCES:The following sources were used for articles concerning Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease:Western biomedical journal literature databases,Chinese Biomedical Literature Database,Chinese Journal Full-text Database,Chinese Science and Technology Journal Full-text database.DATA SELECTION:Randomized controlled trials addressing Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease were selected.The pathway and method of information collection were identical between treatment and control groups.Mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease patients scoring ≤ 26 points on the mini-mental state examination were included.Subjects met the diagnostic criteria for dementia by the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" Fourth revised edition.The quality of included literature was assessed by two authors.Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan4.2 software which was provided by the Cochrane Collaboration.Heterogeneity,sensitivity analysis,and bias evaluation were conducted.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Scores of mini-mental state examination,ADAS-cog,and Syndrom-Kurztest.RESULTS:The five included randomized controlled trials contained 819 patients.Meta-analysis showed that the Syndrom-Kurztest score was significantly decreased (weighted mean difference = -2.32;95%CI = -3.12,-1.52;P<0.01) compared with the control group.No significant difference was found in the mini-mental state examination and ADAS-cog score (P>.05).However,there was a tendency to elevate mini-mental state examination score and to reduce the ADAS-cog score.CONCLUSION:Ginkgo biloba extract shows good therapeutic effects for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease.However,high-quality,randomized,double-blind,and controlled trials are needed to further confirm its therapeutic effects.

  17. Effect of Chlorocholine Chloride on Chlorophyll, Photosynthesis, Soluble Sugar and Flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei ZHANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoids content determines the quality characteristics of Ginkgo biloba extract that could be increased by using of plant growth regulators. The objective of study was to investigate the effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC, an anti-gibberellin growth retardant, on photosynthesis, chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total amino acids and phenylalanine contents, flavonoid accumulation, and flavonoids enzyme activity in G. biloba leaves. The ginkgo seedlings were grown in the greenhouse conditions with foliar applications of 0 (control, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC. Results showed that 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased photosynthetic rates of leaves, the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total amino acids and phenylalnine in ginkgo leaves. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, chalcone synthase (CHS and chalcone isomerase (CHI activities were all significantly increased by 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments. Foliar treatment with CCC therefore might be a useful means of improving pharmacological properties of G. biloba leaves.

  18. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag+ (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV-vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10-16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  19. Apoptosis of hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 induced by Ginkgo biloba seed polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Chen; Gui-Wen Yang; Li-Guo An

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the apoptosis of hepatoma cells SMMC-7721induced by polysaccharide isolated from Ginkgo biloba seed.METHODS: Ginkgo biloba seed polysaccharide (GBSP) wasisolated by ethanol fractionation of Ginkgo biloba seed andpurified by Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The purity ofGBSP was verified by reaction with iodine-potassium iodideand ninhydrin and confirmed by UV spectrophotometer,cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and Sepharose4B gel filtration chromatography. The Scanning ElectronMicroscope (SEM) and Flow Cytometrv (FCM) were used toexamine the SMMC-7721 cells with and without GBSPtreatment at 500 mg/ml for 36 h.RESULTS: GBSP product obtained was of high purity withthe average molecular weight of 1.86 × 105. Quantitativeanalysis of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro with FCM showed thatthe percentages of G2-M cells without and with GBSPtreatment were 17.01±1.28 % and 11.77±1.50% (P<0.05),the debds ratio of the cells were 0.46±0.12 % and 0.06±0 .06 %(P<0.01), and the apoptosis ratio of cells was 3.84±0 .55 %and 9.13±1.48 %(P<0.01) respectively. Following GBSPtreatment, microvilli of SMMC-7721 cells appeared thinnerand the number of spherical cells increased markedly. Mostsignificantly, the apoptosis bodies were formed on andaround the spherical cells treated with GBSP.CONCLUSION: GBSP could potentially induce the apoptosisof SMMC-7721 cells.

  20. Effect of biflavones of Ginkgo biloba against UVB-induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Jin [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Medical School

    2001-04-01

    The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated fibroblasts was examined by using a neutral red dye uptake assay and a lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Crude extract along with individual components, including flavone-glycosides and biflavones, were applied to cultured normal human skin fibroblasts for 12 hours, and 0, 20, 40 and 80 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB were irradiated. Two synthetic flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, which have polyphenol structures close to the flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba extract, were used to compare any structure-related activity under the same conditions. At the concentrations (from 0.25 to 2 mg/ml) treated with biflavone components (isoginkgetin/ginkgetin, sciadopitysin) and quercetin, high neutral red dye uptake was detected with gradual increases in UVB irradiation. The time-course release of LDH was determined as the cytotoxicity index (%) during 24 hours following a high dose UVB irradiation (200 mJ/cm{sup 2}), and the pattern of this cytotoxicity index was similar to that of the neutral red dye uptake results. Sciadopitysin, isoginkgetin/ginkgetin and quercetin treatments lowered cytotoxicity indices to 50.81, 67.81 and 62.19%, respectively, compared to 95.38% for the untreated control. The antioxidant potential of biflavones of Ginkgo biloba could be explained on the basis of structure-related activity; hydroxy- and methyl-substitutions on the basic structure of these flavonoids played a role, as other reports have suggested. (author)

  1. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties for Ginkgo biloba and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of medicinal plants for health purposes has increased dramatically due to their great importance to the public health. In this study levels of phenolic, flavonoid contents of Ginkgo biloba and Rosmarinus officinalis from Egypt were determined. HPLC was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected plants. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using various antioxidant methodologies, (i scavenging of free radicals using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, (ii metal ion chelating capacity, and (iii scavenging of superoxide anion radical. The antimicrobial activity of both plant’s extracts were evaluated against a panel of microorganisms by using agar disc diffusion method. The total phenolic content (75.30 and 98.31 mg/g dry weight in G. biloba and R. officinalis, respectively was significantly (p<0.05 different. Among the identified phenolic compounds, quercetin, kaempferol and caffeic acid were the predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba, whereas carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, narinigen and hispidulin were the predominant phenolic compound in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves. The antioxidant activity increased with the concentration increase. The R. officinalis was more active than G. biloba extract against Gram-negative bacteria. This study reveals that the consumption of these plants would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  2. Advancement in the chemical analysis and quality control of flavonoid in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Guang; Wu, Si-Qi; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2015-09-10

    Flavonoids are the main active constituents in Ginkgo biloba L., which have been suggested to have broad-spectrum free-radical scavenging activities. This review summarizes the recent advances in the chemical analysis of the flavonoids in G. biloba and its finished products (from 2009 to 2014), including chemical composition, sample preparation, separation, detection and different quality criteria. More than 70 kinds of flavonoids have been identified in this plant. In this review, various analytical approaches as well as their chromatographic conditions have been described, and their advantages/disadvantages are also compared. Quantitative analyses of Ginkgo flavonoids applied by most pharmacopeias start with an acidic hydrolysis followed by determination of the resulting aglycones using HPLC. But increasing direct assay of individual flavonol glycosides found that many adulterated products were still qualified by the present tests. To obtain an authentic and applicable analytical approach for quality evaluation of Ginkgo and its finished products, related suggestions and opinions in the recent publications are mainly discussed in this review. This discussion on chemical analyses of Ginkgo flavonoids will also be found as a significant guide for widely varied natural flavonoids.

  3. Contribution of a phytotoxic compound to the allelopathy of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka

    2013-11-01

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) has not changed over 121 million years. There may be unknown special strategy for the survival. Gingko litter inhibited the growth of weed species ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). The inhibition was greater with the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the gingko tree. A phytotoxic substance, 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid (HHPEBA) was isolated in the litter. HHPEBA concentration was greater in the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the tree. HHPEBA inhibited the ryegrass growth at concentrations greater than 3 μM. HHPEBA was estimated to be able to cause 47-62% of the observed growth inhibition of ryegrass by the gingko litter. Therefore, HHPEBA may contribute to the inhibitory effect caused by ginkgo litter and may provide a competitive advantage for gingko to survive through the growth inhibition of the neighboring plants.

  4. Changes of main secondary metabolites in leaves of Ginkgo biloba in response to ozone fumigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xingyuan; HUANG Wei; CHEN Wei; DONG Tian; LIU Changbing; CHEN Zhenju; XU Sheng; RUAN Yanan

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of elevated O3 on the accumulation of main secondary metabolites in leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., four-year-old trees were exposed in open-top chambers with ambient air and the air with twice ambient O3 concentration in Shenyang in 2006.Elevated O3 increased the concentrations of terpenes, but decreased the concentrations of phenolics in G.biloba leaves.The results showed that secondary compounds from G.biloba leaves responded to the elevated O3 exposure in a different way when compared to previous studies which showed elevated O3 increased the concentrations of phenolics but had no effect on the terpenes in leaves of other deciduous trees.Furthermore, reduced synthesis of phenolics may decrease the resistance of G.biloba to O3 and other environmental factors.On the other hand, the induced synthesis of terpenes may enhance the antioxidant abilities in G.biloba leaves at the end of O3 fumigation.

  5. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple p

  6. Glacial Refugia of Ginkgo biloba and Human Impact on Its Genetic Diversity: Evidence from Chloroplast DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gong; Zhen Zeng; Ye-Ye Chen; Chuan Chen; Ying-Xiong Qiu; Cheng-Xin Fu

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the trnK region of chloroplast DNA were investigated in the present study using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect the genetic structure and to infer the possible glacial refugia of Ginkgo biloba L. in China. In total, 220 individuals from 12 populations in China and three populations outside China were analyzed, representing the largest number of populations studied by molecular markers to date. Nineteen haplotypes were produced and haplotype A was found in all populations. Populations in south-western China, including WC, JF, PX, and SP, contained 14 of the 19 haplotypes and their genetic diversity ranged from 0.771 4 to 0.867 6. The TM population from China also showed a high genetic diversity (H=0.848 5). Most of the genetic variation existed within populations and the differentiation among populations was low (GST>=0.2). According to haplotype distribution and the historical record, we suggest that populations of G. biloba have been subjected to extensive human impact, which has compounded our attempt to infer glacial refugia for Ginkgo. Nevertheless, the present results suggest that the center of genetic diversity of Ginkgo is mainly in south-western China and in situ conservation is needed to protect and preserve the genetic resources.

  7. Hepatic fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats is prevented by Ginkgo biloba treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(o)ksel Pener; Levent Kabasakal; Meral Yüksel; Nursal Gedik; (Y)nci Alican

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antioxidant and antifibrotic effects of long-term Ginkgo biloba administration on liver fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats.METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Wistar albino rats by bile duct ligation and scission (BDL). Ginkgo administered for 28 d. At the end of the treatment period,all rats were killed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined to assess liver functions and tissue damage, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also assayed in serum samples. Liver tissues were taken for determination of the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels,myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content.Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Serum AST, ALT, LDH, and TNF-α levels were elevated in the BDL group as compared to control group and were significantly decreased by EGb treatment.RESULTS: Hepatic GSH level, depressed by BDL, was elevated back to control level in EGb-treated BDL group.Increase in tissue MDA level, MPO activity and collagen content due to BDL were also attenuated by EGb treatment.Furthermore, luminol and lucigenin CL values in BDL group increased dramatically compared to control and reduced by EGb treatment.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Ginkgo biloba protects the liver from oxidative damage following BDL in rats. This effect possibly involves the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation; thus, restoration of oxidant and antioxidant status in the tissue.

  8. A Bilobalide-Producing Endophytic Fungus, Pestalotiopsis uvicola from Medicinal Plant Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Xin; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Luo, Yi-Kai; Zhao, Jun-Jie; He, Jun; Geng, Kun

    2016-08-01

    For screening bilobalide (BB)-producing endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba, a total of 57 fungal isolates were isolated from the internal stem, root, leaf, and bark of the plant G. biloba. Fermentation processes using BB-producing fungi other than G. biloba may become a novel way to produce BB, which is a terpene trilactones exhibiting neuroprotective effects. In this study, a BB-producing endophytic fungal strain GZUYX13 was isolated from the leaves of G. biloba grown in the campus of Guizhou University, Guiyang city, Guizhou province, China. The strain produced BB when grown in potato dextrose liquid medium. The amount of BB produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified to be 106 μg/L via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), substantially lower than that produced by the host tissue. The fungal BB which was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC was proven to be identical to authentic BB. The strain GZUYX13 was identified as Pestalotiopsis uvicola via morphology and ITS rDNA phylogeny. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic BB-producing Pestalotiopsis spp. from the host plant, which further proved that endophytic fungi have the potential to produce bioactive compounds.

  9. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba.

  10. Determination of the Flavonoids from Ginkgo Biloba Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HPLC method for analysis of the flavonoids from ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) was studied. By suitable selection of columns, symmetrical chromatographic peaks were obtained without using acidic modifier in the mobile phase, which can eliminate the time for cleaning the chromatographic system and simplify the analystic method for GBE. Experimental conditions: column: Hypersil BDS C18,5(m×4×250 mm; column temperature: 35(C; mobile phase: 46% methanol-54% water; flow rate: 0.7 mL/min; detection wavelength: 360nm.

  11. Effekten af Ginkgo biloba-ekstrakt hos patienter med claudicatio intermittens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Petersen, J R; Wïnberg, N

    1996-01-01

    and the inability to remember were both reduced, when comparing results during active treatment to placebo. Short-term memory did not change significantly. In conclusion, our study has shown that treatment with the Ginkgo biloba extract GB-8 improves some cognitive functions in elderly patients with moderate...... of concentration, and inability to remember. Short-term memory was objectively assessed. We did not find any significant changes in either peripheral blood pressures, walking distances or the severity of leg pain. Systemic blood pressure was reduced both by placebo and GB-8. The impairment of concentration...

  12. Effekten af Ginkgo biloba-ekstrakt hos patienter med claudicatio intermittens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Petersen, J R; Wïnberg, N

    1996-01-01

    of concentration, and inability to remember. Short-term memory was objectively assessed. We did not find any significant changes in either peripheral blood pressures, walking distances or the severity of leg pain. Systemic blood pressure was reduced both by placebo and GB-8. The impairment of concentration...... and the inability to remember were both reduced, when comparing results during active treatment to placebo. Short-term memory did not change significantly. In conclusion, our study has shown that treatment with the Ginkgo biloba extract GB-8 improves some cognitive functions in elderly patients with moderate...

  13. 苗圃荐优中华国树银杏%Tree Nursery Recommendation: Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉林

    2007-01-01

    @@ 银杏(Ginkgo biloba),又称白果树,是银杏科的落叶乔木.树高可达40米,树型优美.银杏是我国特有的珍贵树种,以其历史悠久而著名.长期以来,被人们视为中国的国树,有"活化石"之称,是现存种子植物中最古老的子遗植物.

  14. [Distribution patterns of shoots, flowers and seeds in Ginkgo biloba canopy and their relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wei, G

    2000-04-01

    The distribution patterns of shoots, flowers and seeds in the canopy of 14 years old engrafted Ginkgo biloba and their relationships were investigated with stratification method. The result shows that long shoots, short shoots, bearing-shoots and flowers uniformly distributed in the central section of canopy. From the top to the bottom, the average age and the divaricating angle of long shoots increase 51.3% of the seeds distributed in 180-320 cm layer from the ground. The number of shoots, flowers and seeds in different canopy layers was closely correlated.

  15. Flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba fallen leaves induce apoptosis through modulation of p53 activation in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jung; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptotic effect of flavonoids in methanol extracts of Ginkgo biloba fallen leaves (MEGFL) on melanoma cells. Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous castle chaplain and its leaves include various types of flavonoids such as flavonol-O-glycosides. Ginkgo biloba is known to have therapeutic properties against a number of diseases such as cerebrovascular diseases, blood circulation disease and hypertension. In the present study MEGFL exhibited a higher cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells than Ginkgo biloba leaves (MEGL). It was also found that MEGFL induced apoptotic cell death which was characterized by DNA fragmentation. During the cell death process following treatment with MEGFL, the expression of a variety of death-associated proteins including p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c and Bax were analyzed in the cytosol of melanoma cells. MEGFL significantly increased the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9 and p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that MEGFL induced apoptotic cell death by increasing the expression of cell death-associated proteins in melanoma cells.

  16. 银杏树落叶的相关因素分析%Related Factors Analysis on Ginkgo Biloba Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凯文; 德佳硕; 龚婧窈; 姚娟; 邓东周; 庄文化

    2016-01-01

    银杏树作为成都常见的城市绿化美化树种,其叶片的衰老、脱落对城市景观、环境、交通等方面具有一定的影响。为了探明成都银杏树秋季落叶规律及其影响因素,合理发挥银杏树的综合效益,以四川大学校内丰富的银杏树资源为研究对象,探究了土壤pH、土壤表层温度对落叶的影响,通过对银杏树不同部位叶片图片的RGB值测定,分析了银杏树落叶时间及空间规律。结果表明:秋季银杏叶片正常的衰老、脱落与土壤的pH、土壤表层温度显著相关。在试验区土壤pH5.8~6.3时,随着土壤pH的增大,银杏树叶片中叶绿素的含量逐渐下降,而其落叶率在逐渐增长,且pH5.8~6.1落叶率的增长速度比pH6.1~6.3增长速度快;试验期间,试验区土壤表层温度基本在17.0~20.5℃,随着土壤表层温度的升高,落叶率在不断增长;同时通过对不同区域银杏树叶片相片的RGB值分析发现:银杏树叶片在衰老、脱落过程中叶绿素逐渐降解,叶色逐渐变黄,且就同一棵银杏树来说叶片首先从下部开始衰老、脱落。不同部位叶片衰老、脱落受土壤表层温度、土壤pH影响程度也有所不同,基本规律一致,即银杏树中部、下部叶片衰老程度随着土壤表层温度的增大而提速,随土壤pH的增大也在逐渐提速,而银杏树上部叶片的衰老、脱落与土壤表层温度、土壤pH相关性不显著。研究成果可以用于城市银杏绿化区域,尤其是主要行道银杏树的落叶时间调节,优化城市银杏的绿化与景观效果,降低其对交通等方面的不利影响,提高城市银杏栽种的综合效益。%Ginkgo Biloba is one of the most common street afforestation tree species in Chengdu city ,its leaf se‐nescence and fall off have some effect on the urban landscape ,the environment and the transportation .In order to find out

  17. Determination of extraction conditions of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves by supercritical CO2 using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Svetlana G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of process parameters on the extraction of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves with supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. The investigated parameters include particle size (mean particle diameter 0.19, 0.467 and 1.009 mm, solvent flow rate (1.5810-3, 3.2210-3 and 4.1610-3 kg CO2/min and pressure (100-300 bar, which were obtained by the response surface methodology (RSM under the following condition ranges: temperature 40-50-60ºC, pressure 100-140-180 bar and extraction time of 2-3-4 h at the flow rate of 3.2210-3 kg/min. Based on the experimental results of kinetics of Ginkgo biloba leaves extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide, modeling of the extraction system of Ginkgo biloba-supercritical CO2 was done. Two mathematical models (Reverchon-Sesti Osseo and Sovová were applied to correlate the experimental data. RSM was applied to optimize the process parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. A second-order polynomial response surface equation was developed indicating the effect of variables on Ginkgo biloba extraction yield. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that pressure (X1, extraction time (X3, the quadratic of temperature (X22, and the interaction between pressure and extraction time (X1X3, show significant effect on the extraction yield. The results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. It was predicted that the optimum extraction process parameters within the experimental ranges would be the extraction temperature of 52.7ºC, the pressure of 184.4 bar, and the extraction time of 3.86 h. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield is 2.39% (g/100 g drug.

  18. Cardioprotective Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thássio R. R. Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the most popular phytotherapic agent used worldwide for treatment of several human disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Ginkgo biloba on cardiovascular diseases remain poorly elucidated. Taking into account recent studies showing beneficial actions of cholinergic signaling in the heart and the cholinergic hypothesis of Ginkgo biloba-mediated neuroprotection, we aimed to investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE promotes cardioprotection via activation of cholinergic signaling in a model of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that GBE treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days, v.o. reestablished the autonomic imbalance and baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-AR, 4.5 mg/kg/day for 8 days, i.p.. Moreover, GBE prevented the upregulation of muscarinic receptors (M2 and downregulation of β1-AR in isoproterenol treated-hearts. Additionally, we demonstrated that GBE prevents the impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the heart. GBE also prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, electrocardiographic changes and impaired left ventricular contractility that are typical of cardiac hypertrophy. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in GBE cardioprotection in vivo, we performed in vitro studies. By using neonatal cardiomyocyte culture we demonstrated that the antihypertrophic action of GBE was fully abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonist or NOS inhibition. Altogether, our data support the notion that antihypertrophic effect of GBE occurs via activation of M2/NO pathway uncovering a new mechanism involved in the cardioprotective action of Ginkgo biloba.

  19. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system...

  20. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Ibrahim Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone.

  1. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  2. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane CJ Chao; Chia Chou Chu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761)containing 22-27% fiavonoids (ginkgo-flavone glycosides)and 5-7% terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalides) on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.METHODS: Human HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) were incubated with various concentrations (0-1 000 mg/L) of EGb 761 solution. After 24 h incubation, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)release, respectively. After 48 h incubation, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 protein was measured by Western blotting.RESULTS: The results showed that EGb 761 (50-1 000 mg/L)significantly suppressed cell proliferation and increased LDH release (P<0.05) in HepG2 and Hep3B cells compared with the control group. The cell proliferation of HepG2 and Hep3B cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) was 45% and 39% of the control group (P<0.05), respectively. LDH release of HepG2 cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 6.7% and 37.7%, respectively, and that of Hep3B cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 7.2% and 40.3%, respectively. The expression of PCNA and p53 protein in HepG2 cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L)was 85% and 174% of the control group, respectively.CONCLUSION: Ginkgobilobaextract significantly can suppress proliferation and increase cytotoxicity in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Additionally, Ginkgo biloba extract can decrease PCNA and increase p53 expression in HepG2 cells.

  3. Interaction of human chymase with ginkgolides, terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba investigated by molecular docking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Amit; Marabotti, Anna; Ramteke, Pramod W; Facchiano, Angelo

    2016-04-29

    The search for natural chymase inhibitors has a good potential to provide a novel therapeutic approach against the cardiovascular diseases and other heart ailments. We selected from literature 20 promising Ginkgo biloba compounds, and tested them for their potential ability to bind chymase enzyme using docking and a deep analysis of surface pocket features. Docking results indicated that the compounds may interact with the active site of human chymase, with favorable distinct interactions with important residues Lys40, His57, Lys192, Phe191, Val146, Ser218, Gly216, and Ser195. In particular, proanthocyanidin is the one with the best-predicted binding energy, with seven hydrogen bonds. Interestingly, all active G. biloba compounds have formed the hydrogen bond interactions with the positively charged Lys192 residue at the active site, involved in the mechanism of pH enhancement for the cleavage of angiotensin I site. Ginkgolic acid and proanthocyanidin have better predicted binding energy towards chymase than other serine proteases, i.e kallikrein, tryptase and elastase, suggesting specificity for chymase inhibition. Our study suggests these G. biloba compounds are a promising starting point for developing chymase inhibitors for the potential development of future drugs.

  4. Improved metabolites of pharmaceutical ingredient grade Ginkgo biloba and the correlated proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Li, Ximin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yanzhen; Lu, Xiaoping; Tian, Jingkui

    2015-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba is an attractive and traditional medicinal plant, and has been widely used as a phytomedicine in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Flavonoids and terpene lactones are the major bioactive components of Ginkgo, whereas the ginkgolic acids (GAs) with strong allergenic properties are strictly controlled. In this study, we tested the content of flavonoids and GAs under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) treatment and performed comparative proteomic analyses to determine the differential proteins that occur upon UV-B radiation. That might play a crucial role in producing flavonoids and GAs. Our phytochemical analyses demonstrated that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the content of active flavonoids, and decreased the content of toxic GAs. We conducted comparative proteomic analysis of both whole leaf and chloroplasts proteins. In total, 27 differential proteins in the whole leaf and 43 differential proteins in the chloroplast were positively identified and functionally annotated. The proteomic data suggested that enhanced UV-B radiation exposure activated antioxidants and stress-responsive proteins as well as reduced the rate of photosynthesis. We demonstrate that UV-B irradiation pharmaceutically improved the metabolic ingredients of Ginkgo, particularly in terms of reducing GAs. With high UV absorption properties, and antioxidant activities, the flavonoids were likely highly induced as protective molecules following UV-B irradiation.

  5. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761® in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Egon; Nöldner, Michael; Leuschner, Jost

    2013-12-15

    Extracts from leaves of Ginkgo biloba are among the most widely used and best investigated phytopharmaceuticals worldwide. Almost all clinical trials and the majority of preclinical studies have been performed with a specifically defined extract (EGb 761(®)) standardized to contain confined concentrations of active ingredients and limited quantities of potentially harmful substances. Besides pharmaceutical grade extracts poorly characterized Ginkgo preparations are now increasingly appearing on the market as nutraceuticals. While the safety of EGb 761(®) has been evaluated in an extensive set of toxicology studies, adverse effects of Ginkgo extracts of non-pharmaceutical quality on reproductive functions in mice have been reported in several publications in recent years. As this species has not previously been used in reproductive toxicity studies with EGb 761(®), the present investigation was conducted to examine the influence of EGb 761(®) (100, 350 and 1225mg/kg/day) on embryo-fetal development in mice during the critical period of organogenesis. During external and internal inspection of the fetuses as well as examination of skeletal and soft tissues no embryotoxic properties were noted. In particular, the incidence of malformations, variations or retardations was not increased and the general condition of dams was not influenced. Thus, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) was above 1225mg/kg/day for the dams and the fetuses.

  6. 1H NMR-based metabolomics combined with HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR for investigation of standardized Ginkgo biloba preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Agnolet, Sara; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.; Verpoorte, Robert; Staerk, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Commercial preparations of Ginkgo biloba are very complex mixtures prepared from raw leaf extracts by a series of extraction and prepurification steps. The pharmacological activity is attributed to a number of flavonoid glycosides and unique terpene trilactones (TTLs), with largely uncharacterized pharmacological profiles on targets involved in neurological disorders. It is therefore important to complement existing targeted analytical methods for analysis of Ginkgo biloba preparations with a...

  7. Antiproliferative effect of the Ginkgo biloba extract is associated with the enhancement of cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Dan; Dong, Ni; Man, Hong-Tao; Fu, Zhong-Lin; Zhang, Mei-Hong; Kou, Shuang; Ma, Shi-Liang

    2013-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious tree and its extract is a complex mixture that has been used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to present our observations on the inhibitory effects of different Ginkgo biloba extracts on human breast cancer cell proliferation and growth. Our results demonstrated that treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with Ginkgo biloba leaves and ginkgo fruit extract inhibited cell proliferation. It was also observed that this inhibition was accompanied by the enhancement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, treatment with ginkgo fruit extract resulted in a higher CYP1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to treatment with the Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. Our results suggested that the inhibitory effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract on estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer proliferation and the induction of CYP1B1 expression may be exerted through an alternative pathway, independent of the estrogen receptor or the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway.

  8. Design of Countercurrent Separation of Ginkgo biloba Terpene Lactones by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Friesen, Brent J.; McAlpine, James B.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2012-01-01

    Terpene lactones such as bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J are major bioactive compounds of Ginkgo biloba L. Purification of these compounds is tedious due to their similar chemical properties. For the purpose of developing an effective and efficient method for both analytical and preparative separation of terpene lactones in G. biloba, an innovative orthogonality-enhanced high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established. Taking advantage of quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) methodology, partition coefficients (K) of individual terpene lactones were calculated directly from crude G. biloba leaf extract, using their H-12 signals as distinguishing feature. The partitioning experiment assisted the design of a two dimensional (2D) HSCCC procedure using a pair of orthogonal HSCCC solvent systems (SSs), ChMWat +4 and HEMSoWat +3/0.05%. It was surprising that the resolution of ginkgolides A and B was improved by 25% in the HEMWat +3 SS modified with 0.5% DMSO. Consequently, all five terpene lactones could be well separated with qHNMR purity > 95% from G. biloba leaf extract. The separation was further evaluated by offline qHNMR analysis of HSCCC fractions associated with Gaussian curve fitting. The results showed less than 2% error in HSCCC retention predicted from the partitioning experiment. This compelling consistency demonstrates that qHNMR-derived K determination (“K-by-NMR”) can be used to predict CCC fractionation and target purification of analytes from complex mixtures. Furthermore, Gaussian curve fitting enabled an accurate prediction of less than 2% impurity in the CCC fraction, which demonstrates its potential as a powerful tool to study the presence of minor constituents, especially when they are beyond the detection limit of conventional spectroscopic detectors. PMID:22579361

  9. Transcriptome Profile Analysis from Different Sex Types of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuhui; Sang, Yalin; Liu, Xiaojing; Xing, Shiyan; Li, Jihong; Tang, Haixia; Sun, Limin

    2016-01-01

    In plants, sex determination is a comprehensive process of correlated events, which involves genes that are differentially and/or specifically expressed in distinct developmental phases. Exploring gene expression profiles from different sex types will contribute to fully understanding sex determination in plants. In this study, we conducted RNA-sequencing of female and male buds (FB and MB) as well as ovulate strobilus and staminate strobilus (OS and SS) of Ginkgo biloba to gain insights into the genes potentially related to sex determination in this species. Approximately 60 Gb of clean reads were obtained from eight cDNA libraries. De novo assembly of the clean reads generated 108,307 unigenes with an average length of 796 bp. Among these unigenes, 51,953 (47.97%) had at least one significant match with a gene sequence in the public databases searched. A total of 4709 and 9802 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in MB vs. FB and SS vs. OS, respectively. Genes involved in plant hormone signal and transduction as well as those encoding DNA methyltransferase were found to be differentially expressed between different sex types. Their potential roles in sex determination of G. biloba were discussed. Pistil-related genes were expressed in male buds while anther-specific genes were identified in female buds, suggesting that dioecism in G. biloba was resulted from the selective arrest of reproductive primordia. High correlation of expression level was found between the RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR results. The transcriptome resources that we generated allowed us to characterize gene expression profiles and examine differential expression profiles, which provided foundations for identifying functional genes associated with sex determination in G. biloba.

  10. Cellulose structure and lignin distribution in normal and compression wood of the Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seppo Andersson; Yurong Wang; Raili Ponni; Tuomas Hanninen; Marko Mononen; Haiqing Ren; Ritva Serimaa; Pekka Saranpaa

    2015-01-01

    We studied in detail the mean microfibril angle and the width of cellulose crystals from the pith to the bark of a 15-year-old Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.). The orientation of cellulose microfibrils with respect to the cell axis and the width and length of cellulose crystallites were determined using X-ray diffraction. Raman microscopy was used to compare the lignin distribution in the cell wall of normal/opposite and compression wood, which was found near the pith. Ginkgo biloba showed a relatively large mean microfibril angle, varying between 19° and 39° in the S2 layer, and the average width of cellulose crystallites was 3.1–3.2 nm. Mild compres-sion wood without any intercellular spaces or helical cavities was observed near the pith. Slit-like bordered pit openings and a heavily lignified S2L layer confirmed the presence of compression wood. Ginkgo biloba showed typical features present in the juvenile wood of conifers. The microfibril angle remained large over the 14 annual rings. The entire stem disc, with a diameter of 18 cm, was considered to consist of juvenile wood. The properties of juvenile and compression wood as well as the cellulose orientation and crystalline width indicate that the wood formation of G. biloba is similar to that of modern conifers.

  11. Cellulose structure and lignin distribution in normal and compression wood of the Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Seppo; Wang, Yurong; Pönni, Raili; Hänninen, Tuomas; Mononen, Marko; Ren, Haiqing; Serimaa, Ritva; Saranpää, Pekka

    2015-04-01

    We studied in detail the mean microfibril angle and the width of cellulose crystals from the pith to the bark of a 15-year-old Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.). The orientation of cellulose microfibrils with respect to the cell axis and the width and length of cellulose crystallites were determined using X-ray diffraction. Raman microscopy was used to compare the lignin distribution in the cell wall of normal/opposite and compression wood, which was found near the pith. Ginkgo biloba showed a relatively large mean microfibril angle, varying between 19° and 39° in the S2 layer, and the average width of cellulose crystallites was 3.1-3.2 nm. Mild compression wood without any intercellular spaces or helical cavities was observed near the pith. Slit-like bordered pit openings and a heavily lignified S2L layer confirmed the presence of compression wood. Ginkgo biloba showed typical features present in the juvenile wood of conifers. The microfibril angle remained large over the 14 annual rings. The entire stem disc, with a diameter of 18 cm, was considered to consist of juvenile wood. The properties of juvenile and compression wood as well as the cellulose orientation and crystalline width indicate that the wood formation of G. biloba is similar to that of modern conifers.

  12. Distribution of coniferin in freeze-fixed stem of Ginkgo biloba L. by cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Dan; Hanaya, Yuto; Akita, Takuya; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Kuroda, Katsushi; Yagami, Sachie; Takama, Ruka; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the role of coniferin in planta, semi-quantitative cellular distribution of coniferin in quick-frozen Ginkgo biloba L. (ginkgo) was visualized by cryo time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM) analysis. The amount and rough distribution of coniferin were confirmed through quantitative chromatography measurement using serial tangential sections of the freeze-fixed ginkgo stem. The lignification stage of the sample was estimated using microscopic observations. Coniferin distribution visualized at the transverse and radial surfaces of freeze-fixed ginkgo stem suggested that coniferin is stored in the vacuoles, and showed good agreement with the assimilation timing of coniferin to lignin in differentiating xylem. Consequently, it is suggested that coniferin is stored in the tracheid cells of differentiating xylem and is a lignin precursor.

  13. Effect of single-dose Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Gregory S; McKeever, Rita G; Patel, Urvi; Okaneku, Jolene; Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng and Gingko biloba are commonly used herbal supplements in the United States that have been reported to increase alertness and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of these specific herbals on driving performance. 30 volunteers were tested using the STISIM3® Driving Simulator (Systems Technology Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups of 10 subjects per group. After 10-min of simulated driving, subjects received either ginseng (1200 mg), Gingko (240 mg), or placebo administered orally. The test herbals and placebo were randomized and administered by a research assistant outside of the study to maintain blinding. One hour following administration of the herbals or placebo, the subjects completed an additional 10-min of simulated driving. Standard driving parameters were studied including reaction time, standard deviation of lateral positioning, and divided attention. Data collected for the divided attention parameter included time to response and number of correct responses. The data was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). There was no difference in reaction time or standard deviation of lateral positioning for both the ginseng and Ginkgo arms. For the divided attention parameter, the response time in the Ginkgo arm decreased from 2.9 to 2.5 s. The ginseng arm also decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 s. None of these values were statistically significant when between group differences were analyzed. The data suggests there was no statistically significant difference between ginseng, Ginkgo or placebo on driving performance. We postulate this is due to the relatively small numbers in our study. Further study with a larger sample size may be needed in order to elucidate more fully the effects of Ginkgo and ginseng on driving ability.

  14. Evidence of the regulatory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on skin blood flow and study of its effects on urinary metabolites in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Lamers, R.-J.A.N.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Nesselrooij, J.H.J. van; Roza, L.

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract has been advocated for the improvement of blood circulation in circulatory disorders. This study investigated the effect of the Gingko biloba extract EGb 761 on skin blood flow in healthy volunteers and accompanying changes in urinary metabolites. Twenty-seven healthy middle-ag

  15. Catechins and Procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba Show Potent Activities towards the Inhibition of β-Amyloid Peptide Aggregation and Destabilization of Preformed Fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Xie; Jing-Rong Wang; Lee-Fong Yau; Yong Liu; Liang Liu; Quan-Bin Han; Zhongzhen Zhao; Zhi-Hong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761). In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-gallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The acti...

  16. Effect of Enzyme Inhibitors on Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis and Gene Expression Profiling in Ginkgo biloba Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijia; Tong, Hui; Wang, Mingxuan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba is unclear. In this present study, suspension cultured cells of G. biloba were used to explore the regulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways in response to specific enzyme inhibitors (lovastatin and clomazone). The results showed that the biosynthesis of bilobalide was more highly correlated with the MVA pathway, and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides was more highly correlated with the MEP pathway. Meanwhile, according to the results, it could be speculated that bilobalide might be a product of ginkgolide metabolism.

  17. CTAB-silica Method for DNA Extraction and Purification from Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yongbao; Shi Jisen

    2003-01-01

    A new method CTAB-silica for DNA extraction and purification from the leaves and buds of Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba was tested. The method is based on the silica-based purification protocol developed by Boom et al. (1990). By modifying the protocol, plant genome DNA could be extracted easily from dormant buds, mature leaves, and other parts of plant. Our results showed that the purified DNA was of high purity and could be analyzed by PCR. Furthermore, this CTAB-silica method took much less time for a successful DNA purification process compared to the traditional methods (CTAB and SDS). By our method, the suitable DNA can be extracted and purified from over 10 plant samples by one person in an hour.

  18. RESEARCH ON BEHAVIOUR OF GINKGO BILOBA IN THE INITIATION STAGE OF IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Radomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the realizations of the tehnology of producing biological material with rapidly clonal multiplication with reference at the phase of in vitro initiation. The growth of Ginkgo biloba explants was influenced by the period of explants sampling and by the composition of culture medium. The explants sampled from the herbaceous shoots a year old cropping at the end of the summer have the best behavior. They have registered 80% explants growth on culture medium MS with 20 mg/l benzyladenine. As one goes along the concentration of benzyladenine decreased, has been found a diminution of the number of explants growth until 25% and a progresive growth of the length of the shoots obtained.

  19. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  20. EFFECT OF GINKGO BILOBA EXTRACT ON BRAIN EDEMA AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙保亮; 夏作理; 杨明峰; 邱平明

    2001-01-01

    @@ The aim of this study was to investigate the protectiveeffect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) on brain edemaafter subarachnoid hemorrhage . Eighty male and femaleWistar rats, weighing 300~ 350g, were used in the ex-periment. Animals were divided into pure SAH group andEGb-treated group. Dynamic changes of regional cerebralblood flow (rCBF) were detected in eight rats from eachgroup. Brain water and electrolytes contents at differenttime points were detected in thirty-two rats from eachgroup (eight rats at each time point from each group) .EGb. provided by Pizhou Pharmaceutical Factory(Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China), was injected intraperi-toneally 30 minutes before operation and repeated withsingle dose of 15mg/kg .every 6 hours.

  1. Structure and function of the tentpole in the reproductive process of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Wang, Di; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Li

    2012-10-01

    The tentpole is a unique structure of the female gametophyte in Ginkgo biloba; however, its exact functions in the reproductive process are unclear. In the present study, we used semi-thin sectioning and electron microscopy to study the structure and function of the tentpole during fertilization in G. biloba. The tentpole was always initiated between two or more deeply immersed archegonia. Before fertilization, the tentpole had developed into a column-like structure, protruding toward the archegonial chamber; cells at the periphery of tentpole were loosely ranged, and abundant lipid droplets and starch grains were accumulated in the tentpole cells. After fertilization, the tentpole degenerated, and some membranous debris was overlaid on its surface. In addition, there were significant decreases in the lipids and starch grains. These results suggested that the tentpole led to the degeneration of the megaspore membrane and then supported the pliable apex of the nucellar tissues. Importantly, the tentpole also contributed to supplying nutrition for fertilization and embryo development.

  2. Softwood Cuttings Test of Ginkgo biloba%银杏嫩枝扦插试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜林

    2012-01-01

    Experiments for softwood cuttings of Ginkgo biloba were conducted through the two-factor (rooting accelerator types & concentration). Resuh shows that: rooting rate & root number of Ginkgo biloba treated with 100× 10^-66 ABT-1 # rooting powder are the optimal;average rooting rate are 93.3 %, and the average root number are 9.4.%通过生根促进剂种类与浓度的双因素对银杏嫩枝扦插进行试验研究,结果表明:生根促进剂ABT-1#生根粉100×10^-6处理的银杏生根率与生根数均最好,平均生根率达93.3%,平均生根数为9.4根。

  3. Inhibitory effect of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves on VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of bovine coronary endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan QIU; Yao-cheng RUI; Tie-jun LI; Li ZHANG; Peng-yuan YANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study whether extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) can protect against atherosclerosis. METHODS: Confluent monolayers of bovine coronary endothelial cells (BCECs), bovine coronary smooth muscle cells (BCSMCs), and cocultures of the two were incubated with medium containing VEGF and/or EGb, and flux of 125Ⅰ-labeled oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) across the monolayers was measured. RESULTS: Incubation with VEGF significantly increased the permeability of BCEC monolayers to 125Ⅰ-ox-LDL in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on permeability of BCSMCs or endothelial cells-smooth muscle cells cocultures. EGb significantly inhibited the VEGF-induced hyperpermeability of BCECs. CONCLUSION: VEGF was important in the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The inhibition of VEGF-induced permeability by EGb suggests that extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves may have important clinical applications in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba (EGb 761 on Epileptic Activity in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vasic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Different animal models are used to evaluate the process of epileptogenesis. In this investigation the kindling model of epilepsy was used. The epileptic focus was induced in Chinchilla rabbits by stimulation of the hippocampus with electric stimuli. We presumed that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba affect the formation of kindling epilepsy. Bioelectric activity of the brain was registered throughout the development of kindling with and without standardized extracts from dried ginkgo leaves (EGb 761. For each animal the following has been determined: the values of the minimum current strength necessary for the origination of threshold after-discharge (AD – discharges appearing after the cessation of stimulation; duration of the threshold AD; number of stimulations necessary for the origination of full kindling; time latency for the development of full kindling; number of spontaneous epileptogenic discharges manifested in EEG two days following the formation of full kindling during 60-minute registration. The results show that the process of epileptogenesis was influenced by EGb 761. It has been established that if the animals received EGb 761, significantly weaker minimum current strength was necessary for the development of the epileptogenic focus and the AD were longer, while the number of necessary electrostimulations for the appearance of full kindling was less and the latency was shorter.

  5. Interaction between ticlopidine or warfarin or cardioaspirin with a highly standardized deterpened Ginkgo biloba extract (VR456) in rat and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Rinaldi, Francesco; Lucarelli, Maurizio; Rossoni, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Ginkgo biloba is available in Europe as an over-the-counter drug and it is reported to cause hemorrhage when co-administered with other anti-platelet agents. We set out to study the interactions of ticlopidine with Ginkgo biloba extract or VR456, a new highly standardized deterpened extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Male Wistar rats were used to study the effects of ticlopidine (50-100 mg/kg/day), given alone and in combination for 5 days with Ginkgo biloba extract (50 mg/kg/day) or VR456 (50 mg/kg/day), on bleeding time and ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation measurements. In addition, human studies were performed with the compounds under investigation. Combined treatment of ticlopidine and undeterpened Ginkgo biloba extract increased anti-platelet effect and prolonged the bleeding time in the rat. On the contrary, the combination treatment of ticlopidine and VR456 increased anti-platelet effect but did not prolong bleeding time. Moreover, daily administration of 360 mg of VR456 for 14 days to ticlopidine-treated humans did not highlight any unwanted effect and did not alter PT/INR and PTT parameters. Same results have been also obtained in warfarin or in cardioaspirin-treated patients. These data point out the clear role played by the terpenoid, PAF-antagonist fraction of Ginkgo biloba extract in affecting bleeding risk in anticoagulant-treated subjects and suggest VR456 as a possible option treatment in geriatric people subjected to anticoagulant treatment where the use of standard Ginkgo biloba extracts are discouraged.

  6. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on model rats of brain dysfunction induced by aluminum salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-haiGONG; QinWU; Dan-liYANG; Xie-nanHUANG; An-shengSUN; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) on the learning and memory in brain dysfunction model induced by aluminum salt in rats, and to investigate potential mechanisms. METHODS: Wistar rats were given daily aluminum chloride 500 mg·kg·d-1 ig, for one month, followed by continuous exposure via the drinking water containing 1600 ppm

  7. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the phytoterapic most used in popular medicine in the treatment of cerebral senescence. Red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m is used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. This labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually the stannous ion. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical. We have evaluated the influence of the Ginkgo biloba extract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. Blood was withdrawn and incubated with Ginkgo biloba extract (0; 0.004; 0.04; 0.4; 4; 20 and 40 mg/ml. Stannous chloride (1.2 ml/ml was added and, then, Tc-99m was added. Plasma (P and blood cells (RBC were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF and insoluble fractions (IF separated. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in the radioactivity (from 97.7 ± 0.7 to 49.5 ± 3.9% in RBC with the drug (4 mg/ml. In the labeling process of RBC with Tc-99m, the stannous and pertechnetate ions pass though the membrane, so, we suggest that the Ginkgo biloba effect can be explained by (i an inhibition of the transport of these ions, (ii damage in membrane, (iii competition with the cited ions for the same binding sites, or (iv possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion.

  8. Advances in Culture of Ginkgo biloba for Blades%银杏叶用栽培进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 程水源

    2000-01-01

    综述了国内外银杏(Ginkgo biloba L)叶用栽培的现状,包括叶活性有效成分、市场前景、栽培史、品种选育、栽培技术、采收、贮存等方面,同时对我国今后银杏叶用栽培的发展提出了几点建议.

  9. Reversal effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts in multidrug resistance of mice S180 tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bi-Yuan; Gu, Yun-Hao; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Jun; Han, Dong-Dong; Tang, Ying-Chao; Chen, Hua-Sheng; Xu, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reversal effect and its related mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts (GBEEs) in obtained multidrug resistance (MDR) of mice S180 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to simulate the clinical PFC [cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum, cisplatin (DDP) + fluorouracil (FU), FU+cyclophosphamide and cyclophosphamide] scheme, a gradually increasing dose was administered in a phased induction in order to induce S180 cells in vivo and to make the...

  10. Synergistic effects of green tea and ginkgo biloba extracts on the improvement of skin barrier function and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Patricia M B G Maia; Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Gaspar, Lorena R

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing green tea (GT) and/or Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts by preclinical and clinical studies. For the preclinical study, histological analysis was performed after 5 day-period of formulations application on the dorsum of hairless mice. For the clinical study, the formulations were applied on the forearm skin of 48 volunteers, and assessed before and after 3 hours and after a 15 and 30 day-period of application. Histological analysis showed that the formulation with GT (FGT) and the association of GT and GB (FBlend) significantly enhanced viable epidermis thickness and the number of cell layers, suggesting a moisturizing effect in skin deeper layers and increased cell renewal. The clinical efficacy studies showed that the extracts had a moisturizing effect and improved skin microrelief. In addition they synergistically acted on the skin elasticity and skin barrier function. In conclusion, the formulation containing a combination of green tea and Ginkgo biloba extracts effectively improved skin conditions and the effect of formulation FBlend on the improvement of skin elasticity was more pronounced. Finally, the results of the present study revealed other important clinical benefits of Ginkgo biloba and green tea extracts on the skin besides their already known antioxidant action.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Tonus of the Small Intestine and the Colon of Rabbits

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    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity. They also tend to increase the dosage by themselves and this may result in certain insufficiently researched acute effects. Due to this extremely widespread application, the aim of this work is an examination of the possible acute effects of Ginkgo bilobaon the motility of the small and the large intestine of rabbits. Тhe effects of Gingium® - a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE [one milliliter preparation contained 8.8–10.8 mg ginkgo flavonol glycoside and 2.0–2.8 mg lactone ring-containing terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides], on the tonus of isolated segments of the ileum and the colon of rabbits were examined. The experiments were carried out on isolated bowel incisions according to the Magnus method. Data was registered by physiography (Narco-Bio-System. Our results show that GBE (0.006 g/L, - 0.06 g/L concentration-dependently reduces the tonus of the ileum and the colon of rabbits. Apart from that, GBE reduces the increase of the tonus of the ileum caused by acetylcholine (ACh, but does not change colon tonus intensified by ACh. This indicates that the effects of the used extract in the ileum are predominantly achieved through cholinergic mechanisms, while the relaxant effects in the colon are achieved in some other way.

  12. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  13. The protective effect of two commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava juice (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Vázquez-Luna, A; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; Mérida-Portilla, C V; Díaz-Sobac, R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of 2 commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice consumption in male Wistar rats. The effects were evaluated with the open field and swim tests at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment, one hour after administering the product. Compared to controls, open field crossings increased after day 21 of cassava juice consumption, and lateral swimming in the swim test was reported after day 7. Ginkgo biloba extracts prevented motor alterations associated with cassava juice consumption, probably due to the flavonoid content in both formats of Ginkgo biloba. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. 银杏叶黄酮的乙醇提取方法研究%Studies on the alcohol extracting technology of flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田呈瑞; 李昀

    2001-01-01

    The proper season for collecting Ginkgo biloba L.leaves,the alcohol extracting technology of flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L.leaves were studied in this paper.The main results show:Through determining the total flavonoids in the Ginkgo biloba L.leaves from April to December,it was found that Ginkgo biloba L.leaves should be collected from August to September;The optimum extracting technology of flavonodis in Ginkgo biloba L.leaves was investigated by using the factorial and orthogonal design.The results showed that particles being 50~60 meshes,80℃,6∶1 of 70% alcohol to Ginkgo biloba L.leaves weight ratio,extraction for 2 times and 1 h for each time were optimal.The flavonids extraction rate was as high as 87.6%.%研究了银杏叶总黄酮含量的季节性变化规律及利用乙醇提取银杏叶黄酮的方法,结果表明:根据银杏叶在一年生长期间总黄酮含量确定银杏叶最佳采收时间为8~9月份;通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定乙醇提取银杏叶总黄酮的最佳条件为:银杏叶粉碎至50~60目,以70%乙醇按照液固比6∶1的比例,于80℃条件下提取2次,每次1h,银杏叶总黄酮提取率可达87.6%。

  15. Adição de extratos de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng em néctares mistos de frutas tropicais Addition of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts to mixed tropical fruit nectars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Machado de Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou desenvolver formulações de néctares mistos de frutas tropicais, acrescidos de diferentes concentrações de extratos de Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng e misturas de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng, avaliar características sensoriais, físico-químicas e químicas dos néctares selecionados. As formulações dos néctares tiveram a seguinte composição de polpa: caju (Anacardium occidentale, 12,25%; manga (Mangifera indica L, 21%; e acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C., 1,75%. Foram desenvolvidas diferentes formulações, com a adição dos extratos nas concentrações variando de 15 a 30 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar. A avaliação sensorial da impressão global, sabor e aroma foi feita por meio de teste de aceitação. Para as bebidas formuladas com Panax ginseng, somente o atributo sabor apresentou variação com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para as bebidas acrescidas de Ginkgo biloba, observou-se um decréscimo linear para todos os atributos avaliados com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para a mistura de extratos, não se observou variação das médias com o aumento da concentração dos extratos. Conclui-se que a adição de extrato de Panax ginseng até a concentração de 20 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar e a mistura dos extratos, em concentrações de 7,5 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar de cada extrato, apresentam boa aceitação sensorial. A adição dos extratos não afetou a composição química dos néctares que apresentaram quantidades elevadas de vitamina C, carotenoides, fenólicos totais e antocianinas.The objectives of this study were to develop formulations of mixed nectars of tropical fruits adding different concentrations of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and a mixture of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts and to assess sensory, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of selected nectars. The nectar formulations had the following pulp composition: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, 12.25%, mango

  16. Antibacterial/antifungal activity and synergistic interactions between polyprenols and other lipids isolated from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Kong, Zhen-Wu

    2013-02-07

    Polyprenols separated from lipids are promising new components from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBL). In this paper, ginkgo lipids were isolated by extraction with petroleum ether, saponification, and molecular distillation. Eight known compounds: isophytol (1), nerolidol (2), linalool (3), β-sitosterol acetate (4), β-sitosterol (5), stigmasterol (6), ergosterol (7), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) and Ginkgo biloba polyprenols (GBP) were separated from GBL by chromatography and identified mainly by NMR. The separated and identified compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time in GBL. The 3D-DAD-HPLC-chromatogram (190-232 nm) of GBP was recorded. This study provides new evidence as there are no previous reports on antibacterial/antifungal activities and synergistic interactions between GBP and the compounds separated from GBL lipids against Salmonella enterica, Staphylocococus aureus and Aspergillus niger. Nerolidol (2) showed the highest activity among all the tested samples and of all mixture groups tested the GBP with isophytol (1) mixture had the strongest synergistic effect against Salmonella enterica among the three tested strains. A proportion of isophytol and GBP of 38.19%:61.81% (wt/wt) was determined by mixture design as the optimal proportion for the synergistic effect of GBP with isophytol against Salmonella enterica.

  17. Antibacterial/Antifungal Activity and Synergistic Interactions between Polyprenols and Other Lipids Isolated from Ginkgo Biloba L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Tao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenols separated from lipids are promising new components from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBL. In this paper, ginkgo lipids were isolated by extraction with petroleum ether, saponification, and molecular distillation. Eight known compounds: isophytol (1, nerolidol (2, linalool (3, β-sitosterol acetate (4, β-sitosterol (5, stigmasterol (6, ergosterol (7, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 and Ginkgo biloba polyprenols (GBP were separated from GBL by chromatography and identified mainly by NMR. The separated and identified compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time in GBL. The 3D-DAD-HPLC-chromatogram (190–232 nm of GBP was recorded. This study provides new evidence as there are no previous reports on antibacterial/antifungal activities and synergistic interactions between GBP and the compounds separated from GBL lipids against Salmonella enterica, Staphylocococus aureus and Aspergillus niger. Nerolidol (2 showed the highest activity among all the tested samples and of all mixture groups tested the GBP with isophytol (1 mixture had the strongest synergistic effect against Salmonella enterica among the three tested strains. A proportion of isophytol and GBP of 38.19%:61.81% (wt/wt was determined by mixture design as the optimal proportion for the synergistic effect of GBP with isophytol against Salmonella enterica.

  18. Permian ginkgophyte fossils from the Dolomites resemble extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaf-like fructifications of Ginkgo biloba L

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    Kustatscher Evelyn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural elucidation and analysis of fructifications of plants is fundamental for understanding their evolution. In case of Ginkgo biloba, attention was drawn by Fujii in 1896 to aberrant fructifications of Ginkgo biloba whose seeds are attached to leaves, called O-ha-tsuki in Japan. This well-known phenomenon was now interpreted by Fujii as being homologous to ancestral sporophylls. The common fructification of Ginkgo biloba consists of 1-2 (rarely more ovules on a dichotomously divided stalk, the ovules on top of short stalklets, with collars supporting the ovules. There is essentially no disagreement that either the whole stalk with its stalklets, collars and ovules is homologous to a sporophyll, or, alternatively, just one stalklet, collar and ovule each correspond to a sporophyll. For the transition of an ancestral sporophyll resembling extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaves into the common fructification with stalklet/collar/ovule, evolutionary reduction of the leaf lamina of such ancestral sporophylls has to be assumed. Furthermore, such ancestral sporophylls would be expected in the fossil record of ginkgophytes. Results From the Upper Permian of the Bletterbach gorge (Dolomites, South Tyrol, Italy ginkgophyte leaves of the genus Sphenobaiera were discovered. Among several specimens, one shows putatively attached seeds, while other specimens, depending on their state of preservation, show seeds in positions strongly suggesting such attachment. Morphology and results of a cuticular analysis are in agreement with an affiliation of the fossil to the ginkgophytes and the cuticle of the seed is comparable to that of Triassic and Jurassic ones and to those of extant Ginkgo biloba. The Sphenobaiera leaves with putatively attached seeds closely resemble seed-bearing O-ha-tsuki leaves of extant Ginkgo biloba. This leads to the hypothesis that, at least for some groups of ginkgophytes represented by extant Ginkgo biloba, such

  19. Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of Ginkgo biloba Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Qin; Jin-Ao Duan; Dawei Qian; Chun Jin; Shulan Su; Sheng Guo; Yuping Tang; Erxin Shang; Guisheng Zhou; Xin Yao

    2012-01-01

    The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years) are ignored and become obsol...

  20. Fortified Extract of Red Berry, Ginkgo biloba, and White Willow Bark in Experimental Early Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Claudio Bucolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  1. Apoptosis induced by Ginkgo biloba (EGb761 in melanoma cells is Mcl-1-dependent.

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    Yufang Wang

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no chemotherapeutic agent available to significantly prolong the survival of the most patients with metastatic melanomas. Here we report that the Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761, one of the most widely sold herbal supplements in the world, potently induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells by disturbing the balance between pro- and anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 family proteins. Treatment with EGb761 induced varying degrees of apoptosis in melanoma cell lines but not in melanocytes. Induction of apoptosis was caspase-dependent and appeared to be mediated by the mitochondrial pathway, in that it was associated with reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of Bax and Bak. Although EGb761 did not cause significant change in the expression levels of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family proteins Bim, Puma, Noxa, and Bad, it significantly downregulated Mcl-1 in sensitive but not resistant melanoma cells, suggesting a major role of Mcl-1 in regulating apoptosis of melanoma cells induced by EGb761. Indeed, siRNA knockdown of Mcl-1 enhanced EGb761-induced apoptosis, which was associated with increased activation of Bax and Bak. Taken together, these results demonstrate that EGb761 kills melanoma cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and that Mcl-1 is a major regulator of sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by EGb761. Therefore, EGb761 with or without in combination with targeting Mcl-1 may be a useful strategy in the treatment of melanoma.

  2. Protective Effect of Standardized Extract of Ginkgo biloba against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

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    Jie Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CDDP is a potent antitumor compound widely used with a notably side effect of nephrotoxicity inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidneys. Standardized extract from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba trees, labeled EGb761 (EGb, has been available on the market for its beneficial effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of EGb to prevent the nephrotoxic effect of CDDP and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that EGb treatment restored the levels of creatinine, BUN, MDA, NO, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSSG/GSH ratio in kidneys after CDDP injection. EGb also exhibited a tendency to decrease the elevated NF-κB translocation and caspase-3 protein levels in CDDP-treated kidneys. We further used a porcine kidney proximal tubular epithelial (LLC-PK1 cell line, finding that EGb accordingly inhibited ROS accumulation and iNOS increase induced by CDDP in vitro. EGb also attenuated IκB degradation and p65 NF-κB phosphorylation triggered by CDDP in LLC-PK1 cells. But EGb failed to influence CDDP-stimulated caspase cascade. These findings suggested that EGb’s renoprotective effect might be mediated by not only its well-known antioxidant activity but also the anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. A ginkgo biloba extract promotes proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in vascular dementia rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiwei Wang; Wen Chen; Yuliang Wang

    2013-01-01

    The ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 improves memory loss and cognitive impairments in patients with senile dementia. It also promotes proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone in Parkinson's disease model mice and in the hippocampal zone of young epileptic rats. However, it remains unclear whether EGb761 enhances proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in the brain of rats with vascular dementia. In this study, a vascular dementia model was established by repeatedly clipping and reperfusing the bilateral common carotid arteries of rats in combination with an intraperitoneal injection of a sodium nitroprusside solution. Seven days after establishing the model, rats were intragastrically given EGb761 at 50 mg/kg per day. Learning and memory abilities were assessed using the Morris water maze and proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus were labeled by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence in all rats at 15 days, and 1, 2, and 4 months after model establishment. The escape latencies in Morris water maze tests of rats with vascular dementia after EGb761 treatment were significantly shorter than the model group. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the number and proliferation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of the EGb761-treated group were significantly higher than in the model group. These experimental findings suggest that EGb761 enhances proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and significantly improves learning and memory in rats with vascular dementia.

  4. Ginkgo biloba extract suppresses hypertrophy and extracellular matrix accumulation in rat mesangial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-yun WANG; Xiao-xing YIN; Yun-ming WU; Dao-quan TANG; Yuan-yuan GAO; Mei-rong WAN; Xiao-yu HOU; Bei ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To observe the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) on the hypertrophy of mesangial cells and the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in mesangial cells. Methods: Cultured mesangial cells were allotted into 7 groups: normal group, solvent control group, high glucose group, low dose of EGb group, moderate dose of EGb group, high dose of EGb group, and captopril group. Activities of cell antioxidases, S phase percentage and G0/G1 phase percentage, collagen Ⅳ and laminin, Smad2/3 and Smad7, TGF-β1, Mrna were measured by different methods. Results: For EGb-treated groups, when compared with high glucose group, the cell percentage of S phase was raised and the percentage of G0/G1 was lowered. The intensity of oxidative stress was weakened. The expression of Smad2/3 was greatly decreased and Smad7 was increased. Collagen Ⅳ, laminin and TGF-β1 Mrna were also reduced. Conclusion: EGb can suppress cell hypertrophy and the accumulation of ECM in rat mesangial cells, which means it could play a vital role in the delay of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on prevention of development of experimental diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian LU; Xiao-xing YIN; Jian-yun WANG; Yuan-yuan GAO; Ying-mei PAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To observe the preventive and therapeutic effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on early experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats.Methods: After an early DN model was induced by streptozotocin, rats were administered GbE at 3 doses for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urine protein, kidney index, anti-oxidase, advanced glycosylation end prod- ucts (AGE), collagen Ⅳ and laminin, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and transforming growth factor-[β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA were measured by different methods. The ultrastructural morphology and the thickness of glomeru- lar base membrane (GBM) were observed by a transmission electron microscope.Results: For the GbE-treated DN rats, when compared with the vehicle-treated DN rats, the fasting blood glucose level, Cr, BUN, urine protein level, and the intensity of oxidative stress were significantly decreased. The expression of MMP-2 greatly increased, and TIMP-2 decreased. Also, AGE, either in serum or in renal,the collagen IV, laminin, CTGF levels, and TGF-β1 mRNA were reduced. Furthermore, both relative grades of mesangium hyperplasia by microscopical observation and the thickness of GBM by electron microscope measurement de-creased significantly.Conclusion: GbE has protective effects on several pharma-cological targets in the progress of DN and is a potential drug for the prevention of early DN.

  6. An antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba binds actin and can trigger cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ningning; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Mühlhäuser, Philipp; Liu, Qiong; Riemann, Michael; Ulrich, Anne S; Nick, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Ginkbilobin is a short antifungal protein that had been purified and cloned from the seeds of the living fossil Ginkgo biloba. Homologues of this protein can be detected in all seed plants and the heterosporic fern Selaginella and are conserved with respect to domain structures, peptide motifs, and specific cysteine signatures. To get insight into the cellular functions of these conserved motifs, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusions of full-length and truncated ginkbilobin in tobacco BY-2 cells. We show that the signal peptide confers efficient secretion of ginkbilobin. When this signal peptide is either cleaved or masked, ginkbilobin binds and visualizes the actin cytoskeleton. This actin-binding activity of ginkbilobin is mediated by a specific subdomain just downstream of the signal peptide, and this subdomain can also coassemble with actin in vitro. Upon stable overexpression of this domain, we observe a specific delay in premitotic nuclear positioning indicative of a reduced dynamicity of actin. To elucidate the cellular response to the binding of this subdomain to actin, we use chemical engineering based on synthetic peptides comprising different parts of the actin-binding subdomain conjugated with the cell-penetrating peptide BP100 and with rhodamine B as a fluorescent reporter. Binding of this synthetic construct to actin efficiently induces programmed cell death. We discuss these findings in terms of a working model, where ginkbilobin can activate actin-dependent cell death.

  7. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF GINKGO BILOBA IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH CONTROLLED ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND CIRCULATORY ENCEPHALOPATHY

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    V. V. Jakusevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of Ginkgo biloba based drug (Memoplant, Dr Willar Schwabe, Germany on haemorheological and clinical status in elderly patients with circulatory encephalopathy and controlled arterial hypertension.Material and methods. 80 patients (>60 y.o. were involved in the study. Patients were randomized (3:1 on Memoplant (240 mg/daily treatment group and control group. Duration of observation was 16 weeks. The changes of neurological complaints, neuropsychological and life quality test results were estimated during the study. The rheological indicators (blood, plasma and erythrocyte suspension viscosity; aggregative activity and plasticity of erythrocytes also were studied.Results. Reduction (by 50-90% of neurological complaints (headache, giddiness, tinnitus, unsteadiness walking were founded in patients receiving Memoplant. Cognitive abilities according to mental status scale, frontal tests battery, 5 words test, watch drawing test and quality of a life according to QOLI-NS scale improved in patients treated with Memoplant. Decrease of blood viscosity (by 19,3%, р<0,01 , erythrocytes rigidity index (by 15,6%, р<0,05 and erythrocyte aggregation (degree of aggregation by 45,6%; average aggregate size by 25,9%, р<0,05 > <0,05 was observed. Tissue oxygen supply was increased by 23,3% (р<0,05 in comparison with initial state. Changes of haemorheological indicators were not founded in control group.Conclusion. Memoplant increases brain oxygenation due to improvement of microcirculatory blood flow.

  8. Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba Enhance Antibacterial Activity of Five Classes of Antibiotics

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    Ran Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenol (GBP from Ginkgo biloba Leaves (GBL is an important lipid with many bioactive effects. The effect of GBP on antibacterial properties of five antibiotics belonging to different classes was through analysis of inhibition halos, MIC, and FIC index. And we studied the time-killing curves and Ca2+ mobilization assay in Staphylococcus aureus cells treated with GBP microemulsion and gentamicin sulfate under MIC/2 conditions. These results showed that the GBP microemulsion (average diameter 90.2 nm combining with gentamicin sulfate had the highest enhancing antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, and the MIC value was 33.0 μg/mL. The increase of the antibacterial effect of tested antibiotics was positively correlated with the decrease of the average diameter of GBP microemulsion. Moreover, GBP microemulsion enhanced antibacterial effect and prolonged antibacterial time of GBP combining with gentamicin sulfate against Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could enhance the ability of gentamicin inducing an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations to Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could help some classes of antibiotics to inhibit or kill bacteria. This study supports the fact that GBP microemulsion obviously can not only reduce the dosage of some classes of antibiotics, but also reduce the frequency of the antibiotic use in vitro.

  9. The Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 Modulates Proteasome Activity and Polyglutamine Protein Aggregation

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    Marcel Stark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has well-described antioxidative activities and effects on different cytoprotective signaling pathways. Consequently, a potential use of EGb 761 in neurodegenerative diseases has been proposed. A common characteristic feature of a variety of such disorders is the pathologic formation of protein aggregates, suggesting a crucial role for protein homeostasis. In this study, we show that EGb 761 increased the catalytic activity of the proteasome and enhanced protein degradation in cultured cells. We further investigated this effect in a cellular model of Huntington’s disease (HD by employing cells expressing pathologic variants of a polyglutamine protein (polyQ protein. We show that EGb 761 affected these cells by (i increasing proteasome activity and (ii inducing a more efficient degradation of aggregation-prone proteins. These results demonstrate a novel activity of EGb 761 on protein aggregates by enhancing proteasomal protein degradation, suggesting a therapeutic use in neurodegenerative disorders with a disturbed protein homeostasis.

  10. An Overview of Systematic Reviews of Ginkgo biloba Extracts for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Huang, Li-Bo; Zhong, Yan-Biao; Zhou, Qi-Hui; Wang, Hui-Lin; Zheng, Guo-Qing; Lin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBEs) have been recommended to improve cognitive function and to prevent cognitive decline, but earlier evidence was inconclusive. Here, we evaluated all systematic reviews of GBEs for prevention of cognitive decline, and intervention of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases from their inception to September 2015 were searched. Ten systematic reviews were identified, including reviews about Alzheimer's disease (n = 3), about vascular dementia (n = 1), about both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia (n = 2), about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia (n = 3), and a review about MCI (n = 1). Based on the overview quality assessment questionnaire, eight studies were scored with at least 5 points, while the other two scored 4 points and 3 points, respectively. Medication with GBEs showed improvement in cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and daily activities, and the effect was dose-dependent. Efficacy was convincingly demonstrated only when high daily dose (240 mg) was applied. Compared with placebo, overall adverse events and serious adverse events were at the same level as placebo, with less adverse events in favor of GBE in the subgroup of Alzheimer's disease patients, and fewer incidences in vertigo, tinnitus, angina pectoris, and headache. In conclusion, there is clear evidence to support the efficacy of GBEs for MCI and dementia, whereas the question on efficacy to prevent cognitive decline is still open. In addition, GBEs seem to be generally safe. PMID:27999539

  11. Electrocardiographic profile of guinea pig heart submitted to Ginkgo biloba extract and its terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.O. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiographic effects produced by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb and by ginkgolides A (GA and B (GB, and bilobalide (BB were investigated in guinea pig heart mounted in Langendorff apparatus (Tyrode, 34 ± 0.1 ºC, 95% O2, 5% CO2. Electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated in the conditions: 1 control with Tyrode and DMSO, 2 EGb (n=4, GA (n=5, GB (n=5 or BB (n=6, and 3 washout. The results showed that 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml of EGb do not change the electrocardiographic parameters. However, 10 mg/ml of EGb increased the PR interval (PRi at 21% (p<0.001. This increase was also observed for 50 mM GA (20%, p<0.001 and 70 mM BB (13%, p<0.001, which indicates Ca2+ channel block. However, the 50 mM GB reduced the PRi at 11 % (p<0.001. The GA (23%, p<0.001, GB (16%, p<0.001, and BB (40%, p<0.001 reduced the QT interval (QTi, which suggests the activation of the potassium channel. However, EGb increased QTi (6%, p<0.001. The EGb (28%, p<0.05 and GB (13%, p<0.05 reduced the heart rate. Atrioventricular (AV block was observed with EGb, GA, and BB. We can conclude that EGb and its terpenoids alter the ECG parameters inducing AV block, which indicates possible arrhythmogenic potential.

  12. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Adulteration Determining of Pharmaceutical Forms of Ginkgo biloba Extracts from Different International Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ömür Demirezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ginkgo biloba products used for the same purpose, but licensed to varying authorities were analyzed in point of similarity to each other. A group of these products were licensed from health authorities as herbal medicinal product (HMP, while the other groups of products were licensed as the food supplement (FS. The evaluation of their phytoequivalence was carried out comparing the chromatographic fingerprint profiles. Furthermore, ginkgolides (ginkgolides GA, GB, GC, and GJ and flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were quantitatively analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS and HPLC-diode Array detector (HPLC-DAD assays. All six herbal medicinal products and two food supplements were found to be phytoequivalent to each other, but five of the seven food supplements did not possess similar content as herbal medicinal products, and the quantity of ginkgolides and flavonoid aglycones per tablet/capsule was found to be lower than declared on the labels. In addition, food supplements were found to be adultered with rutin to reach expected total flavonoid glycosides amount.

  14. Essential role of constitutive androstane receptor in Ginkgo biloba extract induced liver hypertrophy and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Jun; Inoue, Kaoru; Ichimura, Ryohei; Takahashi, Miwa; Kodama, Yukio; Saito, Naoaki; Yoshida, Midori

    2015-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is commonly used as a herbal supplement. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) study of GBE reported clear evidence of hepatocarcinogenicity in mice. To clarify the mode of action (MOA) for hepatocarcinogenesis by GBE, we investigated the involvement of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by GBE using CAR-knockout (CARKO) and wild type (WT) mice. We used the same lot of GBE that was used for the NTP study. In 1-week GBE dietary treatment, hepatocellular DNA replication was increased in WT mice but not in CARKO mice. In 4- or 13-week treatment, greater hepatic Cyp2b10 induction and hepatocellular hypertrophy were observed in WT mice, whereas these effects of GBE were much smaller in CARKO mice. In a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model initiated by diethylnitrosamine, 27-week treatment with GBE resulted in an increase of eosinophilic altered foci and adenomas in WT mice. By contrast, foci and adenomas were clearly less evident in CARKO mice. These results indicate that GBE-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is mainly CAR-mediated. Since CAR-mediated MOA for hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents is considered to be qualitatively implausible for humans, our findings would be helpful to evaluate the carcinogenic characterization of GBE to humans.

  15. Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba Enhance Antibacterial Activity of Five Classes of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Polyprenol (GBP) from Ginkgo biloba Leaves (GBL) is an important lipid with many bioactive effects. The effect of GBP on antibacterial properties of five antibiotics belonging to different classes was through analysis of inhibition halos, MIC, and FIC index. And we studied the time-killing curves and Ca2+ mobilization assay in Staphylococcus aureus cells treated with GBP microemulsion and gentamicin sulfate under MIC/2 conditions. These results showed that the GBP microemulsion (average diameter 90.2 nm) combining with gentamicin sulfate had the highest enhancing antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, and the MIC value was 33.0 μg/mL. The increase of the antibacterial effect of tested antibiotics was positively correlated with the decrease of the average diameter of GBP microemulsion. Moreover, GBP microemulsion enhanced antibacterial effect and prolonged antibacterial time of GBP combining with gentamicin sulfate against Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could enhance the ability of gentamicin inducing an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations to Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could help some classes of antibiotics to inhibit or kill bacteria. This study supports the fact that GBP microemulsion obviously can not only reduce the dosage of some classes of antibiotics, but also reduce the frequency of the antibiotic use in vitro. PMID:27642597

  16. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf polysaccharide on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengui; Fan, Ruifeng; Yin, Shaojie; Zhao, Xiaona; Liu, Jianzhu; Li, Liuhui; Zhang, Wenqi; Ge, Lijiang

    2015-09-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide fraction extracted from the leaf of Ginkgo biloba was named GBLP. The protective effect of GBLP on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was observed and underlying mechanism was explored. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely, normal control group, model control group and GBLP groups (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/d). A rat model of NAFLD was established in male Wistar rats by feeding with high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. On day 57, the intragastric administration of GBLP started once daily for 4 weeks. The results showed that GBLP supplementation significantly and dose-dependently lowered the weight gain of body, liver index and serum lipid parameters in HFD-fed rat. Meanwhile, GBLP attenuated HFD-induced liver injury through reducing hepatic steatosis, TG accumulation, serum ALT, AST and ALP levels. GBLP had a positive effect on obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) via reducing serum glucose and insulin levels. Furthermore, GBLP enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced MDA levels in serum and liver. These results indicate that GBLP can play a certain protective role against HFD-induced NAFLD, and the protective effects may be associated with attenuating IR, preserving liver function, enhancing antioxidant defense system, and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  17. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daye Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats, which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.

  18. Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Clopidogrel in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ying; Mo, Yu-Fei; Chen, Xin-Meng; Zhang, Lv-Zhao; Liao, Chao-Feng; Song, Yu; Xu, Chenshu

    2016-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), a traditional herbal product used worldwide as both medicine and supplement, is often supplied with clopidogrel for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of GBE on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel. The in vitro study using rat liver microsomes revealed that GBE significantly induced the conversion of clopidogrel into its active metabolite. The effect of GBE on the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel was also investigated in vivo. Compared to rats without GBE pretreatment, administration of 4 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg of GBE significantly decreased the Cmax and the AUC0-∞ of clopidogrel in a dose-dependent manner. As expected, pretreatment of high dose GBE significantly increased the Cmax and AUC0-∞ of the clopidogrel active metabolite. However, no marked change was observed following medium and low dose of GBE, suggesting that the biotransformation of clopidogrel was altered differently by high dose of GBE. Our study suggested that the awareness of the potential herb-drug interactions between GBE and clopidogrel should be increased in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effects of Withania somnifera and Ginkgo biloba on Neural Regeneration using Planarian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, M.; Brinker, R.

    2016-12-01

    Elderly populations and associated age-related diseases, including damaged peripheral and central neural systems, are increasing. Both systems are vital, and methods to sustain function are sought. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether Withania somnifera (WS) and Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts are conducive to planarian regeneration. After acclimation, brown planaria were cut across lateral nerve cord. Experimental groups were treated with 100μg WS or GB extract. Planarian length was measured and piece tested for negative phototaxis. In phototactic test, planaria were allowed 30 seconds to cross petri dish and stay under dark side. A positive response signified photoreceptor presence, indicating regeneration. Both GB and WS groups expressed more favorable cumulative regeneration rates than control group (97.31%, 71.44%, and 40.60% respectively). The null hypothesis (identical regeneration rates) was rejected (p-value ≈ 0.0375). Because phototactic data wasn't taken on days 4 and 5, there was no significant difference in average day of first phototactic response. Most WS and GB planaria first responded on day 6, suggesting that, had data been taken on days 4 and 5, both plant-treated groups would have exhibited even sooner responses than control. Future studies include quantifying regeneration via planarian locomotive velocity (pLMV) and other stereotypical responses.

  20. Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction and suppresses the inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases, nuclear factor‑κB and B‑cell lymphoma 2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Zhang, Ya; Wen, Min; Zhang, Ju; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yuan; Deng, Jiagang

    2017-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a plant known from the Mesozoic and has been regarded as one of the first to be used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The plant extract has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. The Ginkgo biloba leaf contains flavones and diterpenes. In addition, Ginkgo biloba performs certain pharmacologic actions, including antioxidant and anti‑aging activities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited infarct size, increased serum histamine levels and weakened creatine kinase (CK)‑MB activity in AMI mice. Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited serum interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β levels, and caspase‑3/9 activity. In addition, it suppressed matrix metallopeptidase‑9, transforming growth factor‑β, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB protein expression, and promoted B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) protein expression in AMI mice. The results of in vivo assays demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract prevents AMI and suppresses inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 MAPK, NF‑κB and Bcl‑2 signaling pathways.

  1. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase, Bcl-2, and Bax expression in rat models of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiejun Jiao; Bin Du

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba leaf extract exhibits neuroprotective effects in spinal cord injury. However,the mechanisms of action remain unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Bcl-2/Bax expression in the injured spinal cord, and to explore the neuroprotective mechanisms of ginkgo biloba leaf extract in rats with spinal cord injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, controlled, cell molecular biology experiment was performed at Soochow University, China from March 2007 to March 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult Sprague Dawley rats were selected for this study. Rat models of moderate acute thoracic (T9) spinal cord injury were established using the modified Allen method.Shuxuening injection was obtained from Zhenbaodao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., China. Methylprednisolone was purchased from North China Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.METHODS: All rats were equally and randomly divided into four groups. Only the spinal cord was exposed in the sham operation group rats. In the trauma group, rats were not treated with drugs following spinal cord injury. Rats in the hormone group were intraperitoneally injected with 30 mg/kg methylprcdnisolone following spinal cord injury. Rats in the ginkgo biloba leaf extract group were intraperitoneally infused with a 1.0 mL/kg Shuxuening injection per day.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At l hour, as well as 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after spinal cord injury,iNOS- and Bcl-2/Bax-positive cells were quantified with immunohistochemistry. Pathological changes were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining under an optical microscope.RESULTS: Spinal cord injury in the ginkgo biloba leaf extract and hormone groups was milder compared with the trauma group. Demyelination was significantly ameliorated and the necrotic cavity was obviously reduced in the injured spinal cord of rats in the ginkgo biloba leaf extract and hormone groups at each time point, iNOS expression was increased in the injured spinal cord

  2. In vitro larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi and antioxidative enzyme activities of Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaudiana and Parthenium hysterophorous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Bilal H Abbasi; Mazhar Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro larvicidal and antioxidant enzymes potential of the medicinal plants Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba), Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) and Parthenium hysterophorous (P. hysterophorous) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) 4th instars larvae. Methods:For evaluation of larvicidal potential, the ethanolic, methanolic and dichloromethane leaves extracts of three different plants were used in dose-dependent experiments in two media, while the antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated using four different methods viz., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate and catalase. Results:An. stephensi has developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. The comparative performance of ethanolic extracts (65%-90%) was found better than the methanolic extract (70%-87%) and dichloromethane extract (60%-70%). Among the three plants extracts tested in two media, S. rebaudiana exhibited higher larvicidal activity with LC50 (24 h) in methanolic extract than P. hysterophorous and G. biloba. G. biloba and P. hysterophorous exhibited the strongest antioxidative enzymes activity and S. rebaudiana were less active and no significant difference was observed. Conclusions:These three plants exhibit larvicidal potential and can be further used for vector control alternative to synthetic insecticide due to eco-friendly and diseases control, furthermore these plant species have potent antioxidative enzyme activities, therefore, making them strong natural candidate particularly for diseases which are caused due to free radicals.

  3. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  4. Combined lowering of low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients treated with Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, G; Ermilov, E; Knes, O; Rodríguez, M

    2014-12-01

    In a clinical pilot study with eleven metabolic syndrome patients, a simultaneous decrease in hs-CRP from 8.85 ± 4.09 to 4.92 ± 2.51 mg/L (-44.4%) (p Ginkgo biloba. Furthermore, both IL-6 (-12.9%, p < 0.0407) and nanoplaque formation (-14.3%, p < 0.0077) were additionally reduced. According to a large clinical trial elucidating the importance of insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality risk, these data might indicate a CVD/total mortality risk reduction.

  5. Cross matching observations on toxicological and clinical data for the assessment of tolerability and safety of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Gaus, Wilhelm

    2015-01-02

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in Europe and the US. It may be purchased in different types of formulations, but most of the clinical studies have been performed with the controlled G. biloba extract EGb761(®). Indications include Alzheimers disease, cardiovascular disease, dementia, memory loss, and cerebral ischemia. The pharmacological modes of action cover antioxidant effects, radical scavenging, inhibition of platelet activating factor, alterations in membrane fluidity (signal transduction), and inhibition of glucocorticoid synthesis. Due to the widespread and long-term use of G. biloba - about a million doses of EGb761(®) are sold per day - tolerability and safety are a crucial issue. Based on broad and long-term clinical use of G. biloba extracts, it is regarded as well tolerated in man. Cross matching, a tool we introduced, combines different fields of knowledge and types of data to a consolidated result. In this article, we combine toxicological and clinical data and utilize other sources of information to assess tolerability and safety of G. biloba. It is well known that because of biological differences between animals and man or even between animal species, animal experiments do not necessarily mimic the effects in humans. Therefore, for adequate risk assessment, the relevance of non-clinical toxicological findings should be correlated with human data. The cross matching of toxicological data and results from clinical studies is possible because many toxicological and clinical studies are available on G. biloba. We give an in depth analysis of the modes of action in animals and describe toxicological studies with regard to metabolism, pharmacokinetics, genotoxicity, as well as carcinogenicity (e.g., the Technical Report TR 578 of the US National Toxicology Program). In addition, 75 clinical trials with high methodological quality are summarized. They included a total of 7115 patients treated with G. biloba. Based on this

  6. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Jong, M.C.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medicinal treatment of vasospastic Raynaud phenomenon is limited to primarily vasodilator medicines. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible beneficial effects and tolerability of 120 mg two times a day of Ginkgo Biloba special extract EGb 761 in patients suffering from Raynaud disease (RD) (

  7. High-resolution gas chromatography/mas spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high resolution GC/MS with Selected Ion Monitor (SIM) method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) meth...

  8. Investigating sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Ginkgo biloba: molecular cloning and functional characterization of (E,E)-farnesol and a-bisabolene synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and has been extensively investigated as a source of bioactive natural compounds, including flavonoids, diterpene lactones, terpenoids and polysaccharides which accumulate in leaf tissues. Relatively few genes associated with biosynthetic pathwa...

  9. Evaluation of ginkgo biloba extract on hematological changes affected with hazards of electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Baieth, H E

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to study if the GBE 761 (Ginkgo biloba leaves extract) which is beneficial in arterial disease owing to its vasodilator and blood flow acts against the hazards of exposure to electromagnetic field. Here, the GBE was used in two ways either as a protector or for treating the hazards due to exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF). For this purpose, albino rats were grouped into six groups and blood samples were collected from eye vein of the animals from all groups at the end of the experiment. This study concentrates on the cellular membrane and function of the RBCs and focuses on the rheological and physical measurements for blood and hemoglobin molecule because the RBCs membranes play an essential role in the blood flow rate. The changes in its biophysical properties of RBCs membrane will affect its capability for carrying on its metabolic functions. Furthermore, the molecular diameter of hemoglobin, its relaxation time and conductivity were calculated from the dielectric relaxation data. The results indicate that the administration of GBE led to the decrease of RBCs membrane elasticity will lead to the increase of the blood viscosity. Results suggest that GBE may be not of clinical value as anti-oxidant drug for such diseases occurred due to to EMF exposure for long time. It may be conclude that through treatment with those extract some physical measurements like "viscosity of blood, Osmotic fragility to measure the hemolysis rat of RBCs, the radius and the conductivity of hemoglobin molecule" should be considered during the time of treatment. Overall, these leaves (GBE) need more study and there is a recommendation to put the physical parameters parallel to the clinical study.

  10. Ginkgo biloba extract ameliorates oxidative phosphorylation performance and rescues abeta-induced failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Virginie; Giese, Maria; Baysang, Ginette; Meier, Fides; Rao, Stefania; Schulz, Kathrin L; Hamburger, Matthias; Eckert, Anne

    2010-08-24

    Energy deficiency and mitochondrial failure have been recognized as a prominent, early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to amyloid-beta (Abeta) in human neuroblastoma cells over-expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulted in (i) activity changes of complexes III and IV of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) and in (ii) a drop of ATP levels which may finally instigate loss of synapses and neuronal cell death in AD. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether standardized Ginkgo biloba extract LI 1370 (GBE) is able to rescue Abeta-induced defects in energy metabolism. We used a high-resolution respiratory protocol to evaluate OXPHOS respiratory capacity under physiological condition in control (stably transfected with the empty vector) and APP cells after treatment with GBE. In addition, oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria, activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as mitochondrial membrane mass and mitochondrial DNA content were determined. We observed a general antioxidant effect of GBE leading to an increase of the coupling state of mitochondria as well as energy homeostasis and a reduction of ROS levels in control cells and in APP cells. GBE effect on OXPHOS was even preserved in mitochondria after isolation from treated cells. Moreover, these functional data were paralleled by an up-regulation of mitochondrial DNA. Improvement of the OXPHOS efficiency was stronger in APP cells than in control cells. In APP cells, the GBE-induced amelioration of oxygen consumption most likely arose from the modulation and respective normalization of the Abeta-induced disturbance in the activity of mitochondrial complexes III and IV restoring impaired ATP levels possibly through decreasing Abeta and oxidative stress level. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of the mode of action of GBE remain to be

  11. Comparison of antioxidant activities between salvianolic acid B and Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761 )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-suo LIU; Yong CHENG; Jin-feng HU; Wei ZHANG; Nai-hong CHEN; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate and compare the antioxidant activities of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in aqueous solution, rat microsomes and the cellular system. Methods: Superoxide anion (O-·2) was generated using xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and phenazine methosulate/NADH system, and the effects of SalB and EGb 761 on the generation of (O-·2) were achieved by spectrophotometric measurement of the product formed on reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. Two different methods were used to assess the scavenging effects of the extracts on hydroxyl radical (·OH): HPLC method was used for quantitation of ·OH by oxy-radical trapping of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) to form DMPO-OH adducts in Fe2+-EDTA-H2O2 system. To confirm the HPLC data,·OH was also measured by spectrophotometry using a commercial detection kit. The anti-lipid peroxidation effects of the extracts in microsomes of rat brain, liver and kidney induced by ascorbate-NADPH were determined by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. The protective effects of the extracts on peroxide hydrogen (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells were investigated by assessing cell viability assay, the level of lipid peroxidation, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Results: Both SalB and EGb 761 were able to scavenge O-·2 and ·OH, inhibit lipid peroxidation of microsomes, and protect SH-SY5Y cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage. However, the concentration of SalB was far lower than that of EGb 761 when a similar effect was obtained. Conclusion: The antioxidant efficiency of SalB was greater than that of EGb 761. These results suggest that SalB, like EGb 761, has promising potential in treating oxidative damagederived neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  13. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas del Rio, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  14. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Hypoxic Fraction of C3H Mouse Fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yi, Chun Ja; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on hypoxic cell fraction and metabolic status in fibrosarcoma (FSa II) of C3H mouse. Materials and Methods : Fibrosarcoma (Fsa II), 6mm in diameter, growing in the right hind leg muscle of C3H mouse was used for estimation of hypoxic cell fraction using comparison of TCD{sub 50}. Radiation was given one hour after administration of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without priming dose of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) given 24 hours earlier. Radiation was also given under air breathing condition or clamp hypoxia without GBE as controls. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy was performed before and one hour after administration of GBE with or without priming dose of GBE. Results : TCD{sub 50/120's} were 81.7(77.7-86.0) Gy when irradiated under clamped hypoxia, 69.6 (66.8-72.5) Gy under air breathing condition,67.5(64.1-71.1) Gy with a single dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) given one hour before irradiation, and 62.2(59.1-65.5) Gy with two doses of GBE given at 25 hours and one hour before irradiation. The hypoxic cell fractions, estimated from TCD50/120's were 1.6% under air breathing condition, 7.2% after single dose of GBE, and 2.7% after two doses of GBE. Metabolic status of tumor, probably by increasing the blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in increased radiosensitivity of tumor.

  15. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on radiosensitivity of mouse skin and jejunal crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kyung Hwan; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract(GBE) is known to increase the peripheral blood circulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of GBE on the acute normal tissue radiation reaction. C3H mice were divided into two groups, radiation alone and two doses GBE plus radiation, for both acute skin reaction and jejunal crypt assay. GBE was given i.p. one hour before irradiation with priming dose given one day earlier. Thirty to Fifty Gy for acute skin reaction and 11 to 14 Gy for jejunal crypt were irradiated to right hind leg and whole body, respectively. Radiation doses(RD{sub 50}) for peak skin score of 2.0 were 44.2Gy(40.6-48.2Gy) for radiation alone and 44.4Gy(41.6-47.4Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, showing no effect of GBE on acute radiation skin damage. The numbers of regenerating jejunal crypts per circumference were also almost the same for each radiation dose level(p=0.57-0.94), and the mean lethal doses(D{sub o}) were 1.80Gy(1.57-2.09Gy) for radiation alone and 1.88Gy(1.65-2.18Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, indicating no effect of GBE on jejunal crypt cell survival after radiation. GBE doesn't increase acute normal tissue radiation reaction in this model system. As GBE was verified to enhance radiation effect on tumor, high therapeutic gain is expected when GBE is combined with radiation therapy.

  16. 银杏叶黄酮提取工艺的优化%Optimization of Extraction Process of Flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志彬; 承伟

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To optimize the extraction process of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaf, so as to provide basis for the refining of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf flavonoids. [ Method] Content of flavonoids was determined by UV spetrophotometry. By employing single factor test, effect of ethanol concentration, reflux temperature and extraction duration on yield of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaf, optimizing the extraction conditions. [ Result] The optimal extraction conditions were determined to be: extracting solvent of 70% ethanol, extraction temperature of 80 ℃, extraction duration of 3.0 h. Under the optimum extraction process, content of flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L. leaf reached 1. 520 6 mg/ml.[ Conclusion] The optimal extraction conditions were obtained in this study, which provided basis for refining of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf flavonoids.%[目的]优化银杏叶总黄酮的提取工艺,为银杏黄酮的精制提供前提条件.[方法]采用紫外分光光度法测定银杏叶中总黄酮的含量;用单因素试验考察乙醇浓度、回流温度、提取时间对银杏黄酮收率的影响,优化提取条件.[结果]银杏叶中总黄酮含量为1.502 6mg/ml;最佳提取条件:70%乙醇为提取剂,回流温度为80℃,提取时间为3.0 h.[结论]该研究得到银杏黄酮最佳的提取工艺,为银杏叶黄酮的精制提供了前提条件.

  17. 银杏花生乳的研制%Preparation of compound beverage from ginkgo biloba and peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙月娥; 金晓芳; 郑义

    2011-01-01

    The processing technology and formula of a compound healthy beverage were investigated with ginkgo biloba and peanut as main materials through the single factor test and the orthogonal test.The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of ginkgo biloba were 30min at 65℃,0.3% amount of α-amylase and 0.3% alkali protease.Ginkgo enzymatic hydrolyzate and peanut paste were compounded;adding the compound stabilizer composed of 0.04% xanthan gum,0.06% sodium alginate,0.06% agar and the compound emulsifiers composed of 0.14% poly ester,0.04% sucrose ester-11,0.02% sucrose ester-15,the mixed beverage could give good stability.The compound beverage produced in this process tasted fresh and had the nutrition and flavor of both ginkgo biloba and peanut.%以银杏和花生为主要原料,研究了银杏、花生复合保健饮料的加工工艺和配方。通过单因素实验和正交实验优化银杏的酶解条件,结果表明,采用一步法酶解得到的银杏乳稳定性较好,并且缩短了加工时间,最佳工艺参数为:添加0.3%中温淀粉酶和0.3%碱性蛋白酶,在65℃酶解30min。将银杏酶解液和花生浆进行复配,添加0.04%黄原胶、0.06%海藻酸钠、0.06%琼脂作为复合稳定剂,以及0.14%聚甘油酯、0.04%蔗糖酯E-11、0.02%蔗糖酯E-15作为复合乳化剂,可获得较好的稳定性。采用本工艺制成的复合型保健饮料口味独特、口感细腻,兼具银杏和花生的营养价值。

  18. Divdaivu Ginka (Ginkgo Biloba) farmakoloģiskās īpašības un tā preparātu aprite SIA "Gulbju aptiekā"

    OpenAIRE

    Indriča, Alīna

    2014-01-01

    Divdaivu ginks (Ginkgo biloba) ir viens no vecākajiem kokiem pasaulē. Ķīnas tradicionālajā medicīnā ginka lapas un sēklas izmanto jau vismaz 5000 gadus. Standartizēts Ginkgo biloba ekstrakts satur – 24% flavonglikozīdu un 6% terpēnlaktonu. Šī darba mērķis ir veikt apkopoto datu analīzi par Ginkgo biloba preparātu apriti „Gulbju aptiekā” – Gulbenē, 2013. gada laikā, kā arī noskaidrot cilvēku informētību par Ginkgo biloba preparātu lietošanu. Darbā tika izvirzīti 4 uzdevumi: Noskaidrot, k...

  19. Characterization of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Soo-Un

    2010-02-01

    Diterpene trilactone ginkgolides, one of the major constituents of Ginkgo biloba extract, have shown interesting bioactivities including platelet-activating factor antagonistic activity. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase (HDS), converting 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate into 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate, is the penultimate enzyme of the seven-step 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway that supplies building blocks for plant isoprenoids of plastid origin such as ginkgolides and carotenoids. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of the full-length cDNA encoding HDS (GbHDS, GenBank accession number: DQ251630) from G. biloba. Full-length cDNA of GbHDS, 2,763 bp long, contained an ORF of 2,226 bp encoding a protein composed of 741 amino acids. The theoretical molecular weight and pI of the deduced mature GbHDS of 679 amino acid residues are 75.6 kDa and 5.5, respectively. From 2 weeks after initiation of the culture onward, transcription level of this gene in the ginkgo embryo roots increased to about two times higher than that in the leaves. GbHDS was predicted to possess chloroplast transit peptide of 62 amino acid residues, suggesting its putative localization in the plastids. The transient gene expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts confirmed that the transit peptide was capable of delivering the GbHDS protein from the cytosol into the chloroplasts. The isolation and characterization of GbHDS gene enabled us to further understand the role of GbHDS in the terpenoid biosynthesis in G. biloba.

  20. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, M R; Blommaert, F A; Verleye, G; Castermans, J; Jansen Steur, E N; Kleijnen, J

    1998-12-01

    A growing number of people is subject to age-related cognitive impairment due to the proportional increase of the ageing population. Therefore, there is a growing interest in cognition-enhancing substances. The efficacy of an alcohol/water extract of Ginkgo biloba in elderly individuals with memory- and/or concentration complaints was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study by using both subjective and objective parameters. After a wash-out period of 4 weeks 241 non-institutionalised patients in the age range 55-86 years were randomly allocated to receive either Ginkgo biloba alcohol/water extract in a high dose (HD), a low dose (LD) or a placebo (PL) for 24 weeks. Patients were assessed using a psychometric testbattery in the following order: Expended Mental Control Test (EMCT) measuring attention and concentration, Benton Test of Visual Retention-Revised (measures short term visual memory), Rey Test part 1 (measures short term memory and learning curve), Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) measuring the presence and severeness of a depression in order to exclude depressive patients and Rey Test part 2 (measures long term memory: recognition). Furthermore, subjective perception of memory and concentration was measured. 197 patients completed the study (mean MMSE score: 26.29). In the subjective test, the EMCT, the Rey 1 and Rey 2 no significant differences in improvement in time between the groups were observed. In the Benton test increases of 18%, 26% and 11% (expressed as percentage of baseline scores) were observed in the HD, LD and PL respectively (MANOVA; p = 0.0076). No substantial correlation was observed between subjective perception of the severeness of memory complaints and the objective test results. No differences in the number of (gastrointestinal) side effects were observed between placebo and verum groups. These results indicate that the use of Ginkgo extracts in elderly individuals with cognitive impairment might be promising

  1. Catechins and Procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba Show Potent Activities towards the Inhibition of β-Amyloid Peptide Aggregation and Destabilization of Preformed Fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761. In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (−-gallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The activities of these polyphenols in the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and the destabilization of preformed fibrils were evaluated using biochemical assays, which showed that all six of the polyphenols, as well as a fraction of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb containing catechins and procyanidins, exerted potent inhibitory activities towards Aβ42 aggregation and could also destabilize the performed fibrils. Catechins and procyanidins can therefore be regarded as the potent active constituents of EGb761 in terms of their inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and destabilization of the fibrils. Although quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that the catechins and procyanidins are only present in low concentrations in EGb761, these components should be studied in greater detail because of their potent inhibitory effects towards Aβ42 aggregation and their ability to destabilize preformed fibrils, especially during the quality control of Ginkgo leaves and the manufacture of Ginkgo products.

  2. Catechins and procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba show potent activities towards the inhibition of β-amyloid peptide aggregation and destabilization of preformed fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiyan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Liang; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-04-22

    Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761). In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The activities of these polyphenols in the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and the destabilization of preformed fibrils were evaluated using biochemical assays, which showed that all six of the polyphenols, as well as a fraction of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) containing catechins and procyanidins, exerted potent inhibitory activities towards Aβ42 aggregation and could also destabilize the performed fibrils. Catechins and procyanidins can therefore be regarded as the potent active constituents of EGb761 in terms of their inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and destabilization of the fibrils. Although quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that the catechins and procyanidins are only present in low concentrations in EGb761, these components should be studied in greater detail because of their potent inhibitory effects towards Aβ42 aggregation and their ability to destabilize preformed fibrils, especially during the quality control of Ginkgo leaves and the manufacture of Ginkgo products.

  3. Efeito do EGB761 (Extrato de Ginkgo biloba sobre a qualidade de vida em pacientes asmáticos moderados submetidos a tratamento de manutenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Hillebrand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de tratamentos alternativos e eficazes para o controle da asma brônquica é fator importante na melhora da qualidade de vida dos portadores da doença. O efeito do extrato de Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba L., na resposta asmática ao tratamento de manutenção para asma brônquica moderada persistente, foi estudado em um ensaio clínico randomizado, cego, placebo controlado.

  4. Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Background Graphene is a novel two-dimensional planar nanocomposite material consisting of rings of carbon atoms with a hexagonal lattice structure. Graphene exhibits unique physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, elasticity, and cytocompatible properties that lead to many potential biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the water-insoluble property of graphene restricts its application in various aspects of biomedical fields. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find a novel biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition, we investigated the biocompatibility effects of graphene in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Materials and methods Synthesized graphene oxide (GO) and GbE-reduced GO (Gb-rGO) were characterized using various sequences of techniques: ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. Biocompatibility of GO and Gb-rGO was assessed in human breast cancer cells using a series of assays, including cell viability, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Results The successful synthesis of graphene was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. DLS analysis was performed to determine the average size of GO and Gb-rGO. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the crystalline nature of graphene. SEM was used to investigate the surface morphologies of GO and Gb-rGO. AFM was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene and the height profile of GO and Gb-rGO. The formation of defects in Gb-rGO was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the prepared GO and Gb-rGO was investigated using a water-soluble tetrazolium 8 assay on human breast cancer cells. GO exhibited a dose-dependent toxicity, whereas Gb

  5. Study of Differentiation and Characteristics of Sieve Elements and P-protein Body in Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yuping; CHEN Peng; LI Li; WANG Lili; PAN Bin; TAI Yunlin

    2006-01-01

    The ultrastructure observation, energy spectrum analyses and study on sieve elements in gingko (Ginkgo biloba. L) root phloem showed: 1) The inside wall had a large retention of small grains with a diameter of 3- 4 um, and the outside wall membrane structure wrapped P-protein body with a kernel of high electronic density. 2) The growth had the typical process of programmed cell death (PCD), i.e. the cell karyoplasm condensed, chromatins congealed and contracted and gradually agglomerated to the periphery of the nuclear membrane, and accordingly a nuclear of malformation appeared; the endoplasmic reticulum extended and connected and merged mutually, and the shallow part fused with the cell membrane. After packing the cell organelle, the endoplasmic reticulum divided the cell into several combined necrotic corpuscles of different sizes, the cell organelles collapsing with the cell and gathering abundantly in the inside cell wall. There were two kinds of degradation for the mitochondria: One was that the electronic density of the matrix decreased, the ridges died out to be cavitations gradually, and the double-layer membrane broke and ruined; the other was that parts of the territorial structure of the membrane broke, and the substance it contained escaped. 3) The ultrastructure of the course of gingko root phloem developing from cell with protein thin wall into sieve elements might make out that the P-protein body was produced in PCD and developed with retention in the combined necrotic corpuscle. 4) The P-protein had higher contents of S, K, P than the sieve elements wall tissue, and the percentage composition of S was 4.64%, which was more than twice the composition in the cell wall with 2.14 %. According to the observation through transmission electron microscope that showed the P-protein had high electronic density, we might affirm that it was a P-protein body with S, P. The composition of K was 21.62%, 1.52 times that of the cell wall which was 14.23%. The

  6. Ginkgo biloba extract ameliorates oxidative phosphorylation performance and rescues abeta-induced failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Rhein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy deficiency and mitochondrial failure have been recognized as a prominent, early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to amyloid-beta (Abeta in human neuroblastoma cells over-expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP resulted in (i activity changes of complexes III and IV of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS and in (ii a drop of ATP levels which may finally instigate loss of synapses and neuronal cell death in AD. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether standardized Ginkgo biloba extract LI 1370 (GBE is able to rescue Abeta-induced defects in energy metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a high-resolution respiratory protocol to evaluate OXPHOS respiratory capacity under physiological condition in control (stably transfected with the empty vector and APP cells after treatment with GBE. In addition, oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria, activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels as well as mitochondrial membrane mass and mitochondrial DNA content were determined. We observed a general antioxidant effect of GBE leading to an increase of the coupling state of mitochondria as well as energy homeostasis and a reduction of ROS levels in control cells and in APP cells. GBE effect on OXPHOS was even preserved in mitochondria after isolation from treated cells. Moreover, these functional data were paralleled by an up-regulation of mitochondrial DNA. Improvement of the OXPHOS efficiency was stronger in APP cells than in control cells. In APP cells, the GBE-induced amelioration of oxygen consumption most likely arose from the modulation and respective normalization of the Abeta-induced disturbance in the activity of mitochondrial complexes III and IV restoring impaired ATP levels possibly through decreasing Abeta and oxidative stress level. CONCLUSIONS

  7. Ginkgotides: Proline-Rich Hevein-Like Peptides from Gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang; Serra, Aida; Xiao, Tianshu; Sze, Siu Kwan; Yang, Daiwen; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of 11 novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, namely ginkgotides gB1–gB11. Proteomic analysis showed that the ginkgotides contain 41–44 amino acids (aa), a chitin-binding domain and are Pro-rich, a distinguishing feature that differs from other hevein-like peptides. Solution NMR structure determination revealed that gB5 contains a three β-stranded structure shaped by a cystine knot with an additional disulfide bond at the C-terminus. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the ginkgotide precursors contain a three-domain architecture, comprised of a C-terminal tail (20 aa) that is significantly shorter than those of other 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides, which generally contain a protein cargo such as a Barwin-like protein (126 aa) or class I chitinase (254 aa). Transcriptomic data mining found an additional 48 ginkgotide homologs in 39 different gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ginkgotides and their homologs belong to a new class of 8C-hevein-like peptides. Stability studies showed that ginkgotides are highly resistant to thermal, acidic and endopeptidase degradation. Ginkgotides flanked at both the N- and C-terminal ends by Pro were resistant to exopeptidase degradation by carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase. Antifungal assays showed that ginkgotides inhibit the hyphal growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Taken together, ginkgotides represent the first suite of hevein-like peptides isolated and characterized from gymnosperms. As a group, they represent a novel class of 8C-hevein-like peptides

  8. Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a novel two-dimensional planar nanocomposite material consisting of rings of carbon atoms with a hexagonal lattice structure. Graphene exhibits unique physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, elasticity, and cytocompatible properties that lead to many potential biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the water-insoluble property of graphene restricts its application in various aspects of biomedical fields. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find a novel biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition, we investigated the biocompatibility effects of graphene in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Synthesized graphene oxide (GO) and GbE-reduced GO (Gb-rGO) were characterized using various sequences of techniques: ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. Biocompatibility of GO and Gb-rGO was assessed in human breast cancer cells using a series of assays, including cell viability, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The successful synthesis of graphene was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. DLS analysis was performed to determine the average size of GO and Gb-rGO. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the crystalline nature of graphene. SEM was used to investigate the surface morphologies of GO and Gb-rGO. AFM was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene and the height profile of GO and Gb-rGO. The formation of defects in Gb-rGO was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the prepared GO and Gb-rGO was investigated using a water-soluble tetrazolium 8 assay on human breast cancer cells. GO exhibited a dose-dependent toxicity, whereas Gb-rGO-treated cells showed significant

  9. Ginkgotides: Proline-rich Hevein-like Peptides from Gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Ho Wong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of eleven novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, namely ginkgotides gB1–gB11. Proteomic analysis showed that the ginkgotides contain 41–44 amino acids (aa, a chitin-binding domain and are Pro-rich, a distinguishing feature that differs from other hevein-like peptides. Solution 1H-NMR structure determination revealed that gB5 contains a three β-stranded structure shaped by a cystine knot with an additional disulfide bond at the C-terminus. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the ginkgotide precursors contain a three-domain architecture, comprised of a C-terminal tail (20 aa that is significantly shorter than those of other 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides, which generally contain a protein cargo such as a Barwin-like protein (126 aa or class I chitinase (254 aa. Transcriptomic data mining found an additional 48 ginkgotide homologs in 39 different gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ginkgotides and their homologs belong to a new class of 8C-hevein-like peptides. Stability studies showed that ginkgotides are highly resistant to thermal, acidic and endopeptidase degradation. Ginkgotides flanked at both the N- and C-terminal ends by Pro were resistant to exopeptidase degradation by carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase. Antifungal assays showed that ginkgotides inhibit the hyphal growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Taken together, ginkgotides represent the first suite of hevein-like peptides isolated and characterized from gymnosperms. As a group, they represent a novel class of 8C

  10. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Polyprenols Extracted from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBP are a new type of lipid with 14–24 isoprenyl units, which in humans have strong bioactivity like the dolichols. A large amount of work showed that GBP had good antibacterial activity and powerful protective effects against acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and alcohol, as well as antitumor activity, but the safety of GBP was not considered. The current study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of these polyprenols. Acute toxicity in mice was observed for 14 days after GBP oral dosing with 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 21.5 g/kg body weight (b. wt. Further, an Ames toxicity assessment was carried out by plate incorporation assay on spontaneous revertant colonies of TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with GBP doses designed as 8, 40, 200, 1000 and 5000 μg/dish, and subchronic toxicity was evaluated in rats for 91 days at GBP doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b. wt./day. The weight, food intake, hematological and biochemical indexes, the ratio of viscera/body weight, and histopathological examinations of tissue slices of organs were all investigated. The results showed that no animal behavior and appearance changes and mortality were seen during the observation period with 21.5 g/kg GBP dose in the acute toxicity test. Also, no mutagenicity effects were produced by GBP (mutation rate < 2 on the four standard Salmonella strains (p > 0.05 in the Ames toxicity test. Furthermore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of GBP was 2000 mg/kg for 91 days feeding of rats in the subchronic toxicity tests. Results also showed the hematological and biochemical indexes as well as histopathological examination changed within a small range, and all clinical observation indexes were normal. No other distinct impacts on cumulative growth of body weight, food intake and food utilization rate were discovered with GBP. No significant difference was discovered for the rats’ organ weight and the ratio of viscera

  11. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Polyprenols Extracted from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Yuan, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Ye, Jian-Zhong

    2015-12-11

    Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBP) are a new type of lipid with 14-24 isoprenyl units, which in humans have strong bioactivity like the dolichols. A large amount of work showed that GBP had good antibacterial activity and powerful protective effects against acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and alcohol, as well as antitumor activity, but the safety of GBP was not considered. The current study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of these polyprenols. Acute toxicity in mice was observed for 14 days after GBP oral dosing with 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 21.5 g/kg body weight (b. wt.) Further, an Ames toxicity assessment was carried out by plate incorporation assay on spontaneous revertant colonies of TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with GBP doses designed as 8, 40, 200, 1000 and 5000 μg/dish, and subchronic toxicity was evaluated in rats for 91 days at GBP doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b. wt./day. The weight, food intake, hematological and biochemical indexes, the ratio of viscera/body weight, and histopathological examinations of tissue slices of organs were all investigated. The results showed that no animal behavior and appearance changes and mortality were seen during the observation period with 21.5 g/kg GBP dose in the acute toxicity test. Also, no mutagenicity effects were produced by GBP (mutation rate 0.05) in the Ames toxicity test. Furthermore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of GBP was 2000 mg/kg for 91 days feeding of rats in the subchronic toxicity tests. Results also showed the hematological and biochemical indexes as well as histopathological examination changed within a small range, and all clinical observation indexes were normal. No other distinct impacts on cumulative growth of body weight, food intake and food utilization rate were discovered with GBP. No significant difference was discovered for the rats' organ weight and the ratio of viscera to body weight (p > 0.05). Reversible pathological changes in the

  12. 银杏黄酮抑菌作用的研究%Inhibitory Properties of Flavoniods from Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡筱; 白光; 李聪聪; 毛建

    2014-01-01

    本文采用液相色谱法对银杏仁提取物主成分进行了定性测定,并对其抑菌作用进行了研究。结果表明:银杏仁乙醇提取物的主要成分为黄酮类化合物。在抑菌圈试验中,黄酮类化合物对细菌和真菌都有一定的抑制作用,且对细菌的抑制作用略好于真菌。在食物抑菌试验中,20mg/mL提取液对培养72h牛肉中的大肠杆菌、白葡萄球菌和毛霉都有很好地抑制作用;对豆腐中的毛霉抑菌作用明显,对大肠杆菌和白葡萄球菌没有抑制作用,反而呈现促进作用,食品的特性决定了黄酮类物质对菌类的抑制效果。%Main components of Ginkgo biloba extractive were made qualitative analysis by HPLC and antibacterial effects. Results showed that flavonoids were main components in extractive. In bacteriostatic ring experiment, flavonoids had inhibited effect to bacteria (Escherichia coli. and Staphylococcus albus) and fungus (Mucor and Tricheodrma spp.). And there were better inhibition effect to bacteria than to fungus. In antibacterial of food experiment , 20mg/mL Ginkgo biloba extractive had inhibited effect to Escherichia coli., Staphylococcus albus and Mucor which cultured for 72h in beef. 20mg/mL Ginkgo biloba extractive had obvious inhibitory effect to Mucor, but had certain promoter action to Escherichia coli. and Staphylococcus albus which cultured for 72h in beancurd. Characteristics of food determined effects of flavonoids antibacterial.

  13. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems to have a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have similar phyto...

  14. Reversal of P-glycoprotein overexpression by Ginkgo biloba extract in the brains of pentylenetetrazole-kindled and phenytoin-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ce; Fan, Qing; Chen, Shu-Liang; Ma, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Ginkgo biloba extract and phenytoin (PHT) sodium as a dose regimen simulating the clinical treatment of patients with epilepsy, on P-glycoprotein (P-GP) overexpression in a pentylenetetrazole-kindled mouse model of epilepsy. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (40 mg/kg) for 7 days followed by intragastric administration of PHT (40 mg/kg) for 14 days. Thirty mice that developed seizures were randomly divided into three groups and administered PHT as well as the following treatments: saline (negative control); verapamil (20 mg/kg, positive control); and G. biloba (30 mg/kg). Seizure severity was recorded 30 minutes after treatment on Day 4 of drug administration, after which the mice were euthanized, and their brains isolated. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the expression of P-GP and caspase-3, respectively, in the brain tissue. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the concentrations of PHT in the brains of the treated mice. After 4 consecutive days of treatment, the seizure severity in the mice in the G. biloba extract group was more significantly reduced than the seizure severity in the saline control group, and a significant difference was observed between the G. biloba extract and verapamil control groups (p biloba extract and verapamil than it did in the saline-treated control group (p biloba extract and verapamil showed significantly increased brain PHT concentrations (p biloba extract group was significantly lower than that in the vehicle control group (p biloba. Therefore, this study showed that treatment with G. biloba extract in combination with PHT prevented the upregulation of P-GP expression in mice. Moreover, G. biloba extract decreased seizure severity in pentylenetetrazole-kindled/PHT-treated mice through a mechanism that might be related to the reduction of P-GP expression in the brain.

  15. 高纯度银杏黄酮的制备%Preparation of High-Purity Flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 李芊; 林炳昌

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To prepare highly purified flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba L. , so as to explore a large - scale preparation process line of high purity flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L.. [ Method ] Purified with chromatographic column with packing of ODS, effects of mobile phase ratio, concentration temperature and drying temperature on yield of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L. were investigated. [ Result] The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: target fraction of methanol to 0.5% phosphoric acid ratio of 5:5 and 7: 3, concentration temperature and drying temperature of 45 °C. The content of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L. was more than 90%, and the yield reached 78.3% under the optimal preparation process. [ Conclusion ] High-purily flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L. were obtained, which provided an effective method for the preparation of highly purified Ginkgo biloba L. flavonoids.%[目的]制备高纯度的银杏黄酮,探索一条规模化制备高纯度银杏总黄酮的工艺路线.[方法]用固相填料为ODS的色谱柱纯化银杏黄酮,考察梯度洗脱、浓缩温度、干燥温度对银杏黄酮含量的影响.[结果]甲醇∶0.5%磷酸=5∶5和7∶3(V∶V)的馏分为目标馏分,最佳浓缩温度和干燥温度为45 ℃,在最佳条件下,银杏黄酮质量百分含量≥90%,收率为78.3%.[结论]该试验获得了高纯度银杏黄酮,为高纯度的银杏总黄酮制备提供了一种高效的方法.

  16. Effect of Different Ecological Factors on Growth of Ginkgo biloba%不同生态因子对银杏生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玉东; 李军; 姚国年; 闫树明; 王春

    2012-01-01

    Using method of the localization study,observation fields for ecological factors were set up in different regions in Dandong;effect of layer thickness,pH value of soil nutrient content,air temperature,humidity,light intensity,rainfall,evaporation and other factors on the growth of Ginkgo biloba were determined. Result shows that: under different temperature conditions,seed germination growth state of seedlings of Ginkgo biloba are different;after 20 d,constant temperature of seed germination rate are 6.2% higher than that of the variable temperature;root growth,constant temperature of seedling height ground diameter of seedlings increase by 36.7 % 16% than that of variable temperature respectively;after shading,seedling of Ginkgo biloba grow optimal than that in control area.Growth performance of Ginkgo biloba grow in loam sandy loam is optimal than that in sand clay;Ginkgo biloba grows well while soil salinity being 0.03%-0.043%;Ginkgo biloba which is adapted to a wide range of pH value can grow in the soils with pH value being 4-8.5.%用定位研究的方法,在丹东不同区域建立生态因子观测场,测定不同土层厚度、pH值、土壤养分含量、空气温湿度、光照强度、降雨、蒸发量等各因子对银杏生长的影响,结果表明:在不同的温度条件下,银杏种子萌发和幼苗生长状况不同,经20 d后,种子发芽率恒温比变温高6.2个百分点,幼苗根系生长、苗高、地径恒温比变温分别提高36.7%和16%。经过遮阴处理,银杏幼苗生长好于对照区。生长在壤土和沙壤土上的银杏其生长表现优于生长在沙土和黏土上的,土壤含盐量以0.03%~0.043%,银杏生长良好。银杏对pH值适应范围很宽,在pH值4~8.5的土壤上均能生长。

  17. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wylie, Philip L; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-17

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 Δ8 and Δ10, C17:1 Δ8, Δ10, and Δ12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cytochrome P450 taxoid 9á-hydroxylase in Ginkgo biloba cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Han, Zhentai; Sun, Guiling; Hoffman, Angela; Wilson, Iain W; Yang, Yanfang; Gao, Qian; Wu, Jianqiang; Xie, Dan; Dai, Jungui; Qiu, Deyou

    2014-01-17

    Taxol is a well-known effective anticancer compound. Due to the inability to synthesize sufficient quantities of taxol to satisfy commercial demand, a biotechnological approach for a large-scale cell or cell-free system for its production is highly desirable. Several important genes in taxol biosynthesis are currently still unknown and have been shown to be difficult to isolate directly from Taxus, including the gene encoding taxoid 9α-hydroxylase. Ginkgo biloba suspension cells exhibit taxoid hydroxylation activity and provides an alternate means of identifying genes encoding enzymes with taxoid 9α-hydroxylation activity. Through analysis of high throughput RNA sequencing data from G. biloba, we identified two candidate genes with high similarity to Taxus CYP450s. Using in vitro cell-free protein synthesis assays and LC-MS analysis, we show that one candidate that belongs to the CYP716B, a subfamily whose biochemical functions have not been previously studied, possessed 9α-hydroxylation activity. This work will aid future identification of the taxoid 9α-hydroxylase gene from Taxus sp.

  19. Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract by preparing solid dispersion via hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenping; Kang, Qian; Liu, Na; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhao, Bochen; Chen, Yanyan; Lan, Yi; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Qing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through the preparation of G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBE-SD) via hot-melt extrusion (HME). First, we prepared the GBE-SD based on a Kollidon® VA64/Kolliphor® RH40 (85:15) spray dried powder. Then physicochemical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that GBE dispersed well in a carrier matrix. Subsequently, we studied the dissolution profile of total flavonoids (TFs) by HPLC-UV and total terpene lactones (TTLs) by HPLC-ELSD. The dissolution percentage of TFs and TTLs was improved within 120min. Finally, we studied the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability in rats by UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the Cmax and AUC0-t of bilobalide (BB), ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC), quercetin (QCT), kaempferol (KMF) and isorhamnetin (ISR) in rats were significantly increased after the oral administration of GBE-SD compared with results after the oral administration of GBE. These results suggest that the solid dispersion preparation by HME could serve as a promising formulation approach to enhancing the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of GBE.

  20. Investigating sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Ginkgo biloba: molecular cloning and functional characterization of (E,E)-farnesol and α-bisabolene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Iffat; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Baerson, Scott R; Techen, Natascha; Chappell, Joe; Khan, Ikhlas A; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and has been extensively investigated as a source of bioactive natural compounds, including bioactive flavonoids, diterpene lactones, terpenoids and polysaccharides which accumulate in foliar tissues. Despite this chemical diversity, relatively few enzymes associated with any biosynthetic pathway from ginkgo have been characterized to date. In the present work, predicted transcripts potentially encoding enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of diterpenoid and terpenoid compounds, including putative terpene synthases, were first identified by mining publicly-available G. biloba RNA-seq data sets. Recombinant enzyme studies with two of the TPS-like sequences led to the identification of GbTPS1 and GbTPS2, encoding farnesol and bisabolene synthases, respectively. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed the two terpene synthase genes as primitive genes that might have evolved from an ancestral diterpene synthase.

  1. In vivo photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, vitamins, Ginkgo biloba and red algae extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, D G; Wagemaker, T A L; Alves, V M; Benevenuto, C G; Gaspar, L R; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, red algae, Porphyra umbilicalis, extracts and combinations of the extract with vitamins and Ginkgo biloba through the use of in vivo preclinical studies. For this study, 4 groups of 4 hairless mice each were treated with topical formulations applied on the dorsum for 5 days as follows: group 1 - control (no treatment); group 2 - application of the formulation F (sunscreen formulation containing only UV filters); group 3 - application of the formulation FA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract); and group 4 - application of the formulation FVGA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract, G. biloba and vitamins A, C and E). The effects of these formulations were evaluated by determining the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index. Apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemical staining with anti-p53 and anti-caspase-3 antibodies. The results showed that the formulations protected the skin from erythema when exposed to UV radiation. The group that received the formulation FVGA presented a greater TEWL than did the other groups, suggesting that this formulation was involved in cell renewal. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that UV radiation caused an increase in the expression of p53 and active caspase-3, confirming that the damage caused by UV radiation exposure led to apoptosis. The application of all formulations studied resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the expression of p53 and caspase-3, with a more pronounced effect observed following treatment with FA. In conclusion, extracts from the red algae P. umbilicalis could be considered effective ingredients to be used in sunscreen formulations. The combination of vitamins A, E, C and G. biloba along with red algae extracts can improve significantly the performance of the sunscreens, preventing UV-induced DNA damage and inflammation. Thus, they should be considered

  2. Oxidative Stress and C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident (Ischaemic Stroke): The role of Ginkgo biloba extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanoon, Imad A-J; Abdul-Jabbar, Hilmy As; Taha, Dhia A

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischaemic stroke patients by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), and highly-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the early post-ischaemic period, and to determine the role of Ginkgo biloba therapy in correcting the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. This study was conducted at Ibn Seena Hospital, Mosul City, Iraq and included 31 cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients and 30 healthy controls. Ischaemic stroke patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 15) received conventional therapy; group II (n = 16) received conventional therapy with G. biloba (1500 mg/day) for 30 days. Blood samples were obtained from patients and controls before treatment and assays done of serum levels of MDA, TAS, and hsCRP. For CVA patients, a post-treatment blood sample was taken and the same parameters reassessed. Compared with the controls, patients' serum levels of MDA, and hsCRP were significantly higher (P ≤0.001) and TAS significantly lower. Group I and II patients reported a significant reduction in serum levels of MDA and hsCRP and a significant increase in serum levels of TAS, in comparison with pre-treatment levels. There was no significant difference (P = 0.19) in serum MDA levels between groups I and II, whereas, serum TAS levels were significantly higher (P ≤0.01) and hsCRP significantly lower (P ≤0.01) in group II. Acute stroke is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the early period. G. biloba plays a potential role in reducing oxidative damage and inflammatory response.

  3. Effect of Addition of Ginkgo Biloba on Cookie Quality%银杏叶添加量对酥性饼干品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美霞; 何路萍

    2015-01-01

    The effection of addition of Ginkgo biloba on sensory quality , physical indexes , TPA indexes and chromatic aberration of cookies was studied in this article.The results showed that cookies had better sensory quality in low dosage. of Ginkgo biloba, but when the adding amount exceeded 8 g/100 g, the sensory quality of biscuit decreased. Meanwhile, addition of Ginkgo biloba had positive influence on elastic,brittle, and color of cookies but had negative influence on cohesion,ductility and specific volume.%银杏叶在低添加量时对酥性饼干的感官品质具有改善作用,但当添加量超过8 g/100 g后,酥性饼干的感官品质有所降低;同时,银杏叶的添加对酥性饼干的弹性、脆性和色泽有促进作用,而对黏聚性、延展性和比容等指标有降低作用。

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE.

  5. Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of Ginkgo biloba Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November. In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years and first comparatively analyze the total flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at different ages, from different cultivation sources and genders of G. biloba leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of total terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of G. biloba leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars.

  6. Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Drabaek, H; Wiinberg, N;

    2002-01-01

    , seven males) with a median age of 32 years (range: 21-47). The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blinded cross-over design using oral treatment with G. biloba extract (Gibidyl Forte(R) t.i.d. or placebo for 6 weeks. Forearm blood flow and venous capacity were measured by strain-gauge...

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of three genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Ginkgo biloba in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hua

    Full Text Available Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR, EC1.1.1.219 catalyzes a key step late in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids important to plant survival and human nutrition. Three DFR cDNA clones (designated GbDFRs were isolated from the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. The deduced GbDFR proteins showed high identities to other plant DFRs, which form three distinct DFR families. Southern blot analysis showed that the three GbDFRs each belong to a different DFR family. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the GbDFRs share the same ancestor as other DFRs. The expression of the three recombinant GbDFRs in Escherichia coli showed that their actual protein sizes were in agreement with predictions from the cDNA sequences. The recombinant proteins were purified and their activity was analyzed; both GbDFR1 and GbDFR3 could catalyze dihydroquercetin conversion to leucocyanidin, while GbDFR2 catalyzed dihydrokaempferol conversion to leucopelargonidin. qRT-PCR showed that the GbDFRs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and transcript accumulation for the three genes was highest in young leaves and stamens. These transcription patterns were in good agreement with the pattern of anthocyanin accumulation in G.biloba. The expression profiles suggested that GbDFR1 and GbDFR2 are mainly involved in responses to plant hormones, environmental stress and damage. During the annual growth cycle, the GbDFRs were significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. A fitted linear curve showed the best model for relating GbDFR2 and GbDFR3 with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. GbDFR1 appears to be involved in environmental stress response, while GbDFR3 likely has primary functions in the synthesis of anthocyanins. These data revealed unexpected properties and differences in three DFR proteins from a single species.

  8. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yong-Ling; Shen, Yong-Bao; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Shui-Yuan; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter. PMID:26351628

  9. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ling Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of Ginkgo biloba terpene trilactones and their interaction with amyloid peptide Aβ(25-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Petrovic, Ana G.; Dzyuba, Sergei V.; Berova, Nina; Nakanishi, Koji; Polavarapu, Prasad L.

    2008-04-01

    The beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in the "treatment" of dementia are attributed to its terpene trilactone (TTL) constituents. The interactions between TTLs and amyloid peptide are believed to be responsible in preventing the aggregation of peptide. These interactions have been investigated using infrared vibrational absorption (VA) and circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Four TTLs, namely ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC) and bilobalide (BB) and amyloid Aβ(25-35) peptide, as a model for the full length peptide, are used in this study. GA-monoether and GA-diether have also been synthesized and investigated to help understand the role of individual carbonyl groups in these interactions. The precipitation and solubility issues encountered with the mixture of ginkgolide + Aβ peptide for VA and VCD studies were overcome using binary ethanol-D 2O solvent mixture. The experimental VA and VCD spectra of GA, GB, GC and BB, GA-monoether and GA-diether have been analyzed using the corresponding spectra predicted with density functional theory. The time-dependent experimental VA and VCD spectra of Aβ(25-35) peptide and the corresponding experimental spectra in the presence of TTLs indicated that the effect of the TTLs in modulating the aggregation of Aβ(25-35) peptide is relatively small. Such small effects might indicate the absence of a specific interaction between the TTLs and Aβ(25-35) peptide as a major force leading to the reduced aggregation of amyloid peptides. It is possible that the therapeutic effect of G. biloba extract does not originate from direct interactions between TTLs and the Aβ(25-35) peptide and is more complex.

  11. Expression of selected Ginkgo biloba heat shock protein genes after cold treatment could be induced by other abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fuliang; Cheng, Hua; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Linling; Xu, Feng; Yu, Wanwen; Yuan, Honghui

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa), 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, GbHSP17 showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 may play important roles in Ginkgo leaf development and photosynthesis, and GbHSP17 may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three GbHSPs were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of GbHSP70, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP17, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment caused up-regulation of GbHSP70 primarily.

  12. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on

  13. Pharmacolagical Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Tea Extractive in Rat and Mouse%银杏叶茶提取物对大、小鼠的药理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建勋; 刘奎

    2000-01-01

    用药理实验验证了银杏叶茶能干扰大鼠血栓形成,提高小鼠常压条件下的缺氧耐受能力,并对小鼠急性脑缺血有一定的保护作用.提示银杏叶茶对心脑血管疾病的保健作用.%The Pharmacolagical effect of Ginkgo biloba tea is studied by inhibiting thrombosi. in rats and increaseing hypoxia endurance at common pressure in mice, and that Ginkgo biloba tea has certein protective effect on rat acute cerebral ischemia . This prompt health care effects of Ginkgo biloba tea on cardiac cerebral disease.

  14. Effects of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on proliferation and invasion of cervix cancer cells line siha%银杏外种皮多糖对人宫颈癌细胞系Siha增殖及侵袭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨滨; 娄晓明; 吴春丽; 李婉萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of proliferation and invasion on Siha with Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides.Methods The proliferation and invasion of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on Siha were reduced by MTT and Transwell.The expression of MMP-2 was examined by real time PCR and ELISA.Results For Siha cell with the increasing of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides concentrations, the inhibitory rate increased.Moreover, Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides notably decreased the secretion of MMP-2.Conclusion The results indicated that Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides might be valuable in cervix cancer.%目的 研究银杏外种皮多糖(Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides,GBEP)对宫颈癌细胞生长及增殖的影响.方法 通过经典方法提取银杏外种皮多糖,通过MTT方法检测GBEP对处理宫颈癌细胞增殖的影响:Transwell检测GBFP对宫颈癌细胞迁移的作用;通过Real time PCR和ELISA检测细胞迁移相关蛋白MMP-2的表达.结果 银杏外种皮多糖处理后的宫颈癌细胞增殖抑制率上升,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义.银杏外种皮多糖用药后,迁移能力降低,MMP-2基因表达下降.结论 银杏外种皮多糖对宫颈癌细胞的增殖和迁移可能会起到抑制作用.

  15. Influence of Ginkgo Biloba extract on beta-secretase in rat hippocampal neuronal cultures following chronic hypoxic and hypoglycemic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueneng Guan; Fuling Yan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preparation of Ginkgo leaf has been widely used to improve cognitive deficits and dementia, in particular in Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the precise mechanism of action of Ginkgo leaf remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Ginkgo Biloba extract (Egb761), Ginaton, on β-secretase expression in rat hippocampal neuronal cultures following chronic hypoxic and hypoglycemic conditions.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTNG: Completely by randomized, grouping study. The experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Southeast University between August 2006 and August 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 128 Wistar rats aged 24 hours were selected, and hippocampal neurons were harvested for primary cultures.METHODS: On day 7, primary hippocampal neuronal cultures were treated with Egb761 (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μ g/mL) under hypoxic/hypoglycemic or hypoglycemic culture conditions for 12, 24, and 36 hours, respectively. Hippocampal neurons cultured in primary culture medium served as control.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cell viability was assayed using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT); fluorescence detection of β-secretase activity was performed; Western Blot was used to measure β -secretase expression.RESULTS: Cell viability under hypoxic/hypoglycemic or hypoglycemic culture conditions was significantly less than control cells (P 25 μ g/mL Egb761 induced greater cell viability (P 0.05). Α -secretase activity was increased after 12 hours in hypoxic/hypoglycemic culture (P 0.05). Β -secretase activity was greater after 12, 24, and 36 hours in hypoxic/hypoglycemic culture conditions, compared with control conditions (P < 0.05). Β-secretase activity was significantly decreased in neurons treated with Egb761 for 12, 24, or 36 hours, compared with the hypoxic/hypoglycemic group (P < 0.05).β-secretase protein expression was significantly up-regulated in neurons cultured in hypoxic/hypoglycemic conditions for

  16. Promoter Analysis and Transcriptional Profiling of Ginkgo biloba 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (GbHMGR gene in Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongling LIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terpene trilactones (TTLs are believed to be important for the pharmacological properties of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR is a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of TTLs. In this study, an 1.2-kb fragment of 5’ flanking region of the HMGR gene (GbHMGR, was isolated from G. biloba by genome walking. Extensive sequence analysis revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements in light-regulated transcription,  hormone signaling (gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylic acid, elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses, and plant defense signaling (W-box/WRKY that are common to the promoter region of GbHMGR. EMSA analysis suggested possible functionality of W-box in GbHMGR promoter region. The behavior of gene transcripts in ginkgo callus upon light, low temperature, MeJA and SA treatments further verified the regulatory function of GbHMGR promoter. A significant positive relationship between gene expression level and total TTL contents suggested that GbHMGR might be one of key genes involved in TTL biosynthesis in G. biloba.

  17. Effect of Western medicine therapy assisted byGinkgo biloba tablet on vascular cognitive impairment of none dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Jin Zhang; Zhan-You Xue

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the clinical effects ofWestern medicine therapy assisted byGinkgo biloba tablet(GBT) on patients with vascular cognitive impairment of none dementia(VCIND).Methods:A total of80 patients withVCIND were divided into two groups randomly:Conventional treatment group(control group) and combined treatment group.Conventional treatment group was given conventional treatment with anti-platelet aggregation.In this group,75 mg aspirin was given three times a day for3 months.While in combined treatment group,19.2 mgGBT was given three times a day for3 months together with conventional treatment(anti-platelet aggregation drugs). Montreal cognitive assessment(MoCA) and transcranialDoppler(TCD) were used to observe changes of cognitive ability and cerebral blood flow inVCIND patients before and after treatment in both groups.Then the clinical data were analyzed so as to compare the efficacy in two groups. Results:After3 month-treatment in combined treatment group, the scores of executive ability, attention, abstract, delayed memory, orientation in theMoCA were significantly increased compared with those before treatment and those in control group after treatment.Besides, blood flow velocity of anterior cerebral artery increased significantly than that before treatment and that in control group after treatment.Conclusions:GBT tablet can improve the therapeutic efficacy as well improve cognitive ability and cerebral blood flow supply of patients withVCIND.

  18. Ginkgo biloba Extract Improves Insulin Signaling and Attenuates Inflammation in Retroperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depot of Obese Rats

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    Bruna Kelly Sousa Hirata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high incidence and severity of obesity and its related disorders, it is highly desirable to develop new strategies to treat or even to prevent its development. We have previously described that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE improved insulin resistance and reduced body weight gain of obese rats. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of GbE on both inflammatory cascade and insulin signaling in retroperitoneal fat depot of diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with high fat diet for 2 months and thereafter treated for 14 days with 500 mg/kg of GbE. Rats were then euthanized and samples from retroperitoneal fat depot were used for western blotting, RT-PCR, and ELISA experiments. The GbE treatment promoted a significant reduction on both food/energy intake and body weight gain in comparison to the nontreated obese rats. In addition, a significant increase of both Adipo R1 and IL-10 gene expressions and IR and Akt phosphorylation was also observed, while NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and TNF-α levels were significantly reduced. Our data suggest that GbE might have potential as a therapy to treat obesity-related metabolic diseases, with special interest to treat obese subjects resistant to adhere to a nutritional education program.

  19. Protective Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract on Learning and Memory Deficit Induced by Aluminum in Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) on learning and memory deficit induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3), and explore its mechanisms. Methods: The rat models with learning and memory deficit were induced by administering via gastrogavage and drinking of AlCl3 solution. And the model rats were treated with GbE at the dose of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg every day for 2months accompanied with drinking of AlCl3 solution, respectively. Their abilities of spatial learning and memory were tested by Morris water maze, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in serum was assayed with chemical method, the AChE expression in hippocampus was observed by immunohistochemistry assay,and then quantitative analysis was done by BI 2000 image analysis system. Results: Learning and memory deficit of rats could be induced by AlCl3 solution (P<0.01), and AChE expressions in rats hippocampus were increased (P<0.01); GbE ameliorated learning and memory deficit and reduced AChE expression in rats hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner, while GbE significantly increased serum AChE activity at the dose of 200 mg/kg each day (P<0.05). Conclusion: GbE can ameliorate learning and memory deficit induced by AlCl3, which may be due to its inhibition of the AChE expression in hippocampus.

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in hepatocytes: a comparative study with Iovastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo-quan XIE; Gai LIANG; Lu ZHANG; Qi WANG; Yi QU; Yang GAO; Li-bo LIN; Sai YE; Ji ZHANG; Hui WANG; Guo-ping ZHAO; Qing-hua ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). Methods: Enzyme activity, cholesterol flux and changes in gene expression levels were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with GBE or Iovastatin. Results: GBE decreased the total cholesterol content in cultured hepatocytes and inhibited the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, as determined by an in vitro enzyme activity assay. In addition, GBE decreased cholesterol influx, whereas Iovastatin increased choles-terol influx. GBE treatment induced significant increases in the expression of cholesterogenic genes and genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, such as SREBF2, as determined by cDNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, INSIG2, LDLR, LRP1, and LRP10 were differentially regulated by GBE and Iovastatin. The data imply that the two compounds modulate cholesterol metabolism through distinct mechanisms. Conclusion: By using a gene expression profiling approach, we were able to broaden the understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which GBE lowers cellular cholesterol levels. Specifically, we demonstrated that GBE exhibited dual effects on the cellular choles-terol pool by modulating both HMG-CoA reductase activity and inhibiting cholesterol influx.

  1. Effects of extract of Ginkgo biloba with venlafaxine on brain injury in a rat model of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiao-song; JIN Kui-he; DING Bao-kun; XIE Shou-fu; MA Hui

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated that chronic stress may give rise to brain damage, which is related to the genesis of depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) and venlafaxine on depression.Methods Rats were treated with chronic and comprehensive stress to create a depression model. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampal CA3 neurons of rats treated with different drugs. Behavioral changes of these rats were also examined. Results The expression of BDNF in the hippocampal CA3 neurons of the depression model decreased with a reduction in exploring behavior and a significant increase in fecal production. The expression of neuron nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) protein also increased in the rats compared to normal controls. The rats treated with EGb and venlafaxine showed an increase in expression of BDNF and exploring behavior compared to untreated rats, but a decrease in nNOS and fecal production.Conclusions Rats sustain damage to the brain after being subjected to chronic and comprehensive stress. Our research has indicated that combined EGb with venlafaxine enhances the protection of neurons and decreases damage to the brain, while relieving the side effects of synthetic antidepressants.

  2. Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of Ginkgo biloba extract in rat and mouse: liver, thyroid, and nose are targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Nyska, Abraham; Cora, Michelle C; Kissling, Grace E; Smith, Cynthia; Travlos, Gregory S; Hejtmancik, Milton R; Fomby, Laurene M; Colleton, Curtis A; Ryan, Michael J; Kooistra, Linda; Morrison, James P; Chan, Po C

    2014-07-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular herbal supplement that is used to improve circulation and brain function. In spite of widespread human exposure to relatively high doses over potentially long periods of time, there is a paucity of data from animal studies regarding the toxicity and carcinogenicity associated with GBE. In order to fill this knowledge gap, 3-month and 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with GBE administered by oral gavage to B6C3F1/N mice and F344/N rats were performed as part of the National Toxicology Program's Dietary Supplements and Herbal Medicines Initiative. The targets of GBE treatment were the liver, thyroid, and nose. These targets were consistent across exposure period, sex, and species, albeit with varying degrees of effect observed among studies. Key findings included a notably high incidence of hepatoblastomas in male and female mice and evidence of carcinogenic potential in the thyroid gland of both mice and rats. Various nonneoplastic lesions were observed beyond control levels in the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rats and mice administered GBE. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to humans, the findings fill an important data gap in assessing risk associated with GBE use.

  3. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Tao, Ran

    2016-01-15

    In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet (UV), thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL) acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE) and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of bovine serum albumin with Ginkgol C15:1 from Ginkgo biloba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yang-Yang [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yang, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: XM_Yang1963@126.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Yue-Ying [School of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Feng, Chun-Lai [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction between Ginkgol C15:1 (Ginkgol), a natural bioactive compound from Ginkgo biloba, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under simulative physiological conditions. The results showed that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Ginkgol was a static quenching procedure through forming a 1:1 ground-state Ginkgol–BSA complex with a binding constant of about 2.6×10{sup 3} L mol{sup −1}. The values of the thermodynamic parameters indicated that electrostatic and hydrophobic forces played important roles in the interaction of BSA with Ginkgol. The binding distance between BSA and Ginkgol was 3.37 nm, based on Föster’s non-radiative energy transfer theory, and subdomain IIA (Sudlow site I) was the primary binding site which was consistent with that results of molecular docking modeling. The results of UV–vis, CD, three-dimensional fluorescence and FT-IR spectra indicated that binding of Ginkgol to BSA induced conformational changes of BSA. - Highlights: • This is the first time to report the interaction between Ginkgol C15:1 and BSA. • Researching the binding properties of Ginkgol C15:1 and BSA in-depth. • From the aspect of BSA structure change, verified the anticancer activity of Ginkgol. • Molecular docking study explored the interaction of Ginkgol on BSA.

  5. Preventative effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on high glucose-cultured opacity of rat lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Mingzhu; Du, Lei; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Nan; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Gang; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic cataract is one of the earliest secondary complications of diabetes, and it is characterized by opacification of the eye lens. In this study, we examined the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on rat lenses cultured in high-glucose conditions. The cultured rat lenses were divided into six groups: normal group, high-glucose group, high glucose plus low, medium, and high concentrations of EGb761 groups, and a high glucose plus bendazac lysine group. The activities of antioxidases, aldose reductase, advanced glycosylation end products, transforming growth factor-β2, Smad2/3, E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin were assessed by different methods. Compared with the levels in the high glucose group, EGb761 decreased the intensity of oxidative stress, decreased aldose reductase activation and the level of advanced glycosylation end products, and suppress the transforming growth factor-β2 or Smad pathway activation, further increase the expression of E-cadherin and decrease α-smooth muscle actin, and therefore, prevents the pathological changes of high glucose-induced lens epithelial cells and ameliorated lens opacity. These results suggest that EGb761 has protective effects on several pharmacological targets in the progress of diabetic cataract and is a potential drug for the prevention of diabetic cataract.

  6. Oleic acid derivative of polyethylenimine-functionalized proliposomes for enhancing oral bioavailability of extract of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Shuang; Fan, Chunyu; Bi, Ye; Du, Lin; Zhao, Lingzhi; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng; Teng, Lirong; Xie, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The present systematic study focused to investigate the oleic acid derivative of branched polyethylenimine (bPEI-OA)-functionalized proliposomes for improving the oral delivery of extract of Ginkgo biloba (GbE). The GbE proliposomes were prepared by a spray drying method at varying ratios of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, and the optimized formulation was tailored with bPEI-OA to obtain bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes. The formulations were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The release of GbE from proliposomes exhibited a sustained release. And the release rate was regulated by changing the amount of bPEI-OA on the proliposomes. The physical state characterization studies showed some interactions between GbE and other materials, such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces during the process of preparation of proliposomes. The in situ single-pass perfusion and oral bioavailability studies were performed in rats. The significant increase in absorption constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) from bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes indicated the importance of positive charge for effective uptake across the gastrointestinal tract. The oral bioavailability of bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes was remarkable enhanced in comparison with control and conventional proliposomes. The bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes showed great potential of improving oral absorption of GbE as a suitable carrier.

  7. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultraviolet (UV, thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  8. Treatment with a Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, inhibits excitotoxicity in an animal model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-Siang; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Jung-Yaw

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA 17) is a polyglutamine disease caused by the expansion of CAG/CAA repeats in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) gene. The Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, contains flavonoids and terpenoids with a potential use for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The neuroprotective effects of EGb 761 are obvious, but whether the EGb 761 has therapeutic effects in SCA 17 is still unclear. To manage our issues, we have generated TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells and SCA 17 transgenic mice with the mutant hTBP gene. In in vitro experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment decreased the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble proteins in the TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. We further found that the EGb 761 treatment could inhibit excitotoxicity and calcium influx and reduce the expression of apoptotic markers in glutamate-treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In in vivo experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection per day) could relieve the motor deficiencies of the SCA 17 transgenic mice. Our findings provide evidence that the EGb 761 treatment can be a remedy for SCA 17 via suppressing excitotoxicity and apoptosis in SCA 17 cell and animal models. Therefore, we suggest that EGb 761 may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating SCA 17.

  9. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: inhibition by polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hee; Park, Jang-Soon; Lee, Seung-Woong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Young, Bae-Eun; Choi, Hwa-Jung

    2015-01-02

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the predominant cause of severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine. Until now there is no recorded clinically effective antiviral chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of diseases caused by PEDV. This study aimed to investigate in vitro anti-PEDV effect of polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action. The polysaccharide exhibited potent antiviral activity against PEDV reducing the formation of a visible CPE [a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)=1.7±1.3μg/mL], compared to positive control, ribavirin and it did not show cytotoxicity at 100μg/mL [a 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50)=100μg/mL]. Polysaccharide also showed effective inhibitory effects when added at the viral attachment and entry steps. Moreover, polysaccharide effectively inactivated PEDV infection in time-, dose- and temperature-dependent manners. Overall, this research revealed that polysaccharide could inhibit PEDV infection, and that polysaccharide may be involved in PEDV-Vero cell interactions, as the virus attachment and entry to the Vero cells was hindered by the polysaccharide. Therefore, polysaccharide possessing effective inhibitory effect on viral attachment and entry steps of PEDV life cycle is a good candidate for development of antivirals.

  10. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 against noise trauma-induced hearing loss and tinnitus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziridis, Konstantin; Korn, Sabine; Ahlf, Sönke; Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and resulting comorbidities like subjective tinnitus are common diseases in modern societies. A substance shown to be effective against NIHL in an animal model is the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Further effects of the extract on the cellular and systemic levels of the nervous system make it a promising candidate not only for protection against NIHL but also for its secondary comorbidities like tinnitus. Following an earlier study we here tested the potential effectiveness of prophylactic EGb 761 treatment against NIHL and tinnitus development in the Mongolian gerbil. We monitored the effects of EGb 761 and noise trauma-induced changes on signal processing within the auditory system by means of behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. We found significantly reduced NIHL and tinnitus development upon EGb 761 application, compared to vehicle treated animals. These protective effects of EGb 761 were correlated with changes in auditory processing, both at peripheral and central levels. We propose a model with two main effects of EGb 761 on auditory processing, first, an increase of auditory brainstem activity leading to an increased thalamic input to the primary auditory cortex (AI) and second, an asymmetric effect on lateral inhibition in AI.

  11. Simple Method for Simultaneous Quantitation and Fingerprint Analysis of Ginkgo biloba Tablets by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV-Evaporative Light Scattering Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-fang; LUO Xiao-ling; SHAO Qing; CHENG Yi-yu; QU Hai-bin

    2009-01-01

    By optimizing the separation and analytical conditions, a reliable, simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method coupled with ultraviolet(UV) and evaporative light scattering detector(ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of lactones and flavonoid, that is, bilobalide, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, and rutin, in more than 10 batches of Ginkgo biloba tablets from different pharmaceutical companies. The method could also be applied to fingerprint research, for a more general evaluation of the quality of this preparation. The separation of the components was achieved on a Hanbon C18 column with gradient elution using water and methanol containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid(TFA). The column temperature was 30 ℃ and the flow-rate of the mobile phase was 0.6 mL/min. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was set at 100 ℃, and the nitrogen flow-rate was 2 L/min. Good linear relationships were shown with correlation coefficients for analytes exceeding 0.9913. The limits of detection(LODs, S/N=3) and the limits of quantitation(LOQs, S/N=10) were 0.00887--0.0508 μg/μL and 0.0171-0.0636 μg/μL, respectively, on the column. The relative standard deviations(RSD) of the analytes were less than 3.61% for intraday and 3.70% for interday, respectively. The average recovery rates obtained were in the range of (97.3±4.3)% to (101.9±3.1)% for all the compounds. The results of quantitative and fingerprint analysis proved that the contents of the components were totally similar in the preparation of Ginkgo biloba tablets from the same pharmaceutical company; whereas, they varied significantly in the preparations of Ginkgo biloba tablets from different companies.

  12. Cardio-protection by Ginkgo biloba extract 50 in rats with acute myocardial infarction is related to Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Bao, Yi-Min; Wang, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for medical purposes for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) is a new standardized GBE product that matches the standardized German product as EGb761. This paper is aimed at studying the cardio-protection effects of GBE50 Salvia miltiorrhiza on myocardial function, area at risk, myocardial ultra-structure, and expression of calcium handling proteins in rat ischemic myocardium. Myocardium ischemia was induced by the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion and myocardial function was recorded by a transducer advanced into the left ventricle on a computer system. In vitro myocardial infarction was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Evans blue staining of heart sections. Morphological change was evaluated by electric microscopy and Western blotting was used for protein expression. Hemodynamic experiments in vivo showed that postischemic cardiac contractile function was reduced in ischemic rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (7.5 g/kg/d×7) and Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) (100 mg/kg/d×7) improved post-schemic cardiac diastolic dysfunction while not affecting the systolic function. In hearts of GBE50 group and Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) group, the area at risk was significantly reduced and myocardial structure was better-preserved. Moreover, Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchanger (NCX) expression increase and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase 2 (SERCA2), LTCC, and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) expression decreases were smaller than those in ischemia group. There was a significant difference between the GBE50 and ischemia group in NCX expression. GBE50 could improve recovery in contractile function and prevent myocardium from ischemia damage, which may be caused by attenuating the abnormal expression of NCX.

  13. Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba standardized extract in the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Budišić, Mislav; Bošnjak Pašić, Marija; Črnac, Petra; Budinčević, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients diagnosed with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Methods A total of 90 patients (aged 67.1±8.0 years; 59 women) were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to receive G. biloba 120 mg, G. biloba 60 mg, or placebo during a 6-month period. Assessment was made for efficacy indicators, including neuropsychological tests scores (Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Safety indicators included laboratory findings, reported adverse reactions, and clinical examination. Results At the end of 6-month study period, G. biloba 120 and 60 mg showed a statistically significant positive effect in comparison with placebo only on the Clinical Global Impression score (2.6±0.8 vs 3.1±0.7 vs 2.8±0.7, respectively; P=0.038). The Clinical Global Impression score showed a significant deterioration from the baseline values in the placebo group (−0.3±0.5; P=0.021) as opposed to G. biloba groups. No significant differences were found in the transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Adverse reactions were significantly more common and serious in the placebo group (16 subjects) than in either of the two G. biloba extract groups (eight and nine subjects, respectively), whereas laboratory findings and clinical examinations revealed no differences between the groups receiving G. biloba extract and placebo. Conclusion According to our results, G. biloba seemed to slow down the cognitive deterioration in patients with VCI, but the effect was shown in only one of the four neuropsychological tests administered. However, because of this mild effect in combination with a few adverse reactions, we cannot say that it is ineffective or unsafe either. Further studies are still needed to provide

  14. HILIC-UPLC-MS/MS combined with hierarchical clustering analysis to rapidly analyze and evaluate nucleobases and nucleosides in Ginkgo biloba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Guisheng; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-02-01

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been widely used in dietary supplements and more recently in some foods and beverages. In addition to the well-known flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones, G. biloba leaves are also rich in nucleobases and nucleosides. To determine the content of nucleobases and nucleosides in G. biloba leaves at trace levels, a reliable method has been established by using hydrophilic interaction ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) working in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Eleven nucleobases and nucleosides were simultaneously determined in seven min. The proposed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, and repeatability, as well as recovery. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was performed to evaluate and classify the samples according to the contents of the eleven chemical constituents. The established approach could be helpful for evaluation of the potential values as dietary supplements and the quality control of G. biloba leaves, which might also be utilized for the investigation of other medicinal herbs containing nucleobases and nucleosides.

  15. Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Inflammatory Mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6) in TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Hong Zhou; Jie-Ping Yu; Yi-Fei Liu; Xiao-Jun Teng; Mei Ming; Peng Lv; Ping An; Shi-Quan Liu; Hong-Gang Yu

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators play a criticial role in ulcerative colitis immune and inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on inflammatory mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6) in TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Colitis in rats was induced by colonic administration with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 150 mg/kg). EGB in doses of (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) was administered for 4 weeks to protect colitis. The results showed that ...

  16. 银杏发展态势及其价值分析%Developing situation and the value analyses of Ginkgo Biloba L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文祥

    2003-01-01

    银杏(Ginkgo Biloba L.)在中国有悠久的栽培历史.通过综合国内有关资料,从银杏的适应能力、应用价值和经济效益等方面,详尽阐述了近几年银杏栽培迅猛发展之原因,指明其发展趋势,给人们在今后的银杏栽培及开发利用方面以启迪.

  17. Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine

    OpenAIRE

    Larysa Sokolova; Robert Hoerr; Tamara Mishchenko

    2014-01-01

    A multicenter clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and betahistine at recommended doses in patients with vertigo. One hundred and sixty patients (mean age 58 years) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with EGb 761 (240 mg per day) or betahistine (32 mg per day) for 12 weeks. An 11-point numeric analogue scale, the Vertigo Symptom Scale—short form, the Clinical Global Impression Scales and the Sheehan Disability Scale wer...

  18. 银杏萜内酯的分布与矮壮素对其生物合成的调节%Distribution of terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba and the regulation effect of chlorocholine chloride on their biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷平生; 苏淑钗; 蒋湘宁; 王天华; 王沙生

    2004-01-01

    Terpene lactone contents in different organs of Ginkgo biloba L.and leaf,stem and root of G.biloba seedlings treated with chlorocholine chloride were determined by GC.The results showed that total terpene lactone contents in the order from high to low were bud(1.973mg·g-1),leaf(1.753mg·g-1),root,stem,and the terpene lactone in phloem was higher than that in xylem,leaf contained more bilobalide than root and stem.Chlorocholine chloride treatment significantly increased terpene lactone content of G.biloba seedlings.The possible way of terpene lactone biosynthesis was discussed.

  19. 08027 Ginkgo biloba 可提高抗精神病药有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍杰

    2006-01-01

    土耳其的研究者报道,Ginkgo biloba(Ⅰ)可提高治疗精神分裂症的抗精神病药的有效性。在他们的单盲研究中,29例被诊断患有精神分裂症的患者随机接受奥氮平(olanzapine)5~20mg/天加(Ⅰ)提取物300mg/天(15例)或单药奥氮平,

  20. Efeito do extrato de Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae, na osteoporose induzida em ratas Wistar Effect of the aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae, in induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda M. F. Lucinda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou os efeitos do tratamento por vinte dias com extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb na osteoporose induzida por glicocorticóides. Foram utilizadas 36 ratas divididas em seis grupos (n=6: Controle, osteoporose, controle positivo, EGb1 (14 mg EGb/mg/kg/dia, EGb2 (28 mg EGb/kg/dia e EGb3 (56 mg EGb/kg/dia. Os tratamentos foram realizados por vinte dias, após a indução da osteoporose. Após a eutanásia foram removidos o fêmur e a mandíbula de todos os animais. A mandíbula esquerda foi radiografada digitalmente para avaliação da cortical e do suporte ósseo periodontal (SOP. A análise histomorfométrica foi realizada no fêmur e mandíbula direitos. O grupo controle foi comparado ao grupo osteoporose (Teste t de Student e os demais grupos foram submetidos a ANOVA, seguido do teste post-hoc de Dunnett. Houve redução significava do SOP mesial, percentual ósseo alveolar (POA mandibular, percentual ósseo trabecular (POT do fêmur no grupo osteoporose. Houve aumento do SOP mesial no grupo controle positivo, EGb2 e EGb3. O POA da mandíbula e o POT do fêmur aumentaram nos grupos EGb2 e EGb3. O EGb nas doses de 28 mg/kg e 56 mg/kg recuperou de forma significativa o SOP mesial, o POA da mandíbula e o POT do fêmur.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 day treatment with extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb in glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. 36 rats were divided into six groups (n=6: control, osteoporosis, positive control, EGb1 (14 mg EGb/kg/day, EGb2 (28 mg EGb/kg/day and EGb3 (56 mg EGb/kg/day. Treatments were conducted for twenty days, after osteoporosis was induced. Following euthanasia the femur and mandible of all animals were removed. The left mandible was radiographed to evaluate the cortical and the periodontal bone support (PBS. The histomorphometric analysis was performed on the right mandible and the right femur. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis group (Student's t

  1. Enraizamento de estacas de Ginkgo biloba tratadas com ácido indolbutírico e ácido bórico Rooting of Ginkgo biloba cuttings treated with indolbutyric and boric acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Valmorbida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido bórico (B no enraizamento de estacas de Ginkgo biloba. Em estacas com duas folhas, medindo 15 cm de comprimento foram provocadas duas lesões na base de aproximadamente 2 cm, expondo o câmbio e procedeu-se à imersão por 10 segundos no tratamento correspondente, AIB (0, 1000, 2000 e 3000 mg L-1 na ausência ou presença de B (0 e 150 mg L-1. Em seguida foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de polipropileno contendo areia lavada. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados num fatorial 4X2, com seis repetições. Foram avaliadas porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, estacas não enraizadas e mortas, diâmetro e comprimento das raízes, aos 70 dias do tratamento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância sendo previamente testados para normalidade pelo Teste de Shapiro-Wilk. As médias foram comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey. Os tratamentos com 2000 mg L-1 de AIB foram superiores à ausência de AIB (80,55% vs. 55,56%, respectivamente, não diferindo dos demais tratamentos. A utilização de B não afetou a taxa de enraizamento, de estacas não enraizadas e mortas, não havendo interação entre a concentração de AIB e a utilização ou não de B. O diâmetro e o comprimento das raízes não foram afetados pela utilização de AIB e B.The aim of the work was to study the effect of indolbutyric (IBA and boric (B acids to root Ginkgo biloba cuttings. At the base of cuttings, with two leaves and 15 cm of length, were made two lesions with 2 cm to expose the cambium. Cuttings were treated for a period of 10 seconds with four concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg L-1 combined with two concentration of B (0 and 150 mg L-1. After that, cuttings were taken in polypropylene trays filled with washed sand. The experimental design was of randomized blocks in the factorial arrangement (4x2, with six replications. After 70 days, evaluations were done

  2. Dynamic change of protein polypeptide of Ginkgo biloba seed during germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-yan; LI Sheng-ping; PENG Fang-ren

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic changes of protein polypeptide in endosperms of Gingkgo biloba seeds during seed germination were studied by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The results showed that 80 kinds of protein spots in endosperms of Gingkgo biloba were clear observed in the 2-DE spectrum. Protein molecular weights were in the range of 26-52kD, and their isoelectric points were in the range of 5.8-7.8. In the course of seed germination, 13 kinds of proteins were degraded, and 13 kinds of proteins were synthesized; 7kinds of proteins with different molecular weights and isoelectric points of 35kD/pI6.8, 31kD/pI6.8, 29kD/pI6.8, 33kD/pI6.6, 33kD/pI 6.4,34kD/pI7.7 and 31 kD/pI7.7 were identified primarily as vegetative storage proteins (VSPs).

  3. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banin, R.M.; Hirata, B.K.S. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Andrade, I.S.; Zemdegs, J.C.S. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Clemente, A.P.G. [Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, AL (Brazil); Dornellas, A.P.S.; Boldarine, V.T. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estadella, D. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Baixada Santista, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, K.T. [Curso de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Oyama, L.M.; Ribeiro, E.B. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Telles, M.M. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-25

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  4. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Banin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B, and protein kinase B (Akt, as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD or a normal fat diet (NFD for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V, and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb. NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  5. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  6. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid related cytokines in patients with IPF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) related cytokines in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Methods: A total of 60 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg•d), continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg•d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg•d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb,ie. ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. ELISA was used to detect the levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of serum HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN. The pulmonary function detector was used to measure TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT.Results:After treatment, TNF-α level in the control group was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05), while HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN levels in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:EGb combined with prednisone can effectively enhance the levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γin BALF in patients with IPF, and improve the pulmonary

  7. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Eralp, E; Ahmed, I; Kunitz, A; Itil, K Z

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, a standardized dry extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (SeGb), has been approved by German health authorities for the treatment of primary degenerative dementia and vascular dementia. More than 24 different brands of Ginkgo biloba extract are sold in the United States. Tacrine, also known as tetrahydroaminoacrine (THA), and donepezil are currently the only drugs approved in the United States for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies demonstrated that SeGb and tacrine induce significant pharmacological effects on the brains of young, healthy human males, as determined by bioelectrical activity measurements obtained using the quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalogram (QPEEG) method. The type of central nervous system (CNS) effects we have seen on computer-analyzed EEGs (CEEGs) after administration of tacrine or EGb suggests both are "cognitive activators" which are, as a class of products, characterized by a (prepost) relative increase of 7.5 to 13 Hz ("alpha") and decrease of 1.3 to 7.5 Hz ("delta" and "theta") activity. To determine whether EGb or tacrine had noticeable pharmacological effects on elderly subjects diagnosed with possible or probable Alzheimer's, the present open, uncontrolled trial was conducted. Data from 18 subjects (11 males, 7 females) at an average age of 67.4 years with light to moderate dementia (Mini Mental mean score = 23.7, ranges: 15-29 [Geriatric Depression Scale mean scores = 3.7; range: 3.2-5.4]) were analyzed for this presentation. Each subject was randomly administered a single oral "Test-Dose" of either 40 mg of tacrine or 240 mg of EGb2 in two separate sessions within 3- to 7-day intervals. Before drug administration and at 1- and 3-hour intervals after drug administration, CEEGs were recorded for a minimum of 10 minutes. The CEEGs were analyzed using Period Analysis programs we developed for QPEEG. The results indicated that both EGb and, to a lesser degree, tacrine induced pharmacological effects, as

  8. 银杏叶片的粉末X-射线衍射Fourier指纹图谱分析%Analysis of Tablets of Ginkgo Biloba L.by Powder X-Ray Diffraction Fourier Fingerprint Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天鸣; 马雯婷; 付海燕; 郑岸冰; 吴燕

    2012-01-01

    采用粉末X-射线衍射法对7个不同厂家的银杏叶片进行分析,获得了各样品的粉末X-射线衍射Fourier指纹图谱.根据银杏叶提取物的粉末X-射线衍射Fourier图谱的几何拓扑图形和32个特征共有峰,研究了银杏叶片的粉末X-射线衍射Fourier指纹图谱的图形几何拓扑规律,并计算了其特征共有峰的比例,为银杏叶片的质量鉴定提供了参考依据.%Powder X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze tablets of Ginkgo biloba L. from different manufacturers. The powder X-ray diffraction Fourier fingerprint patterns of these samples were obtained. Based on the geometry topology of powder X-ray diffraction Fourier fingerprint pattern and 32 characteristic peaks of the extract of Ginkgo biloba L. , the geometry topology law of powder X-ray diffraction Fourier fingerprint pattern of the tablets of Ginkgo biloba L. was studied,and the proportions of characteristic peaks were calculated. It could be used as reference for the quality identification of the tablets of Ginkgo biloba L..

  9. Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba standardized extract in the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demarin V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vida Demarin,1,2 Vanja Bašić Kes,1 Zlatko Trkanjec,1 Mislav Budišić,1 Marija Bošnjak Pašić,3,4 Petra Črnac,5 Hrvoje Budinčević4,5 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center “Sestre Milosrdnice”, 2International Institute for Brain Health, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 4Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Osijek, 5Department of Neurology, Stroke and Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital “Sveti Duh”, Zagreb, Croatia Objectives: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients diagnosed with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Methods: A total of 90 patients (aged 67.1±8.0 years; 59 women were randomly allocated (1:1:1 to receive G. biloba 120 mg, G. biloba 60 mg, or placebo during a 6-month period. Assessment was made for efficacy indicators, including neuropsychological tests scores (Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression and transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Safety indicators included laboratory findings, reported adverse reactions, and clinical examination. Results: At the end of 6-month study period, G. biloba 120 and 60 mg showed a statistically significant positive effect in comparison with placebo only on the Clinical Global Impression score (2.6±0.8 vs 3.1±0.7 vs 2.8±0.7, respectively; P=0.038. The Clinical Global Impression score showed a significant deterioration from the baseline values in the placebo group (-0.3±0.5; P=0.021 as opposed to G. biloba groups. No significant differences were found in the transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Adverse reactions were significantly more common and serious in the placebo group (16 subjects than in either of the two G. biloba extract groups (eight and nine subjects

  10. Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, O; Hilgert, M; Chatterjee, S S; Lehr, M; Klein, J

    1999-12-01

    In rat hippocampal slices superfused with magnesium-free buffer, glutamate (1 mM) caused the release of large amounts of choline due to phospholipid breakdown. This phenomenon was mimicked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in a calcium-sensitive manner and was blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 and 7-chlorokynurenate. The NMDA-induced release of choline was not caused by activation of phospholipase D but was mediated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation as the release of choline was accompanied by the formation of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) and glycerophospho-choline (GPCh) and was blocked by 5-[2-(2-carboxyethyl)-4-dodecanoyl-3,5-dimethylpyrrol-1-yl]pentano ic acid, a PLA2 inhibitor. Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibited the NMDA-induced efflux of choline with an IC50 value of 2.3 microM and also prevented the formation of lyso-PC and GPCh. NMDA also caused a release of choline in vivo when infused into the hippocampus of freely moving rats by retrograde dialysis. Again, the effect was completely inhibited by bilobalide which was administered systemically (20 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, convulsions which were observed in the NMDA-treated rats were almost totally suppressed by bilobalide. We conclude that release of choline is a sensitive marker for NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown. Bilobalide inhibited the glutamatergic excitotoxic membrane breakdown both in vitro and in vivo, an effect which may be beneficial in the treatment of brain hypoxia and/or neuronal hyperactivity.

  11. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashayekh, Ameneh; Pham, Dzung L.; Yousem, David M.; Dizon, Mercedes; Barker, Peter B.; Lin, Doris D.M. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), a dietary supplement used for a number of conditions including dementia, has been suggested to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in CBF could be detected by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in elderly human subjects taking EGb. DSC-MRI was performed in nine healthy men (mean age 61 {+-} 10 years) before and after 4 weeks of 60 mg EGb taken twice daily. One subject underwent six consecutive scans to evaluate intrasubject reproducibility. CBF values were computed before and after EGb, and analyzed at three different levels of spatial resolution, using voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and regions of interest in different lobes, and all regions combined. Normalized intrasubject CBF (nCBF) measurements had a standard deviation of 7% and 4% in gray and white matter (WM) regions, respectively. SPM using an uncorrected, voxel-level threshold of P {<=} 0.001 showed a small CBF increase in the left parietal-occipital region. CBF in individual lobar regions did not show any significant change post-EGb, but all regions combined showed a significant increase of non-normalized CBF after EGb (15% in white and 13% in gray matter, respectively, P {<=} 0.0001). nCBF measured by DSC-MRI has good intrasubject reproducibility. In this small cohort of normal elderly individuals, a mild increase in CBF is found in the left parietal-occipital WM after EGb, as well as a small but statistically significant increase in global CBF. (orig.)

  12. Reversal effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts in multidrug resistance of mice S180 tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi-Yuan; Gu, Yun-Hao; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Jun; Han, Dong-Dong; Tang, Ying-Chao; Chen, Hua-Sheng; Xu, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reversal effect and its related mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts (GBEEs) in obtained multidrug resistance (MDR) of mice S180 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to simulate the clinical PFC [cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum, cisplatin (DDP) + fluorouracil (FU), FU+cyclophosphamide and cyclophosphamide] scheme, a gradually increasing dose was administered in a phased induction in order to induce S180 cells in vivo and to make them obtain multidrug resistance. The results in vitro demonstrated that GBEE could significantly increase the IC50 of DDP on S180 MDR cells, increase the accumulation of Adriamycin (ADR) and rhodamine 123 (Rho 123), and reduce the efflux of Rho 123 of S180 MDR cells. The results from the in vivo treatment with a combination of GBEE and DDP to S180 MDR ascites tumor in mice demonstrated that each dose of GBEE could effectively reverse the drug-resistance of S180 MDR cells to DDP in order to extend the survival time of mice with ascite tumors and inhibit tumor growth in solid tumor mice. In addition, GBEE effectively inhibited the expression of MDR-1 mRNA and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 mRNA in S180 MDR cells of ascites tumor in mice and improved the expression levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-3, IL-18 and interferon-γ in the blood serum of S180 MDR tumor-bearing mice. The present study showed that the mechanism of GBEE reversal of MDR may be associated with the inhibition of the functional activity of P-glycoprotein, the downregulation of drug resistance related gene expression of S180 MDR cells and the improvement of the production of related serum cytokines of S180 MDR tumor mice. PMID:27698692

  13. Reversal effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts in multidrug resistance of mice S180 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi-Yuan; Gu, Yun-Hao; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Jun; Han, Dong-Dong; Tang, Ying-Chao; Chen, Hua-Sheng; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reversal effect and its related mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts (GBEEs) in obtained multidrug resistance (MDR) of mice S180 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to simulate the clinical PFC [cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum, cisplatin (DDP) + fluorouracil (FU), FU+cyclophosphamide and cyclophosphamide] scheme, a gradually increasing dose was administered in a phased induction in order to induce S180 cells in vivo and to make them obtain multidrug resistance. The results in vitro demonstrated that GBEE could significantly increase the IC50 of DDP on S180 MDR cells, increase the accumulation of Adriamycin (ADR) and rhodamine 123 (Rho 123), and reduce the efflux of Rho 123 of S180 MDR cells. The results from the in vivo treatment with a combination of GBEE and DDP to S180 MDR ascites tumor in mice demonstrated that each dose of GBEE could effectively reverse the drug-resistance of S180 MDR cells to DDP in order to extend the survival time of mice with ascite tumors and inhibit tumor growth in solid tumor mice. In addition, GBEE effectively inhibited the expression of MDR-1 mRNA and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 mRNA in S180 MDR cells of ascites tumor in mice and improved the expression levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-3, IL-18 and interferon-γ in the blood serum of S180 MDR tumor-bearing mice. The present study showed that the mechanism of GBEE reversal of MDR may be associated with the inhibition of the functional activity of P-glycoprotein, the downregulation of drug resistance related gene expression of S180 MDR cells and the improvement of the production of related serum cytokines of S180 MDR tumor mice.

  14. Cultivation Techniques on Guangxi Ginkgo biloba Seedlings%广西银杏实生苗培育技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晓青; 翟爱军; 李晓铁

    2012-01-01

    该文对广西银杏实生苗的培育技术进行介绍,关键要选壮苗,选有胚芽且胚乳大的种子,采用砂藏、加湿、加温,对苗圃地进行细致整地,施足有机肥,3月播种,出苗后适当遮阳,及时除草、防病、追施叶面肥,出圃前30d炼苗,起苗后按标;位分级、捆扎,填写苗木标签,并建立苗木档案。%Cultivation techniques on Guangxi Ginkgo biloba seedlings was introduced in this paper. The key step in the procedure was seedlings. The cultivation process was consisted of the following stages: first, seeds with full plumule and plump endosperm were selected; second, sand reservoir as well as artificial humidification and heating-up were applied for germination. Before seeding, soil in the nursery garden must be carefully prepared and fertilized. Then, in March, seeds were sowed; after germination, seedlings should he overshadowed in a certain extent, meanwhile, weed control, disease prevent and Foliar fertilizer application should not be conducted 30 days prior to their transplantation; finally, according to the existenee standard, labeled and archived. omitted; seedlings adversity seedlings were graded training was bundled up according to the existence standard, labeled and archived.

  15. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Gafner, Stefan; Upton, Roy; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems from having a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have a similar phytochemical profile as the clinically tested extracts. The standardized commercial extracts of G. biloba leaf used in ginkgo supplements contain not less than 6% sesquiterpene lactones and 24% flavonol glycosides. While sesquiterpene lactones are unique constituents of ginkgo leaf, the flavonol glycosides are found in many other botanical extracts. Being a high value botanical, low quality ginkgo extracts may be subjected to adulteration with flavonoids to meet the requirement of 24% flavonol glycosides. Chemical analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that adulteration of ginkgo leaf extracts in many of these products is common, the naturally flavonol glycoside-rich extract being spiked with pure flavonoids or extracts made from another flavonoid-rich material, such as the fruit/flower of Japanese sophora (Styphnolobium japonicum), which also contains the isoflavone genistein. Recently, genistein has been proposed as an analytical marker for the detection of adulteration of ginkgo extracts with S. japonicum. This study confirms that botanically authenticated G. biloba leaf and extracts made therefrom do not contain genistein, and the presence of which even in trace amounts is suggestive of adulteration. In addition to the mass spectrometric approach, a high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed as a fast and economic method for chemical fingerprint analysis of ginkgo samples.

  16. Ginkgo biloba extracts attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury by inhibiting the COX-2 and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Chen, Nan; Ma, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jing; Bao, Jian-An; Zong-Qi, Cheng; Chen, Zu-Tao; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the role of Ginkgo biloba extract in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS. G. biloba extract (12 and 24 mg·kg(-1)) and dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)), as a positive control, were given by i.p. injection. The cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted. The degree of animal lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1b, and interleukin-6, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by H&E staining. The levels of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression were detected by Western blotting. Compared to the LPS group, the treatment with the G. biloba extract at 12 and 24 mg·kg(-1) markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression, and improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity. The histological changes of the lungs were also significantly improved. The results indicated that G. biloba extract has a protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The protective mechanism of G. biloba extract may be partly attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 activation.

  17. 银杏垂乳个体发生及系统学意义%Ontogenesis and Systematics Implications of Ginkgo biloba Chichi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢世岩; 张倩; 付兆军; 刘莉娟; 刘晓静; 辛红; 吴岐奎

    2013-01-01

    垂乳银杏是银杏家族中的一特异种质,银杏垂乳分根生、干生和枝生垂乳.中国现有垂乳银杏348株,分布在19个省(市),日本有43株.垂乳银杏与性别无关,但以300年以上古树居多.银杏垂乳呈圆锥状,外皮粗糙,并且垂直向下生长.这些垂乳生长到地面时可以产生根系和叶片.垂乳在树体上可以单一出现,也可以几个聚生.垂乳的顶部没有顶端分生组织,只出现形成层、次生木质部和韧皮部.从距垂乳顶端1cm处纵断面显示它的管胞具有许多取向,从距其顶端7 cm处取的断面显示,管胞接近正常的形成层取向.银杏垂乳发生机制通常有生长素说、愈伤或不定芽说、环境诱变说、病变或衰老说、子叶芽说.银杏垂乳也许对该物种的生长、发育及营养繁殖、野生性及长寿命具有重要的生态学和系统学意义.%Chichied ginkgo is a distinctive germplasm in ginkgo family.Ginkgo biloba chichi is divided into rooted chichi,stemmed chichi and branched chichi.There are 348 chichied ginkgo trees in China distributed in 19 provinces,and there are 43 plants in Japan.Chichied ginkgoes have no relations with gender but the most of chichied ginkgoes are older than 300 years.Chichi is coniform shaped with rough bark and grows vertically downward.These chichies can produce roots and leaves when they have grown down to the ground.Chichi on the tree can be a single appearance or a few aggregate.The tip of chichi has no apical meristem and only has cambium,secondary xylem and phloem.The median longitudinal sections exhibited various orientations of the tracheids at 1 cm from the tip of chichi.However,the sections revealed that tracheid orientation changed from being very variable in the centre to a more normal orientation as the cambium's at 7 cm from the tip.There are many theories on the chichi occurrence mechanisms,including Auxin theory,callus or adventitious bud theory,environmental mutagenesis theory

  18. Direct observation of bulk and surface chemical morphologies of Ginkgo biloba leaves by Fourier transform mid- and near-infrared microspectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun

    2013-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy is a powerful tool to obtain knowledge about the spatial and/or temporal distributions of the chemical compositions of plants for better understanding of their biological properties. However, the chemical morphologies of plant leaves in the plane of the blade are barely studied, because sections in this plane for mid-infrared transmission measurements are difficult to obtain. Besides, native compositions may be changed by chemical reagents used when plant samples are microtomed. To improve methods for direct infrared microspectroscopic imaging of plant leaves in the plane of the blade, the bulk and surface chemical morphologies of nonmicrotomed Ginkgo biloba leaves were characterized by near-infrared transmission and mid-infrared attenuated total reflection microspectroscopic imaging. A new self-modeling curve resolution procedure was proposed to extract the spectral and concentration information of pure compounds. Primary and secondary metabolites of secretory cavities, veins, and mesophylls of Ginkgo biloba leaf blades were analyzed, and the distributions of cuticle, protein, calcium oxalate, cellulose, and ginkgolic acids on the adaxial surface were determined. By the integration of multiple infrared microspectroscopic imaging and chemometrics methods, it is possible to analyze nonmicrotomed leaves and other plant samples directly to understand their native chemical morphologies in detail.

  19. Which level of evidence does the US National Toxicology Program provide? Statistical considerations using the Technical Report 578 on Ginkgo biloba as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Wilhelm

    2014-09-02

    The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) is assessed by a statistician. In the NTP-program groups of rodents are fed for a certain period of time with different doses of the substance that is being investigated. Then the animals are sacrificed and all organs are examined pathologically. Such an investigation facilitates many statistical tests. Technical Report TR 578 on Ginkgo biloba is used as an example. More than 4800 statistical tests are possible with the investigations performed. Due to a thought experiment we expect >240 false significant tests. In actuality, 209 significant pathological findings were reported. The readers of Toxicology Letters should carefully distinguish between confirmative and explorative statistics. A confirmative interpretation of a significant test rejects the null-hypothesis and delivers "statistical proof". It is only allowed if (i) a precise hypothesis was established independently from the data used for the test and (ii) the computed p-values are adjusted for multiple testing if more than one test was performed. Otherwise an explorative interpretation generates a hypothesis. We conclude that NTP-reports - including TR 578 on Ginkgo biloba - deliver explorative statistics, i.e. they generate hypotheses, but do not prove them.

  20. 银杏的景观价值及其在园林中的应用%landscape Value of Ginkgo biloba and its Application in the Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽峰

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced ecology and landscape function of Ginkgo biloba, and analyzed the landscape performance characteristics of its application in the garden color configuration ( similar color configuration, contrasting color configuration), space configuration and solitary plant, clump planting, row planting, forest planting configuration. The paper also suggested that application of Ginkgo biloba in garden landscaping should choose suitability tree and insist on principle of combining functional and ornamental.%介绍银杏树生态、景观功能.分析其在园林中应用的色彩配置(类似色配置、对比色配置),空间配置及孤植、丛植、列植、林植配置方式的景观表现特性.认为应用银杏在园林造景中应坚持适地适树以及功能性与观赏性相结合的原则.

  1. Ginkgo biloba extract alters the binding of the sodium [{sup 123}I] iodide (Na{sup 123}I) on blood constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias, E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Rosimeire de Souza [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Helio [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    We evaluated the in vitro effect of an aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) on the distribution in blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) and on the binding of Na{sup 123}I to the blood constituents using precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The radioactivity percentages insoluble (SF) and insoluble fraction (IF) of blood constituents were determined. The EGb interfered (p<0.05) on the distribution of Na{sup 123}I in the P (from 69.64 to 86.13) and BC (from 30.36 to 13.87) and altered the fixation of the Na{sup 123}I in IF-P and in IF-BC. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between the Ginkgo biloba and blood constituents radiolabeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of the binding of sodium iodide (Na{sup 123}I) to the blood constituents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This alteration should have influence in a diagnosis of nuclear medicine.

  2. 北京城区银杏行道树生长现状与健康状况研究%Growth and Health Status of Ginkgo biloba in Beijing Urban Street Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄光发; 彭镇华; 王成

    2013-01-01

    The planting site,size,and health condition of street tree Ginkgo biloba in Beijing urban area were investigated and the influence factors were analyzed based on filed survey.The results showed that G.biloba were mainly planted in tree pit within strip planting median.The average height,diameter at breast height and canopy diameter were 8.11 m,13.22 cm and 4.07 m,respectively,82.9% trees were less than 10 m in height,and most G.biloba trees were still in the initial stage of height and diameter increment.The tree health status was described with three classes:class Ⅰ (healthy),class Ⅱ (fair) and class Ⅲ(unhealthy).The percentage of class Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ for G.biloba trees in Beijing urban area accounted for 16.0%,37.2% and 42.9% respectively.The results of analysis showed that the health status of G.biloba was associated with the site condition,tree size and management practices.The trees planted in urban forest patch grew better than the trees planted in green belts and tree pits;meanwhile,the bigger trees were healthier than the smaller ones.In addition,the effects of urban heterogeneous environment and human activities on the health of Ginkgo biloba were analyzed and the suggestions on management were launched.

  3. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Analysis of Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase and Mevalonate Kinase Genes Involved in Terpene Trilactone Biosynthesis from Ginkgo biloba

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    Qiangwen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolides and bilobalide, collectively termed terpene trilactones (TTLs, are terpenoids that form the main active substance of Ginkgo biloba. Terpenoids in the mevalonate (MVA biosynthetic pathway include acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (AACT and mevalonate kinase (MVK as core enzymes. In this study, two full-length (cDNAs encoding AACT (GbAACT, GenBank Accession No. KX904942 and MVK (GbMVK, GenBank Accession No. KX904944 were cloned from G. biloba. The deduced GbAACT and GbMVK proteins contain 404 and 396 amino acids with the corresponding open-reading frame (ORF sizes of 1215 bp and 1194 bp, respectively. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that GbAACT was highly expressed in ginkgo fruits and leaves, and GbMVK was highly expressed in leaves and roots. The functional complementation of GbAACT in AACT-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Δerg10 and GbMVK in MVK-deficient strain Δerg12 confirmed that GbAACT mediated the conversion of mevalonate acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA and GbMVK mediated the conversion of mevalonate to mevalonate phosphate. This observation indicated that GbAACT and GbMVK are functional genes in the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA biosynthesis pathway. After G. biloba seedlings were treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, the expression levels of GbAACT and GbMVK increased, and TTL production was enhanced. The cloning, characterization, expression and functional analysis of GbAACT and GbMVK will be helpful to understand more about the role of these two genes involved in TTL biosynthesis.

  4. Early evolutionary colocalization of the nuclear ribosomal 5S and 45S gene families in seed plants: evidence from the living fossil gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galián, J A; Rosato, M; Rosselló, J A

    2012-06-01

    In seed plants, the colocalization of the 5S loci within the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the nuclear 45S tandem units is restricted to the phylogenetically derived Asteraceae family. However, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) colocalization of both multigene families has also been observed in other unrelated seed plant lineages. Previous work has identified colocalization of 45S and 5S loci in Ginkgo biloba using FISH, but these observations have not been confirmed recently by sequencing a 1.8 kb IGS. In this work, we report the presence of the 45S-5S linkage in G. biloba, suggesting that in seed plants the molecular events leading to the restructuring of the ribosomal loci are much older than estimated previously. We obtained a 6.0 kb IGS fragment showing structural features of functional sequences, and a single copy of the 5S gene was inserted in the same direction of transcription as the ribosomal RNA genes. We also obtained a 1.8 kb IGS that was a truncate variant of the 6.0 kb IGS lacking the 5S gene. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the 1.8 kb variants are pseudogenes that are present exclusively on the satellite chromosomes bearing the 45S-5S genes. The presence of ribosomal IGS pseudogenes best reconciles contradictory results concerning the presence or absence of the 45S-5S linkage in Ginkgo. Our finding that both ribosomal gene families have been unified to a single 45S-5S unit in Ginkgo indicates that an accurate reassessment of the organization of rDNA genes in basal seed plants is necessary.

  5. Effects of ginkgo biloba on testicle injury induced by diethylstilbestrol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Hui; Ma, Aituan; Shi, Wanyu; Zhang, Xiao-Si; Liu, Yuzhi

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of gingko biloba (EGb) on diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced testicle injury in mice. Fifty male mice were divided into a control group (A), DES group (B), and 3 EGb groups (C, D, E). The EGb-treated groups received peritoneal EGb at 8.75 (C), 17.5 (D), 35 mg/kg (E) BW daily for 7 days. The control group was given equivalent amount of normal saline. The mice in groups B, C, D and E were injected hypodermically with DES at 40 mg/kg BW daily 4 hours after the first herbal administration, while the control was given olive oil. Compared with DES group, the testis coefficients-relative testicular weight increased in the three EGb-treated groups. No significant difference was observed in epididymis coefficients. Lipid peroxidation status and antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly elevated in testes of EGb-treated groups. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents were significantly decreased in testes of the EGb groups. The results indicate that EGb protects the testis from diethylstilbestrol-induced injury.

  6. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. e ginco (Ginkgo biloba L. Control quality evaluation of commercial samples of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procurou avaliar a qualidade de produtos comercializados à base de boldo, pata-de-vaca e ginco, através dos parâmetros contidos na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica. Foram analisadas oito amostras de boldo, nove de pata-de-vaca e sete de ginco, adquiridas em farmácias na cidade do Recife. A metodologia consistiu em avaliar: os rótulos e bulas dos produtos verificando se estavam de acordo com a RDC n o 17 de 24/02/2000 e a portaria 110/97 da ANVISA; realizar análise sensorial; verificar a autenticidade das amostras e sua pureza. Todas as embalagens de boldo, pata-de-vaca e seis de ginco continham erros ou ausência de informações científicas, além da falta de bula. Na verificação de impurezas, todas as de boldo, cinco de pata-de-vaca, e uma amostra de ginco foram reprovadas. Todos os produtos analisados apresentaram alguma irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessário uma maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial products prepared with boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. by using parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. Eight samples of "boldo", nine of "pata-de-vaca", and seven of ginkgo were analyzed, all bought from pharmacies in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil. The methodology consisted in evaluating the products’ labels and instructions to verify their accordance to RDC n o 17 of 02/24/2000 and ANVISA (National Sanitary Surveillance Agency decree 110/97, undertaking a sensorial analysis, and verifying the authenticity and purity of the samples. All of the packages of "boldo" and "pata-de-vaca" and six of the packages of ginkgo contained mistakes or lacked scientific information; instructions were also missing. After analyzing for impurities, all samples of "boldo", five of "pata-de-vaca", and one of

  7. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of selected flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Chandra, Preeti; Arya, Kamal Ram; Kumar, Brijesh

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 13 flavonoids in leaf, stem, and fruit extracts of male and female trees of Ginkgo biloba to investigate gender- and age-related variations of flavonoids content. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) in 5 min. Quantitation was performed using negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed a good linear relationship (r(2) ≥ 0.9977) over the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/mL. The precision evaluated by an intra- and interday study showed RSD ≤ 1.98% and good accuracy with overall recovery in the range from 97.90 to 101.09% (RSD ≤ 1.67%) for all analytes. The method sensitivity expressed as the limit of quantitation was typically 0.25-3.57 ng/mL. The results showed that the total content of 13 flavonoids was higher in the leaf extract of an old male Ginkgo tree compared to young female Ginkgo trees.

  8. Spatial and temporal changes in leaf coloring date of Acer palmatum and Ginkgo biloba in response to temperature increases in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Kyun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Su-Jong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Jinwon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding shifts in autumn phenology associated with climate changes is critical for preserving forest ecosystems. This study examines the changes in the leaf coloring date (LCD) of two temperate deciduous tree species, Acer palmatum (Acer) and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), in response to surface air temperature (Ts) changes at 54 stations of South Korea for the period 1989–2007. The variations of Acer and Ginkgo in South Korea are very similar: they show the same mean LCD of 295th day of the year and delays of about 0.45 days year-1 during the observation period. The delaying trend is closely correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.77) with increases in Ts in mid-autumn by 2.8 days °C-1. It is noted that the LCD delaying and temperature sensitivity (days °C-1) for both tree species show negligible dependences on latitudes and elevations. Given the significant LCD-Ts relation, we project LCD changes for 2016–35 and 2046–65 using a process-based model forced by temperature from climate model simulation. The projections indicate that the mean LCD would be further delayed by 3.2 (3.7) days in 2016–35 (2046–65) due to mid-autumn Ts increases. This study suggests that the mid-autumn warming is largely responsible for the observed LCD changes in South Korea and will intensify the delaying trends in the future. PMID:28346534

  9. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Yu-Chih Liang; Jane CJ Chao; Li-Hsueh Tsai; Chun-Chao Chang; Chia-Chi Wang; Shiann Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo bilobaextract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats.METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gaveGbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers,gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1)GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH oontents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanolproduced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosawhich also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE;and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretionin pylorus-ligated rats.CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation;(2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3)blockade of cell apoptosis.

  10. EGb761, an extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, reduces insulin resistance in a high-fat-fed mouse model

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    Wei-na Cong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available EGb761, a standardized and well-defined product extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has beneficial effects on the treatment of multiple diseases, including diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, it is still unclear whether EGb761 can increase insulin sensitivity. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the effects of EGb761 on insulin sensitivity in an obese and insulin-resistant mouse model, established through chronic feeding of C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet (HFD, and to explore potential mechanisms. Mice fed with HFD for 18 weeks (starting from 4 weeks of age developed obesity, dyslipidemia (as indicated by biochemical measurements of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and free fatty acids (FFA, and insulin resistance (as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, compared to control mice fed with a standard laboratory chow. Oral treatment of the HFD-fed mice with EGb761, at low (100 mg/kg, medium (200 mg/kg, or high (400 mg/kg doses, via oral gavage (once daily for 8 weeks (starting from 26 weeks of age dose-dependently enhanced glucose tolerance in OGTT, and decreased both the insulin levels (by 29%, 55%, and 70%, respectively, and the HOMA-IR index values (by 50%, 69%, and 80%, respectively. EGb761 treatment also ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, and liver injury, as indicated by decreases in body weight (by 4%, 11%, and 16%, respectively, blood TC levels (by 23%, 32%, and 37%, respectively, blood TG levels (by 17%, 23%, and 33%, respectively, blood FAA levels (by 35%, 38%, and 46%, respectively, and liver index (liver weight/body weight values (by 12.8%, 25%, and 28%, respectively in the low, medium, and high EGb761 dose groups, respectively. In further mechanism studies, EGb761 was found to protect hepatic insulin receptor β and insulin receptor substrate 1 from HFD-induced degradation, and to keep the AMP

  11. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on expression of biomarkers during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanrong Hao; Jianjia Su; Chao Ou; Ji Cao; Fang Yang; Xiaoxian Duan; Chun Yang; Yuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Wistar rats. Methods: Seventy one Wistar rats were assigned at random to groups A, B and C. Rats in groups A, B were injected with AFB1 (intraperitoneal, 100–200 μg/kg body weight, 1–3 times/week). Group C was normal control. Rats in group B were fed in food with EGb761, while rats in groups A, C were given normal food. Blood samples were collected and liver biopsies were performed on the 14th, 28th and 42nd week. All the rats were sacrificed on the 64th week. The incidence of hepatocarcinoma was investigated. The hepatic phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) and phase II metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) were analyzed with spectrometry. Serum AFB1-lysine adduct levels were assessed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) was measured with immunohistochemistry. Results: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in group B was significantly lower than that in group A (26.92% vs 76.00%, P < 0.001). No HCC developed in group C. EGb761 showed no effects on the activities of CYP450 and GST in rat liver tissues. The level of AFB1-lysine adduct reached the peak (4356.01 pg/mg albumin) at the 14th week in group A. EGb761 significantly inhibited the formation of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum by 13.07% at the 14th week (P = 0.033), and 73.63% at the 42nd week (P = 0.002). The expression of 8-OHdG protein in rat liver tissues in group B was significantly lower than that in group A at the 28th, 42nd, and 64th week (P < 0.05). Conclu-sion: The main mechanism underlying the effect of EGb761 in blocking hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AFB1 may not be fully attributable to its influence on the activity of liver phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. EGb761 inhibits the produc-tion of AFB1-lysine adducts, decreases the expression of 8-OHd

  12. Treatment with a Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, inhibits excitotoxicity in an animal model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17

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    Huang DS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ding-Siang Huang,1,* Hsuan-Yuan Lin,1,2,* Guey-Jen Lee-Chen,1 Hsiu-Mei Hsieh-Li,1 Chung-Hsin Wu,1 Jung-Yaw Lin1,21Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA 17 is a polyglutamine disease caused by the expansion of CAG/CAA repeats in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP gene. The Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, contains flavonoids and terpenoids with a potential use for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The neuroprotective effects of EGb 761 are obvious, but whether the EGb 761 has therapeutic effects in SCA 17 is still unclear. To manage our issues, we have generated TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells and SCA 17 transgenic mice with the mutant hTBP gene. In in vitro experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment decreased the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble proteins in the TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. We further found that the EGb 761 treatment could inhibit excitotoxicity and calcium influx and reduce the expression of apoptotic markers in glutamate-treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In in vivo experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection per day could relieve the motor deficiencies of the SCA 17 transgenic mice. Our findings provide evidence that the EGb 761 treatment can be a remedy for SCA 17 via suppressing excitotoxicity and apoptosis in SCA 17 cell and animal models. Therefore, we suggest that EGb 761 may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating SCA 17.Keywords: spinocerebellar ataxia type 17, excitotoxicity, EGb 761, polyQ diseases, apoptosis 

  13. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean François

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. Methods and Findings The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study ‘Paquid’. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the ‘neither treatment’ group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the ‘neither treatment’ group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = −0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the ‘neither treatment’ group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = −0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = −1.40 and β = −0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = −1.07, β = −1.61 and β = −0.41). Conclusion Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in

  14. Ginkgo biloba extract and long-term cognitive decline: a 20-year follow-up population-based study.

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    Hélène Amieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan® and piracetam (Nootropyl® on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study 'Paquid'. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the 'neither treatment' group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the 'neither treatment' group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = -0.6. Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the 'neither treatment' group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = -0.03, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = -1.40 and β = -0.44. When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = -1.07, β = -1.61 and β = -0.41. CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in those who did

  15. Evaluation of a Method to Determine Flavonol Aglycones in Ginkgo biloba Dietary Supplement Crude Materials and Finished Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dean; LeVanseler, Kerri; Pan, Meide; Waysek, Edward H.; Baugh, S.; Chandra, A.; Meibos, R.; Peng, T.; Perez, R.; Reif, K.; Roman, M.; Rousch, J.; Skamarack, J.; Solyom, A.; Sullivan, D.; Young, K.

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted for evaluation of a method to determine the flavonol aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in Ginkgo biloba products. The method calculates total glycosides based on these aglycones formed after acid hydrolysis. Twelve matrixes were chosen for study by 12 collaborating laboratories in 2 countries. Test materials included crude leaf material, standardized dry powder extract, single and multiple entity finished products, ethanol and glycerol tinctures, and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRMs). Results from 11 laboratories were used for the final calculations. Eight of the 12 matrixes evaluated produced acceptable results for total flavonol glycosides, with HorRat scores ranging from 1.31 to 2.05; repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) from 1.46 to 4.14; and reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) from 4.67 to 9.69. These 8 matrixes consisted primarily of simple dosage forms (e.g., dry powder extracts, crude leaf samples, liquid extracts, and SRMs) and a single tablet product (Ginkgo Awareness). Four additional matrixes, consisting of 3 tablets and 1 soft gel product (Ginkgold, Ginkoba, Ginkogen, and Ginkgo Phytosome, respectively), showed greater total flavonol glycoside HorRat scores in comparison, ranging from 2.39 to 5.13, with RSDr values from 2.83 to 8.16, and RSDR values from 8.53 to 20.4. Based on the results presented here, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of total flavonol glycosides calculated from quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in dry powder extracts, crude leaf material, liquid extracts, and a select finished product, Ginkgo Awareness. PMID:17373435

  16. Research on the Ginkgo Biloba Extract in the Treatment of Tinnitus%银杏叶萃取物治疗耳鸣临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨银杏叶萃取物治疗耳鸣的疗效及安全性。方法:将100例耳鸣患者按照抽签法随机地均分为对照组与观察组,两组均给予5 mg·d-1盐酸氟桂利嗪作为基础治疗药物,对照组加用10 mg维生素B6,每天3次;观察组给予银杏叶萃取物56.7 mg·d-1加用治疗,每天3次,疗程均为30 d。比较两组疗效、耳鸣响度评分( TVL)、焦虑倾向评分( SAS)、耳鸣残疾评分(THI)及不良反应发生情况。结果:对照组有效率为74.00%,观察组有效率为92.00%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:银杏叶萃取物治疗耳鸣疗效显著,耳鸣响度、焦虑情绪及耳鸣致残等方面均有明显改善,且安全性高。%Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo Biloba extract in treating tinnitus. Methods:100 cases of patients with tinnitus were randomly divided into control group and observation group. Both two groups were given 5mg/d flunarizine hydrochlo-ride as basic treatment. The control group was treated with 10mg vitamin B6,3 times a day. The observation group was given Ginkgo Bi-loba extract 56. 7mg/d treatment,3 times a day,a course of 30d. Therapy,tinnitus loudness rating( TVL),anxiety propensity scores (SAS),tinnitus disability score(THI),and adverse events were compared. Results:The total effective rate was 74. 00% in control group and 92. 00% in observation group,there was a significantly statistical difference between the two groups(P0. 05). Conclusion:Ginkgo Biloba extract in treating tinnitus,tinnitus loudness,anxiety and other aspects of disability has evident effect with high safety.

  17. The Efficacy and Safety of Add-on Ginko TD (Ginkgo Biloba Treatment for PTSD: Results of a 12-Week Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Laleh Koohi Habibi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Exposure to traumatic stressors lead to activation of arousal responses mediated by serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and it may cause a change in numerous neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine systems. There is ample experimental and clinical evidence to suggest that Ginkgo biloba extract is neuroprotective and has antioxidant properties and can restore stress-induced elevation in brain levels of catecholamines, 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to normal level. "nMethod: In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the efficacy and safety of adding-on a fixed-dose (200mg of Ginkgo TD to the previous treatment regime of adults with PTSD were examined. Subjects were forty male and female outpatients from a public-owned psychiatric clinic who met criteria for PTSD seven month after a 6.3 Richter earthquake in Bam city on December 26, 2003. The changes in five symptom domains including posttraumatic stress, anxiety and affective symptoms, general health and subjective stress after trauma were ssessed at weeks 0, 12 and 16 to examine effectiveness of the added-on Ginkgo TD and stability of its effects. "nResults: Ginkgo TD was associated with a significantly greater improvement than placebo in PTSD patients as measured by five symptom domain scales including: GHQ-28; Watson PTSD Scale; HAM-D; HAM-A and IES (p= 0.02, 0.01, 0.001, 0.01, 0.02 respectively Four weeks after the discontinuation of intervention, no significant difference was determined between the two groups in the five outcome measures (p= 0.005, 0.01, 0.004, 0.005, 0.01 respectively. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of side effects. "nConclusions: We found Ginkgo TD to be superior to placebo as an adding-on in the treatment of PTSD. Although we did not examine the comparative efficacy of Ginkgo TD on the three main elements of PTSD, beneficial effects both on specific PTSD symptomatology and general conditions including

  18. 银杏花生复合饮料工艺条件的研究%Study on Compound Beverage from Ginkgo biloba and Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明鸣; 金晓芳; 孙月娥

    2011-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba and peanuts have a high nutrition and health functions. The processing technology of a healthy beverage from ginkgo milk and peanut milk was studied through the single factor experiments and orthogonal test. The optimum conditions: Ginkgo biloba was hydrolyzed at 65 ℃ for 30 min with 0.3% enzyme dosage. The best formula for the compound beverage was that: ginkgo juice: peanut sauce=3 : 7, 8% sucrose, double the water, 0.74% compound stabilizer(composed of 0.08% xanthan gum, 0.6% sodium alginates, 0.06% agar), 0.20% compound emulsifier(composed of 0.14% poly ester, 0.04% sucrose ester-11, 0.02% sucrose ester-15). A compound health beverage with delicate taste, rich nutrition and good stability was prepared under homogeneous conditions of 55 ℃, 20 MPa, second homogeneous.%银杏和花生都具有较高的营养和保健功能。本文通过单因素实验和正交试验对银杏花生复合饮料的工艺进行研究,确定了最佳工艺条件:银杏乳采用0.3%中温淀粉酶和0.3%碱性蛋白酶在65℃酶解30min。饮料的最佳配方为银杏乳:花生乳=3:7、8%蔗糖、一倍水量,采用0.04%黄原胶、0.6%海藻酸钠、0.06%琼脂作为复合稳定剂,以及0.14%聚甘油酯、0.04%蔗糖酯E-11、0.02%蔗糖酯E-15作为复合乳化剂可获得较好的稳定性。将复合饮料在55℃、20MPa下进行二次均质处理,制得一种口感细腻、稳定性较好的复合保健饮料。

  19. Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chi Peng

    2013-01-01

    overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5 mg testosterone (T and 0.1 mg estradiol (E2 per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33 μL/100 g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30 m/min, 3 times/week. In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5α-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, but suppressed androgen receptor (AR, aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH.

  20. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Medicas]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Rocha, Emely Kazan [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica

    2005-10-15

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P<0.05), probably caused by metabolites generated by EGb and capable of altering the bioavailability of the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}. (author)

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics of a proliposome formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginaton in rats by a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Xing, Gaoyang; Bi, Ye; Yan, Guodong; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yingkun; Liu, Yan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Xie, Jing

    2016-01-01

    As a novel oral drug delivery system, proliposome was applied to improve the solubility of active components of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). There are currently few reports focusing on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of proliposome of GbE (GbP). A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of active components of GbP and a commercial tablet product (Ginaton) in rat plasma was developed and successfully validated. The method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation of GbP and Ginaton in rat plasma. The results indicated that GbP has a significant effect on absorption, elimination and bioavailability of flavonoids and terpenoid lactones in comparison with Ginaton. The obtained results would be helpful for evaluating the absorption mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract in pharmacokinetic level and guiding the development of the novel oral drug delivery system.

  2. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Major Active Ingredients and Toxic Components in GinkgoBiloba Leaves Extract (EGb 761) by a Validated UPLC-MS-MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Qi; Yao, Xin; Cheng, Zongqi

    2017-01-08

    An accurate, precise and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonoids, terpene lactones, together with ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb 761). This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of major active ingredients and toxic components in EGb 761 using UPLC-MS-MS. This analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. In addition, the content of those major bioactive components in EGb 761 prepared by different manufacturers of China was determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results indicated that the quantification analysis could be readily utilized as a quality control method for EGb 761 and its other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones and ginkgolic acids as markers.

  3. Isolation,purification and analysis of a polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba seed%银杏白果多糖的提取、纯化和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群; 杨桂文; 安利国

    2002-01-01

    目的从银杏白果中分离银杏白果多糖,并研究其组成性质.方法经热水提取,乙醇沉淀,Sevag法去蛋白,乙醇分级分离,Sephadex G-200柱层析纯化银杏白果多糖(Ginkgo biloba seed polysaccharide,GBSP),采用醋酸纤维纸电泳、Sepharose 4B柱层析及毛细管电泳对其进行分析和组成研究.结果提取纯化的银杏白果多糖(GBSP)是单一均匀的多糖,分子量为1.86×105,得率为0.87%.结论银杏白果多糖(GBSP)是由D-甘露糖组成的匀多糖.

  4. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  5. Activity of Ginkgo biloba Extract and Quercetin on Thrombomodulin Expression and Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator Secretion by Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN-JUN LAN; XIAO-XIANG ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the pharmacological properties of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on improving blood circulation, the regulating action of GBE and quercetin (a main flavonoid ingredient in GBE) on thrombomodulin (TM)expression and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) secretion was studied. Methods Using flow cytometer and gel image system respectively, we evaluated the TM expression and the t-PA secretion by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Results The increase of TM expression on HUVECs surface was induced by GBE rather than quercetin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both GBE and quercetin increased the t-PA release significantly.Conclusion The effect of GBE on improving blood circulation may be partly attributed to its promoting TM expression and t-PA secretion by endothelial cells, and quercetin participated in the effect of GBE on t-PA secretion. However, the action of GBE on increasing TM expression needs further study.

  6. Efeitos do extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761 sobre a atividade motora e a memória em ratos nadadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761 ou exercício físico, modificam as funções cognitivas e aliviam os sintomas de ansiedade; contudo, estes efeitos devem ser melhor caracterizados. A administração oral repetida do extrato (40 ou 80 mg/kg/dia e exercício de natação em ratos indicam um aumento de entradas nos braços fechados no labirinto em cruz elevado (F5,55 = 6.295; p < 0,001 e uma diminuição na imobilidade no campo aberto (F5,55 = 6.997; p < 0,001, sugerindo um aumento na atividade motora. Além disto, o exercício de natação aumenta a exploração no campo aberto e o tratamento com EGb 761 cancela este efeito (F5,55 = 8.575; p < 0,001; indicando uma interação entre EGb 761 e exercício de natação, provavelmente, com um mesmo substrato neurobiológico. Análises comportamentais no teste de reconhecimento de objetos mostraram que o exercício de natação e/ou tratamento com EGb 761, durante os testes de 24 horas, gastavam mais tempo explorando os novos objetos que os familiares (F5,55 = 4.392; p < 0,01; razão de discriminação; memória a longo prazo, indicando que o exercício de natação e/ou EGb 761 alteram a memória. Estes resultados levantam a possibilidade do EGb 761 e exercício físico atuarem em diferentes regiões do cérebro e provocarem diferentes efeitos sobre a atividade motora e funções cognitivas. Palavras-chave: Atividade motora. Campo aberto. Ginkgo biloba. Memória. Labirinto em cruz elevado. Reconhecimento de objetos. ABSTRACT Either ingestion of a Ginkgo biloba proprietary extract (EGb 761 or physical exercise can enhance cognitive functioning and alleviate symptoms of anxiety; however, their combined effects have yet to be characterized. Rats subjected to repeated oral administration of the extract (40 or 80 mg/kg/day and swimming exercise exhibited an increased number of closed-arm entries in the elevated plus-maze and decreased immobility in the open field, suggesting an

  7. THE APPLICATION OF A NOVEL ADSORBENT IN RAPID SAMPLE CLEAN—UP OF GINKGOLIDES AND BILOBALIDE IN EXTRACTS OF GINKGO BILOBA LEAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMingcheng; XUMancai; 等

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for rapid sample clean-up in the determination of the pharmacologically active terpenoid including ginkgolide A,B,C and bilobalide in ginkgo biloba leaves extracts (GBE).The extracts are dissolved in 7% of ethanol aqueous solution and then purified by a highly selective polyeric adsorbent solid-phase chromatographic column.After being concentrated,the separated terpenoids with no phenolic distrubance are determined by highperformance liquid chromatorgraphy on a Nova-Pak C18 column with methanol-water(30:70)as effluent and refractive index detection.The recovery of the method is about 95% and the new method saves more time than the conventional two-column purification method.

  8. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99mTcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99mTcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (PSubstâncias podem interferir na biodisponibilidade de radiobiocomplexos, como os radiofármacos. O extrato de Ginkgo Biloba (EGb apresenta efeitos. Avaliou-se a influência de um EGb na biodisponibilidade do pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO-4Na e na morfometria de órgãos de ratos que foram tratados com EGb. 99mTcO-4Na foi injetado, os animais sacrificados e a radioatividade nos órgãos contada. Os resultados mostraram que o EGb alterou a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na em rins, fígado e duodeno e alterações morfométricas significativas (p<0.05 foram encontradas. Sugere-se que o EGb poderia gerar metabólitos capazes de alterar morfometricamente os órgãos citados e alterar a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na.

  9. Study on extraction and purification of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharide%银杏外种皮多糖的提取和纯化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静静; 江波; 张涛; 沐万孟; 缪铭

    2011-01-01

    考察温度、料液比、时间以及提取次数对多糖提取率的影响,确定最佳提取条件.水提醇沉得到的银杏外种皮中多糖(GBEP)含有一定的蛋白质,以多糖的损失率和蛋白质的去除率为指标,比较三种方法:三氯乙酸法、Sevage法、酶法去除GBEP中蛋白质的效率.结果表明,用酶法除蛋白时,多糖的损失率最低;Sevage法除蛋白最彻底,重复多次操作后可以得到不含蛋白质的多糖,虽然多糖损失较多,但有利于进一步的实验研究.AB-8树脂对多糖脱色率为66.35%.%Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharide(GBEP) was obtained from exocarp of Ginkgo biloba L by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation.The crude GBEP contains a significant amount of protein,which should be eliminated before further investigation.Three deproteinization methods: trichloroacetic acid treatment, Sevage method,enzyme treatment were evaluated,with protein removal rate and polysaccharide loss rate as efficiency criteria.Enzymatic method exhibited the minimum polysaccharide loss,while protein can be completely removed by Sevage method. The decolorization efficiency was 66.35% when using AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin.

  10. Effect of Coppice Management on Physiological and Biochemical Indexes and Yield of Ginkgo biloba Leaves%截干对叶用银杏叶片生理生化特性及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢友超; 曹福亮; 吕祥生

    2001-01-01

    In order to cultivate high yield with good quality Ginkgo biloba leaf-producing plantation, coppice management of 1,2,3-year -old Dafuzhi seedling at different stump heights (or top bud pruning) were take n and some physiological and biochemical indexes and yield of Ginkgo biloba leaves were determined on May 15 and September 11. The results showed that the c hlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water conten ts of all treatments and the total flavonoid concentration of some treatments we re higher than those of CK; Leaf yield and total flavonoid yield per plant of so me treatments were higher than those of CK at the later stage of the year.

  11. Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a Xantha Mutant of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yellow-green leaf mutants are common in higher plants, and these non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutants are ideal materials for research on photosynthesis and plant development. A novel xantha mutant of Ginkgo biloba displaying yellow-colour leaves (YL and green-colour leaves (GL was identified in this study. The chlorophyll content of YL was remarkably lower than that in GL. The chloroplast ultrastructure revealed that YL had less dense thylakoid lamellae, a looser structure and fewer starch grains than GL. Analysis of the photosynthetic characteristics revealed that YL had decreased photosynthetic activity with significantly high nonphotochemical quenching. To explain these phenomena, we analysed the proteomic differences in leaves and chloroplasts between YL and GL of ginkgo using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 89 differential proteins were successfully identified, 82 of which were assigned functions in nine metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein metabolism were greatly enriched, indicating a good correlation between differentially accumulated proteins and physiological changes in leaves. The identifications of these differentially accumulated proteins indicates the presence of a specific different metabolic network in YL and suggests that YL possess slower chloroplast development, weaker photosynthesis, and a less abundant energy supply than GL. These studies provide insights into the mechanism of molecular regulation of leaf colour variation in YL mutants.

  12. Proliposomes containing a bile salt for oral delivery of Ginkgo biloba extract: Formulation optimization, characterization, oral bioavailability and tissue distribution in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Teng, Lirong; Xing, Gaoyang; Bi, Ye; Yang, Shuang; Hao, Fei; Yan, Guodong; Wang, Xinmei; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng; Xie, Jing

    2015-09-18

    Proliposomes containing a bile salt were developed to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). GbE loaded proliposomes (P-GbE) were successfully prepared by spray drying method. The formulation was optimized using the response surface methodology. FE-SEM, DSC, and FT-IR were used to study the surface morphology and molecular state of proliposomes, and demonstrated key interactions between the formulation ingredients. In vitro studies showed delayed release and enhanced dissolution of Ginkgo flavonoids and terpene lactones from GbE proliposomes. Proliposomes significantly enhanced GbE absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and decreased its elimination. The bioavailabilities of quercetin, kaempferol, isorhmnetin, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B and ginkgolide C from proliposomes relative to the control were 245%, 211%, 264%, 203%, 333%, and 294%, respectively. Proliposomes were shown to selectively deliver GbE to critical target tissues. In conclusion, development of proliposomes formulation for GbE solved the problem of its poor oral bioavailability, prolonged its duration of action, and increased drug distribution in critical tissues, especially in the brain, therefore, warrant further investigation.

  13. 不同因素对银杏叶中白果酸提取率的影响%Studies on the extracting technology for ginkgolic acid in Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪庆; 何照范

    2002-01-01

    @@ 银杏叶为银杏科银杏属银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)的干燥叶,系常用中药.其味苦,性甘平,有益心敛肺,化湿止泻的功效,可治胸闷心痛,心悸怔忡,痰喘咳嗽,泻痢白带等症.

  14. Protective effects of ginkgo biloba leaves extract on peroxide-induced oxidative stress damage in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqiang Chen; Taiping Hu; Ying Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracts of ginkgo biloba leaves (EGB) and its metabolites have been reported to enhance brain function and nerve behavior. It has also been hypothesized that they can protect neurons from oxidative stress.OBJECTIVE: To investigate protective effects of EGB on peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress damage in PC12 cells.DESIGN: Observational contrast study.SETTING: Department of Pathophysiology, Guangdong Pharmacological College.MATERIALS: EGB was provided by Xi'an Fujie Biotechnological Development Company; 1640 culture medium, methylthiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), trypsin and dimathyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by Sigma Company;PC 12 cell strain by Cell Center of Medical College of Zhongshan University; calf serum by Hangzhou Sijiqing Bioengineering Company; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) kit by Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Research Institute.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in Department of Cell Biology of Guangdong Pharmacological College from June to December 2005.①Cell culture: PC 12 cells were cultured in 1640 medium containing 200 g/L fetal calf serum. The cells were diluted to 1×107 L-1 and washed every two days. Those cells were used to experiment until they grew in logarithm on solid wall.②Grouping and intervention: PC 12 cells(1×108L-1) were plated in 96-well plates with the density of 200 μL/hole and divided into three groups:normal control group (routinely adding media), H2O2 group (treating with media and H2O2 for 20 hours) and EGB group (adding media, 100 μ mol/L EGB and 100 μmol/L H2O2).③MTT assay: PC12 cells (1×108L-1) were plated in 96-well plates and divided into three groups with 8 holes for each group. Under sterile condition, cells were added with 5 g/L MTT (100 μ L) and cultured for 4 hours. And then, 200 μL DMSO fluid was added and shaken for 30 minutes until blue crystal products formed were dissolved soundly.④Experimental evaluation: Absorbance (A) at 630 nm was measured and LDH activity was measured at the same

  15. Study on Extraction of Flavonoids in the Testa of Ginkgo Biloba L.%银杏外种皮黄酮类化合物的提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国斌; 席国萍

    2011-01-01

    Using water, ethanol or acetone as solvent, the flavonoids in the testa of Ginkgo biloba L. were extracted by different ways. The experiment results showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained by using the refluxing extraction method with ethanol as solvent,for which the extraction rate of flavonoids in the testa of Ginkgo biloba L. was higher than 84% , standard deviation was 0. 0009 and RSD was 0. 10%. It provided reference for utilization of the testa of Ginkgo biloba L.source.%分别以水、乙醇、丙酮作为提取溶剂,对银杏外种皮黄酮类化合物的不同提取方法进行了比较研究。结果表明,以乙醇作为提取溶剂,采用回流提取法提取银杏外种皮黄酮类化合物的效果最好,提取率超过84%,标准偏差为0.0009,RSD为0.10%。为银杏外种皮资源的开发利用提供了依据。

  16. 不同处理方式对银杏叶活性成分的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TREATMENT ON THE BIO-ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF GINKGO BILOBA LEAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦俊哲; 高存秀

    2011-01-01

    Through the different withering and drying method on Ginkgo Biloba leaves to study the bio-active constituents of Ginkgo Biloba leaves.Results show that when Ginkgo Biloba leaves is withering in 30 ℃ sunshine for 5 h,and then 70 ℃ drying, the yield rate of gingko flavonoids is 1.72%, the yield rate of ginkgolic acids is only 0.58%, ginkgolic acid content decreased 69%.%以新鲜银杏叶为原料,通过不同萎凋方式及干燥方式的处理,考察了其对银杏叶活性成分的影响.研究表明,在30 ℃阳光下萎凋5 h后于70 ℃热风干燥,银杏黄酮得率为1.72%,银杏酸得率仅为0.58%,银杏酸含量下降了69%.

  17. Proper interpretation of chronic toxicity studies and their statistics: A critique of "Which level of evidence does the US National Toxicology Program provide? Statistical considerations using the Technical Report 578 on Ginkgo biloba as an example".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Grace E; Haseman, Joseph K; Zeiger, Errol

    2015-09-02

    A recent article by Gaus (2014) demonstrates a serious misunderstanding of the NTP's statistical analysis and interpretation of rodent carcinogenicity data as reported in Technical Report 578 (Ginkgo biloba) (NTP, 2013), as well as a failure to acknowledge the abundant literature on false positive rates in rodent carcinogenicity studies. The NTP reported Ginkgo biloba extract to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. Gaus claims that, in this study, 4800 statistical comparisons were possible, and that 209 of them were statistically significant (pGinkgo biloba extract cannot be definitively established. However, his assumptions and calculations are flawed since he incorrectly assumes that the NTP uses no correction for multiple comparisons, and that significance tests for discrete data operate at exactly the nominal level. He also misrepresents the NTP's decision making process, overstates the number of statistical comparisons made, and ignores the fact that the mouse liver tumor effects were so striking (e.g., p<0.0000000000001) that it is virtually impossible that they could be false positive outcomes. Gaus' conclusion that such obvious responses merely "generate a hypothesis" rather than demonstrate a real carcinogenic effect has no scientific credibility. Moreover, his claims regarding the high frequency of false positive outcomes in carcinogenicity studies are misleading because of his methodological misconceptions and errors.

  18. Direct analysis of 18 flavonol glycosides, aglycones and terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba tablets by matrix solid phase dispersion coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Guang; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Lei; Qin, Yong; Wang, Qi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba have been comprehensively studied. However, little attention has been devoted to the simultaneous extraction and analysis of flavonols and terpene trilactones, especially for direct quantification of flavonol glycosides. This work described a rapid strategy for one-step extraction and quantification of the components. A matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) method was designed for the extraction of ginkgo ingredients and compared with the heat-reflux and ultrasonic extraction methods. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem-triple-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) method was developed for detection of the 18 components, including 10 original flavonol glycosides, 3 aglycones, and 5 lactones. Subsequently, the proposed strategy was used for the analysis of 12 G. biloba tablets. Results showed that MSPD produced comparable extraction efficiency but consumed less time and required lower solvent volumes compared with conventional methods. Without hydrolysis, the concentration detected was much closer to the original in the sample. The total flavonol glycoside contents in ginkgo tablets ranged from 3.59 to 125.21μgmg(-1), and the terpene trilactone varied from 3.45 to 57.8μgmg(-1) among different manufacturers. In conclusion, the proposed MSPD and UHPLC-QQQ-MS is rapid and sensitive in providing comprehensive profile of chemical constituents especially the genuine flavonol glycosides for improved quality control of ginkgo products.

  19. Progress in Researches on the Pharmaceutical Mechanism and Clinical Application of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Various Kinds of Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-xia; CAO Fu-liang; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Progress made over the pharmaceutical mechanism and clinical application of Ginkgo BiIoba extract (GBE) on various kinds of diseases were reviewed in this paper. The effective elements contained in GBE are mainly kinds of Ginkgo flavonoid and Ginkgolide, which have marked protective effects on cardio-cerebral vascular and central nerve systems. In clinical practice, it is applied mostly in treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases. Also it shows apparent effects in the treatment processes of some other diseases as an adjuvant, and therefore, has been gradually accepted by the medical circle in the world, proving to be a medicine of wide prospect in development and application.

  20. Fuzzy clustering evaluation of the discrimination power of UV-Vis and (±) ESI-MS detection system in individual or coupled RPLC for characterization of Ginkgo Biloba standardized extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Albu, Florin; Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica Domnica; Sârbu, Costel

    2014-02-01

    Discrimination power evaluation of UV-Vis and (±) electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric techniques, (ESI-MS) individually considered or coupled as detectors to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) in the characterization of Ginkgo Biloba standardized extracts, is used in herbal medicines and/or dietary supplements with the help of Fuzzy hierarchical clustering (FHC). Seventeen batches of Ginkgo Biloba commercially available standardized extracts from seven manufacturers were measured during experiments. All extracts were within the criteria of the official monograph dedicated to dried refined and quantified Ginkgo extracts, in the European Pharmacopoeia. UV-Vis and (±) ESI-MS spectra of the bulk standardized extracts in methanol were acquired. Additionally, an RPLC separation based on a simple gradient elution profile was applied to the standardized extracts. Detection was made through monitoring UV absorption at 220 nm wavelength or the total ion current (TIC) produced through (±) ESI-MS analysis. FHC was applied to raw, centered and scaled data sets, for evaluating the discrimination power of the method with respect to the origins of the extracts and to the batch to batch variability. The discrimination power increases with the increase of the intrinsic selectivity of the spectral technique being used: UV-VisGinkgo Biloba extracts. © 2013 Elsevier B

  1. Proteomic analysis of the low mutation rate of diploid male gametes induced by colchicine in Ginkgo biloba L.

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    Nina Yang

    Full Text Available Colchicine treatment of G. biloba microsporocytes results in a low mutation rate in the diploid (2n male gamete. The mutation rate is significantly lower as compared to other tree species and impedes the breeding of new economic varieties. Proteomic analysis was done to identify the proteins that influence the process of 2n gamete formation in G. biloba. The microsporangia of G. biloba were treated with colchicine solution for 48 h and the proteins were analyzed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and compared to protein profiles of untreated microsporangia. A total of 66 proteins showed difference in expression levels. Twenty-seven of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the 27 proteins, 14 were found to be up-regulated and the rest 13 were down-regulated. The identified proteins belonged to five different functional classes: ATP generation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism; protein metabolism; ROS scavenging and detoxifying enzymes; cell wall remodeling and metabolism; transcription, cell cycle and signal transduction. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins and their function could help in analysing the mechanism of lower mutation rate of diploid male gamete when the microsporangium of G. biloba was induced by colchicine.

  2. Chemical constituents from root barks of Ginkgo biloba (Ⅰ)%银杏根皮化学成分研究(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金龙; 刘培; 段金廒; 郭盛; 王鑫; 孙光天; 姚鑫; 钱叶飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究银杏Ginkgo biloba根皮的化学成分.方法 采用多种柱色谱分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和波谱分析鉴定化合物结构.结果 从银杏根皮中分离得到13个化合物,其中脂肪酸类4个:棕榈酸(1)、硬脂酸(2)、山嵛酸(3)、木蜡酸(4);脂肪醇类1个:正二十七烷醇(5);甾体类2个:β-谷甾醇(6)、胡萝卜苷(7);黄酮类2个:芫花素(8)、芹菜素(9);萜内酯类4个:白果内酯(10)、银杏内酯A (11)、银杏内酯B(12)、银杏内酯C(13).结论 化合物1~9为首次从银杏根皮中分离得到,其中化合物3~5为首次从该植物中分离得到,该研究为银杏根皮资源的综合利用奠定了基础.%Objective To study the chemical constituents from the root barks of Ginkgo biloba.Methods The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analyses.Results Thirteen compounds were isolated including four fatty acids,palmitinic acid (1),stearic acid (2),behenic acid (3),and lignoceric acid (4); one fatty alcohol,1-heptacosanol (5); two sterides,β-sitosterol (6) and daucosterol (7); two flavonoids,genkwanin (8) and apigenin (9); and four ginkgolides,bilobalide (10),ginkgolide A (11),ginkgolide B (12),and ginkgolide C (13).Conclusion Among them,compounds 3-5 are isolated from this plant for the first time.The results are helpful for the comprehensive utilization of the resources of the root barks of G.biloba.

  3. Expression of Selected Ginkgo biloba Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

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    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, GbHSP17 showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 may play important roles in Ginkgo leaf development and photosynthesis, and GbHSP17 may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three GbHSPs were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of GbHSP70, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP17, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of GbHSP70 primarily.

  4. 银杏叶提取物对脑组织及脑神经细胞活性的保护机制研究%Research on the Protection of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Brain Mechanisms and Brain Cell Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇君

    2015-01-01

    现今银杏叶提取物在人体很多系统上的效应都已证实,在此篇综述之中,我们就其对脑细胞及神经的效应来做综述。电脑搜索Medlinc:数据库2000-01/2015-2时间内的有关资料,检索词为“Ginkgo biloba extract'”,英文;同时计算机搜索中国期刊全文数据库、万方数据2000-01/2015-2时间段的有关资料,检索词为“银杏叶提取物”,中文。检索得到69篇和银杏叶提取物作用于脑细胞和神经细胞的文章,包括银杏叶提取物对脑组织以及神经的药理学作用机制、临床上的使用以及起作用的部分,在脑缺血缺氧时的作用,水肿缓解以及大脑记忆力恢复、帕金森病相关治疗预防等的有关文章25篇,排除资料44篇。①银杏叶提取物对脑血栓的保护性作用;②银杏叶提取物对脑缺血缺氧、水肿的保护作用;③银杏叶提取物对大脑记忆力的影响;④银杏叶提取物对帕金森病的防治作用;⑤银杏叶提取物对脑神经的保护作用。银杏叶提取物在修复损伤脑细胞活力和功能,缓解局部微循环,纺织某些脑部疾患上具有一定的效果。%Nowadays effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in humans have been confirmed by many systems in Cipian reviewed among our brain cells and their effects do nerve reviewed. Search Medlinc on computer:information database time from 2000-01 to 2015-2, the key words of”“Ginkgo biloba extract”, English;while search Chinese Academic Journal, Articles from 2000--01 to 2015-2 information section on computer, the key words of“Ginkgo biloba extract,” Chinese. Retrieved 69 articles and Ginkgo biloba extract acts on brain cells and nerve cells, including Ginkgo biloba extract brain tissue and nerves of pharmacological action mechanism, the use of clinical and work part missing in cerebral ischemia When the role of oxygen, and brain edema ease memory recovery, prevention and other related treatment of

  5. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (IDS) is encoded by multicopy genes in gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba and Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Kobayashi, Akio; Sando, Tomoki; Chang, Yung-Jin; Kim, Soo-Un

    2008-01-01

    Isoprenoids are synthesized through the condensation of five-carbon intermediates, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), derived from two distinct biosynthetic routes: cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) and plastidial 2-C-methyl-D: -erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (IDS; EC 1.17.1.2), which catalyzes the last step of MEP pathway, was cloned as a multicopy gene from gymnosperms Ginkgo biloba (GbIDS1, GbIDS2, and GbIDS2-1) and Pinus taeda (PtIDS1 and PtIDS2), and characterized. Phylogenetic tree constructed with other plant IDSs demonstrated gymnosperm IDSs were distinctively different from angiosperm IDSs. The gymnosperm IDS clade contained two subclades, one composed of GbIDS1 and PtIDS1, and the other composed of GbIDS2, GbIDS2-1, and PtIDS2. G. biloba IDSs, except GbIDS2-1, successfully complemented Escherichia coli DLYT1, a lytB disruptant, confirming the in vivo competency of isozymes. During the 4 weeks study period, although transcript levels of GbIDS1s were similar both in roots and leaves of cultured G. biloba embryo, the transcripts of GbIDS2 predominantly occurred in the embryo roots, where diterpene ginkgolides are biosynthesized. Levels of PtIDS2 transcripts in the diterpenoid resin-producing wood were 4-5 times higher than those in other tissues. Higher levels of GbIDS1 transcripts were induced by light, whereas those of GbIDS2 were increased by methyl jasmonate treatment. These results strongly imply GbIDS2 and PtIDS2 have high correlation with secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis transient expression system, N-terminal 100 amino acid residues of GbIDS1 delivered fused GFP protein into chloroplast as well as cytosol and nucleus, whereas those of GbIDS2, GbIDS2-1, and two PtIDSs delivered GFP only into chloroplast.

  6. Estudo comparativo dos efeitos do extrato de Ginkgo biloba L. e Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer na reprodução de ratos machos e fêmeas Wistar Comparative study of effects of Ginkgo biloba L. and Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer extract on the reproduction of Wistar male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Kuntze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng são plantas utilizadas na medicina tradicional. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a histologia gonadal de ratos machos e fêmeas Wistar submetidos aos tratamentos com o extrato de G. biloba (120 mg kg-1 ou P. ginseng (200 mg kg-1, e avaliar os parâmetros reprodutivos e fetais das ratas tratadas com as plantas. O grupo controle recebeu solução fisiológica 0,9%. Os tratamentos foram efetuados por via oral através de gavage, duas vezes ao dia, durante quinze dias consecutivos. Após este período, machos (n=18 e fêmeas (n=18 foram sacrificados e as gônadas coletadas, pesadas e processadas para avaliação microscópica. Outras fêmeas (n=18 foram acasaladas com machos não tratados para avaliação da fertilidade e produtos da gestação. Os resultados indicaram que o peso dos órgãos reprodutivos masculino e feminino não foi afetado pelos tratamentos. A estrutura gonadal dos machos e fêmeas mostrou o mesmo padrão histológico nos três grupos experimentais. O tratamento materno pré-gestacional com os extratos não promoveu alterações no desempenho reprodutivo das matrizes e nos parâmetros fetais. Concluiu-se que o extrato de P. ginseng ou G. biloba não causou toxicidade reprodutiva em ratos machos e fêmeas.Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng are plants used in the traditional medicine. The aim of study was to analyse the gonadal histology of the Wistar male and female rats submitted to the treatments with extract of G. biloba (120 mg kg-1 or P. ginseng (200 mg kg-1, and to evaluate the reproductive and fetal parameters of female rats treated with the plants. The control group received physiological solution 0.9%. The treatments were administered by oral gavage, twice/day, during fifteen consecutive days. After this period, male (n=18 and female rats (n=18 were sacrificed and the gonads collected, weighed and processed for microscopic evaluation. Another females (n=18 were matted with not treated males for

  7. Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Inflammatory Mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6 in TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats

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    Yan-Hong Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory mediators play a criticial role in ulcerative colitis immune and inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on inflammatory mediators (SOD, MDA, TNF-α, NF-κBp65, IL-6 in TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Colitis in rats was induced by colonic administration with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 150 mg/kg. EGB in doses of (50, 100, 200 mg/kg was administered for 4 weeks to protect colitis. The results showed that EGB could significantly ameliorate macroscopic and histological damage, evidently elevate the activities of SOD and reduce the contents of MDA, inhibit the protein and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, NF-κBp65, and IL-6 in the colon tissues of experimental colitis in a dose-dependent manner compared with the model group. We concluded that the probable mechanisms of EGB ameliorated inflammatory injury in TNBS-induced colitis in rats by its modulation of inflammatory mediators and antioxidation.

  8. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine

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    Natascia Brondino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba (Gb has demonstrated antioxidant and vasoactive properties as well as clinical benefits in several conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, and peripheral nerve damage. Additionally, Gb is supposed to act as potential cognitive enhancer in dementia. So far, several trials have been conducted to investigate the potential effectiveness of Gb in neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of three randomised controlled trials in patients with schizophrenia and eight randomised controlled trials in patients with dementia. Gb treatment reduced positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and improved cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. No effect of Gb on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients was found. The general lack of evidence prevents drawing conclusions regarding Gb effectiveness in other neuropsychiatric conditions (i.e., autism, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Our data support the use of Gb in patients with dementia and as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenic patients.

  9. Development of a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for determination of digoxin and six active components of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhi; Qin, Hongyan; Wei, Yuhui; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Fan; Shao, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Wu, Xin'an

    2014-05-15

    A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method by using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of digoxin (DGX) and six main components of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) in rat plasma. Comparing with the conventional multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), DMRM dramatically decreases the number of concurrent MRM transitions, and significantly extended the dwell time, which provided much higher sensitivity and reproducibility than MRM when complex multi-component samples were quantified. The plasma samples were protein precipitated with methanol, the detection was accomplished with electro-spray ionization (ESI) as the ion source operating in the negative ionization mode, with methanol and water as mobile phase, and with an Agilent Zorbax eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 × 100 mm, 3.5 μm) as the analytical column. The total run time was 12.0 min. The validation of the method was implemented including specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and stability. This method was successfully applied to the herb-drug pharmacokinetic interaction study of DGX combined with GBE after oral administration to rats. The result indicated that co-administration of GBE and DGX significantly influenced the pharmacokinetics of DGX when compared to that of single DGX-treated rats.

  10. LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 11 compounds of Ginkgo biloba extract in lysates of mesangial cell cultured by high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing-ying; Chen, Xu; Li, Zheng; Wang, Shi-rui; Wu, Xiao-wen; Li, Yin-jie; Yang, Dong-zhi; Yu, Yan-yan; Yin, Xiao-xing; Tang, Dao-quan

    2015-08-01

    The mesangial cell (MC) cultured with high glucose has been used to observe the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the compounds interacting with cell are still unknown, which may be potential bioactive components. Based on this, the determination of GBE in MC lysates was proposed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in this study. The MC was cultured with normal or high glucose with GBE for 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 48h. The harvested cell was extracted with 40% acetic acid in water and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. All the validation data including linearity, intra-day and inter-day precision, limit of detection and quantification, matrix effect, and stability were within the required limits. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify 11 compounds of GBE in cell lysates. The results showed that high glucose prolonged the peak time of all observed 11 compounds and peak concentrations of bilobalide, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide B, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and genkwanin in cell lysates, which hinted that these compounds may be the potential bioactive components of GBE with preventive effect against DN.

  11. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

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    R. B. Silberstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion.

  12. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and FK506 preserve energy metabolites in the striatum during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in gerbils monitored by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Ying; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chung, Shu-Ying; Lin, Ming-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Cell death after cerebral ischemia is mediated by the accumulation of excitatory amino acids, calcium influx into cells and the generation of free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in energy-related metabolites in the striatum of gerbils subjected to focal cerebral ischemia after pretreatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761), a well-known antioxidant, and FK506, a calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin inhibitor. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right common carotid artery and the right middle cerebral artery for 60 min. A microdialysis probe was inserted into the right striatum to monitor extracellular glucose, lactate and pyruvate levels. This study showed decreases in glucose (10% of the baseline), pyruvate (20% of the baseline) and lactate (60% of the baseline), and a 5-fold increase in the lactate to pyruvate ratio during ischemia in the control group. Both EGb761 treatment and the combination (EGb761 and FK506) therapy significantly preserved glucose (50% of the baseline) and pyruvate (60% of the baseline) levels during ischemia. The marked increase in the lactate to pyruvate ratio was not observed in the combination group. These results suggest that preservation of cellular energy metabolism during cerebral ischemia and after restoration with reperfusion may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of EGb761 and FK506.

  13. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract treatment in the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the femoral trabecular bone of Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

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    Leda M.F. Lucinda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae (EGb in the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the femoral trabecular bone of Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Rats were divided into five groups: osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/kg; EGb2 (56 mg/kg; alendronate (0.2 mg/animal and control. The treatments were conducted for 20 or 30 days. The Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts cells was evaluated in the femoral trabecular bone. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis-induced group (Student's t-test. The other groups were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05. The percentage of Bcl-2 expression was reduced, when the control group (17.95 ± 3.45 20 days; 21.11 ± 3.43 30 days was compared with the osteoporosis group (10.64 ± 3.30 20 days; 9.72 ± 2.84 30 days. Nevertheless, this percentage increased in the EGb2 group (18.58 ± 3.41 20 days; 16.51 ± 1.80 30 days when compared to the osteoporosis group. The EGb increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, suggesting a decrease in osteoblast apoptosis.

  14. Protection Efficacy of the Extract of Ginkgo biloba against the Learning and Memory Damage of Rats under Repeated High Sustained +Gz Exposure

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    Liang-En Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated high sustained positive Gz (+Gz exposures are known for the harmful pathophysiological impact on the brain of rats, which is reflected as the interruption of normal performance of learning and memory. Interestingly, extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and cognition-enhancing effects. In this study, we are interested in evaluating the protective effects of EGb toward the learning and memory abilities. Morris Water Maze Test (MWM was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the physiological status of the key components in central cholinergic system was also investigated. Our animal behavioral tests indicated that EGb can release the learning and memory impairment caused by repeated high sustained +Gz. Administration of EGb to rats can diminish some of the harmful physiological effects caused by repeated +Gz exposures. Moreover, EGb administration can increase the biological activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px but reduce the production of malondialdehyde (MDA. Taken together, our study showed that EGb can ameliorate the impairment of learning and memory abilities of rats induced by repeated high sustained +Gz exposure; the underlying mechanisms appeared to be related to the signal regulation on the cholinergic system and antioxidant enzymes system.

  15. Isorhamnetin, A Flavonol Aglycone from Ginkgo biloba L., Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Cultured PC12 Cells: Potentiating the Effect of Nerve Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, a group of compounds mainly derived from vegetables and herbal medicines, share a chemical resemblance to estrogen, and indeed some of which have been used as estrogen substitutes. In searching for possible functions of flavonoids, the neuroprotective effect in brain could lead to novel treatment, or prevention, for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, different subclasses of flavonoids were analyzed for its inductive role in neurite outgrowth of cultured PC12 cells. Amongst the tested flavonoids, a flavonol aglycone, isorhamnetin that was isolated mainly from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. showed robust induction in the expression of neurofilament, a protein marker for neurite outgrowth, of cultured PC12 cells. Although isorhamnetin by itself did not show significant inductive effect on neurite outgrowth of cultured PC12 cells, the application of isorhamnetin potentiated the nerve growth factor- (NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. In parallel, the expression of neurofilaments was markedly increased in the cotreatment of NGF and isorhamnetin in the cultures. The identification of these neurite-promoting flavonoids could be very useful in finding potential drugs, or food supplements, for treating various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and depression.

  16. Isorhamnetin, A Flavonol Aglycone from Ginkgo biloba L., Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Cultured PC12 Cells: Potentiating the Effect of Nerve Growth Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sherry L; Choi, Roy C Y; Zhu, Kevin Y; Leung, Ka-Wing; Guo, Ava J Y; Bi, Dan; Xu, Hong; Lau, David T W; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids, a group of compounds mainly derived from vegetables and herbal medicines, share a chemical resemblance to estrogen, and indeed some of which have been used as estrogen substitutes. In searching for possible functions of flavonoids, the neuroprotective effect in brain could lead to novel treatment, or prevention, for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, different subclasses of flavonoids were analyzed for its inductive role in neurite outgrowth of cultured PC12 cells. Amongst the tested flavonoids, a flavonol aglycone, isorhamnetin that was isolated mainly from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. showed robust induction in the expression of neurofilament, a protein marker for neurite outgrowth, of cultured PC12 cells. Although isorhamnetin by itself did not show significant inductive effect on neurite outgrowth of cultured PC12 cells, the application of isorhamnetin potentiated the nerve growth factor- (NGF-)induced neurite outgrowth. In parallel, the expression of neurofilaments was markedly increased in the cotreatment of NGF and isorhamnetin in the cultures. The identification of these neurite-promoting flavonoids could be very useful in finding potential drugs, or food supplements, for treating various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and depression.

  17. A retrospective classification of diagnoses in terms of DSM-5 for patients included in randomized controlled trials of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Robert; Zaudig, Michael

    2016-04-01

    When the early trials of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(®) were conducted, different terms were used to denote ageing-associated neurocognitive disorders. With the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), a taxonomy covering dementia and pre-dementia stages of such disorders became available. DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were applied to patients with any type of ageing-associated cognitive impairment, including dementia, enrolled in randomized controlled clinical trials of EGb 761(®), taking into account the reported inclusion and exclusion criteria and patient characteristics at baseline. For 23 of 31 trials (74 %), the inclusion diagnoses could be classified as NCD in accordance with DSM-5. Thirteen trials enrolled patients with major NCD, four trials enrolled patients with mild NCD and six trials enrolled patients with NCD, who could not be classified unambiguously as having mild or major NCD. Although various terms were formerly used for neurocognitive disorders, the patients enrolled in the majority of clinical trials with EGb 761(®) could be classified retrospectively using modern DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.

  18. Sexual Enhancement Products for Sale Online: Raising Awareness of the Psychoactive Effects of Yohimbine, Maca, Horny Goat Weed, and Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Corazza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of unlicensed food and herbal supplements to enhance sexual functions is drastically increasing. This phenomenon, combined with the availability of these products over the Internet, represents a challenge from a clinical and a public health perspective. Methods. A comprehensive multilingual assessment of websites, drug fora, and other online resources was carried out between February and July 2013 with exploratory qualitative searches including 203 websites. Additional searches were conducted using the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN. Once the active constitutes of the products were identified, a comprehensive literature search was carried out using PsycInfo and PubMed. Results. The most common sexual enhancement products available on the Internet were identified. Their active ingredients included yohimbine, maca, horny goat weed and Ginkgo biloba. These four substances were reported with the occurrence of adverse events and the induction of psychological symptoms, such as mood changes, anxiety, and hallucinations as well as addictive behaviours. Conclusions. Uncontrolled availability of sexual enhancement products that contain potentially harmful substances is a major public health concern. The possible impact on population health, particularly among subjects with psychiatric disorders, usually at risk for sexual dysfunction, may be significant. This new trend needs to be extensively studied and monitored.

  19. Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicenter clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and betahistine at recommended doses in patients with vertigo. One hundred and sixty patients (mean age 58 years were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with EGb 761 (240 mg per day or betahistine (32 mg per day for 12 weeks. An 11-point numeric analogue scale, the Vertigo Symptom Scale—short form, the Clinical Global Impression Scales and the Sheehan Disability Scale were used as outcome measures. Both treatment groups were comparable at baseline and improved in all outcome measures during the course of treatment. There was no significant intergroup difference with regard to changes in any outcome measure. Numerically, improvements of patients receiving EGb 761 were slightly more pronounced on all scales. Clinical global impression was rated “very much improved” or “much improved” in 79% of patients treated with EGb 761 and in 70% receiving betahistine. With 27 adverse events in 19 patients, EGb 761 showed better tolerability than betahistine with 39 adverse events in 31 patients. In conclusion, the two drugs were similarly effective in the treatment of vertigo, but EGb 761 was better tolerated. This trial is registered with controlled-trials.com ISRCTN02262139.

  20. Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Larysa; Hoerr, Robert; Mishchenko, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    A multicenter clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and betahistine at recommended doses in patients with vertigo. One hundred and sixty patients (mean age 58 years) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with EGb 761 (240 mg per day) or betahistine (32 mg per day) for 12 weeks. An 11-point numeric analogue scale, the Vertigo Symptom Scale-short form, the Clinical Global Impression Scales and the Sheehan Disability Scale were used as outcome measures. Both treatment groups were comparable at baseline and improved in all outcome measures during the course of treatment. There was no significant intergroup difference with regard to changes in any outcome measure. Numerically, improvements of patients receiving EGb 761 were slightly more pronounced on all scales. Clinical global impression was rated "very much improved" or "much improved" in 79% of patients treated with EGb 761 and in 70% receiving betahistine. With 27 adverse events in 19 patients, EGb 761 showed better tolerability than betahistine with 39 adverse events in 31 patients. In conclusion, the two drugs were similarly effective in the treatment of vertigo, but EGb 761 was better tolerated. This trial is registered with controlled-trials.com ISRCTN02262139.

  1. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the proliferation, apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and Survivin gene expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of lacrimal gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Xiao Zhou; Yu Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) on the proliferation, apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and Survivin gene expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of lacrimal gland. Methods:ACC-2 cell in human with ACC of lacrimal gland was in vitro cultured. MTT method was used for cell proliferation detection. Annexin V/PI double-staining flow cytometer was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Survivin gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: EGB had inhibitory effect on the proliferation of ACC-2 cell with significant dose-effect relationship, and there was statistical difference when compared with the control group (P<0.01). The inhibitory concentration 50 % (IC50) is 88 mg/L. The flow cytometer test indicated that EGB can gradually increase ACC-2 cell in G0-G1 stage and decrease it in G2-M and S stage. With the increase of dose, the apoptosis rate of ACC-2 cell was obviously increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EGB had certain inhibitory effect on Survivin gene expression of ACC-2 cell, and Survivin gene expression was decreased with the increasing of the EGB concentration (P<0.01). Conclusions:EGB can effectively inhibit Survivin gene expression of ACC-2 cell in human with ACC of lacrimal gland, induce the apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and inhibit tumor cell proliferation.

  2. Impact of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba extracts on expression level of transcriptional factors and xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes / Wpływ ekstraktów z Panax ginseng i Ginkgo biloba na poziom ekspresji czynników transkrypcyjnych i enzymów cytochromu P450 metabolizujących ksenobiotyki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Mimo powszechnego stosowania Panax ginseng i Ginkgo biloba dane dotyczące bezpieczeństwa, a także interakcji pomiędzy preparatami roślinnymi a lekami syntetycznymi są bardzo ograniczone. W niniejszych badaniach założono, iż żeń-szeń oraz miłorząb mogą modulować aktywność i zawartość izoenzymów cytochromu P450 biorących udział w biotransformacji różnych substancji ksenobiotycznych. Cel: Określenie wpływu preparatów roślinnych na poziom ekspresji enzymów CYP i ich czynników transkrypcyjnych. Metody: Szczurom rasy Wistar podawano standaryzowany Panax ginseng (30 mg/kg oraz Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg przez 3 do 10 dni. Ekspresję w tkance wątrobowej analizowano za pomocą metody PCR w czasie rzeczywistym. Wyniki: Uzyskane wyniki wykazały spadek poziomu mRNA CYP3A1 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP3A4 po podaniu ekstraktu z żeń-szenia. Ekspresja genu CYP2C6 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP2C9 również uległa obniżeniu. Dodatkowo, obserwowaliśmy wzrost ekspresji CYP1A1 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP1A1 i CYP1A2 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP1A2 po 10 dniach stosowania P. ginseng. Ponadto, ekstrakt z G. biloba spowodował również wzrost poziomu mRNA CYP1A1, CYP2C6, CYP3A1 i CYP3A2 w modelu in vivo. Wnioski: Badania sugerują, że wyciągi roślinne mogą modulować ekspresję czynników transkrypcyjnych i enzymów CYP uczestniczących w metabolizmie ksenobiotyków i chemicznej karcynogenezie.

  3. Simultaneous Quantification of Flavonol Glycosides, Terpene Lactones, Biflavones, Proanthocyanidins, and Ginkgolic Acids in Ginkgo biloba Leaves from Fruit Cultivars by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry working in multiple reaction monitoring mode, an analytical method has been established to simultaneously determine flavonol glycosides, terpene lactones, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, and ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.10% formic acid (v/v at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, and column temperature 30°C. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and sensitivity. The optimized method was successfully applied to analyze twenty-two G. biloba leaf samples of fruit cultivars collected from different places in China. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA was performed to evaluate and classify the samples according to the contents of the twenty-four chemical constituents. All of the results demonstrated that the developed method was useful for the overall evaluation of the quality of G. biloba leaves, and this study was also helpful for the comprehensive utilization and development of G. biloba resources.

  4. Produção de Biomassa de Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.fr.) Kummer sob Influência do Extrato Aquoso de Ginkgo biloba em Diferentes Concentrações

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinandi, Damiana Maria; Cesumar; Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Cesumar

    2008-01-01

    Os cogumelos comestíveis e as plantas medicinais estão ganhando importância na atualidade pelos seus valores nutritivos e terapêuticos. O fungo Basidiomicete Pleurotus ostreatus é considerado de alta importância, porque, além da produção de exopolissacarídeos e biomassa, possui substâncias terapêuticas ativas. A planta medicinal Ginkgo biloba é oriunda da China e possui constituintes farmacológicos ativos presentes nas folhas, sementes e raízes que vêm sendo usados para a prevenção e tratamen...

  5. 银杏磷脂胶囊与血脂康胶囊治疗高脂血症的疗效比较%Comparison of clinical effects of Ginkgo biloba phosphatide capsule and Xuezhikang capsule on treatment of hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪; 罗瑛; 管红珍; 沈利亚; 李承红

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical effects of Ginkgo biloba phosphatide capsule and Xuezhikang capsule on treatment of hyperlipemia. METHODS 60 cases of patients with hyperlipemia were randomly divided into two groups, and the two groups took the Xuezhikang capsule and Ginkgo biloba phosphatide capsule group, and then the weight index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a),C reactive protein and fibrinogen content of two groups were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS Comparing with before treatment two groups showed, the effects on reducing the total cholesterol, triglyceride low density lipoprotein cholesterol, boosting the high density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed (P<0. 05) ,and on decreasing the C reactive protein and fibrinogen of the both groups were seen as well(PGinkgo biloba phosphatide capsule had the effect on lowering lipoprotein (a) (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION Ginkgo biloba phosphatide capsule has the better effects on regulating the blood lipid, and on reducing the lipoprotein (a) and fibrinogen than Xuezhikang capsule.%目的:比较银杏磷脂胶囊与血脂康胶囊治疗高脂血症的临床疗效.方法:将60例高脂血症患者随机分为2组,分别服用血脂康胶囊和银杏磷脂胶囊.进行治疗前后对体重指数、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、脂蛋白(a)、C反应蛋白与纤维蛋白原比较.结果:与治疗前比较,2种药物均能明显降低总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、升高高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(P<0.05)、C反应蛋白与纤维蛋白原(P<0.01);与对照组比较,治疗组患者的脂蛋白(a)明显降低(P<0.05).结论:银杏磷脂胶囊有调节血脂的作用,且降低脂蛋白(a)与纤维蛋白原的作用较血脂康强.

  6. Development of two step liquid-liquid extraction tandem UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of Ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma: Application to the pharmacokinetic study of the combination of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets and Nimodipine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Pei; Liu, Ran; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate UHPLC-MS/MS method has been firstly established and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets, Nimodipine tablets and the combination of the both, respectively. The plasma samples were extracted by two step liquid-liquid extraction, nimodipine was extracted by hexane-ether (3:1, v/v) at the first step, after that ginkgo flavonoids and terpene lactones were extracted by ethyl acetate. Then the analytes were successfully separated by running gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on a UHPLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves for the determination of all the analytes showed good linearity (R(2)>0.99), and the lower limits of quantification were 0.50-4.00ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in the range of 3.6%-9.2% and 3.2%-13.1% for all the analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of the analytes were within 69.82%-103.5% and the matrix were within 82.8%-110.0%. The validated method had been successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets, Nimodipine tablets with the combination of the both. There were no statistically significant differences on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of all the analytes between the combined and single administration groups. Results showed that the combination of the two agents may avoid dosage adjustments in clinic and the combination is more convenient as well as efficient on different pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia.

  7. Levantamento do perfil medicamentoso e freqüência de associações entre o Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. e ácido acetilsalicílico, em usuários atendidos pela FarmaUSCS de São Caetano do Sul

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    E. Puppo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo, verificar o perfil medicamentoso bem como a freqüência de associação entre Ginkgo biloba e ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS em indivíduos atendidos pela Farmácia Escola da Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul (USCS. Verificou-se através dos resultados obtidos que 62,75% dos usuários são do sexo feminino, estão entre 60 e 70 anos de idade, com indicação do uso deste fitoterápico para circulação, fazendo uso há mais de três meses e administrando diariamente a dose de 80mg. Dos entrevistados, 13,73% fazem associação deste fitoterápico com AAS, desconhecendo os riscos das possíveis interações entre estes dois medicamentos, pois o uso concomitante de Ginkgo e AAS, por aumentar a inibição da agregação plaquetária, pode ocasionar hemorragias. Palavras-chave: Ginkgo biloba; ácido acetilsalicílico; interações.

  8. Diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves of Ginkgo biloba%银杏叶部内生真菌多样性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜少康; 陈双林; 林岱; 吴鸣谦; 王梅霞

    2009-01-01

    Diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves of Ginkgo biloba was studied in order to understand diversity state and succession change of endophytic fungal communities in this endemic plant. Healthy leaf samples were collected from five main planting locations of G. biloba in Jiangsu and Shandong provinces separately in spring, summer and autumn. A total of 1971 strains of endophytic fungi was isolated. As a result of morphological identification 32 genera were obtained, of which Alternaria (amounting to 18.01% of the total), Phyllosticta (14.66%) and Rhizoctonia (14.56%) were dominant. The distribution and composition of endophytic fungi varied with plant organs colonized, localities and seasons, but they assumed regularity to a certain extent. Populations of endophytic fungi in different parts of the leaves indicated different abundance and uniformity but assumed similarity to a certain extent.%为了解我国特有植物银杏的叶部组织中内生真菌菌群的多样性和演替变化,分别于春、夏、秋季从江苏和山东两省的五个主要银杏栽培地采集健康叶片进行了内生真菌的研究.结果表明:所分离出的1971株内生真菌可归于32属,以交链孢属Alternaria(18.01%)、叶点霉属Phyllosticta(14.66%)和丝核菌属Rhizoctonia(14.56%)为优势菌群.在内生真菌的类群及组成上存在着部位、地区以及季节的差异性,也呈现一定的规律性.多样性指数的计算反映出所获得的银杏叶部内生真菌菌群具有不同的丰富度及均匀度,同时有一定的相似性.

  9. Ginkgo biloba extract mitigates liver fibrosis and apoptosis by regulating p38 MAPK, NF-κB/IκBα, and Bcl-2/Bax signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Wang, Rong Wang, Yujie Wang, Ruqin Peng, Yan Wu, Yongfang Yuan Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Liver fibrosis is the consequence of diverse liver injuries and can eventually develop into liver cirrhosis. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE is an extract from dried ginkgo leaves that has many pharmacological effects because of its various ingredients and has been shown to be hepatoprotective. Purpose and methods: Aimed to investigate the underlying protective mechanisms of GBE on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (C, model group (M, low-dose group (L, and high-dose group (H. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 groups M, L, and H: group C was administered saline. In addition, GBE at different doses was used to treat groups L and H. Results: The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson’s trichrome staining, a liver function index, and a liver fibrosis index showed that GBE application noticeably mitigated fibrosis and improved the function of the liver. The western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses indicated that GBE reduced liver fibrosis not only by inhibiting p38 MAPK and NF-κBp65 via inhibition of IκBα degradation but also by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis via downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and subsequent inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Inflammation-associated factors and hepatic stellate cell (HSC-activation markers further demonstrated that GBE could effectively inhibit HSC activation and inflammation as a result of its regulation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B/IκBα signaling. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a novel role for GBE in the treatment of liver fibrosis. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1 the p38 MAPK

  10. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Methods: A total of 76 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg.d), continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg.d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg.d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, i.e. Ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. PaO2, PaCO2, P(A-a)O2, and SaO2 before and after treatment were detected. FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO before and after treatment were determined.Results: PaO2, PaCO2, and SaO2 after treatment were significantly elevated, while P(A-a)O2 was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment. The comparison of PaO2 and P(A-a)O2 between the two groups was statistically significant, while the comparison of PaCO2 and SaO2 between the two groups was not statistically significant. After treatment, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group.Conclusions:EGb in combined with prednisone in the treatment of IPF can effectively improve the arterial blood gas indicators and pulmonary function, and enhance the patients’ living qualities; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  11. Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Flavor Constituents from Ginkgo biloba Exocarp%银杏外种皮挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩帅; 苗志伟; 刘玉平; 孙宝国

    2012-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Ginkgo Biloba exocarp were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) or simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As a result, 29 compounds were identified, including 9 carboxilic acids, 9 esters, 3 ketones, 1 aldehyde, 4 alcohols, 1 hydrocarbon and 2 heterocyclic compounds. Both extraction methods allowed the identification of 12 volatile compounds. AS determined by SDE-GC-MS, hexanoic acid (65.88%), butanoic acid (21.46%), n-hexadecanoic acid (4.53%) and octanoic acid (1.15%) were predominant among them. The predominant compounds determined by SPME-GC-MS were butanoic acid (59.96%), hexanoic acid (25.45%), methyl hexanoate (3.90%), methyl butyrate (3.59%) and acetic acid (1.65%). Butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, methyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, etc made a greater contribution to the odor characteristics of Ginkgo Biloba exocarp.%采用同时蒸馏萃取和固相微萃取两种萃取技术提取银杏外种皮的挥发性成分,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用对其挥发性物质成分进行分离鉴定。结果共鉴定出29种挥发性化合物,包括酸类9种、酯类9种、酮类3种、醛类1种、醇类4种、烃类1种、杂环类化合物2种,两种萃取物中都鉴定出的挥发性成分有12种。经SDE—GC—MS分析出的相对含量较高(峰面积比〉1%)的化合物有己酸(65.88%)、丁酸(21.46%)、棕榈酸(4.53%)、辛酸(1.15%);经固相微萃取.气相色谱-质谱联用分析出的相对含量较高(峰面积Lt〉1%)的化合物有丁酸(59.96%)、己酸(25.45%)、己酸甲酯(3.90%)、丁酸甲酯(3.59%)、乙酸(1.65%)。根据分析出的挥发性成分的香气特征可知对银杏外种皮挥发性气味贡献较大的物质有丁酸、己酸、丁酸甲酯和己酸甲酯等。

  12. 安徽省不同产区不同栽培品种银杏叶总内酯含量的研究%Study on Content of the Total Terpene Lactones in Ginkgo Biloba L.Leaves from Various Area and Varieties in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正华; 杜安全; 王先荣; 王德群; 刘守金; 梁益敏

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究安徽省不同产区和不同栽培品种银杏叶总内酯的含量.方法:采集安徽省6个产区不同品种银杏叶,分别测定其中总内酯的含量.结果:不同产区不同栽培品种银杏叶总内酯的含量差别较大.结论:可为安徽不同地区合理栽培银杏提供参考.%Objective:To study the content of total terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba L. leaves from various area and varieties in Anhui province. Methods: Ginkgo biloba L. leaves were collected from six growth area in Anhui province, and the content of total terpene lactones were measured. Results: The contents of total terpene lactones were different in Ginkgo biloba L. leaves from various area and varieties. Conclusion: The result could provide scientific basis for rational planting of Ginkgo biloba L. in different areas of Anhui province.

  13. Ginkgolic Acid C 17:1, Derived from Ginkgo biloba Leaves, Suppresses Constitutive and Inducible STAT3 Activation through Induction of PTEN and SHP-1 Tyrosine Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ho Baek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolic acid C 17:1 (GAC 17:1 extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been previously reported to exhibit diverse antitumor effect(s through modulation of several molecular targets in tumor cells, however the detailed mechanism(s of its actions still remains to be elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor that regulates various critical functions involved in progression of diverse hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, therefore attenuating STAT3 activation may have a potential in cancer therapy. We determined the anti-tumor mechanism of GAC 17:1 with respect to its effect on STAT3 signaling pathway in multiple myeloma cell lines. We found that GAC 17:1 can inhibit constitutive activation of STAT3 through the abrogation of upstream JAK2, Src but not of JAK1 kinases in U266 cells and also found that GAC can suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in MM.1S cells. Treatment of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP inhibitor blocked suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation by GAC 17:1, thereby indicating a critical role for a PTP. We also demonstrate that GAC 17:1 can induce the substantial expression of PTEN and SHP-1 at both protein and mRNA level. Further, deletion of PTEN and SHP-1 genes by siRNA can repress the induction of PTEN and SHP-1, as well as abolished the inhibitory effect of drug on STAT3 phosphorylation. GAC 17:1 down-regulated the expression of STAT3 regulated gene products and induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Overall, GAC 17:1 was found to abrogate STAT3 signaling pathway and thus exert its anticancer effects against multiple myeloma cells.

  14. The efficacy and safety of systemic injection of Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb761, in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Won; Chang, Mun Young; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kim, Tae Su; Kong, Soo-Keun; Chung, Jong Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung

    2016-09-01

    Steroids are currently the most frequently accepted agents for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). However, the therapeutic effect of steroids is not always satisfactory. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether systemic treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) has an additive therapeutic effect in patients receiving a systemic steroid due to ISSNHL. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed. Fifty-six patients with ISSNHL were allocated to either EGb761 or placebo. In both groups, methylprednisolone was administered for 14 days. EGb761 was infused intravenously for 5 days in the EGb761 group, while the same amount of normal saline was infused in the placebo group. For the efficacy evaluation, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and short form-36 health (SF-36) survey outcomes were obtained before administration and on days 3, 5, 14 and 28 of administration. Twenty-four patients in each group completed the study protocol. There was no difference in hearing loss between the two groups before treatment. At day 28, air conduction threshold values in the placebo and EGb761 groups were 34.63 ± 28.90 and 23.84 ± 25.42 dB, respectively (p = 0.082). Speech discrimination scores in the placebo and EGb761 groups were 69.17 ± 40.89 and 87.48 ± 28.65 %, respectively (p = 0.050). THI and SF-36 scores in the placebo and EGb761 groups were similar. Although a combination of steroid and EGb761 for initial treatment did not show better pure tone threshold, compared with steroid alone, speech discrimination was significantly improved in combination therapy. Further studies will be needed to know if addition of EGb761 actually improves the outcome of ISSNHL treatment.

  15. Determination of Flavonol Aglycones in Ginkgo biloba Dietary Supplement Crude Materials and Finished Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single Laboratory Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dean; LeVanseler, Kerri; Pan, Meide

    2008-01-01

    A single laboratory validation (SLV) was completed for a method to determine the flavonol aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in Ginkgo biloba products. The method calculates total glycosides based on these aglycones formed following acid hydrolysis. Nine matrixes were chosen for the study, including crude leaf material, standardized dry powder extract, single and multiple entity finished products, and ethanol and glycerol tinctures. For the 9 matrixes evaluated as part of this SLV, the method appeared to be selective and specific, with no observed interferences. The simplified 60 min oven heating hydrolysis procedure was effective for each of the matrixes studied, with no apparent or consistent differences between 60, 75, and 90 min at 90°C. A Youden ruggedness trial testing 7 factors with the potential to affect quantitative results showed that 2 factors (volume hydrolyzed and test sample extraction/hydrolysis weight) were the most important parameters for control during sample preparation. The method performed well in terms of precision, with 4 matrixes tested in triplicate over a 3-day period showing an overall repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD) of 2.3%. Analysis of variance testing at α = 0.05 showed no significant differences among the within- or between-group sources of variation, although comparisons of within-day (Sw), between-day (Sb), and total (St) precision showed that a majority of the standard deviation came from within-day determinations for all matrixes. Accuracy testing at 2 levels (approximately 30 and 90% of the determined concentrations in standardized dry powder extract) from 2 complex negative control matrixes showed an overall 96% recovery and RSD of 1.0% for the high spike, and 94% recovery and RSD of 2.5% for the low spike. HorRat scores were within the limits for performance acceptability, ranging from 0.4 to 1.3. Based on the performance results presented herein, it is recommended that this method progress

  16. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) attenuates lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats: Roles of oxidative stress and nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xuan Liu; Wei-Kang Wu; Wei He; Chui-Liang Liu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ( Ⅱ/R).METHODS: The rat model of Ⅱ/R injury was produced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 180 min. The rats were randomly allocated into sham, Ⅱ/R, and EGb +Ⅱ/R groups. In EGb + Ⅱ/R group, EGb 761 (100 mg/kg per day) was given via a gastric tube for 7 consecutive days prior to surgery. Rats in Ⅱ/R and sham groups were treated with equal volumes of the vehicle of EGb 761.Lung injury was assessed by light microscopy, wet-todry lung weight ratio (W/D) and pulmonary permeability index (PPI). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite/nitrate (NO2-/NO3-), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)were examined. Western blot was used to determine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).RESULTS: EGb 761 markedly improved mean arterial pressure and attenuated lung injury, manifested by the improvement of histological changes and significant decreases of pulmonary W/D and PPI (P < 0.05 or 0.01).Moreover, EGb 761 markedly increased SOD activity,reduced MDA levels and MPO activity, and suppressed NO generation accompanied by down-regulation of iNOS expression (P < 0.05 or 0.01).CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EGb 761has a protective effect on lung injury induced by Ⅱ /R, which may be related to its antioxidant property and suppressions of neutrophil accumulation and iNOSinduced NO generation. EGb 761 seems to be an effective therapeutic agent for critically ill patients with respiratory failure related to Ⅱ/R.

  17. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghimeray AK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Amal Kumar Ghimeray,1 Un Sun Jung,1,2 Ha Youn Lee,1 Young Hoon Kim,1 Eun Kyung Ryu,1 Moon Sik Chang11R&D Center, Natural Solution Co., Ltd, Gojan-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of KoreaBackground: In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro, and anti-wrinkle (in vivo effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract.Methods: Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2- and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow's feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo.Results: In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox. The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively.Conclusion: The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.Keywords: antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-wrinkle, fruits, topical formulation

  18. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on the expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α,IL-10 and IL-10R in heart of atherosclerotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Ya-bin; RUI Yao-cheng; LI Tie-jun; YANG Peng-yuan; QIU Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study whether the anti-AS effect of ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) was related with inhibitory effects on the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and up-regulation of IL-10 and IL-10R in the heart of atherosclerotic (AS)rats. Methods:The experimental model of AS rats were established by intraperitioneal injection of vitamin D3 with high fat and cholesterol diet. All rats were divided into 3 groups: control,AS and GbE. GbE (100 mg/kg) was administered to rats by ig. After 8 weeks, the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-10R in the heart of AS rats were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, reverse transcriptase polymerasechain reaction and Western blotting. Results:The protein and mRNA expressions of IL-1β,TNF-α,IL-10 and IL-10R were markedly higher in AS group than those in control group (P<0.01). The protein and mRNA expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α were markedly lower in GbE group than those in AS group; while the protein and mRNA expressions of IL-10 and IL-10R were markedly higher in GbE group than those in AS group (P<0.01). Conclusion:GbE has significant inhibitory effects on proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β,TNF-α. The up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10,IL-10R that may be partially responsible for its anti-AS effects.

  19. A dermocosmetic containing bakuchiol, Ginkgo biloba extract and mannitol improves the efficacy of adapalene in patients with acne vulgaris: result from a controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poláková K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Katarína Poláková,1 Aurélie Fauger,2 Michèle Sayag,2 Eric Jourdan2 1Saint Elisabeth´s Oncological Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia; 2Laboratoire Bioderma, Lyon, France Background: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. Aim: To confirm that BGM (bakuchiol, Ginkgo biloba extract, and mannitol complex increases the established clinical efficacy of adapalene 0.1% gel in patients with acne. Methods: A clinical trial was conducted in acne patients. A total of 111 subjects received adapalene 0.1% gel and BGM complex or vehicle cream for 2 months. Assessments comprised Investigator Global Assessment (IGA, global efficacy, seborrhea intensity, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, and subject perception, as well as overall safety and local tolerance and quality of life. Results: At the end of the trial, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, IGA, global efficacy, and seborrhea intensity had significantly improved in both treatment groups. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 in favor of BGM complex for inflammatory lesions as well as IGA and seborrhea intensity. Global efficacy assessments and subject perception confirmed the superiority of BGM complex-including treatment over the comparative combination. Quality of life had improved more with the active combination than with the vehicle combination. In the active group, four subjects had to interrupt temporarily BGM complex and 12 adapalene compared to seven subjects interrupting the vehicle and eleven adapalene in the vehicle group. One subject withdrew from the trial due to an allergy to adapalene. The majority of all events were mild. Conclusion: BGM complex improves the treatment outcome of adapalene 0.1% gel in patients with acne vulgaris. Overall, safety and local tolerance of BGM complex were good. Keywords: adapalene, acne vulgaris, bakuchiol, BGM complex, P. acnes, sebum

  20. 银杏种仁蛋白分离纯化及其抑菌活性%Purification and Antimicrobial Activity of Protein from Ginkgo biloba Seed Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海霞; 吴彩娥; 范龚健; 李婷婷; 应瑞峰; 华菁

    2014-01-01

    从银杏种仁中分离纯化具有抑菌活性的蛋白质,并分析其抑菌活性.结合抑菌活性分析,采用硫酸铵分级盐析、透析、纤维素DE-52阴离子交换柱层析及Sephadex G-75凝胶过滤柱层析对银杏种仁蛋白(Ginkgo biloba seed protein,GBSP)进行分离纯化,得到一种抑菌蛋白GBSPI-A.十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,SDS-PAGE)检测结果显示,该蛋白呈单一条带,其分子质量约为42.80 kD; Superdex G-75柱层析结果显示GBSPⅠ-A呈单一对称峰,高效凝胶渗透色谱测定其分子质量为39.32 kD;该蛋白对肺炎克雷伯氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、戴尔有孢圆酵母及黑曲霉的最小抑菌浓度(minimum inhibitory conce ntration,MIC)分别为20、20、20、12 mg/mL.

  1. EGb761, a Ginkgo biloba extract, is effective against atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EGb761, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, has antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation and thus might protect against atherosclerosis. However, molecular and functional properties of EGb761 and its major subcomponents have not been well characterized. We investigated the effect of EGb761 and its major subcomponents (bilobalide, kaemferol, and quercetin on preventing atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGb761 (100 and 200 mg/kg or normal saline (control were administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, an obese insulin-resistant rat model, for 6 weeks (from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after carotid artery injury. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the injured arteries. Cell migration, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation, monocyte adhesion, and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels were explored in vitro. Treatment with EGb761 dose-dependently reduced intima-media ratio, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and induced greater apoptosis than the controls. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro were also decreased by the treatment of EGb761. Glucose homeostasis and circulating adiponectin levels were improved, and plasma hsCRP concentrations were decreased in the treatment groups. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation increased while monocyte adhesion and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels decreased significantly. Among subcomponents of EGb761, kaemferol and quercetin reduced VSMC migration and increased caspase activity. CONCLUSIONS: EGb761 has a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis and is a potential therapeutic agent for preventing atherosclerosis.

  2. The spatial distribution of fossil fuel CO2 traced by Δ(14)C in the leaves of gingko (Ginkgo biloba L.) in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhou, Weijian; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Dongxia; Lu, Xuefeng; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Shugang; Xiong, Xiaohu; Du, Hua; Fu, Yunchong

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff ) information is an important reference for local government to formulate energy-saving and emission reduction in China. The CO2ff spatial distribution in Beijing City was traced by Δ(14)C in the leaves of gingko (Ginkgo biloba L.) from late March to September in 2009. The Δ(14)C values were in the range of -35.2 ± 2.8∼15.5 ± 3.2 ‰ (average 3.4 ± 11.8 ‰), with high values found at suburban sites (average 12.8 ± 3.1 ‰) and low values at road sites (average -8.4 ± 18.1 ‰). The CO2ff concentrations varied from 11.6 ± 3.7 to 32.5 ± 9.0 ppm, with an average of 16.4 ± 4.9 ppm. The CO2ff distribution in Beijing City showed spatial heterogeneity. CO2ff hotspots were found at road sites resulted from the emission from vehicles, while low CO2ff concentrations were found at suburban sites because of the less usage of fossil fuels. Additionally, CO2ff concentrations in the northwest area were generally higher than those in the southeast area due to the disadvantageous topography.

  3. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  4. Effect of supplemental fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves at different levels on growth performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y; Wan, X L; Zhang, X H; Zhao, L G; He, J T; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with different levels of fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FGBL) on growth performance, slaughter performance, meat quality, antioxidant enzyme capacity, and free radical scavenging activities of muscles in broiler chickens. A total of 648 one-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into six dietary treatments, including control group (CON group: basal diet), FGBL1, FGBL2, FGBL3, FGBL4, and FGBL5 groups (basal diet containing 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 g/kg FGBL, respectively). Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded at 1, 21, and 42 d. At 42 d, 2 birds from each replicate were slaughtered. The results indicated that 3.5 g/kg FGBL diet significantly increased (P muscle, cooking loss in thigh muscle and lower 24 h and 48 h drip loss in both breast and thigh muscles than those of other groups. Furthermore, birds in the FGBL3 and FGBL4 groups increased (P muscles, and the scavenging activities of 2,2΄-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical, OH•, and O2•- in thigh muscle, decreased (P muscle, as compared to the CON group. In conclusion, FGBL had the potential to improve the growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. The optimal dose in the present study of FGBL in broiler diets was from 3.5 to 4.5 g/kg. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts with mirodenafil on the relaxation of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle and the potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Jun Kim; Sung Won Lee; Deok Hyun Han; Soo Hyun Lim; Tae Hun Kim; Mee Ree Chae; Kyung Jin Chung; Sung Chul Kam; Ju-Hong Jeon; Jong Kwan Parks

    2011-01-01

    @@ In this study,we investigated the effects of a combination of Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (IRDE-5)inhibitors on the muscular tone of the corpus cavernosum and potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle cells.Strips of corpus cavernosum from male New Zealand white rabbits were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension studies.After contraction with 1 x 10-5 mol I-1 norepinephrine,GBE (0.01-1 mg ml-1) and mirodenafil (0.01-100 nmoll-1) were added together into the organ bath.In electrophysiological studies,whole-cell currents were recorded by the conventional patch-clamp technique in cultured smooth muscle cells of the human corpus cavernosum.The corpus cavernosum was relaxed in response to GBE in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.64%a18.35% at 0.01 mg ml一'to 52.28%±11.42% at 1 mg ml-1).After pre-treatment with 0.03 mg ml-1of GBE,the relaxant effects of mirodenafil were increased at all concentrations.After tetraethylammonium (TEA) (1 mmoll-1) administration,the increased effects were inhibited (P<0.01).Extracellular administration of GBE increased the whole-cell K+ outward currents in a dose-dependent fashion.The increase of the outward current was inhibited by 1 mmoll-1 TEA.These results suggest that GBE could increase the relaxant potency of mirodenafil even at a minimally effective dose.The K+ flow through potassium channels might be one of the mechanisms involved in this synergistic relaxation.

  6. Concurrent supercritical fluid chromatographic analysis of terpene lactones and ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba extracts and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Carrell, Emily J; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zhao, Jianping; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography was used to resolve and determine ginkgolic acids (GAs) and terpene lactones concurrently in ginkgo plant materials and commercial dietary supplements. Analysis of GAs (C13:0, C15:0, C15:1, and C17:1) was carried out by ESI (-) mass detection. The ESI (-) spectra of GAs simply displayed only the [M-H](-) pseudo-molecular ions, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) for those ions was used for the quantification. Analysis of terpene lactones (ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide) was complicated by in-source collision-induced dissociation (IS-CID) in the ESI source. Thus, MS analysis could be influenced by the fragmentation pattern produced by the IS-CID. However, it was established that the fragmentation pattern, measured by ion survival yield (ISY), was independent of analyte concentration or matrix at a fixed cone voltage in the ESI source. Therefore, MS with SIM mode was applicable for the analysis of these analytes. The reported method provided consistent and sensitive analysis for the analytes of interest. The LOQs and LODs were determined to be below 100 and 40 ng/mL for GAs and 1 μg/mL and 400 ng/mL for terpene lactones, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions were found to be satisfactory with RSDs being below 5.2 %. Analyte recoveries ranged from 87 to 109 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of 11 ginkgo plant samples and 8 dietary supplements with an analysis time of less than 12 min.

  7. Extract of Ginkgo biloba: Biological Functions and Applications in Poultry Breeding%银杏叶提取物生物学功能及其在家禽养殖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐胜球; 梁桂桃; 董小英

    2012-01-01

    银杏叶提取物(extract of Ginkgo biloba,EGb)含有萜类内酯、黄酮类和聚异戊烯醇类化合物等活性成分.其中,黄酮类化合物具有抗氧化、清除自由基等作用,而萜类化合物作为强效血小板活化因子( plateletactivating factor,PAF)拮抗剂,可发挥改善心脑血管循环、降血脂、保护肝脏等生物学功能.为此,EGb已成为多种学科领域的研究热点之一.本文主要就EGb主要生物学功能及其在家禽养殖中的应用进行概述.%Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) contains active constituents including terpene lactones, flavonoids and poly isoamyl enol compounds, and so on. Among them, flavonoids have antioxidant activity and the ability to scavenge free radicals, and terpene compounds served as antagonists against potent platelet activating factor (plateletactivating factor, PAF) have biological functions such as improving cardiovascular circulation, lowering blood fat, and protecting the liver. Therefore, EGb has become a hot pot in multi-disciplinary research areas. Main functions of EGb and its applications in poultry breeding are reviewed in this article.

  8. 银杏新品种‘金带’%A New Variety of Ginkgo biloba ‘jindai'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎; 宋承东; 郭善基; 张泰岩; 黄迎山

    2011-01-01

    The 'indai'is a new Ginkgo cultivar which bred by selection of ginkgo branches with spot leaves, and through grafting propagation and optimization culture. Main characteristics include fan blade with a shallow center crack, shallow wavy leaf margin, long petiole; longitude yellow stripes on green background leaves with vertical yellow stripes across the longitude stripes. The striped leaves account for 40% ~80% of the whole leaves. Female, female cone has a long stalk, and the end has 1-2 disk-shaped beads, each student 1 ovule which develops into a seed. Seed is drupelike, subglobose, exocarp fleshy, with white powders. From October to November fruits ripe, with yellow or orange color, bad smell. Testa is bony, white; endotesta is membranaceous. The striped leaves maintain the characteristics from spring to autumn. The cultivar can be widely applied to the sidewalks, parks, gardens, squares and other tourist spots.%‘金带’是对斑叶银杏进行枝条和植株优选,通过嫁接繁殖试验,选育获得的斑叶银杏新品种.主要特点是叶片为扇形,中裂较浅,叶缘浅波状,有长柄;叶片有黄绿相间的条纹,斑纹叶片底色绿色,其上间有黄色竖条纹.斑纹叶占全树全部叶片的40%~80%.雌株,雌球花有长梗,梗端有1~2盘状珠座,每座生1胚珠,发育成种子.种子核果状,近球形,外种皮肉质,有白粉.10-11月果熟,熟时淡黄或橙黄色,有臭味.中种皮骨质,白色;内种皮膜质.叶片春夏秋3季均能保持特色,可广泛应用于行道、公园、庭院、广场、旅游景点等.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones in the extract of Ginkgo biloba and evaluation of their inhibitory activity towards fibril formation of β-amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiyan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Liang; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-04-10

    The standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761) is used clinically in Europe for the symptomatic treatment of impaired cerebral function in primary degenerative dementia syndromes, and the results of numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have supported such clinical use. The abnormal production and aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and the deposition of fibrils in the brain are regarded as key steps in the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and the inhibition of Aβ aggregation and destabilization of the preformed fibrils represent viable approaches for the prevention and treatment of AD. Flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones (TTLs) are the two main components of EGb761 which represent 24 and 6% of the overall content, respectively. In our research, seven abundant flavonoid glycosides 1-7 were isolated from the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was established for the simultaneous quantification of these seven flavonoids. The inhibitory activities of these flavonoids, as well as four TTLs, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, and C and bilobalide (compounds 8-11), were evaluated towards Aβ42 fibril formation using a thioflavin T fluorescence assay. It was found that three flavonoids 1, 3 and 4 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities, whereas the other four flavonoids 2, 5, 6 and 7, as well as the four terpene trilactones, showed poor activity. This is the first report of the inhibition of Aβ fibril formation of two characteristic acylated flavonoid glycosides 6, 7 in Ginkgo leaves, on the basis of which the structure-activity relationship of these flavonoids 1-7 was discussed.

  10. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of Ginkgo biloba extract (CAS No. 90045-36-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Gavage studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract has been used primarily as a medicinal agent in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Ginkgo biloba extract was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its widespread use as an herbal supplement to promote mental function and the limited availability of toxicity and carcinogenicity data. Furthermore, one of the major ingredients in Ginkgo biloba extract, quercetin, is a known mutagen. The Ginkgo biloba extract used in the current studies was procured from a supplier known to provide material to United States companies and contained 31.2% flavonol glycosides, 15.4% terpene lactones (6.94% bilo-balide, 3.74% ginkgolide A, 1.62% ginkgolide B, 3.06% ginkgolide C), and 10.45 ppm ginkgolic acid. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered Ginkgo biloba extract in corn oil by gavage for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg Ginkgo biloba extract/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (clinical pathology study) were administered the same doses, 5 days per week for 23 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of all dosed groups were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. Liver weights of all dosed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control groups. The incidences of hepatocyte hypertrophy in all dosed groups of males and in 500 and 1,000 mg/kg females were significantly greater than those in the vehicle control groups; there was a dose-related increase in severity of this lesion in males. Hepatocyte fatty change occurred in all dosed males. The incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell

  11. Effect of combination of extracts of ginseng and ginkgo biloba on acetylcholine in amyloid beta-protein-treated rats determined by an improved HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-xun LIU; Wei-hong CONG; Li XU; Jian-nong WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) in amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) treated rats and offer a method determining ACh as well. METHODS: A 1-month combination of extrats of ginseng and ginkgo biloba(Naoweikang) ig administration to rats was performed daily after bilateral injection of Aβ1-40 (4 g/L, 1 μL for each side) into hippocampus. After decollation, homogenizing, and centrifuging and extracting, a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using electrochemical detection (ECD) combined with two immobilized enzyme reactors was used to determine ACh in rat whole brain. RESULTS: With a mobile phase consisting of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC1), octanesulfonic acid sodium salt (OSA) and"Reagent MB" at a final pH of 8.0, ACh was determined while removing the interfering choline in less than 10 min at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min on a platinum (Pt) working electrode at a potential of +300 mV vs a solid-state palladium (Pd) reference electrode. Linear regression analysis of peak area vs concentration demonstrated linearity in the 28.01 to 1400.06 μg/L injection range. The r-value was 0.9978. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.28 ng on column. ACh in whole brain decreased by 20.34 % (from 162.1±32.7 to 134.7±14.0 μg/L, P<0.05) after bilateral injection of Aβ into rat hippocampus. After Naoweikang administration (31 and 15.5 mg/kg, respectively), ACh increased by 19.97 % (from 134.7+14.0 to 161.6+26.2 μg/L, P<0.05) and 18.56 % (from 134.7+14.0 to 159.7+22.9 μg/L, P<0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: Naoweikang significantly increased the level of ACh in whole brain of Aβ treated rats. And a sensitive, selective and reliable method for routinely determining ACh in rat whole brain was established in this study.

  12. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Expression of PKCα in the Inflammatory Cells and the Level of IL-5 in Induced Sputum of Asthmatic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yijun; XU Yongjian; XIONG Shengdao; NI Wang; CHEN Shixin; GAO Baoan; YE Tao; CAO Yong; DU Chunling

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE) on the asthma and examine its possible mechanisms, 75 asthma patients were divided into 4 groups and the patients were respectively treated with fluticasone propionate for 2 weeks or 4 weeks, or treated with fluticasone propionate plus GBE for 2 weeks or 4 weeks. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as healthy controls. Sputum inhalation with inhaling hypertonic saline (4%-5%) was performed. Lung ventilatory function and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured. The numbers of different cells in induced sputum were calculated. The expression of PKCα in the cells was immunocytochemically detected and the percentages of positive cells in different cells were counted. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) in sputum supernatants was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of eosinophils, lymphocytes, PKCα positive inflammatory cells and the concentration of IL-5 in asthmatic patients were higher than those in the controls (P<0.05), and the eosinophils, lymphocytes,positive expression of PKCα and the level of IL-5 were significantly decreased in asthmatic patients after they were treated with fluticasone propionate or fluticasone propionate plus GBE. However,they were still significantly higher than those of the controls. Compared to the group treated with glucocorticosteroid for 2 weeks, no significant decrease was found in the percentage of eosinophils,lymphocytes, PKCα positive inflammatory cells and the IL-5 in the supernatant of induced sputum.Compared with the group treated with glucocorticosteroid for 2 or 4 weeks, significant decrease in the same parameters was observed in the group treated with fluticasone propionate and GBE for 4 weeks. The IL-5 level in the supernatant of induced sputum was positively correlated with the percentage of PKCα-positive inflammatory cells and the percentage of eosinophils in the induced sputum in asthma patient groups respectively (n=150, r

  13. Optimization of the extraction process in Ginkgo biloba exocarp%银杏外种皮提取银杏酸工艺的优化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东亚; 唐进根; 陈利红; 曹福亮

    2012-01-01

    Technological conditions of extracting ginkgolic acids from testa of Ginkgo biloba and analytic method of ginkgolic acids content were studied in this paper. As different conditions in solvent concentration, temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio may influence extraction result, so orthogonal experiments of four factors and three levels were adopted. UV spec-trophotometry was used to assay the content of the sample. The samples need pre-purification by n-hexane extracting and volatilizing to dryness to ensure the determination of ginkgolic acids content in the wavelength of 310 nm with no other material interfere. The result showed that using 1:4 of 75% ethanol as solid-liquid ratio, extracting by reflusing at 451 for 2 times and 4 h each time were the best extracting conditions; analysis of variance for four factors showed that the solvent concentration could affect extraction efficiency significantly.%试验主要探讨了从银杏外种皮中提取分离银杏酸的工艺条件及银杏酸含量的测定方法.考虑到不同条件对提取效果的影响,选取溶剂浓度、温度、提取时间和料液比4个因素,进行4因素3水平的正交设计试验,用紫外分光光度法测定提取样品的含量.测定含量时,对样品进行预净化处理,使在波长310 nm处测定银杏酸含量时没有其他杂质的干扰.样品的预净化方法是用正己烷萃取样品,将萃取的样品挥干,挥干后用甲醇溶解进行含量测定.研究结果表明:以75%乙醇为提取溶剂,采用1∶4(g/ml)的料液比,在45℃条件下振荡提取2次,每次4h为最优提取条件;相关因素方差分析,溶剂浓度对提取效果有显著影响.

  14. Expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in brain of atherosclerotic rats and effects of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-bin JIAO; Yao-cheng RUI; Tie-jun LI; Peng-yuan YANG; Yan QIU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the protein and mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines in the brain of rats with atherosclerosis (AS) and the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on expressions of cytokines.Methods:The experimental model of AS in rats were established by intraperitioneal injection of vitamin D3 with high fat/cholesterol diet.GbE 100 mg/kg was administered to rats by ig.After 8 weeks, the expressions of IL- 1β, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-10R in the brain tissues of AS rats were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay,immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Results: The protein and mRNA expressions of IL-1 β, TNF-α, and IL-10 in the brains were markedly higher in AS groups than that in control groups (6.11±0.15, 1.55±0.14, 0.54±0.04 ng/g wet weight vs 0.80±0.14, 0.33±0.09, and 0.33±0.02 ng/g wet weight, respectively).The protein and mRNA expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α in the brains were markedly lower in GbE groups (3.82±0.54, 0.95±0.08 ng/g wet weight) than that in AS groups, the protein and mRNA expressions of IL-10 and IL-10R in the brains were markedly higher in GbE groups (0.85±0.06 ng/g wet weight) than that in AS groups.Conclusion: GbE inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 β and TNF-α, but upregulated the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and IL-1 0R in brain,which might be related with its anti-AS actions.

  15. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the fractionated radiation therapy in C3H mouse fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    A gingko biloba extract (GBE) has been known as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Its mechanisms of action are increase of the red blood cell deformability, decrease the blood viscosity, and decrease the hypoxic cell fraction in the tumor. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of GBE on fractionated radiotherapy and to clarify the mechanism of action of the GBE by estimating the blood flow in tumor and normal muscle. Fibrosarcoma (FSall) growing in a C3H mouse leg muscle was used as the tumor model. When the tumor size reached 7 mm in diameter, the GBE was given intraperitoneally at 1 and 25 hours prior to irradiation. The tumor growth delay was measured according to the various doses of radiation (3, 6, 9, 12, Gy and 15 Gy) and to the fractionation (single and fractionated irradiation) with and without the GBE injection. The radiation dose to the tumor the response relationships and the enhancement ratio of the GBE were measured. In addition, the blood flow of a normal muscle and a tumor was compared by laser Doppler flowmetry according to the GBE treatment. When the GBE was used with single fraction irradiation with doses ranging from 3 to 12 Gy, GBE increased the tumor growth delay significantly ({rho} < 0.05) and the enhancement ratio of the GBE was 1.16. In fractionated irradiation with 3 Gy per day, the relationships between the radiation dose (D) and the tumor growth delay (TGD) were TGD (days) = 0.26 x D (Gy)+0.13 in the radiation alone group, and the TGD (days) = 0.30 x D (Gy) + 0.13 in the radiation with GBE group. As a result, the enhancement ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval; 1.13 {approx} 1.27). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the blood flow. The mean blood flow was higher in the muscle (7.78 mL/100 g/min in tumor and the 10.15 mL/100 g/min in muscle, {rho} = 0.0001) and the low blood flow fraction (less than 2 mL/100 g/min) was higher in the tumor (0.5% vs. 5.2%, {rho} = 0.005). The blood flow was not changed with the GBE

  16. An adjunctive preventive treatment for cancer: ultraviolet light and ginkgo biloba, together with other antioxidants, are a safe and powerful, but largely ignored, treatment option for the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Robert; Fasciano, James A

    2006-01-01

    Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death in the United States. The mortality rate for cancer is high (roughly 42%), and it increases dramatically with increasing age, especially in patients between the ages of 40 and 60 years old. Currently, the efforts at cancer prevention have been minimal. The drugs developed so far are expensive and have serious side effects. There are at least 18 vitamin D-sensitive cancers. Ultraviolet light, and specifically ultraviolet B (UVB), could reduce cancer by the limited exposure of suitable skin areas to UVB of an intensity and duration insufficient to produce skin cancer. An irrational fear of skin cancer is preventing this idea from being implemented. Though skin cancer incidence is significant, mortality from skin cancer is relatively rare. Roughly 1,000,000 Americans will be affected by skin cancer but only 10,000 deaths are expected in 2005 (a 1% mortality rate). Skin cancer is easily detected and often cured by excisional biopsy alone. Current practice among practicing clinicians is to use a prescription drug substitute for UV light, calcitriol (1-25 dihydroxycholcalciferol). However, high levels of (calcitriol) are dangerous, and there is no consensus on just what a high dose or a safe dose is. Apart from skin cancer, UV light exposure possesses few risks. Additionally, a number of botanical agents such as ginkgo biloba, vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins can prevent the risk of skin cancer. Ginkgo biloba also possess the following additional cancer chemopreventive qualities: (1) promoting apoptosis of cancer cells; (2) an anti-clastogenic effect on chromosomes by repairing and reconstituting broken and damaged chromosomes; (3) a powerful therapeutic effect on the treatment of fibrosis-related cancer; (4) a therapeutic effect on free radical-induced cancer; (5) a therapeutic effect on the treatment of cancer incident to the result of numerous carcinogens; (6) a therapeutic

  17. New Preparations of Ginkgo Biloba in the Thetreatment of Ischemic Stroke at Convalescent Stage for 30 Cases%银杏新制剂治疗缺血性脑卒中恢复期30例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect and safety of diterpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba meglumine injection in the treatment of ischemic stroke ( phlegm and blood stasis syndrome ) .Methods 60 cases of patients with stroke at recovery period in our department were randomly divided into treatment group and control group , with 30 cases in each group .The treatment group used diterpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba meglumine injection for intravenous injection .The control group was treated with Salvia miltiorrhiza Ligusticum chuanxiong injection for intravenous drip .The course of treatment was 14 days.The clinical effect of the two groups was compared .Results There were significant differences in clinical effect between the two groups (U=2.238, P=0.012).Conclusion The diterpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba meglumine injection in the treatment of ischemic stroke is safe and effective , and it is worthy to be popularized in clinic .%目的:观察银杏二萜内酯葡胺注射液治疗缺血性脑卒中(痰瘀阻络证)的疗效及安全性。方法将我科室60例脑卒中恢复期患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各30例,治疗组采用银杏二萜内酯葡胺注射液静脉滴注,对照组采用丹参芎嗪注射液静脉滴注,疗程均为14 d。比较两组临床疗效。结果两组临床疗效间差异有统计学意义(u=2.238,P=0.012)。结论银杏二萜内酯葡胺注射液治疗缺血性脑卒中安全有效,值得在临床上推广使用。

  18. Ototoxicidade da cisplatina e otoproteção pelo extrato de ginkgo biloba às células ciliadas externas: estudo anatômico e eletrofisiológico Cisplatin ototoxycity and otoprotector to cilliated cells by ginkgo biloba extract: anatomic and eletrophisiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Hyppolito

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A Cisplatina é uma potente droga antineoplásica, largamente utilizada para o tratamento do câncer, tanto em adultos quanto em crianças. Dentre seus efeitos colaterais, a ototoxicidade se apresenta como um dos mais importantes e leva à perda auditiva irreversível, bilateral, para as altas freqüências (4KHz#8KHz. Estudos têm tentado identificar drogas que, associadas à cisplatina possam atuar como otoprotetores. Sabe-se que o mecanismo da ototoxicidade pela cisplatina está relacionado a alterações nos mecanismos antioxidantes das células ciliadas, principalmente as células ciliadas externas da cóclea. OBJETIVO: Nossa proposta foi de avaliar através de emissões otoacústicas, por produtos de distorção (EOAPD e por microscopia eletrônica de superfície (ME, a ação do extrato de ginkgo biloba (EGB 761, que tem conhecida ação antioxidante, como possível otoprotetor, utilizando como modelo experimental cobaias albinas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Observamos EOAPD presentes pré e pós tratamento no grupo EGB (100 mg/Kg/dia via oral e 90 minutos após cisplatina (80 mg/Kg/dia via intraperitoneal por 8 dias. RESULTADO: Houve também manutenção da arquitetura ciliar nas células ciliadas externas em todas as espiras da cóclea, enquanto que no grupo tratado somente com cisplatina (80 mg/Kg/dia via intraperitoneal por 8 dias, houve desaparecimento das EOAPD pós tratamento, com desaparecimento dos cilios das células ciliadas externas e distorção na arquitetura dos cílios remanescentes à ME. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a EGB, por sua ação antioxidante, atua como fator otoprotetor à ototoxicidade pela cisplatina, devendo ser testada tal ação na prática clínica em pacientes que utilizam a cisplatina, pois o uso do EGB está extremamente difundido no tratamento de diferentes doenças.Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug for cancer treatment in children and adults. The side effects of cisplatin

  19. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract and their catalytic activity for the Huisgen [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and alkynes at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    During this study, we report the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) using Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent under surfactant-free conditions. The formation of Cu NPs is monitored by recording the UV-vis absorption spectra. The green synthesized Cu NPs are characterized by TEM, EDS, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. According to UV-vis results, the synthesized Cu NPs by this method are quite stable even after one month indicating the stability of Cu NPs. In terms of environmental impact and economy, metallic Cu NPs offer several advantages over homogeneous and traditional heterogeneous catalysts. In addition, due to the increased metal surface area, Cu NPs shows very high catalytic activity for the Huisgen [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and alkynes at room temperature. Furthermore, the catalyst can be simply recovered and reused several times with almost no loss in activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 银杏叶苯丙氨酸解氨酶分离纯化条件的研究%Study on the Conditions of Isolating and Purifying L-phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL) in Ginkgo biloba Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫红; 王燕; 杜何为; 程水源

    2004-01-01

    对银杏(Ginkgo biloba)叶中苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)的分离纯化条件进行了研究.离子交换条件优化的研究结果是最适洗脱缓冲液的pH8.9,最佳洗脱离子浓度(NaCl)为0.3 mol*L-1.经过一系列的分离纯化,蛋白质得率为0.35%,酶的得率为1.17%,纯化倍数为3.32.

  1. 银杏叶及野生榛蘑中硒的分布研究%Study on Distribution of Selenium in Ginkgo biloba Leaf and wild Armillaria mellea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宁; 张静; 邓桂春

    2013-01-01

    探讨了银杏(Ginkgo biloba)叶及野生榛蘑(Armillaria me llea)中不同溶解态硒的含量分布.比较了2种植物在热水、0.1 mol/L的醋酸溶液、盐酸溶液、EDTA溶液以及氯化镁溶液中硒的浸出率.结果表明,浸提能力的大小不仅取决于浸提的方法,而且还受到浸提溶剂的极性以及浸提时间等因素影响.

  2. 银杏叶提取物的研究进展及市场概况%The research and development of Ginkgo biloba extract and the overview of its market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清萍; 宁营

    2010-01-01

    @@ 银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)为银杏科(Ginkoaceae)银杏属植物,又名白果树、公孙树、鸭脚通.其历史可追溯到2亿年前.银杏曾在北美和欧洲广泛分布,直到冰川时期世界上绝大部分银杏被毁灭,仅在中国有少量幸存,现广泛分部在山东、江苏、河南、安徽、浙江、湖北、广西等地区,这些地区的银杏产量约占全国的70%.

  3. Dynamic changes of telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) lengths in cells during the developmental process from embryos to seedlings and a comparison with the embryonal calli in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Di; Zhang Xiao-mei; Hua Xin; Qiao Nan; Song Han; Lu Hai; Guo Hui-hong; Li Feng-lan

    2007-01-01

    Telomeres are the structures that locate at the terminals of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. They can play essential roles in many cellular processes. The terminal location of Arabidopsis-type TTTAGGG tandem repeats were thought to be highly conserved.The terminal location of Ginkgo biloba L. consisting of TTTAGGG tandem repeats, were confirmed by Bal31 exonuclease degradation and Southern blotting. By comparing telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) lengths at different developmental stages from embryos to seedlings, a fluctuant tendency towards variation was found in these samples. The TRF length of embryos was also compared with that of embryonal calli and an upward trend was discovered in callus culture. The results suggest that there should be a telomerase mechanism or/and ALT mechanism for the maintenance of telomere length.

  4. 银杏小孢子囊壁发育的超微结构观察%Ultrastructural observation of the microsporangial wall in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆彦; 郝敬超; 陈义芳; 周卫东; 程芳梅; 王莉

    2014-01-01

    本文利用透射电镜、半薄切片等技术,对银杏小孢子囊壁的发育进行了观察和研究。银杏小孢子囊壁分为表皮、内壁、中层和绒毡层。(1)对小孢子囊壁的表皮、内壁和中层细胞的观察表明,小孢子母细胞时期,这些细胞均处于活跃的代谢和合成阶段,含有大量的细胞器如线粒体、高尔基体、内质网和核糖体等;减数分裂时期细胞的细胞质浓度逐渐降低,细胞内分布有大液泡,其中表皮细胞的液泡膜上形成大量贮藏蛋白,内壁细胞的细胞壁逐渐皱缩,中层细胞纵向拉伸;有丝分裂时期,细胞的细胞质逐渐降解,内壁细胞切向壁和径向壁均出现大量乳突状纤维加厚,中层细胞解体,最后仅剩残余。(2)绒毡层细胞属于分泌型,在小孢子母细胞时期细胞内的细胞器丰富,其中质体在减数分裂过程中达到高峰;游离小孢子时期,粗糙内质网达到最大,绒毡层开始形成乌氏体,最终结合到花粉外壁,参与花粉外壁的形成;有丝分裂后期,绒毡层通过自溶的形式解体。以上结果显示,银杏的小孢子囊壁在为花粉发育提供营养和保护作用方面起着重要作用。%In this investigation, the developmental processes of microsporangial wall in Ginkgo biloba L. was studied by using transmission electron microscopy and semi-thin sections ways. The microsporangial wall of G. biloba consists of epidermis, endothecium, middle layers and tapetum. (1) At the stage of microspore mother cells, the abundant organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, dictyosome, golgi vesicles and ribosome, distribute in the cells of epidermis, endothecium and middle layers. During the meiotic phase, these cells changed obviously. The cytoplasmic inclusions decreased gradually while some large vacuole appeared. In the epidermal cells, large amounts of storage protein gathered on the surface of

  5. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761); Effet de l'extrait de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) chez le rat sur un modele experimental d'encephalopathie aigue apres irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B. [Hopital Bichat, 75 - Paris (France); Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Drieu, K. [IHB-IPSEN, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-01

    To define the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats. Ninety four-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) at day 1 while 15 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioural study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed test, was performed after irradiation. Orally treatment was started one day (study A) or twenty two days (study B) after irradiation and repeated daily for twelve days. In the irradiated group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: EGb 761 (50 mg/kg), EGb 761 (100 mg/kg), water. This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (45 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 7 to day 14. In study B (45 rats) the behavioural test was performed from day 28 to day 35. Study A (three groups of 15 rats): following TBI, irradiated rats treated with water demonstrated a significant delay in a learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (P < 0.0002) or irradiated rats treated with EGb 761 (50 mg/kg; P < 0.007) or EGb 761 (100 mg/kg; P < 0.0002). The irradiated rats, treated with EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Study B (three groups of 15 rats): the irradiated rats, treated with water of EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. (authors)

  6. Optimization of Steam Explosion Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Ginkgo Biloba Leaves by Response Surface Methodology%基于多信号流模型的雷达BIT测试能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵兵; 曾国明; 傅亚; 张茂兰; 宁欣强

    2012-01-01

    多信号模型是一种简单而有效的系统建模表示方法,提出基于多信号流模型的雷达BIT进行验证方法。介绍多信号流模型的定义和表示,分析运用该模型对雷达模块(电路)的建模、相关矩阵简化、对其测试性功能实现原理进行了解析,并以某型雷达截获控制电路为例进行验证。结果表明,多信号模型能给出一个全面的测试性评定结论,对系统测试性分析具有价值。%In this study,Ginkgo Biloba leaves was pretreated by using the newly steam explosion to improve the yield of extraction of flavonoids.Based on the single factor experiments,the effects of steam explosion pressure,temperature and solid-liquid ratio on Ginkgo Biloba leaves were investigated by response surface methodology.A mathematical model was established and analyzed to describe the relationships between the studied factors and the response of the yield of flavonoids.The optimum pretreatment parameters were as follows: Steam explosion pressure of 0.38 MPa,steam explosion time of 235 s,solid-liquid ratio for 1∶15.Under the optimum conditions,the yield of flavonoids was higher about 2.1 fold than that tradition extraction method.

  7. Effects of Gender, Tree Age and Crown Area on Flavoniods Content in Ginkgo biloba Leaves%银杏不同性别、树龄、树冠部位的叶片黄酮含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜洪; 梁佳勇; 陈金爱; 杨妙贤; 刘文; 梁红

    2011-01-01

    对不同性别、树龄、树冠部位的银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)叶片总黄酮含量进行了测定,结果表明,10年树龄树冠下部叶黄酮含量最高,达到0.335 g/ks,其上、中、下不同树冠部位叶黄酮含量的变化规律为下部叶>上部叶>中部叶;20年树龄银杏叶黄酮含量变化规律为上部叶>中部叶>下部叶;不同性别、不同树龄的银杏叶黄酮含量差异不大,没有达到显著性差异水平.因此,以采收叶片为栽培目的的银杏园,应该根据不同树龄,对不同树冠部位进行修剪,以提高叶黄酮的含量.%The fiavonoid content in Ginkgo biloba L. leave was detected. The order in leaves of 10 years old trees was bottom part (0.335 g/kg)>top part>middle part. For the 20 years old trees, the order was top part> middle part>bottom part.There was not significant difference between different genders and different ages. The results indicated that the pruning should be taken according to the tree age and the crown area to increase the fiavonoid content of the leaves.

  8. Biotransformation of artemisinin by Catharanthus roseus and Ginkgo biloba cell suspension cultures%长春花及银杏植物细胞悬浮培养对青蒿素的生物转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩健; 戴均贵; 崔亚君; 占纪勋; 郭洪祝; 果德安

    2003-01-01

    Object To investigate the biotransformation of the antimalarial compound artemisinin( Ⅰ ) by Catharanthus roseus and Ginkgo biloba cell suspension cultures. Methods Plant tissue culture technology was employed. The product was isolated on silica gel column chromatography and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Results One product was obtained and its structure was characterized as 3α- hydroxydeoxyartemisinin ( Ⅱ ). Conclusion Both of C. roseus and G. biloba cell suspension cultures can bioconvert artemisinin.%目的对抗疟药物青蒿素(Ⅰ)进行了生物转化研究.方法利用长春花及银杏植物细胞悬浮培养细胞进行生物转化.用硅胶柱色谱进行产物的分离,波谱方法鉴定产物的结构.结果此两种植物悬浮细胞体系均能将青蒿素转化成3α-羟基去氧青蒿素(Ⅱ).结论此两种植物悬浮细胞体系均能有效转化青蒿素.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ginkbilobin-2 from Ginkgo biloba seeds: a novel antifungal protein with homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi [Department of Applied Biochemical Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Hatano, Ken-ichi [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biochemical Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    Purification and crystallization of ginkbilobin-2 and its selenomethionine derivative allowed the collection of complete data to 2.38 Å resolution and multiwavelength anomalous diffraction data sets, respectively. The antifungal protein ginkbilobin-2 (Gnk2) from Ginkgo biloba seeds does not show homology to other pathogenesis-related proteins, but does show homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases. Native Gnk2 purified from ginkgo nuts and the selenomethionine derivative of recombinant Gnk2 (SeMet-rGnk2) were crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using different precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected from Gnk2 at 2.38 Å resolution and from SeMet-rGnk2 at 2.79 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals of both proteins belonged to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 143.2 Å.

  10. Comparison of total ginkgolic acids content in leaf of fruit-utilization type of Ginkgo biloba with different tree ages and from different locations%不同产地及株龄果用银杏叶中总银杏酸含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鑫; 周桂生; 唐于平; 钱大玮; 宿树兰; 段金廒

    2012-01-01

    Total ginkgolic acids content in leaf of fruit-utilization type of Ginkgo biloba L.from 17 locations in 12 provinces and with different tree ages from 10 to 100 a were analyzed by HPLC.The results show that total ginkgolic acids content in G.biloba leaf varies with changing of locations and tree ages.Total ginkgolic acids content in 10-30 year-old G.biloba is all lower (mass ratio 0.81% -0.93% ) , in which that in 25 year-old G.biloba is the lowest ( mass ratio 0.81% ), but that in 50 and 100 year-old G.biloba is higher with a mass ratio of 1.20% and 1.07% , respectively.Total ginkgolic acids content in G.biloba leaf from Changting of Fujian is the highest (mass ratio 2.80% ) , and that from Jiangsu, Shandong, Anhui and Zhejiang is all lower (mass ratio 0.51%-0.99% ) , showing a certain regional distribution characteristics.

  11. Clinical observation of Ginkgo biloba extract in treatment of 58 patients with transient ischemic attack%金纳多治疗短暂性脑缺血发作58例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏维海

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic effects and hemorheology of Ginkgo biloba extract on transient ischemic attack. Methods: 58 patients with transient ischemic attack were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated with Cinkgo biloba extract intravenously, and the control group was treated with Dextran, Oryzanol and Vitamin etc.. Results: The effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group (93.3% vs 64.3%,ρ<0.01). The whole blood viscosity, platelet clinging rate and fibrinogen in the treatment group decreased (ρ<0.01), plasma viscosity also decreased, but all indexes had no difference in the control group after treatment, there were significant difference in indexes above between two groups (ρ<0.05). Conclusion: Ginkgo biloba extract can improve the clinical symptoms of the patients with transient ischemic attack and decrease the blood viscosity, and the control group can alleviate the clinical symptoms, but there is no difference in the blood viscosity. Ginkgo biloba extract has good therapeutic effects on transient ischemic attack.%目的:探讨金纳多(银杏叶提取物)对短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)患者的疗效、血液流变学的影响.方法:将58例TIA患者随机分为两组,治疗组采用金纳多静脉点滴,对照组给予低分子右旋糖酐、谷维素或维生素等,对两组患者的疗效、血液流变学进行比较.结果:治疗组有效率为93.3%,明显高于对照组的64.3%,两组比较差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01);治疗后治疗组全血黏度、血小板黏附率、纤维蛋白原明显降低(P<0.01),血浆黏度也降低(P<0.05),对照组各项指标均无明显改变;两组治疗后以上各指标相比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:金纳多能显著改善TIA患者的临床症状,降低血液黏度;而对照组能够缓解临床症状,对血液黏度无

  12. An Early Cretaceous Ginkgo ovule-bearing organ fossil from Liaoning, Northeast China and its evolutionary implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shenghui; YANG Xiaoju; ZHOU Zhiyan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ginkgo is a very important gymnospermous genus that has only one surviving species, Ginkgo biloba L. As a so-called "living fossil", wild Ginkgo was found only in China, but it once flourished well and had a world-wide distribution in the Mesozoic. The earliest Ginkgo has been known from the Middle Jurassic, based on ovule-bearing organs[

  13. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf litter decomposition of Ginkgo biloba and Taxodium ascendens%模拟酸雨胁迫对银杏与池杉凋落叶分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶龙华; 孙小川; 宋曰钦; 薛立

    2015-01-01

    以硫酸、亚硫酸为原料配制不同 pH 值的酸溶液,采用分解袋法,在室内模拟酸雨处理银杏和池杉凋落叶,研究模拟酸雨胁迫对银杏和池杉凋落叶分解的影响。结果表明:不同 pH 值的模拟酸雨胁迫对银杏和池杉凋落叶的分解率均存在一定的抑制作用,以对照组(pH 值7.0)的凋落叶分解率最高,其次是轻度(pH 值5.6)酸雨胁迫和中度(pH 值4.0)酸雨胁迫处理的,分解率最低的是重度(pH 值2.5)酸雨胁迫处理的,表现为随酸雨胁迫强度增强即 pH 值的减小而减小的趋势。2个不同树种的凋落叶对酸雨胁迫的反应也存在差异,池杉落叶分解受酸雨的影响比银杏落叶的小。%In order to probe the growing problem of acid rain on leaf litter decomposition,the effects of simulated acid rain on leaf litter decomposition of Ginkgo biloba and Taxodium ascendens were studiedby litterbag method in laboratory conditions.The leaf litters of G.biloba and T.ascendens were treated by different pH value of simulated acid rain.The re-sult indecated that the leaf litter decomposition rates of G.biloba and T.ascendens increased with decreasing acid rain in-tensity.The leaf litter decomposition rate of both species was the fastest in the control (pH7.0),followed by mild acid stress (pH5.6),moderate acid rain (pH4.0)and the severe acid rain (pH2.5).There was a difference in respond of leaf litter decomposition of the two species to acid rain.Acid rain influenced on leaf litter decomposition of T.ascendens was smaller than G.biloba.

  14. 银杏铁型超氧化物歧化酶基因(GbFeSOD)的克隆与表达%Molecular cloning,characterization and expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳玲; 程华; 许锋; 王燕; 常杰; 程水源

    2009-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of Ginkgo biloba L. iron superoxide dismutase gene (GenBank: FJ555019) was isolated from Ginkgo biloba. The full-length cDNA of GbFeSOD contained a 720 bp open reading frame (ORF). The 3D structure modeling showed that GbFeSOD contained 11 helixes and 3 sheets and had a basketry motif in the enzyme core. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that GbFeSOD shared the same ancestor with other FeSOD. The result of Southern analy-sis showed that Gb FeSOD gene was encoded with a small gene family in Ginkgo biloba Northern hybridization analysis showed that GbFeSOD had the highest expression in leaves,then in stem ,and the least in fruit. There was no expression found in roots. The expression of GbFeSOD could be induced by ABA,osmotic stress, low temperature and heat injury; among them ,levels of FeSOD transcripts increased placidly a few hours after chilling stress at 4℃. Expression of the FeSOD gene was enhanced dramatically by heat stress at 40 ℃. However,the expression of GbFeSOD first increased and then decreasedafter heat stress at 44 ℃.%利用RACE技术从银杏中克隆到叶绿体铁型超氧化物歧化酶(GbFeSOD)基因cDNA全长.G6FeSOD的cDNA全长1106 bp(GenBank:FJ555019).含有一个720bp的最大读码框.三维结构预测显示,GbFeSOD含有11个α螺旋和3个B折叠构成的篮子状活性中心.GbFeSOD氨基酸序列与其他植物的FeSOD具有很高的相似性.进化树分析表明GbFeSOD和其他物种起源相同.Southern杂交显示,G6FeSOD属于一个小的多基凶家族.Northern杂交表明GbFeSOD在银杏的茎、叶中的表达量最高.果中表达量最小.在根中没有表达.ABA、渗透物质处理、低温和高温均能诱导GbFeSOD表达量增加.其中4℃低温诱导增加缓慢,40℃高温诱导迅速而稳定.而44℃培养条件下,GbFeSOD表达量呈先增后降的现象.

  15. Analysis on Genomic DNA Methylation Modification of Ginkgo biloba by Methylation-sensitive Amplification Polymorphism%银杏基因组DNA甲基化修饰位点的MSAP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李际红; 邢世岩; 王聪聪; 张倩; 付茵茵

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the DNA methylated modification levels,patterns and sites of the Ginkgo biloba at the genome-wide level,the double digestion of EcoRⅠand HpaⅡ/MspⅠwas used to construct the Ginkgo biloba genomic MSAP(methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism,MSAP)analysis system.By using 16 pairs of selective primers from the 54 pairs of MSAP selective primers,a total of 454 legible and repeatable amplified DNA bands were detected,on average 28.38 bands were observed after amplification with each primer pair.Two-hundred DNA methylated sites were detected among all the amplificated sites,which represented 44% ratio of methylated modification at CCGG/GGCC sites in Ginkgo biloba genome.Eighteen methylated DNA sequences were isolated and sequenced by extracting part of the amplificated sites.BLASTn comparison indicated that the DNA methylated modification phenomenon was existed in multiple types of DNA sequences,including repeated sequences,transcription regulators,retrotransposons,channel protein,promoter-binding protein,protein kinase,etc.%利用EcoRⅠ和HpaⅡ/MspⅠ双酶切建立适合于银杏基因组的甲基化敏感扩增多态性(methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism,MSAP)分析体系,在全基因组水平检测银杏DNA甲基化修饰水平、模式及位点等表观遗传信息。结果显示,从54对MSAP选扩引物中,选出16对MSAP引物组合,共扩增产生454条清晰可辨且可重复的DNA条带,平均每对引物扩增获得28.38条带。在全部扩增位点中,检测到甲基化位点200个,CCGG/GGCC位点甲基化修饰比例为44%。部分银杏基因组甲基化修饰位点进行回收,最终分离了18条存在甲基化修饰的基因组DNA序列。BLASTn比对分析表明,银杏基因组中包括转录调控因子、反转录转座子、通道蛋白、启动子结合蛋白、蛋白激酶等在内的多种类型的DNA序列中均存在DNA甲基化修饰现象。

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the padiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na. The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received 99mTcO4Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na (PO extrato de Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb tem sido usado para tratar dificuldades de concentração, memória, age como antagonista do fator de ativação de plaquetas e previne contra danos causados por radicais livres. EGb é um extrato padronizado com 24% de flavonóides e 6% de lactonas terpênicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de um EGb na ultraestrutura de alguns órgãos isolados de ratos e na biodistribuição do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO4Na. Os animais foram tratados com EGb e após 6 dias receberam 99mTcO4Na. Os órgãos foram isolados e a radioatividade determinada. Os tecidos foram fixados para microscopia eletrônica. Os resultados mostraram que EGb alterou a ultraestrutura do rim, figado e duodeno e modificou a biodistribuição do 99mTcO4Na. Sugerimos que substâncias presentes no EGb poderiam agir diretamente ou gerar metabólitos capazes de promover alterações na biodistribuição e na morfologia de órgãos em nível ultraestrutural.

  17. Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda, E-mail: mericarda@yahoo.com [Department of Biophysics, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine and Gazi Non-ionizing Radiation, Protection (GNRP) Center, Ankara (Turkey); Aytekin, Ebru [Department of Medical Genetics, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Ozgur, Elcin; Gueler, Goeknur [Department of Biophysics, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine and Gazi Non-ionizing Radiation, Protection (GNRP) Center, Ankara (Turkey); Ergun, Mehmet Ali [Department of Medical Genetics, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Oemeroglu, Suna [Department of Histology and Embryology, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Seyhan, Nesrin [Department of Biophysics, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine and Gazi Non-ionizing Radiation, Protection (GNRP) Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-12-01

    The mutagenic and morphologic effects of 1.8 GHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated RF (radiofrequency) radiation alone and in combination with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) pre-treatment in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) were investigated in this study using Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and electron microscopy. Cell viability was assessed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. The lymphocyte cultures were exposed to GSM modulated RF radiation at 1.8 GHz for 6, 8, 24 and 48 h with and without EGb 761. We observed morphological changes in pulse-modulated RF radiated lymphocytes. Longer exposure periods led to destruction of organelle and nucleus structures. Chromatin change and the loss of mitochondrial crista occurred in cells exposed to RF for 8 h and 24 h and were more pronounced in cells exposed for 48 h. Cytoplasmic lysis and destruction of membrane integrity of cells and nuclei were also seen in 48 h RF exposed cells. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in SCE frequency in RF exposed lymphocytes compared to sham controls. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly decreased SCE from RF radiation. RF radiation also inhibited cell viability in a time dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the growth of lymphoctes were marked in longer exposure periods. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly increased cell viability in RF + EGb 761 treated groups at 8 and 24 h when compared to RF exposed groups alone. The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RF Radiation inhibits cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RF radiation induces chromosomal damage

  18. Extraction and antioxidant activities of total flavonoids from ginkgo biloba exocarp%银杏外种皮总黄酮的提取及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思斯; 江波; 张涛; 沐万孟; 缪铭

    2011-01-01

    以乙醇体积分数、温度、浸提时间、固液比为考察因素,对银杏外种皮黄酮的提取工艺进行单因素及正交实验优化,以比色法测定其含量,确定最佳提取条件,并对银杏外种皮总黄酮的抗氧化性进行了初步研究。结果表明,银杏外种皮总黄酮的较优提取条件为:乙醇体积分数80%,温度70℃、液固比25:1,浸提时间2h,此时提取率为91.01%。银杏外种皮总黄酮具有良好的体外抗氧化能力。当黄酮浓度为0.75mg/mL时,和0.10mg/mL的抗坏血酸的还原能力相当。银杏外种皮总黄酮清除DPPH·、O2-·和·OH的半数抑制浓度各为0.%Total flavonoids in ginkgo biloba exocarp were extracted with ethanol and analyzed for their antioxidant capacities.The effect of ethanol concentration,extraction time,liquid/material ratio and temperature were evaluated for optimizing the extraction procedure of total flavonoids.A maximum extraction rate of total flavonoids of 91.01% was obtained by 2h extraction using 80% ethanol at 70℃ with a 25:1 liquid/material ratio.The total flavonoids from ginkgo biloba exocarp had marked antioxidant activities:at the concentration of 0.75mg/mL,their reducing power was the same as 0.10mg/mL ascorbic acid;their scavenging effect on IC50 of DPPH·,O-2· and·OH were 0.1654,0.8519,0.3843mg/mL.

  19. Changes in Terpene Lactones of Ginkgo biloba and Its Relation with Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characters%银杏叶萜内酯含量的变化及其与叶绿素荧光特性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 张峥; 周大寨

    2015-01-01

    为探究银杏(Ginkgo biloba)叶萜类内酯含量和光合同化作用的关系,对其内酯含量和叶绿素荧光特性进行了研究。结果表明,不同采收时间银杏叶中白果内酯和银杏内酯含量有显著差异,总体上,5月份含量较低,此后逐渐升高,8月份达到高峰,然后快速下降,10月底最低;与此同时,银杏叶片的光合色素以及叶绿素荧光参数也呈现周期性变化。白果内酯以及萜内酯含量与叶绿素荧光参数Y(NPQ)之间呈极显著正相关关系,因此,可以通过银杏叶片的叶绿素荧光参数预测白果内酯和萜内酯含量。%In order to understand the relationship between contents of terpene lactones and photosynthetic characters in Ginkgo biloba leaves, the contents of terpene lactones were determined and chlorophyll lfuorescence features was studied. The results showed that the changes in terpene lactone contents were signiifcant at different harvest time. In general, bilobalide and ginkgolide contents were low in May, then increased gradually, reached peak in August, and afterwards decreased until the end of October. At the same time, the photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll lfuorescence parameters in leaves showed periodical changes. The contents of bilobalide and lactone had significant positive correlation with chlorophyll fluorescence index of Y(NPQ). So, it was suggested that bilobalide and lactone contents could be forecasted by chlorophyll lfuorescence parameters.

  20. 天目山自然保护区银杏天然种群生命表%Life table of natural Ginkgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 张光富; 王锐; 孙国; 赵明水

    2011-01-01

    Based on the population life table and the theory of survival analysis, the static life table of GinKgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province was compiled by applying the age class structure represented by DBH class and the smoothing out technique. The mortality rate curve, killing power curve, survival rate curve, and survival function curve were also analyzed to reveal the population' s quantitative dynamics. There was a fluctuation in the structure of G. biloba population. The survival curve of the population tended to the type of Deevey Ⅱ , and the individuals at adult stage were abundant. The mortality rate curve and killing power curve in the lifespan had similar variation trend, all with the peaks in 6th and llth age class periods. The survival rate of the population decreased monotonically, whereas the cumulative mortality rate was in adverse. The survival functional curve showed that the G. biloba population grew poorly in early age period and stably in middle age period, but declined in old age period.%以种群生命表和生存分析理论为基础,采用空间代替时间法和分段匀滑技术,编制浙江天目山自然保护区银杏天然种群特定时间生命表,绘制其死亡率曲线、消失率曲线、存活曲线和生存函数曲线,分析种群数量动态变化.结果表明:银杏种群结构存在波动性,趋于Deevey Ⅱ型,其成年阶段的个体较丰富;银杏种群死亡率和消失率曲线变化趋势基本一致,均出现2个高峰,均在第Ⅵ龄级和第Ⅺ龄级阶段出现第一和第二峰值;银杏种群的生存率单调下降,累计死亡率单调上升,生存率下降趋势前期高于后期,累计死亡率则相反;由生存函数曲线看出,天目山银杏种群具有前期薄弱、中期稳定和后期衰退的特点.

  1. Effects of Fertilier and Drought Stress on Growth as well as Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactone Content of Ginkgo Biloba Seedlings%施肥与干旱胁迫对银杏生长及黄酮苷和萜类内酯含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷平生; 李月华; 苏淑钗; 王沙生; 蒋湘宁

    2001-01-01

    Effects of VAM fungi(Glomus mosseae and G versiforme)、N、P fertilizer and drought stress on the growth as well as flavonol glycosides and terpene lactone content of Ginkgo biloba seedlings were measured,experimental results showed that VAM fungi、N、P fertilizer obviously increased uptake of N、P elements,improved growth,enhanced terpene lactone content,drought stress decreased leaf water potencial and terpene lactone content of ginkgo biloba seedlings,those negative effects might be compensated by infection of host plants with both VAM fungi in some extent.Biosynthesis and metabolize of terpene lactones of ginkgo bilobamight be close relative to growth status of Ginkgo biloba seedlings.VAM fung;,N、P fertilizer drought stress had little effect on flavonol glycoside content of Ginkgo biloba.%对银杏实生苗接种VAM真菌,叶面喷施N、P肥及干旱胁迫处理,测定银杏生长及黄酮苷和萜类内酯含量的变化,试验结果表明:增施N、P肥能显著改善银杏植株N、P供应,增加银杏苗叶量和干重,显著提高银杏叶萜类内酯含量,而对银杏黄酮苷含量影响较小;干旱胁迫降低银杏叶水势和萜类内酯含量,对银杏黄酮苷含量没有影响,接种VAM真菌能减轻干旱胁迫的负影响,显著提高银杏萜类内酯含量。银杏萜类内酯的生物合成代谢与银杏生长状况密切相关。

  2. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Olej, Beni; Timoteo, Margareth de Oliveira; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na). The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na (P<0.05). It is speculated that the substances present in the EGb could act directly or generate metabolites capable to promote changes on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na and on the morphology of organs at ultrastructural level. (author)

  3. Extraction of Pectin from Ginkgo Biloba L. Shells by Ion-exchange Method%离子交换法提取银杏壳中果胶工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾焰波; 仇菲; 汤小芳; 常晓垒

    2015-01-01

    The pectin of ginkgo biloba L. shells were extracted by ion-exchange method. The influent of single factors and orthogo-nal tests on the yield of pectin were studied. The results showed that the appropriate technical conditions were as followed: cation exchange resins 7%, pH 2.0, the extraction temperature 85℃, the extraction time 2h,the ratio of material to extraction solution 1g/20mL. Under the process conditions, the extract yield of pectin was 4.85%.%采用离子交换法对银杏壳中果胶进行提取.通过单因素试验和正交试验探讨了提取过程中各因素对果胶得率的影响,结果表明适宜工艺条件为:离子交换树脂用量7%,pH 2.0,提取温度85℃,提取时间2h,料液比1:20(g:mL).在此工艺条件下,果胶得率为4.85%.

  4. 银杏外种皮提取物重金属元素与银杏酸测定%Determination of Heavy Metal Elements and Ginkgolic Acid in Ginkgo biloba Exocarp Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 尹萌; 韩东冬; 茅蕾蕾; 许爱华

    2016-01-01

    目的:本研究旨在检测银杏外种皮提取物(Ginkgo Biloba Exocarp Extracts,GBEE)中,5种重金属元素和银杏酸的含量.方法:实验采用水提醇沉法制备6个不同产地的GBEE;采用电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测定铅、镉、铜、砷4种重金属元素含量,原子荧光光度法(AFS)测定汞元素含量:采用HPLC法检测银杏酸含量.结果:6个产地的GBEE中,铅、镉、铜、砷、汞的含量均在《中国药典》限量水平以下;且均不含任何银杏酸.结论:GBEE中不含银杏酸成分,其重金属元素含量符合《中国药典》限量规定.

  5. 银杏叶用林定向培育技术体系的集成%Oriented cultivation techniques for leaf-harvest plantation of Ginkgo biloba L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹福亮; 汪贵斌; 郁万文

    2014-01-01

    银杏叶中由于含有广泛的具药理活性的化学成分,已经成为药品、食品、化妆品和饮料等工业产品的重要原料,银杏叶用林的定向培育能够为以银杏叶为原料的各种加工业提供优质的原料。笔者在介绍银杏叶用园培育原理的基础上,依据银杏叶用林研究的相关材料,系统总结了银杏叶用林的定向培育关键技术,包括:①选择适宜的立地条件,选择排水良好、土层深厚肥沃、土壤pH为6.0~7.5的适生丰产区内的造林地;②选择优良的品种,选用经过选育并获得新品种权或通过林木品种审定委员会审定的叶用优良品种;③采用合理的密度,根据不同的立地及栽培条件,栽植密度控制在4万~7万株/hm2;④采用截干萌芽矮化经营方式,4~5 a截干1次;⑤施肥以有机肥为主,生长前期追N肥,后期增施K、P和微量元素肥料( Mg、Zn、Mo);⑥生长前期采取措施促进生长(水分充足、温度和光照适宜),后期采取措施促进药用成分的合成和积累(适度干旱、低温和强光)。%Leaves of ginkgo (Ginkgo bilaba L.) is an important material on the production of medicine, food, cosmetic and beverage, and oriented cultivation of ginkgo leaf⁃harvest plantation can supply high quality material for these indus⁃tries. Based on cultivating mechanism and the results of research and practice, some key techniques for cultivating leaf⁃harvest ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) plantation were summarized systematically. The results were as follows:① Choosing good sites being suitable for ginkgo growing. ② Selecting appropriate ginkgo varieties or clones for various cultivation zones according to their leaf yield and medicinal content. ③Adopting reasonable planting density producing more leaves and obtain higher medicinal content to meet the need of medicinal industry ( suggested density was from 40 000 to 70 000 trees/hm2

  6. 银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片治疗精神分裂症的临床研究%A clinical study of combined utization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schlzophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚飞中; 曾骥; 余瑞; 龚昌群; 刘均富

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical efficacy and the side effects between combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets and only the use of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods Seventy-five patients with schizophrenia were treated randomly with combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets or risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only for six weeks,and measured with the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS) before treatment and 1,2,4,6 weeks after treatment. Results The both programes were different in efficacy, combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone o-rally disintegrating tablets is more effective than risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only in treating schizophrenia, and the side effects combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets is no more effective than risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only in treating schizophrenia. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets take a active part earlier than only the use of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia, however, the reduced rate of BPRS was no significant difference after 2 weeks, itcould be necessary to continue the joint use of ginkgo biloba extract.%目的 比较银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片与单用利培酮口腔崩解片治疗精神分裂症的疗效及不良反应.方法 将符合标准的75例精神分裂症患者分为两组,一组给予银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片治疗(治疗组,n=40),另一组给予利培酮口腔崩解片治疗(对照组,n=35),疗程6周.用简明精神量表(BPRS)在治疗前及治疗1、2、4、6周末评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果

  7. 银杏叶片对砷暴露大鼠免疫毒性的干预作用%Effects of Ginkgo biloba on immune toxicity of rats exposed to arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉艳; 张爱华; 李军; 于春; 姚茂琳; 潘化兵; 曾奇兵; 何江

    2015-01-01

    .49)%,P均<0.05],血清中补体C4含量[(66.99±5.66)mg/L]低于染砷组[(64.23±6.97) mg/L,P<0.05];染砷组、自然恢复组、银杏叶片组CD8+细胞阳性率以及血清IgG、IgA、IgM、C3含量[(31.38±11.40)%,(917.02±1596)、(1 032.96±1.32)、(444.43±1.82)、(560.15±39.57)mg/L;(27.90±13.22)%,(897.23±23.55)、(1 032.72±0.35)、(443.65±1.02)、(557.33±39.86)mg/L; (28.21±8.42)%,(905.83±24.16)、(1 032.10±0.80)、(442.65±1.32)、(554.41±41.21)mg/L]与对照组[(27.22±13.00)%,(903.02±14.69)、(1 032.04±0.64)、(443.41±0.93)、(536.61±32.92)mg/L]比较差异均无统计学意义(P均> 0.05).结论 砷暴露可引起大鼠体内细胞免疫功能紊乱;停止砷暴露后,自然恢复效果欠佳;银杏叶片可提高砷中毒大鼠的免疫功能.%Objective To explore the effects of Gingko biloba on immune function of rats exposed to arsenic,and to provide experimental evidence for prevention and treatment of arsenic poisoning.Methods By using a random number table,40 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight,10 rats in each group,including the control,arsenic exposure,Ginkgo biloba treatment and natural recovery groups.The control group rats with normal diet ad libitum 90 d; other groups were freely given feed containing arsenic,90 d; the natural recovery group rats were freely given arsenic (100 mg/kg) feed 90 d,and then given a normal diet for 45 d; Ginkgo biloba treatment rats ingested arsenic feed 90 d,and then give Ginkgo biloba solution(25 mg/kg·bw) orally,6 d/week,treatment 45 d,fed normal normal diet during treatment.24 h urine of rats were collected to measure the content of arsenic in urine.The blood of rats in heart were collected,to determine the positive rates of CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ cells and antibodies (IgG,IgM,IgA),complements (C3,C4).Results Urinary arsenic levels of rats in arsenic exposure,natural recovery,Ginkgo biloba treatment groups (2.991,0.421,0.334 mg/g) were higher than that

  8. The effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves injection on elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and influence on plasma hs-CRP and IL-6%银杏叶提取物对老年轻度认知障碍患者的疗效及对血超敏C反应蛋白、白细胞介素6的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰; 吴倩; 畅凌; 黄刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究注射用银杏叶对老年轻度认知障碍(MCI)患者的疗效及可能机制。方法选取对照组及治疗组各100例 MCI 患者,对照组给予半量极化液250 mL,治疗组在此基础上加用给予银杏叶注射液20 mL(含16.8 mg 总黄酮醇苷及2.8 mg 银杏内酯)/d,14 d 为一疗程。使用简易智能精神状态检查量表(MMSE)及蒙特利尔量表(Moca)评估疗效;采用 ELISA 法检测血浆超敏 C 反应蛋白(hs-CRP)及白细胞介素6(IL-6)。结果治疗组治疗前后及两组治疗后 MoCA 量表评分比较差异有统计学意义(均 P <0.05);超敏C 反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、白细胞介素6(IL-6)治疗前后及两组治疗后比较也差异有统计学意义(均 P <0.05)。结论银杏叶注射液能延缓老年 MCI 的发展,这可能与降低的血浆 hs-CRP 及 IL-6的水平有关。%Objective To investigate Ginkgo biloba leaves injections influence on elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI)and its relationships with plasma hs-CRP、IL-6.Method Two hundreds MCI patients were randomly divided into Ginkgo biloba leaves injection group and control group.20mL Ginkgo biloba leaves injec-tion(include 16.8mg total flavonoid glycosides and 2.8mg Ginkgolide)with 250ml normal saline or 5% dextrose in-jection was intravenous dripped into every case of the Ginkgo biloba leaves injection group in 60 -90 minutes,1 time a day,14 days as a course.Other treatments of the Ginkgo biloba leaves injection group were conformed to the control group.Results The score of MoCA increased significantly in Ginkgo biloba leaves injection group after the course(P<0.05).The levels of plasma IL-6 and hs-CRP were significantly decreased after Ginkgo biloba leaves injection in-tervention(both P <0.05).Conclusion Ginkgo biloba leaves injection can delay the evolution of MCI,which may be related with plasma hs-CRP and IL-6 reduction.

  9. 银杏叶提取物诱导小鼠体内药物代谢二相酶的研究%Induction effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on phase Ⅱ enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓平; 王鹏; 王光辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:证实银杏叶提取物(Ginkgo biloba extract,EGb)在小鼠体内诱导药物代谢二相酶(Phase Ⅱ enzyme,二相酶)的作用及机制.方法:小鼠随机分成4组,分别灌胃生理盐水和低剂量(1.35 mg/kg)、中剂量(2.70 mg/kg)、高剂量(5.40 mg/kg)的EGb,10 d后处死小鼠,取肝脏组织.用Western blot 测定胞浆中典型二相酶γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit (γ-GCSc)的表达,用酶标微板法测定谷胱甘肽(Glutathione,GSH)含量以反映该酶的功能;观察转录因子Nuclear factor erythroid-2 p45-ralated factor 2 (Nrf2)在胞浆及胞核中的变化(用Western blot 测定Nrf2在胞浆及胞核中的水平).结果:EGb能诱导小鼠肝细胞中二相酶γ-GCSc的表达,并增强其功能;EGb能增加细胞核内Nrf2的含量,同时减少细胞浆内Nrf2的含量.结论:EGb对小鼠体内的二相酶有诱导作用,这种诱导作用是通过Nrf2介导的信号通路.%Objective :To investigate the induction effect of Ginkgo biloba extract(EGb)on phase Ⅱ enzyme and its related mechanisms. Methods:The mice were randomized into four groups and treated with saline and EGb in a dose of 1.35 mg/kg, 2.70 mg/kg or 5.40 mg/kg for ten days,respectively, and the animals were sacrificed and their liver tissue was harvested. The expression of γ-GCSc, a typical phase Ⅱ enzyme, together with its enzyme function was detected respectively by Western blot and GSH Kit. The cytoplasmic or nucleolus content of Nrf2, a transcription factor, was also detected by Western blot. Results: EGb induced the expression of γ-GCSc and boosted its activity. The content of cytoplasmic Nrf2 was decreased, whereas the nucleolus content was increased by induction of EGb. Conclusion: EGb can induce the expression of phase Ⅱ enzyme in mice through the pathway mediated by Nrf2.

  10. HPLC-ELSD结合化学计量学研究银杏叶片中萜类内酯指纹图谱%Fingerprint Analysis of Terpene Lactones in Ginkgo Biloba Tablets by HPLC-ELSD Coupled with Chemometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雨龙; 李艳静; 王佩香; 丁岗; 李萍; 段金廒; 萧伟

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with Evaporative Light-scattering Detector (ELSD) in order to develop the determination of fingerprint of terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba tablets. An Agilent Extend-C18 (4.6 mm í 250 mm, 5 μm) was employed as the analysis column and the normal propyl alcohol-tetrahydrofuran-water (1:15:84) as mobile phase. The column temperature was 30℃. And the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1. HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) was used to identify the common peaks. The fingerprint was further evaluated by chemometrics methods including principal component analysis (PCA), similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clus-tering analysis (HCA). The results showed that the precision, stability and repeatability of this method were favorable. Five common peaks were identified by LC/Q-TOF MS as ginkgolide J ( M ) , C , A , B and bilobalide , respectively . Fourteen batches of Ginkgo biloba tablets were determined. With the aid of PCA, SA and HCA, the common pattern of the fingerprint of terpene lactones was established. Samples were divided into 4 clusters by their quality differ-ence. It was concluded that the method established in this paper can be used for quality evaluation of terpene lac-tones in G ink go b ilob a tablets.%目的:建立不同厂家银杏叶片中萜类内酯成分HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱。方法:色谱柱为Agi-lent Extend-C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相为正丙醇-四氢呋喃-水(1、15、84),柱温为30℃,流速为1 mL·min-1,蒸发光散射检测器检测;采用LC/Q-TOF MS对指纹图谱中的共有峰进行指认。并利用化学计量学方法,包括主成分分析(PCA)、相似度分析(SA)、聚类分析(HCA),对色谱数据进行分析。结果:该方法精密度、稳定性、重复性良好。同时采用LC/Q-TOF MS方法指认了5个共有峰

  11. Induction of Resistance in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) against Penicillum expansum by Ginkgo biloba L.Leaf Extract%银杏叶提取液诱导采后猕猴桃对青霉病的抗性机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美丽; 何玲; 苑希蕊; 杜芳梦; 赵凯茜

    2016-01-01

    用类黄酮含量分别为0.25、0.50、0.75 mg/mL的银杏叶提取液(extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves,EGb)通过损伤接种的方法处理猕猴桃,以无菌水为对照,24 h后接种扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum)孢子悬浮液,通过测定病斑直径和发病率观察EGb诱导猕猴桃抗性的效果;用类黄酮含量为0.50 mg/mL的EGb处理猕猴桃后接种青霉孢子悬浮液,定期取样测定抗病相关防御酶、病程相关蛋白、类黄酮、总酚及丙二醛含量的变化.结果表明:0.50 mg/mL的EGb能有效控制猕猴桃果实接种青霉菌后的发病率,抑制病斑扩展,提高猕猴桃果肉多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、几丁质酶(CHI)和β-1,3-葡聚糖酶(GLU)活性,促进总酚和类黄酮的积累,同时降低膜脂过氧化程度,减少丙二醛的产生,其中以EGb处理后再接种青霉菌的抗性诱导效果最好,表明0.50 mg/mL的EGb可能以Priming机制诱导猕猴桃对青霉菌的抗性.

  12. 银杏外种皮多酚提取工艺及抗氧化性能研究%Study on extract process and antioxidant activities of polyphenol from the Ginkgo biloba exocarp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂宝军; 李勇; 董玉玮; 陈尚龙

    2014-01-01

    以银杏外种皮为原料,用乙醇为溶剂提取其中的酚类化合物,研究银杏外种皮多酚(polyphenol exocarp of ginkgo biloba,PEGB)粗提物的乙醇提取工艺条件及抗氧化性能.选择乙醇体积分数、浸提时间、浸提温度、料液比四个因素进行单因素实验,通过响应面法进一步优化提取条件.结果表明,最佳提取工艺条件为乙醇浓度70%,浸提时间2.6h,浸提温度90℃,料液比1∶30,此条件下多酚的提取率为5.33mg GAE/g.PEGB粗提物对DPPH自由基和羟基自由基的清除能力随浓度升高而增强.当PEGB粗提物浓度为0.5mg/mL时,对DPPH的清除率为84.25%,对羟基自由基的清除率为78.89%,表明高浓度的PEGB粗提物具有较强的抗氧化性能.

  13. Analysis of Pyrolysis Constituents in Essential Oil of Ginkgo biloba Leaves and its Application in Cigarettes%银杏叶挥发油热裂解产物分析及其在卷烟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿洪亮

    2011-01-01

    采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取银杏叶挥发性成分,用气相色谱-质谱对挥发油及300,600,900℃热裂解产物进行了分析.结果表明,银杏叶挥发油共分离鉴定出104种化学成分,主要是醉、酮、醛类物质;挥发油在300℃热裂解后共分离鉴定出41种化合物,600℃热裂解后共鉴定出46种化合物,900℃热裂解后共鉴定出84种化合物.单料烟加香的评吸结果表明,银杏叶挥发油能与烟香谐调,提高香气质,增大香气量,余味有所改善.%The essential oil of Ginkgo biloba leaf was extracted by simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), its chemical constituents were analyzed by GC-MS and 104 volatile compositions were identified. Alcohols, ketones and aldehydes were the main efficacious ingredients in the essential oil. Pyrolysis products of the essential oil at 300 ℃, 600 ℃ and 900 ℃ were compared, 41 compounds were identified at 300 ℃, 46 compounds were identified at 600 ℃ and 84 compounds were identified at 900 ℃. The essential oil of different concentration was added to cigarette and tasted, the results showed that the essential oil could be harmonized with fragrant of tobacco, improve quality and quantity of aroma.

  14. 银杏花粉萌发生长与分枝式花粉管形成的观察%Observation of pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆彦; 林明明; 王莉; 金飚

    2009-01-01

    While the pollen germination and pollen tube growth of flowering plants have been well studied, the knowledge of early gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba is little understood. Here, we describe the process of pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Ginkgo biloba in vivo and in vitro by using semi-thin section techniques and scanning election microscope(SEM) . The results show the following.(1) Pollen grains moved into pollen chamber passing through micropylar and micropylar canal with the contraction of pollination drop. About 7 days later, pollen began to germinate after a series of changes of development in the pollen chamber. (2) The initial pollen tube was vertical to the axial row of four cells indicating that the pollen germination in the pollen chamber was lateral germination. Then pollen tubes grow in irregular directions within the pollen chamber by penetrating into intercellular space near or away from the nucellus, and no severe displacement of nucellar cells by the growth of pollen tube. In a small quantity of pollen grains, soon after the tube cells swelled, the pollen tubes began to produce branch at the apex. (3) In vitro culture, the fusiform shape of the pollens changed into round shape rapidly by hydration. At about 48 h after culture, pollen germination occurred in the enlargement of tube cell after the shedding of pollen exine. During tube growth, the tube cell nucleus moved into the elongating tube, and the generative cells remained within the pollen grain. There are two distinct areas in elongating pollen tubes. One is at the proximal pollen, containing abounding starch grains. The other is the transparent area at the distal part, lacking of starch grains. The tips of elongating pollen tubes form various types of branches. The cytoplasmic streaming type in the tube cell is a regular fountain like pattern, with cytoplasm moving towards the tip in the center of the tube and return from the tip along the tube wall.%本研究采用半薄切片法和

  15. 响应面优化银杏叶中黄酮的提取工艺%Optimization of Flavonoids from Ginkgo Biloba Using Respone Surface Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建原; 季丽红

    2013-01-01

    为研究银杏叶中黄酮的提取工艺条件,以黄酮提取量为指标,采用乙醇回流法做实验.通过单因素试验及响应面分析,探讨乙醇体积分数、固液比、提取时间和提取温度对黄酮提取量的影响.同时应用响应面交互作用,分析优化得出该方法的最佳提取条件是:乙醇体积分数83%,固液比1∶22 g/mL,提取时间98 min,提取温度71℃.在此条件下银杏叶黄酮提取量为18.38 mg/g.将样品纯化,用红外光谱对其结构进行表征.%This paper studies the technological conditions of extracting flavonoids from Ginkgo leaves. Extraction of flavonoids as an indicators, a single factor experiment and responsesurface method were used in ethanol extraction method. The extraction of flavonoids as an indicator, the use of ethanol reflux experiment, the single factor experiments and response surface analysis of the ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and ftxtraction temperature on the extraction of flavonoids. Analysing by Response Surface Method obtaines the optimum technological condition for Ginkgo leaves; ethanol concentration is 83%, the mass ratio is 1:22 g/mL, extracting time is 98 min and extracting temperature is 71 ℃. Under this condition the extraction of flavonoids is 18.38 mg/g. At the same time, the purified sample are characterized by IR spectra.

  16. Effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on the acquisition, retrieval and extinction of conditioned suppression: Evidence that short-term memory and long-term memory are differentially modulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlam, C R; Vendrasco, N C; Oliveira, D R; Gaiardo, R B; Cerutti, S M

    2016-10-15

    Studies in our laboratory have characterized the putative neuromodulatory effects of a standardized extract of the green leaves of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), which comprises a formulation of 24% ginkgo-flavoglycosides and 6% ginkgo-terpenoid lactones, on conditioned suppression. This model comprises a suitable animal model for investigating the behavioral changes and pharmacological mechanisms that underlie fear memory and anxiety. The characterization of the effects on distinct stages of fear memory or fear extinction will help illustrate both the beneficial and harmful effects. Three hundred adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 30 groups according to the treatment as follows: i-ii) control groups (CS-US and CSno-US); iii) vehicle group (12% Tween®80); and iv-vi) EGb groups (250, 500 and 1000mgkg(-1)); or experimental procedures designed to assess the effects of EGb treatment prior to the acquisition (n=20 per group) and retrieval of conditioned fear (n=10 per group) or prior to the extinction training (n=10 per group) and extinction retention test (n=10 per group). Furthermore, to better understand the effects of acute EGb treatment on fear memory, we conducted two additional analyses: the acquisition of within- and between-session extinction of fear memory (short- and long-term memory, respectively). No difference was identified between the control and treatment groups during the retention test (P>0.05), with the exception of the CSno-US group in relation to all groups (Pmemory, which was verified by the suppression ration in the first trial of extinction training (SR=0.39) and the extinction retention test session (SR=0.53, Pmemory acquisition, which were evaluated during the retention test (SR=0.79). Moreover, EGb administered at 1000mgkg(-1) prior to conditioning did not enhance the long-term extinction memory, i.e., it did not prevent the return of extinguished fear memory in the extinction retention test, in which the spontaneous recovery of fear was

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented Ginkgo biloba L. residues on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Chen, Hongxia; Tao, Ran

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of fermented Ginkgo biloba L. residues (FGBLR) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets. Pigs were allotted to five dietary treatments, including negative control (NC: antibiotic free basal diet), positive control (PC) (NC + 30 mg apramycin/kg) and FGBLR-50, 100, 150 (NC + 50, 100, 150 g FGBLR/kg). Pigs in FGBLR-100 and PC treatments showed increased final body weight, average daily gain, gain:feed and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, N and gross energy (P < 0.05) compared with NC, FGBLR-50 and FGBLR-150 treatments, In addition, pigs fed with FGBLR-100 diet showed higher serum total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, hemoglobin, total iron, total iron binding capacity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione superoxide dismutase levels, and lower serum blood urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels than those fed with PC and NC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, feeding FGBLR-100 could increase levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA and IgM, as well as lymphocyte transformation rates, ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells and proportions of CD2+, CD4+, B, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II cells, and can decrease proportion of CD8+ cells in blood of piglets compared with PC and NC groups (P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 10% of FGBLR showed greatest beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets, which were superior to antibiotic supplemental diets.

  18. 一株银杏内生真菌的鉴定及其活性代谢产物研究%Identification of an Endophytic Fungus of Ginkgo biloba TMSF169 and Its Antifungal Metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国平; 王丽薇; 张亚磊; 王佳莹; 徐旭辉; 章初龙

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic fungi in medicinal plants are important sources for microorganisms which can produce a variety of bioactive compounds.In this study,an endophytic fungus TMSF169 with antifungal activity was isolated from Ginkgo biloba in Tianmushan Nature Reserve,Zhejiang province.TMSF169 was identified as Penicillium commune based on morphology and ITS rDNA sequence analysis.An antifungal and herbicidal compound TMSF169A was isolated and purified from the fermentation broth of TMSF169 through normal-phase silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography,traced by ultraviolet light or iodine vapor with bioassay-guided fractionation.TMSF169A was elucidated as cyclopaldic acid based on mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Antifungal activity assays showed that the compound had inhibitory to a series of plant pathogenic fungi.The metabolite was also pathogenic to Commelina communis,Digitaria sanguinalis,Amaranthus retroflexus,Alternanthera philoxeroides and Oryza sativa,but not sensitive to Sesamum indicum and Glycine max.All the results demonstrated that the strain TMSF169 deserves to develop further.%药用植物内生真菌是一类重要的微生物资源,能代谢产生多种生物活性物质,本研究从浙江天目山自然保护区银杏Ginkgo biloba中分离获得1株活性菌株TMSF169。通过形态学和ITS rDNA序列分析,鉴定该菌株为团青霉Penicillium commune。发酵粗提物采用正相硅胶柱层析和Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱层析,以紫外光或碘蒸汽显迹,配合活性追踪,从菌株TMSF169发酵液中分离获得1个具抗真菌及除草活性的化合物TMSF169A,通过质谱和核磁共振波谱等技术将其结构鉴定为圆弧菌醛酸(cyclopaldic acid)。活性测试表明,该化合物具有抗菌活性,对鸭跖草Commelina communis,反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus,马唐Digitaria sanguinalis、空心莲子草Alternanthera philoxeroides、水稻Oryza sativa等植物均

  19. Isolation and Identification of the Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22 from Ginkgo biloba%银杏内生菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22次生代谢产物分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建春; 白莉; 李晓明; 张雅梅; 高锦明; Hartmut laatsch

    2009-01-01

    Six metabolites cerebroside B (1),cerebroside C (2),allantoin (3),9(11)-dehyoergosterol peroxide (4) and ergosta-4,6,8,22-tetraen-3-one (5),chaetoglobosin A (6) were isolated by column chromatography from the extract of cultural mycelium of fungus Chaetomium globosum ZY-22,an endophyte in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba.Structures of them were established by spectroscopic methods.Among of them,cerebroside B,cerebroside C,allantoin were firstly obtained from endophytic fungus;The result of brine shrimp bioassay showed the mortality rates of them to Artemia salina are 1.6%,4.2%,7.4%,16.9%,12.8% and 83.6% respectively at the concentration of 10 μg/mL,chaetoglobosin A showed significant toxic effect on brine shrimp.%采用柱层析方法从银杏叶内生真菌Chaetomium globosum ZY-22的培养菌丝体提取物中分离得到脑苷脂B(1)、脑苷脂C(2)、尿囊素(3)、9(11)-去氢麦角甾醇过氧化物(4)以及4,6,8,22-四烯-3-酮-麦角甾烷(5)和球毛壳甲素(6)共6个次生代谢物;经波谱分析确定了6个化合物的结构,其中脑苷脂B、脑苷脂C和尿囊素是首次从内生真菌中得到;海虾致死试验结果显示,化合物1~6在10 μg/mL浓度下对丰年虾的致死率分别为1.6%、4.2%、7.4%、16.9%、12.8%、83.6%、表明球毛壳甲素对海虾表现出很强的毒性作用.

  20. Preparation and in vitro release of ginkgo biloba extract sustained-release tablets%银杏提取物缓释片的制备及其体外释放度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔启华; 朱云峰; 崔京浩

    2009-01-01

    目的:制备银杏提取物缓释片并考察其体外释放度.方法:以溶胀性材料羧甲基纤维素钠和羟丙甲基纤维素为骨架材料,直接粉末压片制备银杏提取物缓释片.根据单因素试验中各因素对银杏提取物体外释放度影响结果,进行正交设计,优化处方和工艺,以f_2相似因子法评价释放的差异.结果:羟丙甲基纤维素与羧甲基纤维素钠的用量比、羟丙甲基纤维素的黏度、不同的稀释剂均对药物释放有一定的影响,而缓释片的硬度、片重等对药物的释放没有显著的影响.结论:以羟丙甲基纤维素和羧甲基纤维素钠为骨架材料,制得持续释药12 h的银杏提取物缓释片.%Objective:To prepare ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) sustained-release tablets and observe its in vitro release profile.Method:GBE sustained-release tablets were prepared by direct compression method using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose HPMC) as matrix excipients.Based on the result of single-factor selecting experiment,the formulations and preparation process were optimized through orthogonal design,and release difference of tablets was evaluated with similarity factor (f_2).Result:The ratio of HPMC and CMC-Na,the viscosity of HPMC and the different types of the diluents had pronounced effect on the release of GBE sustained release tablets,ahhough the hardness and weight difference of tablets did not show notable influences.Conclusion:GBE sustained-release tablets that prepared by using the mixture of HPMC and CMC-Na display constant release profile in 12 h.

  1. The study of chemical and scavenging action to hydroxyl free radical of polysaccha rides of Ginkgo biloba leaf%银杏叶多糖的化学及清除羟自由基作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳菊情; 丁东宁; 边晓丽; 董海艳; 葛苹

    2000-01-01

    目的测定银杏叶多糖的组成、分子量、甙键类型及其对羟自由基的清除作用。方法利用气相色谱法测定多糖组成;凝胶过滤法测定分子量;红外光谱法测定甙键类型。以·OH清除剂(甘露醇、苯甲酸)为对照,应用Fenton反应检测多糖对·OH的清除作用。结果该多糖是由鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、甘露糖、半乳糖组成,平均分子量为红外光谱在处有吸收。对·OH的清除作用达50%所需药物量以表示。多糖、甘露醇、苯甲酸的依次为867、3996和490μg/ml。结论银杏叶多糖是以α-甙键连接而成的杂多糖,该多糖对Fenton体系产生的·OH自由基有清除作用。%Objective To determine the component sugars, the molecular weight, the forms of linkage and scavenging action to hydroxyl free radical of GBL( Ginkgo biloba leaf) polysaccharide. Methods The component sugar was determined by gas chromatography analysis. Its molecular weight was measured by gel filtration. The scavenging action to hydroxyl free radical was tested by Fenton reaction contrasting with special eliminations for hydroxyl free radicals, for example, mannitol,benzoic acid. Results The polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and galactose. Its mean molecular weight was estimated to be The scavenging action to hydroxyl free radical was represented by the content scavenging 50% of all hydroxyl free radical The of polysaccharide, mannitol, and benzoic acid was 867,3996 and 490μg/ml. Conclusion The polysaccharide is a heteropolysaccharide, its main chain is composed of a-linkage. It has a scavenging action to hydroxyl free radical by Fenton reaction.

  2. 高浓度O3对银杏凋落叶化学组成的影响%Effects of elevated O3 concentration on chemical composition of leaf litter of Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽丽; 付伟; 徐胜; 何兴元; 陈玮; 赵诣; 黄彦青

    2015-01-01

    北半球近地大气O3浓度在最近几十年里持续升高,对陆地生态系统产生深远的影响.本文选取5年生银杏(Ginkgo biloba)为研究对象,利用开顶式气室(OTCs)开展了3个不同浓度的O3(自然对照浓度约40 nmol·mol-1、处理浓度80和120 nmol·mol-1)熏蒸试验,持续熏蒸2个生长季(2012-2013年)后,于2013年11年月初收集其凋落叶,测定并分析不同处理下银杏凋落叶化学成分的变化.结果表明:与对照相比,高浓度O3处理组银杏凋落叶的N、K含量均显著升高,总酚含量以及C/N、木质素/N降低;而C、P、木质素含量以及C/P并未呈现出显著差异.可溶性糖、缩合单宁含量在两高浓度O3处理下变化趋势并不一致:与对照相比,可溶性糖含量仅在120 nmol·mol-1处理下表现出显著差异,降低38%;缩合单宁含量在80 nmol·mol-1处理下显著升高(343%),而在120 nmol·mol-1处理下无显著变化.木本植物凋落物的化学组成在O3熏蒸下会发生一定变化,这种变化可能会对树木凋落物在O3污染地区的分解及区域气候变化下森林生态系统的物质循环,特别是碳循环产生重要影响.

  3. Protective effects of the antioxidant Ginkgo biloba extract and the protease inhibitor aprotinin against Leiurus quinquestriatus venom-induced tissue damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Fatani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and proteases have been implicated in several diseases and extensive evidence indicates that antioxidants and protease inhibitors help prevent organ functional damage. Leiurus quinquestriatus (LQQ scorpion venom causes cellular injuries that may lead to multiple organ failure. Thus, the capability of the antioxidant "natural standardized extract of Gingko biloba leaves (Gin, EGb 761" and the non-selective protease inhibitor, aprotinin, in ameliorating venom-induced biochemical alterations indicative of cellular injury and oxidative stress was studied to determine their effectiveness in protecting rats from venom-evoked cellular damages. Thus, in this study, rats were treated with LQQ venom (0.3mg.kg-1, subcutaneously alone or after Gin (150mg.kg-1, orally, daily for 2 weeks before venom and/or aprotinin (Apr, 46000 KIU.kg-1, intraperitoneally, 30 min before venom. Control groups were injected with saline or treatment modalities. Lungs and hearts were excised after decapitating rats (n=8/group 60 min after venom injection and the following activities were measured: reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA - an index of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Our findings demonstrate that LQQ venomsignificantly elevated GSH (p<0.05 vs. control, MDA (p<0.05, G6PD (p<0.05, and LDH activities (p<0.001 in hearts of envenomed rats. The venom also elevated MDA (p<0.05 vs. control and reduced GSH and GPx (p<0.05 in the lungs of envenomed rats. In general, pretreatment with EGb761 attenuated LQQ venom-evoked increases in GSH (p<0.05 vs. venom, MDA in rat hearts and lungs (p<0.05 vs. venom, plus LDH in the heart (p<0.01. Aprotinin alone significantly reduced the venom-elicited increase in G6PD and LDH activities and the decrease in GPx levels (p<0.05. In general, these protective effects of EGb761 on GSH, MDA (p<0.01 vs. venom and LDH (p<0.001 in the

  4. The clinical observation of the efficacy of mecobalami, alprostadil, and extract of ginkgo biloba leaves combination therapy in elderly diabetic peripheral neuropathy%弥可保、凯时和金纳多联合治疗老年糖尿病周围神经病变的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 王晓湘; 张汝; 李改丽; 王建

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解弥可保、凯时和金纳多联合治疗在改善糖尿病患者周围神经疼痛及感觉异常方面的作用,为临床治疗糖尿病周围神经病变提供参考.方法 以老年Ⅱ型糖尿病患者伴周围神经病变为研究对象,给予弥可保、凯时和金纳多联合治疗,动态观察患者的局部神经疼痛、感觉异常和神经传导速度的改善情况.结果 共纳入54例临床诊断为Ⅱ型糖尿病伴周围神经病变的患者.在给予联合治疗4周后,54例患者中分别有24例(44.4%)和25例(46.3%)患者的局部自发痛或(和)感觉异常缓解程度达到了临床显效和有效的标准,而仅5例(9.3%)患者的局部不适无改善.结论 弥可保、凯时和金纳多联合治疗对改善老年糖尿病周围神经病变疗效显著.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of mecobalami, alprostadil, and extract of ginkgo biloba leaves combination therapy in reducing pain and paresthesia of diabetic patients and provide a reference for the clinical treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods The elderly type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy were given mecobalami, alprostadil, and extract of ginkgo biloba leaves treatment, and the improvement of local nerve pain, paresthesia and nerve conduction velocity were dynamically observed. Results A total of 54 elderly type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy were included in this study. After giving 4 weeks of combination therapy, there were 24 (44. 4%) and 25 (46. 3%) patients respectively, whose local spontaneous pain or paresthesia remission degree reached to markedly effective standard and effective standard; and only 5 patients had no improvement on local discomfort. Conclusion The combination therapy of mecobalami, alprostadil, and extract of ginkgo biloba leaves could significantly improve the remission of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation in ginkgo and guarana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo Soriani, Renata [Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida professor Lineu Prestes, 580-Bloco13, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Satomi, Lucilia Cristina [Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida professor Lineu Prestes, 580-Bloco13, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus A. [Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida professor Lineu Prestes, 580-Bloco13, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: tjapinto@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Raw plant materials normally carry high bioburden due to their origin, offering potential hazards to consumers. The use of decontamination processes is therefore an important step towards the consumer safety and therapeutical efficiency. Several authors have reported the treatment of medicinal herbs with ionizing radiation. This work evaluated the effects of different radiation doses on the microbial burden and chemical constituents of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) and guarana (Paullinia cupana H.B.K.)

  6. Research on Propagation of Ginkgo bUoba L.%银杏繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李然红; 王越琪; 李书滔; 李冰; 王艳

    2011-01-01

    银杏是古老的孑遗植物,具有重要的观赏价值、药用价值、生态价值及经济价值,在我国的栽培发展迅速,因此各地对银杏苗木的需求也在逐步增大,文章就常用的银杏繁殖技术进行了综述,以期为银杏的生产提供科学依据。%Ginkgo biloba L. is a kind of relic plants, which has ornamental value, medicinal value, ecological value and economic value. Its cultivation has developed rapidly in China, so the demands of seedlings of the Ginkgo biloba L. were also increasing gradually. The propagation of Ginkgo biloba L. was sumarized, in order to provide scientific proof for the production of Ginkgo biloba L..

  7. 东菱克栓酶联合银杏达莫注射液治疗突发性耳聋疗效观察%Batroxobin injection combined Ginkgo biloba extract and dipyridamole injection efficacy of treatment of sudden deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱韵

    2012-01-01

    Objective Summary Batroxobin injection combined Cinkgo biloba extract and dipyridamole injection efficacy of treatment of sudden deafness,Treatment of sudden deafness of effective drug. Method Selected 108 cases (120 ears) in patients with sudden deafness diagnosis, Randomly divided into treatment and control groups, The treatment for 2 weeks. Result Treatment group was 85% .Control group was 66% ,Two groups was highly significant difference ( P <0.05) ,No serious adverse reactions and complications. Conclusion Batroxobin injection combined Ginkgo biloba extract and dipyridamole injection assisted treatment of sudden deafness results were satisfactory.%目的 总结东菱克栓酶联合银杏达莫注射液治疗突发性耳聋的疗效,探讨治疗突发性耳聋的有效药物.方法 选择108例(120耳)突发性耳聋明确诊断患者,随机分成治疗组和对照组,两组疗程均为2周.结果 治疗组有效率85%,对照组有效率66%,两组比较有极显著性差异(P<0.05),未见严重的不良反应和并发症.结论 银杏达莫辅助治疗突发性耳聋疗效满意.

  8. Effects of drought stress on annual dynamic changing pattern of the terpene lactones content in Ginkgo biloba leaves%干旱胁迫对银杏叶萜内酯年动态变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱灿灿; 曹福亮; 王贵斌; 耿国民

    2011-01-01

    The effects of drought stress on terpene lactones contents of Ginkgo biloba grown in pots at 4 soil moisture levels under greenhouse conditions were investigated. The results showed that there were significant effects on the contents of bi-lobalide BB, ginkgolide GC, CA, CB and total terpene lactones in different growing seasons. With the development of season, terpene lactones contents were increased first and then decline at the subsequent. Moderate drought conditions can contribute to the synthesis of terpene lactones. The terpene lactones contents in mild and moderate drought conditions significantly increased if compared with the terpene lactones contents in appropriate water condition. Concerning the leaf yield, terpene lactones contents as well as the relationship between quantity and time of leaf collection, we suggested that the highest economic yield per single plant could be obtained by controlling soil water content at mild level ( relative water content ,55% -60% ) and harvesting leaves in June to October.%以2年生盆栽实生苗为研究材料,通过人工模拟干旱胁迫环境,探索4水平干旱胁迫(土壤含水量分别为田间持水量的75% ~ 80%、55% ~ 60%、40% ~45%和30%~35%)对银杏叶萜内酯类物质季节变化的影响.结果表明:干旱胁迫下,生长季节不同,银杏叶内白果内酯BB、银杏内酯GC、GA、GB及总萜内酯含量变化具有显著差异,随着生长季节的变化银杏叶萜内酯类物质含量变化呈“先升高后降低”的趋势.适度干旱条件下可以促进银杏萜内酯类物质的合成,尤其轻度和中度干旱条件下,萜内酯含量比适宜水分条件下明显增多.考虑到叶产量、叶萜内酯美物质含量以及采叶与采时的关系等,在实际生产中可以考虑在植物生长初期,给予银杏苗正常的水分供应以获得最大的生物产量,在6-10月份叶片发育完全后适当进行轻度干旱处理(土壤水分含量

  9. 不同树龄银杏叶萜内酯含量的年周期变化规律%Study on the Annual Variation Changes of the Terpene Trilactones Content in Ginkgo biloba Leaves with Different Tree Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锋; 寥咏玲; 程水源; 李琳玲; 程华; 张威威; 王燕

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the change law of terpene trilactones in G. biloba leaves from three different tree ages, the present paper investigated the annual variation change of terpene trilactones contents in leaves from 5-year-old seedling, 9-year-old seedling, and 14-year-old grafted tree. The results showed that the total terpene trilactones content, ginkgolides A(GA), ginkgolides B(GB), ginkgolides C (GO and bilobalide (BB) contents in Ginkgo leaves of three different planting years appeared similarity pattern, which was increasing gradually at first, and then maintaining in a peak period, subsequently decreasing rapidly. The order of the contents of terpene trilactones in different tree-age leaves was 9-year-old seedling > 5-year-old seedling > 14-year-old grafted tree. For ginkgolide A, the highest level was in the leaves of 5-year-old seedling, significantly higher than those of 9-years-old seedling and 14-year-old grafted tree. On the other hand, the 9-year-old seedling leaves was higher than those of 5-year-old tree seedling and 14-year-old grafted tree at the highest value of contents of ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C and bilobalide.%为研究不同树龄银杏叶萜内酯含量的动态变化规律,对5年生实生树、9年生实生树、14年生嫁接树的银杏叶萜内酯含量的年周期变化进行了测定.结果表明:3种不同树龄银杏叶的银杏内酯A(GA)、银杏内酯B(GB)、银杏内酯C(GC)、白果内酯(BB)以及总萜内酯含量变化规律基本一致,均为先上升,随后经历一个平稳的高峰期,最后再迅速下降.不同树龄银杏叶总萜内酯最高峰含量的高低顺序为9年生实生苗>5年生实生树>14年生嫁接树;而银杏叶4种萜内酯含量不同树龄间存在差异:对GA来说,在最高峰时,5年生实生树含量显著高于9年生实生苗和14年生嫁接苗含量;对BB、GB和GC而言,在含量最高峰时9年生实生树含量高于5年生实生苗和14年生嫁接苗.

  10. Palaeophytochemical Constituents of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Xing Zhao; Cheng-Sen Li; Xiao-Dong Luo; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the organic solvent extract of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analogous to those from extant leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., led to the detection of a group of natural flavonoids and other volatiles. The similarity of the chemical constituents in these two species of Ginkgo suggest that the secondary metabolism of extant G. biloba is close to that of the Cretaceous species. The remaining natural products may be one explanation why the leaves of the Cretaceous G. coriacea have been preserved morphologically in fossilization. The detection of flavonoids suggests that the leaves of G. coriacea experienced a mild post-depositional environment during their fossilization. This appears to be the oldest occurrence of flavonoids in plant fossils.

  11. 银杏叶提取物对突发性耳聋患者免疫功能的影响及疗效观察%Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Immune Function in Patients with Sudden Hearing Loss and Observation of Clinical Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩倩; 渠晓丽; 刘平; 冯欲静; 原红艳; 张淑香

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨银杏叶提取物对突发性耳聋( sudden hearting loss, SHL)患者免疫功能的影响及其疗效。方法选取在我院诊治的SHL 124例,随机分为观察组和对照组各62例,两组均予基础治疗,观察组在基础治疗基础上予银杏叶提取物注射液治疗,观察比较两组治疗前后血清免疫功能指标及疗效。结果治疗后两组血清T细胞亚群中CD3、CD4百分比及IgG、IgM均较治疗前升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后观察组血清T细胞亚群中CD3、CD4百分比及IgG、IgM均高于对照组,差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗后观察组有效率及总有效率均高于对照组,无效率低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论银杏叶提取物能改善SHL患者免疫功能,且治疗SHL效果较好。%Objective To investigate the effects of ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of patients with sudden hear-ing loss and its influence on immune function. Methods A total of 124 cases of sudden hearing loss in our hospital were se-lected and were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 62 cases in each group. The patients in the two the groups were given basic treatment. The patients in observation group were additionally given ginkgo biloba extract. The curative efficacy and immune function indicators were observed and compared between the two groups before and after treat-ment. Results After treatment, CD3, CD4, IgG, IgM levels of serum T cell subsets of patients in the two groups were higher than that before (P<0. 05), and these indicators in the observation group were significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0. 05). The total efficacy rate and efficacy rate of the observation group were obviously higher than that of the con-trol group after treatment;the inefficiency rate in the observation group was significantly lower than that of control group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05

  12. 多奈哌齐联合脑蛋白水解物注射液和银杏叶提取物治疗阿尔茨海默病的疗效评价%The effect of donepezil combined with cerebrolysin and ginkgo biloba on alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉; 胡智; 申明达; 翟鑫; 李勇; 杜凯音; 王津; 陈春雷; 张宝和

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价盐酸多奈哌齐联合脑蛋白水解物注射液和银杏叶提取物对阿尔茨海默病患者认知功能、日常行为功能障碍的改善作用。方法收集132例患者随机分为2个组,盐酸多奈哌齐联合脑蛋白水解物和银杏叶提取物治疗组66例(联合治疗组),盐酸多奈哌齐治疗组66例(盐酸多奈哌齐组),2个组年龄、性别及病情等一般情况差异无统计学意义。两组患者分别在治疗前、治疗后3、6、12个月进行简易智能精神状态MMSE量表、日常生活功能ADL量表的测评。治疗前、治疗中和治疗结束后均检测肝肾功和心电图。结果盐酸多奈哌齐联合脑蛋白水解物和银杏叶提取物治疗组治疗阿尔茨海默病患者3个月、6个月和12个月后,认知功能的改善和行为能力的改善均明显好于盐酸多奈哌齐治疗组(P<0.01)。结论盐酸多奈哌齐联合脑蛋白水解物和银杏叶提取物联合应用改善阿尔茨海默病认知功能和行为能力的效果优于单用盐酸多奈哌齐,且无明显副作用。%Objective To investigate the effect of Donepezil combined with Cerebrolysin(CL)and Ginkgo biloba(Egb76 1 )in the treatment of aged patients with Alzheimer's disease on cognitive function and behavioral disor-ders.Methods A total of 132 patients with Alzheimer's disease were collected and randomly divided into 2 groups:Donepezil combined with Cerebrolysin(CL)and Ginkgo biloba(Egb761)group (combined treatment group,n=66), Donepezil group(n=66).MMSE Scale and ADL Scale of 2 groups were assessed and compared before treatment and 3 months,6 months and 12 months after treatment.Results The cognitive function and behavioral abilities in aged patients with Alzheimer's disease improved markedly (P<0.01 )in the combined group 3 months,6months and 12 months after treatment.Conclusion Combination of Donepezil with Cerebrolysin(CL)and Ginkgo biloba(Egb761 ) can markedly ameliorate the

  13. Effect of vitamin, folic acid combined with Ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive function in elderly patients with stroke%维生素、叶酸联合银杏叶提取物对老年脑卒中患者认知功能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春雷; 张峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analysis the effect of vitamin, folic acid combined with Ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive function in elderly patients with stroke.Methods 56 patients who were diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction were collected.All patients were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 28 cases in each group.Control group was given conventional treatment for improving circulation, nutrition brain cells, anti platelet aggregation, experimental group was given vitamin B6 tablets(20 mg,one time per day), folic acid tablets(20 mg, one time per day) and Ginkgo Biloba Extract Tablets(80mg, two times per day) on the basis of conventional treatment.After treatment, the levels of plasma Hcy, serum BDNF, UCP2 level and cognitive function were detected in all patients.ResuIts After treatment, compared with control group, the plasma Hcy level was significantly lower in experimental group(P<0.05).The serum BDNF level in experimental group was significantly higher (P<0.05) .The serum UCP2 level in experimental group was significantly higher (P<0.05) .The MMSE and MoCA scores of the patients in the experimental group were significantly higher (P<0.05).ConcIusions Vitamin, folic acid combined with Ginkgo biloba extract can reduce the level of plasma Hcy in elderly patients with stroke, improve serum BDNF, UCP2 levels, improve the cognitive function.%目的:探讨维生素、叶酸联合银杏叶提取物对老年脑卒中患者认知功能的影响。方法收集收治的缺血性脑卒中患者56例,随机分为对照组和实验组,每组28例,对照组给予改善循环、营养脑细胞、抗血小板聚集等常规治疗,实验组在常规治疗基础上给予维生素B6片(20 mg,1次/天)、叶酸片(2.5 mg,1次/天)以及银杏叶提取物片(80 mg,2次/天)口服。均治疗3个月。治疗结束后,对所有患者的血浆Hcy水平、血清BDNF、UCP2水平及认知功能进行检测。结果治疗后,与对

  14. 银杏叶聚戊烯醇同系物体外抑制乳腺癌MCF-7细胞株增殖作用及机制研究%Growth-inhibiting Effect and its Molecular Mechanism of Polyprenols from ginkgo biloba on Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁香; 黄小芳; 张应辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the growth-inhibiting effect of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba on breast cancer cells MCF-7 in vitro and the related molecular mechanism. Method: Polyprenols were extracted by preparative Reversed-phase high-performance liguid chromatography ( RP-HPLC ) . The growth-inhibiting effect of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba on breast cancer cells MCF-7 was evaluated in vitro. The polyprenols with best antiproliferative effect was screened and figured out. The influence of polyprenol P3 (5, 10, 20 mg ·L-1 ) on mitotic cycle and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was analyzed with flow cytometry. Result: Ten polyprenol monomers were obtained by preparative RP-HPLC, and were orderly named PI , P2, P3……P10. The best effective growth-inhibiting on MCF-7 cells was P3 with IC50 of 10. 32 mg ·L-1 . At low concentration, its mechanism appeared to be delaying on G2/M of mitotic cycle, and at high concentration to be inducing cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Polyprenol P3 from Ginkgo biloba could inhibit growth of breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro. Its molecular mechanism is linked with delaying on mitotic phase ( G2/M ) and inducing cell apoptosis.%目的:研究银杏叶聚戊烯醇同系物体外抑制MCF-7细胞增殖的作用并初步探讨作用机制.方法:经制备反相高效液(RT-HPLC)获得银杏叶聚戊烯醇同系物,MTT法检测其对MCF-7细胞增殖的影响,选取抑制细胞增殖作用强的同系物P3,用流式细胞仪检测5,10,20 mg·L-1 P3对MCF-7细胞周期、细胞凋亡的影响.结果:经提取分离获得10个银杏叶聚戊烯醇同系物,依次命名为P1,P2,P3……P10,其中P3对MCF-7细胞株增殖的抑制作用最强,IC50为10.32 mg·L-1,其作用机制低浓度时以阻滞细胞周期于G2/M期为主,高浓度可诱导凋亡.结论:银杏叶聚戊烯醇同系物P3为银杏叶提取物抑制MCF-7增殖的活性成分,其作用机制与阻滞细胞周期,诱导细胞凋亡有关.

  15. Relationship between Diurnal Changes of Photosynthesis of Ginkgo biloba and Environmental Factors under Different Ground Surfaces%城市不同地表覆盖类型下银杏光合日变化及与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 李锋; 宋英石; 倪红山

    2012-01-01

    城市地表硬化阻碍了土壤和大气间水、肥、气、热的交换,改变了城市植物生长的小气候环境,进而显著地影响城市植物的光合生理生态过程。本文以银杏为例,对3种不同地表覆盖类型(水泥覆盖、砖面覆盖和草皮覆盖)下银杏净光合速率(h)及环境因子的日变化进行测定和分析,旨在揭示城市地表硬化对银杏光合作用及环境因子的影响和机制,以期为改善城市植物生长环境,提高城市植物生态系统服务功能提供科学依据。研究结果表明,3种地表覆盖类型下银杏Pn日变化均呈双峰曲线;且与空气CO2浓度(Ca)呈极显著正相关(P〈0.01)。但不同地表覆盖类型下光合特性存在显著差异,与草皮覆盖相比,水泥和砖面覆盖下Pn日最高值分别降低了62.2%和26.8%。相关性分析表明:硬化地表(水泥和砖面覆盖)下夏季地表温度过高而大气相对湿度和CO2浓度较低,是导致银杏光合特性下降的主要环境因子。%Urban impervious surface prevented the exchanges of water, nutrient, air, energy between soils and other environmental compartment, and changed the microenvironment of urban plants, thus significantly influenced the photosynthetic physiological ecological process of plants. In this research, the diurnal changes of photosynthesis of Ginkgo biloba and related environmental factors under three typical ground surface covers (cement, brick and turf)were analyzed to explore the effects of urban impervious surface on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the causative environmental factors. The conclusion could provide the theoretical basis to improve the growth environment and ecological services of urban plants. The results indicated that the diurnal variation of Pn of Ginkgo biloba under three ground surface covers showed a typical double peak curve, and it was significantly (P 〈 O. O1 ) correlated with air CO2

  16. 高效液相色谱法快速测定银杏叶提取物中的萜类内酯%Rapid Analysis of Terpene Lactones in Extract of Ginkgo biloba L.by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海峰; 鞠兴荣

    2000-01-01

    A new rapid analytical method was developed for the quantification of terpene lactones (bilobalide(BB) and ginkgolide A,B,C,J) in extract of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGb) using a liquid-liquid solvent extraction procedure followed by high performance liquid chromatography. EGb was dissolved in 30% ethanol and extracted with ether. After evaporation, the residue was then determinated by HPLC on a C18 column with methanol-water-orthophosphoric acid (25∶75∶0.1,V/V) as eluent and refractive index (RI) detection. Results showed that the excellent sample clean-up procedure is more simple and specific, and saves more time (less than 20 min) than any other methods that have been reported, and also leads to high recoveries (>99.0%) and low RSDs (<2.0%).The reproducible method is regarded to be very useful for evaluating the quality of extract of Ginkgo biloba L..%建立了液-液萃取后高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定银杏叶提取物(EGb)中萜类内酯含量的快速方法.EGb样品溶于体积分数为30%的乙醇溶液后用乙醚萃取,有机相浓缩后的残留物以HPLC分析,组分的分离采用C18柱,以甲醇-水-磷酸(体积比为25:75:0.1)为流动相,示差检测器检测.结果表明,样品净化程序较已报道的方法更简便,选择性强、快速(少于20 min).该方法回收率大于99.0%、相对标准偏差小于2.0%、重现性好,可有效地用于银杏叶提取物的产品质量评价.

  17. 银杏叶提取物注射液中槲皮素、山柰酚、异鼠李素及总黄酮醇苷的HPLC法测定%Determination of Quercetin,Kaempferol,Isorhamnetin and Their Total Flavonol Glycosides in Ginkgo Biloba Extract Injection by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佳媛; 张鹏; 蔡卫民; 马国

    2012-01-01

    An HPLC method was established for the determination of quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and their total flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo Biloba extract injection and the quality evaluation of two brands. A Diamonsil C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-0.4% phosphoric acid (55 :45) at the detection wavelength of 360 nm. Quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in the unhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed Ginkgo Biloba extract injection showed good separation and linearity ranges. The average recoveries of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in the unhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed samples were 100.2%, 100.3%, 100.2% with RSDs of 0.64%, 1.14%, 0.40%, and 100.0%, 100.7%, 100.3% with RSDs of 0.79%, 0.98%, 1.00%, respectively.%建立了高效液相色谱法测定银杏叶提取物注射液中的槲皮素、山柰酚、异鼠李素及总黄酮醇苷,评价了注射液的质量.色谱柱为Diamonsil C18柱,流动相为甲醇-0.4%磷酸(55∶45),检测波长360 nm.银杏叶提取物注射液水解前后,其主要组分槲皮素、山柰酚和异鼠李素分离良好,线性范围宽,平均加样回收率水解前分别为100.2%、100.3%和100.2%,RSD分别为0.64%、1.14%和0.40%水解后分别为100.0%、100.7%和100.3%,RSD分别为0.79%、0.98%和1.00%.

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on quantitative characteristics of mature leaf stomata in Ginkgo biloba%大气中CO2、O3浓度升高对银杏成年叶片气孔数量特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文铎; 齐淑艳; 何兴元; 陈玮; 赵桂玲; 周园

    2008-01-01

    利用开放式气室(OTC)持续观测了2个生长季(2005-2006年).在每年9月30日停止供气后,采样1次.观测高浓度CO2和O3处理的银杏(Ginkgo biloba)成年叶片气孔数量的变化规律.结果表明:在700 μmol·mol-1CO2处理条件下,叶片气孔的长度、宽度、周长和面积均明显高于对照(P0.05),而气孔指数显著减少(P0.05),气孔指数显著减少(P<0.05);银杏成年叶片气孔的长度、宽度与气孔比密度存在一定的负相关关系,可用一元二次曲线方程较好地描述.

  19. 矮壮素对银杏叶片光合代谢与萜内酯生物合成的影响%Effects of Chlorocholine Chloride on Photosynthesis Metabolism and Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis in The Leaf of Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锋; 张威威; 孙楠楠; 李琳玲; 程水源; 王燕

    2011-01-01

    为探讨矮壮素(CCC)调控银杏叶萜内酯生物合成的机理,以3年生银杏实生苗为试材,研究了0、0.5、1.0和2.0 g.L-1CCC处理对银杏叶光合作用、光合色素、可溶性糖和萜内酯含量的影响,并采用实时定量PCR技术(qRT-PCR)检测了对银杏萜内酯合成途径中5个关键基因表达水平的影响。结果表明,0.5、1.0和2.0 g.L-1 CCC处理均可显著提高银杏叶光合作用速率,气孔导度,细胞间CO2浓度,蒸腾速率,以及叶绿素、类胡萝卜素和可溶性糖的含量。在1.0和2.0 g.L-1CCC处理下,银杏内酯A、银杏内酯B、白果内酯和总萜内酯含量显著高于对照。qRT-PCR分析结果显示CCC处理能显著上调银杏内酯合成途径中4个关键基因(DXS、DXR、GGPPS、LPS)的表达,表明CCC在分子水平上可能是通过诱导内酯合成关键基因表达来促进内酯的生物合成。%In order to study the regulation mechanism of chlorocholine chloride(CCC)on the biosynthesis of terpene trilactones,effects of CCC on photosynthesis,the contents of photosynthetic pigment,soluble sugar and terpene trilactones,and the expression level of key genes involved in ginkgolide biosynthesis in Ginkgo biloba leaves were investigated.The three-year-old ginkgo seedlings were foliar sprayed with 0(control),0.5,1.0 and 2.0 g.L-1 CCC.The results showed that 0.5,1.0,and 2.0 g.L-1 CCC treatments significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular CO2 concentration,transpiration rate,and the contents of chlorophyll,carotenoids and soluble sugar in ginkgo leaves.The contents of ginkgolide A,B and bilobalide in ginkgo leaves treated with 1.0 and 2.0 g.L-1 CCC were significantly higher than those of control.The results of qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression levels of four key genes involved in terpene trilactones biosynthesis,namely DXS,DXR,GGPPS and LPS,were all markedly up-regulated by CCC treatment,indicating that CCC

  20. 银杏叶提取物对大鼠急性缺血心肌细胞间黏附分子-1和白细胞介素-6表达的影响%Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 in acute is chemic myocardium of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄陆力; 王崇军; 付庆林; 韩培立; 张新中; 刘永强; 王丽娜; 崔勤涛; 周朝元

    2012-01-01

    心肌损伤的程度和冠脉病变范围.(2)大鼠急性心肌梗死中应用银杏叶提取物干预,可下调心肌中ICAM-1和IL-6的表达,减轻大鼠心肌损伤程度,证实银杏叶提取物有较好的心肌保护作用.%Objective To study the expressiou of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin (IL)-6 in myocardium with acute myocardial infarction in rats and the influence of ginkgo biloba extract on them,and to explore the mechanism of protective effects of ginkgo biloba extract on acute infarcted myocardium.Methods One hundred and nine healthy female SD rats were selected to make acute myocardial infartion model by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery,and then they were randomly divided into model group ( group A,n =38 ),ginkgo biloba treatment group ( group B,n =39 ),and sham operation group ( group C,n =32).In goup A,the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was ligated solely; in group B,Ginkgo biloba extract (2 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 30 min before ligation of LAD coronary artery; in group C,a loose knol was made around the first descending branch of LAD coronary arterv,witbout ligation.Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups,which were observed 2 h,6 h,48 h,and 7 days after operation,respectively.Blood and heart samples were collected at every time point.Morphological changes were observed by HE staining method under the light microscopy,and ICAM-1 and IL-6 expression was detected by using immunohistochemistry.Results By using HE staining,in group A,the number of myocardial cells was decreased,and myocardial interstitial congestion,edema,myocardial fiber dissolution,flaky necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed.Range of myocardial infarction was more than 1/2 of cardiac wall,and large number of viable myocardial cells still could be seen in the other side of cardiac wall; In group B,myocardial injuries were significantly milder than

  1. HPLC-ECD determination of flavonols from Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts in rat plasma and its pharmacokinetic study%HPLC-ECD法测定大鼠血浆中银杏叶黄酮成分及药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 刘建勋; 林力; 张强强; 王建农

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立大鼠灌胃银杏叶提取物后血浆中黄酮类成分的灵敏分析方法,并进行药代动力学研究.方法:血浆样品经葡萄糖醛酸苷水解酶水解后,采用高效液相色谱分离及电化学检测,同时分析大鼠血浆样品中槲皮素、异鼠李素和山柰酚.色谱柱为Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8(150 mm x4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-异丙醇-磷酸盐缓冲液(磷酸二氢钠-磷酸,pH=2)(15:15:70),流速0.8 mL·min-1,检测电压为200 mV,柱温30℃.结果:槲皮素、异鼠李素和山柰酚与其他内源性和药源性成分达到良好分离;最低检测浓度达到0.5 ng·mL-1;平均提取回收率分别为88.7%,86.2%,87.0%;准确度在92.7%~105.3%之间,日内精密度RSD小于6.6%,日间精密度RSD小于14.1%,样品分析时间为20 min.大鼠灌胃给予银杏叶提取物10mg·kg-1后,酶水解血浆中槲皮素、异鼠李素和山柰酚的半衰期分别为(3.53±1.88)h,(6.94±4.05)h,(3.97 4±2.30)h;3个黄酮类成分在大鼠血浆中都显示明显的二次达峰现象.结论:建立的检测方法能灵敏、特异、准确,可用于银杏叶提取物灌胃给药后黄酮类成分的药代动力学研究.%Objective : To establish a sensitive method for the quantification of flavonols from rat plasma after intragastric administration of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts. Methods : HPLC with electrochemical detection( ECD) was employed to quantify quercetin ,isorhamnetin and kaempferol simultaneously after plasma samples were hydrolyzed by glucuronidase. The sample was separated by Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB - C8 (150 mm ×4. 6 mm,5 μm) column and eluted by the mobile phase composed of methanol - isopropanol - phosphate buffer( NaH2PO4 - H3PO4 , pH = 2) ( 15: 15: 70)at column temperature of 30 ℃ ,and the flow rate was 0. 8 mL · min -1. The potential of analysis cell was selected as 200 mV. Results : The analysis of plasma samples could be performed in 20 min with the quantitative limit of 0.5 ng ·mL-1

  2. 银杏叶片联合盐酸多奈哌齐治疗老年轻度认知功能障碍的临床研究%Clinical study on Ginkgo Biloba leaves extract tablets combined with donepezil in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨银杏叶片联合盐酸多奈哌齐在老年轻度认知功能障碍患者中的应用效果。方法:将我院门诊就诊的100例老年轻度认知功能障碍患者,随机分成治疗组与对照组,均50例,对照组患者采用盐酸多奈哌齐进行治疗,治疗组在盐酸多奈哌齐治疗的基础上联合银杏叶片进行治疗,对比两组患者治疗后的临床疗效。结果:治疗组患者总有效率为98.00%,与对照组患者的76.00%对比,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05),治疗组治疗后的脑电图(EEG )异常率为26.00%,显著低于对照组患者的48.00%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组患者治疗3个月简易智力状态检查量表(MMSE)评分均显著高于治疗前,治疗组治疗6个月、9个月的MMSE评分均显著高于对照组患者,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在盐酸多奈哌齐治疗基础上联合银杏叶片治疗老年轻度认知功能障碍患者,可有效提高治疗质量,改善其认知功能与脑部活动状态,具备较高的应用价值。%Objective:To investigate the Ginkgo Biloba Leaves Extract Tablets combined with donepezil hydrochloride in the application effect of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly patients .Methods:100 cases of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly patients of our hospital ,were randomly divided into treatment group and control group ,all 50 cases ,patients in control group were treated by donepezil hydrochloride treatment ,treatment group were combined Ginkgo Biloba Leaves Extract Tablets based on donepezil hydrochloride on the treatment of treatment ,the clini‐cal efficacy were compared between two groups after treatment .Results:the patients in the treatment group the total ef‐fective rate was 98 .00% ,and the control of the 76 .00% groups were compared ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) ,the treatment group after

  3. 日本垂枝、叶籽、喇叭、斑叶及雌雄同株银杏资源调查%Ginkgo resources of different types in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 刘伟; 李桂祥

    2014-01-01

    简述日本垂枝银杏、叶籽银杏、喇叭银杏(我国文献称“筒叶银杏”)、斑叶银杏及雌雄同株银杏实生大树、古树资源概况。查有可靠依据者共有117株,其中垂枝银杏14株,叶籽银杏78株(包括3株雄株),喇叭银杏19株,斑叶银杏4株,雌雄同株银杏2株。部分单株兼具垂枝、叶籽、喇叭、斑叶性状中的2个或3个性状,因此共有107株。实际上,该类资源的数量要远多于此。多数单株为各级政府指定的“天然纪念物”,其中国家级指定“天然纪念物”叶籽银杏8株,雌雄同株银杏1株。%Japanese ginkgo resources of different types, including Ginkgo biloba var. pendula Hort., Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Makino, Ginkgo biloba‘Tubifolia’, Ginkgo biloba var. variegata Cari., monoecious tree and ancient tree were summarized. The reliable recorded 117 trees investigated, 14 trees were weeping ginkgo, 78 trees were Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Makino (including 3 staminiferous plant), 19 trees were Ginkgo biloba‘Tubifolia’, 4 trees were Ginkgo biloba var. variegata Cari., 2 trees were monoecious plants. Some plants have combining 2 or 3 traits in weeping, Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla, Ginkgo biloba‘Tubifolia’and Ginkgo biloba var. variegata, totally 107 trees. In fact, plant resources which had combining 2 or 3 traits were more than 107. Most of single plant was‘natural monument’designated by government at all levels. Eight plants of Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla and 1 plant of monoecious plant were‘natural monument’designated by national government.

  4. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  5. Estudo da ação do extrato de Ginkgo biloba e amido hidroxietílico hipertônico na atenuação de alterações decorrentes de isquemia e reperfusão de órgãos esplâncnicos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarenco Ricardo Silvestre e Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A oclusão e reperfusão das artérias esplâncnicas ocasiona choque circulatório, causado principalmente pelo aumento de permeabilidade vascular e pela agressão celular provocada por radicais livres derivados do oxigênio. Este estudo tem por finalidade verificar a ação do extrato de Ginkgo biloba (Egb-761 e do amido hidroxietílico (AHH na prevenção do choque circulatório produzido pela isquemia e reperfusão de órgãos esplâncnicos. O Egb-761 tem propriedades antioxidantes relatadas na literatura. O AHH, tem sido utilizado como recurso terapêutico do choque hipovolêmico. Ratos anestesiados receberam infusão contínua de Egb-761 ou AHH, sendo submetidos à isquemia (oclusão do tronco celíaco, artéria mesentérica superior e artéria mesentérica inferior por 30 minutos e reperfusão (por 90 minutos dos órgãos esplâncnicos. Foram feitas: análise histopatológica ileal, dosagem de malondialdeído ileal e determinação contínua da pressão arterial média (PAM. A PAM ao final do período de reperfusão foi significativamente mais elevada nos animais tratados com Egb-761 e AHH, que no grupo controle (F=18,29; p0,10 e quanto às alterações histológicas (H=6,003; p>0,10. Em conclusão, houve melhora nas condições hemodinâmicas, com atenuação do choque nos ratos que receberam Egb-761 ou AHH. Novos estudos serão necessários para se avaliar melhor as alterações histológicas e para esclarecer a formação de produtos finais da peroxidação lipídica.

  6. CO2和O3体积分数升高对银杏希尔反应活力和叶绿体ATP酶活性的影响%Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Hill activity and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activity of Ginkgo biloba L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丹; 赵天宏; 张兆伟; 王美玉; 付士磊; 何兴元

    2007-01-01

    近年来,随着温室气体体积分数不断上升,研究CO2和O3体积分数升高对植物的影响已取得一定进展,但二者对植物的复合作用及生理研究不够深入.文章利用开顶式气室研究了大气CO2和O3体积分数升高对银杏(Ginkgo biloba L.)光合特性的影响.结果表明,在整个生长季内,与对照相比,在大气CO2体积分数为700×10-6条件下,银杏叶片净光合速率显著增加(P《0.05),希尔反应活力增大,Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase活性增强,光合产物可溶性糖和淀粉含量增多;而在O3体积分数为80×10-9的情况下,银杏叶片净光合速率下降,希尔反应活力减小,Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase活性减弱,光合产物可溶性糖和淀粉含量减少;在CO2和O3 复合作用(700×10-6+80×10-9)条件下,银杏叶片净光合速率、希尔反应活力、可溶性糖和淀粉均有所增加,且淀粉含量增加极显著(P《0.01),而Ca2+-ATPase活性先增强后减弱,Mg2+-ATPase活性先减弱后增强.说明CO2可缓解O3对银杏的负效应,而O3亦对CO2的正效应有削弱作用.

  7. 高温和干旱对银杏光合作用、叶片中黄酮苷和萜类内酯含量的影响%Effects of high temperature and/or drought on growth and secondary metabolites in Ginkgo biloba leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成军; 郭佳秋; 陈国祥; 解恒才

    2005-01-01

    为了探讨高温和干旱的相互作用对银杏(Ginkgo biloba)生长及叶内次生代谢物的影响,设干旱、高温(夜间30 ℃)和干旱+高温3个处理,测定了2年生银杏幼苗的生长指标、光合特性、叶片水势、气孔导度以及叶内黄酮苷和萜类内酯的含量.与对照(未经干旱或高温处理)相比,高温引起银杏叶片最大净光合速率降低,气孔导度和光补偿点增加;干旱处理后,银杏最大净光合速率、气孔导度和叶片水势均降低,但光补偿点以及叶片黄酮苷和萜类内酯含量增加,表观量子产量变化不明显.高温和干旱共同作用下,银杏光补偿点和呼吸速率增高,光饱和点显著降低,根冠干重比无统计学上显著变化,但总干重降低.上述结果说明干旱和高温降低了银杏对光的适应范围,银杏光能利用效率变低,气孔导度下降,最大净光合速率降低,呼吸作用增强,抑制了生长;干旱引起黄酮苷和萜类内酯含量增加的幅度大于高温.

  8. Meta analysis:influence of Ginkgo biloba extract in combination with statins treatment on blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidemia%银杏叶制剂联合他汀类药物对高脂血症患者血脂水平影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼盼; 李晓艳; 刘杨; 李君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the influence of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in combina-tion with statins treatment on blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidemia. Methods MEDLINE, EMbase, CENTRAL, Ovid, Wanfang Data, VIP, CNKI and CBM were searched for researches of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on GBE in combination with statins treatment in patients with hyperlipidemia, with time limited from the data-bases' establishment dates to December 2012. The bibliographies of the included researches were searched as well. Evaluated the included researches basing on the GRADE system, then performed Meta-analysis on the qualified re-searches by adopting RevMan 5.1. Results There was no relevant foreign research since GBE belongs to Chinese medicine. Therefore nine articles were included, with a total of 798 cases. In these researches, patients in the control group were treated with just statins, while patients in the experimental group were treated with statins and GBE. The result of Meta analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences between the lipid levels (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C) of experimental group and those of the control group after treatment [WMD (95%CI) were respec-tively-0.39(-0.49,-0.29),-0.06(-0.08,-0.05),-0.26(-0.34,-0.17), and 0.19(0.16, 0.23)]. Conclusion The Ginkgo biloba extract in combination with statins treatment for hyperlipidemia can significantly reduce the patients' blood lip-id levels, and it had a better clinical effect than that of the statins only treatment.%目的:系统评价银杏叶制剂联合他汀类药物对高脂血症患者血脂水平的影响。方法计算机检索MEDLINE、EMbase、Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)、Ovid、万方数据库(Wanfang Data)、维普数据库(VlP)、中国知网(CNKI)和中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)中关于银杏叶制剂联合他汀类药物协同作用于高脂血症患者的研究,同时追索纳入其参考文献。

  9. Microfluidic evaporative light scattering detector coupled with capillary liquid chromatography and its application to Ginkgo biloba extract analysis%微流蒸发光散射检测器与毛细管液相色谱的联用及其在银杏叶提取物分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卉; 王玉红; 刘芳; 王彦; 谷雪; 阎超

    2013-01-01

    将微流蒸发光散射检测器(μELSD)与毛细管液相色谱(cLC)联用,应用于中药银杏叶提取物及其分散片制剂的分离检测领域.首先对μELSD仪器参数进行优化.通过调节漂移管温度与载气流量,提高了分析物的响应,并减小了噪声.然后,搭建了cLC-μELSD分离检测平台,其相对常规LC可大大减小实验试剂消耗.流动相A为0.05%(体积分数,下同)三氟乙酸(TFA)水溶液,流动相B为含0.05% TFA的甲醇溶液.最优的洗脱梯度条件为:0 ~ 10 min,5%B ~ 25% B; 10~25 min,25%B ~38% B;25 ~35 min,38%B;35 ~ 40 min,38%B~42% B;40~55min,42%B ~50%B.银杏叶提取物和复杂中药制剂银杏叶提取物分散片都得到了较好的分离,并在其中鉴定到紫外波段几乎无吸收的重要内酯类活性成分白果内酯以及银杏内酯A、B和C.测定了不同厂家银杏叶提取物中萜类内酯洗脱时间的相对标准偏差,结果均不大于2.42%,表明该体系在目标物的分析上具有良好的重现性.实验证明所建立的cLC-ELSD体系在复杂中药体系的分离检测中有良好的应用性.%A novel separation system of microfluidic evaporative light scattering detector (μELSD) coupled with capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) was built and applied to the separation and detection of herbal medicine Ginkgo biloba extract and its disperse tablet formulation.Compared with the traditional HPLC,this μELSD-cLC system consumed much less sample and solvent.Some key parameters were optimized.It was found that the higher the evaporization temperature of the drift tube,the higher S/N could be achieved.The mobile phase A was 0.05% (v/v) trifiuoroacetic acid (TFA),and the mobile phase B was methanol containing 0.05% (v/v) TFA.The optimized gradient conditions were as follows:0-10 min,5% B-25% B; 10-25 min,25% B-38% B; 25-35 min,38% B; 35-40 min,38% B-42% B; 40-55min,42% B-50% B.The complex herbal medicine

  10. 银杏雌配子体发育过程中淀粉和蛋白质的积累与代谢%Research on Starch and Protein Accumulation and Metabolism During the Development of the Ginkgo biloba Female Gametophyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆彦; 王莉; 潘烨; 陈鹏; 王頔; 谢燕; 金鑫鑫

    2011-01-01

    以20年生银杏核用品种'佛指'(Ginkgo biloba L.'Fozhi')为试材,通过树脂切片对雌配子体发育过程中淀粉和蛋白质形成与代谢进行显微和超微结构观察.结果表明:(1)雌配子体发育过程中,细胞内淀粉和蛋白质的积累呈现规律性变化.表现为受精作用发生前,套细胞、帐篷柱细胞和颈细胞内迅速积累大量淀粉粒,靠近颈卵器周围胚乳细胞中的淀粉粒逐渐被转移而减少.受精作用发生时,套细胞和帐篷柱细胞内淀粉粒代谢迅速,靠近颈卵器周围的胚乳细胞中淀粉粒全部消失,细胞壁呈现皱缩解体现象,颈细胞的细胞壁开始解体.受精作用完成后,套细胞、帐篷柱细胞、颈细胞和颈卵器周围胚