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Sample records for curcas seed cake

  1. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, J.E.G. van; Heeres, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses, TG/DG

  2. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha curcas seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novizar Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH concentration in methanol, 171:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 45.66 oC reaction temperature and 3.02 h reaction time. The use of alkaline methanol as extraction and reaction solvent, which would be useful for extraction oil and phorbol esters, would reduce the phorbol esters content in the Jatropha curcas seed cake. The cake after in-situ transesterification is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. Further, the the toxicity studies were also investigated on male rate by feeding the seed cake after after in-situ transesterification as well as the from solvent and mechanical extraction. Food intake, growth rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER and transformation index (TI showed that the meal is potential as protein supplement to livestock feed.

  3. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

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    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  4. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  5. Aspergillus-fermented Jatropha curcas seed cake: proximate composition and effects on biochemical indices in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOZIYAT SULAIMAN ADENIKE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated Jatropha curcas seed cake fermented by Aspergillus niger for use as a potential source of protein in animal feed production. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A–D, of 3 rats each and fed different protein-rich diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 (control was fed with soybean as a protein source, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 were given feeds supplemented instead with Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas, unfermented J. curcas, and a mix of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas and soybean (1:1, respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and their serum and vital organs were harvested for further analyses. Proximate analyses of the various diet combinations showed significant (P < 0.05 variations in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash content. Enzyme assays (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in rat serum and tissue homogenates indicate that the detoxification of J. curcas kernel cake by A. niger fermentation is viable and promising. Body weight generally did not differ significantly between the groups, but all rats put on weight in week 1 (Group 2 most strongly. The initial weight gain was followed by a slight decreasing trend in all groups in weeks 2–4, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. One rat fed with the unfermented cake (Group 3 died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe for direct consumption until it is processed. Our data support further use of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas as an alternative protein source in animal feed preparation.

  6. JcTI-I, a novel trypsin inhibitor from Jatropha curcas seed cake with potential for bacterial infection treatment

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    Helen Paula S Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product resulting from biodiesel production. The seed cake is highly toxic, but it has great potential for biotechnology applications as it is a repository of biomolecules that could be important in agriculture, medicine and industry. To explore this potential, a novel trypsin inhibitor called JcTI-I was purified by fractionation of the crude extract with trichloroacetic acid (2.5%, v/v followed by affinity chromatography (Trypsin-Sepharose 4B and molecular exclusion (Sephacryl S-200. Non-reducing SDS-PAGE and gel filtration showed that JcTI-I has approximately 20.0 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the intact molecular mass of JcTI-I is 10.252 kDa. Moreover, JcTI-I is a glycoprotein with 6.4% (m/m carbohydrates, pI of 6.6, N-terminal sequence similarity around 60% to plant albumins and high stability to heat, pH and salinity. JcTI-I presented antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC less than 5 µg/mL. Furthermore, JcTI-I did have inhibitory activity against the serine proteases from the tested bacteria. Otherwise, no hemolytic activity of human erythrocytes and signs of acute toxicity to mice were observed for JcTI-I. The results demonstrate the benefits of J. curcas seed cake as a source of trypsin inhibitor with potential for biotechnological application as a new antimicrobial agent against human pathogenic bacteria.

  7. JcTI-I: a novel trypsin inhibitor from Jatropha curcas seed cake with potential for bacterial infection treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Helen P. S.; Oliveira, Jose T. A.; Sousa, Daniele O. B.; Morais, Janne K. S.; Moreno, Frederico B.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O.; Viegas, Ricardo A.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product resulting from biodiesel production. The seed cake is highly toxic, but it has great potential for biotechnology applications as it is a repository of biomolecules that could be important in agriculture, medicine, and industry. To explore this potential, a novel trypsin inhibitor called JcTI-I was purified by fractionation of the crude extract with trichloroacetic acid (2.5%, v/v) followed by affinity chromatography (Trypsin-Sepharose 4B) and molecular exclusion (Sephacryl S-200). Non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that JcTI-I has approximately 20.0~kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the intact molecular mass of JcTI-I is 10.252~kDa. Moreover, JcTI-I is a glycoprotein with 6.4% (m/m) carbohydrates, pI of 6.6, N-terminal sequence similarity around 60% to plant albumins and high stability to heat, pH, and salinity. JcTI-I presented antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration less than 5~μg/mL. Furthermore, JcTI-I did have inhibitory activity against the serine proteases from the tested bacteria. Otherwise, no hemolytic activity of human erythrocytes and signs of acute toxicity to mice were observed for JcTI-I. The results demonstrate the benefits of J. curcas seed cake as a source of trypsin inhibitor with potential for biotechnological application as a new antimicrobial agent against human pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24523715

  8. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  9. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage.

  10. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Fermentation%短帚霉发酵脱除小桐子饼的毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧灵澄; 赵德柱; 王兴红

    2012-01-01

    膏桐饼作为生物柴油产业中产生的最大宗副产物,其高蛋白、低纤维含量的特性有望使其开发成为一种优良的蛋白饲料,但毒性限制了其直接作为饲料利用.发酵是多种饼粕脱毒的常用方法.分离、纯化膏桐根际微生物并分别发酵膏桐饼,用甲醇提取发酵膏桐饼的毒性成分并溶于水中,通过鲤鱼存活时间来评价不同菌株发酵膏桐饼的毒性,筛选获得了一株能够在膏桐饼上快速生长并能有效脱除膏桐饼毒性的短帚霉.脱毒小桐子饼组的小鲤鱼存活时间与对照组相比延长了1.22倍.%The biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas seeds is generating a huge amount of kernel cake. The characteristics of its high protein and low fibre content is beneficial to develop the cake as feed. Toxicity is the biggest factor to limit the cake as feed. Fermentation is the best method for detoxification of the different cakes. Microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of J. curcas, and cake toxic components were extracted by methyl alcohol and dissolved in water. A strain E290 was isolated according to the carp survival time. The strain was identified as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis which could grow rapidly and detoxify effectively. The survival time of carp of detoxified group was prolonged 1. 22 times than that of control group.

  11. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  12. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  13. Proteome analysis of developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohibullah Shah

    2014-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an important crop due to its ability of storing high content of oil in the seeds, which can serve as raw material for biodiesel production. Because of the presence of toxic constituents like phorbol esters (PEs) and curcins, the seed cake produced as a result of oil extraction cannot be utilize for animal feed. Development of the genotypes better suited for the industrial applications and biodiesel production as well as with lower level of toxic constituent...

  14. Study on extraction technology of phytic acid from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake%从麻疯树籽饼粕提取植酸工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马博; 黎远成; 张婷婷; 宁世灯

    2013-01-01

      为对麻疯树籽饼粕进行资源综合利用,该研究以植酸得率为考查指标,在单因素实验基础上,采用四因素三水平正交试验,优化从麻疯树籽饼粕中提取植酸工艺。结果显示,优化提取植酸工艺条件为:盐酸浓度0.8 mol/L、温度60℃、时间60 min、液料比12∶1;在该工艺条件下,植酸得率达4.80%。%Phytic acid is one of main anti–nutrient constituents in the seed cake of Jatropha curcas L. In order to improve the forage quality,the extraction technique of phytic acid from Jatropha curcas L. cake was optimized by using an orthogonal test with 4 factors and 3 levels,based on the single test and selecting the extraction ration as index. The optimum conditions were determined as follows:hydrochloric acid at 0.8 mol/L,temperature at 60℃,extraction time at 60min and the ration of liquid to materials at 12∶1. The extraction yield of phytic acid was 4.80%.

  15. Improving Jatropha curcas seed protein recovery by using counter current multistage extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed press cake contains 23 wt% proteins (dry basis). Due to the toxic compounds in Jatropha, we will use the proteins for non-food applications. Related to non-food applications, an efficient protein extraction to obtain a high protein recovery and high protein concentration with go

  16. Relative Coagulation Effectiveness of Jatropha curcas Press Cake (Physic Nut and Aluminium Sulphate in Purifying Domestic Sewage

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    Kamoru Akanni ADENIRAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on the relative effectiveness of using press cake of dried Jatropha curcas (Physic nut seed and alum (Aluminium sulphate for the purification of domestic sewage. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD replicated three times. Physical and chemical properties of domestic sewage were investigated before and after the purification exercise. Treatments imposed included: the control culture (no alum and Jatropha, 10 mg/l of Aluminium Sulphate (alum treatment, 80 mg/l of J. curcas treatment, 100 mg/l of J. curcas treatment and 120 mg/l of J. curcas treatment. The results showed that for the total dissolved solids, cultured tanks treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced the sewage concentration from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD was reduced from 30.55 mg/l to 30.10 mg/l, increased acidity from 5.33 mg/l to 5.66 mg/l, reduced alkalinity from 6.35 mg/l to 6.0 mg/l, reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55, and likewise 10 mg/l of alum also reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55. The cultured tanks treated with 120 mg/l of J. curcas performed best in reducing turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the sewage. The turbidity was reduced from 5.99 NTU to 5.6 NTU; 120 mg/l of J. curcas also reduced total hardness from 9.6 mg/l to 7.15 mg/l, total solids from 55.6 mg/l to 55.17 mg/l. Cultured tanks treated with 10 mg/l of alum reduced total dissolved solids from 30.1 mg/l to 24.30 mg/l, while those treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 120 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it to 25.20 mg/l. Total suspended solids increased from 25.5 mg/l to 30.96 mg/l for 10 mg/l of alum, to 30.22 mg/l for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 30.26 mg/l for 100 mg/l of J. curcas and 30.38 mg/l for 120 mg/l of J. curcas. Conductivity increased withion the study period from 525 μS/cm to 830 μS/cm for 10 mg/l of alum, to 590 μS/cm for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 634 μS/cm for 100 mg/l of J

  17. Linkage mapping in the oilseed cropJatropha curcasL. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring ‘nontoxic’ provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F2 mappi...

  18. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, A.J.; Montes, L.R.; Clarke, J.G.; Affleck, J.; Li, Y.; Witsenboer, H.; Vossen, van der E.; Linde, van der P.; Tripathi, Y.; Tavares, E.; Shukla, P.; Rajasekaran, T.; Loo, van E.N.; Graham, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring ‘no

  19. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5 ufc Lactobacillus plantarum + 3.33 × 10(5 ufc Propionibacterium per g as fed. Twenty-four mini-silos (982 cm³ of polyvinyl chloride were created and opened after 60 days of fermentation at room temperature. The pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake (282 g of water/kg contained 0.424 mg of phorbol esters/g of dry matter. Ensiling reduced the phorbol esters in 47.4%, on average, regardless of the SC or MI. There was no interaction effect between SC and MI on effluent, gases or total dry matter losses. However, both losses were increased when SC were added, and it was higher with glycerin that than sucrose. The addition of MI reduced all fermentation losses. The process of ensiling, although partially to reduce the phorbol esters of pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake, is not indicated as a biodestoxification procedure.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of Jatropha curcas L. press cake and effects of an iron-additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 g(VS) L(-1) day(-1), the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H₂S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H₂S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L(-1), indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L(-1). The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 g(VS) l(-1) day(-1). The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H(2)S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality.

  1. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas kernel cake by a novel Streptomyces fimicarius strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Ou, Lingcheng; Fu, Liang-Liang; Zheng, Shui; Lou, Ji-Dong; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Changhe

    2013-09-15

    A huge amount of kernel cake, which contains a variety of toxins including phorbol esters (tumor promoters), is projected to be generated yearly in the near future by the Jatropha biodiesel industry. We showed that the kernel cake strongly inhibited plant seed germination and root growth and was highly toxic to carp fingerlings, even though phorbol esters were undetectable by HPLC. Therefore it must be detoxified before disposal to the environment. A mathematic model was established to estimate the general toxicity of the kernel cake by determining the survival time of carp fingerling. A new strain (Streptomyces fimicarius YUCM 310038) capable of degrading the total toxicity by more than 97% in a 9-day solid state fermentation was screened out from 578 strains including 198 known strains and 380 strains isolated from air and soil. The kernel cake fermented by YUCM 310038 was nontoxic to plants and carp fingerlings and significantly promoted tobacco plant growth, indicating its potential to transform the toxic kernel cake to bio-safe animal feed or organic fertilizer to remove the environmental concern and to reduce the cost of the Jatropha biodiesel industry. Microbial strain profile essential for the kernel cake detoxification was discussed.

  2. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting.

  3. Proteomic Analysis the Seed Development of Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Setsuko Komatsu; Qing Yang; Shihua Shen

    2012-01-01

    Differential proteomic analysis and cellular structure observation were employed to analyze the developing seeds at 5,10,15,20,25 and 30 days after flowering.Results revealed that 214 of 355 protein spots with significant changes in abundance were identified through MALDI/TOF-TOF MS.Energy and metabolism related proteins were notable abundant in developing Jatropha curcas seed,accounting for 47% and 36% of the identified differentially expressed proteins respectively.The expressional profiles of energy and metabolic proteins identified in this study ensured a comprehensive overview on the carbon flux to lipid accumulation from the early to late stages of seed development.It seems that glycolysis and OPP are the major pathways for producing carbon flux in developing J.curcas seeds.These data suggested that sugar mobilization from glucose to coenzyme A and its acyl derivative is collaboration between the cytosol and plastids and that temporal control of enzymes and pathways extends beyond transcription.

  4. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Montes, Luis R; Clarke, Jasper G; Affleck, Julie; Li, Yi; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van der Vossen, Edwin; van der Linde, Piet; Tripathi, Yogendra; Tavares, Evanilda; Shukla, Parul; Rajasekaran, Thirunavukkarasu; van Loo, Eibertus N; Graham, Ian A

    2013-10-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring 'nontoxic' provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F₂ mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F₂ plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties.

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake using Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) as catalysts and co-solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Yahaya; Kumar, Naveen; Bugaje, Idris M

    2016-01-01

    Biomass liquefaction using ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts has received appreciable attention, in renewable fuels and chemicals production, recently. However, issues associated with the production cost, long reaction time and use of volatile solvents are undeniably challenging. Thus, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) emerged as promising and potential ILs substitutes. The hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake was catalyzed by four synthesized DESs as catalysts and co-solvents for selective extraction. Proximate and ultimate analyses including ash, moisture and carbon contents of bio-crude produced varied slightly. The higher heating values found ranges from 21.15 ± 0.82 MJ/kg to 24.30 ± 0.98 MJ/kg. The bio-crude yields obtained using ChCl-KOH DES was 43.53 wt% and ChCl-p-TsOH DES was 38.31 wt%. Bio-crude yield using ChCl-FeCl3 DES was 30.80 wt%. It is suggested that, the selectivity of bio-crude could be improved, by using DESs as catalyst and co-solvent in HTL of biomass such as de-oiled J. curcas cake.

  6. Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Xiyuan; Mao, Huizhu; Zhu, Changxiang; Wen, Fujiang; Wang, Xianghua; Lu, Zhijun; Yue, Genhua; Xu, Zengfu; Ye, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants. PMID:28102350

  7. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer.

  8. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake& latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. Results: The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, GC-MS etc. Conclusion: The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy.

  9. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGP MULIARTA ARYANA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Santoso BB, Budianto A, Aryana IGPM. 2012. Seed viability of Jatropha curcas in different fruit maturity stages after storage. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 113-117. The effect of fruit maturity stages and seed storage period to seed viability were investigated. Seed samples of West Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara genotype of Jatropha curcas were collected from standing two year old trees at experimental field. The seed samples obtained were in four different stages of fruit maturity involving early maturity (green fruit, physiological maturity (yellow fruit, over maturity (brownies fruit, and senescence (black-dry fruit. The results showed that fruit maturity had an influence as well storage period on the seed viability of Jatropha curcas. The best fruit maturity stage for seed viability including seed oil content was yellow fruit and brownies fruit. For germination to be maintained or preserved, seeds could be stored in the ambient room storage for at least five months. For the purpose of oil extraction, seed should preferably be stored maximum not more than four months under ambient room conditions.

  10. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Extraction of the residual bitter component (neem seed cake alcoholic extract) ... for 6 h as described by modified method of Mitra (1963) to remove ... Daily feed intake was measured, as decrease in the quantity of weighed ...

  11. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  12. Proteomic analysis of oil bodies in mature Jatropha curcas seeds with different lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Cuiping; Chen, Fan; Shen, Shihua

    2015-01-15

    To reveal the difference among three mature Jatropha curcas seeds (JcVH, variant with high lipid content; JcW, wild type and JcVL, variant with low lipid content) with different lipid content, comparative proteomics was employed to profile the changes of oil body (OB) associated protein species by using gels-based proteomic technique. Eighty-three protein species were successfully identified through LTQ-ES-MS/MS from mature JcW seeds purified OBs. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of J. curcas OB associated protein species revealed they had essential interactions with other organelles and demonstrated that oleosin and caleosin were the most abundant OB structural protein species. Twenty-eight OB associated protein species showed significant difference among JcVH, JcW and JcVL according to statistical analysis. Complementary transient expression analysis revealed that calcium ion binding protein (CalBP) and glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP) were well targeted in OBs apart from the oleosins. This study demonstrated that ratio of lipid content to caleosins abundance was involved in the regulation of OB size, and the mutant induced by ethylmethylsulfone treatment might be related to the caleosin like protein species. These findings are important for biotechnological improvement with the aim to alter the lipid content in J. curcas seeds. The economic value of Jatropha curcas largely depends on the lipid content in seeds which are mainly stored in the special organelle called oil bodies (OBs). In consideration of the biological importance and applications of J. curcas OB in seeds, it is necessary to further explore the components and functions of J. curcas OBs. Although a previous study concerning the J. curcas OB proteome revealed oleosins were the major OB protein component and additional protein species were similar to those in other oil seed plants, these identified OB associated protein species were corresponding to the protein bands instead of protein

  13. A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de C. Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the ½ MS medium (93.1% than in WPM medium (76.2%, but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures.

  14. Saponification of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Optimization by D-Optimal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumat Salimon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA percentage were investigated. D-optimal design was employed to study significance of these factors and optimum condition for the technique predicted and evaluated. The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved when 1.75 M ethanolic KOH concentration was used as the catalyst, reaction temperature of 65°C, and reaction time of 2.0 h. This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for saponification of J. curcas seed oil. In an 18-point experimental design, percentage of FFA for saponification of J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%.

  15. GC-MS analysis of hexane extract of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Warra, Aliyu A.; Abubakar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The spectral interpretation here was based on compounds identification. The following fatty acids were identified considering the peaks and library fragments; Oleic acid, Stearic acid, Palmitic acid Margaric acid, 6-Octadecenoic acid, Elaidic acid  Erucic acid, Methyl ricinoleate, 11-octadecenoic acid,10-undecenoic acid.  The results indicated that the Jatropha curcas L seed oil has potential in the production of cosmetics, perfumery and pharmaceuticals.The spectral interpretation here was ba...

  16. Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimon Jumat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acids (FAs are important as raw materials for the biotechnology industry. Existing methods of FAs production are based on chemical methods. In this study potassium hydroxide (KOH-catalyzed reactions were utilized to hydrolysis Jatropha curcas seed oil. Results The parameters effect of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA% were investigated using D-Optimal Design. Characterization of the product has been studied using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, gas chromatography (GC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved at 1.75M of ethanolic KOH concentration, 65°C of reaction temperature and 2.0 h of reaction time. Conclusions This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for J. curcas seed oil hydrolysis. In a 18-point experimental design, FFA% of hydrolyzed J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%, which proved by FTIR and HPLC.

  17. Resveratrol Trimers from Seed Cake of Paeonia rockii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening natural products for antibacterial activities, a total acetone extract of the seed cake of Paeonia rockii showed significant effects against bacterial strains. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the total acetone extract resulted in the isolation and identification of five resveratrol trimers, including rockiiol C (1, gnetin H (2, suffruticosol A (3, suffruticosol B (4 and suffruticosol C (5. The relative configuration of these compounds was elucidated mainly by comprehensive 1D and 2D-NMR experiments. Compound 1 was a new compound. All isolated compounds exhibited strong antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria.

  18. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-teng; Gan, Cai-ling; Fang, Yan-qiong; Zhang, Meng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N+ with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N+ beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 1016 to 15 × 1016 ions cm-2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 1016 ion cm-2, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 1016 ions cm-2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  19. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg335300@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Research and Development of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wang Xiaoteng [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, College of Agricultural, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Gan Cailing; Fang Yanqiong; Zhang Meng [College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed biological effects of N{sup +} implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sup +} implantation greatly decreased seedling survival rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At doses beyond 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CAT was essential for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal. POD mainly functioned as seed was severely hurt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAsA-GSH cycle mainly contributed to the regeneration of HAsA. - Abstract: To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N{sup +} with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N{sup +} beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  20. Arabinogalactan protein cluster from Jatropha curcas seed embryo contains fasciclin, xylogen and LysM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlbach, Maria; König, Simone; Mormann, Michael; Sendker, Jandirk; Hensel, Andreas

    2013-10-15

    An non-GPI-anchored AGP cluster (Y2) was isolated from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) composed of 4.8% polypeptides (mainly Ala, Ser, Gly, Hyp, Glu) and a carbohydrate moiety composed of Gal, Ara, GlcA, Rha, Man and GlcN. Besides the typical structural features of arabinogalactan proteins, typical N-glycan linker of the complex type (GlcNAc4Man3Gal2Fuc1Xyl1) were identified. O-glycosylation occurred mainly via Hyp and to a lesser extent via Thr and Ser. N-glycans from the complex type, carrying at the innermost GlcNAc at position O-3 one α-Fuc-residue, were also present. MS analysis of the tryptic digest assigned peptides of three major protein groups: fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, xylogen-like proteins and LysM domain-containing proteins. They could not be separated further and it is indicated that various homologous protein forms co-exist. Histological investigation of J. curcas seeds revealed the presence of AGPs in the vessels of cotyledons and in the procambium ring of the embryo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In-situ Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biodiesel Production using Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ supercritical methanol transesterification for production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL seeds was successfully being carried out via batch-wise reactor system, under varying temperatures of 180 - 300 °C, pressures of 6 - 18 MPa, reaction time of 5 - 35 min and seeds-to-methanol ratio of 1:15 - 1:45 (w/v. In this study, the extracted oil obtained showed the presence of FAME referring as biodiesel, indicating that transesterification reaction had occurred during the extraction process. The results showed that the biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of 280 °C, 12 MPa, 30 min and 1:40 (w/v were 97.9%.

  2. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  3. Conversion of crude Jatropha curcas seed oil into biodiesel using liquid recombinant Candida rugosa lipase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Chun; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Lee, Guan-Chiun

    2015-09-01

    The versatile Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) has been widely used in biotechnological applications. However, there have not been feasibility reports on the transesterification of non-edible oils to produce biodiesel using the commercial CRL preparations, mixtures of isozymes. In the present study, four liquid recombinant CRL isozymes (CRL1-CRL4) were investigated to convert various non-edible oils into biodiesel. The results showed that recombinant CRL2 and CRL4 exhibited superior catalytic efficiencies for producing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Jatropha curcas seed oil. A maximum 95.3% FAME yield was achieved using CRL2 under the optimal conditions (50 wt% water, an initial 1 equivalent of methanol feeding, and an additional 0.5 equivalents of methanol feeding at 24h for a total reaction time of 48 h at 37 °C). We concluded that specific recombinant CRL isozymes could be excellent biocatalysts for the biodiesel production from low-cost crude Jatropha oil.

  4. Utilisation of Jatropha press cake as substrate in biomass and lipase production from Aspergillus niger 65I6 and Rhizomucor miehei CBS 360.62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hidayat, C.; Hastuti, P.; Heeres, Hero; van der Maarel, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is a tropical plant that grows well on poor soils in arid regions and produces oil-rich, unedible seeds. The oil from these seeds can be used in the production of biodiesel. In addition, the press-cake waste that is left after oil extraction contains approximately 40% of protein.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich seed of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Raquel C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, oil-rich plants are the main source of biodiesel products. Because concerns have been voiced about the impact of oil-crop cultivation on the price of food commodities, the interest in oil plants not used for food production and amenable to cultivation on non-agricultural land has soared. As a non-food, drought-resistant and oil-rich crop, Jatropha curcas L. fulfils many of the requirements for biofuel production. Results We have generated 13,249 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing and germinating Jatropha seeds. This strategy allowed us to detect most known genes related to lipid synthesis and degradation. We have also identified ESTs coding for proteins that may be involved in the toxicity of Jatropha seeds. Another unexpected finding is the high number of ESTs containing transposable element-related sequences in the developing seed library (800 when contrasted with those found in the germinating seed library (80. Conclusions The sequences generated in this work represent a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in public databases. These results can be used to produce genetically improved varieties of Jatropha with increased oil yields, different oil compositions and better agronomic characteristics.

  6. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Anirban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem. Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. Results In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. Conclusion This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on

  7. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anirban Roy; Sharma, Nishat; Prasad, G S

    2012-03-30

    Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC) which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem.Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH) 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on cost reduction and may lead to development of a cost

  8. Effect of temperature and pre-germination treatments on seed germination and seedling vigor of Jatropha curcas L

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    Thais Cremon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are no official methods used to test the seed germination of physic nut (Jatropha curcas and there have only been a few attempts to optimize the germination of this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different temperatures and pre-germination treatments on the germination and seedling vigor of J. curcas. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized factorial scheme with four temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 20-30°C x two types of seeds (with and without the seed tegument x six periods of water imbibition (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30h. The seeds were sown using a roller system with four replications of 50 seeds for each treatment. The germination percentage was higher for seeds stored at 25°C, when the seed tegument was maintained. When the time of water imbibition was increased, the germination percentage decreased, as well as the index of germination velocity and the percentage of germination of the first count. Imbibition for up to 12h led to an increase in hypocotyl growth. For this species, the maximum germination potential and highest vigor were obtained at 25°C, for seeds with teguments that were maintained and were not submitted to water imbibition.

  9. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F; Botelho, Carolina M; Laviola, Bruno G; Palmieri, Marcel J; Praça-Fontes, Milene M

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  10. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays

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    LARISSA F. ANDRADE-VIEIRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis of polymer via bioplatform chemical intermediate derived from Jatropha deoiled seed cake

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    B.S. Surendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a two-step catalytic process, where deoiled seed cake as a feed was rapidly depolymerized and converted to a chemical intermediate under mild conditions, and a polymer compound was subsequently synthesized in the presence of an initiator under microwave irradiation. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF is a significant chemical intermediate compound synthesized from a deoiled Jatropha seed cake under microwave irradiation in the presence of a heterogeneous acid activated Bentonite catalyst. This compound is suitable for the synthesis of polymers. Our study reveals that the synthesis process is an energy-efficient and cost-effective conversion of the deoiled seed cake into the polymer compound through the bioplatform chemical intermediate. The synthesized material was well characterized, confirming the formation and structures of the prepared catalysts.

  12. Larvicidal activity of a toxin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. against Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthakan, Nuchsuk; Nuanchawee, Wetprasit; Sittiruk, Roytrakul; Sunanta, Ratanapo

    2012-06-01

    The larvicidal effects of the crude protein extract and purified toxin, Jc-SCRIP, from the seed coat of Jatropha curcas Linn. against the third instar larvae of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were investigated. This test compared the effects of the purified toxin with crude protein extracts from seed kernels of J. curcas and Ricinus communis. At various concentrations of purified toxin and crude protein extract, the larval mortality of both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were positively correlated with increased exposure time. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the toxin and both extracts than the larvae of Ae. aegypti. After 24 hours of exposure, the extract showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 3.89 mg/ml and 0.0575 mg/ml, respectively. The toxin, Jc-SCRIP, showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 1.44 mg/ml and 0.0303 mg/ ml, respectively. These results indicated that the crude protein extract and Jc-SCRIP were more toxic to the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus than that of Ae. aegypti. The potent larvicidal activities of the seed coat extract and the Jc-SCRIP toxin from J. curcas suggest that they may be used as bioactive agents to control the mosquito population.

  13. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  14. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a biodiese

  15. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  16. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Jatropha curcas seeds from four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana

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    S.K. Chikpah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant multipurpose small shrub/tree with significant economic importance because of its several potential agricultural, industrial and medicinal uses. The study was conducted to provide quantitative data on the physical and chemical properties of seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas grown locally in four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana (1. Nyankpala, Northern Region, 2. Dambai, Volta Region, 3. WA, Upper West Region, 4. Techiman, Brong Ahafo Region, that differ in agro-climatic conditions. The average seed weight was between 0.65 – 0.73 g and average kernel and shell weights ranged between (0.41- 0.45 g and (0.24 – 0.28 g respectively. The kernel forms larger proportion of the seed and the percentage kernel weight of whole seed was highest in seeds obtained from Nyankpala, sample 1 (62.74 % and lower in seeds from WA, sample 3 (61.19 %. The seeds have dry matter content of (93.13 – 94.18 %, crude protein (18.21 -19.97 %, lipid (36.52-38.64 %, carbohydrate (14.70 – 16.64 %, crude fibre (14.14 – 19.04 % and total ash (5.03 – 5.71 %. The kernels of Jatropha samples were very rich in lipid (55.51 – 56.83 % that did not vary significantly (p > 0.05 among the four samples. The kernels also contained high crude protein that varied between (23.08 – 25.88 %. Crude fibre was low in the kernels (3.68 – 5.52 %. The seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas samples also contained varying amounts of antinutrients such as crude phorbol ester, phytic acid and tannins. Crude phorbol ester concentrations in the seed samples are sample 1(5.35 mg/g, sample 2 (6.20 mg/g, sample 3(5.30 mg/g and sample 4(6.82 mg/g. However, the concentration of crude phorbol ester in the kernels (1K, 2K, 3K, and 4K ranged between (5.0 – 6.45 mg/g. The phytic acid content (% dry matter in seeds and kernels were between the range (8.71 -10.15 % and (7.88-9.50 % respectively. Tannins content in the kernel was low (0.05 – 0

  17. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  18. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

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    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  19. Comparative evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. seed meals obtained by different methods of defatting on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Different methods of defatting have a great impact on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors in the oilseed meals. In order to find the most suitable methods of defatting for Jatropha curcas seed meals, the Jatropha curcas L. seed meals, defatted by Soxhlet extraction and screw-press were characterized for their toxic, anti-nutritional and nutrient factors in this study. The toxins (phorbolesters, 3.1 and 2.9 mg/g) and some anti-nutritional factors (saponins, 2.9 and 2.6%; phytates, 11.1 and 11.6%) in meals obtained by the two defatting methods were present at high concentrations. However, the trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA) and lectin (2.7 mg/g and 1.5 mg/ml) in the screw-pressed meal were significantly lower, due to the high temperature (120 °C) used in this defatting process. From nutritional side, the values of crude protein (CP), buffer-soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, pepsin insoluble nitrogen, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), as well as essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal obtained by Soxhlet extraction were better than the screw-pressed meal. However, taking practical application into account, from detoxification side, screw-pressed meal is better for detoxification.

  20. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

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    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  1. The Nematicidal Effect of Camellia Seed Cake on Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne javanica of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Kang; Su, Lanxi; Li, Hongmei; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L) showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression. PMID:25849382

  2. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

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    Asnake G. Ede

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca and castor (Ricinus communius L seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus and cockroach (Blattela germanica. The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The LD50 was determined to be 0.64% and 1.24% for termite and cockroach, respectively for jatropha oil after 72hrs exposure. It was determined to be 1.43% and 1.08% for termite and cockroach respectively for castor oil. The biocidal potential of the oil is statistically significant (p<0.05 when compared with blank and solvent controls at all concentration tested. Various physicochemical parameters were also evaluated in accordance with American standard testing method specifications.

  3. Milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows fed cottonseed cake-based diets partially substituted with baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Musimurimwa, Carmen; Chivandi, Eliton; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Mamhare, Eddison

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of partially substituting cottonseed cake with graded levels of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake (BSC) on milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows. Sixteen cows in mid-lactation and in their third parity were allocated to diets containing 0% (control), 5%, 10%, and 15% BSC in a completely randomized design. Each cow was given a daily feed ration of 6 kg and a basal diet of soya bean stover ad libitum. There were no differences in daily feed intake (P > 0.05), but basal intake differed among all treatment groups with cows on the control diet having the highest intake (30 ± 0.34 kg/day). Mean daily milk yield differed (P  0.05). These results indicate that BSC can substitute soya bean cake in dairy diets, but milk production and butterfat content are compromised.

  4. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE FLOCCULATION EFFICIENCY OF Chlorella vulgaris MEDIATED BY Moringa oleifera SEED UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS: FLOUR, SEED CAKE AND EXTRACTS OF FLOUR AND CAKE

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    C. M. L. Lapa Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Flocculation as a pre-separation method can help make production of biodiesel from microalgae economically feasible. In a previous study, Moringa oleifera seed flour (1 g.L-1 was shown to be a very efficient flocculant for Chlorella vulgaris, a microalga with high potential for biodiesel production. In this study, several aspects of C vulgaris flocculation mediated by Moringa were investigated in order to optimize the separation of this biomass. Flocculation efficiency was the same with seeds from different origins and lots. The stationary growth stage was best for harvesting C vulgaris cells to carry out flocculation efficiently (93%. The use of flour extracts and cake extracts generated the best cost-benefit ratio (flocculation efficiency from 78 to 97% with a saving in mass of seed of 75%. The highest efficiency was reached with extracts prepared with seawater and NaCl solutions which have high salt concentration. Reasonable stability of the extract allows its use for up to two weeks, provided it is kept at low temperature (4 ºC.

  6. Application of microbial fermentation in the resource tilization of Jatropha curcas L.seed cake %微生物发酵在麻疯树籽粕资源化利用中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 兰翠玲; 马博; 曾小飚; 李荣峰; 李力

    2012-01-01

    The cake is a byproduct after oil extraction from Jatropha curcas L. Seed, and it has a large application potential in feed, food and chemical industry. It could be as substrate for microbes growth due to it endowed with the higher protein and carbohydrates. Accordingly, the related researches of its resource utilization are reviewed by microbial fermentation. In the further studies, it should be paid attention to enhancing its compost and detoxification effect, enriching biogas production and accumulation of functional bio-macromolecules and efficiency of nutrient quality improvement through screening the special wild strains or establishing gene engineering bacteria, and optimizing fermentation technology. Especially, detoxification mechanism of fermentation and more high value products from Jatropha curcas L. Seed cake are urgent to make clear and produce, respectively.%麻疯树籽粕是麻疯树种子提油后的主要副产品,在饲料、食品及日用化工等领域具有广阔的应用前景.由于其蛋白质和糖类含量较高,可以作为微生物生长基质,故文章对近年来有关通过微生物发酵进行麻疯树籽粕资源化利用的有关研究做了总结.筛选高效功能野生菌株或构建基因工程菌,优化发酵工艺,以增强麻疯树籽粕的堆肥和脱毒效果,提高其厌氧发酵产沼气量,增加酶蛋白等功能物质的累积和改进其营养效价,尤其是在微生物发酵麻疯树籽粕脱毒机制和生产高附加值产品方面亟待加强研究.

  7. Chitosan effects on phytopathogenic fungi and seed germination of Jatropha curcas L.

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    Diana Pabón-Baquero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas es una planta con gran potencial agrícola e industrial. En este estudio se aislaron dos hongos de semillas no germinadas. Los aislamientos fúngicos se identificaron morfológica y molecularmente como Fusarium equiseti y Curvularia lunata. Los efectos del quitosano se evaluaron sobre el crecimiento micelial, esporulación y germinación de esporas de F. equiseti y C. lunata. Además, se estudió el efecto sobre la germinación de las semillas de J. curcas. Los resultados demostraron que todas las concentraciones probadas de quitosano (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 y 4.0 mg·mL-1 inhibieron el crecimiento micelial de los hongos. Las respuestas de esporulación y germinación de esporas fueron diferentes dependiendo de la especie fúngica; el quitosano inhibió completamente la esporulación C. lunata y la germinación de esporas de F. equiseti. La inoculación con F. equiseti y C. lunata redujo la germinación de semillas de J. curcas 20 y 26.6 %, respectivamente; sin embargo, la aplicación de quitosano antes de la inoculación inhibió la actividad patogénica. En conclusión, el quitosano no afectó la germinación de las semillas y causó efectos inhibitorios en F. equiseti y C. lunata. Este es el primer reporte del efecto del quitosano en J. curcas.

  8. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  9. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  10. Stage-Specific Fatty Acid Fluxes Play a Regulatory Role in Glycerolipid Metabolism during Seed Development in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Bharatula Sri Krishna; Kumar, Sumit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Sastry, Pidaparty Seshadri; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2015-12-23

    The present study describes the changes in lipid profile as well as fatty acid fluxes during seed development in Jatropha curcas L. Endosperm from 34, 37, and 40 days after anthesis (DAA), incubated with [(14)C]acetate, showed significant synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) at seed maturation. The fatty acid methyl ester profile showed PC from 34 DAA was rich in palmitic acid (16:0), whereas PC from 37 and 40 DAA was rich in oleic acid (18:1n-9). Molecular species analysis of diacylglycerol (DAG) indicated DAG (16:0/18:2n-6) was in abundance at 34 DAA, whereas DAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6) was significantly high at 40 DAA. Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis revealed TAG (16:0/18:2n-6/16:0) was abundant at 34 DAA, whereas TAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6/18:1n-9) formed the majority at 40 DAA. Expression of two types of diacylglycerol acyltransferases varied with seed maturation. These data demonstrate stage-specific distinct pools of PC and DAG synthesis during storage TAG accumulation in Jatropha seed.

  11. Osmoconditioning prevents the onset of microtubular cytoskeleton and activation of cell cycle and is detrimental for germination of Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, C D; Loureiro, M B; Ribeiro, P R; Vasconcelos, P C T; Fernandez, L G; de Castro, R D

    2016-11-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oilseed crop renowned for its tolerance to a diverse range of environmental stresses. In Brazil, this species is grown in semiarid regions where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying appropriate seed, seedling and plant behaviour under water restriction conditions. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds in response to imbibition in water (control) and in polyethylene glycol solution (osmoticum). Seed germinability and reactivation of cell cycle events were assessed by means of different germination parameters and immunohistochemical detection of tubulin and microtubules, i.e. tubulin accumulation and microtubular cytoskeleton configurations in water imbibed seeds (control) and in seeds imbibed in the osmoticum. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increasing accumulation of tubulin and appearance of microtubular cytoskeleton in seed embryo radicles imbibed in water from 48 h onwards. Mitotic microtubules were only visible in seeds imbibed in water, after radicle protrusion, as an indication of cell cycle reactivation and cell proliferation, with subsequent root development. Imbibition in osmoticum prevented accumulation of microtubules, i.e. activation of cell cycle, therefore germination could not be resumed. Osmoconditioned seeds were able to survive re-drying and could resume germination after re-imbibition in water, however, with lower germination performance, possibly due to acquisition of secondary dormancy. This study provides important insights into understanding of the physiological aspects of J. curcas seed germination in response to water restriction conditions. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Utilisation of Jatropha press cake as substrate in biomass and lipase production from Aspergillus niger 65I6 and Rhizomucor miehei CBS 360.62

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hidayat, C.; Hastuti, P .; Heeres, Hero; Maarel, Marc van der

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is a tropical plant that grows well on poor soils in arid regions and produces oil-rich, unedible seeds. The oil from these seeds can be used in the production of biodiesel. In addition, the press-cake waste that is left after oil extraction contains approximately 40% of protein. The use of Jatropha press-cake as substrate for fungal growth and the production of lipase by Aspergillus niger 65I6 isolated from Indonesia and Rhizomucor miehei CBS 260.62 was investigated. Hydro...

  13. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  14. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  15. Complex Approach to Conceptual Design of Machine Mechanically Extracting Oil from Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biomass-Based Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašín, Ivan; Petrů, Michal

    One of important sources of biomass-based fuel is Jatropha curcas L. Great attention is paid to the biofuel produced from the oil extracted from the Jatropha curcas L. seeds. A mechanised extraction is the most efficient and feasible method for oil extraction for small-scale farmers but there is a need to extract oil in more efficient manner which would increase the labour productivity, decrease production costs, and increase benefits of small-scale farmers. On the other hand innovators should be aware that further machines development is possible only when applying the systematic approach and design methodology in all stages of engineering design. Systematic approach in this case means that designers and development engineers rigorously apply scientific knowledge, integrate different constraints and user priorities, carefully plan product and activities, and systematically solve technical problems. This paper therefore deals with the complex approach to design specification determining that can bring new innovative concepts to design of mechanical machines for oil extraction. The presented case study as the main part of the paper is focused on new concept of screw of machine mechanically extracting oil from Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

  16. Complex Approach to Conceptual Design of Machine Mechanically Extracting Oil from Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biomass-Based Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašín, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    One of important sources of biomass-based fuel is Jatropha curcas L. Great attention is paid to the biofuel produced from the oil extracted from the Jatropha curcas L. seeds. A mechanised extraction is the most efficient and feasible method for oil extraction for small-scale farmers but there is a need to extract oil in more efficient manner which would increase the labour productivity, decrease production costs, and increase benefits of small-scale farmers. On the other hand innovators should be aware that further machines development is possible only when applying the systematic approach and design methodology in all stages of engineering design. Systematic approach in this case means that designers and development engineers rigorously apply scientific knowledge, integrate different constraints and user priorities, carefully plan product and activities, and systematically solve technical problems. This paper therefore deals with the complex approach to design specification determining that can bring new innovative concepts to design of mechanical machines for oil extraction. The presented case study as the main part of the paper is focused on new concept of screw of machine mechanically extracting oil from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. PMID:27668259

  17. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analysis on Morphology Characteristic of Calcium in the Seed of Jatropha curcas L.%麻疯树种子钙形态特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗在柒; 刘兰; 王传明; 曾亚军

    2011-01-01

    The total calcium content and the content of different morphology form calcium in different tissues of fresh ripe seeds of Jatropha curcas were determined, and the store mechanism and the distribute regularity of calcium in Jatropha curcas seeds during growth were explored.The results showed that the mainly variation of calcium in the embryo of fresh ripe seeds were NaCl-calcium and HCl-calcium, the two type of calcium played important roles of fountain and warehouse during the growth of embryo.The mainly calcium variation in mesocarp was organic soluble calcium, which had positive function in building the structure of seeds and in the growth of embryo.Additionally, the content of soluble protein and soluble sugar in the seeds of Jatropha curcas had closely relation to the higher calcium content and higher calcium variation content, and the accumulation of macromolecules had positive significance for the Jatropha curcas to adapt the higher calcium environment.%通过测定麻疯树新鲜成熟种子中不同组织中总钙和不同形态类型钙物质含量,探索麻疯树种子发育过程中对钙的分布规律和储存形式.结果表明,麻疯树新鲜成熟种子胚中钙形态主要以 NaCl钙和HAC钙形式为主,钙形态在种子胚的发育过程中主要起到源和库的作用,外种皮中总钙含量丰富,主要以HCl钙形态存在,对参与种子的结构和胚的发育起到积极作用.另外,麻疯树种子胚中可溶性蛋白质和可溶性糖含量与胚中高钙含量和高钙形态含量密切相关,而大分子物质的积累对促进麻疯树适应高钙质环境特征的生长发育过程具有重要意义.

  19. Establishment and Optimization of Protocol for Genomic DNA Extraction from Seeds of Jatropha curcas%麻疯树(Jatropha curcas L.)种子总DNA提取方法的建立和优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 曾德贤; 吴子欢; 范林元; 刘飞虎

    2011-01-01

    A protocol to extract genomic DNA from seeds of Jatropha curcas was established and optimized in order to overleap seedling cultnre and decrease the experimental time. Considering the high contents of proteins. polyphenols and polysaccharides in the seeds, this protocol applied efficient procedures based on CTAB method to remove the secondary metabolites and impuriy. Antioxidant PVP was used to remove polyphenols when sample was homogenized , whereas the cell nuchlear separation buffer was used to remove polysacchandes, and then phenol - chloroform - isoamyl alcohol ( volume proportion = 25 ∶ 24∶ 1 ) extraction to get rid of proteins. The obtained genomic DNA with satisfied concentration and quality couH be used in the test of electrophoresis and ISSR-PCR amplification.%用种子提取DNA可省却培育幼苗过程而加快实验进度,为此建立了麻疯树(Jatropha curcas L.)种子DNA提取方法.针对麻疯树种子富含蛋白质、多酚及多糖等次生物质的特点,基于CTAB法进行优化,在研磨种子时加入抗氧化剂PVP去除多酚,接着用核分离缓冲液去除多糖,再通过酚-氯仿-异戊醇(体积比=25:24:1)抽提去除蛋白质.所提取的麻疯树种子总DNA浓度和质量均较高,经琼脂糖凝胶电泳和ISSR-PCR扩增得到了非常清晰的DNA条带.

  20. Multi-Spectroscopic Analysis of Seed Quality and 13C-Stable-Iotopologue Monitoring in Initial Growth Metabolism of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Komatsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, as well as near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy, to Jatropha curcas to fulfill two objectives: (1 to qualitatively examine the seeds stored at different conditions, and (2 to monitor the metabolism of J. curcas during its initial growth stage under stable-isotope-labeling condition (until 15 days after seeding. NIR spectra could non-invasively distinguish differences in storage conditions. NMR metabolic analysis of water-soluble metabolites identified sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides as positive markers and gluconic acid as a negative marker of seed germination. Isotopic labeling patteren of metabolites in germinated seedlings cultured in agar-plate containg 13C-glucose and 15N-nitrate was analyzed by zero-quantum-filtered-total correlation spectroscopy (ZQF-TOCSY and 13C-detected 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy (HETCOR. 13C-detected HETOCR with 13C-optimized cryogenic probe provided high-resolution 13C-NMR spectra of each metabolite in molecular crowd. The 13C-13C/12C bondmer estimated from 1H-13C HETCOR spectra indicated that glutamine and arginine were the major organic compounds for nitrogen and carbon transfer from roots to leaves.

  1. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  2. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  3. Effect of Dose and Administration Period of Seed Cake of Genetically Modified and Non-Modified Flax on Selected Antioxidative Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flaxseed cake containing antioxidants is a valuable dietary component. Its nutritional effect may be diminished by the presence of anti-nutrients. The work was aimed at determining the effect of different contents of flaxseed cake in diets and their administration period on the development of rats and selected parameters of their health status. Diets with 15% and 30% addition of genetically modified (GM) flax seed cake with enhanced synthesis of polyphenols, as well as Linola non-GM flax were administered in short-term (33 days) and long-term (90 days) experiments. The 30% addition of flaxseed cake reduced digestibility of dietary nutrients, GM flaxseed cake lowered body weight gains. The relative weight of selected organs, hematological blood markers and serum activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT) were not affected. Flaxseed cake consumption reduced serum concentration of albumins and increased globulins. Administration of 30% flaxseed cake improved plasma total antioxidant status and 30% GM flaxseed cake lowered liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver concentration of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were not changed. Most morphometric parameters of the small intestine did not differ between feeding groups. The administration of diets with 30% addition of flaxseed cake for 90 days improved the antioxidant status in rats.

  4. Water absorption curve among two size physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds. = Curva de absorção de água em sementes de Jatropha curcas L. com dois tamanhos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of water absorption patterns among seeds is important as it allows us to know the appropriate conditions for the rapid seedling emergence. The present study characterized water absorption curve among physic nut (Jatropha curcas L seeds. Seeds were classified as small and large according to the mass of a thousand seeds placed in gerbox, between sheets of germitest paper moistened with destilled water 2.5 times their weight and kept in a germination chamber maintained at 25°C. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 17 factorial scheme, namely 2 seed sizes (large and small and 17 imbibitions periods (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 24, 32, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours with four replicates of 10 seeds per plot. Small seeds of physic nut weighed 715.4 g as a thousand seed mass while large seeds weighed 800 grams. Seeds of physic nutexhibit a triphasic pattern of water absorption. Small and large physic nut seeds exhibit the three physiological phases similarly,where phase II begins next to 32 hours of imbibition and extends up to 116 hours, when phase III starts. = O conhecimento do padrão de absorção de água em sementes é importante na medida em que sepermite avaliar as condições adequadas para a rápida emergência das plântulas. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho caracterizar a curva de absorção de água em sementes de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L.. Sementes classificadas por meio da massa de mil sementes em pequenas e grandes foram dispostas entre folhas de papel germitest umedecido 2,5 vezes seu peso, com água destilada, no interior de gerbox, mantidos em câmara de germinação a 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 17, sendo 2 tamanhos de sementes (grandes e pequenas, com 17 períodos de embebição (0; 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 4; 6; 8; 10; 16; 24; 32; 48; 72; 96; 120 e 144 horas e quatro repetições de 10 sementes por parcela. As sementes pequenas

  5. Methodology to calculate starch in castor seed cake residue from biodiesel production; Metodologia de quantificacao de amido em torta de mamona residual da producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aline Machado de [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Energias Renovaveis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: alinebio@petrobras.com.br; Pereira Junior, Nei [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Departamento de Engenharia Bioquimica. Escola de Quimica, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: nei@eq.ufrj.br

    2009-04-15

    When castor seeds are used in the production of biodiesel a solid residue is obtained from the seed crushing process (castor seed cake). This residue, due to its high starch content, is a potential biomass for second generation bioethanol production. The starch in this biomass presents some peculiarities that are associated with the proteins and other structures of the seed. The challenge of this study was to standardize a method to quantify the starch, tailored for this biomass. This methodology was confirmed with a comparative study using commercial methods and a standard starch sample. This study is an important aspect in bioethanol production from castor seed cake. This is because to evaluate the potential of cakes from different sources it is necessary to determine the starch content in the biomass to calculate the mass balance as well as the process yield.

  6. Removal of BTEX from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ione L Silva; Antoniosi Filho, Nelson R; Alves, Maria I Ribeiro; Carvalho, Brenda G; Coelho, Nivia M Melo

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and o-xylene) from aqueous solution using Moringa oleifera seed cake (MOSC) was investigated. The effect of parameters such as contact time, pH and initial BTEX concentration were studied to optimize the conditions for maximum removal. Maximum removal values of 75 +/- 1%, 85 +/- 2%, 86 +/- 2%, 88 +/- 2% and 87 +/- 1% were obtained for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively, at pH 7.0, with a 20 min contact time for an adsorbent dose of 10 g L(-1) of 1 mg L(-1) BTEX concentration. The adsorption data fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The capacity of MOSC to adsorb BTEX was compared with that for a commercial activated carbon. The results from the two methods were not significantly different (judged by t-test at 95% confident interval). A low cost, easy purchase and the satisfactory experimental results indicated that MOSC is a promising natural material for the removal of BTEX from aqueous solution.

  7. Structure prediction and binding sites analysis of curcin protein of Jatropha curcas using computational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mugdha; Gupta, Shishir K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are defense proteins in a number of higher-plant species that are directly targeted toward herbivores. Jatropha curcas is one of the biodiesel plants having RIPs. The Jatropha seed meal, after extraction of oil, is rich in curcin, a highly toxic RIP similar to ricin, which makes it unsuitable for animal feed. Although the toxicity of curcin is well documented in the literature, the detailed toxic properties and the 3D structure of curcin has not been determined by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy or any in silico techniques to date. In this pursuit, the structure of curcin was modeled by a composite approach of 3D structure prediction using threading and ab initio modeling. Assessment of model quality was assessed by methods which include Ramachandran plot analysis and Qmean score estimation. Further, we applied the protein-ligand docking approach to identify the r-RNA binding residue of curcin. The present work provides the first structural insight into the binding mode of r-RNA adenine to the curcin protein and forms the basis for designing future inhibitors of curcin. Cloning of a future peptide inhibitor within J. curcas can produce non-toxic varieties of J. curcas, which would make the seed-cake suitable as animal feed without curcin detoxification.

  8. Progeny evaluation of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata with comparison to bioproductivity and biodiesel parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Kumar Patil; Prithviraj Bhandare; Pramod B. Kulkarni; G. R. Naik

    2015-01-01

    Progeny studies of Jatropha curcas and Pong-amia pinnata were carried with respect to bioproductivity, pod and seed characters which is one of the selection meth-ods in tree improvement programmes. Variations in bio-productivity and biodiesel parameters of both the plants were compared every 6 months for 4 years of investigation and analyzed by analysis of variance and correlation coefficient by Pearson’s method using software Graphpad instat 3.06 (for Windows and Mac). P. pinnata has better germination rate (71.4%), 100 pod weight (PW) (311.59 g) and 100 seed weight (SW) (173.46 g) as compared to J. curcas for ger-mination rate (43.2%), 100 PW (111.29 g) and 100 SW (67.46 g). P. pinnata has strong correlation for plant height to canopy growth (CG) (0.948), collar diameter (CD) (0.994), number of branches per plant (NBP) (0.995) and to number of leaves per branch (NLB) (0.862) as compared to J. curcas which showed good correlation among plant height to CG (0.976), CD (0.970), NBP (0.988), NLB (0.920) and to number of pods per branch (0.657). However, J. curcas depicted negative correlation for pod breadth to seed length (SL) (-0.447), seed breadth (-0.248) and to seed thickness (ST) (-0.364) and among the 100 PW to SL (-0.199), ST (-0.220) and to 100 SW (-0.704). About 4 kg of P. pinnata seeds were required for each liter of crude oil which yields 896 ml of biodiesel on transesterification as compared to 5.66 kg of J. curcas seeds for a liter of crude oil, producing about 663 ml of biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel meets the major specification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards for biodiesel. The crude glyc-erin and seed cake obtained as byproduct during biodiesel production were also measured which can be purified and used in composting, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries.

  9. Rapeseed and Raspberry Seed Cakes as Inexpensive Raw Materials in the Production of Activated Carbon by Physical Activation: Effect of Activation Conditions on Textural and Phenol Adsorption Characteristics

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    Koen Smets

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of activated carbons (ACs from rapeseed cake and raspberry seed cake using slow pyrolysis followed by physical activation of the obtained solid residues is the topic of this study. The effect of activation temperature (850, 900 and 950 °C, activation time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min and agent (steam and CO2 on the textural characteristics of the ACs is investigated by N2 adsorption. In general, higher activation temperatures and longer activation times increase the BET specific surface area and the porosity of the ACs, regardless of the activation agent or raw material. Steam is more reactive than CO2 in terms of pore development, especially in the case of raspberry seed cake. The performance of the ACs in liquid adsorption is evaluated by batch phenol adsorption tests. Experimental data are best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on total yield, textural characteristics and phenol adsorption, steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min and CO2 activation at 900 °C for 120 min are found as the best activation conditions. Raspberry seed cake turns out to be a better raw material than rapeseed cake. Moreover, AC from raspberry seed cake produced by steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min performs as well as commercial AC (Norit GAC 1240 in phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of the selected ACs are best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model.

  10. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (pextraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature.

  11. Performance of Jatropha curcas L. in Semi-arid Zone: Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Early Field Growth

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    Sharif AHAMAD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information on basic agronomic properties of Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha cultivation on the marginal lands in the semi-arids. Evaluation of agronomic performance of identified elite strains of J. curcas in marginal lands would be of paramount importance for addressing gap areas in their agronomic properties and subsequently for harnessing their optimum economic potentials. The present study undertook the task of analysing the growth performance of a high oil bearing elite strain of J. curcas–DARL-2 in degraded land in semi-arid zone of Deccan Plateau, India. While undertaking the assessment of growth performance of elite strain DARL-2, two other native (wild strains (namely AHN-1 and AHN-2 of J. curcas were also considered so that a comparative evaluation could be carried out. The role of gypsum was also investigated on J. curcas in the nursery stage as well its carry over effects on growth performance of transplanted trees in the field. Two types of substrates, gypsum-treated soil (GS and untreated soil (SL were used for growing seedlings of all the three jatropha strains. Seedlings (120-days-old of DARL-2 exhibited greater plant height, collar diameter and number of branches but root length was greater in the local strains. In the second year of field transplantation, DARL-2 strain exhibited significantly (p<0.05 greater plant height and number of branches/plant. No carry over effects of gypsum treatment were observed in field transplanted plants as none of the growth parameters significantly varied among the substrate types.

  12. Composition, ileal amino acid digestibility and nutritive value of organically grown legume seeds and conventional rapeseed cakes for pigs

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    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight white-flowered pea (Pisum sativum and two white-flowered field bean (Vicia faba cultivars grown organically were analysed for proximate composition and amino acid content. In vivo ileal amino acid digestibilities and faecal energy digestibility were predicted from the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of nitrogen and organic matter, respectively. The crude protein (CP content of the pea and field bean cultivars ranged from 244 to 279 and from 320 to 347 g/kg dry matter (DM, respectively. The concentrations of several essential amino acids in protein decreased as the CP content increased. In peas, predicted in vivo digestibilities did not correlate with chemical composition, and in field beans were lower than in peas. A digestibility trial was carried out on six cannulated barrows according to a 6 ´ 5 cyclic change-over design to determine the faecal and ileal nutrient digestibilities of organically grown leafed peas (cv. Sohvi, 199 g CP/kg DM, semileafless peas (cv. Karita, 240 g CP/kg DM, field beans (cv. Kontu, 320 g CP/kg DM, narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Pershatsvet, 220 g CP/kg DM, and conventional warm- and cold-pressed rapeseed cakes (360 and 313 g CP/kg DM, respectively. The net energy contents of the leafed and semileafed peas, field beans, lupins, and cold- and warm-pressed rape seed cakes were 10.8, 11.2, 9.8, 9.7, 9.4 and 12.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The apparent ileal digestibilities of lysine and threonine were similar, but the digestibility of methionine was poor in all legume seeds. Cystine digestibility was highest in lupins and lowest in field beans. With the exception of phenylalanine, there was no difference in apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities between rapeseed cakes.;

  13. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods.

  14. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

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    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  15. Microwave assisted biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seed by two-step in situ process: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaliliannosrati, Hamidreza; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin; Noshadi, Iman

    2013-05-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by a two-step in situ (reactive) esterification/transesterification from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) seeds using microwave system has been investigated. Free fatty acid was reduced from 14% to less than 1% in the first step using H2SO4 as acid catalyst after 35 min of microwave irradiation heating. The organic phase in the first step was subjected to a second reaction by adding 5 N KOH in ethanol as the basic catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was utilized to design the experiments and analyze the influence of process variables (particles seed size, time of irradiation, agitation speed and catalyst loading) on conversion of triglycerides (TGs) in the second step. The highest triglycerides conversion to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) was 97.29% at the optimum conditions:seed size, 12.21 min irradiation time, 8.15 ml KOH catalyst loading and 331.52 rpm agitation speed in the 110 W microwave power system.

  16. Application of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil (Euphorbiaceae and microcurrent on the healing of experimental wounds in Wistar rats Aplicação do óleo das sementes de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae e microcorrente no reparo de lesões experimentais em ratos Wistar

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    José Roberto Passarini Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil and microcurrent stimulation on the healing of wounds experimentally induced in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight animals were divided into four groups: (A control; (B treated with microcurrent (10 µA/2 min; (C treated with J. curcas seed oil, and (D treated with J. curcas seed oil plus microcurrent. Tissues samples were obtained two, six, ten and 14 days after injury and submitted to structural and morphometric analyses. RESULTS: The animals of groups A and C showed similar responses in terms of repair area, total number of cells, number of newly formed blood vessels, epithelial thickness, and percentage of area occupied by mature collagen fibers. Significant differences in all parameters analyzed were observed between animals of groups B and D and the control 10 and 14 days after experimentally induced injury. The morphometric data confirmed the structural findings CONCLUSIONS: The application of J. curcas seed oil alone was not effective on experimental wound healing when compared to control, but microcurrent application alone or combined with the oil exerted significant differences in the parameters studied. These findings suggest that the positive results were due to microcurrent stimulation.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos do óleo das sementes de Jatropha curcas L.e microcorrente em lesões experimentais em de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: (A controle, (B tratado com aplicação de microcorrente, (C tratado com óleo de sementes de J. curcas e (D tratado com de óleo de sementes de J. curcas associado à microcorrente. Amostras de tecido foram obtidas no 2º, 6º, 10º e 14º dia após a lesão e submetidas às análises estrutural e morfométrica. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos A e C apresentaram respostas semelhantes quanto a seus efeitos sobre as medidas da área de reparo, número total de células e de vasos sangu

  17. FUNGI INCIDENCE ON Jatropha curcas L. SEEDS INCIDÊNCIA DE FUNGOS EM SEMENTES DE PINHÃO-MANSO

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    Charline Zaratin Alves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The knowledge on seed pathogens is essential for setting management recommendations. Thus, aiming to determine the pathogens associated with Jatropha curcas L., in order to develop strategies to control them, the blotter test, modified with hydric restrictor NaCl - 1.0 MPa, and evaluation after seven days of incubation, at 25°C, with a 12-hours photoperiod, was used. The Jatropha seeds evaluated presented a high level of fungal species, regardless of their surface disinfection. Nineteen different fungi genera were identified, especially Alternaria alternata

  18. Celebratory Cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Cakes are no longer the simple desserts they once were. The cake has evolved into an elaborate, sculptural form that represents a special occasion. Sculptural cake forms have become expressive designs using three-dimensional shapes, an array of surface textures, and a range of colors. The use of cakes in the artwork of David Gilhooly, Wayne…

  19. Stages of maturation of the fruit on germination and oil content in seeds of Jatropha curcas LinEstádios de maturação do fruto no desempenho germinativo e teor de óleo de sementes de Jatropha curcas Linn

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    Fernanda Rubio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linn., known as physic nut, is a plant that has oil content between 35 and 38%, being used as an alternative for producing biodiesel. However, this culture has uneven fruiting, which discourages the harvest period. This study aimed to relate the color of the seeds during fruit maturation and germination characteristics with the oil concentration, confirming the best time for harvest. Using the Munsell color chart the seeds were classified into four stages: VC (light seeds of unripe fruits, VE (dark seeds of unripe fruits, A (seeds of fruits attached to the tree and C (seeds to the ground. It was conducted the germination test, moisture, dry matter and oil content. The seeds of fruits that were attached to the tree (level A obtained better results in test of germination, about 25% because they had higher dry matter (90.51% and lower water content (9.49%. They also had the largest concentration of oil, which was 47.36% (almond, and therefore, the best stage for harvesting. The light seeds of unripe fruits (VC, did not obtain satisfactory germination (1.25%, indicating that the color of the fruits can be a parameter for physiological maturity of Jatropha curcas Linn.Jatropha curcas Linn. conhecido como pinhão manso apresenta teor de óleo entre 35 e 38% em suas sementes, sendo utilizado como alternativa na produção de biodiesel. Porém, essa cultura apresenta frutificação desuniforme, o que desfavorece a determinação do período ideal de colheita. Desta forma, esse trabalho objetivou relacionar a coloração das sementes de Jatropha curcas Linn. durante o processo de maturação dos frutos com as características germinativas e concentração de óleo, verificando assim a melhor época para a colheita. Utilizando a carta de cores de Munsell, as sementes foram classificadas em 4 estádios: VC (sementes claras de frutos verdes, VE (sementes escuras de frutos verdes, A (sementes de frutos maduros presos à árvore e C (sementes

  20. FAME Production from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil via Calcium Oxide Catalyzed Transesterification and its Purification using Acid Activated Bentonite

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    Novizar Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil (JCO via environmentally benign process using calcium oxide as heterogeneous catalyst.  Response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design (CCD was performed to optimize three reaction variables in this study.  The transesterification process variables were reaction time, x1 (60 minutes-120 minutes,   molar ratio of methanol: oil, x2 (5:1 – 13:1, and amount of catalyst,  x3 (0.5 % –1.50 % of mass fraction.  Since water washing method is not suitable to purify CaO synthesized fatty acid methyl esters (FAME,   the purification of as-synthesized FAME with acid-activated bentonites to eliminate the remaining calcium was also investigated.   It was found that the yield of JCO FAME could reach up to 94.35 % using the following reaction conditions: 79.33 minutes reaction time, 10.41:1 methanol:oil molar ratio and 0.99 %  catalyst at reaction temperature 65oC.  Among bentonites used in the purification,   2.5% of H2SO4-activated bentonite shows a good performance as decalcifying agent for FAME purification.  The properties of purified jatropha FAME were comparable to those of diesel and satisfied the international standard.

  1. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation.

  2. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER HYACINTH LEAVES COMBINED WITH WHEAT BRAN AND COTTON SEED CAKE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to evaluate the different levels of water hyacinth plant leaves in the diet of Nile Tilapia and their effect on growth performance so as to eliminate the water hyacinth plant from the Nile and provide a cheap food for fish. In this experiment the dried water hyacinth leaves (Eicchornia crassipse, wheat bran and cotton seed cake were used in different ratio to formulate two experimental diets (A and B. Diet (A contains 70% wheat bran, 20% cotton seed cake and 10% water hyacinth leaves, while diet (B contains 65%, 20% cottons seed cake and 15% water hyacinth leaves. These diets were fed to studied fish with 5% per their body weight for 105 days. The results of this study revealed that the diet (A has higher growth performance on studied fish than those fed on diet (B. The results of food conversion ratio (FCR, 4.04 in diet (A and food conversion ratio (FCR, 5.73 in diet (B, and the increment of growth rate in fish fed with diet (A more efficient on the growth performance of studied fish than diet (B except in the case of protein efficiency rate (PER it's found to be more in diet (A than diet (B. It was concluded that the diet (A had better growth performance than diet (B on the feeding regime of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  3. Production and Optimization of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis Using Lipase From Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L. and Germinated Jatropha Seeds (Jatropha curcas L. by Response Surface Methodology

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    Indro Prastowo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recently, the fatty acid ethyl ester has been synthesized in place of fatty acid methyl ester since ethanol has been more renewable. In this research, oleic acid ethyl ester (OAEE was synthesized using germinated jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas.L and rice bran (Oryza sativa as source of lipase. The objective of the research was to optimize the synthesis conditions using Response Surface Methodology. Factors, such as crude enzyme concentration, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol, and the reaction time, were evaluated. The results show that lipase from germinated jatropha seeds had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 6.73 U/g and 298.07 U/g, respectively. Lipase from rice bran had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 10.57 U/g and 324.03 U/g, respectively. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using germinated jatropha seed lipase as biocatalyst were crude enzyme concentration of 0.31 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 1.81, and reaction time of 50.9 min. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using rice bran lipase were crude enzyme concentration of 0.29 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 2.05, and reaction time of 58.61 min. The obtained amounts of OAEE were 810.77 μmole and 626.92 μmole for lipases from rice bran and germinated jatropha seed, respectively. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  4. Two New Oleanane-Type Saponins with Anti-Proliferative Activity from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Cake

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    Jian-Fa Zong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C4 (1 and C5 (2, were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1 and 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2 through 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The two compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB.

  5. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima, L. flour and cornstarch

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    Cristiane Mesquita da Silva Gorgônio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consumers' interest for products with caloric reduction has increased, and their development is a technological challenge. The consumption of cakes has grown in importance and the demand for dietary products has stimulated the use of sweeteners and the optimization of bakery products. The consumption of fibers is related to chronic diseases prevention. Pumpkin seeds (maximum Cucurbita, L., rich in fibers, can be used as a source of fiber in food products. A gluten-free diet is not easy to follow since gluten free products are not always available. The objective of this work was to perform a physicochemical characterization of cakes prepared with flours blends (FB based on Pumpkin Seed Flour (PSF. The cakes were elaborated with FB in the ratios of 30:70 (C30 and 40:60 (C40 of PSF and cornstarch (CS, respectively. The results showed gluten absence and near-neutral pH. The chemical analysis of C30 and B40 showed increase of ashes, lipids, proteins, and insoluble dietary fiber and a decrease in the content of carbohydrates and calories. The chemical composition of C40 presented the greatest content of lipids, proteins, and dietary fibers, the lowest content of calories, and the best physical parameters. Therefore, both products proved suitable for human consumption.

  7. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Meneghel; Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr.; Leonardo Strey; Fernanda Rubio; Daniel Schwantes; Juliana Casarin

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langm...

  8. Variabilité morphologiques et conservation des morphotypes de Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphoriaceae au Benin.

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    Charlemagne Judes Gbemavo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to Jatropha curcas cultivation and seeks to analyze the morphological variability and identification of morphotypes of Jatropha curcas. The study was conducted in 44 communities equitably distributed among 22 towns (populations and geographically widespread in the 10 phytodistricts of Benin. Per population, at least 30 individuals of the species spaced at least 20 meters apart were randomly selected for the collection of morphological data. In total, 840 individuals, 714 leaves, 2294 fruits and 3465 seeds of Jatropha curcas were measured in all the country. The part of the variability of Jatropha curcas morphological traits due to individual, populations, phytodistricts, climatic zones were determined using the variance component analysis. The stepwise discriminant analysis was performed on Jatropha curcas populations to identify the morphological traits which discriminate them and the numeric classification was realized to regroup Jatropha curcas populations. The results show that variability of Jatropha curcas morphological traits is generally larger at individual level or between individuals of the same population than between populations, phytodistricts and climatic zones except fruits and seeds weight whose variability is larger between populations. Ten of twenty-one morphological traits studied were identified as the most discriminant variables of Jatropha curcas. Four morphological groups of Jatropha curcas were distinguished in Benin considering 10 discriminant variables. Keywords: morphological traits, variability, Jatropha curcas, Benin.

  9. Pre-germinative treatments and substrate on seeds emergence and quality physic nut seedlings (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Rodrigues Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The physic nut can be propagated asexually or sexually. Using cuttings have been earlier yield and more fidelity characteristics of the parent plant. However, there is less initial vegetative growth. The seeds from the plants have increased genetic variability, are more vigorous and begin production later. To get quality changes, the substrate is an important factor. With that the objective was to taste pre-germinated treatments and different substrate on seeds emergence and quality physic nut seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 6 x 3 (pre-germinated treatments x substrate, 18 treatments and 4 repetition, 8 seeds to each repetition. It was evaluated six pre-germination treatments: T1: witness (without treatments; T2: water immersion for 12 hours; T3: water immersion for 24 hours; T4: mechanical scarification; T5: mechanical scarification + water immersion for 12 hours; T6: mechanical scarification + water immersion for 24 hours, using as substrate: commercial, expanded vermiculite and sand washed. The mechanical scarification was realized opposite the micropyle using sandpaper n. 60. After the pre-germination treatments, the seeds were emergence in plastic cups (200mL with substrates. We evaluated the characteristics: percentage, beginning and emergence speed index, mean length of plant, diameter of plant stem, SPAD index, fresh and dry shoot and root. The results showed that in seeds of Jatropha do not need pre-germinative treatments; and the use of commercial substrate showed seedling development.

  10. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  11. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Meneghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model for both adsorbents. The average desorption value indicated that both the biosorbent and activated carbon have a strong interaction with the metal. The results showed that the biosorbent has advantages owing to its low cost and efficiency in Cr3+ removal from contaminated waters.

  12. 小桐子油脂提取工艺研究及脂肪酸组成分析%TECHNICAL STUDIES OF EXTRACTING Jatropha Curcas L.SEED OIL AND ANALYSING THE COMPOSITIONS OF FATTY ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕微; 蒋剑春; 徐俊明

    2011-01-01

    The process conditions of extracting oil from Jatropha curcas L. Seed were studied. Lixiviation process was chosen as a better method of Jatropha curcas L. Seed oil extraction through comparative experiments using Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, supercritical extraction and lixiviation process with petroleum ether and solid-to-liquid mass ratio of 1:4 as mixture. Then petroleum ether with preferable effect was selected as extraction solvent through extraction experiments using 12 polar organic solvents on Jatropha curcas L. Seed oil. And the bette process condition of Jatropha curcas L. Seed oil extraction was solid-to-liquid mass ratio of 1:4,0. Sh for extraction at 70℃ just once and the oil yeild was 64.94%. Relative molecular weight and content of Jatropha curcas L seed oil detected by GPC were 1224 and 95.35% , respectively. The fatty acid was analyzed by GC-MS, and 6 kinds of compounds were identified. The main components of fatty acid were pentadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecanoic acid, 7,10-octadecenoic acid, the content of unsaturated fatty acid is 75.77% among them.%研究了以小桐子种仁为原料提取油脂的工艺条件.以石油醚为提取溶剂,固液质量比1∶4的条件进行索氏提取、超声波萃取、超临界萃取及浸出提取4种方法比较,得出浸出法提取效果较好.通过对比12种不同极性有机溶剂的浸出实验,选出浸出效果较好的提取溶剂——石油醚.石油醚浸出小桐子油的较佳工艺条件是固液质量比1∶4,浸出时间0.5h,浸出温度70℃,该条件下浸出1次得率为64.94%.采用GPC分析小桐子油脂的相对分子量为1224,油脂含量95.35%.其油脂脂肪酸GC-MS分析表明,小桐子油中含有脂肪酸6种,主要为十五酸、9,12-十八二烯酸、7,10-十八二烯酸,其中,不饱和脂肪酸总含量为75.77%.

  13. Microwave-assisted extraction of herbacetin diglucoside from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed cakes and its quantification using an RP-HPLC-UV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Ramsay, Aina; Renouard, Sullivan; Beejmohun, Vickram; Doussot, Joël; Falguières, Annie; Ferroud, Clotilde; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Roscher, Albrecht; Grand, Eric; Mesnard, François; Hano, Christophe

    2014-03-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are widely used for oil extraction and the cold-pressed flaxseed (or linseed) cakes obtained during this process constitute a valuable by-product. The flavonol herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) has been previously reported as a constituent of the flaxseed lignan macromolecule linked through ester bonds to the linker molecule hydroxymethylglutaric acid. In this context, the development and validation of a new approach using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of HDG from flaxseed cakes followed by quantification with a reverse-phase HPLC system with UV detection was purposed. The experimental parameters affecting the HDG extraction yield, such as microwave power, extraction time and sodium hydroxide concentration, from the lignan macromolecule were optimized. A maximum HDG concentration of 5.76 mg/g DW in flaxseed cakes was measured following an irradiation time of 6 min, for a microwave power of 150 W using a direct extraction in 0.1 M NaOH in 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol. The optimized method was proven to be rapid and reliable in terms of precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy for the extraction of HDG. Comparison with a conventional extraction method demonstrated that MAE is more effective and less time-consuming.

  14. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Herbacetin Diglucoside from Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Seed Cakes and Its Quantification using an RP-HPLC-UV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophélie Fliniaux

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seeds are widely used for oil extraction and the cold-pressed flaxseed (or linseed cakes obtained during this process constitute a valuable by-product. The flavonol herbacetin diglucoside (HDG has been previously reported as a constituent of the flaxseed lignan macromolecule linked through ester bonds to the linker molecule hydroxymethylglutaric acid. In this context, the development and validation of a new approach using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE of HDG from flaxseed cakes followed by quantification with a reverse-phase HPLC system with UV detection was purposed. The experimental parameters affecting the HDG extraction yield, such as microwave power, extraction time and sodium hydroxide concentration, from the lignan macromolecule were optimized. A maximum HDG concentration of 5.76 mg/g DW in flaxseed cakes was measured following an irradiation time of 6 min, for a microwave power of 150 W using a direct extraction in 0.1 M NaOH in 70% (v/v aqueous methanol. The optimized method was proven to be rapid and reliable in terms of precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy for the extraction of HDG. Comparison with a conventional extraction method demonstrated that MAE is more effective and less time-consuming.

  15. Effectiveness of sal deoiled seed cake as an inducer for protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 for its application in kitchen wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vandana; Bhattacharya, Amrik; Gupta, Anshu

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of sal (Shorea robusta) deoiled cake--a forest-based industrial by-product--as a cheaper media supplement for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 and application of protease in the treatment of kitchen wastewater. Under optimized conditions, protease production could successfully be enhanced to 5.13-fold (527.5 U mL(-1)) on using sal deoiled seed cake extract (SDOCE), as medium additive, compared to an initial production of 102.7 U mL(-1) in its absence. The culture parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be incubation time (48 h), pH (7.0), SDOCE concentration (3 % (v/v)), inoculum size (0.3-0.6 % (v/v)), and agitation rate (100 rpm). The enzyme was found to have an optimum pH and temperature of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The protease preparation was tested for treatment of organic-laden kitchen wastewater. After 96 h of wastewater treatment under static condition, enzyme preparation was able to reduce 74 % biological oxygen demand, 37 % total suspended solids, and 41 % oil and grease. The higher and improved level of protease obtained using sal deoiled seed cake-based media hence offers a new approach for value addition to this underutilized biomass through industrial enzyme production. The protease produced using this biomass could also be used as pretreatment tool for remediation of organic-rich food wastewater.

  16. Yield oil of Jatropha curcas seeds of trees irrigated and fertilized with OMM-Tech; Rendimento de oleo de sementes de pinhao manso submetido a irrigacao e adubacao com OMM-Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, Adao W.P.; Alves Junior, Jose; Barbosa, Ricardo A.F.; Frazao, Joaquim J.; Araujo, Fausto J.M. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Setor de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: awpego@bol.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation and application of Organo-Minerals-Marine + Biotech (OMM-Tech) in yield oil of Jatropha curcas seeds. The experiment was conducted in an experimental area located in Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design with subdivided parcels and three replications was used. The parcels were submitted to different OMM-Tech fertilizer application methods: T1 = control (no OMM-Tech); T2 = soil application (120 kg ha{sup -1} of OMM-Tech in a powder form); T3 = leaf application (OMM-Tech in a liquid form with a 5% concentration); T4 = soil + leaf application (60 kg ha{sup -1} of OMM-Tech in powder form + OMM-Tech in liquid form with a 2.5% concentration). The sub-plots received two different water management treatments: irrigated and no irrigated. A drip irrigation system with drippers spaced by 0.50 m was used. We evaluated yield oil of seeds in first production year. Jatropha trees irrigated showed a higher seeds oil yield than no irrigated trees. However, fertilization with OMM-Tech no influenced seed oil yield. Seeds oil yield of Jatropha trees irrigated was 34%, and no irrigated 27%. (author)

  17. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  18. Optimization of supercritical methanol reactive extraction by response surface methodology and product characterization from Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, optimization of supercritical reactive extraction directly from Jatropha seeds in a high pressure batch reactor using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) coupled with Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed. Four primary variables (methanol to solid ratio (SSR), reaction temperature, time and CO2 initial pressure) were investigated under the proposed constraints. It was found that all variables had significant effects towards fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield. Moreover, three interaction effects between the variables also played a major role in influencing the final FAME yield. Optimum FAME yield at 92.0 wt.% was achieved under the following conditions: 5.9 SSR, 300°C, 12.3 min and 20 bar CO2. Final FAME product was discovered to fulfil existing international standard. Preliminary characterization analysis proved that the solid residue can be burnt as solid fuel in the form of biochar while the liquid product can be separated as specialty chemicals or burned as bio-oil for energy production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 不同贮藏条件对麻疯树种子生理生化和萌发的影响%Effect of Different Storage Condition on Seed Physiology and Chemistry Character and Germination of Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦小丽; 周晓东

    2011-01-01

    采用室温,4、-5℃的贮藏温度和8.7%,4.7%的种子含水量设置6种组合,对麻疯树种子进行贮藏试验,分别于贮藏前、贮藏1个月和贮藏3个月测定不同贮藏条件下种子生理生化指标和萌发特性的变化.结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长,麻疯树种子出现明显的劣变现象,一方面是贮藏物质的水解,表现为蛋白质含童降低、可溶性糖含童增加;另一方面是保护酶系统的破坏,呈现明显的膜脂过氧化,SOD活性降低,MDA含量和超氧阴离子自由基产生速率增加.最终结果是种子活力下降,发芽率降低.6种贮藏组合中,贮藏效果最好的是4号处理(温度4℃,含水量4.7%),其次是3号处理(温度4℃,含水量8.7%),最差的是1号处理(常温,含水量8.7%).初步认为,采用 4.7%的种子含水量和4℃贮藏条件贮藏麻疯树种子效果比较好.%The seed storage experiment of Jatropha curcas was carried out by designing six kinds of different combinations of temperature and seed moisture ( temperature: room temperature,4 ℃, - 5 ℃. seed moisture: 8.7% ,4.7% ). The physiology and chemistry indexes, germination rate of seed were tested before storage,storaged one month ,storaged three months. The results indicated that the seed germination capacity decreased siginficantly with storage time extending. On the one hand, the storage substance of seed hydrolyzed, the protein content decreased and the soluble sugar content increased. On the other hand, the protection enzyme system of seed was destoryed with membrance lipid peroxidation, the SOD activity decreaseded, the MDA content and the generated rate of Superoxide anion free radical increased. Finally, the seed vigor and germination rate of seed declined. Among the six kinds of combinations, the best combination for seed longevity was No. 4 (temperature 4 ℃ and seed moisture 4.7% ),the second was No. 3( temperature 4 ℃ and seed moisture 8.7% ),and the worst combination was No

  20. Influence of formulated neem seed oil and jatropha curcas seed oil on wire drawing of mild steel and medium carbon steel at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamuda Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available So many facets of hot wire drawing process, despite its extensive and long time employment in the industries, still remain unclear, due to want of systematic investigation of the process. This work investigated the influence of formulated neem seed and jatropha seed oil as lubricants, using antimony dialkyl dithiocarbamates (ADTC as an additive, on wire drawing process. The suitability of the bio-based oils in friction and wear control during wire drawing process were investigated, using a four ball tester. Experimental drawing process, using a Tungsten Carbide die and the formulated lubricants was carried out on mild steel and medium carbon steel rod (6 and 8mm diameter respectively at temperatures from 20OC to 750OC, on a drawing bench. The stresses and the temperature distribution profiles along the work-piece were reported. Up to 45% of reductions in area, without wire fracture, achieved on the drawing of the medium carbon steel have equally been reported.

  1. Microbiological quality of surface water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds or cakes during the storage : case study of water reservoirs of Loumbila, Ziga and Ouaga 3 Dams in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabore, Aminata; Savadogo, Boubacar; Otoidobiga, Harmonie C.; Sawadogo, Adama; Rosillon, Francis; Traore, Alfred S.; Dianou, Dayéri

    2015-01-01

    Water purification with Moringa oleifera seeds has received a lot of attention because it reduces water turbidity and pathogenic microorganisms. However, it is important to define the optimum conditions of storage to preserve the treated water quality. The study aims to investigate microbial quality of water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds or cake coagulants inrelation to the storage temperature and shelf life in order to define the optimum conditions of storage. A total of 45 water sampl...

  2. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  3. Response of brown hisex chicks to low levels of Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Mousa, H M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1992-08-01

    Feeding Jatropha curcas seed at 0.5% of the basic diet for 2 w was not lethal to chicks. In chicks fed 0.5% Ricinus communis seed or a mixture of 0.5% J curcas + 0.5% R communis for 2 w, there was dullness, poor growth, locomotor disturbance and death. Pathological changes were correlated with alterations in clinical chemistry and hematology.

  4. The effects of replacing groundnut cake with Afzelia africana (Mahogany seed meal on performance, organ weights and haematological indices of finisher broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Obun,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A 56-days feeding trial involving 200 day-old Marshal broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, organ characteristics and blood indices of broilers fed Afzelia africana seed meal (ASM as a replacement for ground nut cake at dietary levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively. The results showed that feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, organ weights and blood indices of birds on the control (0 %, 25 and 50 % ASM were significantly (P<0.05 superior to the groups on 75 and 100 % ASM. It is concluded that ASM could replaced GNC at level not exceeding 50% in broiler diets without any deleterious effects.

  5. 莲子绿豆糕的制作工艺研究%Research on Production Technology of Lotus Seed Green Bean Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑妍

    2013-01-01

    以绿豆、莲子为主要原料,制作一种新型糕点莲子绿豆糕。以莲子粉与绿豆粉比例、加糖量、加油量、烤制时间、烤制温度为单因素,以正交试验确定最佳制作工艺条件。试验结果表明,莲子绿豆糕最佳工艺条件为:烤制温度为130℃、烤制时间为30 min、莲子粉与绿豆粉比例为1∶2、加油量11 mL。%Green beans,lotus seeds were used to produce a new type of cake as the main raw material.According to the orthogonal experiment , superior production conditions were obtained taking the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds ,the amount of sugar ,the amount of edible oil ,the baking time and the baking temperature as the single factor. The results of the experiments showed that optimum conditions were that baking temperature was 130℃,baking time was 30 min,the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds was 1∶2,the amount of edible oil was 11 mL.

  6. Effects of oil extraction on functional properties of protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seed and press cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current interest in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) comes from its seed oil, which is being evaluated for biodiesel production. The seed also has notable protein content (33% db). The effects of oil processing conditions on functionality of pennycress seed proteins were determined to identify potential...

  7. POTENSI JARAK PAGAR (JATROPHA CURCAS SEBAGAI LARVASIDA HAYATI PENCEGAH PENYAKIT DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Iswantini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia has big problem caused by dengue haemorraghic fever with A. aegypti as vector. Potential medicine and vaccine for curing this disease have not been found. The effective method to prevent this disease is the use of A. aegypti larvicidal. The chemical larvicidal has disadvantage for evironmental aspect. To solve this problem, the biological larvicidal has a good chance to develop. Indonesia has megadiversity which can be developed as biological larvicidal. Crude aqueous extracts and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas (Jarak pagar seed and oil of Jatropha curcas were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Among all extracts, Jatropha curcas oil possessed a highest activity against the 3th instar larvae of Aedes. LC50 values of Jatropha curcas oil was 1507 ppm for 24 h and 866 ppm for 48 h. It was suggested that the Croton tiglium oil and Jatropha curcas oil possess larvicidal properties that could be developed and used as biological larvicidal

  8. Screening of antioxidants as stabilisers for Jatropha curcas L. oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero Jan; Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus

    2013-01-01

    The effect of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of oils extracted from Jatropha curcas seeds was measured by the accelerated oxidation test specified in EN 14112 using commercial Rancimat 873 equipment. To find the appropriate antioxidant for jatropha oil, fourteen different antioxidants were

  9. Screening of antioxidants as stabilisers for Jatropha curcas L. oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero Jan; Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus

    The effect of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of oils extracted from Jatropha curcas seeds was measured by the accelerated oxidation test specified in EN 14112 using commercial Rancimat 873 equipment. To find the appropriate antioxidant for jatropha oil, fourteen different antioxidants were

  10. Tamarind seed powder and palm kernel cake: two novel agro residues for the production of tannase under solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, A; Pandey, A; Daud, M Jaafar; Szakacs, G

    2005-07-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the residue obtained after extraction of palm oil from oil palm seeds and tamarind seed powder (TSP) obtained after removing the fruit pulp from tamarind fruit pod were tested for the production of tannase under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620. The fungal strain was grown on the substrates without any pretreatment. In PKC medium, a maximum enzyme yield of 13.03 IU/g dry substrate (gds) was obtained when SSF was carried out at 30 degrees C, 53.5% initial substrate moisture, 33 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum size and 5% tannic acid as additional carbon source after 96 h of fermentation. In TSP medium, maximum tannase yield of 6.44 IU/gds was obtained at 30 degrees C, 65.75% initial substrate moisture, 11 x 10(9) spores/5 g substrate inoculum, 1% glycerol as additional carbon source and 1% potassium nitrate as additional nitrogen source after 120 h of fermentation. Results from the study are promising for the economic utilization and value addition of these important agro residues, which are abundantly available in many tropical and subtropical countries.

  11. Xiangfei Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    XIANGFEI cake, mainly made of fish meat, is fresh and not too greasy. Created in the E style of cooking, it helps to increase the appetite. Feasts in Hubei Province include this dish, which links to a folk tale. According to the tale, Sage Shun had

  12. Jatropha curcas L:Phytochemical, antimicrobial and larvicidal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sillma Rampadarath; Daneshwar Puchooa; Rajesh Jeewon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities as well as the phytochemical and lav-icidal properties of different parts of Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) growing in Mauritius. Methods: Determination of the presence of phytochemicals in the crude plants extracts by test tube reactions. Disc diffusion method and microdilution method were used to detect the antimicrobial sensitivity and activity (minimal inhibitory concentration). The crude solvent extracts were also tested on the larvae of two insects, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera, Tephritidae). Results: The antimicrobial activities were significantly dependent for the different crude plant extracts on the thirteen microorganisms tested. For the Gram-positive bacteria, the crude ethyl acetate extract was more efficient compared to the Gram-negative bacteria with both solvents being effective. The crude ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark and mature seed oil showed the highest efficacy. The highest mortality percentage was observed after 24 h for both Diptera flies with (66.67 ± 2.89)%of Bactrocera cucurbitae larvae killed by ethyl acetate extract of J. curcas bark. Conclusions: This paper compared the different J. curcas plant sections with respect to the effectiveness of the plant as a potential candidate for new pharmaceuticals. The lar-vicidal effect was also studied in order to demonstrate the dual purpose of the plant.

  13. Effects of cold-pressing and seed cooking on functional properties of protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed and press cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current interest in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) comes from its seed oil, which is being evaluated for biofuel production. The seed also has notable protein content (27% moisture-free, oil-free basis). The effects of oil processing conditions on functionality of pennycress seed proteins were dete...

  14. Physiological quality of jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas L. during storage in three environmentsQualidade fisiológica das sementes de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L. durante o armazenamento em três ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Cambuy Siqueira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the quality of jatropha seeds during storage at three temperatures and humidity. The experiment was conducted in Pós-colheita de Produtos Vegetais e de Sementes laboratories of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano – Campus Rio Verde-GO. Jatropha seeds with moisture content at 6.80 % (w.b., approximately. The seeds were stored in natural environments conditions, refrigerated and climatic conditions for one year, evaluating the moisture content, water absorption, electrical conductivity, germination and germination speed index in 0, 2,4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months of storage. Concluded that the conditions of temperature and relative humidity committed the structure of the seeds of jatropha over time, mainly in natural conditions air, and than storage in refrigerated and climatic conditions reduce to a lesser extent the seed quality.Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de pinhão manso durante o armazenamento em diferentes condições. O experimento foi desenvolvido nos Laboratórios de Pós-colheita de Produtos Vegetais e de Sementes do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano – Campus Rio Verde-GO. Foram utilizadas sementes de pinhão manso com teor de água de 6,80% (b.u., aproximadamente. As sementes foram armazenadas em condição de ambiente natural, câmara refrigerada e climatizada por um período de um ano. Foram realizadas avaliações de teor de água, absorção de água, condutividade elétrica, porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação aos 0, 2,4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento. As condições de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar comprometeram a estrutura das sementes de pinhão manso ao longo do tempo, principalmente em ambiente natural. O armazenamento em ambientes refrigerados e climatizados reduzem com menor intensidade a qualidade fisiológica das sementes.

  15. Effect of plant growth regulators on fatty acids composition in Jatropha curcas L. callus culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ludwi Rodríguez; Mendiola, Martha A Rodríguez; Castro, Carlos Arias; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on callus formation, its morphology and fatty acids profile were examined from Jatropha curcas L. Embryo from seeds of J. curcas L. were sown in Murashige and skoog (MS) medium with NAA and BAP. All treatments induced callus formation, however callus morphology was different in most of the treatments. Higher callus biomass was presented with 1.0 NAA + 0.5 BAP mg/L. Plant growth regulators modifies the fatty acids profile in callus of J. curcas L. BAP was induced linoleic and linolenic acids.

  16. Physic nut seed productivity (Jatropha curcas L.), in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages; Produtividade de sementes de pinhao-manso (Jatropha curcas L.), da estacao chuvosa, submetido a diferentes laminas de irrigacao e adubacao potassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, Fabio Ponciano de; Faria, Manoel Alves de; Portela, Jaqueline Damyane [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], E-mail: fpdagricola@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, Ednaldo Liberato de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Januaria, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this research was to value the Physic nut seed productivity, in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages, for 2008, 2009 and for the accumulated of theses years, in Lavras - MG, Brazil. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks, in split plot design, with four replicates. The treatment levels were four water levels (plots) and four potassium dosages (subplots). The irrigation was applied based on the amount estimated by the water balance considering the class A pan evaporation (ECA) and rain depths - L{sub 0} (non irrigated), L{sub 40}, L{sub 80} and L{sub 120} (40, 80 and 120% of the balance respectively). The potassium dosages were K{sub 30}, K{sub 60}, K{sub 90} and K{sub 120} (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha{sup -1} respectively). It was used the drip irrigation system. It was used the Sisvar 4.0 software, for analysis of variance and the Tukey test at 5% level of probability to compare the means. However, it was possible to observe in rainy season, that the irrigation has not changed the Physic nut seed productivity. The potassium level 120 kg.ha{sup -1} in all significant situations was the treatment with higher productivity. (author)

  17. Characterization of Jatropha curcas L. Protein Cast Films with respect to Packaging Relevant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gofferje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing research ongoing towards the substitution of petrochemical based plastics by more sustainable raw materials, especially in the field of bioplastics. Proteins of different types such as whey, casein, gelatine, or zein show potential beyond the food and feed industry as, for instance, the application in packaging. Protein based coatings provide different packaging relevant properties such as barrier against permanent gases, certain water vapour barrier, and mechanical resistance. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for packaging applications of proteins from Jatropha curcas L. and to compare the performance with literature data on cast films from whey protein isolate. As a by-product from oil extraction, high amounts of Jatropha meal are obtained requiring a concept for its sustainable utilization. Jatropha seed cake includes up to 40% (w/w of protein which is currently not utilized. The present study provides new data on the potential of Jatropha protein for packaging applications. It was shown that Jatropha protein cast films show suitable barrier and mechanical properties depending on the extraction and purification method as well as on the plasticiser content. Based on these findings Jatropha proteins own potential to be utilized as coating material for food packaging applications.

  18. Rapid and high yield biogas production from Jatropha seed cake by co-digestion with bagasse and addition of Fe2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kalyani; Mahalingam, Shanthi; Sen, Biswarup

    2013-01-01

    Co-digestion and metal ion addition strategies to improve the biogas production potential of Jatropha seed cake (JSC) by anaerobic digestion were evaluated in the present study. Initially, batch experiments were carried out to obtain the maximum JSC concentration for optimum biogas yield, followed by co-digestion with bagasse, and addition of Fe2+. The optimum JSC concentration of 15% (w/v) gave biogas production rate (BPR) of 66.4 mL/d, specific BPR of 9.7 mL/d/gVS and biogas yield of 0.064 m3/kgVS. The co-digestion strategy increased the carbon/nitrogen of feed (10% JSC + 5% Bagasse, w/v) to 26.5 from 14 (JSC alone), resulting in biogas yield of 0.136 m3/kgVS of JSC, a 2.1-fold increase. Addition of Fe2+ to JSC and bagasse mixture led to biogas yield of 0.203 m3/kgVS, with methane content of 66% and methane production of 8.8 L/L reactor. With short digestion time of 15 days, co-digestion of JSC with bagasse and addition of Fe2+ showed 3.2-fold higher biogas yield than JSC alone.

  19. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchun Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC, to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit.

  20. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/sunflower seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, B; Oyedemi, S; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2012-08-01

    The study investigated antioxidant potency of Moringa oleifera leaves in different in vitro systems using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidative effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were investigated in goats supplemented with M. oleifera (MOL) or sunflower seed cake (SC). The acetone extract had higher concentrations of total flavonoids (295.01 ± 1.89 QE/g) followed by flavonols (132.74 ± 0.83 QE/g), phenolics (120.33 ± 0.76 TE/g) and then proanthocyanidins (32.59 ± 0.50 CE/g) than the aqueous extract. The reducing power of both solvent extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner. The acetone extract depicted higher percentage inhibition against DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals which were comparable with reference standard antioxidants (vitamin C and BHT). MOL increased the antioxidant activity of GSH (186%), SOD (97.8%) and catalase (0.177%). Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by MOL. The present study suggests that M. oleifera could be a potential source of compounds with strong antioxidant potential.

  1. Effect of various levels of dietary Jatropha curcas seed meal on rabbits infested by the adult ticks of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum I. Animal performance, anti-tick feeding and haemogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Nasr, Soad M; Abdel-Rahman, Hashem H; Habeeb, Salwa M

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of Jatropha curcas seed meal (JCSM) in different levels as acaricide in diet of rabbits experimentally infested by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum then determining animal performance, anti-tick feeding and its effects on haemogram of rabbits. Thirty healthy mixed-breed rabbits were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first group was kept as a control fed soya bean meal (20%) as a source of protein. Groups from the second to the fifth fed diets contained 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of JCSM instead of soya bean meal as a source of protein, respectively. Feeding and watering were given freely throughout the study. Animal performance for treatment groups were recorded from the 1st week up to the 6th week. Then each group divided into two subgroups, and the ticks were introduced to all of one subgroup and the other kept as control, following them until dropped at the end of the 8th week for all groups of the experiment. Feeding and reproductive performance of the adult tick females were determined. Blood samples were collected and analysed for haematological examination at the 0, 6th and 8th weeks post-treatment from all animals. Result revealed that rabbits received diets containing 5%, 7.5% and 10% had significantly (P Egg mass and reproductive index per female were marked increase (P drop in the group received 7.5% JCSM. Also, monocytosis was recorded in 7.5% and 10% JCSM groups. In conclusion, JCSM could be use in the treatment of ectoparasites at level less than 10% in diet. Further investigations should be done to detoxification the Jatropha seed meal to decrease the level of its toxicity.

  2. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOSWAMI Bijoy Kumar; PANDEY Rajesh Kumar; RATHOUR Kabindra Singh; BHATTACHARYA Chaitali; SINGH Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  3. A kinetic study on pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of oil cakes:Effect of cellulose and lignin content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakrishna Gottipati; Susmita Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of three different oil cakes such as Pongamia ( Pongamia Pinnata), Madhuca (Madhuca Indica), and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) were investigated in this study.The cellulose and lignin contents of oil cakes play very important role in pyrolysis and combustion processes.A kinetic investigation of three oil cakes was carried out and major part of the samples decomposed between 210 ℃ and 500 ℃.Pyrolysis and combustion were carried out with the mixtures of cellulose and lignin chemicals in different ratios and compared with the oil cakes.The biomass with higher cellulose content showed faster rate of pyrolysis than the biomass with higher lignin content.However at higher temperatures ( >600 ℃ ) all the oil cakes exhibited similar conversion at low heating rate in N2 atmosphere.Apparent activation energies increased for Madhuca and Pongamia oil cakes indicating the presence of more cellulose whereas, low activation energy of Jatropha confirms more lignin content.

  4. 麻疯树核糖体失活蛋白基因的克隆和表达%Cloning and Expression of Curcin, a Ribosome-Inactivating Protein from the Seeds of Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林娟; 陈钰; 徐莺; 颜钫; 唐琳; 陈放

    2003-01-01

    Curcin, a ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular weight of about 28.2 kD, whichstrongly inhibits the protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC50 value of about(0.19 ± 0.01) nmol/L, was purified from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The protein has the activity ofrRNA N-glycosidase. Degenerate primers were designed based on the N-terminal partial sequence frompurified curcin. The full-length curcin cDNA by RT-PCR and 5'-RACE was cloned. The deduced amino acidssequence indicates that a preprotein with 293 amino acid residues is first translated and then processedto a mature protein with 251 amino acids. The deduced amino acids sequence shares homology of 33% and57% to those of type Ⅰ ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and A chain of type Ⅱ RIPs, respectively.The sequence encoding mature curcin was integrated into the pQE-30 vector for expression in Escheri-chia coil strain M15 (pREP4). The purified recombinant curcin was able to inhibit protein synthesis inrabbit reticulocyte lysate system.%麻疯树(Jatropha curcas L.)核糖体失活蛋白(curcin)是存在于麻疯树种子中的一种毒性较强的蛋白,它与蓖麻毒蛋白和相思子毒蛋白的性质相似,属Ⅰ型核糖体失活蛋白.从麻疯树种子中分离得到一种分子量为28.2 kD的蛋白质,其对无细胞系统中蛋白质合成的抑制活性较强,IC50为(0.19±0.01)nmol/L,具有RNA N-糖苷酶活性.依据curcin的N端部分氨基酸设计简并引物,通过RT-PCR和5'-RACE技术从未成熟种子总RNA中克隆到curcin全长cDNA序列.该cDNA全长由1 173个碱基组成,包含一个编码293个氨基酸的前体蛋白,前42个氨基酸为信号肽.推测的多肽序列与测定的蛋白质N端序列相同,与多种己发表的Ⅰ型核糖体失活蛋白和Ⅱ型核糖体失活蛋白的A链有一定的同源性.将curcin的编码区与表达载体pQE-30相连后,转入大肠杆菌(Escherichia coil)M15菌株中得到了有效的表达.将表达的

  5. Banana Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  6. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  7. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  8. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Sue-Siang Teh; Alaa El-Din Bekhit; John Birch

    2014-01-01

    Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% an...

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAR RUSLAN; ARTRI; ELFAHMI

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesi...

  10. PEMANFAATAN BUNGKIL BIJI JARAK PAGAR (JATROPHA CURCAS TERFERMENTASI SEBAGAI PAKAN AYAM KAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas meal (JCM is very potential as protein source for poultry. The JCM contained high crude protein, i.e. 56,4-63,8% (without hull and 22,39-31,41% (hulled JCM. JCM serves as a highly nutritious and economic protein supplement in animal feed, if the toxins and antinutrients contained in the JCM are removed. The toxic compounds isolated from jatropha seed include curcin, phorbolesters, and the antinutrients include antitrypsins, tannin, saponin, phytic acid, and high fiber. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented JCM on the performances of kampong chickens. In this study, tempeh fungi (fungi using in fermenting soybean used to ferment the JCM. Two hundred kampung chickens were used in this experiment and reared from day old up to 10 weeks of age. The data analyzed with a Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatment diets and 4 replications, with 10 birds in each replicate. The experimental diets were: T0 (the control diet, without Jatropha curcas meal, T1 (the diet contained 5% untreated Jatropha curcas meal, T2 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + cellulase 200 ml/ton of feed, T3 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + 1000 FTU phytase, and T4 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + cellulase 200 ml/ton + 1000 FTU phytase. The results showed that there were no significant difference on the parameters observed due to the treatments. Feeding fermented Jatropha curcas meal supplemented with cellulase + phytase(T4 yielded the final body weight and feed conversion ratio similar to those the control (T0 diet. There was no mortality observed in all treatments. Using JCM 5% in the diet is safe for the kampong chickens

  11. Jatropha curcas L. Root Structure and Growth in Diverse Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots. The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14±5% (mean ± standard deviation. Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil.

  12. Comparative toxicity of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas in Brown Hisex chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Badwi, S M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1995-02-01

    Symptoms, lesions and changes in growth, haematology and clinical chemistry were investigated in Brown Hisex chicks fed diets containing 0.5% Jatropha curcas seed or 0.5% Ricinus communis seed. High mortality and more severe changes occurred in chicks on Ricinus diet than Jatropha feed. The results indicated that caution should be observed in tropical countries where people are accustomed to chewing castor bean when in need of a laxative.

  13. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet.

  14. Purification of polyunsaturated fatty acid from Jatropha Curcas L. seed oil by urea adduction fractionation%尿素包合法纯化小桐子油多不饱和脂肪酸的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕微; 蒋剑春; 徐俊明

    2011-01-01

    The technological conditions of purifying polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs )derived from Jatropha curcas L. seed oil were studied by using urea adduction fractionation method. Different purification conditions on the purity of PUFAs were investigated, such as the kind of solvent, the mass ratio of unsaturated fatty acids( UFAs )-urea-methanol, crystallization temperature and cooling method.Methanol displayed the best results during the isolating process among three solvents. The purity of PUFAs increased gradually when the mass ratios of UFAs-urea were 1: 1, 1: 1.5, 1: 2 and 1: 2.5,with respective contents of PUFAs 69.38%, 84.58%, 94% and 100%, but the yield of PUFAs reduced from 54.51% to 9.63%. Increasing methanol dosage and keeping UFAs-urea mass ratio unchanged, the product yield of PUFAs increased evidently, but with slightly lower purity. Both purity ( 94.52% ) and yield ( 23.78% ) of PUFAs were optimized when inclusion temperature was -20 ℃. Slow cooling could lead to increased yield of raw PUFAs and purified product, with higher percentages of 10% and 4%, respectively, compared with rapid cooling.%研究了尿素包合法纯化小桐子油脂中多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFAs)的工艺条件.考察了溶剂种类、不饱和脂肪酸/尿素/甲醇质量比、包合温度和降温方式对PUFAs纯化效果的影响.3种溶剂中,甲醇对PUFAs的纯化效果最好.当UFAs/尿素质量比为1∶1、1∶1.5、1∶2、1∶2.5时,PUFAs纯度不断提高,分别为69.38%、84.58%、94%和100%,PUFAs收率从54.51%逐步降至9.63%;UFAs/尿素质量比一定,甲醇用量增加,PUFAs收率明显提高,但对其纯度略有下降.包合温度为-20℃时,PUFAs的纯度(94.52%)和收率(23.78%)两个因素可同时得到兼顾.缓慢降温有利于PUFAs的收率和产品得率的提高,快速降温得到的PUFAs的收率比缓慢降温低10%左右,产品得率比缓慢降温的低4%左右.

  15. Effects of Cooking and Screw-Pressing on Functional Properties of Protein in Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Meals and Press Cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined the effects of oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins to evaluate their potential for value-added uses. Flaked milkweed seeds were cooked at 82 degrees C (180 degrees F) for 30, 60 or 90 min in the seed conditioner, and then screw-pressed ...

  16. Evaluation and bioinduction of energy components of Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose species with many attributes and considerable potential. The oil from the seeds is potentially the most valuable end product. Nearly 40% of the land area in India is wasteland. However, a large number of latex bearing and oil yielding plants can grow under such unfavorable agroclimatic conditions. J. curcas, a Euphorbiaceae grows well under such adverse climatic conditions because of its low moisture demands, fertility requirements, and tolerance to high temperatures. The seed contains 19.0% oil, 4.7% polyphenol, and 3.9% hydrocarbon. This semi-drying oil could be an efficient substitute for diesel fuel. The gross heat value for the seed (0% moisture content) was 4980.3 cal/g (20.85 MJ/kg), oil was 9036.1 cal/g (37.83 MJ/kg), and hydrocarbon was 9704.4 cal/g (40.63 MJ/kg). The oil fraction consists of both saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (14.1%), stearic acid (6.7%) and unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (47.0%), and linoleic acid (31.6%). Treatment of plants with growth regulators significantly influenced the production of hydrocarbons. Among the treatments, ethephon and morphactin induced the maximum production of hydrocarbon with 5.0% and 5.4%, respectively. (author)

  17. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5′UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3′UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5′UTRs and 3′UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (~70% amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  18. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5'UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3'UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (∼70%) amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content) value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species) suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  19. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  20. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  1. Principes toxiques, toxicité et technologie de détoxification de la graine de Jatropha curcas L. (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesseim, TDT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic principles, toxicity and technology of detoxification of Jatropha curcas L. seed: a review. The use of meal from the crushing of Jatropha curcas seed for livestock feed is limited owing to the variable amounts of seed available. This availability depends on the level and variety of toxic and antinutritional compounds contained in the seed at a given time; the most important of these compounds are phorbol esters and curcin. The phorbol esters present in J. curcas seed are Euphorbiaceae diterpenes, known for their inflammatory action resulting in irritation and toxicity to insects, fish and mammals. These compounds are sometimes completely degraded in soil and they may be reduced by physical, chemical or biological processes, with a reduction ratio of between 50 and 95%. Curcin is an irritating toxalbumin with lectin activity; it is inactivated by heat treatment at 121 °C for 30 min. Other antinutritional compounds are also present in J. curcas seed, such as saponins and an inhibitor of trypsin activity. This trypsin-inhibiting compound interferes with the digestion process and its reduction is achieved through thermal, chemical or biological treatments. The elimination of, or at least a reduction in the levels of, these molecules represents a prerequisite for using J. curcas meal in the livestock feed sector.

  2. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  3. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake.

  4. Therapeutic biology of Jatropha curcas: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Reena; Sah, Nand K; Sharma, P B

    2008-08-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant, perennial plant that grows even in the marginal and poor soil. Raising Jatropha is easy. It keeps producing seeds for many years. In the recent years, Jatropha has become famous primarily for the production of biodiesel; besides this it has several medicinal applications, too. Most parts of this plant are used for the treatment of various human and veterinary ailments. The white latex serves as a disinfectant in mouth infections in children. The latex of Jatropha contains alkaloids including Jatrophine, Jatropham and curcain with anti-cancerous properties. It is also used externally against skin diseases, piles and sores among the domestic livestock. The leaves contain apigenin, vitexin and isovitexin etc. which along with other factors enable them to be used against malaria, rheumatic and muscular pains. Antibiotic activity of Jatropha has been observed against organisms including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. There are some chemical compounds including curcin (an alkaloid) in its seeds that make it unfit for common human consumption. The roots are known to contain an antidote against snake venom. The root extract also helps to check bleeding from gums. The soap prepared from Jatropha oil is efficient against buttons. Many of these traditional medicinal properties of Jatropha curcas need to be investigated in depth for the marketable therapeutic products vis-à-vis the toxicological effects thereof. This mini review aims at providing brief biological significance of this plant along with its up-to-date therapeutic applications and risk factors.

  5. Online Cake Cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.

  6. Cutting Cakes Correctly

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2008-01-01

    Without additional hypotheses, Proposition 7.1 in Brams and Taylor's book "Fair Division" (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is false, as are several related Pareto-optimality theorems of Brams, Jones and Klamler in their 2006 cake-cutting paper.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  8. Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose stress resistant plant with a potential for ethnomedicine and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mousumi; Bisen, P S

    2008-08-01

    Jatropha curcas is a stress--resistant perennial plant growing on marginal soils. This plant is widespread throughout arid and semiarid tropical regions of the world and has been used as a traditional folk medicine in many countries. J.curcas is a source of several secondary metabolites of medicinal importance. The leaf, fruits, latex and bark contain glycosides, tannins, phytosterols, flavonoids and steroidal sapogenins that exhibit wide ranging medicinal properties. The plant products exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. The paper highlights the ability of various metabolites present in the plant to act as therapeutic agents and plant protectants. The plant is designated as an energy plant and use of J.curcas oil as biodiesel is a promising and commercially viable alternative to diesel oil. The seeds of the plant are not only a source of biodiesel but also contain several metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Commercial exploitation for biopharmaceuticals and bio-energy production are some of the prospective future potential of this plant. Further reclamation of wastelands and dry lands is also possible with J.curcas cultivation.

  9. 单菌固态发酵油茶饼粕生产多酶生物饲料%Production of multi-enzyme enriched bio-feed from camellia oleifera seed cake in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫洋洋; 蔡海莹; 王力生; 夏涛; 杜先锋

    2012-01-01

    采用黑曲霉为发酵菌种,用固态发酵技术改善油茶饼粕的饲用品质以制取油茶饼粕多酶生物饲料.通过单因素试验和正交试验,以纤维素酶活力和蛋白酶活力为检测指标,确定黑曲霉固体发酵最佳基质中油茶饼粕与豆粕的混合比例为1∶1,料水比为1∶0.5,添加1% (W/W)的硫酸铵,0.1%(W/W)的磷酸氢二钾,装瓶量(干料)为50 g(500 mL锥形瓶).试验结果表明,以pH 5,温度28℃,1.5%接种量为最佳发酵条件,培养4d,纤维素酶活力达到1 481.9 U·g-1,蛋白酶活力达到4 128.1 U·g-l.发酵过后的油茶饼粕粗蛋白质提高41.8%,真蛋白提高48.2%,必需氨基酸明显提高,粗纤维降低38.0%,同时油茶饼粕中的抗营养因子单宁降低78.7%,茶皂素降低了65.3%,其饲用价值得到极大改善.%In this paper, Aspergillus niger was used to produce multi-enzyme enriched bio-feed from camellia oleifera seed cake with solid-state fermentation.The suitable medium for mixed fermentation of Aspergillus niger were soya bean meal to oil-tea-cake ratio of 1:1, material- to -water ratio of 1: 0.5, 1% (WAV) (NH4) 2SO4, 0.1% (WAV) K 2HPO4, and 50 g dry material in 500 mL tapered bottle. The best fermentation conditions were 1.5% (WAV) inoculum size of Aspergillus niger, at 28℃ for 4 d at pH 5. The activities of proteinase and cellulase could reach to 4 128.1 U·g·1 and 1 481.9 U·g-1, respectively. The crude protein and the pure protein in camellia oleifera seed cake increased by 41.8%, 48.2%, respectively, while the crude fibre, tannin and tea saponin reduced by 38.0%, 78.7%, and 65.3%, respectively. Nutritional values of the fermented bio-feed improve obviously.

  10. ;Green; carbon with hierarchical three dimensional porous structure derived from - Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and NiCo2O4-Ni(OH)2/Multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite as electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitra, K.; Narendra, Reddy; Venkatesh, Krishna; Nagaraju, N.; Kathyayini, Nagaraju

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report for the first time synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitance performance of 3-D hierarchical porous ;Green; carbon derived from Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and its activation using different amounts of KOH. Also, nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with various weight percentages of Ni and Co were prepared by hydrothermal method. Physico-chemical properties of ;Green; carbon and nanocomposites were analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Brunner Emmett Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Elemental Dispersive Spectrum, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman techniques. KOH activated carbon was found associated with combination of micropores & mesopores while the nanocomposite with mixture of spinel NiCo2O4 and Ni(OH)2. Porous carbon activated with 2:1::KOH:C (KC2) and the nanocomposite with 1:1 Ni & Co (NC1) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in three electrode system. Further, fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (AS) device Ni-Co-MWCNT (NC1)//KC2 exhibited specific capacitance (Cs) of 177 F/g as determined by cyclic voltammetry at 10 mV/s and retained 90% even at 3000th cycle in life cycle test conducted at high current density of 50 A/g. In order to evaluate its practical performance, the AS device was charged to 1.8 V at 5 A/g and used successfully to power a calculator for more than 1 h.

  11. Diversity and genetic parameter estimates for yield and its components in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R G; Dias, L A S; Cardoso, P M R; Evaristo, A B; Silva, M F; Araújo, N M

    2016-03-24

    Jatropha curcas L. is one of the most promising oilseeds for biodiesel and biokerosene production, but few basic studies or breeding programs have been conducted for the species. We estimated genetic parameters and diversity based on 10 yield traits in 77 half-sib progenies of J. curcas after 52 months in the field, and evaluated correlations between them and the oil content of the seeds. The mean grain yield per plant was 377.9 g (ranging from 169.8 to 772.1 g) and the mean oil content was 36.2% (ranging from 30 to 39.6%). Moderate estimates of heritability at the mean progeny level were obtained for the length of the fruit (84.7%), length (69.1%) and width (68.2%) of the seed, and grain yield per plant (62.2%). Oil content was only positively and significantly correlated with 100-seed weight. Our study revealed a range of possible crosses to be investigated in J. curcas. Progeny production should be evaluated over several crop seasons for the accurate selection of the best progenies.

  12. Biofuels from Jatropha curcas oil – Perspectives for tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Klaus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost 40% of the world’s population of 6,7 billion people do not have access to affordable energy resources and drinking water of acceptable quality. But nothing is more important than the alleviation of hunger. The number of hungry people, according to the newest FAO statistics, has risen to close to one billion in 2008. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to research in food and agriculture. To this stock of global problems new challenges are added through the increase in human population of 80 million persons a year and the concomitant loss of large areas of former fertile agricultural land, mostly in the poorest countries. Jatropha curcas is the most primitive member of the large genus Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from the Greek iatros (doctor and trophe (food. Jatropha curcas is a perennial plant, native and widely spread throughout the tropics. It is not grazed by animals, grows readily on degraded lands, is drought and to some extent disease resistant. It is a multipurpose plant. There are two genotypes of Jatropha curcas, a toxic and a non-toxic one. The latter genotype is found in Mexico only. Well developed dry seeds from Jatropha curcas weigh between 650- 750 mg and contain 30-35% of oil that is suitable for conversion into biodiesel of high quality by the conventional, proven processes. The kernel forms around 65% of the seeds. The de-oiled kernel meal has a crude protein content of between 58% and 60% and a favourable amino acid profile. Extracts of the toxic genotype provide chemicals with potential in medicinal, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide application. In contrast to other fossil fuel alternatives, like biofuels from food crops such as maize, soybean, sugar cane and palm, bioenergy from Jatropha curcas grown on wasteland incurs no carbon debt and thus, offers immediate and sustained greenhouse gas advantages. Potential benefits of large scale Jatropha plantations on degraded land are expected to be

  13. Bilberry and bilberry press cake as sources of dietary fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marja Aura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary recommendations for Nordic countries urge the use of plant foods as a basis for healthy nutrition. Currently, the level of dietary fibre (DF intake is not adequate. Berries are an elementary part of the recommended Nordic healthy diet and could be consumed in higher amounts. Materials and methods: Finnish bilberries and a bilberry press cake from juice processing were studied for DF content, carbohydrate composition, and non-carbohydrate fibre content, which was analysed as sulphuric acid insoluble and soluble material. The microstructure of all samples was also studied using light microscopy and toluidine blue O, calcofluor, and acid fuchsin staining. Results: The total DF contents of fresh and freeze-dried bilberries and the press cake were 3.0, 24.1, and 58.9%, respectively. Most of the DF was insoluble. Only about half of it was carbohydrate, the rest being mostly sulphuric acid–insoluble material, waxy cutin from skins, and resilient seeds. Bilberry seeds represented over half of the press cake fraction, and in addition to skin, they were the major DF sources. Microscopy revealed that skins in the press cake were intact and the surface of the seeds had thick-walled cells. Conclusions: Bilberry press cake is thus a good source of insoluble non-carbohydrate DF, and could be used to provide DF-rich foods to contribute to versatile intake of DF.

  14. PUMPKIN CAKE AND SLUDGE INFLUENCE ON CHICKEN-BROILERS MEAT PRODUCTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  15. PUMPKIN CAKE AND PUMPKIN SLUDGE USE EFFICIENCY IN CHICKEN-ROILERS FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkrygunov K. I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  16. PUMPKIN CAKE AND PUMPKIN SLUDGE USE EFFICIENCY IN CHICKEN-ROILERS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  17. A Piece of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Jeffrey T.

    1995-01-01

    A civil engineer describes his first day as a substitute teacher. Despite detailed lesson plans and good intentions, maintaining an orderly class environment is far from a "piece of cake." Recess duty is an ordeal, and lunch in the shabby teacher's lounge is uninspiring. The biggest benefit is appreciation of what constitutes a full-time teacher's…

  18. Cutting Birthday Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    WHEN my mother celebrated her seventieth birthday. my father bought a large cake for her. They have lived through rain and wind for scores of years so they can be called an affectionate couple. They first got to know each other when they were on the revolutionary

  19. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  20. Glutinous Rice Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  1. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  2. Study on the Toxicity of Extract from Seed Cake of Camellia oleifera Abel to Freshwater Fishes, Shrimps and Snails%油茶饼粕浸出液对淡水鱼·虾·螺的毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶显峰; 郑世雄; 祖国掌; 徐启龙; 赵同德; 谢士峰; 李国峰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]进一步探讨油茶饼粕在淡水鱼虾蟹病害防治中的应用.[方法]采用单因子梯度法,利用不同浓度的油茶饼粕浸出液对5种有鳞鱼和2种无鳞鱼及青虾和螺蛳等水产动物进行毒性试验.[结果]油茶饼粕浸出液对有鳞鱼鲢、鳙、草鱼、鲤、鲫鱼24和48 h的LC50分别为6.25和5.16 mg/L、5.26和5.12 mg/L、9.74和5.87 mg/L、9.29和7.64 mg/L、11.3和7.55 mg/L;油茶饼粕浸出液对无鳞鱼斑点叉尾鮰、泥鳅在24和48 h的LC50分别为:7.47和5.00 mg/L、26.42和16.80 mg/L;青虾和螺蛳在90 mg/L油茶饼粕浸出液的情况下48 h存活率达100%.油茶饼粕浸出液对淡水鱼类具有显著的毒杀性,而淡水青虾和螺蛳对油茶饼粕浸出液具有较高的耐受性.[结论]利用油茶饼粕浸出液控制混入淡水虾蟹养殖池的野杂鱼和防治病害,具有较好的前景.%[Objective] The research aimed to further discuss the application of seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel in the disease prevention and control of freshwater fishes, shrimps and snails. [ Method] The toxicity of different concentrations of extract from seed cake from C. oleifera to aquatic animals such as five species of fishes with squama, two species of fishes without squama, black shrimp and snails was studied. [ Result] 24 h and 48 h LC50 of extract from C. oleifera to fishes with squama Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis, Ctenopharyng-odon idellus, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, Carassius auratus were 6.25 and 5. 16 mg/L, 5.26 and 5.12 mg/L,9.74 and 5. 87 mg/L,9. 29 and 7.64 mg/L, 11.3 and 7.55 mg/L respectively. 24 h and 48 h LC50 of extract from C. oleifera to fishes without squama Lctalurus punctatus and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were 7.47 and 5.00 mg/L,26.42 and 16. 80 mg/L. The survival rates of black shrimps and snails in 90 mg/L extract from C. oleifera reached 100%. The extract from C. oleifera had significant toxicity to freshwater fishes, but freshwater black shrimps and

  3. Culture in vitro de Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toussaint, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of Jatropha curcas L.. The extension of Jatropha curcas L. cultivation as a biofuel feedstock species requires the distribution of a very large number of plants to the producers in a very short period of time. These plants have to be able to give a high oil yield and be morphologically and phenotypically homogeneous to facilitate cultural operations. If high oil content can be obtained by varietal selection, the achievement of homogeneous material passes by the in vitro propagation. Various methods of mass production of plant material by axenic culture have been published. This study reviews the protocols published for in vitro propagation of J. curcas and discusses their applicability to an industrial scale.

  4. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  5. Effect of auxins and associated biochemical changes during clonal propagation of the biofuel plant - Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Sunita; Singh, S.P.; Kochhar, V.K. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Rooting and sprouting behaviour of stem cuttings of biofuel plant Jatropha curcas and their performance under field conditions have been studied in relation to auxin application. Pretreatment with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) increased both the rooting and sprouting. Sprouting of buds on the cuttings preceded rooting. The rooting and sprouting in J. curcas was more with IBA than NAA. The endogenous auxin contents were found to increase almost 15 days prior to rooting, indicating that mobilization of auxin rather than the absolute contents of auxin may be involved in root initiation. Indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase) seems to be involved for triggering and initiating the roots/root primordia, whereas peroxidase is involved in both root initiation and the elongation processes as supported by the peroxidase and IAA-oxidase isoenzyme analysis in the cuttings. The clonally propagated plants (cutting-raised plants) performed better in the field as compared to those raised from the seeds. The plants produced from auxin-treated cuttings produced fruits and seeds in the same year as compared to the plants raised from seeds or from untreated or control cuttings that did not produce any seeds in 1 year of this study. Jatropha plants in general produce seeds after 2-3 years. (author)

  6. Jatropha curcas (L. and Jatropha gossypifolia (L., Botanical Entomocides For Poor Resource Farmers As Protectants Of Cowpea Seeds Against Infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/jatropha-curcas-l-and-jatropha-gossypifolia-l-botanical-entomocides-poor-re#sthash.JHvpn57c.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileke Kayode David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The powder, wood ash and latex of Jatropha carcus and Jatropha gossypifolia were bioassayed for their insecticidal potential against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus in the laboratory at ambient temperature and humidity. The plant wood ash, powder and latex were tested at rate 2g/20g of cowpea seeds. Adult mortality and adult emergence of the insect were investigated. Result showed that wood ash of J. carcus evoked 100% mortality of adult cowpea bruchid after 4 days of application. This is followed by powder of J. carcus which caused 92.5% mortality while powder of J. gossypifolia was the least effective that caused 90% mortality of adult bruchids. There was no adult emergence in seeds treated with wood ash and latex of both J. carcus and J. gossypifolia compared with untreated that had 81.1% adult emergence. The result obtained from this study revealed that J. carcus and J. gossypifolia wood ash and latex were effective in controlling C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored cowpea against cowpea bruchid for the poor resource farmers in developing countries. -

  7. Should Moon Cakes Be Taxed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It is a custom in China that when the Mid-Autumn Festival draws near,a company or organization will offer its staff moon cakes,as non-cash benefits.It has recently been reported that these noncash benefits,such as moon cakes,should be taxed according to their value,which has spurred heated debate.

  8. Should Moon Cakes Be Taxed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It is a custom in China that when the Mid-Autumn Festival draws near, a company or organization will offer its staff moon cakes, as non-cash benefits. It has recently been reported that these noncash benefits, such as moon cakes, should be taxed according to their value, which has spurred heated debate.

  9. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  10. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  11. A Doubly Exponentially Crumbled Cake

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Tobias; Gebauer, Heidi; Matoušek, Jiří; Uno, Takeaki

    2011-01-01

    We consider the following cake cutting game: Alice chooses a set P of n points in the square (cake) [0,1]^2, where (0,0) is in P; Bob cuts out n axis-parallel rectangles with disjoint interiors, each of them having a point of P as the lower left corner; Alice keeps the rest. It has been conjectured that Bob can always secure at least half of the cake. This remains unsettled, and it is not even known whether Bob can get any positive fraction independent of n. We prove that if Alice can force Bob's share to tend to zero, then she must use very many points; namely, to prevent Bob from gaining more than 1/r of the cake, she needs at least 2^{2^{\\Omega(r)}} points.

  12. Let Them Eat Faux Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Suze

    2012-01-01

    In this article, students create a "faux" cake sculpture. It is a three-dimensional artwork made of paper, colored with markers, and decorated with old marker caps and polystyrene packing peanuts for icing swirls.

  13. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  14. Convective drying of sludge cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  15. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  16. Anthelmintic activity of latex of Jatropha curcas (ratanjot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Hitesh Kumar Parmar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of helmenthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Jatropha curcas. It is known as ratanjot or biodiesel plant, which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It possesses many uses like antidiabetic, antmicrobial and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried latex showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. The present research work investigated the Anthelmintic activity of latex of leaves of Jatropha curcas. The major finding of the present work illustrates that aqueous latex of Jatropha curcas has shown better Anthelmintic activity than control Jatropha latex and standard drug, piperazine citrate.

  17. China to Ban Unlicensed Production of Cakes and Moon Cakes Next Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On August 29th, Pu Changcheng, Deputy Director of AQSIQ, addressing a national press conference on cake and moon cake quality safety market access, reported that as of the end of July 2007, 761cake and moon cake enterprises had gained market access qualifications and had obtained food production licenses.

  18. Reduction of phorbol ester content in jatropha cake using high energy gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runumi Gogoi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to remove phorbol ester present in jatropha cake by exposing it to gamma radiation. A sensitizer was also used to accelerate the degradation of phorbol esters. The phorbol ester content in the cake was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. It was observed that gamma irradiation of the jatropha seed cake was effective in reducing the phorbol ester content. Originally, the phorbol ester content in the cake was found as 0.29 mg/g, which on exposure to radiation was reduced by 33.4% and 96% with radiation dose of 30 and 125 kGy respectively. The presence of a sensitizer was found to enhances the susceptibility of phorbol esters degradation by oxidative degradation on exposure to ionizing radiation.

  19. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... reaction conditions for biodiesel production via transesterification between Jatropha curcas (physic nut) oil and ... to be a potential feedstock for enzyme produced bio- .... The growth rate of A. pullulans var. melanogenum SRY.

  20. Online Cake Cutting (published version)

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2011-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where agents arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some fairness properties that online cake cutting procedures can possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness. We also consider the impact of collusion between agents. Finally, we study theoretically and empirically the competitive ratio of these online cake cutting procedures. Based on its resistance to collusion, and its good performance in practice, our results favour the online version of the cut-and-choose procedure over the online version of the moving knife procedure.

  1. Moon Cakes, A Chinese Favorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINA is a nation with many ethnic groups. Thus, there are many legends to explain the nation’s many festivals. The largest and most striking of these festivals are the Spring Festival and Midautumn Festival. Anywhere Chinese people go, they will remember and celebrate these two festivals. The Mid-autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the 8th lunar month. In this festival, Chinese people eat moon cakes, a baked food, with a flour crust around a dense filling. Coming in a great variety of flavors and styles, the moon cake carries a great deal of symbolic significance. The moon cake is round like the moon. "Round" is pronounced "yuan" in Chinese. This character is full of good meanings. When used in reference to a

  2. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

  3. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  4. Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Verma, Sharad; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati

    2015-10-01

    The hexane and ether extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Jatropha curcas were screened for their toxicity against different developmental stages of housefly. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities were analysed at various concentrations (0.78-7.86 mg/cm(2)) of hexane and ether extracts. The lethal concentration values (LC50) of hexane extract of J. curcas leaves were 3.0 and 0.27 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. Similarly, the ether extract of leaf showed the LC50 of 2.20 and 4.53 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly. Least toxicity was observed with hexane root extract of J. curcas with LC50 values of 14.18 and 14.26 mg/cm(2) for adult and larvae of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. The variation in LC50 against housefly pupae was found to be 8.88-13.10 mg/cm(2) at various J. curcas extract concentrations. The GC-MS analysis of J. curcas leaf extract revealed the presence of trans-phytol (60.81 %), squalene (28.58 %), phytol (2.52 %) and nonadecanone (1.06 %) as major components that could be attributed for insecticidal activity of J. curcas extracts.

  5. Performance of Cooled Cone Grinding Machine in Cocoa Cake Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Firmanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of cocoa paste pressing has a function to separate the fatty component of cocoa from its cake. Cocoa paste is further processed into cocoa powder using grinding machine for cocoa cake. The cooled cone type of cocoa grinding machine is used to solve the problem of plug in the maschine caused by melting of fat in cocoa cake due to hot effect as a result of friction in the grinding machine. Grinding machine of cocoa has conical form of cylinder for grinding and stator wall wrapped by source of cold and closed with jacket wool. Research was conducted at Kaliwining Experimental Garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI using cocoa cake containing 26.75% originated from Forastero type of cocoa seed. The capacity and recovery of the machine was influenced by space between rotor cylinder and stator wall. Grinding machine operated at cooling temperature of 25.5oC and space between rotor – stator 0.9 cm and the capacity of 187.5 kg/hour with recovery of 200 mesh cocoa powder as much as 24%. The maximum  power of machine required  was 2.5 kW with efficiency of  energy transfer of 97%. Results of proximate analysis showed that there was no change of protein content, but protein and carbohydrate content increased after processing, i.e. from 5.70% and 59.82% into 5.80% and 61.89% respectively.Key words : cocoa cake, cooling, grinding, cocoa powder 

  6. Over-expression of JcDREB, a putative AP2/EREBP domain-containing transcription factor gene in woody biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas, enhances salt and freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjuan; Liu, Xiaofei; Deng, Huaping; Shen, Shihua

    2011-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an all-purpose biodiesel plant and is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical climates. It can grow well on poor quality soil which is not qualified for crop cultivation. This is very important for relieving land, food and energy crises. However, tropical and subtropical distribution limits the production of J. curcas seed. So it is valuable to know the molecular mechanism of J. curcas response to adverse abiotic environmental factors, especially freezing stress, in order to change the plant's characteristics. Until now there are just a few reports about J. curcas molecular biology. In this paper, we cloned and characterized a DNA binding protein from this plant, designated as JcDREB. Sequence analysis and yeast one-hybrid assays show that JcDREB can effectively function as a transcription factor of DREB protein family belonging to A-6 subgroup member. Expression patterns of JcDREB showed that it was induced by cold, salt and drought stresses, not by ABA. Over-expression of JcDREB in transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited enhanced salt and freezing stresses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of J. curcas responses to environmental stresses, for example, high salinity, drought and low temperature, is crucial for improving their stress tolerance and productivity. This work provides more information about A-6 subgroup members of DREB subfamily.

  7. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is natural sources of biodiesel. It has high potential economic values. Different parts of J. curcas have their own potencies, unfortunately these were not known by the farmers. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the additional values of Jatropha curcas L. by charact

  8. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is natural sources of biodiesel. It has high potential economic values. Different parts of J. curcas have their own potencies, unfortunately these were not known by the farmers. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the additional values of Jatropha curcas L. by charact

  9. Existing landraces of Jatropha Curcas L. (physic nut) in Nepal and analysis of their bio-diesel content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ram Prasad

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work was to find the existing landraces of Jatropha curcas in different agro ecological regions of Nepal and their Bio-Diesel content. More specifically, research efforts focused on (1) existing landraces (varieties) in all three topographic regions of Nepal (2) Bio-diesel content in those varieties (3) Bio-Diesel content in varieties from Laos (4) Constraints faced by the Nepalese Jatropha grower (5) Compare the quality of Bio-diesel between the Nepalese varieties and Laos varieties. To collect all the information, Seeds were collected from Nepal (Terai: Chitwan; Hill: Palpa and Syanja; Mountain: Tanahu and Gorkha) and Vientiane province from Laos.

  10. Determination of Some Physical Properties of Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasheu, T.I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy crisis and shortage of fuel emanating from total dependence on mineral oil with resultant socioeconomic problems demand the need to explore the use of renewable energy as alternative. This study evaluates the physical properties Jatropha (Jatropha curcas oil as alternative base oil for lubricant in auto engines. A quantity of 32 kg dried base decorticated seeds of Jatropha was locally obtained. Volume of 4 litres of Jatropha oil was extracted from the seeds using existing hydraulic press machine, while its physical properties was determined through laboratory analytical procedure of American Society for Testing and Materials analytical standard 960-52 (ASTM,D960-52. The properties determined were: viscosity, density, flash point, pour point, melting point, refractive index, specific heat and thermal conductivity. Comparisons of the properties were also made with the standard lubricant (SAE 40 engine oil. The principles of flow theories were employed to develop heat generated equation in terms of temperature, density and viscosity of the oil and a computer program in C++ language was thus written. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of temperature change, (30 oC to 100 oC on value of density and viscosity. The physical properties of Jatropha oil are viscosity (162.8 cst, density (0.920 g/ml, flash point (113oC, pour point (7.7oC, melting point (4 to 5oC, refractive index (1.435, specific heat (0.082 KJ/Kg/K and thermal conductivity (4.250 W/moC. Comparative analysis showed that the values of viscosity, density, thermal conductivity and pour point for Jatropha oil were higher than the values of SAE 40 engine oil while specific heat, flash point and refractive index values of Jatropha oil were less than the values of SAE 40 engine oil. The result showed that the average values for density and viscosity of Jatropha oil were 890.75 Kgm-3 and 0.1385 N.S/m2 . Sensitivity analysis showed that Jatropha oil has highest density and

  11. Effects and Mechanisms of Oil Cakes on the Growth of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) Under Continuous Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wei-bin; LIU Mo-han; PAN Jie; Wang Jing; LU Wen-long; MA Cheng-cang; WANG Jing-guo; SHEN Yue; GAO Yu-bao

    2003-01-01

    Fxperiments on the effect of soil amendment with rape (Brassica chinensis L. ) seed cake, cot-ton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) seed or sesame (Sesamum indieum L. ) seed cake on the growth of cucumberseedlings under a continuous cropping system were conducted in a greenhouse environment. The results indica-ted that two applications of sesame seed cake (0.1 and 0.5 %, w/w) increased the growth of cucumber, but therape oil cake showed a negative effect at a rate of 1.5% (w/w). The sesame seed cake was separated into four fractious(Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ) according to the polarity, and all four fractious had a positive effect on the growth of cucumbers un-der a continuous cropping system. Fraction number Ⅲii was isolated into 25 proportions by silicon column, and only ole-ic acid, palmitic acid and octadecanoic acid were identified in proportion 10 by GC-MS in which 93.3% was oleic acidand palmitic acid. The oleic acid had a significant and positive effect on cucumber growth under salt stress at the level30 mmol and showed slight resistance to several pathogenic fungi.

  12. Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene--pennycress press cake composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycress press cake (PPC) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. PPC is a by-product of crop seed oil extraction. Composites with a high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix are created by twin screw compounding of 25% by weight of PPC and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethyle...

  13. Biology and biotechnological advances in Jatropha curcas - A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Reddy, Muppala P.

    2009-10-31

    Increasing global demand for energy, the impending depletion of fossil fuels, and concern over global climate change have lead to a resurgence in the development of alternative energy sources. Bio-fuels and bio-energy encompass a wide range of alternative sources of energy of biological origin, and offer excellent, environmentally friendly opportunities to address these issues. The recognition that Jatropha oil can yield high quality biodiesel has led to a surge of interest in Jatropha across the globe, more so in view of the potential for avoiding the dilemma of food vs fuel. Hardiness, rapid growth, easy propagation, short gestation period, wide adaptation, and optimum plant size combine to make this species suitable for sustainable cultivation on wastelands. Besides biodiesel from the seed, the plant produces several useful products that also have commercial value. Large scale cultivation remains the single most important factor that will ultimately determine the success of Jatropha as a source of bio-fuel. The limited knowledge of the genetics of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a bio-fuel crop. Despite the optimal protein content and composition of the pressed cake, the presence of phorbol esters makes it unsuitable for consumption by livestock. A non-toxic variety with low or no phorbol ester content has been identified from Mexico, and the utility of pressed cake from this variety as livestock feed has been demonstrated successfully. In the absence of any morphological differences, identification of linked markers for toxic/non-toxic varieties will add value to the crop and facilitate further improvement. This chapter discusses current efforts towards assessing the diversity and phylogeny of Jatropha, identification of specific markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties, and aspects of micropropagation and genetic

  14. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  15. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  16. Effects of soil moisture conservation practice, irrigation and fertilization on Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran Phiwngam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on an Ultic Haplustalf at the Kanchanaburi Research Station, Muang district, Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand between July 2011 and June 2012. Split plots in a randomized complete block design with four replications were employed, having eight main plots (soil moisture conservation practice and irrigation, W1–W8 and 2 sub plots (fertilization, F1 and F2. Jatropha curcas (KUBP 78-9 Var., having been planted at 2 × 2 m spacing, was aged 2 yr when the experiment was commenced. The highly significantly heaviest 100-seed weight of 42 g was obtained 1 mth after water irrigation which had been applied at the rate of 16 L/plant, particularly in the treatment with crop residue mulching (W8 but there were no significant differences among the other treatments where irrigation had been applied (W5–W7. Fertilization and a combination between different fertilizers and soil moisture conservation schemes plus irrigation showed no different effect on the weight of 100 seeds throughout the year of measurement. Growing J. curcas with drip-irrigated water at the rate of 16 L/plant applied every 2 d and crop residue mulching (W8 significantly gave the highest seed yield of 1301.3 kg/ha at 15% moisture content. There were no significant differences among the seed yields from the plots applied with the same amount of irrigated water but with no mulching (W7 and half that amount of irrigated water with crop residue mulching (W6, producing yields of 1112.0 kg/ha and 1236.3 kg/ha, respectively. Three-year-old J. curcas gave inferior seed yield when grown with no irrigated water supply (W1–W4. The application of 50–150–150 kg/ha of N–P2O5–K2O significantly induced a higher amount of seed yield (933.9 kg/ha than did the addition of 93.75–93.75–93.75 kg/ha of N–P2O5–K2O (786.3 kg/ha. The interaction between soil moisture conservation plus irrigation and fertilizer was clear. Applying 50–150

  17. an assessment of seed propagation of oilferous plant species with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    pedata grew luxuriously in all soil types while Jatropha curcas performed poorly ... recalcitrant and probably needed special attention and shortest storage time .... assess the effect of growth media on seed ..... Figure 4: Plant height of 4 plant species grown in 4 different soils 180 days .... utilize more light prior to leaf canopy.

  18. Identifying microRNAs and transcript targets in Jatropha seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Galli

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are endogenously encoded small RNAs that play a key role in diverse plant biological processes. Jatropha curcas L. has received significant attention as a potential oilseed crop for the production of renewable oil. Here, a sRNA library of mature seeds and three mRNA libraries from three different seed development stages were generated by deep sequencing to identify and characterize the miRNAs and pre-miRNAs of J. curcas. Computational analysis was used for the identification of 180 conserved miRNAs and 41 precursors (pre-miRNAs as well as 16 novel pre-miRNAs. The predicted miRNA target genes are involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including cellular structure, nuclear function, translation, transport, hormone synthesis, defense, and lipid metabolism. Some pre-miRNA and miRNA targets vary in abundance between the three stages of seed development. A search for sequences that produce siRNA was performed, and the results indicated that J. curcas siRNAs play a role in nuclear functions, transport, catalytic processes and disease resistance. This study presents the first large scale identification of J. curcas miRNAs and their targets in mature seeds based on deep sequencing, and it contributes to a functional understanding of these miRNAs.

  19. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale.

  20. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities in Jatropha curcas latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoniyi, Omolaja; Onajobi, Funmi

    2003-11-01

    Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant commonly grown in the Tropics, is traditionally used as a haemostatic. Investigation of the coagulant activity of the latex of Jatropha curcas showed that whole latex significantly (Platex, however, prolonged the clotting time: at high dilutions, the blood did not clot at all. This indicates that Jatropha curcas latex possesses both procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests on plasma confirm these observations. Solvent partitioning of the latex with ethyl acetate and butanol led to a partial separation of the two opposing activities: at low concentrations, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a procoagulant activity, while the butanol fraction had the highest anticoagulant activity. The residual aqueous fraction had no significant effect on the clotting time of blood and the PT but slightly prolonged the APTT.

  1. Jatropha seed protein functional properties for technical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha press cake, by-product after oil expression from Jatropha seeds, contains 24–28% protein on dry basis. Objectives of this research were to investigate functional properties, such as solubility, emulsifying, foaming, film forming, and adhesive properties, of Jatropha press cake proteins and

  2. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida for Promoting Growth of Jatropha curcas Seedling Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumarsih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida are Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR that can produce growth hormone. The objective of this study is to know the effects of those two combined species of PGPR on seedling root growth of Jatropha curcas. The condition of the seedling root determines the success of dry land cultivation. The root which has wider coverage, is larger in number, and is bigger in diameter makes seedling more resistant to stress in dry land environment. In the experiment, two kinds of plant materials are used for seedling, the Jatropha seed and stem material, which are treated in a mixed culture of PGPR. For the Jatropha seed, this mixed culture of PGPR is given at the same time of cultivating the sprout on the seedling medium. For the stem cutting, the PGPR is poured in together during the first watering of the seedling cultivation medium. In the fourthweek, the observed growth parameters are root length, root diameter, primary and secondary lateral root numbers, Root Length Density (RLD, Frequency of Lateral Root (FLR, and Specific Root Length (SRL. These data are analyzed using analysis of variant with DMRT test at 0.05 level of significance. The result of this study shows that PGPR tend to reduce FLR values on the seedling root made from seeds. On the seedling root made from stem cutting, PGPR increase the root length, primary and secondary lateral root numbers, root diameter, FLR and SRL values as well.

  4. Jatropha curcas L: Phytochemical, antimicrobial and larvicidal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sillma Rampadarath

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: This paper compared the different J. curcas plant sections with respect to the effectiveness of the plant as a potential candidate for new pharmaceuticals. The larvicidal effect was also studied in order to demonstrate the dual purpose of the plant.

  5. Caracterización morfológica y productiva de procedencias de Jatropha curcas L. Morphological and productive characterization of Jatropha curcas L. provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la variabilidad morfológica y productiva de procedencias de Jatropha curcas. Para ello se midió o estimó: la altura; el grosor de las ramas primarias y del tallo; la altura de la primera rama; las enfermedades; el número de ramas primarias, secundarias y terciarias; el número y el peso de los frutos; el rendimiento de semillas; el peso de 100 semillas; las dimensiones de la semilla y el contenido de aceite. Para interpretar los resultados se utilizó ACP y análisis de conglomerados. La altura fue el indicador más variable, seguido por el grosor de las ramas primarias, el número de ramas secundarias y primarias, y el grosor del tallo, los cuales explicaron el 57,7% de la variabilidad. Sobre la base de estos indicadores se formaron seis grupos. Los valores extremos superiores, en todos los indicadores morfológicos, se encontraron en el grupo I (SSCS-3, y los inferiores en el grupo IV (SSCS-7 y SSCS-6. Solo seis de las diez procedencias sembradas produjeron frutos; mientras que las plantadas lo hicieron en todos los casos. De las sembradas sobresalieron: San Miguel, D-1 y SSCS-3, con rendimientos estimados de 2 325; 243 y 169 kg de semilla/ha; y de las plantadas: Cabo Verde, SSCE-10 y SSCE-7 con 814; 327 y 93,2 kg de semilla/ha, respectivamente. En la SSCE-10 y en la Cabo Verde el porcentaje de aceite alcanzó un 32,8 y 35,0%, respectivamente. Los resultados permitieron identificar las procedencias sobresalientes, tanto en los indicadores morfológicos (SSCS-3 como en los productivos (Cabo Verde, SSCE-10 y San Miguel.The objective of this work was to characterize the morphological and productive variability of Jatropha curcas provenances. For that purpose the following indicators were measured or estimated: height; diameter of primary branches and stem; height of the first branch; diseases; number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches; fruit number and weight; seed yield; weight of 100

  6. Survival and growth responses of Jatropha curcas L. to three restoration techniques on degraded soils in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Wenemi Kagambèga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a major problem in the Sahelian countries. Erosion control through establishment of vegetation cover is at important strategy to reverse the trend. Our research objective was to analyse the e-ffects of three restoration techniques on Jatropha curcas L. seedlings growth and survivorship. Were conducted two separate field trials, involving the sowing and planting of J. curcas, in which several different soil restoration techniques were applied. The trial was monitored using a ran-domized block study design over a period of two years. The design included ten different treatments, six in the sowing trial and four in the planting trial, each with three replicates. In the first experiment, growth rate was found to be significantly higher in the Sub-Soiling treatment, that received additional organic matter than other treatments. However, overall survival rate was low (18%. In the second experiment, the Half-moon treatment yielded a significantly higher growth both in height (df = 3, F = 56.74, p < 0.05 and diameter (df = 3, F = 31.76, p < 0.05 and survival rate compared to those of the other treatments (df = 3, F = 50.4, p < 0.05. In conclusion, planting seedlings produced a greater survival rate than sowing seeds. Among tested the soil restoration and water conservation techniques the Half-moon technique was found as the most effective. This is recommended to be used for improving the revegetation of J. curcas in the future. 

  7. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (author)

  8. Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8% and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8% and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%. Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics, rutin and myricetin (flavonoids and daidzein (isoflavonoid. The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy, acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+ to ferrous ion (Fe2+. Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells.

  9. Biochemical evaluation of protein fractions from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chel-Guerrero, L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available J. curcas seed proteins were fractioned according to the Osborne method and some biochemical properties were determined for these fractions. Glutelins (378 g kg–1 protein and globulins (201 g kg–1 protein were the main components. Albumins and prolamins were the minor components. Protein digestibility was highest in glutelins and globulins with values of 81 and 80% respectively. Electrophoresis analysis showed that globulins and glutelins exhibited similar polypeptide profiles. Electrophoresis patterns suggested that there could be a structural relationship among 2S, 7S and 11S storage proteins from plant sources. According to the FAO⁄WHO reference, the protein fractions had acceptable levels of most of the essential amino acids, but its globulins and glutelins were low in lysine and tryptophan.Las proteínas de semillas de J. curcas L. se fraccionaron empleando el método de Osborne y posteriormente se determinaron algunas de sus propiedades bioquímicas y nutricionales. Las fracciones mayoritarias resultaron ser glutelinas (378 g kg–1 de proteína y globulinas (201 g kg–1 de proteína mientras que las albúminas y prolaminas fueron las fracciones minoritarias. La digestibilidad de la proteína resultó ser más alta en las glutelinas y globulinas, con valores de 81 y 80% respectivamente. El análisis por electroforesis mostró que las globulinas y glutelinas presentaron perfiles similares, los resultados sugieren que podría existir una relación con proteínas de almacenamiento 2S, 7S y 11S de origen vegetal. Asimismo, de acuerdo con la FAO/WHO, las fracciones proteínicas tuvieron niveles aceptables para la mayoría de los aminoácidos esenciales, sin embargo, las globulinas y glutelinas fueron deficientes en Lys y Trp.

  10. Aspergillus and aflatoxin in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and groundnut cake in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdi; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla; Fininsa, Chemeda; Hoisington, David A; Sobolev, Victor S; Arias, Renee S

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22.5% and 41.3% of samples were positive, with total aflatoxin concentrations of 786 and 3135 ng g(-1) from 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 samples, respectively. The level of specific aflatoxin concentration varied between 0.1 and 2526 ng g(-1) for B2 and B1, respectively. Among contaminated samples of groundnut cake, 68% exhibited aflatoxin concentration below 20 ng g(-1), while as high as 158 ng g(-1) aflatoxin B1 was recorded. The study confirms high contamination of groundnut products in East Ethiopia.

  11. Potential land for plantation of Jatropha curcas as feedstocks for biodiesel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a renewable energy,biofuel has attracted great attention in China and the rest of world.Concerned with the national food security,China recently has shifted its biofuel development priority from grain-based to non-grain-based biofuels,including forest-based biodiesel,since 2007.Jatropha curcas is one of major biodiesel feedstocks.However,there is rising debate on availability of land for expanding Jatropha curcas areas.The overall goal of this paper is to evaluate potential land for Jatropha curcas used as feedstock for biodiesel in China.Based on remote sensing data on land use,data on meteorological,soil and land slope,and suitable environment for Jatropha curcas plantation,this study uses Agro Ecological Zone method and considers social-economic constraints to evaluate potential suitable land for Jatropha curcas plantation in China’s major Jatropha curcas production region,Southwest China.The results show that while there are some potential lands to expand Jatropha curcas areas,amount of these lands will hardly meet the government’s target for Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels development in the future.China may need to reconsider its long-term targets on the development of Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels.

  12. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  13. Effect of growing media on seed germination and vigor in biofuel tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Mariappan; P. Srimathi; L. Sundaramoorthi; K. Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate laboratory germination media, seed germi-nation rates and methodology for both Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were counted in different germination medium, such as river sand, quartz sand and vermiculite. The seeds of both species were sown at 2-cm depth of river sand, quartz sand and vermiculite. We evaluated methodologies of seeds of J. curcas and P. pinnata by ISTA (Interna-tional Seed Testing Association). The results showed that river sand is the best medium for tree seeds planted at 2-cm depth of River sand. Vermiculite was second best. On paper media, there were many abnor-mal seedlings and this media were unsuitable for germination of the larger seeds.

  14. Isolation of novel microsatellites using FIASCO by dual probe enrichment from Jatropha curcas L. and study on genetic equilibrium and diversity of Indian population revealed by isolated microsatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer

    2010-03-11

    Jatropha curcas L. belongs to family Euphorbiaceae, native to South America attained significant importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, a renewable energy source alternative to conventional petrodiesel. Very few attempts were made to isolate novel microsatellite markers and assessment of the extent of genetic equilibrium and diversity that exists in J. curcas. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to isolate the novel microsatellites and access genetic equilibrium, diversity that exists among 44 diverse germplasm collected from distinct geographical areas in India using isolated microsatellites. The overall efficiency of the enrichment of microsatellite by dual probe in the present study found to be 54% and among the sequences obtained the percentage of sequences having suitable flanking regions for the primer designing was found to be 89.58%. The mean co-efficient of genetic similarity (CGS) was found to be 0.97. The overall diversity obtained by microsatellites was found to be low in comparison with the diversity reported by multilocus markers systems observed in earlier studies; however, the good allele polymorphism was observed. The overall dendrogram of microsatellite analysis resulted in random clustering of germplasm and not in accordance to geographical area of collection. The present study, diversity analysis using microsatellite markers concludes the low genetic diversity and genetic disequlibrium of J. curcas in India and will provide pavement for further intra-population studies on narrow geographical areas to understand the population genetic structure, phylogeography and molecular ecological studies. The germplasm characterized, and the microsatellite markers isolated and characterized in the present study can be employed efficiently in breeding programs for genetic improvement of the species through marker assisted selection and QTL analysis, for further genetic resource management and help in making the J

  15. Role of biotechnological interventions in the improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, M; Reddy, T P; Mahasi, M J

    2008-01-01

    Castor and Jatropha belong to the Euphorbiaceae family. This review highlights the role of biotechnological tools in the genetic improvement of castor and jatropha. Castor is monotypic and breeding programmes have mostly relied on the variability available in the primary gene pool. The major constraints limiting profitable cultivation are: vulnerability to insect pests and diseases, and the press cake is toxic which restrict its use as cattle feed. Conventional breeding techniques have limited scope in improvement of resistance to biotic stresses and in quality improvement owing to low genetic variability for these traits. Genetic diversity was assessed using protein based markers while use of molecular markers is at infancy. In vitro studies in castor have been successful in shoot proliferation from meristematic explants, but not callus-mediated regeneration. Genetic transformation experiments have been initiated for development of insect resistant and ricin-free transgenics with very low transformation frequency. In tropical and subtropical countries jatropha is viewed as a potential biofuel crop. The limitations in available germplasm include; lack of knowledge of the genetic base, poor yields, low genetic diversity and vulnerability to a wide array of insects and diseases. Great scope exists for genetic improvement through conventional methods, induced mutations, interspecific hybridization and genetic transformation. Reliable and highly efficient tissue culture protocols for direct and callus-mediated shoot regeneration and somatic embryogenesis are established for jatropha which indicates potential for widening the genetic base through biotechnological tools. Assessment of genetic diversity using molecular markers disclosed low interaccessional variability in local Jatropha curcas germplasm. The current status and future prospects of in vitro regeneration, genetic transformation and the role of molecular tools in the genetic enhancement of the two

  16. Identification and validation of superior reference gene for gene expression normalization via RT-qPCR in staminate and pistillate flowers of Jatropha curcas – A biodiesel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaiya, Palaniyandi; Yan, Xiao-Xue; Liao, Wang; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L) seed oil is a natural resource for the alternative production of fossil fuel. Seed oil production is mainly depended on seed yield, which was restricted by the low ratio of staminate flowers to pistillate flowers. Further, the mechanism of physic nut flower sex differentiation has not been fully understood yet. Quantitative Real Time—Polymerase Chain Reaction is a reliable and widely used technique to quantify the gene expression pattern in biological samples. However, for accuracy of qRT-PCR, appropriate reference gene is highly desirable to quantify the target gene level. Hence, the present study was aimed to identify the stable reference genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in staminate and pistillate flowers, and their stability was validated by five different algorithms (ΔCt, BestKeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and RefFinder). Resulting, TUB and EF found to be the two most stably expressed reference for staminate flower; while GAPDH1 and EF found to be the most stably expressed reference gene for pistillate flowers. Finally, RT-qPCR assays of target gene AGAMOUS using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes in different stages of flower development. AGAMOUS gene expression levels at different stages were further proved by gene copy number analysis. Therefore, the present study provides guidance for selecting appropriate reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral developmental genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas. PMID:28234941

  17. Branching, flowering and fruiting of Jatropha curcas treated with ethephon or benzyladenine and gibberellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne P. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. has been identified for biofuel production but it presents limited commercial yields due to limited branching and a lack of yield uniformity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of single application of ethephon or a combination of 6-benzyladenine (BA with gibberellic acid isomers A4 and A7 (GA4+7 on branch induction, flowering and fruit production in jatropha plants with and without leaves. Plants with and without leaves showed differences for growth and reproductive variables. For all variables except inflorescence set, there were no significant statistical interactions between the presence of leaves and plant growth regulators concentration. The total number of flowers per inflorescence was reduced as ethephon concentration was increased. As BA + GA4 +7 concentration increased, seed dry weight increased. Thus, ethephon and BA + GA4 +7 applications appeared to affect flowering and seed production to a greater extent than branching. The inability to discern significant treatment effects for most variables might have been due to the large variability within plant populations studied and thus resulting in an insufficient sample size. Therefore, data collected from this study were used for statistical estimations of sample sizes to provide a reference for future studies.

  18. Does epigenetic polymorphism contribute to phenotypic variances in Jatropha curcas L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Ha TN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock plant. Variations in its morphology and seed productivity have been well documented. However, there is the lack of systematic comparative evaluation of distinct collections under same climate and agronomic practices. With the several reports on low genetic diversity in jatropha collections, there is uncertainty on genetic contribution to jatropha morphology. Result In this study, five populations of jatropha plants collected from China (CN, Indonesia (MD, Suriname (SU, Tanzania (AF and India (TN were planted in one farm under the same agronomic practices. Their agronomic traits (branching pattern, height, diameter of canopy, time to first flowering, dormancy, accumulated seed yield and oil content were observed and tracked for two years. Significant variations were found for all the agronomic traits studied. Genetic diversity and epigenetic diversity were evaluated using florescence Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (fAFLP and methylation sensitive florescence AFLP (MfAFLP methods. Very low level of genetic diversity was detected (polymorphic band Conclusion Our study confirmed climate and practice independent differences in agronomic performance among jatropha collections. Such agronomic trait variations, however, were matched by very low genetic diversity and medium level but significant epigenetic diversity. Significant difference in inner cytosine and double cytosine methylation at CCGG sites was also found among populations. Most epigenetic differential markers can be inherited as epialleles following Mendelian segregation. These results suggest possible involvement of epigenetics in jatropha development.

  19. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...... the entire cake. In contrast, we exhibit randomized protocols that are truthful in expectation and compute approximately fair allocations....

  20. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gregori, Andrej; Pohleven, Franc

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil press cakes (OOPC) represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation subst...

  1. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  2. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  3. Two-player envy-free multi-cake division

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, John; Su, Francis Edward

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a generalized cake-cutting problem in which we seek to divide multiple cakes so that two players may get their most-preferred piece selections: a choice of one piece from each cake, allowing for the possibility of linked preferences over the cakes. For two players, we show that disjoint envy-free piece selections may not exist for two cakes cut into two pieces each, and they may not exist for three cakes cut into three pieces each. However, there do exist such divisions for two cakes cut into three pieces each, and for three cakes cut into four pieces each. The resulting allocations of pieces to players are Pareto-optimal with respect to the division. We use a generalization of Sperner's lemma on the polytope of divisions to locate solutions to our generalized cake-cutting problem.

  4. Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mastan, Shaik G.

    2011-05-10

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DO PINHÃO-MANSO (Jatropha curcas L. EM FUNÇÃO DA SALINIDADE DA ÁGUA DE IRRIGAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAAC RANNYER SOUSA DE OLIVEIRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Jatropha curcas L. when submitted to crescent levels of salinity of irrigation water on the initial growth stage. For this, was collected, from native plants, seeds of two cities, Nova Porteirinha, MG and Tianguá, CE. The experiment was developed in the Campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido (UFERSA, Mossoró, RN, in the period of March to May of 2010. The treatments were installed in completely randomized design, in factorial 2 x 6 (seeds from two cities and six levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; 4.5 e 5.5 dS m-1, with four repetitions, being each plot composed by one plant cultivated in a plastic vase, with capacity for eight pounds. Thirty days after sowing, was evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, foliar area and weight of dry matter of aerial part of plant. The analysis of results allowed to conclude that there are differences between seeds of Jatropha curcas L. in relation to the tolerance to the salinity; and that proceeding from Tianguá, CE, showed more tolerant to salinity, in reason of larger values of foliar area and plant height.

  6. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  7. Floral display and breeding system of Jatropha curcas L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Chang-wei; Li Kun; Chen You; Sun Yong-yu

    2007-01-01

    Plant flowering and breeding characteristics are important for us to understand the reproduction of plant populations. In this paper, we studied the reproduction characteristics of Jatropha curcas in Yuanjiang County (23°36'N, 101°00'E), Yunnan Province.The plant produces flowers in dichasial inflorescences. Normally, the flowers are unisexual, and male and female flowers are produced in the same inflorescence. Only a few male flowers are produced in an inflorescence, and fruits are produced only through pollination between different flowers from the same or different plants. By the treatments of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination in this experiment, there were few but same fruit set ratios when the inflorescences were emasculated, bagged, or bagged with net, except artificial pollination treatments, which showed that Jatropha curcas could produce fruit through apomixis but not wind pollination. When the inflorescences were unbagged, unemasculated and with free pollination treatments, or bagged, emasculated and with artificial cross-pollination treatments, or unbagged, emasculated and with free pollination treatments, there were many fruits produced. It showed that Jatropha curcas shows outcrossing, is self-compatible, and demanding for pollinators. Normally, the male flowers open first and a few flowers bloom in one day in a raceme. These flowers last a long time in bloom. However, a large number of female flowers open from the third to the fifth day, with some female flowers opening first in a few raceme. This shows a tendency to promote xenogamy and minimize geitonogamy.

  8. Phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated soils by Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Díez, Sergi

    2015-05-01

    Jatropha curcas plants species were tested to evaluate their phytoremediation capacity in soils contaminated by different levels of mercury. The experimental treatments consisted of four levels of mercury concentrations in the soil - T0, T1, T5, and T10 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μg Hg per g soil, respectively). The total mercury content absorbed by the different plant tissues (roots, stems and leaves) was determined during four months of exposure. The growth behavior, mercury accumulation, translocation (TF) and bioconcentration (BCF) factors were determined. The different tissues in J. curcas can be classified in order of decreasing accumulation Hg as follows: roots>leaves>stems. The highest cumulative absorption of the metal occurred between the second and third month of exposure. Maximum TF was detected during the second month and ranged from 0.79 to 1.04 for the different mercury concentrations. Values of BCF ranged from 0.21 to 1.43. Soils with T1 showed significantly higher BCF (1.43) followed by T10 (1.32) and T5 (0.91), all of them at the fourth month. On the other hand TFs were low (range 0.10-0.26) at the en of the experiment. The maximum reduction of biomass (16.3%) occurred for T10 (10 μg Hg g(-1)). In sum, J. curcas species showed high BCFs and low TFs, and their use could be a promising approach to remediating mercury-contaminated soils.

  9. Colecta de Jatropha curcas y su comportamiento en fase de vivero y de establecimiento (Nota técnica Collection of Jatropha curcas and its performance in nursery and establishment stages (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue colectar material de J. curcas con características morfológicas adecuadas para la producción de semilla, así como determinar su comportamiento en la fase de vivero y la de establecimiento. En el vivero se observó variación en los días necesarios para el arraigamiento de los propágulos (14 a 35 días y en la emergencia de las plántulas (7 a 28 días. La supervivencia de los propágulos fluctuó entre 73 y 100%; mientras que a partir de semilla estuvo entre 26,6 y 85,0%. La supervivencia en la fase de campo varió entre 45,4 y 93,3% en las procedencias trasladadas por propágulos, pero en la mayoría resultó inferior a la que se detectó en el vivero. En las procedencias sembradas directamente también se detectó variación en la supervivencia, pero el número de plantas emergidas a los 56 días fue alto. En estas condiciones se mantuvo un patrón de variación similar en el porcentaje de plantas arraigadas y de supervivencia, pero fue evidente el efecto del estrés causado por el traslado. Se concluye que la edad de las plantas y de las partes elegidas en el material donante, así como la calidad de la semilla, pudieron influir en la variación de los días necesarios para el arraigamiento o la emergencia y en el porcentaje de supervivencia. Se recomienda utilizar el procedimiento descrito para la colecta de J. curcas, enfatizando en la vía vegetativa, con el fin de acceder a procedencias con características adecuadas para la producción de semilla y con ello mantener el genotipo de los materiales colectados.The objective of this work was to collect J. curcas material with adequate morphological characteristics for seed production, as well as to determine its performance in the nursery and establishment stages. In nursery variation was observed in the necessary days for the rooting of the propagules (14 to 35 days and in seedling emergence (7 to 28 days. The propagule survival fluctuated between 73 and

  10. Efecto del EcoMic® en la emergencia de plántulas de Jatropha curcas (Nota Técnica Effect of EcoMic® on the emergence of Jatropha curcas seedlings (Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolai Noda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto del EcoMic® en la emergencia de las plántulas de Jatropha curcas, se hizo una prueba de observación en el laboratorio de análisis químico de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey». Se usaron semillas recién cosechadas, en dos tratamientos: semillas inoculadas con EcoMic® (T1, y sin inóculo (T2, con cuatro réplicas de 100 semillas cada una. Se utilizó un diseño totalmente aleatorizado y se realizaron 15 observaciones (a los 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 y 16 días de emergencia. Las medias se compararon a través de un análisis descriptivo. El efecto del T1 fue notable durante todo el período; a partir del cuarto día se observaron 45 plántulas emergidas, lo que representó el 11,2% del total de las tratadas con este biofertilizante, y el último día del estudio había emergido el 96,2%. En el T2 no se observaron plántulas emergidas en ningún momento. Se concluye que el EcoMic® ejerció un efecto positivo en la emergencia de las plántulas de J. curcas al ser utilizado como inóculo en condiciones de laboratorio. Se recomienda realizar estudios pregerminativos para determinar la dormancia en la semilla de Jatropha, teniendo en cuenta el empleo del EcoMic® como uno de los tratamientos.In order to study the effect of EcoMic® on the emergence of Jatropha curcas seedlings, an observation test was conducted in the laboratory of chemical analysis of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey». Newly-harvested seeds were used, in two treatments: seeds inoculated with EcoMic® (T1, and without inoculation (T2, with four replications of 100 seeds each. A completely randomized design was used and 15 observations were made (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 days after emergence. The means were compared through a descriptive analysis. The effect of T1 was remarkable throughout the period; since the fourth day 45

  11. Oleosomas de semillas de Jatropha curcas L. como estimadores de diversidad en poblaciones del Sur de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano-Anaya, M. L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we used oleosome data to estimate the variability in eight J. curcas populations of Southern Mexico, using a multivariate approach. We found spherical oleosomes with diameters between 2.18 μm and 4.15 μm, which have two types of spatial arrangements: clustered and dispersed. A discriminant analysis showed that populations with more differentiation are Oaxaca and Veracruz, while Isthmus was the most diverse. The most informative variables for their contribution to the discriminant functions were oleosome size and number of oleosomes·μL of tissue−1. A heritability study with seeds harvested in two consecutive years showed that the variables oleosomes·μL of tissue−1 and oleosomes per cell have high broad sense heritabilities (h2bs=94.3% and h2bs=92.2%, respectively. A cluster analysis revealed high levels of dissimilarity between individuals. Correlation was found between the ratio oleosomes/tissue (volume/volume and total oil content of the seed. The identification of genotypes with contrasting characteristics could provide the basis for future studies of the inheritance of characters in J. curcas.Se estudiaron los caracteres de oleosomas de la planta para biocombustibles Jatropha curcas L. y se estimó la diversidad de ocho poblaciones del sur de México. Se encontraron oleosomas esféricos, con diámetros entre 2.18 μm y 4.15 μm, presentando dos tipos de arreglos espaciales: agrupados y dispersos. Un análisis discriminante mostró que las poblaciones más diferenciadas del resto son Oaxaca y Veracruz, mientras que Istmo fue la más diversa. Las variables más informativas por su contribución a las funciones discriminantes fueron tamaño de oleosoma y número de oleosomas·μL de tejido−1. En un estudio de heredabilidad con semillas cosechadas en dos años consecutivos se encontró que las variables oleosomas·μL de tejido−1 y oleosomas por célula tienen muy altas heredabilidades en sentido amplio (h2bs=94.3% y h

  12. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  13. Information Theoretic cutting of a cake

    CERN Document Server

    Delgosha, Payam

    2012-01-01

    Cutting a cake is a metaphor for the problem of dividing a resource (cake) among several agents. The problem becomes non-trivial when the agents have different valuations for different parts of the cake (i.e. one agent may like chocolate while the other may like cream). A fair division of the cake is one that takes into account the individual valuations of agents and partitions the cake based on some fairness criterion. Fair division may be accomplished in a distributed or centralized way. Due to its natural and practical appeal, it has been a subject of study in economics under the topic of "Fair Division". To best of our knowledge the role of partial information in fair division has not been studied so far from an information theoretic perspective. In this paper we study two important algorithms in fair division, namely "divide and choose" and "adjusted winner" for the case of two agents. We quantify the benefit of negotiation in the divide and choose algorithm, and its use in tricking the adjusted winner a...

  14. Cloning and characterization of a stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene from Jatropha curcas%麻疯树硬酯酰-酰基载体蛋白脱饱和酶基因的克隆及特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗通; 马丹炜; 徐莺; 邓骛远; 肖猛; 卿人韦; 陈放

    2007-01-01

    Using degenerate primers and RT-PCR, RACE techniques, a 1491 bp cDNA segment of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is cloned from developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The segment contains a 1191 bp of complete open reading frame (ORF). Analysis in the BLAST on NCBI shows that Jatropha curcas SAD (JSAD) gene encodes a protein precursor composed of a signal peptide of 33 amino acids and a mature peptide of 363 amino acids. The homological analysis shows that JSAD has high level of homology both in nucleotide sequence and in amino acid sequence to other plants SADs. The nucleotide and peptide identity of JSAD to Ricinus communis SAD (RSAD) is up to 89% and 96.2% respectively. Molecular modeling of JSAD indicates that its three-dimensional structure strongly resembled the crystal structure of RSAD.

  15. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  16. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    the distribution of N and P on the fields. Filtration is a useful method for such a separation. Furthermore, chemicals can be added to flocculate the solids and thereby increase the filterability i.e. the specific filter-cake resistance can be reduced from 1015 m/kg to 1011 m/kg. Both the amount of added chemicals......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...... that the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour is due to a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). This can also explain the observed behaviour when flocculated manure is filtered. The filtration data can be simulated if cake creep is adopted in the filtration...

  17. Lesquerella Press Cake as an Organic Fertilizer for Greenhouse Tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesquerella press cake is a co-product generated during the processing of the new oilseed crop lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gray) S. Wats.]. As with other new crops, developing commercial uses for the press cake would increase the profitability of growing lesquerella. The press cake conta...

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of the NAC Gene Family in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenying; Xu, Xueqin; Xiong, Wangdan; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2015-01-01

    The NAC proteins (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) are plant-specific transcriptional regulators that have a conserved NAM domain in the N-terminus. They are involved in various biological processes, including both biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of 100 NAC genes (JcNAC) were identified in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structures, 83 JcNAC genes were classified as members of, or proposed to be diverged from, 39 previously predicted orthologous groups (OGs) of NAC sequences. Physic nut has a single intron-containing NAC gene subfamily that has been lost in many plants. The JcNAC genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome, and appear to be preferentially retained duplicates that arose from both ancient and recent duplication events. Digital gene expression analysis indicates that some of the JcNAC genes have tissue-specific expression profiles (e.g. in leaves, roots, stem cortex or seeds), and 29 genes differentially respond to abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, phosphorus deficiency and nitrogen deficiency). Our results will be helpful for further functional analysis of the NAC genes in physic nut.

  19. Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.

  20. Professor Schmidt’s Banana Cake Recipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients.......In this paper we present the recipe of the (not yet) famous banana cake. The recipe has a solid background in the literature, but our experiments have shown that the outcome can be improved significantly by doping the batter with different kinds of ingredients....

  1. First results of the CAKE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chiarusi, T; Cecchini, S; Di Ferdinando, D; Giacomelli, G; Kumar, A; Patrizii, L; Togo, V; Valieri, C

    2003-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the cosmic abundances below the knee energies (CAKE) experiment for the study of the primary cosmic- ray composition and for the search of exotic particles in the primary cosmic radiation. CAKE uses CR39** registered trademark and Lexan nuclear track detectors, which were calibrated with beams of 158 A Ge V Pb ions and 1 A GeV Fe ions at the CERN and BNL accelerators, respectively. Results based on the analysis of a first data sample are shown.

  2. First results of the CAKE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarusi, T. E-mail: chiarusi@bo.infn.it; Bottazzi, E.; Cecchini, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Giacomelli, G.; Kumar, A.; Patrizii, L.; Togo, V.; Valieri, C

    2003-06-01

    We present the preliminary results of the cosmic abundances below the knee energies (CAKE) experiment for the study of the primary cosmic-ray composition and for the search of exotic particles in the primary cosmic radiation. CAKE uses CR39[reg] and Lexan nuclear track detectors, which were calibrated with beams of 158 A GeV Pb ions and 1 A GeV Fe ions at the CERN and BNL accelerators, respectively. Results based on the analysis of a first data sample are shown.

  3. Environmental Impact Calculation of the Production of Biocombustible Derived from the Jatropha curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Rodriguez Ramos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the environmental impact on the life cycle of the Jatropha curcas for its use asbiodiesel using a Numeric Matrix.The sustainability analysis was made using the matrix (22.23: thatis, 22 activities of the life cycle of the production of bio-fuel from the Jatropha Curcas Oil, in Cuba, and23 factors (13 component and 4 sub-systems that influence in the sustainability. Each activity wasqualified according to the positive impact, negative or nil provoked. This study gives the possibility toknow how the implementation of this culture impacts in the Cuban ecosystem to produce bio-fuelfrom the Oil of Jatropha curcas.

  4. Nutrient accumulation, export and cycling in Jatropha curcas L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hissao Kurihara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge concerning nutrient accumulation rate allows defining the best amount and most appropriate time for its supply. Estimating nutrient amount in the aerial part of the plants is particularly important to species such as Jatropha curcas L., since there are no consistent calibration studies to indicate the amount of fertilizer to be applied. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient accumulation, export and cycling in Jatropha curcas. The experiment was carried out in Cassilândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during 52 months in a completely randomized design, with four replications and fifteen treatments, which consisted of different evaluation times. A large variation in the amount of nutrients accumulated in leaves was found due to senescence and leaf abscission in the driest and/or coldest period of the year. Nutrient accumulation in the aerial part is relatively low in the first 22 months. To meet Jatropha curcas requirements, fertilization during the first two years must provide 40; 50; 50; 21; 16; 5; 0.7; 0.3; 4; 8 and 1 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. From the third year of cultivation, topdressing fertilization should restitute 40, 110, 55 and 3 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, K2O and S, respectively. To replace the exported amount of nutrients, it should be supplied more 50, 100, 30 and 3 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, K2O and S, respectively, per ton of grain to be produced.

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirrao R.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.

  6. [Cicatrization effect of Jatropha curcas latex (Angiospermae: Euforbiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, J; Tello, V; Zavaleta, A; Villegas, L; Salas, M; Fernández, I; Vaisberg, A

    1994-01-01

    The wound healing effects of Jathopha curcas latex upon surgical wound produced in Balb/c mice skin, were studied with a modification of the Hoowes-Sooy-Harvey method. The effects of topical treatment using single 50 ul doses of latex at different dilutions (10% to 100%) was compared with a multiple dose treatment (four 25 ul/dose q12h, latex 5% to 100%). The single dose treatment with 10%, 50% or 100% latex and the multiple dose treatment with dilutions between 5% and 10%, have a healing effect but only on males. The multiple dose treatment with 50% or pure undiluted latex produced caustic lesions to treated skin.

  7. [The use of dried grape press cake in pig fattening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, I; Tomová, M; Holub, A; Pleskac, Z

    1979-12-01

    In dried grape press cake the content of crude nutrients and ash, overall sugar, amino acids, alpha-tocopherol and gross energy was determined. In biological experiments with pigs (total of 109 animals) 10% of mixture A1 or SOL was replaced by the same amount of dried crushed grape press cake, without affecting negatively the weight gains and consumption of mixtures per unit of weight gain. Nutritional effects of grape press cake are a subject of discussion and comprise three factors: higher content of enrgy (fat and sugars) in mixtures containing press cake, anti-oxidation effect of press cake and the effect of tocopherols on the metabolism of basic nutrients.

  8. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  9. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  10. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  11. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiang He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively impact the internal structure and sensory property of sponge cake. Based on the result of this research, optimum content of egg replacer in sponge cake is 3.6 g. In the industrial production of sponge cake, different types of wheat flour and additives would be used. The optimum content of egg replacer may be different from the result of this research. Therefore, in the industrial production, the optimum content of egg replacer should be determined based on experiment.

  12. Restructuring of colloidal cakes during dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeline, J B; Meireles, M; Bourgerette, C; Botet, R; Schweins, R; Cabane, B

    2007-02-13

    Aqueous suspensions of aggregated silica particles have been dewatered to the point where the colloidal aggregates connect to each other and build a macroscopic network. These wet cakes have been compressed through the application of osmotic pressure. Some cakes offer a strong resistance to osmotic pressure and remain at a low volume fraction of solids; other cakes yield at low applied pressures, achieving nearly complete solid/liquid separation. We used small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy to determine the processes by which the particles move and reorganize during cake collapse. We found that these restructuring processes follow a general course composed of three stages: (1) at all scales, voids are compressed, with large voids compressed more extensively than smaller ones; the local order remains unchanged; (2) all voids with diameters in the range of 2-20 particle diameters collapse, and a few dense regions (lumps) are formed; and (3) the dense lumps build a rigid skeleton that resists further compression. Depending on the nature of interparticle bonds, some cakes jump spontaneously into stage 3 while others remain stuck in stage 1. To elucidate the relation between bond strength and compression resistance, we have constructed a numerical model of the colloidal network. In this model, particles interact through noncentral forces that are produced by springs attached to their surfaces. Networks made of bonds that break upon stretching evolve through a plastic deformation that reproduces the three stages of restructuring evidenced by the experiments. Networks made of bonds that are fragile jump into stage 3. Networks made of bonds that can be stretched without breaking evolve through elastic compression and restructure only according to stage 1.

  13. Diffusion Modeling: A Study of the Diffusion of “Jatropha Curcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffusion of innovation is a versatile social science theory which typically ... Jatropha Curcas based diesel oil (Jacodiesel) in the context of a specific social environment. ... Innovation, Communicative Influence, Multi-media and Communication ...

  14. A field assessment of the agronomic performance and water use of Jatropha curcas in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Everson, CS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . curcas in a silvopastoral experiment with Pennisetum clandestinum at the Ukulinga research farm of the University of KwaZulu-Natal near Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Measurements of daily total evaporation rates during DecembereFebruary (summer...

  15. Analysis of the genetic diversity of physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. accessions using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Shabanimofrad, M; Puteri Edaroyati, M W; Latif, M A

    2012-06-01

    A sum of 48 accessions of physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. were analyzed to determine the genetic diversity and association between geographical origin using RAPD-PCR markers. Eight primers generated a total of 92 fragments with an average of 11.5 amplicons per primer. Polymorphism percentages of J. curcas accessions for Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu states were 80.4, 50.0, and 58.7%, respectively, with an average of 63.04%. Jaccard's genetic similarity co-efficient indicated the high level of genetic variation among the accessions which ranged between 0.06 and 0.81. According to UPGMA dendrogram, 48 J. curcas accessions were grouped into four major clusters at coefficient level 0.3 and accessions from same and near states or regions were found to be grouped together according to their geographical origin. Coefficient of genetic differentiation (G(st)) value of J. curcas revealed that it is an outcrossing species.

  16. Jatropha curcas: from biodiesel generation to medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulillo, Luis Cesar; Mo, ChengLin; Isaacson, Janalee; Lessa, Luciene; Lopes, Edjacy; Romero-Suarez, Sandra; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Gutheil, William; Brotto, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Jatropha curcas (JC) is a multipurpose perennial plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is native to arid and semiarid tropical regions worldwide. It has many attributes and considerable potential for renewable energy, fish and livestock feeding. Despite its rich application as a renewable source and for animal feeding, JC has barely been explored for its medicinal potential. Here we review several patents related to JC that show it has been underused for medicinal purposes. For example, only one invention disclosure to date utilizes JC, combined with three other plants, in a preparation for wound healing. Motivated by support from the Brazilian funding agencies and anecdotal accounts in Brazil of the medicinal value of JC, we performed a series of pilot studies that demonstrate that JC is able to protect skeletal muscle cells in vitro against the deleterious effects of ethanol. We were able to determine that JC's effects are mediated by the up regulation of HSP60, a critical mitochondrial heat shock related protein that is essential for intracellular REDOX regulation. Given the fact that ethanol myopathy accounts for more than 50% of all cases of myopathy worldwide, we hope that our studies will sparkle new interest from the scientific community to explore the medicinal properties of Jatropha curcas, including the development of new patents leading to new drugs and new targets for the treatment of muscle diseases and other human diseases.

  17. Phylloplane bacteria of Jatropha curcas: diversity, metabolic characteristics, and growth-promoting attributes towards vigor of maize seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Garima; Kollah, Bharati; Ahirwar, Usha; Mandal, Asit; Thakur, Jyoti Kumar; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2017-10-01

    The complex role of phylloplane microorganisms is less understood than that of rhizospheric microorganisms in lieu of their pivotal role in plant's sustainability. This experiment aims to study the diversity of the culturable phylloplane bacteria of Jatropha curcas and evaluate their growth-promoting activities towards maize seedling vigor. Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phylloplane of J. curcas and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were very similar to those of species belonging to the classes Bacillales (50%), Gammaproteobacteria (21.8%), Betaproteobacteria (15.6%), and Alphaproteobacteria (12.5%). The phylloplane bacteria preferred to utilize alcohol rather than monosaccharides and polysaccharides as a carbon source. Isolates exhibited ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase, phosphatase, potassium solubilization, and indole acetic acid (IAA) production activities. The phosphate-solubilizing capacity (mg of PO4 solubilized by 10(8) cells) varied from 0.04 to 0.21. The IAA production potential (μg IAA produced by 10(8) cells in 48 h) of the isolates varied from 0.41 to 9.29. Inoculation of the isolates to maize seed significantly increased shoot and root lengths of maize seedlings. A linear regression model of the plant-growth-promoting activities significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with the growth parameters. Similarly, a correspondence analysis categorized ACC deaminase and IAA production as the major factors contributing 41% and 13.8% variation, respectively, to the growth of maize seedlings.

  18. Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

  19. Jatropha curcas latex inhibits the release of collagenase by gingival fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazwishni Siregar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Folkloric use of J. curcas latex among others are to cure tooth pain, bleeding gum and as anti-inflammatory drug. Collagenase is a neutral protease released by activated macrophage and also by fibroblasts in small amounts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of J. curcas latex on collagenase released by fibroblasts. Four doses of J. curcas latex from 37.5-300 g/ml were added to 3 human gingival primary fibroblast cell culture. After 1 to 4 days of incubation, collagenase in the supernatant was assayed with collagen. The degradation products were then separated by SDS-PAGE and the density of ¾ A bands were measured semi quantitatively by Adobe Photo computer program. Result showed that J. curcas latex decreased collagenase released by human gingival fibroblast, and increasing dose inhibits more. It may be concluded that the latex of J. curcas inhibits the release of collagenase by human gingival fibroblast. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:219-23Keywords: Jatropha curcas, collagenase, human gingival fibroblast, collagenase assay, SDS-PAGE

  20. ANTIFUNGAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF NEEM CAKE, KARANJ CAKE AND VERMICOMPOST AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several agro-based waste and byproducts are known and cited to play an important role in the management ofplant diseases in ancient texts. They act directly or indirectly on plant pathogens to inhibit the growth andmultiplication or by inducing resistance in crop plants. In the present experiments, aqueous extracts of neemcake, karanj cake and vermicompost were tested against some important phytopathogenic fungi viz.,Helminthosporium pennisetti, Curvularia lunata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae for theirantifungal activities. H. pennisetti was found to be most sensitive one followed by C. gloeosporioides f. sp.mangiferae and C. lunata against all the tested drugs. Against C. gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae, aqueous extractof karanj cake was most effective where GI50 was found to be 0.41% drug concentration followed by neem cake(0.46% and vermicompost (0.86%. In case of C. lunata and H. pennisetti, neem cake extract was most effectivewith GI50 value of 0.27% and 0.11% respectively. The GI50 values noted for C. lunata with extracts of karanj cake(0.70%, vermicompost (0.88% and for H. pennisetti were (0.20% and (0.22% respectively.

  1. Alterações anatômicas em folhas e raízes de Jatropha curcas L. cultivadas sob estresse salino Anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of Jatropha curcas L. cultivated under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemima Manço de Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Jatropha curcas L. está entre as mais destacadas fontes de grãos oleaginosos, com baixa exigência hídrica e nutricional, sendo promissora para regiões áridas e semiáridas, em geral sujeitas à salinização do solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações salinas, sobre a anatomia de folhas e raízes de Jatropha curcas. Cinqüenta sementes foram semeadas em bandejas, e as plântulas transferidas para potes com capacidade para 5 litros, o ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Após 21 dias da germinação, as plantas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos salinos: 25; 50; 75; 100; 150 e 200 mM de NaCl, além do controle (0 mM de NaCl, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições por tratamento. Ao final do 32º dia de tratamento, a terceira folha e raízes, medindo aproximadamente 5 cm de comprimento, foram coletadas e fixadas em FAA 50. Seções transversais da porção mediana da nervura central da folha e da região mediana da raiz foram cortadas e coradas com safrablau. Foram observadas na folha redução no número de células do xilema e floema e alterações em sua distribuição, em função do aumento das concentrações de sal na solução. Nas raízes observou-se que, quanto mais alta a concentração salina, maior a lignificação das células xilemáticas e endodérmicas, e maior a redução no diâmetro e no número de elementos de vaso. Portanto, ocorrem alterações anatômicas em folhas e raízes das plantas quando cultivadas sob altas concentrações salinas.The species Jatropha curcas L. is among the most prominent sources of oilseeds, with low water requirement and nutrition, and promising to arid and semiarid regions, usually subject to soil salinization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different salt concentrations on the anatomy of leaves and roots of Jatropha curcas. Fifty seeds were sown in trays and the seedlings

  2. Regulation of FA and TAG biosynthesis pathway genes in endosperms and embryos of high and low oil content genotypes of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    The rising demand for biofuels has raised concerns about selecting alternate and promising renewable energy crops which do not compete with food supply. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.), a non-edible energy crop of the family euphorbiaceae, has the potential of providing biodiesel feedstock due to the presence of high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (75%) in seed oil which is mainly accumulated in endosperm and embryo. The molecular basis of seed oil biosynthesis machinery has been studied in J. curcas, however, what genetic differences contribute to differential oil biosynthesis and accumulation in genotypes varying for oil content is poorly understood. We investigated expression profile of 18 FA and TAG biosynthetic pathway genes in different developmental stages of embryo and endosperm from high (42%) and low (30%) oil content genotypes grown at two geographical locations. Most of the genes showed relatively higher expression in endosperms of high oil content genotype, whereas no significant difference was observed in endosperms versus embryos of low oil content genotype. The promoter regions of key genes from FA and TAG biosynthetic pathways as well as other genes implicated in oil accumulation were analyzed for regulatory elements and transcription factors specific to oil or lipid accumulation in plants such as Dof, CBF (LEC1), SORLIP, GATA and Skn-1_motif etc. Identification of key genes from oil biosynthesis and regulatory elements specific to oil deposition will be useful not only in dissecting the molecular basis of high oil content but also improving seed oil content through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, E A

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion equation, has three adjustable parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking genoises in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The resulting formula for the baking time exhibits the scaling behavior typical of diffusion processes, i.e. the baking time is proportional to the (characteristic length scale)^2 of the cake. It also takes account of evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which appears to be a dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake. In solving this problem we hav...

  4. Recycled Urban Wastewater for Irrigation of Jatropha curcas L. in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dorta-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a global context in which obtaining new energy sources is of paramount importance, the production of biodiesel from plant crops is a potentially viable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Among the species used to produce the raw material for biodiesel, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL has enjoyed increased popularity in recent years, due partly to its ability to grow in degraded zones and under arid and semi-arid conditions. The present study evaluates the potential for JCL production under irrigation with non-conventional water resources in abandoned agricultural soils of the island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain, which is one of the most arid parts of the European Union. JCL growth and productivity are compared during the first 39 months of cultivation in two soil types (clay-loam and sandy-loam and with two irrigation water qualities: recycled urban wastewater (RWW and desalinated brackish water (DBW. The results indicate that JCL growth (in terms of plant height and stem diameter was significantly influenced both by soil type and water quality, with better development observed in the sandy-loam soil under RWW irrigation. Productivity, measured as cumulative seed production, was not affected by soil type but was affected by water quality. Production under RWW irrigation was approximately seven times greater than with DBW (mean ~2142 vs. 322 kg·ha−1. The higher nutrient content, especially P, K and Mg, and lower B content of the RWW were found to be key factors in the greater productivity observed under irrigation with this type of water.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the MYB gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changpin; Chen, Yanbo; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-11-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play key roles in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism, and stress responses. A total of 125 MYB genes (JcMYB) have been identified in the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) genome, including 120 2R-type MYB, 4 3R-MYB, and 1 4R-MYB genes. Based on exon-intron arrangement of MYBs from both lower (Physcomitrella patens) and higher (physic nut, Arabidopsis, and rice) plants, we can classify plant MYB genes into ten groups (MI-X), except for MIX genes which are nonexistent in higher plants. We also observed that MVIII genes may be one of the most ancient MYB types which consist of both R2R3- and 3R-MYB genes. Most MYB genes (76.8% in physic nut) belong to the MI group which can be divided into 34 subgroups. The JcMYB genes were nonrandomly distributed on its 11 linkage groups (LGs). The expansion of MYB genes across several subgroups was observed and resulted from genome triplication of ancient dicotyledons and from both ancient and recent tandem duplication events in the physic nut genome. The expression patterns of several MYB duplicates in the physic nut showed differences in four tissues (root, stem, leaf, and seed), and 34 MYB genes responded to at least one abiotic stressor (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation, and nitrogen starvation) in leaves and/or roots based on the data analysis of digital gene expression tags. Overexpression of the JcMYB001 gene in Arabidopsis increased its sensitivity to drought and salinity stresses.

  6. Determinación de las propiedades físicas y carga crítica del aceite vegetal Jatropha curcas L // Determination of physical properties and critical load of Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil

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    Calixto Rodríguez-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades físicas y la carga critica del aceite de Jatropha curcas L, obtenido de las plantas cultivadas en la provincia de Guantánamo en Cuba. Estas propiedades fueron comparadas con las propiedades de otros aceites vegetales (aceite ricino, aceite de girasol, aceite de colza y aceite de soya usados como biolubricantes. Los resultados mostraron que las propiedades físicas del aceite de Jatropha curcas L fueron similares a la mayoría de los aceites vegetales. La carga crítica del aceite de la Jatropha curcas L ocupa una posición intermedia entre el aceite ricino y los aceites de girasol, colza y soya, lo cual permite asegurar que el aceite de Jatropha curcas L es un buen candidato para como biolubricante.Palabras claves: biolubricantes, aceites vegetales, Jatropha curcas L, propiedades físicas, carga crítica._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper the physical properties and the critical load of the Jatropha curcas L oil, plantations located in Guantanamo province, Cuba were determined. These properties together with other vegetable oils (castor, sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils used as biolubricant were compared. These results have showed that the physical properties of the Jatropha curcas L oil were similar to most of vegetable oils.The critical load of Jatropha curcas oil has an intermediate position just castor oil and sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils. Jatropha curcas oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as biolubricant feedstock.Key words: biolubricants, vegetable oils, Jatropha curcas L, physical properties, critical load.

  7. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  8. Jatropha curcas L., una especie arbórea con potencial energético en Cuba Jatropha curcas L., a tree species with energetic potential in Cuba

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    Odalys C Toral

    2008-09-01

    población rural, por lo que la potencialidad real de esta planta debe ser cuidadosamente investigada, tanto desde el punto de vista de su agronomía y manejo, como de su uso y comercialización en el futuro.Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose species, with uncountable attributes and remarkable potential. It is a plant from tropical origin, of the Euphorbiaceae family, which can grow in zones of high as well as low annual rainfall. It is highly resistant to drought and can be cultivated in marginal areas, for which it is exceptional for the recovery of degraded lands, without competing with crop production for human and animal health. In addition, it is used as living fences and hedges, medicinal and insecticide properties are ascribed to it, and it can even be used as commercial crop. This is a fast growing species and seed production can begin even in the first year of establishment, which depends on many factors, such as rainfall and the form of propagation that is used (by seeds or cuttings. Its establishment, management and productivity under different edaphoclimatic conditions is not well documented yet, mainly concerning its nutrient or fertilizer requirements and, in the case of Cuba, most of the studies related to its agrotechnical practices and production are just beginning. This plant contributes many beneficial products, especially from its seeds, from which oil can be extracted, with a similar quality to that of the oil palm. This oil can replace kerosene, petroleum and firewood/coal with relative success, for which its use is promoted internationally to satisfy the demands of rural zones regarding illumination, cooking and engine power. Other very important uses are biofuel production from the oil, soap manufacturing and glycerin extraction for industrial purposes. Its cultivation and expansion could provide new employment sources, as well as improve the environment and the life level and quality of the rural population, for which the real potential of this

  9. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  10. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  11. Cake filtration modeling: Analytical cake filtration model and filter medium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Michael

    2008-05-15

    Cake filtration is a unit operation to separate solids from fluids in industrial processes. The build up of a filter cake is usually accompanied with a decrease in overall permeability over the filter leading to an increased pressure drop over the filter. For an incompressible filter cake that builds up on a homogeneous filter cloth, a linear pressure drop profile over time is expected for a constant fluid volume flow. However, experiments show curved pressure drop profiles, which are also attributed to inhomogeneities of the filter (filter medium and/or residual filter cake). In this work, a mathematical filter model is developed to describe the relationship between time and overall permeability. The model considers a filter with an inhomogeneous permeability and accounts for fluid mechanics by a one-dimensional formulation of Darcy's law and for the cake build up by solid continuity. The model can be solved analytically in the time domain. The analytic solution allows for the unambiguous inversion of the model to determine the inhomogeneous permeability from the time resolved overall permeability, e.g. pressure drop measurements. An error estimation of the method is provided by rewriting the model as convolution transformation. This method is applied to simulated and experimental pressure drop data of gas filters with textile filter cloths and various situations with non-uniform flow situations in practical problems are explored. A routine is developed to generate characteristic filter cycles from semi-continuous filter plant operation. The model is modified to investigate the impact of non-uniform dust concentrations. (author). 34 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  12. Sunflower cake in the diet of Quarter Horses in activity

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    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of sunflower cake, a by-product of oilseed extraction for biodiesel production, prompted us to test the scope of its utilization in the diet of Quarter Horses employed in equestrian shows. We substituted 600 and 1200 g of feed with 300 and 600 g of sunflower cake, respectively, so as to obtain isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. Digestibility evaluation by the AIA method evidenced generally improved nutrient utilization with the lower cake diet (300 g sunflower. The higher cake diet was associated with a reduction in organic matter, protein and ether extract digestibility coefficients. In particular, the trend of the protein coefficients (88.5 - 91.5 - 87.7 for control, 300 and 600 g sunflower cake, respectively was confirmed by higher plasma urea levels.

  13. Meta-Envy-Free Cake-Cutting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Tatsuaki

    This paper discusses cake-cutting protocols when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval in the real line. We propose a new desirable property, the meta-envy-freeness of cake-cutting, which has not been formally considered before. Though envy-freeness was considered to be one of the most important desirable properties, envy-freeness does not prevent envy about role assignment in the protocols. We define meta-envy-freeness that formalizes this kind of envy. We show that current envy-free cake-cutting protocols do not satisfy meta-envy-freeness. Formerly proposed properties such as strong envy-free, exact, and equitable do not directly consider this type of envy and these properties are very difficult to realize. This paper then shows meta-envy-free cake-cutting protocols for two and three party cases.

  14. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from outbreak-associated cake mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Patel, Nehal; Swaminathan, Bala; Wedel, Stephanie; Doyle, Michael P

    2007-04-01

    During May and June of 2005, 26 persons in several states were infected by a single strain (isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium after eating cake batter ice cream. The cake mix used to prepare the cake batter in the ice cream was implicated by epidemiologic investigation as the source of Salmonella contamination. Initial tests did not detect Salmonella in cake mix collected during the outbreak investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate different procedures to isolate Salmonella from the implicated cake mix, cake, and ice cream. All outbreak-associated food samples (14 samples) were collected during the outbreak investigation by health departments of several of the states involved. Different combinations of Salmonella isolation procedures, including sample size, preenrichment broth, enrichment broth, enrichment temperature, and isolation medium, were used. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from two cake mix samples; the food isolates were indistinguishable from the outbreak pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Universal preenrichment broth was substantially better than was lactose broth for preenrichment, and tetrathionate broth was better than was Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth for isolating Salmonella from the two positive cake mix samples. Although more typical Salmonella colonies were observed on plates from enrichment cultures grown at 35 degrees C, more confirmed Salmonella isolates were obtained from plates of enrichment cultures grown at 42 degrees C. Brilliant green agar, xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar, Hektoen enteric agar, and bismuth sulfite agar plates were equally effective in isolating Salmonella from cake mix. The best combination of preenrichment-enrichment conditions for isolating the outbreak strain of Salmonella was preenrichment of cake mix samples in universal preenrichment broth at 35 degrees C for 24 h

  15. SELECTED LIVER AND KIDNEY BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF HYBRID CATFISH EXPOSED TO JATROPHA CURCAS LEAF DUST

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    Kabir M. Adamu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (7.50, 5.00, 2.50 and 0.00 gL (control of Jatropha curcas leaf dust on some liver and kidney biochemical profiles such as total protein, total bilirubin, total albumin and total globulin of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus (♀ and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂ after a 14-day experimental period. The result was significantly different in the mean value of determined liver total bilirubin, while total protein, albumin and globulin were insignificantly different in the exposed fish compared with the control. The kidney revealed varying levels of insignificant difference in its level of total protein, total albumin, total bilirubin and total globulin. Therefore, this investigation has revealed that sublethal concentration of Jatropha curcas has no effect on the basic function of the determined biochemical profiles of hybrid catfish and that the changes were directly proportional to J. curcas concentration.

  16. Global analysis of transcriptome responses and gene expression profiles to cold stress of Jatropha curcas L.

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    Haibo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Jatropha curcas L., also called the Physic nut, is an oil-rich shrub with multiple uses, including biodiesel production, and is currently exploited as a renewable energy resource in many countries. Nevertheless, because of its origin from the tropical MidAmerican zone, J. curcas confers an inherent but undesirable characteristic (low cold resistance that may seriously restrict its large-scale popularization. This adaptive flaw can be genetically improved by elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to cold temperatures. The newly developed Illumina Hiseq™ 2000 RNA-seq and Digital Gene Expression (DGE are deep high-throughput approaches for gene expression analysis at the transcriptome level, using which we carefully investigated the gene expression profiles in response to cold stress to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cold response in J. curcas. RESULTS: In total, 45,251 unigenes were obtained by assembly of clean data generated by RNA-seq analysis of the J. curcas transcriptome. A total of 33,363 and 912 complete or partial coding sequences (CDSs were determined by protein database alignments and ESTScan prediction, respectively. Among these unigenes, more than 41.52% were involved in approximately 128 known metabolic or signaling pathways, and 4,185 were possibly associated with cold resistance. DGE analysis was used to assess the changes in gene expression when exposed to cold condition (12°C for 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that 3,178 genes were significantly upregulated and 1,244 were downregulated under cold stress. These genes were then functionally annotated based on the transcriptome data from RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a global view of transcriptome response and gene expression profiling of J. curcas in response to cold stress. The results can help improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cold resistance and favor the screening of

  17. Toxicidade do pericarpo da Jatropha curcas em ovinos

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    O.R. Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas é uma planta cultivada para a produção de biocombustível. O pericarpo é um coproduto com potencial para alimentação animal, e a presença de componentes tóxicos, principalmente ésteres de forbol, pode limitar sua utilização. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a toxicidade do pericarpo. Vinte ovinos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos - um grupo-controle, que não recebeu a planta, e três experimentais, que receberam o pericarpo nas concentrações de 15% (G15, 30% (G30 e 45% (G45, durante 23 dias. Após o 10º dia, a ingestão do pericarpo promoveu redução do consumo de alimento, diarreia, desidratação e caquexia. Todos os grupos tratados apresentaram redução na concentração de fosfatase alcalina. Animais do G30 apresentaram redução na concentração de ureia e proteínas totais e elevação de potássio e sódio. No G45, houve aumento de aspartato aminotransferase, albumina, creatinina bilirrubina indireta e total. A avaliação anatomo-histopatológica revelou ascite, hidropericárdio, congestão no trato gastrintestinal e nos pulmões, edema pulmonar, aderências à parede torácica, degeneração hepática centrolobular e das células tubulares renais, pneumonia linfo-histiocitica e enterite linfoplasmocitária e histiocítica. À análise fitoquímica, constatou-se 0,3845mg de ésteres de forbol/g de pericarpo. Conclui-se que o pericarpo de J. curcas é tóxico, não sendo recomendado para alimentação de ovinos.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of anhydrous ethanol as a solvent in the oilseed extraction of Jatropha curcas L.; Evaluacion preliminar del etanol anhidro como solvente en la extraccion de aceite de semillas de jatrofa (Jatropha curcas L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard-Gonzalez, C.; Ferrari, R. A.; Pighinelli, A. L.; Park, K. J.

    2010-07-01

    A preliminary evaluation was performed on anhydrous ethanol as a solvent for the extraction of oil from whole Jatropha curcas L. seeds (32.24 % lipids, 16.05 % proteins), supplied from Mato Grosso, Brazil. The methodology of factorial 2k designs was followed, which included a comparison between pressing and n-hexane extraction methods. The regression model corresponding to the comparison between ethanol and n-hexane, varying extraction time, did not have lack of fit and presented an R2 of 99%. The experimental design for the pressing method, varying press rotation speed and temperature, yielded a poorly fitted linear model. The oil composition extracted with ethanol was similar to those obtained by n-hexane and by pressing. The highest yield (36.7%) was obtained using ethanol for 4 hours. The excess of extracted material was attributed to additional solubilization of impurities that could be diminished by limiting the extraction time to 1 hour. The oil extracted with ethanol and by pressing have the same color. It is presumed that the purification steps for both oils should be similar. Further studies using mixtures of ethanol with small proportions of n-hexane are suggested. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. EFFECT OF DIGESTARCOM, A HERBAL FEED ADDITIVE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram, M. Laiq Khan, Amer Tariq, Hasnat Ahmed and Rafia Firdous

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Digestarcom, a herbal feed additive on the performance of broiler chicks fed different levels of rapeseed cake was investigated. Fourteen experimental rations containing 7 rapeseed (0,2, 4, 6,8, 10 and 12% x 2 Digestarcom (0 and 150 9 per tone feed levels were formulated and fed to 14 treatment groups in three replications having 10 chick each. A higher weight gain per bird was observed for all the levels 0( rapeseed treated with Digestarcom as compared to non-supplemented control group. The maximum feed consumption was observed in group fed 10% rape seed cake treatment and maximum weight gain was observed in 6% level. More feed was consumed and more weight was gained by the broilers fed ration supplemented with digestarcom and exhibited better feed to gain ratio than non-supplemented control

  20. Economical feasibility of the harvesting and the processing of Jatropha curcas L. seeds in different stage of maturationViabilidade econômica do processo mecanizado de colheita e beneficiamento de sementes de pinhão manso em diferentes estádios de maturação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César José da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the economical feasibility of the harvesting process and the processing of Jatropha seeds, in order to replace the manual operation by semi-mechanized process. The study was composed of three harvesting systems, in which two machines harvested the two sides of the plant, the two machines operating simultaneously on the same line of culture and harvesting. And also two processing systems of the Jathropa fruits: the mechanical thresh with manual separation and the manual thresh. Considering that the operating costs of the mechanized harvesting was 26,2% lower than the obtained using the manual harvesting and that the cost o threshing and partially mechanized separation was 86,5% lower than the manual threshing and separation, we conclude that it is economically viable the replacement of the manual operation by the semi-mechanized. O objetivo na realização desse trabalho foi analisar a viabilidade econômica do processo de colheita e beneficiamento de sementes de pinhão manso, visando à substituição da operação manual pela semimecanizada. O estudo foi composto por dois sistemas de colheita dos frutos, sendo duas derriçadoras diferentes, operando simultaneamente na mesma linha da cultura e, a colheita manual. Foram avaliados também, dois sistemas de beneficiamento dos frutos de pinhão manso, a debulha mecânica com a separação manual e a debulha manual. Os custos operacionais da colheita mecanizada foi 26,2% inferior àquela obtida usando a colheita manual, e o custo da debulha e separação semimecanizada foi 86,5% inferior à debulha e separação manual, tornando economicamente viável a substituição da operação manual pela semimecanizada.

  1. Rheological Properties and Oxidative Stability of Baked Sponge Cake Using Silky Fowl Egg

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    Toshiyuki Toyosaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg and those using hen eggs were prepared, respectively. The rheological properties, lipid peroxidation and water content of the baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg compared with those of the cakes using hen egg. The height of the baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg became higher than that of the sponge cake using hen egg. The baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change in hardness and adhesion of the cake for 10 days at room temperature. In contrast, the cake using hen egg increased drastically a hardness of the cake and decreased an adhesion of the cake. Though water content of the sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change on 10 days of storage at room temperature, the cake using hen egg significantly decreased water content of the cake. The sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides for 10 days in storage at room temperature. In contrast, the cake using hen egg showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides for 10 days. The present experiments suggested that the use of silky fowl egg could improve a quality and oxidative stability of baked cakes.

  2. Caracterización morfofisiológica de Jatropha curcas L. variedad Brasil cultivada en dos zonas de Colombia Morphophysiological characterization of Jatropha curcas L. variety Brazil in two areas of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Alexander Pedraza Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Jatrofa o piñón (Jatropha curcas L. es una planta oleaginosa que ha adquirido importancia en Colombia por su alta producción y calidad de aceite para biocombustibles, despertando el interés en la investigación de su fisiología y desempeño productivo. El estudio se realizó en dos zonas de producción (Vichada y Santander, Colombia y en él se midieron la altura de la planta, el número de tallos, el área foliar, el peso seco de la hoja, el área foliar específica, el peso foliar específico, el porcentaje y perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar en el cual se consideraron dos zonas de producción, tres repeticiones y seis plantas por repetición. Las condiciones de las zonas de producción influyeron en el desarrollo vegetativo del cultivo; en ambas zonas, las hojas de los estratos inferiores de la planta presentaron mayor área. El área foliar específica y el peso foliar específico también variaron en las zonas de estudio. El contenido de aceite en la semilla no presentó variaciones y solamente el porcentaje de los ácidos grasos linoleico y oleico mostraron diferencias significativas entre las zonas.Piñón or Jatrofa (Jatropha curcas L. is an oleaginous plant that has gained importance in Colombia for their high production and quality of oil for biofuels, it has attracted interest by the investigation of its physiology and production performance. The study was conducted in two production areas (Vichada and Santander, determining plant height, stem number, leaf area, leaf dry weight, specific leaf area, specific leaf weight, percentage of oil extraction and solvent the fatty acid profile of oil by gas chromatography. A complete randomized blocks design, two production areas, three replications and six plants for replication was utilized. The conditions of the production areas influenced the development of the crop growing season, with the lower leaves of the plant showed

  3. Principal Disease and Insect Pests of Jatropha curcas L. in the Lower Valley of the Senegal River

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    Terren, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seed oil is proven to be toxic to many microorganisms, insects and animals. Despite its toxicity, Jatropha is not pest and disease resistant. The following major pests and diseases affecting Jatropha in the lower valley of the Senegal river have been identified: the leaf miner Stomphastis thraustica (Meyrick, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, the leaf and stem miner Pempelia morosalis (Saalmuller, 1880 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae and the shield-backed bug Calidea panaethiopica (Kirkaldy, 1909 (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae, which can cause flower and fruit abortion. Damage from these pests was particularly great during the second year after the plantations were set up (2009 and before later receding. Nevertheless, the worst attacks were caused by a vascular disease transmitted through the soil, which killed 65% of the plants in four years. It is mainly characterised by collar and root rot, which causes foliage to yellow and wilt, before the plant eventually dies. These threats should increase if larger areas are planted with Jatropha. Considering the scale of the damage caused by these attacks in Bokhol, the development of an integrated pest management programme adapted to the local context should be considered.

  4. Callus Growth Kinetics of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and Content of Fatty Acids from Crude Oil Obtained In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Costa, Jefferson; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Bier, Mário César Jucoski; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Gollo, André Luiz; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile.

  5. Rheological Properties and Oxidative Stability of Baked Sponge Cake Using Silky Fowl Egg

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane

    2013-01-01

    Baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg and those using hen eggs were prepared, respectively. The rheological properties, lipid peroxidation and water content of the baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg compared with those of the cakes using hen egg. The height of the baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg became higher than that of the sponge cake using hen egg. The baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change in hardness and adhesion of the cake for 10 days at room tempera...

  6. Olive cake combustion in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topal, H.; Durmaz, A. [Gazi Univ, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Atimtay, A.T. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which an environmentally sound technology was developed for biomass usage for energy production in Turkey. A circulating fluidized bed of 125 mm diameter and 1,800 mm height was used to determine the combustion characteristics of olive cake (OC) produced in Turkey. Olive cake, an olive oil milling waste product, is available in large amounts at a very low cost. Efficient use of OC in energy production solves the problem of waste management and contributes to meeting targets of the Kyoto Protocol. In this study, olive cake alone and olive cake plus lignite mixtures were burned in separate experiments and in various ratios. A new feeding mechanism was developed to feed the olive cake to the bed. On-line concentrations of oxygen, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and total hydrocarbons were measured in the flue gas along with temperature distribution in the bed. Emissions were compared with national standards and combustion efficiency of the olive cake plus lignite coal mixtures and olive cake alone were calculated. The optimum operating parameters were described. OC burned with 94 to 98.5 per cent efficiency. The combustion efficiency increased with increased excess air ratio because volatiles released from the fuel were burned more completely. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Aminul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P1 and P2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P1×P5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P2×P5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P4×P5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96% was observed in hybrid P2×P4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI and seedling vigor index (SVI were found in hybrid P1×P5 and P2×P5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  8. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained.

  9. Combining ability for germination traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M Aminul; Anuar, Nurina; Yaakob, Zahira; Ghani, Jaharah A; Osman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F 1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P 1 and P 2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P 1 × P 5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P 2 × P 5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P 4 × P 5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96%) was observed in hybrid P 2 × P 4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI) and seedling vigor index (SVI) were found in hybrid P 1 × P 5 and P 2 × P 5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  10. Biomass and carbon stock in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moreira Miquelino Eleto Torres

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to quantify the biomass and carbon stock in a crop of physic nut Jatropha curcas in Viçosa-MG at age three years. For biomass quantification, the direct or destructive method was applied to sample plants selected according to height, crown diameter and number of branches. For the determination of dry biomass in the field, the proportionality method was used. The determination of total carbon content was done in the Laboratory of Forest Soils of the Federal University of Viçosa, and the estimation of CO2 equivalent was based on the 3.67 factor. The carbon stock found in the third year of cultivation was 4.182 tC.ha-1 (15.349 tCO2-e.ha-1 and the mean annual increment (MAI was 1.394 tC.ha-1.year-1. Results revealed that the potential carbon increment in the physic nut crop is similar to values found in other crops and natural forests yet lower than in eucalyptus crops.

  11. Combined Effect of Honey and O2 Absorber Packaging on Storage Quality of Chocolate Sponge Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usamas Jariyawaranugoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the combined effect of honey and O2 absorber on physicochemical and sensory properties of chocolate sponge cakes stored at room temperature (30±2°C for 12 days. Four sponge cake treatments included sucrose cake packed without O2 absorber (T1, sucrose cake packed with O2 absorber (T2, honey cake packed without O2 absorber (T3 and honey cake packed with O2 absorber (T4 were examined. The pH values of sucrose and honey cakes packed without O2 absorber were significantly decreased (p0.05. All cake treatments showed significant decrease (p0.05 in all attributes scores. After the 3rd day of storage, the cake containing honey significantly showed (p>0.05 no alteration in all sensory attributes while the decrease in flavor was evident (p<0.05 in the sucrose cake.

  12. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming.

  13. In vitro degradation and total gas production of byproducts generated in the biodiesel production chain

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro degradation and total gas production of different oil seed press cakes from a biodiesel production chain gas through the use of a semi-automatic technique of gas production in vitro. The treatments consisted of substituting elephant grass in increasing levels, 0%, 30, 50 and 70%, with the byproducts of Gossyypium hirsutum, Ricinus communis, Moringa oleifeira, Jatropha curcas and Helianthus annus. The oil seed press cakes of Moringa oleifeira had the h...

  14. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  15. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 2 - The investigation of cake strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before the pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the cokemaking plant using cost efficient raw materials, but also increases oven throughput. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend and as a function of the stamping energy. In the first part of the paper, investigations on the stampability of coal blends were reported. In this paper, the development of a new strength test device for the systematic investigation of mechanical strength of coal compacts produced by stamping is described. Results from compressive strength tests indicate an elastic-plastic behaviour with failure by plastic fracture. Shear test results show similarity to the yield limit description in soil mechanics.

  16. Thermodynamic fundamentals of ferrous cake sulfitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin, A. G.; Vasekha, M. V.; Biryukov, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The Pourbaix diagrams of the systems SO 4 2- -SO 3 2- -H2O and iron hydroxide (oxide)-H2O are refined. The E(pH) dependence of the sulfitization of iron(III) hydroxide is refined with allowance for the regions of predominant phase constituents of the systems. The potential E-pH electrochemical equilibrium diagrams of the systems Fe(OH)3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, FeOOH-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, and Fe2O3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O are plotted. These diagrams can be considered as a thermodynamic basis for the sulfite conversion of the ferrous cake of copper-nickel production.

  17. Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas L. oil and ethanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; Kalpoe, Vijay; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik H.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from Jatropha curcas L. oil was studied in a batch reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium ethoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like rotational speed, temperature, catalyst concentratio

  18. Planting Jatropha curcas on Constrained Land: Emission and Effects from Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Firdaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess carbon emission and carbon loss caused from land use change (LUC of converting a wasteland into a Jatropha curcas plantation. The study was conducted for 12 months at a newly established Jatropha curcas plantation in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, changes of soil total carbon and plant biomass loss and growth were made on the wasteland and on the established plantation to determine the effects of land preparation (i.e., tilling and removal of the wasteland's native vegetation. Overall soil CO2 flux showed no significant difference (<0.05 between the two plots while no significant changes (<0.05 on soil total carbon at both plots were detected. It took 1.5 years for the growth of Jatropha curcas to recover the biomass carbon stock lost during land conversion. As far as the present study is concerned, converting wasteland to Jatropha curcas showed no adverse effects on the loss of carbon from soil and biomass and did not exacerbate soil respiration.

  19. Tree or shrub: a functional branch analysis of Jatropha curcas L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeuw, J.; Mulia, R.; Slingerland, M.A.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil-bearing semi-evergreen shrub or small tree with potential as a source of sustainable biofuel, yet information regarding vegetative and fruit biomass in relation to plant architecture is lacking. Research conducted in Indonesia used the tree based functional branch analysis

  20. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas oil by ultraviolet irradiation combined with ethanol washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao, Jh.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas oil (JCO is non-edible due to the content of phorbolesters (PEs which are very toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of JCO, treated by ultraviolet irradiation combined with ethanol washing, as an edible oil. The results showed that PEs can be significantly decreased by 100% (p Jatropha curcas oil (DJCO. In addition, the quality of DJCO was improved with enhanced DPPH radical scavenging. Therefore, DJCO with good quality will become a good resource for edible oil.El aceite de Jatropha curcas (JCO no es comestible debido a su contenido en esteres de forbol (PES que son muy tóxicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial de JCO como aceite comestible, cuando se trató mediante irradiación ultravioleta en combinación con lavados de etanol. Los resultados mostraron que el contenido de PES puede disminuir significativamente, hasta el 100% (p Jatropha curcas detoxificado (DJCO. Además, las cualidades de DJCO han mejorado teniendo una mayor capacidad de eliminación de radicales DPPH. Por lo tanto, DJCO con estas buenas cualidades se convertirá en un buen recurso de aceite comestible.

  1. Synthesis and properties of highly branched Jatropha curcas L. oil derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Ardiyanti, Agnes R.; Schuur, Boelo; Manurung, Robert; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of a number of novel branched Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) derivatives containing vicinal di-ester units in the fatty acid chains are reported. Both the length (acetyl vs. hexanoyl) and the stereochemistry of the vicinal di-ester units (cis vs. trans) were varied. The com

  2. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad; Dimaki, Chryssa; Wilkins, Richard; Brooker, John; van der Linde, Piet; Kayser, Oliver

    Jatropha curcas L. has become an important plant for biorefinery and production of biodiesel. From its ethnobotanical use, the plant is known for several activities which are associated with high toxicity. The latest development in engineering technology enables detoxification of native oil and

  3. Ants contribute significantly to the pollination of a biodiesel plant, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chang W; Li, Kun; Chen, Xiao M; Huang, Zachary Y

    2012-10-01

    Ants are the most abundant visitors to the flowers of Jatropha curcas L., but it is not clear how much they contribute to the pollination of this plant. In this study, we observed floral visitor assemblage and foraging behavior of ants, measured pollen loads carried by ants and deposited on stigmas, and determined the contribution of ants to the female reproductive success of J. curcas through exclusion experiments. Ants were the most abundant pollinators, accounting for 71.03 and 78.17% of total visits at two study sites. Among different ant species, Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.) is always the most abundant and the only common ant species at two study sites, which might suggest its important role in the pollination of J. curcas. Pollen loads carried by ants were significantly different among different species at two study sites. Pollen loads carried by ants increased with increased body length. Although the flowers exposed only to the ants produced less fruit than those exposed only to the winged visitors, ants alone resulted in almost 60% fruit set. Thus, ants could play a major role in the pollination of J. curcas if winged insects are absent.

  4. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad; Dimaki, Chryssa; Wilkins, Richard; Brooker, John; van der Linde, Piet; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. has become an important plant for biorefinery and production of biodiesel. From its ethnobotanical use, the plant is known for several activities which are associated with high toxicity. The latest development in engineering technology enables detoxification of native oil and othe

  5. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Hoekstra, A.Y, Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Van der Meer, T.H., 2009. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), 106 (42), E119

  6. Biological control of phytophagous arthropods in the physic nut tree Jatropha curcas L. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas has a high biofuel oil content, which could replace polluting fuels, and has great potential for large scale monoculture cultivation in the conventional system. We explored the occurrence, spatial distribution and the functional response of the main phytophagous species of this plant and their natural enemies to explore the potential for conservative biological control. We began sampling phytophagous species and predators when J. curcas plants were six months old. The most common species of phytophagous insects were nymphs and adults of Empoasca kraemeri, followed by Frankliniella schultzei and Myzus persicae. Among the predators, Ricoseius loxocheles, Iphiseioides zuluagai, Araneidae, larvae and adults of Psyllobora vigintimaculata and Anthicus sp. were the most frequently encountered. The most common parasitoids were the families Encyrtidae and Braconidae. The highest densities of E. kraemeri and F. schultzei on the edges of the J. curcas crop follow spatial patterns similar to those of their natural enemies I. zuluagai and Anthicus sp. These arthropods can be considered efficient predators of immature stages of E. kraemeri and F. schultzei on J. curcas.

  7. Effects of compression ratio on variation of stresses and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans and its curve fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝宽; 许方雷; 肖志红; 李昌珠; 李辉; 曾凡涛; 叶红齐

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among compression ratio and stress, compression ratio and residual oil of cake in pressing process of castor beans were studied using the test equipment under different states of oilseeds and ways of pressing manners. The results show that variation of stress increases nonlinearly and residual oil rate decreases with the increase of compression ratio. Lower residual oil of cake was obtained by pressing gently and frequently. Curve fitting on both relationships had been built and parameters for the model were obtained by least square procedure and deepening research on pressing process of the castor beans for castor oil. By assuming that the value of oil production is equivalent to the value of energy consumption, the critical compression ratio of intact seeds is 6.2 while that of crushed seeds is 3.6.

  8. Jatropha curcas hemagglutinin is similar to a 2S albumin allergen from the same source and has unique sugar affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Divya N; Singh, Vijay; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported the purification and preliminary X-ray characterization of a hemagglutinin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas and, with the detailed sequencing information available now, we find that it is similar to a 2S albumin allergen isolated from the same source. Through a search of Jatropha genome database (http://www.kazusa.or.jp/jatropha/), we map it to the sequence id JcCA0234191 (now referred to as Jcr4S00619.70 in the new version, release 4.5) which has a conserved alpha amylase inhibitor/seed storage protein domain found in the 2S albumin allergens. The putative sequence of the small and large chains of the protein is assigned and the total mass of the two subunits matches with the intact mass 10 kDa determined through MALDI. The protein retains hemagglutination activity between pH 6-9 and up to 60 °C on heat treatment and its hemagglutination activity is inhibited by sialic acid and fetuin. Bioinformatics studies show that the isolated protein sequence clusters in close association with a 2S albumin from Ricinus communis in phylogeny analysis and has a conservation of the characteristic four disulfide linkage pattern. Hemagglutinins and lectins are known to have allergenic effects through their interaction with immunoglobulin E and histamine release and earlier studies have shown that this interaction can be inhibited by lectin-specific sugars. We hope this report bridges the plant allergens and hemagglutinins further for exploring possible mediation of allergenic activity through sialic acid and complex sugar interactions and generates further interest in the area.

  9. Biophysicochemical evaluation of wild hilly biotypes of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production and micropropagation study of elite plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, K C; Verma, S K

    2015-01-01

    Depleting reserves of fossil fuel and increasing effects of environmental pollution from petrochemicals demands eco-friendly alternative fuel sources. Jatropha curcas oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment-friendly and renewable fuel. Jatropha oil is looked up in terms of availability and cost and also has several applications and enormous economic benefits. The seed oils of various jatropha biotypes from hilly regions were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters, viz, seed index(520-600 g), oil content (15-42 %), biodiesel yield (71-98 %), moisture content (2.3-6.5 %), ash content (3.2-5.6 %), acid value (4.2-26), density (0.9172-0.9317 g/cm(3)), viscosity (5-37 mm(2)/s), saponification value (195.8-204.2 mg/g), iodine value (106.6-113.6 mg/g), flash point (162-235 °C), cetane value (46.70-50.06 °C), free fatty acid value (2.5-10.2 %), and refractive index (1.4600-1.4710). Fatty acid profiling of jatropha resembles as edible oilseeds. NAA with BAP was found to be superior for callus induction (up to 87 %), as well as for shoot regeneration (up to12 shoots). Root induction (90-100 %) was successfully obtained in MS medium with or without phytoregulators. Grown plantlets were successfully transferred from lab to field with a survival rate of 80 %.

  10. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.

  11. How does particle size influence caking in lactose powder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, Melanie Anne; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is known to influence product properties such as flowability and compressibility. When producing crystalline lactose, different steps can affect the PSD of the final powder. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PSD on caking and the mechanisms...... involved. Smaller particles showed higher moisture sorption and a greater caking tendency, measured by dynamic vapor sorption and ring shear testing, respectively. Therefore, moisture sorption isotherms appeared as a valuable tool to predict the effect of PSD on humidity caking, as confirmed by the results...... of ring shear testing. Controlling the amount of fines, characterized by a higher content of impurities, a larger specific surface area and a broader span of the PSD, was found critical to limit caking. More precisely, both the total surface area and the span of the PSD require close attention as they can...

  12. Increasing Hermaphrodite Flowers using Plant Growth Regulators in Andromonoecious Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DASUMIATI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (JC is a crop with potential for use in biodiesel. Production of biodiesel requires plant seed as raw material, so the viability of JC for use in biodiesel will dependent greatly on the plant’s production of flowers. Generally, this plant is monoecious, meaning it has both male and female flowers. However, very rarely JC plants may be andromonoecious. Andromonoecious specimens of JC produce hermaphrodite and male flowers in the same plant. The number of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence is generally low compared to the number of male flowers. The aim of this study was to increase the proportion of hermaphrodite flowers by using plant growth regu- lators (PGRs in andromonoecious JC. Our experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (RBD with 9 treatments, namely kinetin, GA3, and IAA with concentrations of 0 ppm as a control, 50 and 100 ppm of each PGRs. The treatments were applied to stem cuttings from each plant and repeated 4 times. PGRs were applied by spraying the leaves within the buds of each plant. Applications took place weekly beginning when the plants entered flower initiating phase, until inflorescence produced. Observations were conducted during the treatment period (10 weeks. Results showed that plants treated with IAA, GA3, and kinetin at 50 and 100 ppm produced increased inflorescence per plant. The increases measured were 155.4 and 92.9% of (IAA, 120.4 and 151% (GA3, 96.6 and 51.7% (kinetin respectively. In addition, we found that application and GA3 at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm, and kinetin at 50 ppm, increased the number of hermaphrodite flowers per inflorescence by 50%, and increased the number of hermaphrodite flowers per plant by 275.6 and 183.1% (IAA, 219.5 and 254.1% (GA3, 162.9 and 103.1% (kinetin respectively. As would be expected, the number of fruit per plant increased in those specimens treated with IAA, GA3, and kinetin at 50 and 100 ppm. The increases measured were 301.7 and 167

  13. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  14. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  15. Aquaporin JcPIP2 is involved in drought responses in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yunxiao; Jiang, Luding; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yingchun; Lu, Daihua; Chen, Fang

    2007-10-01

    Water channel proteins, aquaporins, play fundamental roles in transmembrane water movements in plants. A new full-length cDNA encoding aquaporin was isolated from the seedlings of Jatropha curcas. The gene of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) from J. curcas (JcPIP2) contained an 843 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 280 amino acids. The amino acid sequence showed 94% identity with Ricinus communis PIP. Injection of JcPIP2 complementary RNA into Xenopus oocytes increased 10-fold the osmotic water permeability of the oocytes. Immunodetection of JcPIP2 with anti-JcPIP2 antibody indicated that this protein is ubiquitously located in all tested tissues of the plant. To investigate the relationship between aquaporins and drought resistance in J. curcas, the abundance of JcPIP2 was examined in seedlings of two J. curcas populations, GaoYou CSC63 and YanBian S1, under water deficit with PEG6000. Under field conditions, those two populations, GaoYou CSC63 was resistant to water deficit, but YanBian S1 was sensitive to water deprivation. With the increasing degree of drought stress, JcPIP2 level increased in seedlings of GaoYou CSC63, whereas there was no significant change in seedlings of YanBian S1. Compared with YanBian S1, GaoYou CSC63 also showed higher root hydraulic conductivity and lower decreasing trend in the seedlings under water deficit. These results indicated that JcPIP2 probably played a role in drought resistance in J. curcas.

  16. Aquaporin JcPIP2 is Involved in Drought Responses in Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHANG; Yunxiao WANG; Luding JIANG; Ying XU; Yingchun WANG; Daihua LU; Fang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Water channel proteins, aquaporins, play fundamental roles in transmembrane water movements in plants. A new full-length cDNA encoding aquaporin was isolated from the seedlings of Jatropha curcas.The gene of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) from J. curcas (JcPIP2) contained an 843 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 280 amino acids. The amino acid sequence showed 94% identity with Ricinus communis PIP. Injection of JcPIP2 complementary RNA into Xenopus oocytes increased 10-fold the osmotic water permeability of the oocytes. Immunodetection of JcPIP2 with anti-JcPIP2 antibody indicated that this protein is ubiquitously located in all tested tissues of the plant. To investigate the relationship between aquaporins and drought resistance in J. curcas, the abundance of JcPIP2 was examined in seedlings of two J. curcas populations, Gao You CSC63 and YanBian S1, under water deficit with PEG6000. Under field conditions, those two populations, Gao You CSC63 was resistant to water deficit, but YanBian S1 was sensitive to water deprivation. With the increasing degree of drought stress, JcPIP2 level increased in seedlings of Gao You CSC63, whereas there was no significant change in seedlings of YanBian S1. Compared with YanBian S1, GaoYou CSC63 also showed higher root hydraulic conductivity and lower decreasing trend in the seedlings under water deficit. These results indicated that JcPIP2 probably played a role in drought resistance in J. curcas.

  17. Techno-Economic Models for Optimised Utilisation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus under an Out-Grower Farming Scheme in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Techno-economic models for optimised utilisation of jatropha oil under an out-grower farming scheme were developed based on different considerations for oil and by-product utilisation. Model 1: Out-grower scheme where oil is exported and press cake utilised for compost. Model 2: Out-grower scheme with six scenarios considered for the utilisation of oil and by-products. Linear programming models were developed based on outcomes of the models to optimise the use of the oil through profit maximisation. The findings revealed that Model 1 was financially viable from the processors’ perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg. All scenarios considered under Model 2 were financially viable from the processors perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg; however, at seed price of $0.085/kg, financial viability was achieved for both parties. Optimising the utilisation of the oil resulted in an annual maximum profit of $123,300.

  18. Effects of Fractionation Methods on the Isolation of Fiber-rich Cake from Alfalfa and Ethanol Production from the Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested alfalfa was fractionated using centrifugation and filtration, whereby alfalfa was separated into a fiber-rich cake and a nutrient-rich juice. The solid cakes from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for ethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation. The filtration process proved to be more efficient at reducing the solids mass transfer to the juice than the centrifuge process. Glucose from filtered alfalfa solid cake can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with 75% of the theoretical yield. In conclusion, centrifugation was not as effective as filtration in removing particulates and colloidal matter from alfalfa. The filtration process resulted in a solid cake with a higher cellulose digestibility, which leads to a higher ethanol production.

  19. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Sorption of 4-Nitrophenol on Activated Kaolinitic Clay and Jatropha Curcas Activated Carbon from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Samsudeen Olanrewaju Azeez; Folahan Amao Adekola

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption behaviour of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) on activated kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas activated carbon was investigated. The kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas were activated with 1 M HNO3 and 0.5 M NaOH respectively and were characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. The effects of processing parameters, such as initial 4-NP concentration, temperature, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process were investigated. The results obtained showed that Ja...

  20. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  1. Combined effects of low light and water stress on Jatropha curcas L. promotes shoot growth and morphological adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Christina Silveira Carneiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (physic nut is a plant with economic and pharmaceutical uses. Basic studies on the influence of environmental factors on the early development of J. curcas are important for improving farming techniques and increasing productivity. This study investigated the adjustments of J. curcas to the environmental factors of drought and light stress in order to determine which factors most strongly affect the allocation of biomass during early growth. Leaves, stems, and roots of young plants were sampled and leaf area was measured during January and June in 2011. Plants of J. curcas that were grown in shade and subjected to water stress showed higher biomass allocation to aerial parts (mainly stems, which can be explained as a strategy for maximizing carbon assimilation. The pattern of biomass allocation between aerial components and the root system changed in plants grown in shade. During June 2011, biomass in shade-grown J. curcas was preferentially allocated to stems, indicating long-term adjustment. The lower biomass allocation to the root system suggests reduced exploitation of soil water even when this resource is scarce. Thus, over the long term, growth of J. curcas may be compromised by the combined effects of light stress and water deficit.

  2. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein.

  3. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  4. Optimization of Soybean Press Cake Treatments and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Tucu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results given by a systemic study of methods used in soybeans press cake treatment and processing. The influence of raw materials on soybean pressing system and the parameters of extrusion process are analyzed. Principally, the experiments confirm the influences of heat process parameters in case of soybean press cakes production using classic solutions and microwave energy. These experiments start up by manufacturing soybean press cake in industrial conditions at “S.C. International romoster srl” –Dudestii Vechi, Timis County. For ensuring the best conditions, the experimental stand included an extruder, a system for toasting the soybeans press cake, a system for parameters’ control and the system for ensuring the processing of water. The following possibilities were analyzed: (1 Soybeans press cake obtained by the classical method without toasting at pressure of extrusion p1 = 75 kgf cm-2 and flow Q1 = 800 kg h-1; (2 Soybeans press cake obtained at pressure of extrusion head p2 = 85 kgf cm-2 and flow Q2 = 600 kg h-1; (3 Soybeans press cake obtained at pressure of extrusion head p3 = 95 kgf cm-2 and fl ow Q3 = 300 kg h-1; Using this application we tested a new method for treatment and studied the special systems which can be applied in industrial practice at “S.C. International romoster srl” – Dudestii Vechi, Timis County. During the testings and researches the variation of electrical permeability was observed. Differences between theoretical equation and practical results in calculus and energy measurement in the workspace were noticed.

  5. Recovering Spirit Sets Sight on Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These are the first images sent back from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since the rover experienced communications problems on the 18th sol, or martian day, of its mission. They were acquired at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 26 (Jan. 29, 2004), showing that the camera's health remained excellent during Spirit's recovery. Two of Spirit's potential target rocks, which are near the rock called Adirondack, can be seen on the lower left and right. The rock on the left has been named 'Cake,' and the white rock on the right has been named 'Blanco.'In the upper left is a color image of the panoramic camera calibration target, also known as the martian sundial. The color panel of the calibration target looks almost exactly like it did on Earth, indicating that the color shown of Mars, though approximated, is close to true color.The monochrome image in the upper right shows the sun, magnified five times. This image was acquired by the panoramic camera as part of a routine sequence of images designed to monitor the dust abundance in the martian atmosphere. The dust abundance appears to be decreasing slowly with time, consistent with the atmosphere continuing to clear after the large dust storm of last December.

  6. Damage of Coffee Bean Weevil ( Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer) on Its New Host Jatropha curcas L.%咖啡豆象对新寄主麻疯树的危害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴跃开; 陈波涛; 欧国腾

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] Coffee bean weevil (Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer) is a worldwide important pest in storehouse,which distributes in tropical and subtropical region with overlapping ecological zone with the important biofuel plant Jatropha curcas L. The paper was to investigate the damage of coffee bean weevil on J. curcas. [ Method] Taking cropping area in Luodian of Guizhou Province as the investigation point, the forest stand of J. curcas in field and the indoor stored fruits were investigated ,and the occurrence condition and damage consequence of the pest were grasped. Furthermore,the taxonomic status of the pest was also confirmed. [ Result ] Coffee bean weevil had common distribution in planting area of J. curcas in Luodian,which was found to cause damage both in field and indoor condition. The adults of coffee bean weevil fed on fungi with little direct damage on the fruit of J. curcas;however,the adults of the pest laid their eggs inside the peel of fruit,and the larv~ would hatch and feed inside the peel and bored the fruit peel into empty ,thus causing direct damage on the fruit;in addition ,coffee bean weevil might have series of potential damages including direct feeding on seeds,spreading diseases,and posing damage on other economic crops in production area,etc. [ Conclusion]J. curcas was an important new host for coffee bean weevil. The pest had certain damage on the plant,which also had potential damage on plant products and other economic crops. The research and control efforts on coffee bean weevil should be strengthened.%[目的]咖啡豆象是世界性仓储害虫,主要分布于热带亚热带地区,与重要能源植物麻疯树的生态区重叠,有必要调查其时麻疯树的危害性.[方法]以贵州罗甸种植区为调查点,对野外麻疯树林分及室内果实储藏物进行调查,掌握害虫发生情况及其为害后果,并对其分类地位进行确定.[结果]咖啡豆象在罗甸麻疯树种植区普遍分布,室内及林间均

  7. Characterizing parameters of Jatropha curcas cell cultures for microgravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Wagner A.; Pinares, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a tropical perennial species identified as a potential biofuel crop. The oil is of excellent quality and it has been successfully tested as biodiesel and in jet fuel mixes. However, studies on breeding and genetic improvement of jatropha are limited. Space offers a unique environment for experiments aiming at the assessment of mutations and differential gene expression of crops and in vitro cultures of plants are convenient for studies of genetic variation as affected by microgravity. However, before microgravity studies can be successfully performed, pre-flight experiments are necessary to characterize plant material and validate flight hardware environmental conditions. Such preliminary studies set the ground for subsequent spaceflight experiments. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro growth of cultures from three explant sources (cotyledon, leaf, and stem sections) of three jatropha accessions (Brazil, India, and Tanzania) outside and inside the petriGAP, a modified group activation pack (GAP) flight hardware to fit petri dishes. In vitro jatropha cell cultures were established in petri dishes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark. Parameters evaluated were surface area of the explant tissue (A), fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) for a period of 12 weeks. Growth was observed for cultures from all accessions at week 12, including subsequent plantlet regeneration. For all accessions differences in A, FW and DW were observed for inside vs. outside the PetriGAPs. Growth parameters were affected by accession (genotype), explant type, and environment. The type of explant influenced the type of cell growth and subsequent plantlet regeneration capacity. However, overall cell growth showed no abnormalities. The present study demonstrated that jatropha in vitro cell cultures are suitable for growth inside PetriGAPs for a period of 12 weeks. The parameters

  8. Structure and flow calculation of cake layer on microfiltration membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadong Yu; Zhen Yang; Yuanyuan Duan

    2017-01-01

    Submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBR) are widely used in wastewater treatment.The permeability of a membrane declines rapidly because of the formation of a cake layer on the membrane surface.In this paper,a multiple staining protocol was conducted to probe the four major foulants in the cake layer formed on a filtration membrane.Fluorescent images of the foulants were obtained using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM).The three dimensional structure of the cake layer was reconstructed,and the internal flow was calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).Simulation results agreed well with the experimental data on the permeability of the cake layer during filtration and showed better accuracy than the calculation by Kozeny-Carman method.β-D-Glucopyranose polysaccharides and proteins are the two main foulants with relatively large volume fractions,while α-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides and nucleic acids have relatively large specific surface areas.The fast growth of β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides in the volume fraction is mainly responsible for the increase in cake volume fraction and the decrease in permeability.The specific area,or the aggregation/dispersion of foulants,is less important to its permeability compared to its volume fraction.

  9. CELLULOSE EXTRACTION FROM PALM KERNEL CAKE USING LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARM YAN YAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method is basically a two-step process. Palm kernel cake was pretreated in hot water at 180°C and followed by liquid oxidation process with 30% H2O2 at 60°C at atmospheric pressure. The process parameters are hot water treatment time, ratio of palm kernel cake to H2O2, liquid oxidation reaction temperature and time. Analysis of the process parameters on production cellulose from palm kernel cake was performed by using Response Surface Methodology. The recovered cellulose was further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. Through the hot water treatment, hemicellulose in the palm kernel cake was successfully recovered as saccharides and thus leaving lignin and cellulose. Lignin was converted to water soluble compounds in liquid oxidation step which contains small molecular weight fatty acid as HCOOH and CH3COOH and almost pure cellulose was recovered.

  10. Silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rângelis de Sousa Figueredo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was carried out at the Federal Institute of Goiás State, Campus Rio Verde, in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of Piata palisadegrass ensiled with palm kernel in the levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a natural basis of the Piata palisadegrass. The material was minced, mixed, packed into experimental silos and opened after 60 days of fermentation. The palm kernel cake is an agro-industrial by-product that can enrich the silage, increasing its nutritional value.The addition of palm kernel cake improved the fermentative and bromatological parameters of the silage, increasing the dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and total digestible nutrients, with a reduction in the fiber fraction, values of pH, ammonia nitrogen, and titratable acidity. The use of palm kernel cake in Piata palisadegrass silage increase the fractions A, B1, B2 and in vitro dry matter digestibility, and decrease the fractions B3 and C. For achieving the best quality silage it is recommended the addition of 15% palm kernel cake.

  11. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA.

  12. Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Čolović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive cake is by-product of olive oil production. This material cannot be stored in original condition for a long time because it has high water content and relatively high portion of oil that causes rapid deterioration. Thus it is necessary to investigate possible methods of remediation of such by-product, where utilization for energy generation presents a useful option. Several studies have been conducted on energy generation from olive cake, however not one that includes pelleting as a pre-treatment. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of different cultivars of olive cake, to produce pellets, and determine their basic quality parameters. The pellets obtained from olive cake had mainly satisfactory results regarding their quality in comparison to standards for fuel pellets. It should be kept in mind that these standards are manly for wood pellets, and therefore some lower criteria could be applied for olive cake and such biomass. The highest amount of residual oil and the lowest amount of protein was found in cultivar ‘Buža’ and produced pellets had the smallest abrasion index (8.15%. Other cultivars had lower oil and higher protein content, and abrasion index higher than 10%. For these cultivars preparation of material (conditioning and/or binder adding prior to pelleting is necessary. Higher heating value (HHV and lower heating value (LHV were not significantly influenced by different chemical composition of cultivars, thus attention should be paid on their influence on pelleting process.

  13. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  14. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Konyalı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

  15. Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, M R; Panchev, I N; Terzieva, V V

    2000-08-01

    The complete sucrose elimination and its replacement by microencapsulated aspartame (Nutra Sweet) and bulking agents (sorbitol, wheat starch and wheat germ) on the physical and textural sensory characteristics of two diabetic sponge cakes against a control sponge cake was studied. Mathematical and statistical methods were used and regression models worked out, describing the physical and textural characteristics of the three sponge cakes and their values were optimized. The effect on the porosity, springiness, volume and shrinkage of sponge takes was substantial and depended on the amount of the added ingredients. The diabetic sponge cake containing wheat germ showed the least physical and sensory deviations against the control sponge cake. The energy value of the diabetic sponge cakes against the control one was reduced with 25% for the ordinary sponge cake without sucrose and with 29% for sponge cake without sucrose containing wheat germ.

  16. Permeability of collapsed cakes formed by deposition of fractal aggregates upon membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Sangho

    2006-04-15

    We have investigated, theoretically, the physical properties of cake layers formed from aggregates to obtain a better understanding of membrane systems used in conjunction with coagulation/flocculation pretreatment. We developed a model based on fractal theory and incorporated a cake collapse effect to predict the porosity and permeability of the cake layers. The floc size, fractal dimension, and transmembrane pressure were main parameters that we used in these model calculations. We performed experiments using a batch cell device and a confocal laser-scanning microscope to verify the predicted specific cake resistances and porosities under various conditions. Based on the results of the model, the reduction in inter-aggregate porosity is more important than that in intra-aggregate porosity during the cake collapsing process. The specific cake resistance decreases upon increasing the aggregate size and decreasing the fractal dimensions. The modeled porosities and specific cake resistances of the collapsed cake layer agreed reasonably well with those obtained experimentally.

  17. Does Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas Represent a Sustainable Alternative Energy Source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Ovando-Medina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Various government agencies around the world have proposed vegetable oils and their conversion to biodiesel as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Due to its adaptability to marginal soils and environments, the cultivation of Jatropha curcas is frequently mentioned as the best option for producing biodiesel. In the present work the current situation of proven and potential reserves of fossil fuel, and the production and consumption model for the same are analyzed, in order to later review the sustainability of the production process which begins with the cultivation of J. curcas, and culminates with the consumption of biodiesel. A review of the following topics is proposed in order to improve the sustainability of the process: areas destined for cultivation, use of external (chemical inputs in cultivation, processes for converting the vegetable oil to biodiesel, and, above all, the location for ultimate consumption of the biofuel.

  18. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ovando-Medina, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062-5016 pollen grains (266-647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Constituents of the Extract from Jatropha curcas Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Saosoong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of the methanolic extract from J. curcas fruit were evaluated in this study. The crude extract was achieved by extraction with 60 % (v/v methanol. It showed the potencies of antimicrobial activity against P. putida, P. syringae pv. sesami, X. campestris, X. campestris pv. glycines, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and R. solanacearum with the presence of inhibition zone in the range of 8.0 ± 0.0 to 13.7 ± 0.6 mm and MIC value at 214.29 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Furthermore, flavone compound can be proposed by the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. According to the group of flavonoid compounds have strong bioactive properties; the results suggested that J. curcas fruit has highly potential as effective natural bioactive sources.

  20. Cytological characterization of Jatropha curcas callus in different periods of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalilhia Nazaré dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aimed was characterization and determining the time for Jatropha curcas callus subculture. The pattern of J. curcascallus development is sigmoidal with 5 distinct phases, and transplantation should be performed at the end of the deceleration phase(approximately day 28. During callus development, it was observed that at the onset of growth in the exponential phase the cells wereinternally disorganized; in the linear phase, respiratory metabolism was resumed through reorganization of the first mitochondria;and by the mid-deceleration phase, the cells were entirely active, and several organelles were detected. This organizational status wasmaintained throughout the stationary phase during which somatic pre-embryos were identified. At the end of the stationary phase, intracellulardisruption began, and the cells entered senescence, which characterized the decline phase for the J. curcas calli growth curve.

  1. Pathogenesis-related gene, JcPR-10a from Jatropha curcas exhibit RNase and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Parinita; Bhatt, Vacha; Singh, Rekha; Das, Mamali; Sopory, Sudhir K; Chikara, Jitendra

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis-related proteins have a broad spectrum of roles, ranging from seed germination, development to resistance. The PR-10 is a multigene family differing from other PR proteins in being intracellular, small and acidic with similar 3D structures. We have isolated JcPR-10a cDNA with an ORF of 483 bp from J. curcas, an important biofuel crop grown in the wastelands of India. JcPR-10a gets clustered with dicots in phylogenetic tree. The genomic organisation analysis of JcPR-10a revealed the presence of an intron at conserved 185 bp position. Transcript expression of JcPR-10a was upregulated in response to different stimuli such as NaCl, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and M. phaseolina. In response to SA and Macrophomina the transcript was found increased at 48 h, however, in case of NaCl and MeJa a strong induction was observed at 12 h which decreased at 48 h. We first time report the transcript up regulation of PR-10 gene by Macrophomina, a pathogen causing collar rot in Jatropha. The recombinant E. coli cells showed better growth in LB medium supplemented with NaCl, whereas growth of recombinant cells was inhibited in LB medium supplemented with KCl, mannitol, sorbitol, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. The JcPR-10a protein was overexpressed in E. coli cells, and was purified to homogeneity, the purified protein exhibited RNase and DNase activity. Furthermore, the protein also showed antifungal activity against Macrophomina, indicating that JcPR-10a can serve as an important candidate to engineer stress tolerance in Jatropha as well as other plants susceptible to collar rot by Macrophomina.

  2. Allometric equations and carbon stocks in tree biomass of Jatropha curcas L. in Senegal’s Peanut Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Diédhiou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Senegal, numerous initiatives exist to cultivate Jatropha curcas L. (JCL trees as a multipurpose energy crop, including for fuel. Thus, research on this drought-resistant shrub has been predominately focused on biofuel production from its seeds, while its potential for carbon (C sequestration, which could be valuable in sink projects (i.e., afforestation, reforestation under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto protocol, has been largely unstudied. This study was carried out in Senegal’s Peanut basin to develop allometric equations for estimating biomass of individual JCL shrubs, JCL plantations, and determining their respective C storage potential. We discovered a three-stage evolution of JCL biomass accumulation. A slow build-up stage (1–3 years, followed by a fast production of biomass (3–4 years, and a relatively slower stage where certain fractions-root and leaf biomass-reach a plateau (4–5 years. The ratio between belowground and aboveground biomass varies from 53% (1 year after planting and 26% (5 year after planting, with an average of 41%. We developed allometric models that provide a reliable estimation of the different biomass fractions of JCL and according to tree age. The models revealed that the stocks of biomass and C become relatively important from the fifth year with a storage capacity of 5.07 kg per tree. Most of the biomass and organic C are stored in the aboveground fractions of trees, suggesting that JCL plantations may be valuable for C sink and CDM projects.

  3. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1 caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyong Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1 is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1 was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha.

  4. Indirect measurement of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of Jatropha curcas
    Quantificação indireta de pigmentos fotossintetizantes em folhas de Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz Rigon; Silvia Capuani; José Félix de Brito Neto; Napoleão Esberard de Macêdo Beltrão

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi gerar modelos matemáticos capazes de reportar os pigmentos fotossintéticos e proteína solúvel nas folhas de Jatropha curcas por meio da relação entre leituras realizadas por espectrofotometria clássica e por clorofilômetro, ClorofiLOG® 1030. O trabalho foi realizado na Embrapa Algodão, na cidade de Campina Grande (PB). Para a análise indireta, foi usado o equipamento portátil para leituras em discos foliares com diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. A clo...

  5. PLAGAS POTENCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE Jatropha curcas L., EN EL OCCIDENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA POTENTIAL PEST OF Jatropha curcas L. CROP IN WESTERN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Cristóbal Yepes Rodríguez; Manyer Ana Luisa Carmona; Norman Correa Zuluaga; Jhon Alveiro Quiroz Gamboa

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se da información sobre la biología, comportamiento, hábitos e importancia económica de las chinches Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae) y Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) y se advierte sobre su presencia en una parcela de Jatropha curcas establecida en Santa Fe de Antioquia. Además, se halló que la pringamosa, Echidoscolus rubulosus es el hospedero silvestre de la segunda especie, en este ecosistema de bosque seco tropical. Se co...

  6. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  7. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Oil Extraction from Jatropha curcas L. Using Ethanol as a Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Silmara Bispo dos Santos; Marcio Arêdes Martins; Ana Lívia Caneschi; Paulo Rafael Morette Aguilar; Jane Sélia dos Reis Coimbra

    2015-01-01

    In the study the yield and kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the oil extraction process from Jatropha curcas L. using ethanol as a solvent were evaluated for different temperatures, moisture contents of the solid phase, and particle sizes. The extraction process yield increased with contact time of solid particles with the solvent until reaching equilibrium (saturation of the solvent), for all the temperatures, moisture contents, and average particle sizes. These parameters significantl...

  8. Assessment of genetic stability in micropropagules of Jatropha curcas genotypes by RAPD and AFLP analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a drought resistant non edible oil yielding plant, has acquired significant importance as an alternative renewable energy source. Low and inconsistent yields found in field plantations prompted for identification of high yielding clones and their large scale multiplication by vegetative propagation to obtain true to type plants. In the current investigation plantlets of J. curcas generated by axillary bud proliferation (micropropagation) using nodal segments obtained from selected high yielding genotypes were assessed for their genetic stability using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analyses. For RAPD analysis, 21 out of 52 arbitrary decamer primers screened gave clear reproducible bands. In the micropropagated plantlets obtained from the 2nd sub-culture, 4 out of a total of 177 bands scored were polymorphic, but in the 8th and 16th sub-cultures (culture cycle) no polymorphisms were detected. AFLP analysis revealed 0.63%, 0% and 0% polymorphism in the 2nd, 8th and 16th generations, respectively. When different genotypes, viz. IC 56557 16, IC 56557 34 and IC 56557 13, were assessed by AFLP, 0%, 0.31% and 0.47% polymorphisms were found, respectively, indicating a difference in genetic stability among the different genotypes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on assessment of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets in J. curcas and suggests that axillary shoot proliferation can safely be used as an efficient micropropagation method for mass propagation of J. curcas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. KARAKTERISTIK PERTUMBUHAN JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) YANG DITAMBAHKAN CENDAWAN ENDOFIT PADA LAHAN PASCA TAMBANG TIMAH

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmarayu P. Gedoan; Alex Hartana; Hamim Hamim; Utut Widyastuti; Nampiah Sukarno

    2013-01-01

    Tin mining activity caused canging in physical and chemical characteristic of the soil that were not suitable for growth of plants. The objective of this experiment was to study accessions of Jatropha curcas planted on post tin mining land which were given endophyte. This research was conducted in a Sinar Baru village TS 133, district of Bangka, Bangka Belitung province for field research conducted in May 2007 to April 2008. The experimentas a factorial experiment in the design of the randomi...

  10. Transformation of Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA) Gene into Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Asri Pirade Paserang; Aris Tjahjoleksono; Utut Widyastuti; Suharsono Suharsono

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha is one of the many biodiesel plants developed in tropical countries. Efforts to increase its productivity can be done using various methods of breeding. One of the breeding methods is the introduction of genes into the Jatropha plant. The aim of this study is to assess the success of genetic transformation using the Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA) gene in Jatropha curcas. The research procedures included inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, callus induction, s...

  11. Penggunaan Polistirena Sulfonat Sebagai Katalis Transesterifikasi Minyak Jarak Pagar (Jatropha Curcas) Berkadar Asam Lemak Bebas Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Adelina

    2012-01-01

    A transesterification of castor oil containing free fatty acid 7 % was catalysed by sulfonated polystyrene. Several factor reaction conditions such as mol ratio, temperature reaction, concentration of catalyst and interval time reaction has been observeted. General reaction materials involving castor oil (jatropha curcas), methanol, cosolvent eter, aerosyl, and polystyrene sulfonated were mixture in stainless stell reactor. The reaction was processed by using 50 gr castor oil, 26 ml methanol...

  12. Extraction and purification of curcain, a protease from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L K; Dutta, S K

    1991-02-01

    A proteolytic enzyme, curcain, has been extracted from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn. The enzyme was purified by chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The homogeneity of protein associated with curcain was established by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using a discontinuous buffer system. The molecular weight of curcain was estimated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration using a calibration curve of standard proteins to be around 22,000 daltons.

  13. A novel chloroplastic isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase gene from Jatropha curcas: Cloning, characterization and subcellular localization

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Lei; Yin, Li; Hu,Xiaole; Xu, Ying; Chen,Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Jatropha curcas is a rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active terpenoids. More than 25 terpenoids have been isolated from this plant, and their activities are anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, insecticidal, rodenticidal, cytotoxic and molluscicidal. But not much is known about the pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids. The present investigation describes the cloning, characterization and subcellular localization of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI) gene ...

  14. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the numb...

  15. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  18. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  19. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an...

  20. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Kattenbelt, Carolien; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump effici

  1. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. Bioenergy and biofertilizer : improvement of biogas production from filter cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, A.H. [Environmental Bioremediation Group, Research and Development Agency, GeoCuba, Camaguey (Cuba); Alvarez, R.C. [Provincial Direction of Soils, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) was studied using a natural zeolite to intensify the biogas production. The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural waste mixtures in certain proportions is the underlying basis of biogas generation. Earlier studies have shown that certain inert materials can act as stimulators in biogas production when used in conjunction with AD. This study involved three experiments using filter cake from different sugar mills using three doses of zeolite to determine how they stimulate biogas production. Another objective of the study was to determine if the mud of the digester containing the added zeolite has an impact on plants and soil. The study was conducted under glass house conditions using a brown soil with carbonates with neutral pH and high contents of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter. It was concluded that it is possible to increase the biogas yield and to improve AD behaviour of the filter cake by using a zeolite adapted to unique operating conditions. The amount of yield depends on the origin of the filter cake, the stimulator dose and age. Results were in the order of 20-40 per cent biogas production. Fresh filter cake was found to produce more biogas. The mud of the anaerobic digestion of the filter cake containing zeolite positively impacted on the agronomic behaviour of the sorghum in relation to P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter content. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  4. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%, four (34.66%, and three (50.47% having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  5. Smooth muscle relaxant evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) and isolation of triterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falodun, Abiodun; Nworgu, Z A M; Osayemwenre, Erharuyi

    2011-12-20

    Jatropha curcas is a herbal preparation used in the tropics for the treatment of threatened abortion and related problems associated with pregnancy. The Stem bark of Jatropha curcas is used ethno medicinally in Nigeria especially in the eastern part of the country for the treatment of infertility and spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). The present study was undertaken in order to validate the folkloric claim, using scientific experimental procedures and bioassay guided fractionation. The crude powdered sample was subjected to phytochemical screening testing for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. Chromatographic analysis (TLC and VLC) were carried out using various solvent systems. The effect of methanolic extracts on rat uterine contractions was studied in vitro, in 40ml organ baths containing physiological salt solution of De Jalon maintained at 370C, aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 with an isometric transducer connected an UgoBasile recorder under a resting tension of 750mg. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract abolished significantly the spontaneous contraction of the uterus and reduced acetylcholine induced uterine contractions at a dose of 50mg/ml. The tocolytic effects indicate the presence of active principle(s) which would explain the ethno medicinal use of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas to treat spontaneous abortion.

  6. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

    2011-09-01

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding.

  7. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the H(+)-Pyrophosphatase from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2016-04-01

    H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) is a primary pyrophosphate (PPi)-energized proton pump to generate electrochemical H(+) gradient for ATP production and substance translocations across membranes. It plays an important role in stress adaptation that was intensively substantiated by numerous transgenic plants overexpressing H(+)-PPases yet devoid of any correlated studies pointing to the elite energy plant, Jatropha curcas. Herein, we cloned the full length of J. curcas H(+)-PPase (JcVP1) complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription PCR, based on the assembled sequence of its ESTs highly matched to Hevea brasiliensis H(+)-PPase. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 765 amino acids that was predicted as a K(+)-dependent H(+)-PPase evolutionarily closest to those of other Euphorbiaceae plants. Many cis-regulatory elements relevant to environmental stresses, molecular signals, or tissue-specificity were identified by promoter prediction within the 1.5-kb region upstream of JcVP1 coding sequence. Meanwhile, the responses of JcVP1 expression to several common abiotic stresses (salt, drought, heat, cold) were characterized with a considerable accordance with the inherent stress tolerance of J. curcas. Moreover, we found that the heterologous expression of JcVP1 could significantly improve the salt tolerance in both recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and this effect could be further fortified in yeast by N-terminal addition of a vacuole-targeting signal peptide from the H(+)-PPase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  8. Jatropha curcas: A potential crop for phytoremediation of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, S.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, N.; Sharma, P.N. [National Botany Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to test the heavy metal phytoremediation capacity of Jatropha curcas from fly ash. Both natural accumulation by J. curcas and chemically enhanced phytoextraction was investigated. Plants were grown on FA and FA amended with fertile garden soil, in presence and absence of chemical chelating agent EDTA at 0.1 g kg{sup -1} and 0.3 g kg{sup -1} of soil. EDTA enhanced the uptake of all five elements (Fe, Al, Cr, Cu and Mn) tested. Fe and Mn were retained more in roots while Cu, Al and Cr were translocated more to the shoot. Metal accumulation index indicates that the effect of EDTA at 0.3 g kg{sup -1} was more pronounced than EDTA at 0.1 g kg{sup -1} in terms of metal accumulation. Biomass was enhanced up to 37% when FA was amended with GS. Heavy metal uptake was enhanced by 117% in root, 62% in stem, 86% in leaves when EDTA was applied at 0.3 g kg{sup -1} to FA amended with GS. Study suggest that J. curcas has potential of establishing itself on FA when provided with basic plant nutrients and can also accumulate heavy metals many folds from FA without attenuating plant growth.

  9. Effects of lead (Pb on Jatropha curcas L. growth under hydroponic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Palchetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the environment with pollutants, like heavy metals from human activity, has caused the loss of agricultural land. One possible solution could be the utilization of phytoremediation technique with particular plant, capable of absorbing the contaminants from soil. Jatropha curcas, an important plant for the biodiesel production, in particular in tropical areas, has the capacity to grown in marginal land, compromised for food cultivation. The experiment was conducted in hydroponic conditions with the objective to evaluate the response and growth parameters of juvenile plants grown in presence of different Pb levels (0-100-200 mg/L. It was possible to study the interaction in the plant between some mineral element (Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe and morphological parameters and Pb, and evaluate some tolerance indicators. Results showed that the plants were able to grow in presence of Pb and to accumulate high levels of heavy metal in the roots, followed by the stems and leaves. However, Jatropha curcas subjected to Pb treatment demonstrated stunted growth and alterations in mineral elements contents. The results suggest that J. curcas may tolerate the levels of Pb imposed, but there is low translocation of heavy metal to aerial tissues, within the time period of analysis.

  10. Sex expression and floral diversity in Jatropha curcas: a population study in its center of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano-Anaya, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Castillo, Edilma; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ruiz-González, Sonia; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Grajales-Conesa, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Sex expression and floral morphology studies are central to understand breeding behavior and to define the productive potential of plant genotypes. In particular, the new bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. has been classified as a monoecious species. Nonetheless, there is no information about its reproductive diversity in the Mesoamerican region, which is considered its center of origin and diversification. Thus, we determined sex expression and floral morphology in J. curcas populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala. Our results showed that most of J. curcas specimens had typical inflorescences with separate sexes (monoecious); meanwhile, the rest were atypical (gynoecious, androecious, andromonoecious, androgynomonoecious). The most important variables to group these populations, based on a discriminant analysis, were: male flower diameter, female petal length and male nectary length. From southern Mexico “Guerrero” was the most diverse population, and “Centro” had the highest variability among the populations from Chiapas. A cluster analysis showed that the accessions from southern Mexico were grouped without showing any correlation with the geographical origin, while those accessions with atypical sexuality were grouped together. To answer the question of how informative are floral morphological traits compared to molecular markers, we perform a Mantel correlation test between the distance matrix generated in this study and the genetic distance matrix (AFLP) previously reported for the same accessions. We found significant correlation between data at the level of accessions. Our results contribute to design genetic improvement programs by using sexually and morphologically contrasting plants from the center of origin. PMID:27257548

  11. Transformation of Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA Gene into Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Pirade Paserang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha is one of the many biodiesel plants developed in tropical countries. Efforts to increase its productivity can be done using various methods of breeding. One of the breeding methods is the introduction of genes into the Jatropha plant. The aim of this study is to assess the success of genetic transformation using the Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA gene in Jatropha curcas. The research procedures included inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, callus induction, screening test of selection media, regeneration, and gene expression analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. IMA is one of the genes that controls flowering genes and ovule development. It was first isolated from tomato plants and has been successfully overexpressed in these plants using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S promoter. In this experiment, plant transformation was performed on J. curcas as the target. Explant callus formation in both the control and treated samples was good, but shoot formation decreased dramatically in the treated explants. PCR analysis indicated that IMA genes can be inserted into J. curcas with the size of the IMA gene is 500 bp.

  12. Biotechnological approaches for the genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2015-08-14

    Ever increasing demand for energy sources and reduction of non-renewable fossil fuel reserves have lead to exploration of alternative and renewable energy sources. Due to wide distribution, agronomic suitability, and desirable oil properties, J. curcas has been identified as a renewable and alternative energy source of biodiesel. Large scale commercial cultivation of this crop would not only be environmentally friendly and be worthwhile in carbon sequestration but also in decreasing the energy supply pressures. Wide adaptation across geographic regions, short gestation period compared to most tree species, rapid growth, hardiness, optimum plant size, and easy propagation in combination make this species suitable for large scale cultivation on barren lands. The limited information of the genetics and inheritance of desirable traits, unpredictable and low yields, the limited diversity and susceptibility to diseases and insects are however, key limitations in fruitful farming of J. curcas. In this review, an effort is made to project the current biotechnology and molecular biology tools employed in the direction of, evaluating the genetic diversity and phylogeny revelation of Jatropha spp., identification of genetic markers for desirable traits, development of efficient micropropagation and regeneration system, and genetic transformation methods for J. curcas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vásquez-Mayorga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346, but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274 and inbreeding coefficient (f =  − 0.102 were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24 from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica.

  14. Effect of biosludge and biofertilizer amendment on growth of Jatropha curcas in heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha Ashok; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Kumar, Phani; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of arsenic, chromium and zinc contaminated soils, amended with biosludge and biofertilizer on the growth of Jatropha curcas which is a biodiesel crop. The results further showed that biosludge alone and in combination with biofertilizer significantly improved the survival rates and enhanced the growth of the plant. With the amendments, the plant was able to grow and survive upto 500, 250 and 4,000 mg kg(-1) of As, Cr and Zn contaminated soils, respectively. The results also showed that zinc enhanced the growth of J. curcas more as compared to other metals contaminated soils. The heavy metal accumulation in plant increased with increasing concentrations of heavy metals in soil, where as a significant reduction in the metal uptake in plant was observed, when amended with biosludge and biofertilizer and biosludge alone. It seems that the organic matter present in the biosludge acted as metal chelator thereby reducing the toxicity of metals to the plant. Findings suggest that plantation of J. curcas may be promoted in metal contaminated soils, degraded soils or wasteland suitably after amending with organic waste.

  15. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  17. CELLULOSE EXTRACTION FROM PALM KERNEL CAKE USING LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    FARM YAN YAN; DUDUKU KRISHNIAH; MARIANI RAJIN; AWANG BONO

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method is basically a two-step process. Palm kernel cake was pretreated in hot water at 180°C and followed by liquid ...

  18. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  19. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure plant oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The use of pure plant oils as fuel, either directly or after conversion of the oil to bio-diesel, is considered to be one of the potential contributions to the transformation of the current fossil oil based economy to a sustainable bio-based one. The production of oil producing seeds using plants

  20. Development of methodologies for virus detection in soybean and wheat seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Stephanie R A; Martins, Thais P; Duarte, Macária F; Barbosa, Andreza V; Lau, Douglas; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Sanches, Marcio M

    2016-01-01

    Seeds that contain large amounts of oil, starch, fibers and phenols are the most difficult tissues for RNA extraction. Currently, there are some reports of virus detection in seeds using commercial kits for RNA extraction. However, individual seeds were used, which may not be always suitable for analyses that deal with large amounts of seeds. Sangha [1] described a simple, quick and efficient protocol for RNA extraction and downstream applications in a group of seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas), mustard (Brassica sp.) and rice (Oryza sativa). We tested this protocol for soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and triticale (×Triticosecale) seeds and further reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)/quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to have a faster and more practical method for virus detection from seeds than the traditional scheme of seed planting and subsequent Elisa/RT-PCR from leaves. The essential points in the method are:•Some modifications in the protocol [1] were done in order to increase performance: Wheat and triticale seeds are incubated with water prior to maceration. An amount of 1.2 g of dry soybean seeds is used to maceration.•RT-PCR is used for detection of Wheat streak mosaic virus from wheat seeds and RT-qPCR for detection of Soybean mosaic virus from soybean seeds.•The method may be tested for other viruses, however, pre-validation will be needed.

  1. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. PLAGAS POTENCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE Jatropha curcas L., EN EL OCCIDENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA POTENTIAL PEST OF Jatropha curcas L. CROP IN WESTERN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cristóbal Yepes Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se da información sobre la biología, comportamiento, hábitos e importancia económica de las chinches Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae y Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781 (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae y se advierte sobre su presencia en una parcela de Jatropha curcas establecida en Santa Fe de Antioquia. Además, se halló que la pringamosa, Echidoscolus rubulosus es el hospedero silvestre de la segunda especie, en este ecosistema de bosque seco tropical. Se considera que ambos artrópodos podrían ser plagas potenciales del cultivo de esta oleaginosa en la región del occidente de Antioquia.Abstract. This paper provides information about the biology, the behavior, the habits and the economic importance of both the Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae bug and Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781 (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae bug. We warn about the discovery of these insects in a parcel of J. curcas, established in Santa Fe de Antioquia. We also found that the Pringamosa plant, Echidoscolus rubulosus, is the wild host of the second specie in this tropical dry forest ecosystem. Both arthropods might be considered as potential pests of the oilseed crop in this region of western Antioquia.

  3. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  4. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  5. Equivalent Cake Filtration Model%等效滤饼过滤模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐坦; 朱企新; 陈旭; 李文苹

    2008-01-01

    Cake filtration has been widely used in many chemical processes with more non-Newtonian, highly vis- cous and compressible materials involved. Neither traditional nor modern filtration theory can be applied in practice. "Equivalent cake filtration model" is a recently developed mathematical model to describe cake filtration for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, in either steady or unsteady filtration stages. This model has two strengths: (1) It can be used to determine equivalent capillary radii and predict filtration quality based on the properties of solid/liquid system and operation parameters; and (2) to calculate cake specific resistance and its variations with time at various cake thickness locations.

  6. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  7. Use of neem cake as an organic substrate component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursery and greenhouse growers continue to seek materials to decrease costs of plant production while maintaining environmental stewardship. Incorporation of neem cake as a substrate component could potentially impact nitrogen release as a result of altering substrate bacterial activity. The study...

  8. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  9. CAKE: The Coincidence Array for K600 Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Adsley, P; Papka, P; Dyers, Z; Brümmer, J W; Diget, C Aa; Hubbard, N J; Li, K C W; Long, A; Marin-Lambarri, D J; Pellegri, L; Pesudo, V; Pool, L C; Smit, F D; Triambak, S

    2016-01-01

    The combination of a magnetic spectrometer and ancillary detectors such as silicon detectors is a powerful tool for the study of nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. This paper discusses the recently commissioned silicon array called the CAKE which is designed for use with the K600 magnetic spectrometer at iThemba LABS.

  10. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  12. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefor...

  13. Production of additives from Jatropha Curcas L. methyl esther as a way to improve diesel engine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ghofur, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia); Abdullahe [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays we are searching for ideal alternative fuels in order to reduce harmful gas emissions and improve air quality. And many kinds of bio-diesel have been proposed. This paper introduces a bio-diesel converted from the oil of Jatropha curcas L. through a series of physical and chemical processes. This bio-diesel, which has a high cetane number, is better adapted than diesel or other, edible, vegetable oils to be an ideal alternative fuel. Moreover, the additive promotes the physico-chemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester, further enhancing its desirability as a substitute for diesel oil. This paper analyzes and reports the results of a laboratory-scale investigation of the feasibility of blending diesel with an additive produced from Jatropha curcas methyl ester. It finds that this additive can improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions.

  14. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  15. Floral Biology and Hybridization Potential of Nine Accessions of Physic Nut Jatropha curcas L. originating from Three Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahoton, LE.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a shrub which has an important economic and medicinal role in tropical and subtropical zones of the world. The oil of its kernels can serve as fuel feedstock to produce diesel, indicating its potential as a renewable source of energy. In an attempt to introduce new variation into cultivated Jatropha curcas, a program of intraspecific hybridization with several ecotypes originating from Africa, Asia and America was undertaken. Field studies were performed over three years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Before achieving hybridization, the floral ratio and the breeding system of physic nut were studied in Southern Benin ecological conditions. Significant differences (P< 0.05 were observed between the analysed ecotypes regarding the number of female flowers. This study has also confirmed that the breeding system of Jatropha curcas is essentially outcrossing and that foraging insects are the main pollination actors of female flowers. New intraspecific hybrid combinations were produced involving nine accessions. Crosses results varied according to the origin and the direction of the hybridization. Crosses between accessions of J. curcas originating from Africa and Asia gave hybrids without difficulty. The data obtained confirm that apomixis might play a major role in J. curcas a reproductive biology. Considering the high number of female flowers per inflorescence produced by the accession from Ecuador, and the large genetic distance existing between this accession and those from Africa and Asia, it should constitute a valuable genetic stock for the development of F1 hybrids with local ecotypes of J. curcas. However, the use of growth regulators might be necessary to improve the hybridization success rate when it is used as female parent.

  16. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  17. Effects of Defatting Combined or not to Heating of Jatropha curcas Kernel Meal on Feed Intake and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens and Chicks in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesseim, TDT.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family whose cultivation has been largely promoted in recent years for the production of biofuels. The kernel of the seed contains approximately 55% lipid in dry matter and the meal obtained could be an exceptional source of proteins for family poultry farming, after treatments to remove toxic and anti-nutritional compounds. The ingestion and the growth performance of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM, obtained after partial physico-chemical de-oiling combined or not with heating was evaluated in broiler chickens and chicks. Sixty unsexed broiler chickens, 30 day-old, divided into three groups as well as twenty broiler chicks, 1 day-old, divided into two groups were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, jatropha kernel was de-oiled and incorporated into a control fattening feed at 40 and 80g/kg (diets 4JKM1 and 8JM1. In experiment 2, jatropha kernel meal obtained in experiment 1 was heat treated and incorporated into a growing diet at 80g/kg (diet 8JKM2. Daily dietary intakes as well as weight gain of the animals were affected by the incorporation of jatropha kernel meal in the ration. In experiment 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI1 of 139.2, 55.2 and 23.4g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG1 of 61.9, 18.5 and -7.7g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM1, 4JKM1 and 8JKM1. In experiment 2, Average daily feed intake (ADFI2 of 18.7 and 3.1g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG2 of 7.1 and 1.9g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM2 and 8JKM2. In both experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR was also affected by the dietary treatments and the overall mortality rate showed an increase according to levels of jatropha kernel meal in diet.

  18. Growth and Physiological Response of Jatropha Interspecific Hybrid (Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Handhi Putranto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid of Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima is expected to answer the low oil yield problem of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.. However, as a novel invention, research concerning on Jatropha interspecific hybrid is still limited especially in the aspect of its adaptability to unfavorable environment such as salt stress condition. It is interesting to know how Jatropha interspecific hybrid responses to salt stress condition due to the moderate salt tolerance ability of its mother plant (J. curcas L.. The objectives of this study were to compare the growth and physiological response of interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha under salt stress. Three varieties of both interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha seedling were exposed with 3 levels of sodium chloride treatment in Hoagland media solution which are 2.0 (control, 8.0, and 16.0 dS m-1 for 7 weeks. The parameters measured include plant height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content (SPAD Index, leaf water potential, and leaf solute concentration. V2 (interspecific hybrid showed the highest potential as moderate salt tolerant variety among experimental Jatropha varieties due to its increasing trend of leaf number, dry weight, and total leaf area at moderate salinity level   (8 dS m-1. KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed the best growth performance under salt stress among experimental Jatropha varieties, but its potential to be moderate salt tolerant variety was still lower than V2 variety. The solute concentration, osmotic potential, and turgor potential of both interspecific hybrid (V2 and non-hybrid variety (KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed an increasing pattern which could be implied as an adaptive response to salt stress. This study has showed that Jatropha interspecific hybrid might have an adaptive physiological response to salt stress and could be considered as potential moderate salt tolerant variety under salt stress.

  19. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    that the CRISM team uses to provide an overview of infrared data, because dust has a less obscuring effect, and because they are sensitive to a wide variety of minerals. Layering is clearly evident in the wall rocks. The conspicuous band running along the base of the chasma wall appears slightly yellowish, and the scarp at the edge of the topographic bench appears slightly green. The bottom two panels use combinations of wavelengths to show the strengths of absorptions that provide 'fingerprints' of different minerals. In the lower left panel, red shows strength of a 0.53-micron absorption due to oxidized iron in dust, green shows strength of an inflection in the spectrum at 0.6 microns that may be related to rock coatings, and blue shows strength of a 1-micron absorption due to the igneous minerals olivine and pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band appears slightly blue, indicating a stronger signature of olivine and/or pyroxene. In the lower right panel, red is a measure of an absorption particular to olivine, green is a measure of a 2.3-micron absorption due to phyllosilicates (clay-like minerals formed when rock was subjected to liquid water), and blue is a measure of absorptions particular to pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band is now resolved into an upper portion richer in pyroxene, underlain by material richer in olivine than the rest of the wall rock. Also, erosion-resistant material forming the topographic bench is underlain by phyllosilicate-containing material exposed on the scarp. Taken together, these data reveal a layer cake-like composition of the crustal material exposed in Coprates Chasma's wall. Most of the rock is rich in pyroxene, which is expected because much of Mars' crust consists of volcanic basaltic rock. However discrete layers are richer in olivine, and in some layers the presence of phyllosilicates indicates interaction of rock with liquid water. Because the phyllosilicate-containing layer is low on the walls and deeply buried, it

  20. Fenologia reprodutiva e produÃÃo de sementes de Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Francisca Michelon Herzog

    2012-01-01

    O pinhÃo-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) pertencente à famÃlia Euphorbiaceae, à nativo das AmÃricas, apresenta-se disseminado nas regiÃes tropicais e subtropicais do globo e amplamente distribuÃdo nos continentes AsiÃtico e Africano. Esta espÃcie tem as sementes como principal forma de dispersÃo. De modo geral, sabe-se que o material reprodutivo (sementes e frutos) à bastante influenciado pelas caracterÃsticas das plantas genitoras, pelas condiÃÃes climÃticas do local em que atua sobre o desenvolv...

  1. Fenologia reprodutiva e produÃÃo de sementes de Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Francisca Michelon Herzog

    2012-01-01

    O pinhÃo-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) pertencente à famÃlia Euphorbiaceae, à nativo das AmÃricas, apresenta-se disseminado nas regiÃes tropicais e subtropicais do globo e amplamente distribuÃdo nos continentes AsiÃtico e Africano. Esta espÃcie tem as sementes como principal forma de dispersÃo. De modo geral, sabe-se que o material reprodutivo (sementes e frutos) à bastante influenciado pelas caracterÃsticas das plantas genitoras, pelas condiÃÃes climÃticas do local em que atua sobre o desenvolv...

  2. Curcacycline A--a novel cyclic octapeptide isolated from the latex of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, A J; Horsten, S F; Kettenes-van den Bosch, J J; Kroes, B H; Beukelman, C J; Leeflang, B R; Labadie, R P

    1995-01-30

    From the latex of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) a novel cyclic octapeptide was isolated, which we named curcacycline A. The compound was found to contain one threonine, one valine, two glycine, and four leucine residues. By two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy (HOHAHA and ROESY), its sequence was determined to be Gly1-Leu2-Leu3-Gly4-Thr5-Val6-Leu7-Leu8-Gly1+ ++. Curcacycline A displays a moderate inhibition of (i) classical pathway activity of human complement and (ii) proliferation of human T-cells.

  3. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Sukarman, Irwan Sukma Bin; Narayanan, Binitha; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Ismail, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of ash generated from Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a heterogeneous catalyzed process. The ash was doped with KOH by impregnation to achieve a potassium level of 20 wt.%. Under optimum conditions for the EFB-catalyzed (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 90 min, 20 wt.% EFB ash catalyst) and the KOH-EFB-catalyzed reactions (65 °C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 45 min, 15 wt.% of KOH doped EFB ash), biodiesel (>98%) with specifications higher than those stipulated by European biodiesel quality standard EN 14214 was obtained.

  4. Producción de biodiesel a partir de cultivos alternativos: experiencia con Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    Huerga, Ignacio Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Fil: Huerga, Ignacio Roberto. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Ingeniería Química; Argentina. En la búsqueda de nuevos cultivos para producción de biodiesel, Jatropha Curcas surge como una alternativa a aquellos que se utilizan actualmente. Para evaluar su factibilidad del cultivo, se utilizaron muestras de semillas provenientes de la localidad de Yuto (Jujuy, Argentina), clasificadas en función del período de cosecha y estado de maduración del fruto. La extracción d...

  5. Effects of Rapeseed-cake Fertilizer on Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Tobacco in Luohe%菜籽饼肥对漯河烟叶化学成分及其感官质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洪涛; 李莉; 孙明辉; 卢迪; 樊献玲; 张欣惠; 于建军

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects of rapeseed -cake fertilizer on the chemical components and sensory quality of tobacco in Luohe, we tested and analyzed the chemical components of C 3F-class and B2F-class tobacco leaves treated with different rates of rapeseed-cake fertilizer , and evaluated the sensory smoking quality of single -material cigarette made of the above leaves .The results showed that the application of rapeseed -cake fertilizer could reduce the chlorine content in tobacco leaf , increase its potassi-um content , and coordinate its chemical components;the treatment with 80%rapeseed-cake fertilizer was the best .Applying rape-seed-cake fertilizer could improve the sensory smoking quality of tobacco leaf , and the treatment with 80%rapeseed-cake fertiliz-er obtained the best effect .%为研究油菜籽饼肥对漯河烟叶化学成分及其感官质量的影响,选取施用不同比例菜籽饼肥处理的C3 F和B2 F等级的烟叶进行化学成分测定分析,单料烟评吸,并依据烟叶品质打分。结果表明:施用菜籽饼肥降低烟叶氯含量,提高烟叶钾含量,协调烟叶化学成分,漯河烟叶以施用80%菜籽饼肥效果最佳。施用菜籽饼肥可以提高感官评吸质量,其中施用80%菜籽饼肥的处理效果最好。

  6. Biochemical Characterization of Coriander Cakes Obtained by Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazia Sriti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effect of operating conditions such as nozzle diameter on fatty acid, sterol, and tocol composition of coriander cakes. Eight fatty acids were identified, with petroselinic acid accounting for 75–77% of the total fatty acids, followed by linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, accounting for 12-13%, 5%, and 3%, respectively, of the total fatty acids. β-Sitosterol was the major sterol in all oils with 33–35% of total sterols. The next major sterols in all oils were stigmasterol (24% of total sterols and Δ7-stigmasterol (15% of total sterols. Coriander cake contained higher amounts of total tocotrienol where γ-tocotrienol was the main compound.

  7. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  8. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  9. Working with argan cake: a new etiology for hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Christophe; Herin, Fabrice; Reboux, Gabriel; Penven, Emmanuelle; Barrera, Coralie; Guidat, Cécile; Thaon, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Argan is now used worldwide in numerous cosmetic products. Nine workers from a cosmetic factory were examined in our occupational medicine department, following the diagnosis of a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) related to handling of argan cakes. Methods Operators were exposed to three forms of argan (crude granulates, powder or liquid) depending on the step of the process. All workers systematically completed standardized questionnaires on occupational and medical histo...

  10. The biomedical significance of the phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamgba Agbor Asuk

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The outcome of this study suggests that the leaf, stem bark and root of J. curcas have very good medicinal potentials, meet the standard requirements for drug formulation and serve as good sources of energy and nutrients except for the presence of some anti-nutritional elements predominant in the leaf.

  11. Dilute H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment to enhance enzymatic digestibility of Jatropha curcas fruit hull for ethanol fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Kootstra, Maarten; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2012-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of the Jatropha curcas fruit hull at high temperatures (140°C to 180°C) performed in a 110-mL stainless steel reactor was investigated to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of its lignocellulosic components. Carbohydrates accounted for 43% of the dry matter of t

  12. Jatrophidin I, a cyclic peptide from Brazilian Jatropha curcas L.: isolation, characterization, conformational studies and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altei, Wanessa F; Picchi, Douglas G; Abissi, Barbara M; Giesel, Guilherme M; Flausino, Otavio; Reboud-Ravaux, Michèle; Verli, Hugo; Crusca, Edson; Silveira, Edilberto R; Cilli, Eduardo M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S

    2014-11-01

    A cyclic peptide, jatrophidin I, was isolated from the latex of Jatropha curcas L. Its structure was elucidated by extensive 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, with additional conformational studies performed using Molecular Dynamics/Simulated Annealing (MD/SA). Jatrophidin I had moderate protease inhibition activity when compared with pepstatin A; however, the peptide was inactive in antimalarial, cytotoxic and antioxidant assays.

  13. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Sorption of 4-Nitrophenol on Activated Kaolinitic Clay and Jatropha Curcas Activated Carbon from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsudeen Olanrewaju Azeez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption behaviour of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP on activated kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas activated carbon was investigated. The kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas were activated with 1 M HNO3 and 0.5 M NaOH respectively and were characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. The effects of processing parameters, such as initial 4-NP concentration, temperature, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process were investigated. The results obtained showed that Jatropha curcas activated carbon exhibited higher performance than activated kaolinitic clay for the removal of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The adsorption data were best fitted with Freundlich model. The experimental data of the two adsorbate-adsorbent systems fitted very well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model with r2 values of 0.999 respectively. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. The results revealed that the adsorption of 4-nitrophenol onto both adsorbents were exothermic processes and spontaneous for Jatropha curcas activated carbon but non spontaneous for activated kaolinitic clay.

  14. Application of metal triflate catalysts for the trans-esterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on the application of metal triflate salts for the (trans-) esterification of fatty esters (triolein, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate), fatty acid (oleic acid), as well as Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols (ethanol, n-propanol, iso-pr

  15. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  16. Image Analysis on Detachment Process of Dust Cake on Ceramic Candle Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬忠礼; 焦海青; 陈鸿海

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of high-speed video images, the detachment behavior of dust cake from the ceramic candle filter surface during pulse cleaning process is investigated. The influences of the dust cake loading,the reservoir pressure, and the filtration velocity on the cleaning effectiveness are analyzed. Experimental results show that there exists an optimum dust cake thickness for pulse-cleaning process. For thin dust cake, the patchy cleaning exists and the cleaning efficiency is low; if the dust cake is too thick, the pressure drop across the dust cake becomes higher and a higher reservoir pressure may be needed. At the same time there also exists an optimum reservoir pressure for a given filtration condition.

  17. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  18. Analysis of Bioactive Components of Oilseed Cakes by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-(Bioassay Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemp, flax and canola seed cakes are byproducts of the plant oil extraction industry that have not received much attention in terms of their potential use for human food instead of animal feed. Thus, the bioactivity profiling of these oilseed cakes is of interest. For their effect-directed analysis, planar chromatography was combined with several (bioassays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, acetylcholine esterase inhibition, planar yeast estrogen screen, antimicrobial Bacillus subtilis and Aliivibrio fischeri assays. The streamlined high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC-bioassay method allowed the discovery of previously unknown bioactive compounds present in these oilseed cake extracts. In contrast to target analysis, the direct link to the effective compounds allowed comprehensive information with regard to selected effects. HPTLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry via the elution-head based TLC-MS Interface was used for a first characterization of the unknown effective compounds. The demonstrated bioactivity profiling on the feed/food intake side may guide the isolation of active compounds for production of functional food or for justified motivation of functional feed/food supplements.

  19. Edible applications of shellac oleogels: spreads, chocolate paste and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Rajarethinem, Pravin S; Grędowska, Agnieszka; Turhan, Ozge; Lesaffer, Ans; De Vos, Winnok H; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate three potential edible applications of shellac oleogels as (i) a continuous oil phase for preparation of emulsifier-free, structured w/o emulsions (spreads), (ii) a replacer for oil-binders in chocolate paste formulations and (iii) a shortening alternative for cake preparation. Water-in-oil emulsions with up to 60 wt% water were prepared without the need for an emulsifier by simply using shellac oleogels as the continuous oil phase. The water droplets in these emulsions (size < 40 μm) were stabilized via interfacial and bulk crystallization of shellac. Chocolate paste prepared by complete replacement of an oil-binder and a partial replacement of palm oil (∼27%) with a shellac oleogel, showed no sign of 'oiling-out' when stored at elevated temperature (30 °C) for several weeks. Further, cakes prepared using oleogel-based w/o emulsions (20 wt% water) as a shortening alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake.

  20. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  1. CRAMBE CAKE (Crambe abyssinica hochst ON LAMB DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Breda Canova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative feedstuffs in animal diet, such as residues derived from the biodiesel production aims to increase productivity and reduce costs in animal production. Them aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution effect of 0, 22, 44 and 64% of soybean meal protein by Crambe cake (Crambe abyssinica Hochst protein in lamb diet. In the in vivo experiment, 20 lambs were used and evaluated the apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and voluntary DM intake. The replacement of the protein resulted in a linear decrease in apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, cellulose (CEL and the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN, which resulted in decreased daily DM intake. The blood level of urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were not affected. In vitro gas production technique (GP evaluation of diets showed a significantly decrease (P<0.05 of the total gas and methane production without altering the true degradability of DM and OM and the partition factor (PF. Replacement of soybean meal protein by the Crambe cake protein decreased digestibility of the fiber fraction of the diet, the voluntary intake of DM and methane, without altering rumen fermentation. Crambe cake can be utilized as lamb's food, because, despite reduced intake, assure a large energy intake and similarity to soybean meal protein.

  2. Lead and silver extraction from waste cake from hydrometallurgical zinc production

    OpenAIRE

    DUSAN D. STANOJEVIC; Rajkovic, Milos B.; DRAGAN V. TOSKOVIC; MILANA A. TOMIC

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the extraction of lead and silver from a lead–silver waste cake obtained in the process of hydrometallurgical zinc production. While controlling the pH value, the lead–silver cake was leached at a temperature close to boiling point in different concentrations of aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The experiments were performed applying different ratios between the mass of cake and the volume of the leaching agent under different durations of th...

  3. Effect of different fibers on batter and gluten-free layer cake properties

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different fibers, added individually or in combination, to improve the functional properties of gluten-free layer cakes was examined. Soluble (inulin and guar gum), and insoluble (oat fiber) fibers were used to replace up to 20% of rice flour in gluten-free layer cakes formulation. The incorporation of fibers increased the batter viscosity, with the exception of inulin. Fiber enriched gluten-free cakes containing blends of oat fiber-inulin resulted in improved specific volume. S...

  4. Adding value to vegetable waste: Oil press cakes as substrates for microbial decalactone production

    OpenAIRE

    Laufenberg, Günther; Rosato, Pietro; Kunz, Benno

    2004-01-01

    In this study several oil press cakes were investigated as exclusive substrates for different moulds and yeasts for the production of flavor-active decalactones via solidstate fermentation (SSF). Experiments are focused on pre-treatment methods for olive cake to remove antimicrobial phenolic substances contained in the oil cake disturbing or even inhibiting microbial growth. Choosing Ceratocystis moniliformis as the reference microorganism best results were obtained by a combination of hot wa...

  5. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (Psponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  6. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  7. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, A. K. S.; Wilson, D I; Sadd, P. I.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260877414003112. A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and...

  8. The Effects of Feeding Pollen Cake Containing Royal Jelly on Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colony Development

    OpenAIRE

    GÜREL, Fehmi; GÖSTERİT, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding pollen cake containing honeybee royal jelly on Bombus terrestris colony development. In total, 125 bumblebee queens, 68 of which were fed pollen cake containing 10% royal jelly and 57 of which were fed normal pollen cake, were used. We found that 84% of the queens fed pollen cake containing royal jelly and 82% of those fed normal pollen cake laid eggs; 56% of the queens fed normal pollen cake established colonies, whereas queens fed...

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Gynoecious and Monoecious Plants Identifies Regulatory Networks Controlling Sex Determination in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Fu, Qiantang; Tao, Yan-Bin; Martínez-Herrera, Jorge; Niu, Longjian; Ni, Jun; Dong, Yuling; Zhao, Mei-Li; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Most germplasms of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas are monoecious. A gynoecious genotype of J. curcas was found, whose male flowers are aborted at early stage of inflorescence development. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of transition from monoecious to gynoecious plants, a comparative transcriptome analysis between gynoecious and monoecious inflorescences were performed. A total of 3,749 genes differentially expressed in two developmental stages of inflorescences were identified. Among them, 32 genes were involved in floral development, and 70 in phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Six genes homologous to KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX GENE 6 (KNAT6), MYC2, SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE 5 (SRS5), SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), and TASSELSEED2 (TS2), which control floral development, were considered as candidate regulators that may be involved in sex differentiation in J. curcas. Abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellin, and jasmonate biosynthesis were lower, whereas cytokinin biosynthesis was higher in gynoecious than that in monoecious inflorescences. Moreover, the exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) promoted perianth development in male flowers and partly prevented pistil development in female flowers to generate neutral flowers in gynoecious inflorescences. The arrest of stamen primordium at early development stage probably causes the abortion of male flowers to generate gynoecious individuals. These results suggest that some floral development genes and phytohormone signaling pathways orchestrate the process of sex determination in J. curcas. Our study provides a basic framework for the regulation networks of sex determination in J. curcas and will be helpful for elucidating the evolution of the plant reproductive system.

  10. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006).

  11. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  12. CORRELATION STUDY BETWEEN VOLUME AND OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY OF CAKE WITH PROPERTIES OF HARD WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanee Al-Dmoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important factor in cakes making is the availability of soft wheat flour. Sometimes cake flour is producing by milling hard wheat because the shortage of soft wheat flour. The aim of this study is to identify a specification for production cake flour from hard wheat which gives a high quality of cake products. Protein %, ash %, wet gluten %, dry gluten %, gluten index, falling no, acidity %, damaged starch, sedimentation values and particles size are 8.82, 0.5, 24.1, 8.44, 97.65, 310.3, 0.15, 7.71,72.7 and 10.07 respectively. The development time, stability, elasticity, softening, water absorption, resistance, extensibility and R: F values for dough are 1.35, 3.1, 102, 89.4, 57.73, 98.6, 357, 155 and 2.31 respectively. The average of cakes volume is 711 c.c and overall acceptability is 7.55 of 9 hedonic scales. Both of cake volume and overall acceptability of sensory evaluation test correlate positively (p<0.005 with protein and gluten content, sedimentation rate and extensograph parameters which give an indication about hard wheat cake flour could be substituted for soft wheat flour. Cake producers should apply a special treatment to improve the quality of cake.

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wu-Wei; Gao, Shun; Wang, Sheng-Hua; Zhu, Jin-Qiu; Xu, Ying; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang

    2010-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of the carboxyltransferase (accA) gene of acetyl-coenzym A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase from Jatropha curcas was cloned and sequenced. The gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1149 bp encodes a polypeptide of 383 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 41.9 kDa. Utilizing fluorogenic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression levels of the accA gene in leaves and fruits at early, middle and late stages under pH 7.0/8.0 and light/darkness stress were investigated. The expression levels of the accA gene in leaves at early, middle and late stages increased significantly under pH 8.0 stress compared to pH 7.0. Similarly, the expression levels in fruits showed a significant increase under darkness condition compared to the control. Under light stress, the expression levels in the fruits at early, middle and late stages showed the largest fluctuations compared to those of the control. These findings suggested that the expression levels of the accA gene are closely related to the growth conditions and developmental stages in the leaves and fruits of Jatropha curcas.

  14. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha curcas is induced by stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Qin; Huang Ming-Xing; Xu Ying; Zhang Xin-Shen; Chen Fang

    2005-06-01

    The open reading frame (ORF) encoding curcin 2 was cloned from total genomic and cDNA of Jatropha curcas leaves, which were treated by drought, temperature stress and fungal infection, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification. The ORF has 927 bp that encodes a precursor protein of 309 amino acid residues. There are high similarities with curcin and the conserved domain of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Antiserum to curcin recognized one band of 32 kDa on Western blot of the leaves treated by temperature stresses at 4°C and 50°C and by fungal infections of Pestalotia funerea, Curvularia lunata (Walk) Boed, Gibberelle zeae (Schw.) Petch. Two bands of 32 kDa and 65 kDa were recognized on Western blot of the leaves treated by 10%–40% polyethylene glycol (PEG). In addition, the 32 kDa band is nearly the molecular weight of curcin 2. This finding suggests that the protein of 32 kDa should be related to curcin 2. The presence of this protein molecular marker under stresses may provide an experimental foundation to study the stress proteins in J. curcas.

  15. Energy potential of biomass and charcoal of Jatropha curcas peel and pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas, are produced residues in the peel and of pie form. One alternative use of these residues is in the energy production. The present work analyzed the energy potential of the peel and the pie of Jatropha curcas in the following conditions: in natura and charcoal, determining: the moisture content (VITAL, 1997; the ash, fixed carbon and volatile matter (ABNT NBR 8112/86; the density and the gravimetric yield. The peel presented: moisture of 18,9%; density of 100kg/m3; volatile matter of 72,6%, fixed carbon of 13% and 14,4% of ashes and heat combustion of 3.641kcal/kg. The carbonized peel produced 38.1% of charcoal, with: 29% of volatile matter, 45% of fixed carbon and 25% of ashes; and heat combustion of 3.954kcal/kg. The pie presented: moisture of 2.41%, 601kg/m3 of density; volatile matter of 77.84%, fixed carbon 14.21% and 7,95% ashes and 5.122kcal/kg of heat combustion. In the carbonization of the pie, 32% of charcoal was produced containing: 18.27% of volatile matter, 71.29% of fixed carbon, 10.43% of ashes and heat combustion of 6.234kcal/kg. The high ashe contents are related to the fertilization of the plant.

  16. KARAKTERISTIK PERTUMBUHAN JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L. YANG DITAMBAHKAN CENDAWAN ENDOFIT PADA LAHAN PASCA TAMBANG TIMAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmarayu P. Gedoan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activity caused canging in physical and chemical characteristic of the soil that were not suitable for growth of plants. The objective of this experiment was to study accessions of Jatropha curcas planted on post tin mining land which were given endophyte. This research was conducted in a Sinar Baru village TS 133, district of Bangka, Bangka Belitung province for field research conducted in May 2007 to April 2008. The experimentas a factorial experiment in the design of the randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot is 7 accessions consisting of: accession Madiun, Ponorogo, Jember, Dompu, Lampung, Bengkulu, andSukabumi, while the subplot of the land without giving endophyte fungal (control and the provision of endophyte fungal in baglog 250 g. Each experimental unit contained four plants per plot.The result showed that vegetative growth the highest for the former tin mining land given endophyte fungal vary in some accessions. Accession to the highest Sukabumi: plant height, branch number, plant dry weight, dry weight of the shoot, and root dry weight, the largest diameter have Jember accession, accession Dompu had the highest canopy diameter, and the accession of Lampung has the lowest ratio of shoot roots.Keywords: Jatropha curcas, accession, fungal endophyte

  17. Optimalisasi ekstraksi DNA jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas melalui pemilihan daun yang sesuai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EINSTIVINA NURYANDANI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prayitno E, Nuryandani E. 2011. Optimalisasi ekstraksi DNA jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas melalui pemilihan daun yang sesuai. Bioteknologi 8: 24-31. Jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L. mempunyai peran penting sebagai sumber bahan bakar nabati. Usaha pemuliaan tanaman ini secara molekuler sering terkendala sulitnya ekstraksi DNA. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui daun yang sesuai untuk digunakan sebagai sumber DNA. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada empat aksesi jarak pagar yaitu J1 dan J2 (Jawa Tengah, S1 (Sumatera Selatan, dan S2 (Bengkulu. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada daun pertama, ketiga, kelima, ketujuh, dan daun kuning dari setiap aksesi dengan metode Doyle and Doyle (1987 yang dimodifikasi. Kualitas dan kuantitas DNA hasil ekstraksi diketahui melalui visualisasi dengan pembanding DNA lambda, spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 260/280, dan pemotongan menggunakan enzim EcoRI. Hasil penelitiaan menunjukkan bahwa daun ketiga memadai untuk digunakan sebagai sumber DNA. Kuantitas DNA daun ketiga J1 (19,33 µg/mL, J2 (26,21 µg/mL, S1 (31,20 µg/mL, dan S2 (61,03 µg/mL. Sedangkan kemurniannya masing-masing yaitu 1,9063 (J11, 2,0162 (J2, 2,0116 (S1, dan 2,0856 (S2.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF LAYER HEN FED FERMENTED Jatropha Curcas L. MEAL SUPPLEMENTED WITH CELLULASE AND PHYTASE ENZYME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding fermented Jatropha curcas L.meal (JCM supplemented with cellulase and phytase on the performances of ISA-Brown laying henaged 25-30 weeks. The Jatropha curcas meal was fermented using Rizhopus oligosporus. In this study200 laying hens were used and distributed to 5 treatments and 4 replications in Completely RandomizedDesign. The diet treatments were: R0 = control diet (without JCM, R1; diet contained fermented JCM7.5%, R2; diet contained fermented JCM 7.5% + celullase 200 g/ton, R3; diet contained fermented JCM7.5% + phytase 200 g/ton and R4; diet contained fermented JCM 7.5% + cellulase 200 g/ton + phytase200 g/ton. The parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day egg production, egg massproduction, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. The results showed that feeding fermented JCM 7.5%,both enzyme supplemented as well as unsupplemented significantly decreased (P<0.05 the feedconsumption, hen day egg and egg mass production. However, the treatments did not influence the eggweight. Supplementation of cellulase (R2 or phytase (R3 improved the feed conversion ratio with thevalue as same as the R0 diet.

  19. Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potential of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Grown in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C-glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products. PMID:28335473

  20. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rincón-Rabanales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L. in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther. The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville and Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  1. Molecular analysis of ARF1 expression profiles during development of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Lin, Fanrong; Lii, Yifan; Gou, Chunbao; Chen, Fang

    2011-03-01

    A cDNA clone designated arf1 was isolated from a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) endosperm cDNA library which encodes a small GTP-binding protein and has significant homology to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) in plants, animals and microbes. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 181 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 20.7 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology to known ARFs from other organisms. The products of the arf1 obtained by overexpression in E. coli revealed the specific binding activity toward GTP. The expression of arf1 was observed in flowers, roots, stems and leaves as analyzed by RT-PCR, and its transcriptional level was highest in flowers. In particular, the accumulation of arf1 transcripts was different under various environmental stresses in seedlings. The results suggest that arf1 plays distinct physiological roles in Jatropha curcas cells.

  2. Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Brlek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olive cake is by-product of olive oil production. This material cannot be stored in original condition for a long time because it has high water content and relatively high portion of oil that causes rapid deterioration. Thus it is necessary to investigate possible methods of remediation of such by-product, where utilization for energy generation presents a useful option. Several studies have been conducted on energy generation from olive cake, however not one that includes pelleting as a pre-treatment. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of different cultivars of olive cake, to produce pellets, and determine their basic quality parameters. The pellets obtained from olive cake had mainly satisfactory results regarding their quality in comparison to standards for fuel pellets. It should be kept in mind that these standards are manly for wood pellets, and therefore some lower criteria could be applied for olive cake and such biomass. The highest amount of residual oil and the lowest amount of protein was found in cultivar ‘Buža’ and produced pellets had the smallest abrasion index (8.15%. Other cultivars had lower oil and higher protein content, and abrasion index

  3. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

  4. Development of oil and cake products of woody oil plants%木本油料油脂和饼粕产品开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金青哲; 王丽蓉; 王兴国; 李碧霞

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了我国28种重要木本油料内含的油脂与脂肪酸、蛋白质与氨基酸、微量成分的组成、含量、特点与利用价值以及其油脂和饼粕产品的开发现状,既包括传统的木本油料如油茶籽、核桃、扁桃、花椒籽、椰子、杜仲籽、文冠果、翅果,也有新兴的木本油料如牡丹籽、茶叶籽、美藤果、盐肤木、光皮梾木等,旨在为木本油料油脂与饼粕产品的开发与质量标准的制修订工作提供依据。%The compositions,contents,characteristics and utility values of oil and fatty acids,protein and amino acid,trace elements of twenty-eight kinds of important woody oil plants in China and development situation of their oil and cake products were briefly introduced,including the traditional woody oil plants such as oil-tea camellia seed,walnut,almond( Amygdalus communis) ,prickly ash seed,coconut,Eucom-mia seed, Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. and Elacagnus mollis Diels. , as well as innovative woody oil plants such as peony seed,tea seed,sacha inchi,Rhus chinensis Mill. and Cornus wilsoniana Wanger. so as to provide a basis for the development of oil and cake products of woody oil plants as well as dictation and revision of their quality standards.

  5. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Durge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L. levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 μmol/g oil free dry matter (DM and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 μmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05 in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01. The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05 reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052 of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05. However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production.

  6. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  7. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production...

  8. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients.

  9. Amélioration du taux de multiplication in vitro de Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the Rate of in vitro Multiplication of Jatropha curcas L. In order to improve the in vitro multiplication rate (number of shoots/explant/subculture of Jatropha curcas L. axillary nodes taken from young plants of two accessions of this species (originating from Cameroon and Senegal have been cultivated for three weeks on a MS medium supplemented with 8.87 μM BAP, 4.92 μM IBA, and 30 g/l sucrose at pH 5.7 ± 0.1, and solidified with 0.7% agar. The shoots obtained from each original explant were then transferred to proliferation media (PM consisting of MS medium supplemented with 2.21 to 8.9 μM BA or 2.21 to 8.9 μM kinetin in combination with 2.46 μM IBA. Each combination was completed with 33.12 μM adenine sulfate, 82.92 μM of glutamine and 30 g / L sucrose. The best multiplication rate was obtained for the PM medium containing 6.65 μM BA and 2.46 μM AIB. On this medium 42.72 ± 3.22 and 38.15 ± 4.7 shoots/explant were obtained respectively for the accessions from Cameroon and Senegal after 6 weeks of culture, and the mean multiplication rates were 8.27 ± 1.27 (accession from Cameroon and 7.89 ± 1.13 (accession from Senegal shoots per explant during the 7 following subcultures (3 weeks/subculture. This medium was also the one that allowed the best overall growth in shoot height. Leafy shoots obtained have been rooted in a medium containing half of the major mineral components of MS supplemented with 5.7 μM IBA, 1.5% sucrose and solidified with 0.7% agar, then acclimated with a survival rate of 97%. These results allow considering the establishment of industrial units of plantlet multiplication from elite clones of Jatropha curcas.

  10. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  11. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of

  12. Extraction, composition and functional properties of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared two methods for extracting the protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake and determined the composition and functional properties of the protein products. Proteins in pennycress press cake were extracted by using the conventional alkali solubilization-acid precipitati...

  13. Filtration of Nanoparticles: Evolution of Cake Structure and Pressure-Drop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    with constant solid volume fraction began to form, accompanied with build-up of pressuredrop which was in excellent agreement with classic cake filtration theory. An expression for the solid volume fraction of the cake (fsd,c) was obtained as a sole function of Pe. In addition, the filtration efficiency became...

  14. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of va

  15. Cake layer formation in anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactors (AnSMBR) for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Cake layer formation in anaerobic gas-sparged submerged membrane bioreactors was studied using the critical flux concept, at 30 and 55 °C. The impact of biomass concentration, from 25 to 50 g TSS/L, and superficial gas velocity, up to 70 m/h, of over cake layer formation was studied, using response

  16. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  17. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  18. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-12-25

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93-106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100-200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake and

  19. Comportamiento de tres procedencias de Jatropha curcas en el banco de germoplasma de la EEPF ¨Indio Hatuey¨ Performance of three provenances of Jatropha curcas in the germplasm bank of the EEPF ¨Indio Hatuey¨

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo con el objetivo de evaluar tres procedencias de Jatropha curcas, en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo lixiviado de la EEPF ¨Indio Hatuey¨, en las fases de vivero, establecimiento y momento de cosecha. Todas las procedencias necesitaron entre 70 y 90 días para alcanzar su máximo de emergencia. La de Cabo Verde (denominada Africana fue la primera en germinar (11,5-24,6% entre los primeros cinco y 25 días y las dos restantes germinaron a los 35 días. A los 160 días después de plantadas, la Africana alcanzó la fenofase de semilla verde; mientras que las dos restantes se encontraban en abotonamiento. La Africana también fue estadísticamente superior en términos de número de hojas, grosor del tallo y altura de las plántulas. No existieron diferencias en la producción de frutos con tres semillas, indicador en el que todas alcanzaron más del 70%. A los 240 días (cosecha se detectó una alta disminución en el número de hojas, pero el menor porcentaje se constató en la Africana (69% con relación al total. El peso de la semilla cosechada en la Africana fue 7,1 veces superior a la procedencia de Las Tunas (medianamente ramificada y 22,4 veces superior a la de Sancti Spiritus (menos ramificada. De acuerdo con los resultados, se destacó por su comportamiento la Africana. Asimismo, se considera importante la introducción de un mayor número de accesiones, así como la realización de estudios sobre la calidad de la semilla.A trial was conducted with the objective of evaluating three provenances of Jatropha curcas on a lixiviated Ferralitic Red soil of the EEPF ¨Indio Hatuey¨, at the nursery, establishment and harvest stages. All the provenances needed between 70 and 90 days to reach their emergence maximum level. The plants from Cape Verde (called African were the first to germinate (11,5-24,6% between the first five and 25 days and the other two germinated 35 days after planting. One hundred and sixty days after

  20. Thermochemical properties of olive press cake - calorific value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The olive press cake heat of combustion has been determined in three modalities: without extraction; extracted; extracted and pulped. The experiences were made by an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The obtained results are referred to an initial temperature of combustion of approximately 298 K and an initial pressure of 3.0 Mpa. The formed acids were titrated in order to apply the necessary corrections. Percentages of humidity were determined, both the equilibrium and hygroscopic, and ashes. Starting from these results the gross calorific value has been calculated. The quantities listed allow measurement of the saving of hydrocarbon fuels obtained, quantized in oil equivalent ton per year (OET/year). 8 references.

  1. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Manzoor, S; Medinaceli, E; Patrizii, L; Togo, V

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z $>$ 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$ 1.7 m$^2$sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  2. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...

  3. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values castor oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This

  4. Nutritionally "Empty" but "Full" of Meanings: The Socio-Cultural Significance of Birthday Cakes in Four Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of birthday cakes with the purpose of reflecting upon birthday cake practices enacted in four early childhood settings in England. I argue that birthday cakes occupy an ambiguous place in early childhood practice: seen to be both "risky"--a term I problematise--"and"…

  5. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, performance, and carcass yield of lambs fed licuri cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J B; Oliveira, R L; Silva, T M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, A M; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R; Rocha, T C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of the inclusion of licuri cake in the diets of crossbred Santa Inês lambs, based on intake, digestibility, N balance, urea N, and performance. We used 44 male lambs that were vaccinated and wormed, with an average age of 6 mo and an average BW of 21.2 kg ± 2.7 kg. The lambs were fed a mixture of Tifton-85 hay (40%) and a concentrated mixture (60%) composed of ground corn, soybean meal, and mineral premix. For the treatments, licuri cake was added at levels of 0, 8, 16, and 24% of DM, with the licuri cake replacing soybean meal and ground corn. We used 11 lambs per treatment in a randomized design. The lambs were confined for 70 d, and the digestibility trial occurred between Day 40 and Day 55. The increased level of licuri cake inclusion promoted a linear reduction in DM intake ( = 0.00) with a 39% reduction between treatments with the 0 and 24% cakes. On the other hand, ether extract () consumption showed an initial quadratic increase ( = 0.00). The total weight gain and ADG showed a linear decrease ( = 0.00) with the addition of licuri cake. The inclusion of licuri cake linearly enhanced ( = 0.02) the digestibility of CP and EE, whereas the digestibility of other nutrients in lambs remained unchanged ( > 0.05). The licuri cake increase led to a linear decrease ( cake. Carcass morphometric measurements were influenced by experimental diets, showing linear decreases ( cake to diets. The fat thickness, conformation, external length, internal length, leg length, rump width, and chest circumference showed linear decreases ( cake in diets. The inclusion of licuri cake decreased DMI and digestibility, reflecting the lower ADG. Although feed efficiency was not affected, the lambs weighed less at slaughter and the licuri cake had a negative impact on carcass yield. Therefore, the use of the studied levels of licuri cake in diets for finishing lambs cannot be recommended.

  6. Evaporation of suspensions to form an incompressible cake and to fill filter pores with solid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuzhayorov, B. Kh.

    2011-11-01

    Equations of filtration of suspensions to form an incompressible cake of particles on the surface of the filter with simultaneous passage of a certain share of the particles from the cake to the filter's pore space and next to the region of a filtered liquid are derived from the principles of the mechanics of multiphase media. The influence of the travel of the particles in the region of the cake and the filter on the dynamics of growth of the cake bed is investigated. An analysis of the derived dynamic filtration equations shows that allowance for the factors of travel and accumulation of particles in the cake and the filter causes their total filtration resistance, in particular the resistance in the inertial component of the filtration law, to decrease.

  7. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  8. Effects of shading time on quality of matcha and matcha cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of shading time on the quality of Matcha and the Matcha cake.It showed that shading could help the systhesis of nitrogen compounds such as amino acids,caffeine chlorophyll and protein,but couldn′t favor accumulation of tea polyphenol and polysaccharides.The more shading time was,the more chlorophyll content would be,and the more green of Matcha color would be.After Matcha cake was baked,the green color reduced.The colors of Macha cake are greener with longer shading time.Thus,the length of Shading time has obvious effect on the green tea and the tea cake quality,We can adjust the Matcha cake taste,flavor and color by adding Matcha from different shading time.

  9. Isolation of high-quality RNA from various tissues of Jatropha curcas for downstream applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Raja Krishna; Eswaran, Nalini; Johnson, T Sudhakar

    2011-06-01

    A method for isolating transcriptionally active RNA for downstream applications from diverse tissues of Jatropha curcas, a plant rich in latex, lipids, waxes, polysaccharide, polyphenols, and secondary metabolites, is described. The described method uses alkaline borate buffer during tissue homogenization to negate the formation of viscous gel observed in guanidium-salt-containing methods. By this method, quality RNA was extracted from leaf, immature inflorescence, endosperm, and root tissues with yields ranging from 1.80 to 7.80mg/100mg fresh weight (FW). The total RNA obtained was found to be suitable for poly(A)(+)RNA purification, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, cloning of full-length cDNA, and cDNA library construction.

  10. Synthesis And Characterization Of Ester Trimethylolpropane Based Jatropha Curcas Oil As Biolubricant Base Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hafizah Arbain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biolubricant production of ester trimethylolpropane (ET was conducted via esterification of fatty acid (FA of Jatropha curcas oil with trimethylolpropane (TMP. The condition for this reaction was as follows: temperature was 150°C, time of reaction was 3 hours, molar ratio of FA: TMP was 4:1, and 2 % w/w catalyst (based on weight of FA. Sulfuric acid was used as the catalyst in this reaction. The composition of ET was determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID. The ester group was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and the structure was confirmed by proton and carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra. 55% of product was successfully synthesized in this research. The pour point of the product was observed as low as –30°C, flash point was >300 °C and viscosity was 79 cP.

  11. Colecta y caracterización de procedencias de Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar la caracterización de nueve procedencias de Jatropha curcas, colectadas en varias provincias de Cuba, durante la fase de vivero y la de establecimiento. Para caracterizar estos materiales se utilizó la metodología para la colecta y caracterización de germoplasma. En el vivero, la brotación de los propágulos se produjo a partir de los 7 o los 14 días de la plantación; mientras que la emergencia de las plántulas, al utilizar semilla, ocurrió a los 14 días. El porcentaje de supervivencia de los propágulos fluctuó entre 20 y 86,6 %, y a partir de semilla, entre 86,6 y 90 %. La supervivencia en el campo varió entre 66,6 y 100 % en las procedencias trasplantadas por propágulos y, en sentido general, resultó superior a la que se detectó en el vivero. En las procedencias trasladadas por plántulas no se detectó variación en la supervivencia (90,9 % para las dos accesiones: CSSS-5 y CSS-6. Se concluye que el porcentaje de brotación, la emergencia, el arraigamiento y la supervivencia fueron indicadores muy variables, tanto en condiciones de vivero como en campo, lo que estuvo indisolublemente ligado al genotipo, la edad y la calidad de la semilla de los materiales colectados (tanto propágulos como semilla. Se recomienda colectar J. curcas en otras zonas, con el fin de contribuir al incremento del germoplasma de esta importante especie, que constituye un recurso genético alternativo para la producción de biocombustible.

  12. Antibacterial potential of Jatropha curcas synthesized silver nanoparticles against food borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chauhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha curcas was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Jc-AgNps which were further evaluated for its antibacterial potential against food borne pathogens. J. curcas leaf extract could synthesize stable silver nanoparticles (Zeta potential: -23.4 mV with absorption band at 430 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR indicated various biological compounds responsible for capping and stabilizing Jc-AgNps in suspension, while the presence of silver was authenticated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX. Jc-AgNps were confirmed to be uniform in shape, size and behaviour through dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis. To investigate the antibacterial activity, disc diffusion and microplate dilution assays were performed and zone of inhibition (ZOI as well as minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBCs were evaluated against selected bacterial strains. Overall results showed that Escherichia coli (ZOI: 23 mm, MBC: 0.010 mg/ml was the most sensitive organism, whereas Staphylococcus aureus (ZOI: 14.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml and Salmonella enterica (ZOI: 16.66 mm, MBC: 0.041 mg/ml were the least sensitive against Jc-AgNps. The detailed microscopic investigations using SEM, TEM and AFM were performed to understand the antibacterial impacts of Jc-AgNps against Listeria monocytogenes. SEM and TEM analysis showed the clear deformation and disintegration of treated L. monocytogenes cells, whereas AFM established a decrease in the height and cell surface roughness (RMS value in the treated L. monocytogenes.

  13. Microorganismos patógenos en Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Estrategias potenciales para su manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (piñón botija, considerada la gran promesa verde para el biodiesel, es una planta de la que existen considerables incógnitas en el ámbito científico desde el punto de vista agronómico, sobre todo en lo referente a los microorganismos causantes de enfermedades, entre las que sobresale la conocida como damping off (estrangulamiento de las plántulas que es provocada por varias especies de hongos. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es compilar la mayor cantidad de información sobre los principales microorganismos fitopatógenos que afectan a J. curcas, así como las posibles estrategias para su manejo, con el fin de obtener rendimientos eficientes y rentables de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Se encontraron 48 agentes causales de enfermedades; los más representativos fueron los hongos, entre los que predominan los que producen la roya y el mildiu polvoso, fundamentalmente. En cuanto al manejo fitosanitario, se citan las medidas culturales preventivas y las químicas, como curativas. De ahí que en Cuba, al igual que en otros países donde se cultiva el piñón botija, sea imprescindible conocer los fitopatógenos que pueden reducir los rendimientos de dicha planta, para después implementar un sistema de manejo fitosanitario que contribuya a evitar pérdidas considerables en la producción de biodiesel como producto final.

  14. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana

    2010-03-07

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  15. Efficient culture protocol for plant regeneration from cotyledonary petiole explants of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency and reproducible protocol for induction of adventitious shoot buds and plant regeneration from cotyledonary petiole explants of Jatropha curcas L. has been developed. The cotyledonary petiole explants of J. curcas cultured directly on medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ induce regeneration of poor quality shoot buds that have a low regeneration frequency. However, treating the explants with high concentrations (10–60 mg/L of TDZ solution for certain time periods (5–80 min significantly increased the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated shoot buds. The best shoot buds induction (88.42% and number of shoot buds (12.67 per explant were observed when in vitro explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min before being transferred on hormone-free medium after 30 days. Regeneration was also influenced by the orientation (horizontal or vertical of the explants on the medium, and by the origin of the cotyledonary petioles (in vitro or in vivo used for the preparation of explants. We performed subsequent experiments for elongation and rooting of the regenerated shoot buds. Addition of L-arginine to the medium was conducive to the elongation of the shoot buds. A concentration of 7.5 mg/L L-arginine yielded the best results. The elongated shoots could initiate roots to become intact plantlets in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0.1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. After acclimatization, these plantlets could be transplanted to the soil and the growth was normal. Therefore, application of the methods described here helped to increase plant regeneration efficiency.

  16. Oyster and Pyramidella Shells as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted biodiesel production via transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol using solid oxide catalyst derived from waste shells of oyster and Pyramidella was studied. The shells were calcined at 900°C for 2 h and calcium oxide (CaO catalyst characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area measurements. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, microwave power, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the economic and environmentally friendly catalysts derived from oyster and Pyramidella shells showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts under microwave-assisted transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol.

  17. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita [National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, UP (India); Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P. [Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon (India)

    2010-01-15

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  18. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean ( Ricinus communis ) in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio...

  19. Brettanomyces as a starter culture in rice-steamed sponge cake: a traditional fermented food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yongxia; Chen, Qingchan; Pan, Siyi

    2011-11-01

    The potential use of Brettanomyces anomalus PSY-001 as an additional starter culture for the production of Rice-steamed sponge cake (RSSC), a traditional fermented food in China, was investigated. Two productions of RSSC, each containing batches of experimental cakes with Brettanomyces added and reference cakes with the leavened liquid added were carried out. For both experimental and reference cakes, chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out during the fermentation period. The results showed that experimental cakes had desirable aroma and taste. The observed differences indicate a positive contribution to the overall quality of RSSC by B. anomalus PSY-001.

  20. A comparative analysis of physical and chemical properties of Jatropha Curcas. L, Calophyllum Inophyllum. L and Sterculia Feotida. L oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Atabani, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Production of bio-diesel converted from edible oil has raised the issue of competition for resources between food production and fuel production, as well as other questions of environmental impact. It has been established that producing bio-diesel from non-edible vegetable oils was one of the effective ways to resolve these issues. Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. are all non-edible oils and all can be potential sources for future energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the results of a comparative analysis of the physical and chemical properties of Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. oils. Physical and chemical properties of these vegetable oils, such as density, iodine value, free fatty acid, etc. were investigated and measured. These properties were then compared with those of other non-edible vegetable oils in terms of potential. This paper finds that the results of analysis indicate that there is high potential for using Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. crude oil as an alternative fuel.