Sample records for curculio conotrachelus nenuphar

  1. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides. (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E


    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  2. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J


    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Lethality of reduced-risk insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in blueberries with emphasis on their curative activity (United States)

    Ongoing regulatory changes are eliminating or restricting the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in fruit crops in the USA, and current IPM programs for plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L, need to address these changes. To assist in this ...

  4. Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries. (United States)

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattan; Leskey, Tracy C; Holdcraft, Robert; Zaman, Faruque U; Hahn, Noel G; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar


    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in "hotspots"; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J


    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  6. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast. (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J


    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  7. Damage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruits by Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae) in Central Amazonia


    Ferreira, Sidney Alberto do Nascimento; Gentil, Daniel Felipe de Oliveira; Silva, Neliton Marques da


    No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto ...

  8. Microstructure and nanoindentation of the rostrum of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

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    Singh, Sudhanshu S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Current address: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Jansen, Michael A.; Franz, Nico M. [School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States); Chawla, Nikhilesh, E-mail: [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States)


    The rostrum is an extension of the cuticle of the head of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and is often used to bore holes for oviposition (the process of laying eggs) into host plant tissue where larval development occurs. In members of the genus Curculio Linnaeus, 1758, the rostrum is long, slender, and strongly curved, but is nevertheless used to excavate straight bore-holes in the fruit of various host plants, through significant deformation of this structure. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the rostrum of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927, leading to a microstructural model that describes its deformation behavior. Specifically, we used the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique in nanoindentation to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of rostrum. The values of Young's modulus and hardness for the endocuticle were measured to be 8.91 ± 0.93 GPa and 558 ± 60 MPa, respectively. These results are critical for generating accurate finite element models of the head's mechanical behavior while it undergoes deformation. - Highlights: •SEM was used to examine the rostrum of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927. •Nanoindentation to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of rostrum. •Results are critical for finite element models of the head's mechanical behavior.

  9. Danos de Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae em frutos de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia na Amazônia Central Damage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia fruits by Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae in Central Amazonia

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    Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira


    Full Text Available No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto (30 a 90% do que das sementes (7%. A incidência desse inseto pode implicar em perdas quantitativas significativas na produção de camu-camu.In Brazil, the occurrence of Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] had only been verified in natural populations. This report describes its occurrence in an experimental cultivation, where damage of camu-camu fruits by C. dubiae at different ripening stages was evaluated between 1999 and 2003. The damage caused by the larva increased with the degree of ripening of the fruits, with greater damage of fruit pulp (30 to 90% than to seeds (7%. The incidence of this insect may cause significant quantitative losses in the camu-camu production.

  10. A contribution to the study of biology of Curculio elephas Gyll. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Drekić Milan


    Full Text Available One of the insects that feeds on pedunculate oak acorns and reduces its seed yield is Curculio elephas Gyll. The study of Curculio elephas Gyll is necessary because of the severe damages caused by this insect and also owing to its insufficiently investigated biology. The research was conducted in the common oak seed orchard at Banov Brod, forest estate „Sremska Mitrovica“, and in the entomological laboratory. The adults emerge from the soil chambers from mid July till the beginning of September. The presence of adults, as determined by crown fogging, ranged from the end of July till the beginning of September with the highest number in mid August. After emerging from the soil, females are already fertile with the developed eggs in the ovaries. They start egg laying after 1 to 8 days and they lay from one to seven eggs per day. Egg laying period lasts from 7 to 20 days. Fertility of C. elephas females ranges from 5 to 40 eggs, while their fecundity ranges from 19 to 45 eggs. At the end of the larval stage, larvae bore into the soil and stay there from one to three years. The species hibernates only in the larval stage. C. elephas has a one-year life cycle, while a minor part of the population has a two or three-year life cycle.

  11. Entomogenous nematodes: a field study for biological control of Curculio elephas Gyl. (Coleoptera Curculionidae); Nematodi entomoparassiti: una prova di impiego in campo della lotta contro il balanino del castagno, Curculio elephas Gyl. (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

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    Rapagnani, M.R.; Caffarelli, V.; Letardi, A.; Barlattani, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Lazzari, L.; Ruggeri, L. [BIOERRE, Crespellano, Bologna (Italy); Lelli, L.


    Biological control of chestnut weevil (Curculio elephas Gyl.) using entomogenous nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) was investigated under field conditions. Experiments of infectivity, soil persistence and mobility of the infective juveniles stage of the nematodes were carried out through laboratory tests. Experimental results on developing infectivity process if entomogenous nematodes, have shown both inhibition at low temperature (average value 12 C) and mechanic barrier of weevil pupal envelope. Use of dispersal media as water or peat, was not relevant on experimental results. Further researches are required to test low temperature-resistant strain. [Italiano] Vengono riportati i risultati di uno studio di lotta biologica contro il balanino del castagno (Curculio elephas Gyl.) realizzato utilizzando ceppi di nematodi entomoparassiti (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae). Sono stati monitorati, in campo, l`andamento dell`infestazione del balanino del castagno, l`efficacia del trattamento e l`andamento della temperatura sia climatica che nel terreno a due diverse profondita`. Nel corso dello studio e` stata controllata periodicamente, con prove di laboratorio, la persistenza nel terreno e la capacita` infettiva dei nematodi utilizzati. Lo studio ha messo in evidenza la difficolta` da parte dei nematodi di esplicare la propria azione di entomoparassiti in condizioni di temperatura media attorno ai 12 C e di superare la barriera fisica operata dalla celletta entro cui si impupa il balanino. Il mezzo utilizzato per la dispersione dei nematodi (acqua o torba) risulta essere indifferente rispetto al risultato ottenuto. L`esperienza ha evidenziato l`interesse, in questo tipo di lotta, alla sperimentazione di ceppi di nematodi resistenti alle basse temperature.

  12. Effect of Soil Moisture and a Surfactant on Entomopathogenic Nematode Suppression of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Cottrell, Ted E.; Brown, Ian; Gardner, Wayne A.; Hubbard, Robert K.; Wood, Bruce W.


    Our overall goal was to investigate several aspects of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. Specifically, our objectives were to: 1) determine optimum moisture levels for larval suppression, 2) determine suppression of adult C. caryae under field conditions, and 3) measure the effects of a surfactant on nematode efficacy. In the laboratory, virulence of Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) and Steinernema carpocapsae (All) were tested in a loamy sand at gravimetric water contents of negative 0.01, 0.06, 0.3, 1.0, and 15 bars. Curculio caryae larval survival decreased as moisture levels increased. The nematode effect was most pronounced at –0.06 bars. At –0.01 bars, larval survival was ≤5% regardless of nematode presence, thus indicating that intense irrigation alone might reduce C. caryae populations. Overall, our results indicated no effect of a surfactant (Kinetic) on C. caryae suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. In a greenhouse test, C. caryae larval survival was lower in all nematode treatments compared with the control, yet survival was lower in S. carpocapsae (Italian) and S. riobrave (7–12) treatments than in S. carpocapsae (Agriotos), S. carpocapsae (Mexican), and S. riobrave (355) treatments (survival was reduced to approximately 20% in the S. riobrave [7–12] treatment). A mixture of S. riobrave strains resulted in intermediate larval survival. In field experiments conducted over two consecutive years, S. riobrave (7–12) applications resulted in no observable control, and, although S. carpocapsae (Italian) provided some suppression, treatment effects were generally only detectable one day after treatment. Nematode strains possessing both high levels of virulence and a greater ability to withstand environmental conditions in the field need to be developed and tested. PMID:19259466

  13. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae. (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng


    The nut weevil ( Curculio nucum ) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum , the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT 50 , and LT 90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Cydia kurokoi (Amsel) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Hayashi, Toru


    The effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller), were investigated. One hundred chestnuts were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator (Gammacell 220, Nordion, Canada) at a dose rate of 0.40 kGy/h. The doses at which irradiation was carried out were 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy. After treatment, the chestnuts were kept at 25degC, 70% RH and emerged larvae were counted daily. Larvae of the nut fruit moth, Cydia kurokoi (Amsel), also emerged from the chestnuts. The data on the chestnut weevil were subjected to probit analysis and the LD 99.9 of weevil larvae was estimated to be about 500 Gy. (author)

  15. Ciclo biológico, comportamiento y censo del picudo del camu camu, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en Pucallpa, Perú Biological cycle, behavior and census of camu camu weevil, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Pucallpa, Peru

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    Diana Perez


    Full Text Available El picudo, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995, es una de las plagas mas importantes del camu camu Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el ciclo biológico de este insecto bajo condiciones de laboratorio y describir su comportamiento y fluctuación en condiciones de campo en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El porcentaje de eclosión de larvas fue de 87%, la duración del periodo de incubación de los huevos fue de 5,5±0,9 (4 a 7 días, del estado larval en el fruto 22,2±1,9 (20 a 25 días y en el suelo (fase pre-pupa, 54,4±5,5 (46 a 67 días, del periodo pupal 11,8±0,9 (9 a 13 días y la longevidad del adulto fue de 51,8±18,9 (9 a 75 días. Los adultos se alimentaron de frutos de diferentes diámetros y estados de maduración y de botones florales, ramas tiernas y flores. No se registró la presencia de adultos de C. dubiae en frutos secos, ni en la base del tallo, sino en ritidomas. La mayor actividad de alimentación y de reproducción de los adultos fue entre 18:30 a 22:00 h. Los adultos fueron observados en el cultivo durante todo el año, encontrándose con mayor frecuencia en los meses de enero a marzo en pisos bajos inundables y entre octubre a diciembre en tierra firme no inundable, coincidiendo con la fase de floración y fructificación de la planta.Camu camu weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 is a one of the main pests of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Peruvian Amazonia. The aim of this study was to determine the biological cycle of this insect under laboratory conditions, to describe its behavior and population numbers under field conditions in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. The percentage of hatching was 87%; the egg incubation period was 5.5±0.9 (4 to 7 days; the length of the larval stage inside the fruit was 22.2±1.9 (20 to 25 days, and the length larval stage (pre-pupa underground was 54.4±5.5 (46 to 67 days. The length of pupal period was 11.8

  16. Relación entre la colonización de la encina por Curculio elephas Gyllenhal (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) y el periodo de caída natural de frutos


    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Jiménez, A.; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira


    En un encinar del SW de España se ha realizado el seguimiento de una población del gorgojo Curculio elephas Gyll. (Coleóptera, Curculionidae) durante 2001 y 2002. La finalidad del trabajo fue valorar y relacionar la incidencia de la infestación del insecto con el proceso de maduración y caída natural de frutos de la encina. Durante ...

  17. Quality of 'Brightwell' and 'Tifblue' blueberries after gamma irradiation for quarantine treatment

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    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.


    Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes

  18. Survival of Seasonal Flooding in the Amazon by the Terrestrial Insect Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a Pest of the Camu-Camu Plant, Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae). (United States)

    Delgado, C; Couturier, G; Fine, P V A


    The weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien & Couturier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of an economically important Amazonian fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae). This tree grows in seasonally flooded environments, and how weevil larvae survive flooding has not been studied. From December 2004 to May 2009, five experiments were conducted in natural conditions and in the laboratory, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms that allow the survival of C. dubiae larvae in seasonal floods in Amazonia. The larvae of C. dubiae were kept under water for over 93 days. Older instars exposed to periodic circulation of water survived better than younger instars in addition to all larvae that were kept continuously under uncirculated water. Individuals that were collected from plots of M. dubia located in flooded soils and non-flooded soils did not exhibit statistically significant differences in their levels of survival indicating that the variation in survival of flooding events is due to phenotypic plasticity of the species and not to local adaptation by the populations in different environments. We speculate that larvae can survive floods without major physiological changes as larvae appear to obtain oxygen from water by cutaneous diffusion, assisted by caudal movements.

  19. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.- Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part II. The physicochemical characteristics of the pericarp and dynamics of nut development and cultivar resistance to the pest

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    Zdzisław Piskornik


    Full Text Available Significant differences were found among the 22 studied hazel cultivars (Corylus avellana L. in their resistance to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L. which is the main pest of this crop in Europe. The study investigated the relationships between the resistance of the cultivars to the pest and the physicochemical properties of the pericarp, i.e. the lignification dynamics, changes in thickness and hardness during nut development and the rate of nutlet development. Correlation analysis showed that there was no dependence between the physicochemical properties of the pericarp and the resistance of the hazel cultivars to the hazelnut weevil. Nut development dynamics were also found to be unrelated to resistance to the pest. Laboratory feeding experiments showed that during the initial feeding phase and at the time the insect searches for an oviposition site, it seems to prefer cultivars with the largest nutlets. However, in the period of intensive oviposition, traits other than nutlet size seem to be decisive for the beetles choice of cultivar.

  20. Characterization of Biocontrol Traits in Heterorhabditis floridensis: A Species with Broad Temperature Tolerance. (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Blackburn, Dana; Duncan, Larry; El-Borai, Fahiem E; Koppenhöfer, Heather; Tailliez, Patrick; Adams, Byron J


    Biological characteristics of two strains of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis floridensis (332 isolated in Florida and K22 isolated in Georgia) were described. The identity of the nematode's symbiotic bacteria was elucidated and found to be Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. luminescens. Beneficial traits pertinent to biocontrol (environmental tolerance and virulence) were characterized. The range of temperature tolerance in the H. floridensis strains was broad and showed a high level of heat tolerance. The H. floridensis strains caused higher mortality or infection in G. mellonella at 30°C and 35°C compared with S. riobrave (355), a strain widely known to be heat tolerant, and the H. floridensis strains were also capable of infecting at 17°C whereas S. riobrave (355) was not. However, at higher temperatures (37°C and 39°C), though H. floridensis readily infected G. mellonella, S. riobrave strains caused higher levels of mortality. Desiccation tolerance in H. floridensis was similar to Heterorhabditis indica (Hom1) and S. riobrave (355) and superior to S. feltiae (SN). H. bacteriophora (Oswego) and S. carpocapsae (All) exhibited higher desiccation tolerance than the H. floridensis strains. The virulence of H. floridensis to four insect pests (Aethina tumida, Conotrachelus nenuphar, Diaprepes abbreviatus, and Tenebrio molitor) was determined relative to seven other nematodes: H. bacteriophora (Oswego), H. indica (Hom1), S. carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (4-8 and Vs strains), and S. riobrave (355). Virulence to A. tumida was similar among the H. floridensis strains and other nematodes except S. glaseri (Vs), S. feltiae, and S. riobrave failed to cause higher mortality than the control. Only H. bacteriophora, H. indica, S. feltiae, S. riobrave, and S. glaseri (4-8) caused higher mortality than the control in C. nenuphar. All nematodes were pathogenic to D. abbreviatus though S. glaseri (4-8) and S. riobrave (355) were the most virulent

  1. Assessment of Clover Root Curculio, Sitona puncticollis Stephens (Col.: Curculionidae Injury on Lucerne (Medicago sativa in Pots

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    A. Pourhaji


    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most important crops that are infested by Sitona species in Iran. Adults and larvae of Sitona spp. feed on foliage and root of legumes and cause serious damages on them. Collection of adults of this genus during 2003 -2004 years from alfalfa fields of eleven localities in East Azarbaidjan Province, Sitona puncticollis Stephens was found to be the dominant species. To estimate of damage of this species, 100 pots of common alfalfa cultivar (Ghara yonje were sowed and after 2.5 months. Fifty pots were infested with eggs of S. puncticollis and the rests were maintained as control. After two months, length of stem and roots and their dry and fresh weights were measured in 30 infested and 30 uninfested pots. The data of infested and uninfested pots were compared by T- test. Results showed that there were significant differences (P< 0.01 between all measured traits in infested and uninfested pots.

  2. Virulencia, producción y desplazamiento de nematodos entomopatógenos sobre larvas del picudo de la guayaba Conotrachelus psidii Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en laboratorio.

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    Adriana Sáenz Aponte


    Full Text Available The guava weevil Conotrach­elus psidii Marshall is a major pest affecting guava cultiva­tion in Santander, Colombia; it causes serious losses in the quality and the volume of fruit produced. Biological control is a viable option for pest management; entomo­pathogenic nematodes (EPNs, particularly, have shown good results (63-90% mortality in controlling fourth in­star larvae of the guava weevil. In this study we evaluated the effect of seven species of EPNs isolated in Colom­bia: Steinernema websteri JCL006, Steinernema sp. 1 JCL024, Steinernema sp. 2 JCL007, Steinernema sp. 3 JCL027, S. co­lombiense SNI0198, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HNI0100 and Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 on fourth instar larvae of the guava weevil in laboratory conditions, and measured the production and the displacement of the most viru­lent. Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 induced mortality of 85%, Steinernema sp. 1 JCL024 75% and S. colombiense SNI0198 55%, the other species of EPNs, less than 25% mortality. Increased production of JI by weevil larva was recorded in Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708, which also showed greater recognition capability when the host was C. psidii.

  3. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.


    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum = Curculio

  4. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  5. Determinação de danos do gorgulho, Conotrachelus Psidii Marshall e captura de mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fFaterculus Wiedemann, com óleo de andiroba, Carapa Guianensis em goiabeira serrana Acca Sellowiana


    Rosa, Joatan Machado da


    A goiabeira-serrana (Acca sellowiana (Berg) Burret) pertencente a família Myrtaceae, é uma espécie nativa com ampla dispersão nos planaltos meridionais do sul do Brasil. Além de espécie nativa e produzir frutos de odor e sabor diferenciado, razão pela qual seu cultivo comercial é incentivado pelo Departamento de Conservação da Biodiversidade do Ministério do Meio Ambiente. A goiabeira serrana tem sido cultivada sob os sistemas orgânico, convencional, ou ainda, os frutos coletad...

  6. Determinação de danos do gorgulho, Conotrachelus psidii Marshall e captura de mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann, com óleo de andiroba, Carapa guianensis em goiabeira serrana Acca sellowiana. Lages-SC 2011


    Rosa, Joatan Machado da


    A goiabeira-serrana (Acca sellowiana (Berg) Burret) pertencente a família Myrtaceae, é uma espécie nativa com ampla dispersão nos planaltos meridionais do sul do Brasil. Além de espécie nativa e produzir frutos de odor e sabor diferenciado, razão pela qual seu cultivo comercial é incentivado pelo Departamento de Conservação da Biodiversidade do Ministério do Meio Ambiente. A goiabeira serrana tem sido cultivada sob os sistemas orgânico, convencional, ou ainda, os frutos coletad...


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    Roberto Caldara


    Full Text Available In accordance with the Code, ten actions are taken to preserve nomenclatural stability of names of taxa currently belonging to Mecinini. Following the provisions of ICZN Article 23.9.1, Cleopomiarus graminis (Gyllenhal, 1813 (formerly Rhynchaenus is made a nomen protectum and Curculio ellipticus Herbst, 1795 is made a nomen oblitum; Rhinusa antirrhini (Paykull, 1800 (formerly Curculio is made a nomen protectum and Curculio noctis herbst, 1795 is made a nomen oblitum; having met the conditions of ICZN article 75.3 the neotypes of the following taxa are designated: Curculio antirrhini Paykull, 1800, Curculio cinctus Rossi, 1790, Curculio curvirostris Rossi, 1790, Curculio linariae Panzer, 1792, Cionus thapsicola Germar, 1821, Mecinus collaris Germar, 1821. Lectotypes of Curculio ellipticus Herbst, 1795, Gymnetron eversmanni Rosenschöld, 1838, Mecinus barbarus Gyllenhal, 1838, and Mecinus longiusculus Boheman, 1845 are also designated. Rhinusa linariae (Panzer, 1792 (formerly Curculio remains the valid name of the taxon since Curculio curvirostris Rossi, 1790 (non Fabricius, 1781 nec Herbst, 1784 is unavailable; Mecinus collaris Germar, 1821 remains the valid name of the taxon since Curculio cinctus Rossi, 1790 (non Drury, 1782 nec Geoffroy, 1785 is unavailable. The following new synonymies are proposed: Mecinus barbarus Gyllenhal, 1838 = Mecinus longiusculus Boheman, 1845 n. syn., = Mecinus teretiusculus Boheman, 1845 n. syn., = Mecinus filiformis Aubé, 1850 n. syn.; Rhinusa florum (Rübsaamen, 1895 = Gymnetron smreczynskii Fremuth, 1972 n. syn.; Rhinusa tetra (Fabricius, 1792 = Cionus thapsicola Germar, 1821 n. syn. Rhinusa eversmanni (Rosenschöld, 1838 is the name proposed for Rhinusa thapsicola sensu auctorum (non Germar, 1821.

  8. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  9. New bacterial products for control of pecan pests (United States)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. Among the major concerns are the pecan weevil (Curculio caryae), pecan aphids, and diseases such as pecan scab, Venturia effusa. These pests are generally controlled with broad spectrum chemicals. The chemical pesticides can be...

  10. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistance and efficancy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (United States)

    Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. Endemic levels of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can occur in pecan orchards and contribute to natural control of C. caryae. Commercial formulations of the fungus can also be applied for suppression of C. caryae. We hypothesized tha...

  11. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated potential to use Hypocreales fungi for suppression of C. caryae. In this study, we first compared the efficacy of two fungal spp. Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52) in ability to ...

  12. The theatrical life of things: Plautus and the physical

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    Alison Sharrock


    Full Text Available This paper examines the semiotics of props and other physical items in Plautus’ Curculio. The play is over-determined with props: a candle, a door, fragrant wine, water, a ring, which comes in twice (and has a twin, a letter to go with it, a seal with represented elephant-slaying sword, a missing eye, a bad gut, animal names, like the wolfy banker Lyco, and the weevil-parasite Curculio, and a property manager who comes out for a little chat with the audience about the real-life Rome they can see around them. I am particularly concerned with the most powerfully metatheatrical and metapoetic elements, including the preternaturally quiet door, and the ring which has a life of its own weaving through the play and indeed through the comic tradition.

  13. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum


    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  14. Efectos del ataque de fitófagos perforadores en el fruto de la encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.)


    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Cano Sánchez, Esperanza; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira


    En el presente trabajo se realizan pruebas de germinación de frutos de encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) afectadas por los fitófagos Curculio elephas Gyll. (COL., CURCULIONIDAE) y las especies del género Cydia, C. penkleriana (D. & Schiff.) y C. fagiglandana (Zel.) (LER, TORTRICIDAE). También recoge una serie de mediciones del fruto cuya finalidad es valorar los daños directos de estas especies.

  15. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea). (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A


    The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapionvaripes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchusundatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonusincisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus. Salpingusfulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingusplanirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculioplanirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchusferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchusglandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchussparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus), Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802

  16. Marine energies. Industries are hunting costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel


    While a map locates various offshore hydro-kinetic energy projects at the vicinity of Scottish and French coasts, offshore wind farms (North Sea and Mediterranean sea) and also temperature differential marine plant in Martinique, this article discusses the technical and therefore economic challenges faced by the development of marine energies. They are related to the marine environment (wind, swell, currents). These strength requirements concern hydro-kinetic machines as well as floating wind turbines which must be balanced to resist to wind and swell (the Nenuphar project is evoked). Issues of performance and efficiency are present in the Nemo project in Martinique which exploits a rather small temperature differential. Other technological challenges concern the transport of this offshore production of electricity to the ground while reducing losses. For all these aspects, the article mentions the main French actors, notably DCNS, Alstom, and the start-up MPrime Innovation

  17. Concept Specifications/Prerequisites for DeepWind Deliverable D8.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Schløer, Signe; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    (NL), NREL(USA), STATOIL(N), VESTAS(DK) and NENUPHAR(F). The report discuss the design considerations for offshore wind turbines, both in general and specifically for Darrieus-type floating turbines, as is the focus of the DeepWind project. The project is considered in a North Sea environment, notably close......The work is a result of the contributions within the DeepWind project which is supported by the European Commission, Grant 256769 FP7 Energy 2010 - Future emerging technologies, and by the DeepWind beneficiaries: DTU(DK), AAU(DK), TUDELFT(NL), TUTRENTO(I), DHI(DK), SINTEF(N), MARINTEK(N), MARIN...

  18. Renewable sea energies - The industrial Meccano is underway. Environment: in the jungle of stationary energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescuyer, Thibault


    A first article proposes an overview of the current developments in the field of renewable sea energies where floating wing turbines, wave energy, sea current energy, or sea thermal energy seem to be promising solutions but are still at a pre-industrial stage of development. The article presents different projects and comments their successes and failures. Some innovating and important actors are briefly presented: STX France, DCNS, IDEOL, Nenuphar and EOLR. A second article comments the situation of the energy stationary storage sector which still requires viable economic models and more innovations. Different technologies and projects and the involved actors are evoked: plants of energy transfer by pumping (STEP), hydrogen-based electrochemical storage, and lithium-ion batteries

  19. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)


    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  20. Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes. (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji


    One of the major controversies in evolutionary biology concerns the processes underlying macroevolutionary patterns in which prolonged stasis is disrupted by rapid, short-term evolution that leads species to new adaptive zones. Recent advances in the understanding of contemporary evolution have suggested that such rapid evolution can occur in the wild as a result of environmental changes. Here, we examined a novel hypothesis that evolutionary stasis is punctuated by co-evolutionary arms races, which continuously alter adaptive peaks and landscapes. Based on the phylogeny of long-mouthed weevils in the genus Curculio, likelihood ratio tests showed that the macroevolutionary pattern of the weevils coincides with the punctuational evolution model. A coalescent analysis of a species, Curculio camelliae, the mouthpart of which has diverged considerably among populations because of an arms race with its host plant, further suggested that major evolutionary shifts had occurred within 7000 generations. Through a microevolutionary analysis of the species, we also found that natural selection acting through co-evolutionary interactions is potentially strong enough to drive rapid evolutionary shifts between adaptive zones. Overall, we posit that co-evolution is an important factor driving the history of organismal evolution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata, Siam weed, a very important weed of Java Island (Indonesia is native to Central and South America. In the laboratory it showed rapid growth (1.15 g/g/week in the first 8 weeks of its growth. The biomass was mainly as leaves (LAR : 317.50 cm'/g total weight. It slowed down in the following month as the biomass was utilized for stem and branch formation. This behavior supported the growth of C. odorata into a very dense stand. It flowered, fruited during the dry season, and senesced following maturation of seeds from inflorescence branches. These branches dried out, but soon the stem resumed aggressive growth following the wet season. Leaf biomass was affected by the size of the stem in its early phase of regrowth, but later on it was more affected by the number of branches. The introduction of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata to Indonesia, was successful only in North Sumatera. In Java it has not been reported to establish succesfully. The introduction of another biological control agent, Procecidochares conneca to Indonesia was shown to be sp ecific and upon release in West Java it established immediately. It spread exponentia lly in the first 6 months of its release. Field monitoring continues to eval uate the impact of the agents. Other biocontrol agents (Actmole anteas and Conotrachelus wilt be introduced to Indonesia in 1997 through ACIAR Project on the Biological Control of Chromolaena odorata in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

  2. Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples

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    Arthur Agnello


    Full Text Available Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success.

  3. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides. (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W


    Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further.

  4. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W


    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  5. Preferência para alimentação e oviposição do manhoso, Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, em genótipos de feijão-caupi. = The feeding and oviposition preference of Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in cowpea genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a resistência do tipo antixenose de dez genótipos de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. ao manhoso (Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler, em condições de campo. Os tratamentos consistiram de dez genótipos, sendo: Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, BRS Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-3-HP e IT85D-3428-4-R2-4-HM, Pingo de Ouro, Epace 10 e Pitiúba. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A parcela experimental (2,8 x 5,0 m continha quatro fileiras de 5,0 m, espaçadas de 0,70 m com área total de 14 m2, deixando-se após o desbaste cinco plantas por metro. O cultivo se deu em condições de campo nos anos agrícolas 2004 e 2005. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente coletando-se aleatoriamente 10 vagens (no ponto de grão verde de cada genótipo nas fileiras centrais das parcelas. No laboratório de Entomologia Agrícola do CCA/UFRR fazia-se a contagem do número de cicatrizes superficiais na vagem, número de grãos perfurados na vagem, comprimento da vagem e o número de grãos cheios na vagem. Concluiu-se que BRS Mazagão apresenta resistência do tipo não-preferência para oviposição de C. bimaculatus; que Pingo de Ouro foi o mais preferido pelo manhoso tanto para alimentação quanto para a oviposição; e que há correlação positiva entre o número de cicatrizes superficiais por 10 cm de vagem do feijão-caupi e a percentagem de grãos perfurados na vagem. = The objective of this study was to evaluate the type antixenosis resistance of 10 cowpea genotypes, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., (Pretinho Precoce 1, UFRR Grão Verde, Apiaú, Iracema, BRS-Mazagão, IT85D-3428-4-3-HP and IT85D-3428-4-R2-4-HM, Pingo de Ouro, Epace 10, and Pitiúba to curculio, Chalcodermus bimaculatus Fiedler, during field conditions. Theexperimental design used consisted of randomized blocks with four replications. The genotypes were sowed in field

  6. Design, Analysis, Hybrid Testing and Orientation Control of a Floating Platform with Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (United States)

    Kanner, Samuel Adam Chinman

    the model scale. Under certain wind and wave headings, it is possible to control the orientation of the platform in regular waves to maximize the power output from the turbines. A time-domain numerical simulation tool is able to confirm some of the experimental findings, taking into account the decoupled properties of the slow-drift hydrodynamics and wind turbine aerodynamics. Future platform designs are discussed, including the French-based, pre-commercial design from Nenuphar Wind, called the TwinFloat, which is closely related to concepts examined in the thesis.

  7. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites. (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W


    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  8. Comparison of Trap Types, Placement, and Colors for Monitoring Anthonomus musculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adults in Highbush Blueberries (United States)

    Silva, Diego; Salamanca, Jordano; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera; Alborn, Hans T; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar


    Abstract The cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key (univoltine) pest of highbush blueberries in the northeast United States. To date, however, no trapping system has been developed to successfully monitor this pest. In 2012–2014, studies were conducted in commercial highbush blueberry farms in New Jersey to 1) evaluate the efficacy of various commercially available traps, designed for other weevil species (e.g., pepper weevil, plum curculio, boll weevil, red palm weevil, and black vine weevil), in capturing A. musculus adults; 2) test whether the relative location of traps within the blueberry canopy affects adult captures and 3) determine the effects of different colored (yellow, white, green, red, blue, brown, and black) sticky traps on weevil captures. For a comparison with existing techniques, we also monitored the number of overwintered adult weevils on blueberry bushes using beat sheet sampling. Of all traps and colors tested, the most A. musculus adults were caught on yellow sticky traps and more adults were captured when these traps were placed at the bottom half of the blueberry canopy, i.e., 0.5–1.0 m above ground. Most weevils were caught on colored traps late in the season (i.e., during bloom), which corresponds mostly to the second (summer) adult generation. Thus, number of overwintered adults caught on traps did not correlate with those on bushes. Although our study identified traps that can be used to capture A. musculus adults, these traps alone (i.e., without semiochemicals) have so far limited applicability for monitoring overwintered adult weevils in highbush blueberries.

  9. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W


    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  10. Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toju Hirokazu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae, and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica. In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km. At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities.

  11. Control of Pecan Weevil With Microbial Biopesticides. (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Bock, Clive; Mai, Kim; Boykin, Debbie; Wells, Lenny; Hudson, William G; Mizell, Russell F


    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted. The first investigated an integrated microbial control approach in an organic system at two locations. Three microbial agents, Grandevo (based on byproducts of the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin, Gundersen-Rindal, Blackburn & Buyer), the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, were applied to each treatment plot (0.6 ha) at different times during the season. A second experiment compared the effects of S. carpocapsae and B. bassiana applied as single treatments relative to application of both agents (at different times); survival of C. caryae was assessed approximately 11 mo after larvae were added to pots sunk in an organic pecan orchard. In a conventional orchard (with 1.0 ha plots), the third experiment compared Grandevo applications to a commonly used regime of chemical insecticides (carbaryl alternated with a pyrethroid). All experiments were repeated in consecutive years. The combined pest management tactic (experiment 1) reduced C. caryae infestation relative to non-treated control plots in both locations in 2014 and one of the two locations in 2015 (the other location had less than 1% infestation). In experiment 2, no differences among combined microbial treatments, single-applied microbial treatments or different numbers of application were observed, yet all microbial treatments reduced C. caryae survival relative to the control. In the third