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Sample records for curassows crax rubra

  1. Coarse- and fine-scale patterns of distribution and habitat selection places an Amazonian floodplain curassow in double jeopardy

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    Gabriel A. Leite

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of habitat selection are influenced by local productivity, resource availability, and predation risk. Species have taken millions of years to hone the macro- and micro-habitats they occupy, but these may now overlap with contemporary human threats within natural species ranges. Wattled Curassow (Crax globulosa, an endemic galliform species of the western Amazon, is threatened by both hunting and habitat loss, and is restricted to white-water floodplain forests of major Amazonian rivers. In this study conducted along the Juruá River, Amazonas, Brazil, we quantified the ranging ecology and fine-scale patterns of habitat selection of the species. We estimated the home range size of C. globulosa using conventional VHF telemetry. To estimate patterns of habitat selection, we used geo-locations of day ranges to examine the extent and intensity of use across the floodplain, which were then compared to a high-resolution flood map of the study area. We captured two females and one male, which we monitored for 13 months between September 2014 and September 2015. Average home range size was 283 ha, based on the 95% aLoCoH estimator. Wattled Curassows selected areas of prolonged flood pulses (six to eight months/year and had a consistent tendency to be near open water, usually in close proximity to river banks and lakes, especially during the dry season. Amazonian floodplains are densely settled, and the small portions of floodplain habitat used by Wattled Curassows are both the most accessible to hunters and most vulnerable to deforestation. As a result, the geographic and ecological distribution of Wattled Curassows places them at much higher extinction risk at multiple spatial scales, highlighting the need to consider habitat preferences within their conservation strategy.

  2. Estado de conservación de Crax globulosa en la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria, Loreto

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    Antonio Yahuarcani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de mayo a julio de 2006 se determinó el estado de conservación del piurí Crax globulosa Spix, 1825 en la Zona de Amortiguamiento de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria. En las comunidades de Vista Alegre y San Pedro de Maypuco se recopilo información mediante talleres, encuestas, entrevistas y charlas que permitieron obtener información referente a la percepción y el conocimiento de los pobladores locales sobre la especie. En la comunidad de Vista Alegre se realizaron censos y observaciones. Crax globulosa en los periodos de creciente del río, prefiere el estrato superior del bosque, así como pequeños espacios de tierra de las restingas más altas; en vaciante ocupa todo el espacio de las restingas, prefiriendo los bosques cerrados de cochas y caños. Se observaron 22 grupos con 50 individuos, estimando su densidad entre 3 y 4 individuos/km2. El presente trabajo confirma la presencia de C. globulosa y su distribución en el bajo Ucayali.

  3. Festuca rubra L. op Terschelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijsen, A.H.J.; Heusden, van H.T.A.

    1965-01-01

    The authors performed a preliminary survey of Festuca rubra L. s.l. in the outer dunes of the West- Frisian island of Terschelling. Starting-point was the question which dune-form of this grass — Festuca juncifolia St. Amans or Festuca rubra subvar. arenaria (Osb.) Hack. — was growing there. In the

  4. Recovering the Genetic Identity of an Extinct-in-the-Wild Species: The Puzzling Case of the Alagoas Curassow.

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    Costa, Mariellen C; Oliveira, Paulo R R; Davanço, Paulo V; Camargo, Crisley de; Laganaro, Natasha M; Azeredo, Roberto A; Simpson, James; Silveira, Luis F; Francisco, Mercival R

    2017-01-01

    The conservation of many endangered taxa relies on hybrid identification, and when hybrids become morphologically indistinguishable from the parental species, the use of molecular markers can assign individual admixture levels. Here, we present the puzzling case of the extinct in the wild Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu), whose captive population descends from only three individuals. Hybridization with the Razor-billed Curassow (P. tuberosa) began more than eight generations ago, and admixture uncertainty affects the whole population. We applied an analysis framework that combined morphological diagnostic traits, Bayesian clustering analyses using 14 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA haplotypes to assess the ancestry of all individuals that were alive from 2008 to 2012. Simulated data revealed that our microsatellites could accurately assign an individual a hybrid origin until the second backcross generation, which permitted us to identify a pure group among the older, but still reproductive animals. No wild species has ever survived such a severe bottleneck, followed by hybridization, and studying the recovery capability of the selected pure Alagoas Curassow group might provide valuable insights into biological conservation theory.

  5. Recovering the Genetic Identity of an Extinct-in-the-Wild Species: The Puzzling Case of the Alagoas Curassow.

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    Mariellen C Costa

    Full Text Available The conservation of many endangered taxa relies on hybrid identification, and when hybrids become morphologically indistinguishable from the parental species, the use of molecular markers can assign individual admixture levels. Here, we present the puzzling case of the extinct in the wild Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu, whose captive population descends from only three individuals. Hybridization with the Razor-billed Curassow (P. tuberosa began more than eight generations ago, and admixture uncertainty affects the whole population. We applied an analysis framework that combined morphological diagnostic traits, Bayesian clustering analyses using 14 microsatellite loci, and mtDNA haplotypes to assess the ancestry of all individuals that were alive from 2008 to 2012. Simulated data revealed that our microsatellites could accurately assign an individual a hybrid origin until the second backcross generation, which permitted us to identify a pure group among the older, but still reproductive animals. No wild species has ever survived such a severe bottleneck, followed by hybridization, and studying the recovery capability of the selected pure Alagoas Curassow group might provide valuable insights into biological conservation theory.

  6. Association pityriasis rubra pilaire et myasthenie

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    Fatima Zahra Agharbi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le pityriasis rubra pilaire est un trouble de keratinisation rare dont l�etiopathogenie reste inconnue mais dont l�association avec autres pathologies a ete deja rapportee. Nous rapportons l�observation d�une jeune patiente qui presente un pityriasis rubra pilaire associe a une myasthenie. Traitee par Neostigmine et thymectomie avec bonne evolution sur le plan neurologique. Vu son desir de grossesse un traitement systemique de son pityriasis rubra pilaire n�a pas pu etre instaure et l�evolution sous dermocorticoides n�etait pas tres favorable.

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

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    Kubanov Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with clinical diagnosis and treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP. The authors analyze the diagnostic errors, present literature review, and their own observations. The clinical study included 23 patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris: 18 women and 5 men, average age of 54 ± 7.2. The clinical diagnosis of all examined patients was subsequently confirmed by histological analysis of the skin. The primary clinical diagnosis was psoriasis in 15 (65.2% patients, 6 (26% patients received treatment for toxic exanthema, and only 2 (8.8% patients were presumptively diagnosed with pityriasis rubra pilaris. In conclusion, pityriasis rubra pilaris was initially misdiagnosed in 91.2% of patients. Considering the great number of diagnostic errors, we analyzed the main diagnostic and differential diagnostic features of PRP. The most effective of all synthetic retinoids in PRP treatment is acitretin. Although symptomatic improvement in PRP occurs within a month, substantial improvement, even clearing is possible within 4 - 6 months.

  8. Systemic sclerosis in a patient with pityriasis rubra pilaris | Frikha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare, chronic erythematous squamous disorder of unknown etiology. It has been found in association with several autoimmune diseases, including thyroiditis, myositis, myasthenia gravis and vitiligo. Herein we report a case of systemic sclerosis in a patient with classic adult pityriasis rubra ...

  9. Over de twee ondersoorten van Festuca rubra L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde-Duyfjes, de B.E.E.

    1973-01-01

    A survey is given of the literature concerning Festuca rubra L. s.l. as it occurs along the European coasts. For the Netherlands two subspecies are distinguished, viz. subsp. rubra and subsp. arenaria (Osb.) Richt. This is in accordance with the findings of FREIJSEN & HEERES (1972).

  10. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris In The Indian Scenario

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    Sarkar Rashmi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon idiopathic papulosqamous disorder characterized by circumscribed follicular keratosis, palmoplantar keratoderma and frequently erythroderma. Seven patients of PRP (five females and two males in the age range of 2 to 50 years seen over a 2-year period are presented with their clinical features, triggering factors, associations and laboratory investigations. The clinical type of PRP was adult onset classical variety in three, juvenile circumscribed variety in two and adult onset atypical variety and juvenile classical variety in one each. The triggering factors were upper respiratory tract infection with nutritional deficiencies in two and folliculitis in one. The histopathology was consistent with PRP in all. Four patients were managed with oral vitamin A while one each was put on methotrexate, etretinate and topical steroids and they showed a good response. More number of cases should be studied over a longer period to substantiate the suggested immunologic mechanism of PRP.

  11. Miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in underground miners.

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    Donoghue, A M; Sinclair, M J

    2000-08-01

    This report documents a case series of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in miners at a deep underground metalliferous mine in tropical arid Australia. During the summer months of February and March 1999, all cases of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in underground miners seen at the mine's medical centre were clinically examined and administered a questionnaire. Twenty-five patients were seen, an incidence of 56.4 cases per million man-hours. Miliaria rubra was most often located between the ankle and knee (88% of cases). Twenty-four percent had concurrent folliculitis and 20% had concurrent tinea. Thirty-two percent had a personal history of asthma. Walking through ground-water and splashing of the legs was common. Three to 4 weeks of sedentary duties in air conditioning was generally required to achieve resolution of miliaria rubra. The incidence of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs is 38% of the incidence of heat exhaustion at the same mine. The length of disablement is greater, however. Atopics may be at increased risk of miliaria rubra. Control measures are discussed.

  12. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

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    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  13. Some virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolated from cloacal swabs of healthy Alagoas Curassows (Pauxi mitu in Brazil Alguns genes de virulência de Escherichia coli isoladas de mutuns-do-nordeste (Pauxi mitu sadios no Brasil

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    André A.B. Saidenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds of the Cracidae family (curassows, guans, and chachalacas are endemic of the Neotropics and 50 species are currently classified. Brazil has 22 species, seven of which are considered threatened. The Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu species is considered extinct in the wild; but about 120 birds are alive in captivity. Conservation of this species depends entirely on correct management. Health reports of both wildlife and captive curassows are rare. In this study the presence of Escherichia coli was evaluated in 23 healthy Alagoas Curassows from two private breeding centres. E. coli was isolated from cloacal swabs, and the presence of genes encoding cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (cnf1, alpha-haemolysin (hly, aerobactin (iuc, serum resistance (iss and the following adhesions: S fimbriae (sfa, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap and temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh were investigated. E. coli was isolated from 78.3% (18/23 of the birds, and the percentage of curassows colonized by E. coli was similar between the two facilities. From the 22 E. coli isolates, 15 (68.2% were positive for at least one virulence factor by PCR, and the most frequently found gene was iss (50%. No curassows had clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, the presence of some E. coli strains may be a concern to the wildlife in captivity. Additional health surveillance studies are essential to guarantee successful conservation programmes for threatened cracids in Brazil.Aves da família Cracidae (mutuns, jacutingas e aracuãs são endêmicas da região Neotropical com 50 espécies atualmente classificadas. O Brasil possui 22 espécies nesta família e sete delas são consideradas ameaçadas de extinção. O mutum-do-nordeste (Pauxi mitu é considerado extinto na natureza, no entanto, aproximadamente 120 indivíduos são mantidos em cativeiro. A conservação desta espécie depende inteiramente de um manejo correto. Informações sobre o status sanitário de mutuns

  14. Evaluation of various therapeutic measures in striae rubra

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    Umesh Karsandas Karia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA (30% peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8 of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25% as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6 patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%. While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%. Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen

  15. Evaluation of Various Therapeutic Measures in Striae Rubra

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    Karia, Umesh Karsandas; Padhiar, Bela Bhemabhai; Shah, Bela Jaswantbhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w) gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA) combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (30%) peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow) peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8) of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25%) as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6) patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%). While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%). Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen with

  16. APLICACIÓN DE LOS SIG PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DEL ESTADO DE CONSERVACIÓN DEL HÁBITAT DEL PAUJIL DE PICO AZUL CRAX ALBERTI (AVES: CRACIDAE EN EL NORORIENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Adriana María Molina

    Full Text Available El paujil de pico azul, Crax alberti, es un ave endémica del norte de Colombia en peligro crítico de extinción, sometida a la pérdida del hábitat y a la cacería de subsistencia como principales amenazas. Se desarrolló una aplicación de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG para comparar el estado de conservación de las áreas de bosque, hábitat del paujil de pico azul, en 15 municipios de la región del nororiente de Antioquia en dos períodos de tiempo diferentes (1986 y 2002. La aplicación desarrollada que incorpora información cartográfica digital permitió clasificar ocho zonas definidas en el área de estudio para realizar un análisis de las prioridades de conservación. Se formularon, además, algunas recomendaciones para futuras aplicaciones de SIG como herramienta para la gestión de la conservación de especies amenazadas en Colombia.

  17. Gustatory perception and metabolic utilization of sugars by Myrmica rubra ant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boevé, J-L.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    The suitability of various nectar and honeydew sugars as a food source for the polyphagous ant species M. rubra (L.) was studied. The sugars used included monosaccharides (fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose), disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, trehalose, melibiose, lactose) and

  18. EFFECT OF VARIOUS GROWING MEDIA AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON GROWTH OF Antherura Rubra Lour

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    Fitri Kurniawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antherura rubra Lour is one of the critical plant at Cibodas Botanical Garden. Study of cultivation through vegetative propagation of A. Rubra is rare. Therefore, the research of A. rubra on various of media and inorganic fertilizers is required to conserve A.rubra at Cibodas Botanical Garden. This study was conducted at the Nursery - Cibodas Botanic Garden for 10 months. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD with four replications. Treatments consisted of three combinations of natural compost media with three levels of inorganic fertilizer (0, 1g/L, and 2g/L, three katalek compost combination with three levels of inorganic fertilizer and a control (top soil without inorganic fertilizers. Variable tested consists of plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight shoot and root as an indicator of growth A. rubra Lour The results showed that the growth of seedlings A. rubra Lour on katalek compost media's with one dose of levels inorganic fertilizer growth better than other treatments.

  19. The mitochondrial genomes of the acoelomorph worms Paratomella rubra, Isodiametra pulchra and Archaphanostoma ylvae.

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    Robertson, Helen E; Lapraz, François; Egger, Bernhard; Telford, Maximilian J; Schiffer, Philipp H

    2017-05-12

    Acoels are small, ubiquitous - but understudied - marine worms with a very simple body plan. Their internal phylogeny is still not fully resolved, and the position of their proposed phylum Xenacoelomorpha remains debated. Here we describe mitochondrial genome sequences from the acoels Paratomella rubra and Isodiametra pulchra, and the complete mitochondrial genome of the acoel Archaphanostoma ylvae. The P. rubra and A. ylvae sequences are typical for metazoans in size and gene content. The larger I. pulchra  mitochondrial genome contains both ribosomal genes, 21 tRNAs, but only 11 protein-coding genes. We find evidence suggesting a duplicated sequence in the I. pulchra mitochondrial genome. The P. rubra, I. pulchra and A. ylvae mitochondria have a unique genome organisation in comparison to other metazoan mitochondrial genomes. We found a large degree of protein-coding gene and tRNA overlap with little non-coding sequence in the compact P. rubra genome. Conversely, the A. ylvae and I. pulchra genomes have many long non-coding sequences between genes, likely driving genome size expansion in the latter. Phylogenetic trees inferred from mitochondrial genes retrieve Xenacoelomorpha as an early branching taxon in the deuterostomes. Sequence divergence analysis between P. rubra sampled in England and Spain indicates cryptic diversity.

  20. Genetic differentiation between the ant Myrmica rubra and its microgynous social parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vepsäläinen, K.; Ebsen, J. R.; Savolainen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hymenopteran inquiline species have been proposed to originate by sympatric speciation through intraspecific social parasitism. One such parasite, Myrmica microrubra, was recently synonymized with its Myrmica rubra host, because comparisons across Europe indicated insufficient genetic differentia......Hymenopteran inquiline species have been proposed to originate by sympatric speciation through intraspecific social parasitism. One such parasite, Myrmica microrubra, was recently synonymized with its Myrmica rubra host, because comparisons across Europe indicated insufficient genetic...... differentiation. Here, we use microsatellite markers to study genetic differentiation more precisely in a sample of Finnish M. rubra and its inquilines collected at two localities, supplemented with mitochondrial DNA sequences. The parasite had much lower genetic variation than the host at three of the four loci...

  1. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

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    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  2. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in an human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

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    Thakur K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula spp . are common saprophytes but may be responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula spp. in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients has been reported only rarely. We present a case of meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in HIV infected patient. The presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was made on the basis of India ink preparation, Gram staining and latex agglutination test (LAT for cryptococcal antigen. The final diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of Rhodotorula rubra from cerebrospinal fluid on culture. LAT was considered false positive. Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were administered but the patient succumbed to his illness.

  3. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

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    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  4. An analysis of phenotypic selection in natural stands of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

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    Jeffery W. Stringer; David B. Wagner; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Daniel B. Houston

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of growth and stem quality parameters of 19-year-old progeny from superior and comparison trees indicates that rigorous phenotypic selection of trees in natural stands may not be an efficient method of parent tree selection for Quercus rubra L. Total tree height, dbh, number of branches in the butt log, fork height, and number of mainstem...

  5. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

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    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  6. On merging Acer sections Rubra and Hyptiocarpa: Molecular and morphological evidence.

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    Harris, A J; Chen, Yousheng; Olsen, Richard T; Lutz, Sue; Wen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we expanded Acer sect. Rubra Pax to include A. sect. Hyptiocarpa Fang. Traditionally, section Rubra comprises two iconic species, Acer rubrum Linnaeus (red maple) and A. saccharinum Linnaeus (silver maple), of eastern North American forests as well as the rare Japanese montane species, A. pycnanthum K. Koch. Section Hyptiocarpa consists of A. laurinum Hasskarl and A. pinnatinervium Merrill, which occur in subtropical and tropical regions of southwestern China to southeast Asia. Here, we confirm prior phylogenetic results showing the close relationship between sects. Rubra and Hyptiocarpa , and we use scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate that leaves of species within these sections have similar arrangements of cuticular waxes, which account for the silvery color of their abaxial surfaces. We describe that the sections also share labile sex expression; inflorescences that range from compound racemose thyrses, to racemes or umbels and that may have undergone evolutionary reduction; and several features of their fruits, such as seed locules without keels, basal portion of wings straight, acute attachment angle between mericarps, and production of some mericarps that are seedless and partially developed at maturity. Our expansion of sect. Rubra to include sect. Hyptiocarpa better elucidates the biogeographic and evolutionary history of these species. Additionally, we show that A. laurinum and A. pinnatinervium have intergrading morphology and are probably synonymous, but we note that further studies are required to conclude their taxonomic status.

  7. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

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    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  8. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seed orchard

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    Lisa W. Alexander; Keith E. Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score from 304 to 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and to place clones into early, intermediate, and late phenology classes. Although the absolute number of clones in each phenological class...

  9. 15-demethylisoplumieride acid, a new iridoid isolated from the bark of Plumeria rubra and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba; Acido 15-desmetilisoplumierideo, um novo iridoide isolado das cascas de Plumeria rubra e do latex de Himatanthus sucuuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Alaide de Sa; Amaral, Ana Claudia F. [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos -Farmanguinhos. Lab. de Plantas Medicinais e Derivados; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jrocha_01@ufam.edu.br; Schripsema, Jan [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Rezende, Claudia M.; Pinto, Angelo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-09-15

    Himatanthus sucuuba and Plumeria rubra are used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat various ailments. The isolation of the new iridoid 15-demethylisoplumieride from the bark of Plumeria rubra L. var. acutifolia (Ait) Woodson and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson is reported. Other iridoid glycosides were obtained from both plants. The structures of these substances were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison with data already reported. (author)

  10. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, M.; Hanušová, V.; Skarka, A.; Boušová, I.; Králová, V.; Langhansová, Lenka; Skálová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, 1/2 (2016), s. 89-96 ISSN 0032-0943 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra * Myricaceae * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2016

  11. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli, and least-squares regression of Vb and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in Vb within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  12. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

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    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  13. EFEITO ALELOPÁTICO E MOLUSCICIDA DE AMORA (Morus rubra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CRISTINA MENDES MIRANDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite produced in some plants can provoke alterations in the development of other plants or even other organisms. The aim of this paper was to identify possible allelopathic effects and biologic control of Achatina fulica Bowdich with aqueous extracts of Morus rubra L. leaves. For obtaining the aqueous extract, we used previously dried leaves in concentration of 1g 10 mL-1. Five concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100% and compared to control (0.0%, distilled water. The aqueous extracts of Morus rubra showed up allelopathic potentialities on the seed germination and in the growth of the shoot and the root system of the tested species, considering that the reduction in the germination and initial growth increased with the rising of the aqueous extracts concentrations used and, in the biologic control, only in the final mass of A. fulica. The results indicated the existence of allelopathic effect, but not molluscicide of M. rubra.

  14. Anatomical and phenological implications of the relationship between Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) and the galling insect Calophya rubra (Blanchard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, L M; Aguilera, N; Ferreira, B G; Becerra, J; Hernández, V; Isaias, R M S

    2018-05-01

    The success of galling insects could be determined by synchronisation with host plant phenology and climate conditions, ensuring suitable oviposition sites for gall induction and food resources for their survival. The anatomical, histochemical and phenological synchronisation strategies between Calophya rubra (Blanchard) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and its host, the evergreen plant Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) (Anacardiaceae), in the Mediterranean climate of southern Chile was evaluated and compared to that of the congeneric C. cf. duvauae (Scott) from Brazil and closely related host plant S. engleri in a subtropical climate. Anatomical, histometric, histochemical and vegetative phenology studies of the stem and galls were conducted from June 2015 to December 2016. Based on the anatomical, histometric and histochemical analysis, the conical stem gall traits imply gains over the non-galled stem toward the galling insect survival, but the maintenance of phellem, secretory ducts and pith indicate conservative developmental traits that cannot be manipulated by C. rubra. Our results indicate that the conditions of the Mediterranean climate zone limit C. rubra immature activity during unfavourable periods, probably determining a diapause period and a univoltine life cycle, which are peculiarities of the S. polygama- C. rubra system. The synchronisation between development and seasonality confers peculiarities to the S. polygama- C. rubra system in the Mediterranean climate zone. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Welke soort rood zwenkgras (Festuca rubra s.l.) komt voor in de jonge kustduinen van Voorne en die van overig Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijsen, A.H.J.; Heeres, Els

    1972-01-01

    By common consent two taxa of Festuca rubra s.l. occur in sandy outer dunes along the N.W. European coasts. Festuca juncifolia St. Amans is considered to be a typical grass of Ammophiladunes. Festuca rubra subsp. arenaria (Osb.) Richt. could be found on almost fixed dunes. The only usable character

  16. Impacts of the Invasive European Red Ant (Myrmica rubra (L.): Hymenoptera; Formicidae) on a Myrmecochorous System in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammans, Nicola; Drummond, Frank; Groden, Eleanor

    2018-05-16

    We investigated the impact of an invasive ant species from Europe, Myrmica rubra (L.), on a myrmecochorous system (seeds dispersed by ants) in its invaded range in North America. We assessed: 1) how M. rubra process the myrmecochorous diapsores (seeds and elaiosome as a single dispersal unit transported by ants) in comparison with native ants; 2) its preference for common native and invasive diaspore species relative to native ants; 3) how far they disperse diaspores in the field; and 4) the diaspore removal rate by invertebrates and vertebrates in infested areas compared to noninvaded sites. Field experiments demonstrated higher diaspore removal rates over a 10-min and 24-h period by M. rubra compared to native ants. M. rubra's diaspore dispersal distance was 40% greater compared to native ants. In two of three laboratory studies and one field study, there was no significant difference between the seed species which M. rubra and native ants selected. Our data suggest no long-term deleterious effects of M. rubra's invasion on diaspore dispersal in the Maine plant community that is comprised of both native and invasive species. This implies that M. rubra benefits from the myrmechorous plant species' diaspores by increasing their dispersal range away from the parent plant and potentially reducing seed predation. However, it is not known whether the fact that the native ant fauna and M. rubra are attracted to the same plant species' diaspores creates a high level of competition between the ants with deleterious effects on the native ant community.

  17. Acantholytic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris Associated with Imiquimod 3.75% Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Imiquimod is an immunomodulator with both antitumor and antiviral properties. It is currently available in two cream formulations as Aldara (imiquimod 5% and the newly approved Zyclara (imiquimod 3.75%. Imiquimod has been associated with localized erythema, crusting, and scaling at the site of application. However, more severe generalized skin eruptions including erythema multiforme, psoriasis, and hyperpigmentation have been described. The newly approved imiquimod 3.75% cream is a presumably safer alternative due to its lower concentration. This paper describes the development of generalized acantholytic pityriasis rubra pilaris after the treatment of an actinic keratosis on the forehead with imiquimod 3.75% cream.

  18. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an idiopathic inflammatory hyperproliferative chronic dermatosis characterized by: perifollicular coalescing papules with central keratotic acuminate plugs gradually submerged in sheets of erythema; perifollicular erythema with islands of unaffected skin; palmoplantar keratoderma; diffuse desquamation which typically spreads from the head down to the feet. The cause of the condition is unknown, but possible etiological factors include: vitamin A deficiency, trauma, infections, autoimmune mechanisms, and malignancies. Taking into account different age of onset, clinical course, morphology and prognosis, there are six different types of the disease: two in adults (classical and atypical; three in children (classical, circumscribed and atypical; one in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

  19. Myrica rubra leaves as a potential source of a dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; Tauchen, Jan; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Lou, J.D.; Yun, Z.L.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2017), s. 343-353 ISSN 0954-0105 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12165; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-07193S Grant - others:OPPK(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : in-vitro * antiinflammatory activity * zucc. leaves * 5-lipoxygenase * sieb. * cyclooxygenase * constituents * antioxidants * myricitrin * metabolism * Myrica rubra * anti-inflammatory * cyclooxygenase 1 * cyclooxygenase 2 * 5-lipoxygenase Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Medicinal chemistry Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2016

  20. Improving germination of red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) seeds with gibberellic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Morales; Charles Barden; Cheryl Boyer; Jason Griffin; Lillian Fisher; Joni Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) are considered important plants for many Native American tribes in the United States. Native Americans use these 3 species for a variety of traditional and medicinal purposes. For example, red elm is still the preferred firewood for the cultural ceremonies of several tribes....

  1. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  2. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  3. The influence of cultural treatments of the long-term survival and growth of planted Quercus rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; Kim C. Steiner

    2011-01-01

    A northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantation testing 20 nursery stock and planting methods was used to evaluate treatments 3, 6, 10, and 17 years after planting. Survival over all treatments was 92 percent at age 3 and declined to 74 percent, 56 percent, and 39 percent at ages 6, 10, and 17, respectively. At age 17, survival was highest for...

  4. Photosynthesis and xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in leaves of Quercus rubra and Q. alba seedlings of different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Dianpeng Xu; Paul P. Kormanik; Clanton C. Black

    1997-01-01

    Two and three years after the outplanting of 1-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra, NRO) and white oak (Q. alba, WO) nursery stocks, the highest net photosynthetic rates (Amax) were observed from seedlings growing on a clearcut site, followed by those under a pine stand. Both NRO and WO...

  5. Essential oil from Myrica rubra leaves inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several human intestinal lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Hanusová, V.; Rezek, Jan; Stohanslová, B.; Ambrož, M.; Králová, V.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Lou, J.D.; Yun, Z.L.; Yang, J.; Skálová, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 20-26 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12165 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra * Essential oil * Antiproliferative effect Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.837, year: 2014

  6. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Octocorallia), a new bubblegum coral species from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhan, Zifeng; Xu, Kuidong

    2017-07-01

    A new species of bubblegum coral, Paragorgia rubra sp. nov., discovered from a seamount at a water depth of 373 m near the Yap Trench is studied using morphological and molecular approaches. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is the fourth species of the genus found in the tropical Western Pacific. The new gorgonian is red-colored, uniplanar, and measures approximately 530 mm high and 440 mm wide, with autozooids distributed only on one side of the colony. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is most similar to P. kaupeka Sánchez, 2005, but differs distinctly in the polyp ovals with large and compound protuberances (vs. small and simple conical protuberances) and the medullar spindles possessing simple conical protuberances (vs. compound protuberances). Moreover, P. rubra sp. nov. differs from P. kaupeka in the smaller length/width ratio of surface radiates (1.53 vs. 1.75). The genetic distance of the mtMutS gene between P. rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka is 0.66%, while the intraspecific distances within Paragorgia Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1857 except the species P. regalis complex are no more than 0.5%, further supporting the establishment of the new species. Furthermore, the ITS2 secondary structure of P. rubra sp. nov. is also different from those of congeners. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka form a clade, which branched early within Paragorgia and diversified approximately 15 Mya.

  7. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Adsorption recovery of thorium(IV) by Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin immobilized onto collagen fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuepin Liao; Li Li; Bi Shi

    2004-01-01

    Novel adsorbents which can concentrate Th(IV) in aqueous solution were prepared by immobilizing Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin onto collagen fibre matrices. The adsorption capacities of the immobilized tannins to Th(IV) are related to temperature and pH value of the adsorption process. For example, when the initial concentration of Th(IV) was 116.0 mg x l -1 and the immobilized tannin was 100 mg, the adsorption capacities of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin were 55.98 mg Th(IV) x g -1 and 13.19 mg Th(IV) x g -1 , respectively at 303 K, and 73.67 mg Th(IV) x g -1 and 18.19 mg Th(IV) x g -1 at 323 K. It was also found that the higher adsorption capacity was obtained at higher pH value. The adsorption equilibrium data of the immobilized tannins for Th(IV) can be well fitted by the Langmuir model and the mechanism of the adsorption was found to be a chemical adsorption. In general, the adsorption capacity of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin to Th(IV) is significantly higher than that of immobilized larch tannin, probably due to the fact that the B ring of Myrica rubra tannin has a pyrogallol structure which has higher reaction activity with metal ions. The breakthrough point of the adsorption column of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin was at 33 bed volumes for the experimental system. The mass transfer coefficient of adsorption column determined by Adams-Bohart equation was 1.61 x 10 -4 l x mg -1 x min -1 . The adsorption column can be easily regenerated by 0.1 mol x l -1 HNO 3 solution, showing outstanding ability of concentrating Th(IV). (author)

  9. Highly Enantioselective Production of (R-Halohydrins with Whole Cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Janeczko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R-alcohols according to Prelog’s rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee = 97% and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%; 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%; 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%; 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%; 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%. There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses.

  10. Highly enantioselective production of (R)-halohydrins with whole cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Tomasz; Dymarska, Monika; Kostrzewa-Susłow, Edyta

    2014-12-04

    Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R)-alcohols according to Prelog's rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R)-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R)-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee) = 97%) and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%); 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%); 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%); 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%); 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%). There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses.

  11. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching

  12. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Dirihan

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42, and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28, whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56. Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-­quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%. PMID:19478454

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra was expressed, purified, and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data of this crystal were collected to 2.2 Å resolution. (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%

  15. Effects of Cornus mas L. and Morus rubra L. extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an electrophysiological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaş, Filiz; Per, Sedat; Taşdemir, Abdulkadir; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Uzun, Aydın; Saraymen, Recep; Gümüş, Hakan; Elmalı, Ferhan; Per, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Sixty Wistar rats randomly divided into ten groups (n=6): control, sham, penicillin, penicillin+M. rubra extract (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and penicillin+C. mas extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg). Epileptiform activity was induced by using penicillin (500 IU, i.c.) and electrocorticogram records (150 min) were obtained. Also, biochemical analysis in blood samples were evaluated. According to the electrocorticogram analysis, the effective dose was detected as 10 mg/kg for both C. mas and M. rubra. This dose decreased the spike frequencies of convulsions while amplitude wasn't changed by both substances. In erythrocyte studies, there were significant differences regarding nitric oxide in the control, sham and penicillin groups. There were significant differences regarding malondialdehyde in all groups. In the plasma, there were significant differences among groups regarding xanthine oxidase in the penicillin‑C. mas and penicillin‑M. rubra groups. There were differences regarding malondialdehyde in the penicillin-C. mas and M. rubra-C. mas groups. Both extracts reduced the frequency of epileptiform activity. After administration of the extracts malondialdehyde levels decreased also in both erythrocytes and plasma.

  16. Back to America: tracking the origin of European introduced populations of Quercus rubra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Nastasia R; Leroy, Thibault; Chancerel, Emilie; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Borkowski, Daniel S; Ducousso, Alexis; Monty, Arnaud; Porté, Annabel J; Kremer, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    Quercus rubra has been introduced in Europe since the end of the 17th century. It is widely distributed today across this continent and considered invasive in some countries. Here, we investigated the distribution of genetic diversity of both native and introduced populations with the aim of tracing the origin of introduced populations. A large sampling of 883 individuals from 73 native and 38 European locations were genotyped at 69 SNPs. In the natural range, we found a continuous geographic gradient of variation with a predominant latitudinal component. We explored the existence of ancestral populations by performing Bayesian clustering analysis and found support for two or three ancestral genetic clusters. Approximate Bayesian Computations analyses based on these two or three clusters support recent extensive secondary contacts between them, suggesting that present-day continuous genetic variation resulted from recent admixture. In the introduced range, one main genetic cluster was not recovered in Europe, suggesting that source populations were preferentially located in the northern part of the natural distribution. However, our results cannot refute the introduction of populations from the southern states that did not survive in Europe.

  17. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  18. Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra on herring gull (Larus argentatus reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E DeFisher

    Full Text Available Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities.

  19. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  20. Ustekinumab as an Alternative Treatment Option for Chronic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Chowdhary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an exceptionally rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Patients classically present with small, follicular keratosis and salmon-colored plaques that begin at the head and neck and slowly progress to widespread erythroderma including the palms and soles. It is difficult to distinguish PRP from other inflammatory dermatoses; however, features that help aid in the diagnosis include ‘islands' of spared skin, orangish hue and typical findings on biopsy. There are no specific guidelines on therapy and treatment options include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Unfortunately options are limited for patients when these drugs do not work. We report a case of chronic PRP, refractory to conventional treatment, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy. The patient was treated with 90 mg subcutaneous ustekinumab injections and began to show improvement within only 8 weeks. Long-term control of the disease has been attained without any significant side effects. We report this case to show that ustekinumab can be used as an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic, unremitting PRP. Treatment response is remarkably rapid and the infrequent dosing leads to patient compliance and a significantly improved quality of life.

  1. Quercus rubra-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of disturbed urban sites and mature forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Amy S; Handel, Steven N; Dighton, John; Horton, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    The presence and quality of the belowground mycorrhizal fungal community could greatly influence plant community structure and host species response. This study tests whether mycorrhizal fungal communities in areas highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbance and urbanization are less species rich or exhibit lower host root colonization rates when compared to those of less disturbed systems. Using a soil bioassay, we sampled the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associating with Quercus rubra (northern red oak) seedlings in soil collected from seven sites: two mature forest reference sites and five urban sites of varying levels of disturbance. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fungi colonizing root tips revealed that colonization rates and fungal species richness were significantly lower on root systems of seedlings grown in disturbed site soils. Analysis of similarity showed that EMF community composition was not significantly different among several urban site soils but did differ significantly between mature forest sites and all but one urban site. We identified a suite of fungal species that occurred across several urban sites. Lack of a diverse community of belowground mutualists could be a constraint on urban plant community development, especially of late-successional woodlands. Analysis of urban EMF communities can add to our understanding of urban plant community structure and should be addressed during ecological assessment before pragmatic decisions to restore habitats are framed.

  2. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  3. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone ( Haliotis rubra ) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  5. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  6. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  7. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (spoil, however the application of 0.5 phosphate was less favourable. Liming, application of amendments and growth of red fescue can stabilize metals in acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil, and by phytostabilization they can reduce the risk of metal contamination of the food chain.

  8. Influence of papermill sludge on growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum in gold mine tailings: A greenhouse study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Scott; Renault, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the suitability of adding papermill sludge to neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings to improve the establishment of Festuca rubra, Agropyron trachycaulum and Medicago sativa. Festuca rubra root and shoot biomass and A. Trachycaulum shoot biomass were increased with papermill sludge amendment. The addition of papermill sludge and fertilizer drastically increased the shoot and root biomass of M. sativa (20-30 times) while A. trachycaulum and F. rubra showed a more moderate increase in growth. Photosynthetic pigment content of the leaves was higher in papermill sludge treatments than in the treatments without papermill sludge. The organic carbon content, macro-aggregate content and field capacity of the gold mine tailings were increased while the bulk density was decreased by the addition of papermill sludge. This study suggests that addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization can alleviate some of the adverse conditions of neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings. - Addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization of neutral gold mine tailings increased growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum

  9. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  10. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton preparation (Rubratin) for superficial bladder cancer immunotherapy--a phase I/II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reijke, T. M.; de Boer, E. C.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pTa, pT1) were treated with six consecutive weekly intravesical instillations of Rubratin (in a dose of 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mg), a cell wall skeleton preparation of Nocardia rubra (NCW). The main objective of this

  11. Philometra rubra (Nematoda: Philometridae) first description of the male from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and implications for re-introduction of an extirpated population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Measures, L.; Moravec, František; Douglas, S.; Lair, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2017), s. 345-352 ISSN 0008-4301 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometra rubra * striped bass * Morone saxatilis * re-introduction * conservation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2016

  12. [Differences between cold and hot natures of processed Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. based upon mice temperature tropism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ru; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Can-Ping; Liu, Ta-Si; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Ren, Yong-Shen; Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-07-28

    To establish an objective method to estimate the disparity between the cold and hot natures on the basis of an intrinsic correlation between temperature tropism of mice and the cold and hot natures of Chinese medicines. Male KM mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 each, namely the normal group (NM), the weak model group (WM), the strong model group (SM), the weak model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (WM + RG), the weak model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (WM + PQ), the strong model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (SM + RG) and the strong model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (SM +PQ). The specific herbal drugs were administered intragastricly. To induce the weak model, mice were fed with a limited supply of feed and forced to swim in cold water until almost drowning while the strong model induced by feeding a high-protein diet with an unlimited feed access. The doses of Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. were 35 mg/g of body weight per day (counted by the quantity of crude material) and lasting for seven days. The NM and model groups without dosing were intragastricly administered with physiological saline of the same volume to the dosing groups. The percentage of the remaining time of mouse on a high temperature (40 degrees C) pad to the total monitoring time was recorded by a self-designed intelligent animal behavior monitoring system. Meanwhile, the drinking volume of mice in each group was measured. Immediately after experiment, the activities of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were measured by assay kits of phosphorus and xanthine oxidase methods respectively. The features of deficient and cold symptom, such as fatigue, stagnant weight growth, decreased water intake, cold limbs and tail etc, were observed in WM group. And the features of heat symptom, such as increased weight and water intake, hyperactivity etc, were observed in SM group. The percentage of time that the mouse remained on 40 degrees C

  13. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  14. Surgical and medical management for fractures of the second through fifth metacarpals in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Shannon N S; Harper, Justin; Voges, Andra; Coke, Rob L

    2013-03-01

    A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature.

  15. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  16. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  17. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) Bougainvillea spectabilis had an LD50 > 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV.

  18. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton promotes CD4+ T cell activation and drives Th1 immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangchuan; Wu, Jie; Miao, Miao; Dou, Heng; Nan, Ning; Shi, Mingsheng; Yu, Guang; Shan, Fengping

    2017-08-01

    Several lines of evidences have shown that Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) has immunoregulatory and anti-tumor activities. However, there is no information about the effect of Nr-CWS on CD4 + T cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Nr-CWS on the phenotype and function of CD4 + T cells. Our results of in vitro experiments showed that Nr-CWS could significantly up-regulate the expression of CD69 and CD25 on CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, increase the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in the supernatants, but has no significant effect on the apoptosis and death of CD4 + T cells. Results of in vivo experiments showed that Nr-CWS could promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, and increase the production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 type cytokines). These data suggest that Nr-CWS can enhance the activation of CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells and the differentiation of CD4 + T cells to Th1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) within the Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher J; Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2008-03-01

    Complete health assessments were performed on 22 adult red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), comprising nine males and 13 females, found within the Masoala National Park in northeast Madagascar. Each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam and underwent a thorough physical examination, including measurement of its weight and vital signs; blood collection for hematology, plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistries, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, assessment of iron metabolism, toxoplasmosis serology, viral serologies, and examination for hemoparasites; fecal collection for bacterial culture and parasite examination; and collection of a representative number of any ectoparasites. Comparison of blood values with those of captive lemurs demonstrated a number of significant differences thought to be associated with physiologic state (e.g., reproductive stage and stress), hydration, and diet. There was no evidence of serious infectious diseases, and hemoparasites were not detected. The enteric flora appeared unremarkable; however, results may have been skewed toward more cold-tolerant bacteria. The fecal parasite burden was low. Lemurostrongylus spp. was identified in two of the lemurs, and there were moderate numbers of Laelapidae mites present on approximately one third of the lemurs. This study demonstrated the substantial amount of data that can be collected from free-ranging populations, considered invaluable in the management of captive populations, in reducing the incidence of captivity-related diseases, and in the risk assessment associated with reintroduction programs.

  1. In vitro anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant properties of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Gobe, Glenda C; Osborne, Simone A

    2017-07-01

    Abalone viscera contain sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities. In this study, a hydrolysate was prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera using papain and bromelain and fractionated using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Hydrolysates and fractions were investigated for in vitro thrombin inhibition mediated through heparin cofactor II (HCII) as well as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and whole blood. On the basis of sulphated polysaccharide concentration, the hydrolysate inhibited thrombin through HCII with an inhibitor concentration at 50% (IC50) of 16.5 μg/mL compared with 2.1 μg/mL for standard heparin. Fractionation concentrated HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition down to an IC50 of 1.8 μg/mL and improved anti-coagulant activities by significantly delaying clotting time. This study confirmed the presence of anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant molecules in blacklip abalone viscera and demonstrated that these activities can be enriched with a simple chromatography regime. Blacklip abalone viscera warrant further investigation as a source of nutraceutical or functional food ingredients. Graphical abstract Schematic showing preparation of bioactive extracts and fractions from blacklip abalone.

  2. Coordinated regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) fruit by a R2R3 MYB transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shan-Shan; Xu, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Wang-Shu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xian; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C; Chen, Kun-Song

    2010-03-01

    Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) is a fruit crop with cultivars producing fruit ranging from white (Shuijing, SJ) to red (Dongkui, DK) and dark red-purple (Biqi, BQ), as a result of different levels of anthocyanin accumulation. Genes encoding the anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDPglucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), as well as MrMYB1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor homologous to known activators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, were isolated from ripe fruit of BQ. Differences in mRNA abundance of MrF3H, MrF3'H, MrDFR1, MrANS and MrUFGT were highly correlated with differential accumulation of anthocyanins between cultivars, suggesting coordinated regulation by transcription factors. The transcript level of MrMYB1 was strongly associated with the anthocyanin content in ripe fruit of the three cultivars, as well as different anthocyanin containing tissues of BQ fruit. Fruit bagging strongly inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in fruit as well as the expression of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and MrMYB1. Overexpression of MrMYB1 stimulated both anthocyanin accumulation and activated an Arabidopsis-DFR promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). MrMYB1d, an allele with a 1 bp deletion at nucleotide 30 of coding sequence, was observed in SJ and DK fruit, suggesting that a nonsense mutation of the MYB1 protein may be responsible for no or low expression of MYB1 in the white and red fruit. These results show that coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic genes is involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Chinese bayberry fruit, and this is regulated by MrMYB1.

  3. Alteration of foliar flavonoid chemistry induced by enhanced UV-B radiation in field-grown Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Bassman, John H; Mattinson, D Scott; Fellman, John K; Edwards, Gerald E; Robberecht, Ronald

    2002-03-01

    Chromatographic analyses of foliage from several tree species illustrate the species-specific effects of UV-B radiation on both quantity and composition of foliar flavonoids. Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii were field-grown under modulated ambient (1x) and enhanced (2x) biologically effective UV-B radiation. Foliage was harvested seasonally over a 3-year period, extracted, purified and the flavonoid fraction applied to a mu Bondapak/C(18) column HPLC system sampling at 254 nm. Total flavonoid concentrations in Quercus rubra foliage were more than twice (leaf area basis) that of the other species; Pseudotsuga menziesii foliage had intermediate levels and P. ponderosa had the lowest concentrations of total flavonoids. No statistically significant UV-B radiation-induced effects were found in total foliar flavonoid concentrations for any species; however, concentrations of specific compounds within each species exhibited significant treatment effects. Higher (but statistically insignificant) levels of flavonoids were induced by UV-B irradiation in 1- and 2-year-old P. ponderosa foliage. Total flavonoid concentrations in 2-year-old needles increased by 50% (1x ambient UV-B radiation) or 70% (2x ambient UV-B radiation) from that of 1-year-old tissue. Foliar flavonoids of Q. rubra under enhanced UV-B radiation tended to shift from early-eluting compounds to less polar flavonoids eluting later. There were no clear patterns of UV-B radiation effects on 1-year-old P. menziesii foliage. However, 2-year-old tissue had slightly higher foliar flavonoids under the 2x UV-B radiation treatment compared to ambient levels. Results suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation will alter foliar flavonoid composition and concentrations in forest tree species, which could impact tissue protection, and ultimately, competition, herbivory or litter decomposition.

  4. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, David J.; Moran, Bridget M.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2005-01-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat

  5. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, David J. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: davematt00@hotmail.com; Moran, Bridget M. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Otte, Marinus L. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat.

  6. Leaf anatomical changes in Populus trichocarpa, Quercus rubra, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, L.M.; Bassman, J.H.; Edwards, G.E.; Robberecht, R.; Franceshi, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf anatomical characteristics are important in determining the degree of injury sustained when plants are exposed to natural and enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm). The degree to which leaf anatomy can adapt to the increasing levels of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is poorly understood in most tree species. We examined four tree species, representing a wide range of leaf anatomical characteristics, to determine responses of leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf tissue parameters after exposure to ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with photosynthetically active radiation of 39 mol m −2 day −1 and under one of three daily irradiances of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) supplied for 10 h per day: (1) approximate ambient level received at Pullman, Washington on June 21 (1 x ); two times ambient (2 x ), or three times ambient (3 x ). We hypothesized the response of each species to UV-B radiation would be related to inherent anatomical differences. We found that the conifers responded anatomically to nearly an equal degree as the broad-leaved trees, but that different tissues were involved. Populus trichocarpa, an indeterminate broadleaf species, showed significantly thicker palisade parenchyma in recently mature leaves at the 3 x level and in older leaves under the 2 x level. In addition, individual leaf area was generally greater with increased UV-B irradiance. Quercus rubra, a semi-determinate broadleaf species, exhibited significantly thicker palisade parenchyma at the 2 x and 3 x levels as compared to controls. Psuedotsuga menziesii, an evergreen coniferous species with bifacially flattened needles, and Pinus ponderosa, an evergreen coniferous species with a complete hypodermis, showed no significant change in leaf area or specific leaf weight under enhanced UV-B radiation. Epidermal thickness was unchanged in P. menziesii. However, P. ponderosa

  7. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeletons (Rubratin) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin as therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. C.; de Reijke, T. M.; Vos, P. C.; Kurth, K. H.; Schamhart, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial bladder cancer were treated with intravesical instillations of Rubratin (ASTA Pharma AG, Frankfurt, Germany), a cell-wall preparation of Nocardia rubra. The objective was to compare the immunostimulating effect of Rubratin with that of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG).

  8. Presence of understory shrubs constrains carbon gain in sunflecks by advance-regeneration seedlings: evidence from Quercus Rubra seedling grouwing in understory forest patches with or without evergreen shrubs present

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Nilsen; T.T. Lei; S.W. Semones

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether dynamic photosynthesis of understory Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae) seedlings can acclimate to the altered pattern of sunflecks in forest patches with Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae), an understory evergreen shrub. Maximum photosynthesis (A) and total CO2 accumulated during lightflecks was greatest for 400-s lightflecks, intermediate for 150-s...

  9. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant characterizations of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae), Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae), and Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Ahmed, Qamaruddin; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Jamal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.

  10. A suite of microsatellite markers for genetic management of captive cracids (Aves, Galliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M C; Camargo, C; Laganaro, N M; Oliveira, P R R; Davanço, P V; Azeredo, R M A; Simpson, J G P; Silveira, L F; Francisco, M R

    2014-11-27

    Cracids are medium to large frugivorous birds that are endemic to the Neotropics. Because of deforestation and overhunting, many species are threatened. The conservation of several species has relied on captive breeding and reintroduction in the wild, but captive populations may be inbred. Microsatellite tools can permit the construction of genetic pedigrees to reduce inbreeding, but only a few loci are available for this group of birds. Here, we present 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the cross-amplification of these and of 10 additional loci available in the literature in a panel of 5 cracid species, including 3 species with high conservation concern. We provide the first polymorphic loci for the jacutinga, Aburria jacutinga (N = 8), and red-billed curassow, Crax blumenbachii (N = 9), and additional loci for bare-faced curassow, C. fasciolata (N = 8), Alagoas curassow, Pauxi mitu (N = 5), and razor-billed curassow, P. tuberosa (N = 5). The average number of alleles was 2.9 for A. jacutinga, 2.7 for C. blumenbachii, 3.5 for C. fasciolata, 2.6 for P. mitu, and 5.7 for P. tuberosa. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.42, 0.40, 0.48, 0.37, and 0.59, respectively. The average probabilities that the set of loci would not exclude a pair of parents of an arbitrary offspring were 2.9% in A. jacutinga, 1% in C. blumenbachii, 0.5% in C. fasciolata, 0.4% in P. mitu, and 0.002% in P. tuberosa suggesting that these loci may be adequate for parentage analysis and to implement ex situ genetic management plans.

  11. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-07-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the possibility of anammox at BSI sites using metagenomic shotgun sequencing of DNA obtained from the BSI above the Discovery Deep brine pool. Analysis of sequencing reads matching the 16S rRNA and hzsA genes confirmed presence of anammox bacteria of the genus Scalindua. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this Scalindua sp. belongs to a distinct group, separate from the anammox bacteria in the seawater column, that contains mostly sequences retrieved from high-salt environments. Using coverage- and composition-based binning, we extracted and assembled the draft genome of the dominant anammox bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that this Scalindua species uses compatible solutes for osmoadaptation, in contrast to other marine anammox bacteria that likely use a salt-in strategy. We propose the name Candidatus Scalindua rubra for this novel species, alluding to its discovery in the Red Sea.

  12. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization of forests using biosolids offers a potentially environmentally friendly means to accelerate tree growth. This field study was designed to analyze the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N-fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. Anaerobically digested, class B biosolids and synthetic urea (46% N were applied at rates of 140, 280 and 560 kg ha-1 available N to a well-drained, sandy, glacial outwash soil in the Indianola series (mixed, mesic Dystric Xeropsamments. Plots were planted with A. rubra seedlings. At the end of each of two growing seasons trees were harvested and analyzed for the rate of N fixation (as acetylene reduction activity, biomass and foliar N. At year 1, there was no N fixation for trees grown with urea amendments, but control (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 and biosolids (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 trees were fixing N. At the end of year 2, all trees in all treatments were fixing N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, and 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 for control, urea and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with biosolids amendments were larger overall (year 1 shoot biomass 10 g, 5 g, and 23 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 shoot biomass 50 g, 51 g, and 190 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively with higher concentrations of foliar N for both years of the study (year 1 foliar N 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, and 40 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 foliar N 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with urea amendments appeared to use the urea N over Frankia supplied N, whereas the biosolids trees appeared to be able to use both N in biosolids and N from Frankia. The results from this study indicated that the greater growth of A. rubra may have been responsible for the observed higher N demand. Biosolids may have supplied other nutrients to the

  13. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  14. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2 ] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Wertin, Timothy M; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2 ] (380 or 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) ) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 °C, moderate heat wave (+6 °C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 °C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2 ] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 °C treatment, intermediate in the +6 °C heat wave and lowest in the +12 °C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2 ]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (Anet ) and biomass in all [CO2 ] and temperature treatments. The +12 °C heat wave reduced afternoon Anet by 23% in ambient [CO2 ]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2 ], Anet values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2 ]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2 ] and soil moisture conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus rubra amended with low and high metal content biosolids Crescimento e fixação de nitrogênio por Alnus rubra cultivado sob fertilização com biosólidos com altos e baixos teores de metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest application of biosolids offers a potential environmentally friendly alternative to landfilling. This two-year investigation was designed to analyze the effects of elevated soil metal concentration resulting from the land application of biosolids on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. High metal biosolids and a modern-day composted biosolid applied at high loading rates of 250, 500, and 1000 Mg ha-1, were used to represent a worst-case scenario for metal contamination. The high metal biosolids were obtained before the current regulations were formulated and had been lagooned prior to use in this study. Total cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in the high metal biosolids were 45, 958, and 2623 mg kg-1 respectively. These metal concentrations are above current regulatory limits in the US. The compost was made using biosolids that are currently produced and had Cd, Pb and Zn of 0.8, 20 and 160 mg kg-1 respectively. Trees were harvested and analyzed for rate of N fixation (as measured by acetylene reduction activity, biomass, and foliar metals. Soils were analyzed for available N, total carbon and N, pH and total Cd, Pb and Zn. Rates of N fixation were not affected by soil amendment. In year 2, shoot biomass of trees grown in both the compost and high metal amendments were higher than the control. Shoot biomass increased with increasing amount of compost amendments, but decreased with increasing amount of high metal amendments. There was no relationship between soil metal concentration and plant biomass. Foliar Cd and Pb were below detection for all trees and foliar Zn increased with increasing amount of both compost and high metal amendment, with concentrations of 249 mg kg-1 for trees grown in the compost amendment and 279 mg kg-1 for the high metal amendment. The results from this study indicate that the growth of A. rubra benefited from both types of biosolids used in the study

  16. Recobrimentos e períodos de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de estacas de cordiline (Cordyline rubra Hügel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mamoru Sakamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui grande potencial exportador de flores e plantas ornamentais, e o emprego de técnicas simples de armazenamento poderia viabilizar o transporte por modais que não o aéreo, reduzindo custos, podendo prolongar a vida útil dos produtos. Este trabalho compara cinco tipos de recobrimento em estacas de Cordyline rubra Hügel (película amilácea, pasta de parafina no ápice, pasta de parafina no ápice e vermiculita umedecida na base, saco plástico ou sem recobrimento e diferentes períodos de armazenamento (30, 60, 90 ou 120 dias, a fim de reduzir sua atividade biológica, perda de água e ataque de patógenos. Foi escolhida esta espécie por ser muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas folhas e exportada na forma de estacas de diferentes tamanhos. O experimento foi conduzido nas dependências do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 300 estacas com 30 cm de comprimento por 3 cm de diâmetro. Cada tratamento foi composto por 15 estacas pré-tratadas (tipos de recobrimento, submetidas a períodos de armazenamento (30, 60, 90 ou 120 dias sob refrigeração e temperatura ambiente, totalizando 60 estacas. Após o armazenamento, foram cortados 3 cm da base de cada estaca, em seguida, tratadas com ácido indolbutírico a 10.000 mg/L e colocadas em leito de enraizamento de areia grossa. Após 90 dias, foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de desenvolvimento, número e massa fresca e seca de brotos e raízes. Observou-se que os menores períodos de armazenamento proporcionam melhor desenvolvimento das estacas. Os tipos de recobrimento que melhor conservaram as estacas, em ordem decrescente de resultados, foram o saco plástico, parafina no ápice e vermiculita umedecida na base, parafina no ápice, película de amido e sem recobrimento. Conclui-se que o m

  17. Характеристика водного обмена листьев Quercus robur L. и Quercus rubra L. в чистых и смешанных группах

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасия КРИВОРУЧКО

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of water metabolism of the leaves of English oak (Quercus robur L. and red oak (Quercus rubra L. in pure and mixed groups were examined. Twelve-year-old forest plantations of both species on an area of 1.6 ha were the object of study. It was found that in both pure and mixed groups the leaves of Q. robur are characterized by more intense transpiration than Q. rubra. The joint growth of these species, on the whole, leads to a more active evaporation of water by Q. robur leaves than in the single-species groups. The leaves of Q. rubra in two-species groups lose less or the same amount of water in the transpiration process as in the single-species groups. The leaves of Q. rubra having a higher water storage capacity in both variants are characterized by a more uniform and stable daily course of transpiration. As a result of the joint growth, the water deficit in the leaves of Q. rubra increased in July and September compared to the pure groups. The differences in the leaves of Q. robur between the two studied sites are unreliable. The obtained data indicate the absence of an explicit negative mutual influence between the species on the water metabolism indices of their leaves. Реферат. Изучены особенности водного обмена листьев дуба обыкновенного (Quercus robur L. и дуба красного (Quercus rubra L. в чистых и смешанных группах. Объектами исследования были 12-летние лесные культуры обоих видов, площадью 1,6 га. Установлено, что как в чистых, так и в смешанных группах листья Q. robur характеризуются более интенсивной транспирацией в сравнении с Q. rubra. Совместный рост этих видов приводит, в целом, к более

  18. Ride, shoot, and call: wildlife use among contemporary urban hunters in Três Fronteiras, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most bushmeat studies in the Amazon region focus on hunting patterns of indigenous populations in rural settings. Our study describes the existence of urban hunters in medium-sized towns. Using a variety of data collection methods, we describe the main socioeconomic characteristics of urban hunters in Benjamin Constant and Atalaia do Norte, Brazil. We analyze the patterns and motivations of urban hunters as well as the type of prey harvested and quantities traded. All interviewed hunters are caboclos, people of mixed Brazilian indigenous and European origins from rural areas who now live in urban and peri-urban areas. Living in these more populated spaces allows these hunters better market options for their harvest and allows them to alternate hunting with other economic activities. Only 29% of the interviewed hunters relied solely on hunting. In total, 11.6 tons of bushmeat were harvested (of which 97% was traded by four hunters during the monitoring period (60 days. The most hunted species were terecay (Podocnemis unifilis, curassow (Crax sp., paca (Cuniculus paca, and tapir (Tapirus terrestris. The ratio of bushmeat sold to that consumed, as well as the level of participation in the bushmeat market chain, allowed us to differentiate between specialized and diversified hunters. Specialized hunters sell 81% of the bushmeat caught to known wholesalers in the city. Diversified hunters sell 21% of their total catch to families, neighbors, or friends directly as fresh meat, avoiding intermediaries. For all hunters, hunting localities are associated with peri-urban roadways that are easily reached by motorbike or bicycle from the hunters' houses in the urban areas or city fringes. Our results show that urban hunters in medium-sized towns exemplify how traditional hunting systems can be adapted in the face of globalization, by living close to the market, at relatively manageable distances from hunting grounds, and using modern methods of

  19. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam-781032, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,. Jadavpur ... some cases, the cells lost are replaced by the proliferative ... was collected from the stem of the plant. .... standard and test drugs compared to control .... of regeneration of dermal and epidermal.

  20. Anticaries Activity of Azolla pinnata and Azolla rubra | Prashith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i3.21 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  1. Sexing immature Mauritius Fodies Foudia rubra using biometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is currently no reliable, affordable method of sexing Mauritius Fodies in their first non-breeding season. Ringed immature fodies from a released population on an offshore island were caught in April and May 2005 and sexed in later breeding seasons. Males had longer wing lengths and tarsi than females, with no ...

  2. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    purified protease was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-. PAGE). ... by ammonium sulphate (40 - 60% w/v). The solution was kept .... chloride (88.1 %), silver nitrate (92.9 %), mercuric chloride ...

  3. ( Cola Nitida Rubra ) on Reproductive Hormones in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study suggests that aqueous extract of kola nut had effect on reproductive hormones in male rats. This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of testosterone and luteinizing hormones in male rats. 30 adult male rats were used. These were divided into three groups: group A served as ...

  4. Investigations of the cerebral blood flow by means of nuclear medicine in polycythemia vera rubra. Untersuchungen des zerebralen Blutflusses bei Polyzythaemia vera rubra mit nuklearmedizinischen Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, W.G. (Medizinische Akademie Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (Germany)); Unger, L. (Medizinische Akademie Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Neurologie (Germany)); Mueller, J. (Medizinische Akademie Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Neurologie (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    P.v. represents a ''clinical model'' of diagnostic radionuclide application to evaluate the total and regional perfusion of brain. 107 polycythemians treated by or provided for radiophosphorus were studied by neurologic methods as EEG e.g. and with XCT if necessary. These studies were accomplished repeatedly in 62% of the surveyed patients. We found disturbed perfusion in brain: 32, diminuation of blood flow in vertebral-basilar region: 8, polyneuropathies: 27, psychic abnormalities: 60. Therapeutic effects became ascertained in 34% of hemipareses. The majority of polycythemic patients let recognize a regression of subjective complaints. The diagnostic informations obtained by radionuclide methods were compared to clinical and neurologic results as mentioned above. A good correlation could observed from radionuclide angiography, [sup 133]Xe-studies of total and regional cerebral perfusion and HMPAO-SPECT to neurologic and radiological findings. 66% of studied patients showed abnormal radioactivity distribution at static scintigrams. Disturbances of cerebral perfusion were seen in 20 from 26 patients if radionuclide angiography was used. Especially the inflow to cerebral vessels was found retarded by this method. Even in 3 neurologically inconspicuous persons the cerebral perfusion was restricted. Only 5 patients without signs of decreased flow could be seen. In 9 of 10 cases studied using [sup 133]Xenon referred to diminuation of cerebral perfusion. Both dynamic methods showed changes in perfusion depending from time course. Numerous localized defects of vascularization were detected by SPECT in some corresponding with neurologic symptoms in other patients differing from these ones. (orig./MG)

  5. Germination of red alder (Alnus rubra) seed from several locations in its natural range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.M.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were carried out on stratified, pre-soaked or untreated seeds. Germination of all provenances and treatments was more than 90%, except for one provenance showing physiological dormancy in which germination was low, but increased significantly with stratification and presoaking; dormancy could be broken completely by chilling at 0 degrees C for 5 days. Significant interactions were found between provenances and treatments for both germination % and seed vigour (as measured by germination value).

  6. Effects of acorn size and mass on seedling quality of northern red oak (Quercus rubra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2018-01-01

    Oaks are not sustainable in many upland temperate forests because of poor recruitment resulting from natural regeneration. Artificial regeneration is an alternative to natural regeneration, but is difficult, in part, due to large variation in seedling quality.  In this study, we examined the effects of acorn size and mass on nursery...

  7. Proanthocyanidin Synthesis in Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Shi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are distributed widely in Chinese bayberry fruit and have been associated with human health benefits, but molecular and biochemical characterization of PA biosynthesis remains unclear. Here, two genes encoding key PA biosynthetic enzymes, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR were isolated in bayberry fruit. MrANR was highly expressed at the early stage of fruit development when soluble PAs accumulated at high levels. Meanwhile, the transcript abundance of both MrANR and MrLAR observed at the late stage was paralleled with the high amounts of insoluble PAs. LC-MS/MS showed that PAs in developing Chinese bayberry fruits were comprised predominantly of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate terminal subunits, while the extension subunits were a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, epigallocatechin and catechin. Recombinant MrANR protein converted cyanidin to a mixture of epicatechin and catechin, and delphinidin to a mixture of epigallocatechin and gallocatechin in vitro. Recombinant MrLAR was active with leucocyanidin as substrate to produce catechin. Ectopic expression of MrANR in tobacco reduced anthocyanin levels but increased PA accumulation. The catechin and epicatechin contents in transgenic flowers overexpressed MrANR were significantly higher than those of wild-type. However, overexpression of MrLAR in tobacco led to an increase in catechin levels but had no impact on PA contents. Quantitative real time PCR revealed that the loss of anthocyanin in transgenic flowers overexpressed MrANR or MrLAR is probably attributed to decreased expression of tobacco chalcone isomerase (CHI gene. Our results not only reveal in vivo and in vitro functions for ANR and LAR but also provide a resource for understanding the mechanism of PA biosynthesis in Chinese bayberry fruit.

  8. Predicting internal red oak (Quercus rubra) log defect features using surface defect defect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Determining the defects located within a log is crucial to understanding the tree/log resource for efficient processing. However, existing means of doing this non-destructively requires the use of expensive x-ray/CT (computerized tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), or microwave technology. These methods do not lend themselves to fast, efficient, and cost-...

  9. Overstory density affects field performance of underplanted red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Red oak seedlings were underplanted in a closed-canopy mature northern hardwood stand and an adjacent shelterwood in central Ontario. Overstory density effects on seedling survival and growth were assessed 2 yr after planting. After 2 yr, seedling survival was 90% in the uncut stand and over 99% in the shelterwood. Seedlings in the uncut stand experienced negligible or...

  10. The Cumulative Effect of Manure on a Festuca Rubra Grasslands for 15 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana VAIDA

    2017-11-01

    In this paper it was shown on which species the productivity of the grassland increased from the control variant to the fertilized variant with the maximum dose. Regarding the analysis of the phytodiversity, this tells us if the number of species is reduced in all the treatments, 10 t/ha of manure leads to an increase in phytocoenosis equivalence and implicitly to the Shannon index.

  11. Investigations of the cerebral blood flow by means of nuclear medicine in polycythemia vera rubra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, W.G.; Unger, L.; Mueller, J.

    1993-01-01

    P.v. represents a ''clinical model'' of diagnostic radionuclide application to evaluate the total and regional perfusion of brain. 107 polycythemians treated by or provided for radiophosphorus were studied by neurologic methods as EEG e.g. and with XCT if necessary. These studies were accomplished repeatedly in 62% of the surveyed patients. We found disturbed perfusion in brain: 32, diminuation of blood flow in vertebral-basilar region: 8, polyneuropathies: 27, psychic abnormalities: 60. Therapeutic effects became ascertained in 34% of hemipareses. The majority of polycythemic patients let recognize a regression of subjective complaints. The diagnostic informations obtained by radionuclide methods were compared to clinical and neurologic results as mentioned above. A good correlation could observed from radionuclide angiography, 133 Xe-studies of total and regional cerebral perfusion and HMPAO-SPECT to neurologic and radiological findings. 66% of studied patients showed abnormal radioactivity distribution at static scintigrams. Disturbances of cerebral perfusion were seen in 20 from 26 patients if radionuclide angiography was used. Especially the inflow to cerebral vessels was found retarded by this method. Even in 3 neurologically inconspicuous persons the cerebral perfusion was restricted. Only 5 patients without signs of decreased flow could be seen. In 9 of 10 cases studied using 133 Xenon referred to diminuation of cerebral perfusion. Both dynamic methods showed changes in perfusion depending from time course. Numerous localized defects of vascularization were detected by SPECT in some corresponding with neurologic symptoms in other patients differing from these ones. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Early wide spacing in red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.): effects on stem form and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard T. Bormann

    1985-01-01

    A thinning trial was established in 1962 in a 7-year-old red alder stand in northwestern Washington. Spacings were 8 x 8 ft (dense), 12 x 12 it (intermediate), and 16 x 16 ft (open). The effect of early thinning on growth and stem form was measured in 1982, 20 years after spacing treatment. There was negligible tree lean and sweep in open and intermediate stands except...

  13. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Kola Nut (Cola Nitida Rubra) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of ... combination with other drugs (Rall, 1980). Caffeine and some of its ... combination of coffee drinking with smoking ... effects on reproductive functions using male rats.

  14. Immunological changes in response to herpesvirus infection in abalone Haliotis laevigata and Haliotis rubra hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Vinh T; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Crane, Mark St J; Speck, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Australian abalone production has been affected by outbreaks of abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) caused by a herpesvirus (AbHV). In this study, we undertook experimental transmission trials by immersion to study the abalone immune response to infection with AbHV. Representative cellular and humoural immune parameters of abalone, including total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide anion (SO) and antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), were examined in apparently healthy (sub-clinical) and moribund abalone after challenge. In the early infection, sub-clinical stage (days 1-3), THC was found to increase significantly in infected abalone. TaqMan qPCR confirmed 20.5% higher viral load in moribund abalone compared to apparently healthy abalone, indicating that the abundance of AbHV within abalone is linked to their clinical signs. At the clinical stage of infection, THC was significantly lower in moribund abalone, but increased in AbHV-exposed but apparently healthy abalone, in comparison to non-infected controls. SO was reduced in all abalone that were PCR-positive for AbHV. THC and SO level were found to be negatively correlated with the presence of AbHV in abalone, but no effect of AbVH exposure was observed on the haemolymph antiviral activity. These results suggest that abalone mount an initial cellular immune response to AbHV infection, but this response cannot be sustained under high viral loads, leading to mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in “El Cielo” Biosphere Reserve, Tamaulipas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Treviño, Rogelio; Lira-Torres, Iván; Martínez-García, Luis; López-Hernández, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Information on the ecology of jaguars (Panthera onca) in “El Cielo” Biosphere Reserve in Tamaulipas, Mexico is scant and limited to anecdotic records in a handful of publications. The objectives of our study were to: a) determine population density and structure of jaguars, b) compare their activity patterns with that of pumas (Puma concolor), c) ascertain potential prey relative abundance, and d) evaluate local resident’s perception on loss of domestic animals due to jaguar predation. Between April 2013 and April 2014 we conducted camera trapping in Gomez Farias Township with a total sampling effort of 8 580 camera trap days. Besides, we completed 136 semi-structured interviews among local residents of Gomez Farias and Llera Townships to gather information on domestic animal losses attributed to jaguars and other carnivores. We identified eight different jaguar individuals during a complete year of camera-trapping, composed of four adult females, one juvenile female, two adult males and one juvenile male. We estimated a jaguar density of 5.9 ± 1.3 jaguars/100 km². Activity patterns for jaguars and pumas were similar as both were nocturnal and crepuscular in nature. The most abundant potential prey species for jaguars in the study site were Crax rubra, Cuniculus paca, Mazama temama, Odocoileus virginianus and Didelphis virginiana; while the rarest were Mephitis macroura and Procyon lotor. Interview results suggested that chickens, dogs, and house cats were the most consumed domestic animals from all reported losses by local residents (n= 107). This study represents the first attempt to describe jaguar ecology in “El Cielo” Biosphere Reserve; however, there is a need of additional monitoring efforts to determine the current status of jaguars in a larger area in order to establish conservation strategies. Finally, this jaguar population may have an important role in maintaining the species in the Sierra Madre Oriental biological corridor connecting

  16. 78 FR 64691 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Five Foreign Bird Species in Colombia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... to establish new natural reserves for the blue-billed curassow in Cuchilla del Rio Minero and to... national plan to connect the East Andes, the West Andes, and the Pacific ports, including roadbuilding...

  17. The response of red ginger (Zinggiber officinalle var rubra) with various processing in broilers were infected by Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, E. Z. J.; Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.

    2018-02-01

    Red ginger contains high antioxidants and have anti -inflamatory properties. Ginger also has the ability to treat kimiatif, antiemetic, antinausea, and antiparasitik. The aim of this experiment was identified the response of red ginger in broilers were infected by Eimeria tenella. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Eimeria tenella were infected by 10.000 oocysts / head and red ginger solution were aplicated with 1% concentration. The treatments consist of KP (positive control), KO (coccidiostat), K1 (red ginger powder), K2 (extracted red ginger by ethanol) and K3 (extracted red ginger by water) . The results showed that the treatment of red ginger was significant effect (PEimeria tenella. The comparison between extracted red ginger by ethanol is better than by water or in powder form to decreased. The utilization of red ginger showed the percentage of heterophile and eosinophile close to normal when compared with positive control. Assesment of caecum lesion score was not significant (P>0.05) different effect between all the treatments. It is concluded that the treatment by red ginger better than coccidiostat and positive control.

  18. Renal trematode infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in zoo housed Columbiformes and a red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Steve; Chantrey, Julian; Chatterton, James; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Trematode infections affect a diverse range of avian species and the organs that are parasitised are also very varied. The family Eucotylidae contains seven genera of renal flukes that parasitise various birds. In birds, mild to severe lesions have been reported for species of the genus Paratanaisia, which was originally described from columbiform and galliform specimens collected in South America and has been identified in a number of wild avian species. This paper investigates eight cases of renal trematode infection at Chester Zoo in the UK due to Paratanaisia bragai in five previously unreported species: red bird-of-paradise, Socorro dove, Mindanao bleeding heart dove, laughing dove and emerald dove. Pathological changes, which varied between species, are discussed. A known intermediate snail host Allopeas clavulinum was present in the enclosures but there was no direct evidence of trematode infection. The size of the snails, possible low prevalence and the difficulty of visualising sporocysts contributed to this. Thus the development and application of further molecular diagnostic markers that can be applied to snail tissues is warranted. Parasite identification was confirmed utilizing DNA amplification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using PCR and trematode specific primers. Sequencing full ssrDNA and D1-D3 lsrDNA confirmed the identity in all cases as P. bragai. However, the short 310 bp fragment used provides insufficient variation or sequence length for wider application. The epidemiology, pathology and consequences for the management of these endangered species are discussed. Preliminary work on developing an effective ante mortem diagnostic PCR test kit is also highlighted.

  19. Conservation of genetic diversity in slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in Wisconsin despite the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest trees tend to be genetically diverse, a condition related to their longevity, outcrossing mating system and extensive gene flow that maintains high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Forest pest epidemics are responsible for many historic and contemporary population declines repo...

  20. Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Zhao, Kong-Nan; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Osborne, Simone A; Gobe, Glenda C

    2017-08-04

    Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to Wistar rats via oral gavage (N = 8) for assessment as an oral therapeutic. To ensure that the preparation had anti-coagulant activity prior to oral administration, it was assessed in rat blood by thromboelastography (TEG) significantly increasing reaction (R) time (or time until clot formation). Following in vitro confirmation of anti-coagulant activity, 40 mg of the preparation was orally administered to rats with blood samples collected at 2, 4, and 6 h post-gavage. Assessment of all blood samples by TEG showed some prolongation of R time from 355 to 380 s after 4 h. Dosing of the post-gavage blood samples with the abalone preparation to confirm anti-thrombotic activity in vitro revealed residual anti-coagulant activity, further suggesting that oral administration did increase anti-coagulant potential in the collected blood but that bioavailability was low. Assessment of tissues and haematological parameters showed no obvious harmful effects of the abalone preparation in animals. In summary, even though oral administration of fractionated and pooled blacklip abalone extract to rats delayed clotting after 4 h, bioavailability of the preparation appeared to be low and may be more appropriate for intravenous administration as an anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant therapeutic.

  1. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-03

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented.

  2. 76 FR 25149 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Bolivia, Peru. curassow. C 2 Rallus semiplumbeus Rallidae Bogota rail........ Colombia. C 8 Porphyrio... = 2 The Bogota rail is found in the East Andes of Colombia on the Ubat[eacute]-Bogot[aacute] Plateau... (shallow-rimmed depressions in soil or vegetation) are usually on sandy beaches just above spring-tide and...

  3. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Alexander; Keith Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial...

  4. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeste, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial attention to seed orchard design, placement, and maintenance. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate pollen gene flow, female mate choice, and male reproductive success in a clonal seed orchard of northern red oak based on paternity analysis of seed orchard offspring in progeny tests. Nearly all (93%) offspring were sired by a male parent within the seed orchard. The mean number of male parents per year was 69.5, or 47.6% of all clones in the seed orchard. Female clones in the early phenology group had more offspring sired from extra-orchard pollen (13%) than clones in the intermediate (5%) and late (1%) phenology groups. Distance was the largest influence on pollination success, and pollination occurred most often by male trees in the same subline as the maternal tree. Males in the early phenology group sired more offspring overall in the progeny pool and more offspring per mother tree than males in the intermediate or late phenology groups. Average genetic correlations among all OP progeny ranged between 0.2557 and 0.3529 with a mean of 0.28±0.01. The importance of progeny test genotyping for northern red oak improvement likely is increasing with the demand for improved varieties. The current study demonstrated the feasibility of post hoc assembly of full-sib families for genetic analysis. PMID:28166543

  5. Biodegradation of PAHs in long-term contaminated soil cultivated with european white birch (betula pendula) and red mulberry (morus rubra) tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Jan; Wiesche in der, C.; Macková, M.; Zadražil, F.; Macek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2009), s. 66-81 ISSN 1522-6514 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06156 Program:2B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * Lolium perenne * HPLC * plants Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2009

  6. Morphological indicators of stock quality and field performance of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling underplanted in a central Ontario shelterwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Initial stem diameter of bareroot red oak planting stock was a better morphological indicator of future height and diameter growth in a shelterwood underplanting than were initial shoot length and number of first-order lateral roots. Stem diameter near the root collar provides an integrated measure of the growth potential of red oak planting stock because of its strong...

  7. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, Daan R.; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304546313; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the

  8. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, Daan R.; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the

  9. Female morphology of Philometra rubra (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of the striped sea-bass Morone saxatilis (Moronidae, Perciformes) in the USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Dyková, Iva; de Buron, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 64-66 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Morone * USA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2009

  10. Metabolic study of paeoniflorin and total paeony glucosides from Paeoniae Radix Rubra in rats by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with sequential mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Sun, Shanshan; Hu, Yanxi; Liu, Yufeng

    2018-04-01

    A clear understanding of the metabolism of Traditional Chinese Medicines is extremely important in their rational clinical application and effective material foundation research. A novel and reliable strategy was performed to find more metabolites of paeoniflorin, determine the metabolites of total paeony glucosides (TPG) by means of determining those metabolites of paeoniflorin, and compare the metabolism differences between paeoniflorin and TPG by intragastric administration. This strategy was characterized as follows. Firstly, the rats were divided into two groups (the paeoniflorin group and the TPG group) to find differences in metabolism mechanisms between paeoniflorin and TPG. Secondly, UPLC-FT-ICR MS and UPLC-Q-TOF MS 2 were applied to obtain accurate molecular weight and structural information, respectively. Thirdly, the metabolites were tentatively identified by a combination of data-processing methods including mass defect screening, characteristic neutral loss screening and product ion screening. Finally, a comparative study was employed in the metabolism of paeoniflorin and TPG. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of paeoniflorin (including four new compounds) and 11 metabolites of TPG (including two new compounds) were identified. In all of the identified metabolites of paeoniflorin, two metabolites in rat plasma, four metabolites in rat urine and six metabolites in rat feces were found for the first time after paeoniflorin administration. The results indicate that hydrolyzation of the ester bond and glucosidic band and conjugation with glucuronide were the major metabolic pathways of paeoniflorin. The metabolites of paeoniflorin and TPG in rat plasma, urine and feces have been detected for the first time after intragastric administration. The results may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolism mechanism and provide a scientific rationale for researching the material basis of paeoniflorin and TPG in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Renal trematode infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in zoo housed Columbiformes and a red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Steve; Chantrey, Julian; Chatterton, James; Aldhoun, Jitka A.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Trematode infections affect a diverse range of avian species and the organs that are parasitised are also very varied. The family Eucotylidae contains seven genera of renal flukes that parasitise various birds. In birds, mild to severe lesions have been reported for species of the genus Paratanaisia, which was originally described from columbiform and galliform specimens collected in South America and has been identified in a number of wild avian species. This paper investigates eight cases of renal trematode infection at Chester Zoo in the UK due to Paratanaisia bragai in five previously unreported species: red bird-of-paradise, Socorro dove, Mindanao bleeding heart dove, laughing dove and emerald dove. Pathological changes, which varied between species, are discussed. A known intermediate snail host Allopeas clavulinum was present in the enclosures but there was no direct evidence of trematode infection. The size of the snails, possible low prevalence and the difficulty of visualising sporocysts contributed to this. Thus the development and application of further molecular diagnostic markers that can be applied to snail tissues is warranted. Parasite identification was confirmed utilizing DNA amplification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using PCR and trematode specific primers. Sequencing full ssrDNA and D1-D3 lsrDNA confirmed the identity in all cases as P. bragai. However, the short 310 bp fragment used provides insufficient variation or sequence length for wider application. The epidemiology, pathology and consequences for the management of these endangered species are discussed. Preliminary work on developing an effective ante mortem diagnostic PCR test kit is also highlighted. PMID:24533313

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Aeromedical Evacuation Formal Training Unit, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    pennsylvanica), White Ash (Fraxinus americana), Shingle Oak (Quercus imbricaria), Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra), Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra...American Elm (Ulmus americana), Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides), Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum), Sassafras (Sassafras albidum), Post Oak (Quercus

  13. Polycythemia vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary polycythemia; Polycythemia rubra vera; Myeloproliferative disorder; Erythremia; Splenomegalic polycythemia; Vaquez's disease; Osler's disease; Polycythemia with chronic cyanosis; Erythrocytosis ...

  14. Genética de poblaciones amazónicas: la historia evolutiva del jaguar, ocelote, delfín rosado, mono lanudo y piurí, reconstruida a partir de sus genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amazon population genetics: the evolutionary history of the jaguar, ocelot, pink river dolphin, woolly monkey and wattled curassow reconstructed through their genes The Amazon has more than the half of the world’s biodiversity. Nevertheless, the major fraction of the Amazon species has unknown evolutionary histories. This is also certain for mammals and birds. Population genetics, employing molecular markers and theoretical mathematics models, can reconstruct these evolutionary histories and offer very powerful tools for the application of correct conservation politics. Herein, we show a comparative view of population genetics results obtained for Amazon populations of jaguar, ocelot, pink river dolphin, woolly monkey and wattled curassow and provide recommendation for their biological conservation. Each species showed its own specific evolutionary particularities, characteristics that were not shared by the other species. This finding should be taken into consideration for any effective biological conservation program.

  15. O espaço gótico em A máscara da morte rubra The gothic spa ce in The masque of the red death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Moura Colucci de Camargo ; Ozíris Borges Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, analisamos o conto de Edgar Allan Poe, A máscara da morterubra, focalizando principalmente a espacialidade. Como suporte teórico,partimos da proposta da Topoanálise, elaborada a partir das ideias de Bachelard,Iuri Lotman, Osman Lins entre outros. Também recorremos ao ensaio de Poe,intitulado Filosofia do mobiliário. Em nossa análise, verificamos que o percursoespacial do texto se divide especialmente pela coordenada da interioridade,revelando-se então em exterior vs. interior. Temos o país como um espaçoenglobante e externo e, como espaço englobado e interior, aparece a abadiapara onde o duque foge com sua corte.In this paper, we analyze the short story The mask of red death by Edgar AllanPoe, focusing primarily on spatiality. As a theoretical starting point, we have theTopoanalysis proposal based on some ideas developed by Bachelard, Lotman,Osman Lins, among others. This paper also turns to Poe’s essay entitled ThePhilosophy of Furniture. In our analysis, we verify that the spatial path of thetext is divided mainly by the coordinate of the interior, revealing outside versus inside. A country as an including and an outward space and, as an enclosed andinterior space is approached by the abbey where the Duke runs away with hiscourt.

  16. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; de Buron, I.; Measures, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 3 (2013), s. 496-500 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Philometra * North America Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2013

  17. A Study of Vegetation Development in Relation to Age of River Stabilization Structures Along a Channelized Segment of the Missouri River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-25

    s.ame time period, the first shrub species begin to appear in the sites. Ulmus rubra ( slippery elm ), Celtis occidentalis (hackberry), and Platanus...boxelder), Ulmus americana (American elm ), Ulmus rubra ( slippery elm ), Fra:inus pennsyl- vanica (green ash), and Juglans nigra (black walnut). These may...be replaced by Tilia americana (basswood), the Ulmus americana (American elm ) and Ulmus rubra ( slippery elm ) remaining as co- dominants. Weaver (1960

  18. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indruch, I.; Svetlik, V.; Ligocki, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

  19. New records for Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodidae) on non-passerine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide new records of Amblyomma sculptum on two species of terricolous birds in two areas of the Cerrado (savannah- like) bioma: two specimens of Cariama cristata were captured in the state of Goiás and one specimen ofCrax fasciolata was captured in the state of Minas Gerais. One of the C. cristata was parasitized by 15 larvae, six nymphs, one male and two females whereas the C. fasciolata was parasitized by seven larvae and eight nymphs. This paper presents a new locality for occurrence of parasitism A. sculptum in C. cristata and a new host for C fasciolata.

  20. New records for Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodidae on non-passerine birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper was to provide new records of Amblyomma sculptum on two species of terricolous birds in two areas of the Cerrado (savannah- like bioma: two specimens of Cariama cristata were captured in the state of Goiás and one specimen ofCrax fasciolata was captured in the state of Minas Gerais. One of the C. cristata was parasitized by 15 larvae, six nymphs, one male and two females whereas the C. fasciolata was parasitized by seven larvae and eight nymphs. This paper presents a new locality for occurrence of parasitism A. sculptum in C. cristata and a new host for C fasciolata.

  1. Construct exploit constraint in crash analysis by bypassing canary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Huang, Shuguang; Huang, Hui; Chang, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Selective symbolic execution is a common program testing technology. Developed on the basis of it, some crash analysis systems are often used to test the fragility of the program by constructing exploit constraints, such as CRAX. From the study of crash analysis based on symbolic execution, this paper find that this technology cannot bypass the canary stack protection mechanisms. This paper makes the improvement uses the API hook in Linux. Experimental results show that the use of API hook can effectively solve the problem that crash analysis cannot bypass the canary protection.

  2. Vegetation in the Flood Plain Adjacent to the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Flood Plain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago, and the Possible Impacts That Will Result from the Construction of L & D 26 and the Associated Increase in Barge Traffic,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-20

    and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). In the southernmost region of the study area (i.e., Alexander and Union counties, Illinois), swamp cottonwood is a...ash (Fraxinus lanceolata), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), box elder (Acer negundo), and red mulberry (Morus rubra). Shrubs occurring in the Silver Maple...americana), green ash (Fraxinus lanceolata), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), and red mulberry (Morus rubra). Also

  3. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to the Functional Assessment of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    plant species as the low-gradient riverine subclass. However, species such as American elm (Ulmus americana), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), winged elm ...americana American elm Ulmus crassifolia cedar elm Ulmus rubra slippery elm Ulmus spp. elm Viburnum nudum possumhaw Vitis rotundifolia muscadine...laurel oak (Q. laurifolia), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), elms (Ulmus sp.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), southern magnolia (Magnolia

  4. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    21 sept. 2011 ... Pityriasis rubra pilaris and HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991; 24:703-705. This article on PubMed. 4. Sharma S, Weiss GR, Paulger B. Pityriasis rubra pilaris as an initial presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Dermatology. 1997; 194. (2):166-7. This article on PubMed. 5. Polat M, Lenk N, Ustun H, ...

  5. 杨梅叶水溶性提取物的抗氧化、抗菌活性与防腐应用

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    君酸, 杨.; 云酸, 朱.; 清酸, 吴.; 洁酸, 尹.; Langhansová, Lenka; Vaněk, Tomáš; 生酸, 高.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2014), s. 198-202 ISSN 1006-2513 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra leaf * antioxidation * antisepsis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://d.g.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical_zgsptjj201402029.aspx

  6. 76 FR 66954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...). black lemur (Eulemur macaco). brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia...). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variagata). red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). black lemur (Eulemur...

  7. Dietary effect of silage type and combination with camelina seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    2015-02-07

    Feb 7, 2015 ... 57% Dactylis glomerata, 10% Phleum pratense, 8% Poa pratensis, 7% Festuca rubra, .... may be attributed to microbial protein synthesis being energetically more efficient on ..... Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc.

  8. Post Gliphosate treatments establishment of some grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan ROTAR; Mariana RUSU; Fl. PRICA

    1997-01-01

    The sward dominated by Festuca rubra/Agrostis tenuis was treated to reduce the Nardus component and others weed by spraying with Gliphosate. Treatments were applied in the autumn of 1993. In the spring of 1994 a mixture of Phleum pratense, Fesuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata, Trifolium repens and Lotus corniculatus was oversown. Establishment of each species and botanical composition of the pasture were measured over the next three years. Nardus and weed was largely replaced by Phleum/Festuca mi...

  9. Vegetation Evaluation and Recommendations: Dredge Material Placement Areas and Adjacent Lands, Kaskaskia River Navigation Project, New Athens to Fayetteville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-03

    cottonwood), Salix interior (sandbar willow), Salix nigra (black willow), and Ulmus rubra * ( slippery elm ) . Somewhat drier sites with a predominance of fine...Dutch Elm Disease. *Ulmus rubra Muhl. SLIPPERY ELM . Common tree in floodplain woods; also occasional in DMP. *Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr. CORN... elm ), Carya tomentosa (mocker- nut hickory), and Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak). Shrubs and woody vines play a major role in the ecology of these

  10. Study on the Effects of Diverting Water into Upper Burnt Pocket, Navigation Pool Number 18, Illinois and A Field Test of the Regression Simulation Model Previously Developed on Navigation Pool Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    latifolia L. Commuon Cattail ULMACEAE Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry Ulmus rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm Ulmus americana L. American Elm URTICACEAE...Populus deltoides Marsh. Cottonwood Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry Ulmus rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm Ulmus americana L. American Elm *Dominant or most...Cryptochironomus sn. Tnta - Tanytarsus sp. Phys - Physa sp. Crcl n Crytoclido elm sp. Epio - Epoicocladius sp. Trun - Truncilla sp, Elnf - Einfeldia sp. Eusi

  11. Hunting pressure on cracids (Cracidae: Aves in forest concessions in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Barrio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of timber exploitation on biodiversity is usually increased by hunting in the exploited area. Proper forest management practices on areas under commercial exploitation minimize hunting and damage to the forest. Large species of Cracidae, the most endangered family of birds in the Neotropics, are among the first to be affected in a Neotropical forest damaged by timber-extraction activities, and where at least moderate hunting occurs. Herein an assessment of cracids is carried out in three areas with selective logging in Peru in 2004 and 2005, is used to evaluate hunting pressure. Tree inventory trails were used as transects, and density was calculated using the line transect methodology. Four species of cracids were evaluated, and density was calculated for three of them. The area with lower hunting pressure, Maderyja, showed higher cracid diversity and was the only with the presence of razor-billed curassows (Mitu tuberosum and blue-throated pining-guans (Pipile cumanensis, two sought-after prey species. Areas where hunting intensity is higher had lower cracid diversity. The density of the M. tuberosum was high in Maderyja: 11.3 ind/km2 (95% CI: 7.4 – 17.3 ind/km2. In contrast, Spix’s guan (Penelope jacquacu did not show a marked difference among areas, unless compared to heavily hunted sites. The higher diversity of cracids and the density found for razor-billed curassows suggests Maderyja had low hunting pressure in the past and is properly managed towards wildlife. Currently, the Peruvian Amazon is being opened for forestry concessions and hydrocarbons exploitation and proper management towards wildlife is necessary to guarantee the conservation of susceptible taxa such as cracids.

  12. Una Crácida nueva para la avifauna colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicéforo María Hermano

    1955-08-01

    Full Text Available Pauxi pauxi pauxi (Linnaeus. / Nombres Vernáculos.-- Comunmemte se designa esta crácida con los nombres de "Paujil Copete de Piedra" o "Pajuil de Piedra"; algunas personas dicen Paují. en lugar de Paujil o Pajuil. Esta ave carece de cresta plumosa sobre la cabeza, pero lleva en la frente una protuberancia ósea, desnuda y muy hinchada, en forma de higo. En las selvas del Margua, cerca del lugar en donde este río toma el nombre de Arauca, existe otra crácida, Crax daubentoni G. R. Gray (* que carece de copete óseo; la parte superior de la cabeza, en cambio. ostenta una cresta de plumas eréctiles y alargadas. cuyas puntas rígidas estan encorvadas hacia delante. Se la distingue del Pajuil de Piedra con los nombres vernaculos de Pajuil de Cresta, Pajuil Turbante, o simplemente Turbante o Pajuil.

  13. Adoption of parasitic Maculinea alcon caterpillars (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) by three Myrmica ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Maculinea butterflies are parasites of Myrmica ant nests. The Alcon blue, Maculinea alcon, is unusual in that it parasitizes the nests of several Myrmica species, using M. rubra, M. ruginodis and M. scabrinodis as hosts in different parts of Europe. In Denmark it uses M. rubra and M. ruginodis....... alcon from three populations differing in their host use to laboratory nests of all three recorded host ant species collected from each of the M. alcon populations. We measured the attractiveness of the caterpillars to their host ants as the time taken for them to be adopted by each ant colony....... Caterpillars from all populations took longer to be adopted to M. scabrinodis nests than to nests of the other two ant species. Adoption times to M. rubra and M. ruginodis colonies differed: caterpillars from each of the two populations that used a single host species were adopted most quickly by that species...

  14. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  15. Environmental research - development of the material balance of oak tree ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank substrates of coal mines; Umweltforschung - Entwicklung des Stoffhaushaltes von Eichenoekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten des Braunkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Knoche, D.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have shown that even the very first forest generation on spoil banks already have high vitality. However, it is well known that pioneering terrestrial ecosystems have a high water and material turnover dynamics which will quickly influence the soil at that site but is not an indication of the development of a stable ecosystem. Long-term measurements were therefore made in oak forest ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank sands in order to achieve a quantification (Boxberg: Q. rubra L., 2 years; Kleinleipisch: Q. rubra L., 21 years; Annahuetter: Q. rubra L., 63 years). The results were compared with a virgin soil reference site (Neusorgefeld: Q. rubra L., 41 years). [German] Seit Jahrzehnten praegen Braunkohlentagebaue das Landschaftsbild und den Wasserhaushalt der Niederlausitz. Bislang wurden ca. 770 km{sup 2} ueberwiegend forstlich genutzter Flaechen devastiert und auf 2.100 km{sup 2} rund 9,5 Mrd. m{sup 3} statischer Grundwasservorraete entnommen. Im Zuge der seit 1990 drastisch verringerten Kohlefoerderung und forcierten Bergbausanierung erreicht die Rekultivierungsflaeche zwischenzeitlich rund 450 km{sup 2}, wobei die forstliche Folgenutzung mit 60% der Flaeche dominiert. Zahlreiche wachstumskundliche Untersuchungen belegen, dass sich bereits in der ersten Waldgeneration auf Kippe wuechsige und vitale Bestaende etablieren. Vegetations- und ertragskundliche Parameter wie z.B. Artenzusammensetzung, Naehrstoffversorgung, laufender Zuwachs oder Vorratshaltung sind jedoch per se noch keine hinreichenden Kriterien zur Einschaetzung der Entwicklungsdynamik und damit des angestrebten Rekultivierungserfolgs. Bekannterweise zeichnen sich im Aufbau befindliche terrestrische Oekosysteme generell durch eine ausgepraegte Wasser- und Stoffdynamik aus, welche im Zuge bodengenetischer Prozesse meist eine rasche Standortveraenderung bewirkt. Da das Standortpotential zum Rekultivierungszeitpunkt nicht prognostiziert werden kann, ist offen, ob sich bereits in der

  16. Disposition of two names in Almeidea (Rutaceae Disposição de dois nomes em Almeidea (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Groppo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Examination of type specimens at the P herbarium showed that Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae is an illegitimate substitute name for A. affinis A. St.-Hil. The latter name is proposed here as a heterotypic synonym of A. rubra A. St.-Hil.O estudo dos tipos nomenclatórios no herbário P mostrou que Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae é um nome substituto ilegítimo de Almeidea affinis A. St.-Hil., e este último nome é aqui considerado sinônimo heterotípico de A. rubra A. St.-Hil.

  17. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis

    2012-10-02

    Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and

  18. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Fita Dídac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg. The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by

  19. Spatial variation in population dynamics of Sitka mice in floodplain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Hanley; J.C. Barnard

    1999-01-01

    Population dynamics and demography of the Sitka mouse, Peromyscus keeni sitkensis, were studied by mark-recapture live-trapping over a 4-year period in four floodplain and upland forest habitats: old-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) floodplain; red alder (Alnus rubra) floodplain; beaver-pond...

  20. Within-population variation in response of red oak seedlings to herbivory by gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Scott Byington; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James B. McGraw

    1994-01-01

    The potential for an evolutionary response to gypsy moth (Lymantna dispar L.) herbivory was investigated in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a preferred host. Seedlings of nine open-pollinated families were grown in a greenhouse and experimentally defoliated by fourth instar larvae in the summer of 1991 to assay for intraspecific...

  1. Virulence, sporulation, and elicitin production in three clonal lineages of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora ramorum populations are clonal and consist of three lineages. Recent studies have shown that the clonal lineages may have varying degrees of aggressiveness on some host species, such as Quercus rubra. In this study, we examined virulence, sporulation and elicitin production of five P. ...

  2. Development of northern red oak rooted cutting and enrichment planting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Jamie Schuler; Daniel J. Robison; Barry Goldfarb

    2005-01-01

    Enrichment planting may provide an efficient means to establish elite northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) genotypes in recently harvested natural forests. However, planting northern red oak (NRO) seedlings into natural stands has proven difficult in the past, especially when competition and other stress factors are not controlled.

  3. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  4. Transgenerational plasticity as an important mechanism affecting response of clonal species to changing climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Hadincová, Věroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 14 (2017), s. 5236-5247 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07795S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : climatic extrems * common garden experiment * epigenetic memory * Festuca rubra Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016

  5. Phylloplane bacteria increase the negative impact of food limitation on insect fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olson, Grant L.; Myers, Judith H.; Hemerik, Lia; Cory, Jenny S.

    2017-01-01

    1. When populations of herbivorous insects increase in density, they can alter the quantity or quality of their food. The impacts of diet-related stressors on insect fitness have been investigated singly, but not simultaneously. 2. Foliage quantity and quality of red alder, Alnus rubra, were

  6. Size of Douglas-fir trees in relation to distance from a mixed red alder - Douglas-fir stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Miller; D.L. Reukema; T.A. Max

    1993-01-01

    Variation in diameter, height, and stem volume of 57-year-old Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was related to distance of these trees from a 27 m wide strip in the same Douglas-fir plantation that had been interplanted with red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Within the...

  7. Elm genetic diversity and hybridization in the presence of Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanne Brunet; Raymond P. Guries

    2017-01-01

    The impact of Dutch elm disease (DED) on the genetic diversity of slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) is summarized and its potential impact on the genetic diversity of other North American native elms, American elm (U. americana), rock elm (U. thomasii), winged elm (U. alata), cedar elm (

  8. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  9. Partitioning of current photosynthate to different chemical fractions in leaves, stems, and roots of northern red oak seedlings during episodic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Dickson; Patricia T. Tomlinson; J. G. Isebrands

    2000-01-01

    The episodic or flushing growth habit of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.,) has a significant influence on carbon fixation, carbon transport from source leaves, and carbon allocation within the plant; however, the impact of episodic growth on carbon parciprioning among chemical fractions is unknown. Median-flush leaves of the first and second flush...

  10. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  11. Temple tree; Frangipani-common name; Gopur- champa - Sanskrit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plumeria rubraL. Syn. P. acutifoliaPoir. (Temple tree; Frangipani-common name; Gopur- champa - Sanskrit, Hindi) of Apocynaceae is an ornamental tree that is often cultivated in gardens and near temples. Both leaves and flowers are showy and contain milky latex. Flowers are in bunches, large and white with yellow ...

  12. Looking for the ants: selection of oviposition sites by two myrmecophilous butterfly species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, I.; Grutters, M.; Langevelde, van F.

    2008-01-01

    Obligate myrmecophilous butterfly species, such as Maculinea teleius and M. nausithous that hibernate as caterpillar in nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra respectively, have narrowly defined habitat requirements. One would expect that these butterflies are able to select for

  13. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2005-01-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The...

  14. Haematological malignancy in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, G.

    1986-01-01

    The emphasis in this chapter has been placed on those aspects of treatment of the following haematological malignancies of particular relevance to the radiotherapist: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia extramedullary leukemic deposits, granulocytic sarcoma, polycythaemia rubra vera, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma. (U.K.)

  15. Long-term above-ground biomass production in a red oak-pecan agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems have widely been recognized for their potential to foster long-term carbon sequestration in woody perennials. This study aims to determine the above-ground biomass in a 16-year-old red oak (Quercus rubra) - pecan (Carya illinoinensis) silvopastoral planting (141 and 53 trees ha-...

  16. Character-marked furniture made from red alder harvested in southeast Alaska: product perspectives from consumers and retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Valerie Barber

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades. red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) has become an important Pacific Northwest hardwood in appearance-grade lumber markets, such as exports, furniture, and cabinets. However, red alder generally is a short-lived pioneer species, and small logs can result in proportionally large volumes of lower grade lumber containing numerous visual...

  17. Response of northern red oak, black walnut, and white ash seedlings to various levels of simulated summer deer browsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the response of tree seedlings to browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) is critical to the management of high value hardwood plantations in the Central Hardwood Forest Region. One-year-old black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white ash...

  18. Temporal development of vegetation and geomorphology in a man-made beach-dune system by natural processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    with F. rubra and the invasive alien Rosa rugosa. It was concluded, that the main trends in the geomorphological and vegetational development of the man-made beach-dune system is similar to the development in natural dunes. In the future, further accretion and seaward dune formation may be expected...

  19. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  20. Variability of crossreactivity of IgE antibodies to group I and V allergens in eight grass pollen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Driessen, M. N.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Crossreactivity to Dactylis glomerata, Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Secale cereale, Zea mays, and Phragmites communis of IgE antibodies against Lol p I or Lol p V was investigated by means of RAST-inhibition. Within a group of sera the degree of crossreactivity was

  1. Millipede damage to germinating acorns of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford; L. R. Auchmoody; Russell S. Walters; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Millipedes have not been reported as pests of germinating acorns. Studies in Pennsylvania on the impact of insects on northern red (Quercus rubra L. seedling establishment revealed that the millipede Ptyoiulus impressus (Say) damaged the radicles of germinating acorns. Up to 17 percent of the acorn radicles in areas with heavy acorn crops were damaged in 1'991....

  2. Variation in damage from growing-season frosts among open-pollinated families of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Peeler; Dean S. DeBell

    1987-01-01

    Repeated growing-season frosts during late April and early May 1985 caused extensive damage to red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings in a newly planted research trial in western Washington. About two-thirds of the seedlings were severely damaged (entire stem damaged or necrotic). Such damage varied by family, from 50 percent of seedlings in the...

  3. Heritability of first-order lateral root number in Quercus: implication for artificial regeneration of stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley L. Zarnoch; Scott Schlarbaum

    2000-01-01

    Natural regeneration of oak (Quercus) species in the USA has been easy to obtain on the lower quality xeric sites (site index less than or equal to 20 m at age 50) by developing advanced oak reproduction before stands are harvested. This approach has not been successful with Q. rubra, Q. pagoda, or Q. alba...

  4. Hypertext and Multimedia for Functional Enhancement of USARIEM Medical Handbooks and Biomedical Simulation Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    complex Internet addresses. Hypertext and hypermedia documents have logical and physical structure (Shneiderman, 1993). The logical structure delineates...Rubra, Miliaria Profunda , Anhidrotic Heat Exhaustion, Heat Syncope, Heat Edema, Sunburn, and Heat Tetany. The user may return to the main document...military or scientific organizations via digital communications networks such as the Internet . Access clearance would first be obtained from the USARIEM

  5. Fytopatologické aspekty fytocenologické dynamiky a možnosti harmonizace produkčních a mimoprodukčních funkcí travních porostů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voženílková, B.; Květ, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2001), s. 99-102 ISSN 1212-0731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : mountain grassland * management * fungus infestation * Microdochium nivale * Fusarium solani * Festuca rubra * Deschampsia cespitosa * Holcus mollis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. An inverse moisture diffusion algorithm for the determination of diffusion coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu; William T. Simpson; Steve P. Verrill

    2000-01-01

    The finite difference approximation is applied to estimate the moisture-dependent diffusion coefficient by utilizing test data of isothermal moisture desorption in northern red oak (Quercus rubra). The test data contain moisture distributions at discrete locations across the thickness of specimens, which coincides with the radial direction of northern red oak, and at...

  7. Responses of northern red oak seedlings to lime and deer exclosure fencing in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Long; Patrick H. Brose; Stephen B. Horsley

    2012-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, two hypotheses compete to explain the chronic oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration problem: excessive deer browsing and soil cation depletion. We tested these hypotheses by evaluating the effect of forest liming and deer exclosure fencing on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth and nutrition in five...

  8. Effects of uneven-aged and diameter-limit management on West Virginia tree and wood quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; Thomas M. Schuler; John E. Baumgras

    2004-01-01

    Uneven-aged and diameter-limit management were compared with an unmanaged control on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to determine how treatment affects the quality of red oak (Quercus rubra L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Periodic harvests slightly increased stem lean, which often...

  9. Studies on yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sláviková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was found that Candida famata, Hansenula californica and Rhodotorula rubra occurred in reactor UASB-type biocenosis in the course of denitrification carried out in the presence of lactic acid as a carbon source. The role of those species in nitrogen removal process was discussed with respect to their physiology.

  10. Search of yeast-like fungi in some lakes of the Tucholski Landscape Park (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rózga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pathogenic yeast-like fungi was determined in the catchment of the Suska and Raciąska Struga. Fourteen strains of fungi from 3 genera were isolated: Candida inconspicua, C. lambica, C. glabrata, Rhodotorula rubra, Rh. glutinls and Trichosporon capitatum.

  11. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  12. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  13. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  14. Impact of soil nematodes on salt-marsh plants : a pilot experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, CF; van der Wal, R

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether the removal of nematodes by means of nematicide application changed plant performance or influenced plant competition. The study involved the two common plant species Artemisia maritima and Festuca rubra growing in intact sods collected from a temperate salt marsh. Half of the sods

  15. Neighborhood effects and genetic structure in a clonal grass: The role of the spatial structure of the environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Hara, T.; Hadincová, Věroslava; Krahulec, František; Pecháčková, Sylvie; Skálová, Hana; Suzuki, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2001), s. 1-11 ISSN 0913-557x R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/1533; GA ČR GA206/99/0889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : environmental heterogeneity * Festuca rubra * plasticity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Managing succession in conifer plantations: converting young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations to native forest types by thinning and underplantiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen; Steven G. Newmaster

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thinning on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and understory plant diversity were examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Five years after thinning, seedling diameter,...

  17. Edge-glued panels from Alaska hardwoods: retail manager perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner; Valerie Barber

    2010-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) are both lesser-known hardwoods grown, harvested, and manufactured into appearance products, with potential for increased utilization. The production of edgeglued panels from red alder and paper birch offers one expansion opportunity for wood...

  18. Polycythemia Vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polycythemia Vera Also known as What Is Polycythemia vera (POL-e-si-THEE-me-ah VAY-rah or VE- ... MY-e-lo-PATH-ik) polycythemia Myeloproliferative (MY-e-lo-pro-LIF-er-ah-tiv) disorder Osler disease Polycythemia rubra vera Polycythemia with chronic cyanosis (SI-ah-NO-sis) ...

  19. Interactions among soil biology, nutrition, and performance of actinorhizal plant species in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Rojas; D.A. Perry; C.Y. Li; L.M. Ganio

    2002-01-01

    The study examined the effect of Frankia, macronutrients, micronutrients, mycorrhizal fungi, and plant-growth-promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. on total biomass, nodule weight, and nitrogen fixation of red aider (Alnus rubra) and snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus) under greenhouse conditions. The soil...

  20. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, C.R.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Several factors influencing the choice of radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of benign and malignant disease are discussed. A brief review is given of the routine clinical uses of radiopharmaceuticals including treatments for hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, polycythaemia rubra vera and intracavitary therapy. Finally clinical situations using radionuclides under evaluation including the treatment of bone disease, adrenal tumours and monoclonal antibodies are discussed. (UK)

  2. Growth and development of red alder compared with conifers in 30-year-old stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl M. Berntsen

    1961-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra), although a widespread tree species in Pacific coast forests, has only in recent years attained commercial importance as a source of wood material for diversified products including furniture, paneling, and paper pulp. With the rapid increase in the harvest of red alder, both public agencies and private industry are making a...

  3. Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species: the possible role of soil-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Hoorens, B.; De Goede, R.G.M.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Gleichman, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of dominant plant species in a grazed grassland over 17 years, and investigated whether local shifts in these dominant species, leading to vegetation mosaics, could be attributed to interactions between plants and soil-borne pathogens. We found that Festuca rubra and Carer

  4. Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species : the possible role of soil-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Hoorens, B.; Goede, R.G.M. de; Putten, W.H. van der; Gleichman, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of dominant plant species in a grazed grassland over 17 years, and investigated whether local shifts in these dominant species, leading to vegetation mosaics, could be attributed to interactions between plants and soil-borne pathogens. We found that Festuca rubra and Carex

  5. Red alder: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles F. Heebner; Mary Jane Bergener

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 references to world literature through Hay 1978 containing information about red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Included are publications about its taxonomy, biology and silvics, chemical and physical information about its wood and fiber, studies on its nitrogen fixing properties, and reports on industrial uses and economic...

  6. Effects of ice storm damage on hardwood survival and growth in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Turcotte; Thomas R. Elliott; Mary Ann Fajvan; Yong-Lak Park; Daniel A. Snider; Patrick C. Tobin

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, an ice storm occurred across four Mid-Atlantic states. This study investigated the effects of the ice-storm damage on growth and mortality of five tree species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Quercus alba, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubra) from three forest stands in the Wayne National Forest in Ohio. We remeasured the same...

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... sclerodactyly with finger flexion contractures and digital tuft loss (Figure 1). ... such as Vitamin A and its derivatives [30], methotrexate and cyclosporine ... Desquamation from the parts covered with hair. ... Shvili D, David M, Mimouni M. Childhood-onset pityriasis rubra pilaris with immunologic abnormalities.

  8. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    shield) Ceratophyilum demersum (Coontail) Myriophyllum spp. (Watermilfoil) Nelumbo lutea ( American lotus) Nuphar luteum (Spatterdock) Nymphaea odorata...Overcup oak) Quercus palustris (Pin oak) Quercus phelios (Willow oak) Ulmus americana ( American elm) UlmuS rubra (Slippery elm) c. Atlantic White...var. biflora (Swamp black gum) Persea borbonia (Red bay) Pinus serotina (Pond pine) Smilax laurifolia (Bamboo vine) Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum moss

  9. Elemental concentrations in foliage of red maple, red oak, and white oak in relation to atmospheric deposition in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. D. Davis; J. M. Skelly; B. L. Nash

    1995-01-01

    Foliage was sampled in June and late August-early September in 1988 and 1989 from the outer crowns of codominant red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) trees in forest stands along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north-central Pennsylvania. Leaf samples...

  10. Effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on the abundance and growth of resident salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret A. Wilzbach; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    We studied the concurrent effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on salmonid biomass, density and growth rates in small streams over 2 years. In each of six streams in the Smith and Klamath River basins in northern California, red alder (Alnus rubra) and other hardwoods were removed along both banks of a 100-m reach to...

  11. Not only the butterflies: managing ants on road verges to benefit Phengaris (Maculinea) butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, I.; Gestel, van R.; Swaay, van C.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    Obligate myrmecophilic butterfly species, such as Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius and P. nausithous, have narrow habitat requirements. Living as a caterpillar in the nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra, respectively, they can only survive on sites with both host ants and the host

  12. The effect of environmental heterogeneity on clonal behaviour of Prunella vulgaris L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, P.; Lepš, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 168, - (2003), s. 31-43 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/0889; GA ČR GA206/02/0953 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Oligotrophic wet meadow * Festuca-rubra clones Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  13. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 2. A Physical Description of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Eastern cottonwood, green ash, sugarberry. box elder, bald cypress, willow honey locust, slippery elm , overcup oak and bitter pecan. Principle...vines and understory. Woody vegetation surrounds the borrow pit and consists of American and slippery elms , silver maple, black willow, cottonwood, pin...aquatica Water elm Ulmus rubra Slippery elm Urtica dioica Stinging nettle Vaccinium sp. Blueberry Vaccinium spp. Vaccinum Vernonia altissima Ironweed

  14. Environmental Assessment for Tinker Aerospace Complex Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Boutelova curtipendula silver bluestem Andropogon saccharoides slippery elm Ulmus rubra sugarberry Celtis laevigata switchgrass...areas; Crutcho Creek, Elm Creek, and Hog Creek. The Crutcho Creek drainage area consists of two additional water bodies, Kulhman Creek and Solider...Crutcho Creek flows to the north and discharges into the North Canadian River; the North Canadian River then discharges into the Arkansas River. Elm

  15. Environmental Assessment for Physical Fitness Center Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Tinker AFB contains such species as American elm (Ulmus Americana), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), hackberry (Celtis spp.), and cottonwood (Poplus...The other two major drainages on the Base are Elm Creek and Hog Creek, both of which flow south off Base and join the Little River. The on-Base

  16. Environmental Assessment for the AFIT Master Plan, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 88th Air Base Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    Creek during a base-wide mist net survey (BHE 2001). Radio tracking of these two bats confirmed the presence of a maternity colony in a dead slippery ... elm (Ulmus rubra) in a woodlot on the campus of Wright State University. No sightings of Indiana bats have been reported within the area of the

  17. Environmental Assessment for BRAC Facilities and Remote Field Training Site, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    survey (BHE, 2001). Radio tracking of these two bats confirmed the presence of a maternity colony in a dead slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in a woodlot...The most common trees observed were black walnut (Juglans nigra), elm (Ulmus spp.), eastern cottonwood, willow, ash (Fraxinus americana), sycamore

  18. Elm genetic diversity and hybridization in the presence of Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutch elm disease (DED) has devastated native North American elm species for more than 75 years. The impact of DED on the genetic diversity of one native elm species, U. rubra or slippery elm, is summarized and its potential impact on the genetic diversity of the other four North American native elm...

  19. Validating the Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-Gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    blackgum, wild black cherry (Prunus serotina), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), red maple, and...virginiana), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), and slippery elm . Buffalo nut (Pyrularia pubera), wild hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens...Pinus strobus), wild black cherry, boxelder (Acer negundo), sycamore, black locust (Robinia pseudo-acacia), slippery elm , and white ash. The shrub

  20. Elevated CO2 compensates for water stress in northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia T. Tomlinson; Paul D. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Global climate change models predict decreased rainfall in association with elevated CO2 in the western Lakes States region. Currently, the western edge of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) distribution coincides with the most xeric conditions of its ecological range. Decreased rainfall and water availability could alter...

  1. 杨梅叶水溶性提取物的抗氧化、抗菌活性 与防腐应用

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jun, Y.; Li-yun, Z.; Jun-qing, W.; Jie, Y.; Langhansová, Lenka; Vaněk, Tomáš; Yong-sheng, G.; Ji-dong, L.

    -, č. 2 (2014), s. 198-202 ISSN 1006-2513 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12165 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra leaf * antioxidation * antimicrobial Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry http://caod.oriprobe.com/articles/42399762/Antioxidant_antimicrobial_and_antisepsis_properties_of_the_water_solub.htm

  2. Comparative effects of urea fertilizer and red alder in a site III, coast Douglas-fir plantation in the Washington Cascade Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Marshall Murray; Rick. Leon

    2005-01-01

    Five randomly assigned treatments were used to quantify effects of adding varying numbers of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) or nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of a 10-year-old conifer plantation at a medium quality site in the western Washington Cascade Range. Zero, 20, 40, and 80 alder trees per acre were retained along with about 300 conifers...

  3. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  4. Consumer preferences for kitchen cabinets made from red alder: a comparison to other hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an abundant but commercially underutilized species despite having properties suitable for higher value products, including furniture and cabinetry. However, it laces the name recognition of mote traditional hardwoods. Our research measured the effect of this lack of familiarity on consumer preferences...

  5. Managing young upland forests in southeast Alaska for wood products, wildlife, aquatic resources, and fishes: problem analysis and study plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark S. Wipfli; Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Adelaide C. Johnson; Toni L. de Santo; Thomas A. Hanley; Mark E. Schultz; Mason D. Bryant; Richard T. Edwards; Ewa H. Orlikowska; Takashi Gomi

    2002-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) appears to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and affect the major resources (timber, wildlife, and fisheries) of forested ecosystems in southeast Alaska. We propose an integrated approach to understanding how alder influences trophic links and processes in young-growth ecosystems. The presence...

  6. Evaluation of Methods for Physical Characterization of the Fine Particle Emissions from Two Residential Wood Combustion Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fine particulate matter (PM) emissions from a U. S. certified non-catalytic wood stove and a zero clearance fireplace burning Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) cordwood each at two different moisture levels were determined. Emission t...

  7. Establishment of northern red oak genetic tests with nursery-graded seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Lay; M. A. Remaley; S. E. Schlarbaum; P. P. Kormanik; T. Tibbs; R. A. Cox; T. LaFarge; A. M. Saxton

    1997-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has had variable success over time. Current nursery practices generally involve the growth of seedlings to a standardized height and form with little regard to seed source, seedling quality, or subsequent field performance. Additionally, there is not an accepted culling criteria for...

  8. Prevalence of Endoparasites in Faecal Samples of Cracids Bred in Captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. B. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many problems arising from poor sanitation that can affect wild birds maintained in captivity, parasitic afflictions are among the most frequent, and their effects can range from subclinical infections to death. Some of the most common cases involve endoparasites, principally if the species under consideration exists at a high population density. This being so, the aim of the current work was to report on the prevalence of endoparasites in faecal samples from cracids (curassows and allies bred in captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco state in Brazil. To do this, faecal and sand samples were collected from the enclosures of birds of the family Cracidae belonging to the collection from the Parque Dois Irmãos, which originated from private collections from the Metropolitan Region and Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco. Four lots of faecal and sand samples were collected over a 60-day period, giving a total of 84 faecal samples from 58 individuals of 21 species of cracids. The material collected was submitted for coproparasitological tests using the right method and spontaneous sedimentation. The results obtained were positive for Strongyloides sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillaria sp. and cysts of Entamoeba coli, as well as eggs belonging to the superfamily Strongyloidea.

  9. Animais silvestres utilizados como recurso alimentar em assentamentos rurais no município de Uruará, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of hunting animals is of fundamental importance for human subsistence in different tropical areas. Knowing the chosen species, the techniques of capture and the quantity are fundamental aspects to understand how to use and the degree of threat of hunting on each wild species. In this perspective, the objective of this work was to record the wild animal species most commonly used as food resource in five rural settlements in the municipality of Uruará-PA, in addition to qualify the main techniques of capturing these species. The data collection was made through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. For the selection of the interviewees, we adopted the “snowball” method. As a result, we identified 38 species of animals consumed, most being mammals (42.1%, followed by birds (39.4% and reptiles (18.5%. The species most frequently mentioned were: Cuniculus paca (n=156, Euphractus sexcinctus (n=154 and Pecari tajacu (n=137. The most used technique was hunting with shotgun. Among the animals cited, Priodontes maximus, Tayassu pecari, Tapirus terrestris, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Podocnemis unifilis, Tinamus tao, Crax fasciolata and Podocnemis unifilis are in the list of threatened species. The results point to the urgent need for educational programs to farmers regarding the unsustainable use of animals.

  10. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees. Research note NE-299. [Oak, maple, linden, cherry trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanson, N.I.

    1976-01-01

    Dbh and height of 8- and 12-year-old coppice shoots and the number of live shoots were recorded for 736 stumps at least 12 inches in diameter of Liriodendron tulipifera, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, and Tilia americana in north-central West Virgina. Of the 8-year-old shoots, T. americana had the greatest number of live stems/stump (16.8) and the greatest number of potential crop trees (dominant or co-dominant shoots attached to the stump not more than 6 inches above the ground), averaging 2.5 stems/stump. The average numbers of potential crop trees/stump were similar at 8 and 12 year. At 12 years, at least 88% of stumps of each species had at least one stem of groundline origin with no forks below 25 feet were 84% for L. tulipifera, 59% for Q rubra, 73% for A. rubrum, and 65% for P. Serotina.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity Investigation on Wuyiencin Fractions of Different Polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengjie Cui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Wuyiencin fractions with different polarities against six indicator microorganisms: Rhodotorula rubra, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Cladosporium fulvum and Staphylococcus aureus. The fermentation broth of Wuyiencin was submitted to AB-8 macroporous adsorptive resin and fractionated with solvents of different polarity. The fraction eluted with water had remarkably antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms investigated except for C. fulvum and S. aureus (MIC ≤ 0.0625 mg/mL, probably due to the presence of active components. The fraction eluted with methanol showed potential antimicrobial activity against all the test microorganisms except for R.rubra, with MIC values of0.5 and 2 mg/mL. In conclusion, fractions eluted with water and methanol, respectively, represent the main active-part of Wuyiencin, and could be emphasized for agricultural applications in the future.

  12. Effect of activated sludge culture conditions on Waxberry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    Treated activated sludge is suitable for the treatment of wastewater. Biochemical method is used to treat the wastewater, and the influence of time on the COD index is investigated. The results showed that time had a significant effect on COD, and then affected the performance of activated sludge. Under different time, according to the order of time from short to long, COD decreases in turn. Under the action of activated sludge, the degradation of myrica rubra wastewater samples, after 25 h aeration for 96 h, the effect is better. Under this condition, the COD value was reduced at 72 mg/L, and the COD removal efficiency of myrica rubra wastewater was up to 93.39 %, and reached the two level discharge standard of municipal wastewater treatment.

  13. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  14. Effect of nitrogen fertilization, grass species and cultivar on sod production on Valkeasuo peat bog - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Virkajärvi

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research project concerning the agricultural utilization of cut-away peat bogs, a sod production experiment was conducted at Valkeasuo, Tohmajärvi, in 1990-1993. The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of nitrogen and choice of cultivar on sod production and sod quality on peat bogs. The N fertilization rates were 50, 100 and 150kg ha-1. The Poa pratensis cultivars were ‘Conni’, ‘Cynthia’, ‘Haga’ and ‘Julia’, the Festuca rubra cultivars were ‘Center’, ‘Juliska’, ‘Koket’ and ‘Näpsä’ and the Agrostis capillaris cultivar was ‘Rasti’. Two mixtures of P. pratensis/F. rubra and one of A. capillaris/F. rubra imitated commercial sod products. Increasing of N fertilization from 50 kg up to 150 kg ha-1 a had positive effect on general the quality of sod as well as on the green cover before and after transplanting. It increased the thatch formation. The positive effect of N on the number of tillers and green cover in the year following transplanting was dependent on the species and the cultivar. Species and cultivar affected all measured variables excluding thatch formation. Generally, the P. pratensis cultivars tested suited better for sod production than cultivars of F. rubra, but there were clear differences between cultivars within species as well. Although the soil was infertile, the contents of Ca, K, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn in the herbage samples were within normal range. The botanical purity was high, which supports the hypothesis that the absence of seed bank of weeds on peat bogs immediately after harvesting the peat can be utilized.

  15. Comparison of PCR-RFLP pattern with sequencing analysis of the ITS region of Hyrcanain\\'s Tilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Yousefzadeh

    2014-01-01

    T. hyrcana and T. rubra from Hyrcanian's origin, but it could not separate T. begonifloia from the other hyrcanian species. In this respect, derived results were similar to sequencing one. In conclusion, with regard to less expensive and less time consuming PCR-RFLP technique and high similarity between its result with sequencing, we recommend this method as a simple and economical method with relatively high efficiency studding plant phylogeny.

  16. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    eight species, plus eight additional taxa identi- fied to genus only, were collected from these seven sites. Only eight species occurred at three or...occidentalis) 2 3 Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) 2 2 Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) 2 0 Persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana) 1 3 River birch (Betula nigra) 1 2...turtles, red-eared turtles, and map turtles were commonly observed in wetland areas. Four species of water snakes ( Genus Natrix) frequently utilized

  17. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. [= Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love...Festuca rubra L., in part] Festuca saximontana Rydb. *Festuca vivipara (L.) Smith [= “Festuca vivipara”] Fragaria virginiana Duchesne ssp. glauca...tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love [= Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh ssp. crispa] Betula glandulosa Michx. Betula

  18. The Variable Effect of Polyploidization on the Phenotype in Escallonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaeghel, Hanne E R; Van Laere, Katrijn; Leus, Leen; Lootens, Peter; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2018-01-01

    To induce new variation within the Escallonia genus, chromosome doubling was performed in E. rubra, E. rosea , and E. illinita , three important species within this genus of mainly evergreen woody ornamental species. Obtained tetraploids and diploid controls were analyzed for rooting capacity, leaf and flower characteristics, and plant architecture using image analysis and cold tolerance. In the present study, a breeders' collection of 23 accessions was characterized cytogenetically and described morphologically. All analyzed species and cultivars were diploid (2n = 2x = 24), with exception of E. pendula , a tetraploid. Today, breeding in Escallonia is limited to lucky finds in seedling populations and few efforts in interspecific hybridization. Three selected Escallonia species underwent an in vitro chromosome doubling with both oryzalin and trifluralin applied as either a continuous or shock treatment. The treatments successfully induced polyploids in all three species. Image analysis revealed that tetraploid E. rosea had decreased shoot length (from 3.8 to 1.3 cm), higher circularity and more dense growth habit compared to diploids. No significant changes in cold tolerance were seen. Tetraploid E. illinita did not differ in shoot length, but an increased outgrowth of axillary buds on the main axis led to denser plants. For tetraploid E. rubra , an increase in plant height (from 4.9 to 5.5 cm) was observed together with a large decrease in circularity and density due to a more polar outgrowth of branches on the main axis. E. rubra tetraploids bore larger flowers than diploids and had an increased cold tolerance (from -7.7 to -11.8°C). Leaf width and area of tetraploids increased for both E. illinita and E. rubra , while a decrease was seen in E. rosea genotypes. For all three species, the rooting capacity of the tetraploids did not differ from the diploids. We conclude that the effect of polyploidization on Escallonia was highly variable and species dependent.

  19. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  20. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  1. Transgenerational plasticity as an important mechanism affecting response of clonal species to changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    M?nzbergov?, Zuzana; Hadincov?, V?roslava

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the increasing number of studies on the importance of transgenerational plasticity for species response to novel environments, its effects on species ability to respond to climate change are still largely unexplored. We study the importance of transgenerational plasticity for response of a clonal species Festuca rubra. Individuals from four natural populations representing two levels of temperature and two levels of precipitation were cultivated in four growth chambers th...

  2. Taxonomy and Traditional Medicinal Uses of Apocynaceae (Dogbane) Family of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbubur Rahman AHM; Mahfuza Akter

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomy and traditional medicinal uses on the family Apocynaceae growing throughout the Rajshahi district has been made. A total of 14 species under 12 genera belonging to the family Apocynaceae were collected and identified. Out of the total number of species Allamanda cathartica Linn, Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. Carissa carandas Linn, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br., Nerium oleander Linn., Plumeria alba Linn., Plumeria rubra Linn., Rauvolfia serpentina...

  3. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sr 90 and Cs 137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovich, B.S.; Vlasov, V.K.; Sak, M.M.; Golushko, R.M.; Afmogenov, A.M.; Kirykhin, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provided field-proven study of Sr 90 and Cs 137 absorption activity demonstrated by Pinus silvestris L.; Piceae abies (L.) Roth.; Quercus rubra L.; Acer platanoides L.; Betula pendula Roth.; Tilia cordata Mill, under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. (Authors)

  4. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Expansion of Sortie-Operations at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    regulations, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act makes it unlawful to (or attempt to) pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill any migratory bird, nest, or egg...of bald or golden eagles in the United States. The Act defines “take” as “pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill , capture, trap, collect... mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus), eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), and summer tanager (Piranga rubra). There are

  5. Oxidative cyclization of prodigiosin by an alkylglycerol monooxygenase-like enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rond, Tristan; Stow, Parker; Eigl, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Prodiginines, which are tripyrrole alkaloids displaying a wide array of bioactivities, occur as linear and cyclic congeners. Identification of an unclustered biosynthetic gene led to the discovery of the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the regiospecific C–H activation and cyclization of prodigi...... of prodigiosin to cycloprodigiosin in Pseudoalteromonas rubra. This enzyme is related to alkylglycerol monooxygenase and unrelated to RedG, the Rieske oxygenase that produces cyclized prodiginines in Streptomyces, implying convergent evolution....

  6. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Juniperus virginiana 2. Willow Salix nigra 3. Cottonwood Populus deltoides 4. Black Walnut Juglans migra 5. Pecan Carya illinoensis 6. Bur Oak...Maclura pomifera 12. Red Mulberry Morus rubra 13. Sycamore Platanus occidentailis 14. Red Haw Crataegus, sps. 15. Wild Plum Prunus mexicana 16. Mesquite...also provides a habitat for a number of mammals including: 1. Opossum Didelphis virginiana 2. Shrews Blarina brevicuada and Cryptotis parva 3. Raccoon

  7. Study of pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia using scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Takeda, Tadashi; Kawashima, Akira; Kubo, Keiji; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    In order to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia, Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MAA were performed in 19 cases of polycythemia including polycythemia rubra vera and in 11 cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases. Tl-201 lung uptake, right ventricular visualization and pulmonary perfusion impairment were studied. In the 19 cases, Tl-201 lung uptake was observed in all cases and 54.5% of them showed moderate lung uptake. The grade of right ventricular visualization was moderate in one case and slight in 16 cases; right ventricular hypertrophy was shown in 89.5% of all cases by Tl-201 scintigraphy, only one of which showed right ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography. Abnormalities of lung perfusion consisted of scattered small areas of hypoperfusion in 36.8%, peripheral hypoperfusion in 78.9% and uneven distribution of pulmonary perfusion in 94.7%. The degree of hypoperfusion was slightly related to decrease in FEV 1.0%, V25 and PaO[sub 2] and increase in circulating blood volume and peripheral red blood cell counts. Abnormalities of pulmonary function consisted of increased RV/TLC in 50.0%, increased CV/VC in 35.7% and decreased V25 in 36.8%. Arterial blood gases showed hypoxemia in 57.1%, the degree of which was slightly related to increase in RV/TLC and CV/VC and decrease in V25. Cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases showed more marked right ventricular visualization, pulmonary perfusion impairment and abnormalities of various kinds of pulmonary function than polycythemia rubra vera cases. It seems to be important to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia rubra vera as well as secondary polycythemia due to cardio-pulmonary diseases, because pulmonary perfusion impairment and moderate right ventricular visualization are observed frequently in polycythemia rubra vera. (author).

  8. Study of pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia using scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Takeda, Tadashi; Kawashima, Akira; Kubo, Keiji; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia, Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MAA were performed in 19 cases of polycythemia including polycythemia rubra vera and in 11 cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases. Tl-201 lung uptake, right ventricular visualization and pulmonary perfusion impairment were studied. In the 19 cases, Tl-201 lung uptake was observed in all cases and 54.5% of them showed moderate lung uptake. The grade of right ventricular visualization was moderate in one case and slight in 16 cases; right ventricular hypertrophy was shown in 89.5% of all cases by Tl-201 scintigraphy, only one of which showed right ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography. Abnormalities of lung perfusion consisted of scattered small areas of hypoperfusion in 36.8%, peripheral hypoperfusion in 78.9% and uneven distribution of pulmonary perfusion in 94.7%. The degree of hypoperfusion was slightly related to decrease in FEV 1.0%, V25 and PaO 2 and increase in circulating blood volume and peripheral red blood cell counts. Abnormalities of pulmonary function consisted of increased RV/TLC in 50.0%, increased CV/VC in 35.7% and decreased V25 in 36.8%. Arterial blood gases showed hypoxemia in 57.1%, the degree of which was slightly related to increase in RV/TLC and CV/VC and decrease in V25. Cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases showed more marked right ventricular visualization, pulmonary perfusion impairment and abnormalities of various kinds of pulmonary function than polycythemia rubra vera cases. It seems to be important to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia rubra vera as well as secondary polycythemia due to cardio-pulmonary diseases, because pulmonary perfusion impairment and moderate right ventricular visualization are observed frequently in polycythemia rubra vera. (author)

  9. Chemical defence in chrysomelid eggs and neonate larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Pasteels, Jacques M.; Daloze, D.; Rowell-Rahier, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Eggs and neonate larvae of chrysomelid beetles (sub-tribes Chrysomelina and Phyllodectina) were investigated for the presence of defensive substances. The two isoxazolinone glucosides (compounds 1 and 2), characteristic of the adult defence secretion, were detected in the eggs of all studied species. Compound 2, containing a nitropropionate, is always present in concentrations (above 10-2 M), which are highly deterrent to the ant Myrmica rubra. This compound is not at all or only slightly to...

  10. Regression analysis of γ-ray effect on sod activity and MDA content in four vegetable leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zegang; Feng Min; Hu Jianwei; Gao Yue; Lv Haiyan; Luo Shishi; Zheng Haoxian; Ma Fei; Ge Cailin

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic effects of γ-ray on SOD, POD activities and MDA content in leaves of four vegetable varieties were studied. The results were quantitatively described by the method of curve fitting and establishing mathematical model. The parameters of the formula suggested that the four vegetable varieties' sensitivity to radiation appeared as following order: Basella rubra>Lactuca sativa>Lactuca sativa spp>Brassica Chinensis. (authors)

  11. An Environmental Assessment of the Fee Acquisition of Dare County Range, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-15

    the understory are red bay ( Persea spp.), loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus), sweet bay (Magnolia virginica), red maple (Acer rubra), wax...South American rodents, are also reported to be in the area. [14] 3.2.2.2 Birds Table 3.2.2-A shows a list compiled by the Department of...34 and to "assure for all Americans ...aesthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings," and to "preserve important his- toric, cultural, and natural

  12. Planting northern red oak: a comparison of stock types

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Zaczek; K.C. Steiner; T.W. Bowersox

    1991-01-01

    Height and survival values of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were compared three years after outplanting as functions of: stock types (direct-seeded, 1-0, 2-0, 1-1, 2-1, and 2-year-old seedlings grown in 7.9-liter pots), presence or absence of undercutting in the nursery, and presence or absence of top-clipping when field planting. In all, 33 or...

  13. Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir, Missouri, Holocene Adaptations Within the Lower Pomme de Terre River Valley, Missouri. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Kucera and Martin 1957). The primary tree species in the seedling-sapling stage (Table 2.6) are white oak and slippery elm with some black oak, hackberry...i’lnius rubra ( slippery elm ) ."ilirz americana (basswood) * HERBS * Arbrosiu artersiifolia (ragweed) Antena*a neglecta (pussytoes) ,Im4nra sp. (sandwort...basswood, and American elm , and slightly higher, increasing amounts of hackberry, slippery elm , and white ash. The undergrowth of the bottomlands is pri

  14. Flood Tolerance in Plants: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Q imbriraria Black walnut Juaus nigra Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformi. Red bud Cerc:i n e adensis Box el.der Accr n,ýgundo Slippery elm Jlmus rubra...Liriodendron tl__ipifera), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white oak (Quercus alba), honey-locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), and Amterican elm (Ulmus americana...only American elm developed adventitious roots (YClcnouky 1964). 37. Accumulation of C02 . Next to lowered 0 concentration,:; the accumulation of toxic

  15. Environmental Assessment: Construction of Consolidated Fuel Overhaul and Repair Facility at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    site is forested and is dominated by slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), and, to a lesser...Basin and into the North Canadian River, and the southern portion drains into the Elm Creek and Hog Creek Drainage Basins and into the South...County close to Tinker AFB, including Brock Creek, East Elm Creek, Crutcho Creek, West Hog Creek, East and West Forks of Wildhorse Creek, Bluff

  16. Aquilla Lake, Brazos River Basin, Texas, Pre-Impoundment Environmental Study: Supplement to Design Memorandum Number 9, Master Plan (in Response to: 40CFR 1505.3),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    phaeacantha White Prairie Rose Rosa filiolosa Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa Slippery Elm Ulrnus rubra Elbow-Bush Forestiera pubescens Southen Black-haw Virburnum...It LIST OF PLATES Plate Title Page 1 Above, a cedar elm woodland scene ( -5), herbaceous component consists primarily of Canada...3( 2 Above, view of a pecan parkland (T3-2), herbaceous and shrub components composed primarily of Smilax, June 1980. Below, a mesquite/cedar elm

  17. Ecological Investigation of a Greentree Reservoir in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    elm (Ulmus americana) and slippery elm (U. rubra) oc- curred in the study area, with American elm the more abundant species. No distinction was made...spectively, on both areas (see Appendix C for nomenclature). American elm * and water hickory ranked fifth and sixth in importance on the ref- erence area...between these two species; the label "American elm " includes data for both. 18 boundaries, water hickory increment cores were not analyzed. Table 4

  18. Jackson Mills and Mine Falls Dams, Nashua, New Hampshire. Reconnaissance Report, Hydroelectric Feasibility. Volume 1, Jackson Mills Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Catalpa Solidago sp. Goldenrod Aster novae - angliae New England Aster Acer saccharum Sugar Maple Ulmus rubra Slippery elm Solanum hi rum Common...red pine, and hemlock are the common softwood species, and the common hardwood species include red maple, silver maple, white oak, willow, slippery ... elm and birch. In 1972, between 70 and 7S percent of the total area of the watershed consisted of forests and primarily wooded land. (Reference 3

  19. Archeology and Native American Religion at the Leon River Medicine Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    varieties of plants. The eastern side of including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), slippery elm the facility (East Range) is typified by dense (Ulmus rubra...southern part of the Cross Timbers and Prairies texana), and cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia). A Vegetation Area. Alired and Mitchell (1955) term variety of...south (West Fort americana), American elm (Ulmus americana), Hood) are generally more open, ranging from TRC MARIAH ASSOCIATES, INC. (662-21

  20. Cultural Resources Investigation of a Proposed Flood Control Project along the Sheyenne River, at West Fargo, Cass County, North Dakota. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-15

    cottonwood (Po2ulus salrgenti), sumac (Ehus sp.), peach and sandbar willows (Salix amvdaloides; . terio), and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra). 3.4.2 Bluestem...forest of elm , oak, ash, hackberry, cottonwood, and aspen along the major streams. Archaeological evidence indicates that prehistoric people along the...black willow (Salix nifra), and American elm (Ulmus amicnan). Other components include: boxelder (Acer neaundo), red maple (A. Subrum), silver maple (A

  1. Endangered Species Management Plan for Fort Hood, Texas: FY06-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Texas red oak, post oak, Texas ash (Fraxinus texensis), shin oak, blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), cedar elm ...by Ashe juniper and Texas oak. Other important tree species included live oak, cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), Lacey oak (Quercus laceyi), Arizona...0.83 m (Cimprich 2005). Nest substrates include shin oak, Texas red oak, Texas redbud, Ashe juniper, Texas ash, Plateau live oak, cedar elm , rusty

  2. Cultural Resources in the Southern Lake Erie Basin: A Predictive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    American elm , black ash, and silver maple; also associated were slippery elm , burr oak, swamp white oak, and bitternut hickory. Another type of swamp...American elm -red maple-black ash association dominated the wetter sites. Associated were slippery elm , burr oak, swamp white oak, and bitternut...americana Red elm ( slippery elm ) U. rubra Balsam fir Abies balsanea Hackberry Celtis occidentalis American hazel Corylus americana Eastern hemlock

  3. Flambeau Mining Corporation, Ladysmith, Rusk County, Wisconsin. Proposed Open Pit Copper Mine and Waste Containment Area, Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    American elm Lonicera tatarica - tartarian honeysuckle Ulmus rubra - slippery elm Siiibucus canadenis - common elder Ulmus thoiii~sii - cork elm ...community borders the marshes and swamps. 2.060 The predominant species are the trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), red maple (Acer rubrum), the elms ...succession. The most numerous trees (in descending order) are: white birch, red maple, aspen, sugar maple, black ash, basswood, elm (Ulmus sp.), hemlock

  4. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Ulmus rubra slippery elm Ulmus thomasii rock elm Pinus strobus white pine Juglans cinerea. butternut Juglans nigra black walnut Carya ovata shagbark...West Seneca X : X : X Town of Elm : X X X Town of Aurora : X : Town of Boston X : Town of Colden : X : 5.i, Table 1 (cont’d) Flood Insurance Status for...grandidentata bigtooth aspen Populus deltoides eastern cottonwood Rhus typhina staghorn. sumc Betula alleghaniesis yellow birch Ulmus americana. American elm

  5. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    E. Herbicides, insecticides , and fertilizers used for agricultural purposes may have detrimental effects on wildlife and plants in the District and...Species in Four Bottomland Forest Sample Plots Percent Cover Species 1 2 3 4 Clearweed ə 10 ə ɝ Wood nettle -- 20 35 25 Buttercup -- ə 15 ɝ...Family) Red Mulberry Morus rubra Urticaceae ( Nettle Family) W’od nettle Laportea canadensis Clearweed Pilea pumila Polygonaceae (Buckwheat family) Dock

  6. Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.W.; Dunham, S.J.; Dennis, P.G.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of lime and red mud (by-product of aluminium manufacturing) to reduce metal availability to Festuca rubra and to allow re-vegetation on a highly contaminated brown-field site. Application of both lime and red mud (at 3 or 5%) increased soil pH and decreased metal availability. Festuca rubra failed to establish in the control plots, but grew to a near complete vegetative cover on the amended plots. The most effective treatment in decreasing grass metal concentrations in the first year was 5% red mud, but by year two all amendments were equally effective. In an additional pot experiment, P application in combination with red mud or lime decreased the Pb concentration, but not total uptake of Pb in Festuca rubra compared to red mud alone. The results show that both red mud and lime can be used to remediate a heavily contaminated acid soil to allow re-vegetation. - Red mud was effective in immobilising heavy metals in soil

  7. Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, C.W. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Dunham, S.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Dennis, P.G. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhao, F.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); McGrath, S.P. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.uk

    2006-08-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness of lime and red mud (by-product of aluminium manufacturing) to reduce metal availability to Festuca rubra and to allow re-vegetation on a highly contaminated brown-field site. Application of both lime and red mud (at 3 or 5%) increased soil pH and decreased metal availability. Festuca rubra failed to establish in the control plots, but grew to a near complete vegetative cover on the amended plots. The most effective treatment in decreasing grass metal concentrations in the first year was 5% red mud, but by year two all amendments were equally effective. In an additional pot experiment, P application in combination with red mud or lime decreased the Pb concentration, but not total uptake of Pb in Festuca rubra compared to red mud alone. The results show that both red mud and lime can be used to remediate a heavily contaminated acid soil to allow re-vegetation. - Red mud was effective in immobilising heavy metals in soil.

  8. Volatile Constituents of Three Myrsine L. Species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur L. Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Myrsine rubra, Myrsine gardneriana and Myrsine parvifolia and the fruits of Myrsine parvifolia were elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the native M. parvifolia were caryophyllene oxide (14.4%, β-caryophyllene (12.6% and γ-Muurolene (7.9% of the leaves oil and β-caryophyllene (11.7%, δ-Cadinene (7.1% of the fruit oil. The volatile oil of the endemic M. rubra leaves was dominated by β-caryophyllene (17.2%, γ-Muurolene (11.1%, Germacrene B (10.0%. The essential oil of the native M. gardneriana leaves was characterized by β-caryophyllene (18.0%, γ-Muurolene (8.4%. These three Myrsine species are similar in the dominance of sesquiterpenes. By contrast, monoterpenes were found only in the volatile oil from the fruits of M. parvifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on the volatile constituents of M. rubra, M. gardneriana, M. parvifolia.

  9. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  10. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  11. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A; Prior, Kirsten M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-05-01

    Plant-animal mutualisms, such as seed dispersal, are often vulnerable to disruption by invasive species. Here, we show for the first time how a non-ant invasive species negatively affects seed dispersal by ants. We examined the effects of several animal species that co-occur in a temperate deciduous forest-including native and invasive seed-dispersing ants (Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal. We also video-recorded depots to determine which other taxa interact with seeds. We found that A. rudis was the main disperser of seeds and that A. subfuscus consumed elaiosomes without dispersing seeds. Rodent visitation was rare, and rodent exclusion had no significant effect on seed or elaiosome removal. We then used data obtained from laboratory and field mesocosm experiments to determine how elaiosome robbing by A. subfuscus affects seed dispersal by A. rudis and M. rubra. We found that elaiosome robbing by slugs reduced seed dispersal by ants, especially in mesocosms with A. rudis, which picks up seeds more slowly than M. rubra. Taken together, our results show that elaiosome robbing by an invasive slug reduces seed dispersal by ants, suggesting that invasive slugs can have profound negative effects on seed dispersal mutualisms.

  12. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2009-09-01

    EPR spectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPR spectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn(IV) complexes. EPR spectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe 3+ ions in rhombic symmetry. EPR spectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPR spectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g = 2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPR spectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn 2+ ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic C dbnd O bonds.

  13. Sustainability and comanagement of subsistence hunting in an indigenous reserve in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher A; Milstein, Marissa S; Yukuma, Charakura; Marawanaru, Elisha; Suse, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    Although hunting is a key component of subsistence strategies of many Amazonians, it is also one of the greatest threats to wildlife. Because indigenous reserves comprise over 20% of Amazonia, effective conservation often requires that conservation professionals work closely with indigenous groups to manage resource use. We used hunter-generated harvesting data in spatially explicit biodemographic models to assess the sustainability of subsistence hunting of indigenous Waiwai in Guyana. We collected data through a hunter self-monitoring program, systematic follows of hunters, and semistructured interviews. We used these data to predict future densities of 2 indicator species, spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus) and bearded sakis (Chiropotes sagulatus), under different scenarios of human population expansion and changing hunting technology. We used encounter rates from transect surveys and hunter catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) to validate model predictions. Paca (Cuniculus paca) (198 /year), Currosaw (Crax alector) (168), and spider monkey (117) were the most frequently harvested species. Predicted densities of spider monkeys were statistically indistinguishable from empirically derived transect data (Kolmogorov-Smirnov D = 0.67, p = 0.759) and CPUE (D = 0.32, p = 1.000), demonstrating the robustness of model predictions. Ateles paniscus and C. sagulatus were predicted to be extirpated from <13% of the Waiwai reserve in 20 years, even under the most intensive hunting scenarios. Our results suggest Waiwai hunting is currently sustainable, primarily due to their low population density and use of bow and arrow. Continual monitoring is necessary, however, particularly if human population increases are accompanied by a switch to shotgun-only hunting. We suggest that hunter self-monitoring and biodemographic modeling can be used effectively in a comanagement approach in which indigenous parabiologists continuously provide hunting data that is then used to update model

  14. In vivo synthesis of nanomaterials in plants: location of silver nanoparticles and plant metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Giordano, Cristiana; Musetti, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (MeNPs) can be formed in living plants by reduction of the metal ions absorbed as soluble salts. It is very likely that plant metabolism has an important role in MeNP biosynthesis. The in vivo formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was observed in Brassica juncea, Festuca rubra and Medicago sativa. Plants were grown in Hoagland's solution for 30 days and then exposed for 24 h to a solution of 1,000 ppm AgNO3. In the leaf extracts of control plants, the concentrations of glucose, fructose, ascorbic acid, citric acid and total polyphenols were determined. Total Ag content in plant fractions was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Despite the short exposure time, the Ag uptake and translocation to plant leaves was very high, reaching 6,156 and 2,459 mg kg-1 in B. juncea and F. rubra, respectively. Ultrastructural analysis was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and AgNPs were detected by TEM X-ray microanalysis. TEM images of plant fractions showed the in vivo formation of AgNPs in the roots, stems and leaves of the plants. In the roots, AgNPs were present in the cortical parenchymal cells, on the cell wall of the xylem vessels and in regions corresponding to the pits. In leaf tissues, AgNPs of different sizes and shapes were located close to the cell wall, as well as in the cytoplasm and within chloroplasts. AgNPs were not observed in the phloem of the three plant species. This is the first report of AgNP synthesis in living plants of F. rubra. The contents of reducing sugars and antioxidant compounds, proposed as being involved in the biosynthesis of AgNPs, were quite different between the species, thus suggesting that it is unlikely that a single substance is responsible for this process.

  15. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

    2008-04-01

    We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts.

  16. Imaging of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, O.; O' Brien, J.; Snow, A.; Stunell, H.; Torreggiani, W.C.; Lyburn, I.; Munk, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome occurs when venous outflow from the liver is obstructed. The obstruction may occur at any point from the hepatic venules to the left atrium. The syndrome most often occurs in patients with underlying thrombotic disorders such as polycythemia rubra vera, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and pregnancy. It may also occur secondary to a variety of tumours, chronic inflammatory diseases and infections. Imaging plays an important role both in establishing the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome as well as evaluating for underlying causes and complications such as portal hypertension. In this review article, we discuss the role of modern imaging in the evaluation of Budd-Chiari syndrome. (orig.)

  17. Induction and evaluation of mutations for improved protein production in certain species of yeasts in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borromeo, J.D.

    1976-02-01

    The species of yeasts included in the studies are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodeterula rubra, Rhodeterula pilimane and those isolated from fruits such as citrus, papaya and banana. Part of the project involved induction of sporulation to obtain haploid cells for crossing to produce stable disploids exhibiting improved protein production. Although S. cerevisiae produce less protein than Rhodeterula, it produces ascesperes which are haploid cells. These haploid cells can be used to obtain stable diploids with the desirable characteristics by crossing cultures. Rhodeterula, a fungus that does not produce ascesperes will be subjected to certain adverse conditions to induce, hopefully, sperulation

  18. Distribution, host specificity, and the potential for cryptic speciation in hoverfly Microdon myrmicae (Diptera: Syrphidae), a social parasite of Myrmica ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonelli, Simona; Witek, Magdalena; Canterino, Sara

    2011-01-01

    , however, the possibility that this reflects the presence of two separate Microdon species, each connected to one species of Myrmica. 3. Forty populations of Microdon myrmicae and 37 populations of Microdon mutabilis are currently known in Europe. All the populations in central and southern Europe...... Myrmica species were identified to the host Microdon myrmicae: Myrmica gallienii (eight populations), Myrmica rubra (four), Myrmica vandeli (one), and Myrmica sabuleti (one). Microdon myrmicae occurs in waterlogged grassland habitats, mainly of the ‘Molinietum’ type, resulting in a patchy distribution...

  19. Mycological studies housed in the Apollo 16 microbial ecology evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Survival, death, and phenotype count have yielded variation in the number of fungi recovered from the controls and the flight exposed cuvettes during preliminary analysis of postflight first phase data. Also the preliminary analysis was indicative that fungi exposed to specific space flight conditions demonstrated variable survival rates and phenotype counts. Specific space flight conditions included full light space exposure for Chaetomium globosum, exposure at 300- and 254-nanometer wavelengths for Rhodotorula rubra, full light and 280-nanometer wavelength exposure for Trichophyton terrestre, and 254-nanometer wavelength exposure for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In general, phenotype counts for flight cuvettes and survival rates for control cuvettes were higher compared with the remaining cuvettes.

  20. Characteristics of the distant effect of γ-irradiation of seeds for diploid and poliploid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olimpienko, G.S.; Pavlova, N.A.; Lebedeva, O.N.; Nikolaevskaya, T.S.; Tikhonov, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    In comparative radiobiological and cytogenetic study of three species of grasses (Festuca pratensis Huds., 2x=14, Dactylis glomerata L., 2x=28. Festuca rubra L., 2x=42) it was found that the distant cytogenetic effects of γ-irradiation of seeds were different in diploids and polyploids. The rate of abberant cells was higher in poliploids. The latter is connected with delay of cell division that is unequally expressed for diploids and polyploids. We suggest that cytogenetic effects dependency on division delay and interphase death of cells is spreaded to more than one generation. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Point-Source and Area-Wide Field Studies of Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Against Urban Container-Inhabiting Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-05

    in 50 L trash cans. Oak leaves of Quercus alba (L.) and Q. rubra (L.) were used because this infusion elicits oviposition responses from container...105 ha in area (Fig. 2), whereas, the control site was in Union Beach , NJ (40.2650 lat., - 74.71026 long.) and spanned 181 ha. Both the treatment and...people/km2) than Union Beach (1384.7 people/km2). We initially intended to assess pyriproxyfen-based area-wide autodissemination by treating 25% of an

  2. Differentiation of enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms isolated from various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogusławska-Wąs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determinate enzymatic activity of yeast-like organisms - Candida lipolytica, Rhodotorula rubra, Trichosporon beigelii, Zygosaccharomyces sp. - isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon and herring salads. We have shown that lipolytic activity was higher than protcolytic for every strain tested. The lowest activity level was found out for amylolytic hydrolases. The results also demonstrated that yeast-like organisms isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon revealed much higher average enzymatic activity compared to tbe same species isolated from herring salads, excepting C. lipolytica.

  3. Testing the adjustable threshold model for intruder recognition on Myrmica ants in the context of a social parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias Alois; Durey, Maëlle; Nash, David Richard

    2012-01-01

    gains access to the ants' nests by mimicking their cuticular hydrocarbon recognition cues, which allows the parasites to blend in with their host ants. Myrmica rubra may be particularly susceptible to exploitation in this fashion as it has large, polydomous colonies with many queens and a very viscous...... and therefore the less-related workers within a colony, the less aggressively they will behave; and that colonies facing parasitism will be more aggressive than colonies experiencing less parasite pressure. Our results confirm all these predictions, supporting flexible aggression behaviour in Myrmica ants...

  4. Study of ants as bioindicators of industrial pollution in Kemerovo Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, S. V.; Dobrydina, T. I.

    2018-01-01

    The myrmecocomplexes of five industrial cities in the territory of Kuzbass, Russia, were studied. The general trends in the reaction of ants to the pollution by gaseous (chemical industry) and solid (coal and cement dust, lead and zinc waste and metallurgical industry) emissions were revealed. It was found out that the proportion of species of subfamilies, species richness and density of the settlement can be used as bioindicators. The predominance of L. niger and M. rubra nests in myrmecocomplexes immediately indicates a high degree of man-made impact.

  5. The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata harbors permanent chloroplasts of cryptomomad prigin, not kleptochloroplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Lydia; Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Per Juel

    2010-01-01

    of Dinophysis acuminata was established by feeding it the phototrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (= Myrionecta rubra), which again was fed the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia. Molecular analysis comprising the nucleomorph LSU and two chloroplast markers (tufA gene and a fragment from the end of 16S r......DNA to the beginning of 23S rDNA) resulted in identical sequences for the three organisms. Yet, transmission electron microscopy of the three organisms revealed that several chloroplast features separated D. acuminata from both T. amphioxeia and M. rubrum. The thylakoid arrangement, the number of membranes around...

  6. Imaging of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, O.; O' Brien, J.; Snow, A.; Stunell, H.; Torreggiani, W.C. [Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Incorporating the National Children' s Hospital (AMNCH), Department of Radiology, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Lyburn, I. [Cheltenham Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Munk, P.L. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2007-08-15

    Budd-Chiari syndrome occurs when venous outflow from the liver is obstructed. The obstruction may occur at any point from the hepatic venules to the left atrium. The syndrome most often occurs in patients with underlying thrombotic disorders such as polycythemia rubra vera, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and pregnancy. It may also occur secondary to a variety of tumours, chronic inflammatory diseases and infections. Imaging plays an important role both in establishing the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome as well as evaluating for underlying causes and complications such as portal hypertension. In this review article, we discuss the role of modern imaging in the evaluation of Budd-Chiari syndrome. (orig.)

  7. Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Liriodendron tulipifera tuliptree Ulmus rubra slippery elm Magnolia acuminata cucumber-tree Ulmus thomasii rock elm ERDC/EL TR-10-11 103 Watershed...americana American elm ERDC/EL TR-10-11 41 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 SRV per 100 feet of stream reach 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Va ria bl e S...canadensis eastern hemlock Juglans nigra black walnut Ulmus americana American elm Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum Ulmus parvifolia Chinese elm

  8. Some effects of smelter pollution northeast of Falconbridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, E

    1960-01-01

    A study along a line northwest from the metal smelter at Falconbridge, Ontario, reveals that strong sulphate accumulation in the surface soil occurs only within about one mile of the chimneys emitting sulphur dioxide pollution while effects upon the soil drainage waters are marked to a distance of nearly two miles, and still clearly evident 10 or more miles away. The number of species present in the flora declines sharply within about four miles of the smelter, but certain species (e.g. Pinus strobus, Vaccinium myrtilloides) disappear at much greater distances. Among the most tolerant species are Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Sambucus pubens, and Polygonum cilinode.

  9. First report of Seuratascaris numidica Seurat, 1917 (Nematoda: Ascarididae) and other helminths from amphibians of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-03-01

    Studies on nematode parasites from anuran hosts from Eastern India, particularly West Bengal, are rare. To our knowledge, there is a report of larvae of Monhysterides sp. (a fish parasite) from cysts within the body cavity and musculature of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus and Euphlyctis hexadactylus as well as descriptions of Aplectana duttaphryni from D. melanostictus , Aplectana dubrajpuri from H. tigerinus , Cosmocerca microhylae from Microhyla rubra and Rhabdias bulbicauda from D. melanostictus . Here, we report mature individuals of typical anuran parasites, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Seuratascaris numidica , from H. tigerinus and larvae of Acuariidae (a bird parasite) from Fejervarya limnocharis collected in Kulti, West Bengal.

  10. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  11. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln José Michalski

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca and Puma (Puma concolor] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons. Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%. Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all

  12. Comparison of biomass productivity and nitrogen fixing potential of Azolla SPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Singh, P.K. [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    2003-03-01

    Study was conducted on six different Azolla species, available in the germplasm collection of NCCUBGA, IARI, New Delhi namely A. filiculoides, A. mexicana, A. microphylla, A. pinnata, A. rubra and A. caroliniana in a polyhouse to assess their growth potential by determining their maximal biomass productivity, doubling time and relative growth rates. Their nitrogen fixing potential was assessed by acetylene reduction assay. Among them Azolla microphylla gave highest biomass production and relative growth rate followed by Azolla caroliniana. Both these had high nitrogenase activity also. Peak nitrogenase activity of these strains was found on 14th day of growth and it declined on further incubation. Azolla microphylla and Azolla rubra were more tolerant to salinity than others. On the other hand Azolla pinnata, which is endemic species found in India, exhibited low biomass production, relative growth rate and lower nitrogenase activity compared to other species. It was unable to sustain growth in saline medium. Under polyhouse conditions, A. microphylla was found to perform better than other cultures in terms of biomass productivity, N fixing ability and salt tolerance. Hence it is taken up for mass production.(author)

  13. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makambila, C.

    1997-01-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab

  14. Seasonal responses of six Poaceae to differential levels of solar UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckmyn, G.; Impens, I.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of changes in solar UV-B on the growth and pigmentation of six grass species from cold-temperate grasslands (Lolium perenne, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata) in spring and summer were studied. The grasses were grown in greenhouses with different foils, resulting in three treatments: no UV-B, 80% of ambient and 90% of ambient UV-BBE (biologically effective UV-B). The results indicated important effects of ambient UV-B levels on grass, but the different species reacted in very different ways. Both morphology and biomass production were influenced by UV-B in some species. However, changes in biomass production did not necessarily occur within the same species as changes in morphology. The grasses were more sensitive in summer. Overall, only F. rubra was positively influenced by UV-B under all circumstances. The biomass of D. glomerata and L. perenne was reduced by UV-B in spring and summer. Morphological changes included reduced height and increased tillering. The sensitivity of the different species was partially explained by their ability to reduce their specific leaf area in response to UV-B. Only the more sensitive species showed increased production of protective pigments. Overall, there were important differences between the effect of a low level of UV-B, and the further increase in UV-B, indicating that several mechanisms are operating at different light levels. (author)

  15. Post-eruption legacy effects and their implications for long-term recovery of the vegetation on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Walker, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the vegetation of Kasatochi Island, central Aleutian Islands, to provide a general field assessment regarding the survival of plants, lichens, and fungi following a destructive volcanic eruption that occurred in 2008. Plant community data were analyzed using multivariate methods to explore the relationship between pre- and post-eruption plant cover; 5 major vegetation types were identified: Honckenya peploides beach, Festuca rubra cliff shelf, Lupinus nootkatensisFestuca rubra meadow, Leymus mollis bluff ridge (and beach), and Aleuria aurantia lower slope barrens. Our study provided a very unusual glimpse into the early stages of plant primary succession on a remote island where most of the vegetation was destroyed. Plants that apparently survived the eruption dominated early plant communities. Not surprisingly, the most diverse post-eruption community most closely resembled a widespread pre-eruption type. Microhabitats where early plant communities were found were distinct and apparently crucial in determining plant survival. Comparison with volcanic events in related boreal regions indicated some post-eruption pattern similarities. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  16. Growth responses of maritime sand dune plant species to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Tadych

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse, the response of 6 plant species dominating in the succession of vegetation of a deflation hollow of the Łeba Bar to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was investigated. The inoculum was a mixture of soil, roots and spores of 5 species of AMF with the dominant species Glomus aggregatum. Except for Corynephorus canescens and Festuca rubra subsp. arenaria, both the growth and the dry matter of above-ground parts of plants of Agrostis stolonifera, Ammophila arenaria, Corynephorus canescens, Juncus articulatus and J. balticus inoculated with AMF were higher than those growing in soils lacking infection propagules of these fungi. Inoculation with AMF decreased the dry matter of root: shoot ratios in 5 plant species. This property was not determined in Festuca rubra subsp. arenaria due to the death of all control plants. The level of mycorrhizal infection was low and did not correlate with the growth responses found. The high growth reaction of Juncus spp. to AMF found in this study suggests that the opinion of non-mycotrophy or low dependence of plants of Juncaceae on AMF was based on results of investigations of plants growing in wet sites known to inhibit the formation of mycorrhizae.

  17. Antimicrobial screening of some medicinal plants from Mato Grosso Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iberê E Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from stem barks of Bowdichia virgilioides, Calophyllum brasiliense, Cariniana rubra, Lafoensia pacari, and Stryphnodendron obovatum and rhizome of Simaba ferruginea and Dragon's blood red sap from Croton urucurana were screened against a panel of bacteria and fungi using the micro-broth dilution method. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana was the most effective antimicrobial plant material. Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark deserved distinction by their selective antibacterial activity. Lafoensia pacari stem bark polar extracts distinguished by their potent and selective anti-yeast activity and Bowdichia virgilioides polar and non-polar extracts by their antifungal activity towards hyalohypho-mycetes and dermatophytes. This is the first report showing antifungal activity for polar extracts of Cariniana rubra and Simaba ferruginea. This study has demonstrated antimicrobial activity of Mato Grosso Cerrado ethnomedicinal plants in in vitro assays and has indicated that they can be effective potential candidates for the development of new strategies to treat fungal and bacterial infections.

  18. Production of Basella plants resistant to rust by irradiation of seeds and vegetative tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makambila, C [Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Sciences, Univ. of Brazzaville, Brazzaville (Congo)

    1997-12-01

    Basella is classified in the family Chenopodiaceae or Basellaceae. Also known as African spinach, this plant is consumed in Central Africa and several other African countries. There are two types of varieties grown in Congo: i. a local variety characterized by red leaves and stalks in which the principal way of propagation is from cuttings; ii. a group of varieties which have green or purple leaves and stalks. These varieties are called Basella alba and Basella rubra. These varieties have sexual reproduction. Among the two groups of varieties, the local variety is propagated vegetatively but is resistant to rust, while varieties with green leaves or with purple leaves (B. alba and B. rubra) that are propagated from seed are susceptible to rust. Since hybrid cannot be made by conventional crossing, the following procedures have been adopted to produce plants with disease tolerance: 1. production of resistant variants by irradiation of Basella alba seeds with Cesium 137; 2. production of resistant variants by irradiation of vegetative tissues obtained by culture of meristematic cells of B alba; and 3. obtaining resistant plants through somaclonal variation. 1 tab.

  19. Genetic diversity among and within cultured cyanobionts of diverse species of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, A; Prasanna, R; Prasanna, B M; Singh, P K

    2008-01-01

    The cyanobionts isolated from 10 Azolla accessions belonging to 6 species (Azolla mexicana, A. microphylla, A. rubra, A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. pinnata) were cultured under laboratory conditions and analyzed on the basis of whole cell protein profiles and molecular marker dataset generated using repeat sequence primers (STRR(mod) and HipTG). The biochemical and molecular marker profiles of the cyanobionts were compared with those of the free-living cyanobacteria and symbiotic Nostoc strains from Anthoceros sp., Cycas sp. and Gunnera monoika. Cluster analysis revealed the genetic diversity among the selected strains, and identified 3 distinct clusters. Group 1 included cyanobionts from all the 10 accessions of Azolla, group 2 comprised all the symbiotic Nostoc strains, while group 3 included the free-living cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Nostoc and Anabaena. The interrelationships among the Azolla cyanobionts were further revealed by principal component analysis. Cyanobionts from A. caroliniana-A. microphylla grouped together while cyanobionts associated with A. mexicana-A. filiculoides along with A. pinnata formed another group. A. rubra cyanobionts had intermediate relationship with both the subgroups. This is the first study analyzing the diversity existing among the cultured cyanobionts of diverse Azolla species through the use of biochemical and molecular profiles and also the genetic distinctness of these free-living cyanobionts as compared to cyanobacterial strains of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc.

  20. Cool-Season Turfgrass Species and Cultivars: Response to Simulated Traffic in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo F. Cereti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass species differ greatly in their ability to withstand the abrasion and compaction of traffic. Wear tolerance of turfgrass species and cultivars has been evaluated abroad by many researchers, while only few and partial studies have been conducted in Italy. Field experiment was carried out in Viterbo in 2001, 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the effect of the simulated traffic on 110 varieties belonging to four turfgrass cool-season species: tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., fine fescues (Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra Gaud., ssp. commutata Gaud., ssp. tricophylla Gaud., perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.. Shoot density, visual turfgrass quality and thatch thickness were the major characters recorded to estimate wear tolerance. Traffic was simulated using a device containing three rollers pulled by a small tractor. The traffic simulator weighed 564 kg and applied a pressure of about 3 MPa. Results indicated that perennial ryegrass and tall fescue had high wear tolerance and low statistical variation among cultivars. Kentucky bluegrass showed an average wear tolerance owing to its shoot density and good recovery potential. In spite of their high shoot density, fine fescues exhibited poor wear tolerance because of their scarce resistance to high temperatures which are typical of the Mediterranean climate in late spring and summer. This study enabled a preliminary selection of the most suitable cool-season grasses and cultivars for trafficked and non-trafficked areas in Central Italy and highlighted that different turfgrass species have different wear tolerance mechanisms.

  1. Comparison of phytoremediation potential of three grass species in soil contaminated with cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołda Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the toleration of Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra to cadmium contamination as well as the phytoremediation potential of these three species of grass. The pot experiment was conducted in four replications in pots containing 2.0 kg of soil. The soil was contaminated with three doses of Cd – 30, 60 and 120 mg·kg−1. After two months, the aerial parts of plants were harvested. The roots were dug up, brushed off from the remaining soil and washed with water. The biomass was defined and the cadmium concentration was determined in aerial parts and roots. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using biomass of grasses, bioaccumulation factor (BF and translocation factor (TF. All three tested species of grasses had TF 1. It indicates their suitability for phytostabilisation and makes them unsuitable for phytoextraction of Cd from the soil. Comparing the usefulness of the tested grasses for phytoremediation has shown that the phytostabilisation potential of P. pratensis was lower than that of L. perenne and F. rubra. P. pratensis was distinguished by higher TF, smaller root biomass and lower tolerance for Cd excess in the soil in comparison with the two other test grasses. At the same time, L. perenne was characterised by the smallest decrease in biomass and the largest Cd accumulation in roots at the lowest dose of Cd. It indicates good usefulness for phytostabilisation of soils characterised by a relatively small pollution by cadmium.

  2. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  3. How to make a beetle out of wood: multi-elemental stoichiometry of wood decay, xylophagy and fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates.

  4. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Mrabu Jenoh

    Full Text Available Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s, the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae.The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to

  5. Gold and arsenic concentrations in plants as an indication of gold mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.; Minski, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A range of plant species growing on derelict gold mines and a lead-silver mine (background site) in Merionethshire, Wales, United Kingdom, was analysed simultaneously for Au and As by neutron activation analysis. The γ-emitting 198 Au and 76 As isotopes were determined in dried compact plant material following irradiation. Many plant species collected from the gold mines contained Au concentrations significantly above background values, but the extent of Au accumulation varied between and within species. Grasses, and herbs associated with the equatic environment contained the most Au, the highest value recorded was 95 ppb (dry weight) in the leaves of the grass Festuca rubra L. Species which contained high concentrations of Au also contained high concentrations of As. (Auth.)

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Six Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Varieties and Their Relation to Some of Their Pomological and Phytonutrient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Erbil

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Arils from six pomegranate (Punica granatum L. varieties grown in the Mediterranean region of Turkey were tested for their antimicrobial properties by the agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC methods against seven bacteria: (Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 9027, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Escherichia coli DM, Enterococcus faecalis A10, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, and threefungi (Kluvyeromyces marxianus A230, Rhodotorula rubra MC12, Candida albicans ATCC 1023. It has been observed that the pomegranate aril extracts had antimicrobial effect on all microorganisms, giving inhibition zones ranging in size from 13 to 26 mm. The MIC values for active pomegranate extracts ranged between 30 and >90 µg/mL. The results obtained appeared to confirm the antimicrobial potential of the Punica granatum varieties.

  7. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  8. Seasonal changes of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several arborescent species subject to different industrial air pollutions in Upper Silesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczek, E.; Stolarek, J.

    1979-01-01

    Year-round investigations of seasonal patterns of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several deciduous and coniferous arborescent species in forests of Upper Silesia subjected to various amounts of industrial gases and dusts were carried out. The samples of leaves of Betula verrucosa EHRH, Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L., Pinus nigra ARNOLD, and P. silvestris L. were collected at different distances from an iron smelting plant. It was found that raising level of the pollution enhances peroxidase activity in leaves and needles. The induction of peroxidase activity by pollutants exhibited seasonal changes specific for the species and was subjected to the effect of temperature of the environment and was also related to the natural resistivity of a given species. In contrast to peroxidase, the patterns of catalase activity changes did not appear to be specifically influenced by industrial air pollutants. 22 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Vehicle-mounted net sampling of airborne micro-Heteroptera in western Liberia, West Africa: 1. Isometopinae (Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrÜger, Andreas

    2018-02-11

    A vehicle-mounted "car-net" is a rarely used technique of insect sampling. In Liberia, it was used over several consecutive months, and the first results of taxonomic analyses of Heteroptera from the by-catch are presented, namely on the mirid subfamily Isometopinae ("jumping tree bugs"). So far, no isometopine species have been known from Liberia.        New records of Isometopinae in Liberia are provided including: Isometopus slateri (Akingbohungbe), Myiomma cobbeni Akingbohungbe, M. rubra Smith, and M. rubrovenata Smith. Additional new species are described, including: Isometopus bongensis sp. nov., Paloniella garmsi sp. nov., P. erinacea sp. nov., Ptisca liberiense sp. nov., Myiomma albostiolata sp. nov., M .brunnea sp. nov., M. fuscipes sp. nov., M. goellneri sp. nov. and M. variabilis sp. nov. A new genus with one included species is similarly described as follows: Bongiella nodistylis gen. nov. et sp. nov.

  10. Malignancies in blood-forming organs following diagnostic and therapeutic procedures: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgin, J.D.; Webster, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    Ionizing radiation used for diagnosis or therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of malignancies of blood-forming organs. The increased incidence of hematopoietic malignancies following exposure to ionizing radiation obtained in the course of occupation, diagnosis and therapy of disease, or as a weapon of war is documented. The natural occurrence and the induced progression to acute leukemia of polycythemia rubra vera, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, Di Guglielmo's disease, and reticuloendothelial malignancies are discussed. The status of transplantation and immunodeficiency states and their relationship to acute leukemia is reviewed. Finally, drugs, toxins, and the use of cytotoxic radiomimetic agents for nonmalignant purposes are shown to lead to the development of acute leukemia. Background information relevant to the proper use of future diagnostic and therapeutic modalities is provided

  11. Review of the genus Signoretia (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Signoretiinae) of the Oriental region with description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viraktamath, C A

    2016-11-17

    Species of Signoretia Stål from the Oriental region are reviewed and types of five species described by Baker, two species described by Distant and one species described by Schmidt are illustrated. A checklist of 20 species of the genus from the Oriental region including 9 new species is given. The new species described and illustrated are Signoretia dulitensis sp. nov. (Malaysia: Mt Dulit), S. lunglei sp. nov. (India: Mizoram), S. mishmiensis sp. nov. (Myanmar: Mishmi Hills), S. quoinensis sp. nov. (Malaysia: Quoin Hill), S. rubra sp. nov. (Thailand: Chiang Mai), S. sahyadrica sp. nov. (India: Kerala), S. similaris sp. nov. (Vietnam: Fyan), S. sinuata sp. nov. (India: West Bengal) and S. takiyae sp. nov. (India: Andaman Is.). Both S. aureola Distant and S. maculata Baker are redescribed and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for S. greeni Distant and S. aureola Distant.

  12. Distribution and Ecology of Clathrus archeri in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipran BÎRSAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Clathrus archeri is a widely spread species in the Western Europe, in Romania it is considered a rare species, identified from only eight sites. In July 2013, it was found in two new sites from Gurghiu and Bârgău Mountains, in the Romanian Eastern Carpathians. This paper presents a detailed description of the new recorded specimens and of the habitat where this fungus was found. Plant communities where Clathrus archeri was recorded belong to the “mountain hay meadows” habitat type (Festuco rubrae - Agrostietum capillaris community. Taking into consideration the previous published data, the comparison with other habitats types in which this species occurs suggests that Clathrus archeri has no special preferences for certain environmental conditions.

  13. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  14. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC_5_0 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  15. Therapy with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.) [de

  16. Survival and growth of parasitic Maculinea alcon caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in nests of three Myrmica ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, D. R.; Als, Thomas Damm; Boomsma, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcon blue butterfly (Maculinea alcon) parasitizes the nests of several Myrmica ant species. In Denmark, it uses M. rubra and M. ruginodis, but never M. scabrinodis. To further examine the basis of this specificity and local co-adaptation between host and parasite, the pattern of growth...... and survival of newly-adopted caterpillars of M. alcon in Myrmica subcolonies was examined in the laboratory. M. alcon caterpillars were collected from three populations differing in their host use, and reared in laboratory nests of all three ant species collected from each M. alcon population. While...... there were differences in the pattern of growth of caterpillars from different populations during the first few months after adoption, which depended on host ant species and the site from which the ants were collected, there was no evidence of major differences in final size achieved. Survival was, however...

  17. Geographical variation in host-ant specificity of the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, J. J.

    2002-01-01

    1. Maculinea alcon uses three different species of Myrmica host ants along a north-south gradient in Europe. Based on this geographical variation in host ant use, Elmes et al. (1994) suggested that M. alcon might consist of three or more cryptic species or host races, each using a single...... and different host-ant species.2. Population-specific differences in allozyme genotypes of M. alcon in Denmark (Gadeberg Boomsma, 1997) have suggested that genetically differentiated forms may occur in a gradient across Denmark, possibly in relation to the use of different host ants.3. It was found that two...... host-ant species are indeed used as hosts in Denmark, but not in a clear-cut north-south gradient. Furthermore, specificity was not complete for many M. alcon populations. Of five populations investigated in detail, one used primarily M. rubra as a host, another exclusively used M. ruginodis, while...

  18. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  19. Invasive alien plants in protected areas within city borders, LODZ (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna, B.; Grzegorz, W.J.; Krason, K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the occurrence of invasive alien plant species in two forest reserves: "Las Lagiewnicki"and "Polesie Konstantynowskie", located within the city of Lodz (Central Poland). Currently, five vascular plants (Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra, Robinia pseudoacacia) and one moss (Orthodontium lineare) considered as invasive were found in the studied reserves. Invasive plant species accounted for a small percentage of the flora in the studied reserves, and their sites were mainly concentrated in areas transformed by human activity. The most common species were Impatiens parviflora and Padus serotina. Due to the location of the reserves within city borders and the proven negative effect of the found species on ecological systems, their sites should be monitored. (author)

  20. Uptake, transport and persistence of 14C yeast mannans in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.G.; Kluge, S.

    1988-01-01

    Low-molecular branched-chain 14 C-mannan from Candida tropicalis and high-molecular linear 14 C-mannan from Rhodotorula rubra are not taken up by intact plants. Mechanical injury of plants is a prerequisite for the uptake and transport of polysaccharides in plant tissues. Mannans injected through the epidermis into the parenchyma of tobacco leaves remain mostly confined to the place of injection or to the respective intercostal field. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide in the solution stimulates the uptake of mannans through intact roots of tobacco, thorn apple and potato plants. Mannans injected in the intercellular space of the parenchyma tissue of tobacco leaves maintain their polymeric structure for at least five days, which almost corresponds with the duration of their antiviral activity in the plants. These results suggest the antiphytoviral activity in fact to be due to the mannans or to principles stimulated by them rather than to their catabolites. (author)

  1. Folklore information from Assam for family planning and birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K C; Majumder, R; Bhattacharjee, S

    1982-11-01

    The author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of Assam, India. Temporary methods of birth control include Cissampelos pareira L. in combination with Piper nigrum L., root of Mimosa pudica L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Plants used for permanent sterilization include Plumbago zeylanica L., Heliotropium indicum L., Salmalia malabrica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Plumeria rubra L., Bambusa rundinacea. Abortion is achieved through use of Osbeckia nepalensis or Carica papaya L. in combination with resin from Ferula narthex Boiss. It is concluded that there is tremendous scope for the collection of folklore about medicine, family planning agents, and other treatments from Assam and surrounding areas. Such a project requires proper understanding between the survey team and local people, tactful behavior, and a significant amount of time. Monetary rewards can also be helpful for obtaining information from potential respondents.

  2. Comparison of three inert markers in measuring apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile abalone under different culture condition and temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, K. U.; Adams, L.; Stone, D.; Savva, N.; Adams, M.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative research using three inert markers, chromic oxide, yttrium and ytterbium to measure the apparent nutrient digestibility of experimental feed in juvenile Hybrid abalone (Haliotis rubra X H. laevigata) and Greenlip abalone (H.laevigata) revealed that apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP) measured using yttrium and ytterbium in hybrid abalone were significantly different across the treatments. Protein digestibility measured in experimental tanks was higher than those measured in indoor and outdoor commercial tanks, regardless of inert marker used. Chromic oxide led to overestimated ADCP compared to when measured using yttrium and ytterbium. There were no significant interactions between temperature and inert markers when measuring ADCP and apparent digestibility of gross energy (ADGE). However, there was a significant difference of ADCP amongst inert markers when measured in greenlip abalone cultured at two temperatures. While measurements of ADge calculated using three inert markers shared the same value.

  3. Efficacy of Biosolids in Assisted Phytostabilization of Metalliferous Acidic Sandy Soils with Five Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Malgorzata; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Prasad, M. N. V.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high. PMID:24912245

  4. The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Clifford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra and its potential utility as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food. As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function. Beetroot is also being considered as a promising therapeutic treatment in a range of clinical pathologies associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive activity in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to discuss beetroot’s biological activity and to evaluate evidence from studies that specifically investigated the effect of beetroot supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, cognition and endothelial function.

  5. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas D; Maile, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations......, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-4...

  6. Host exploitation strategies of the social parasite Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias Alois

    as model systems. These enable the study of adaptations and counter-adaptations that might evolve in the arms-race between a parasite pursuing maximum gain and a host trying to avoid exploitation. One such system is the socially parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon and its host the ant Myrmica rubra....... Throughout the first instars M. alcon lives on a specific food plant, however, in the last instar before pupation it develops into an obligate social parasite, posing a considerably cost to its host ant colony. I here focus on the different exploitation strategies of M. alcon throughout its lifecycle...... a fitness cost to infected host ant colonies, the host ants are expected to have developed defense mechanisms in response to the presence of the social parasite. I was able to demonstrate that the efficiency of ant colonies to defend themselves against intruders depends on a multitude of often correlated...

  7. Notes florístiques de les conques altes dels rius Segre i Llobregat. IV

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich, Pere

    2016-01-01

    En aquest treball es fan aportacions i precisions a la flora regional de les conques superiors dels rius Segre i Llobregat (Pirineus orientals), en gran part referides a tàxons al·lòctons.Pel que fa a tàxons autòctons, destaquem que Oxybasis rubra és novetat per a la flora de Catalunya, i que per primera vegada s’ofereix informació detallada sobre l’única població coneguda als Pirineus de Myosotis minutiflora. En relació amb els tàxons al·lòctons, és remarcable la detecció de poblacions de Ca...

  8. Direct seeding woody species for restoration of bottomlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Connor, Kristina F

    2006-01-01

    I direct seeded (broadcast) seeds of 39 species of trees and shrubs using an ATV-mounted rotary spreader to initiate restoration of bottomland forest on retired agricultural sites. Four sites were planted during February, 2000, and 13 additional sites were planted during April and May, 2001. After two growing seasons, stem density of direct-seeded species varied greatly among study plots (range = 0 to 888 stems/ha) but averaged only 110 stems/ha. I recommend that future efforts at direct seeding focus on seven shrub species (Amorpha fruticosa L., Cephalanthus occidentalis L., Cornus spp., Crataegus spp., Ilex decidua Walt., Morus rubra L., and Prunus spp.) and seven tree species (Celtis laevigata Willd., Diospyros virginiana L., Fraxinus spp., Gleditsia triacanthos L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich, and Ulmus spp.) that successfully established in these trials.

  9. Notes florístiques de les conques altes dels rius Segre i Llobregat. IV

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich, Pere

    2016-01-01

    En aquest treball es fan aportacions i precisions a la flora regional de les conques superiors dels rius Segre i Llobregat (Pirineus orientals), en gran part referides a tàxons al·lòctons. Pel que fa a tàxons autòctons, destaquem que Oxybasis rubra és novetat per a la flora de Catalunya, i que per primera vegada s’ofereix informació detallada sobre l’única població coneguda als Pirineus de Myosotis minutiflora. En relació amb els tàxons al·lòctons, és remarcable la detecció de poblacions de C...

  10. Tissue distribution and tumour localization of 99m-technetium-labelled liposomes in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, V J; Ryman, B E; Jewkes, R F; Jeyasingh, K; Tattersall, M N.H.; Newlands, E S; Kaye, S B

    1979-07-01

    The possible use of liposomes (Phospholipid vesicles) to direct cytotoxic drugs to tumours led to the investigation of the tissue localization of i.v. injected sup(99m) Tc-labelled liposomes in cancer patients. 20 mg or 300 mg doses of liposomal lipid (7:2:1 molar ratio of phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol: phosphatidic acid) were used in a study of 13 patients with advanced cancer and one with polycythaemia rubra vera (PRV). In all cases except the patient with PRV the major site of uptake of the label was the liver and spleen. In the patient with PRV the liver uptake was greatly reduced and the major site of uptake was found in regions corresponding to marrow. With the exception of one patient with a primary hepatoma, there was no significant tumour uptake of the label.

  11. Pathogenicity of the bioherbicide fungus chondrostereum purpureum to some trees and shrubs of southern Vancouver Island. FRDA report No. 246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    Chondrostereum purpureum is a common stem-invading fungus of trees and shrubs. The fungus has attracted interest as a bioherbicide, but a better understanding of its biology is required. This study was undertaken to determine the range of virulence of isolates of C. purpureum from a given region on major hardwood species in British Columbia. The investigators inoculated wounds of stems of standing red alder (Alnus rubra) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) saplings with 11 isolates of the fungus and measured the resulting stem cankers as an index of virulence. They also inoculated eight hardwood and shrub species with two isolates to demonstrate the range of susceptibility of species to the fungus, as well as the intraspecific variation.

  12. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  13. The JAK2 V617F allele burden in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Pallisgaard, Niels; Møller, Michael Boe

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The JAK2 V617F tyrosine kinase mutation is present in the great majority of patients with polycythemia vera (PV), and approximately half of the patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The three distinct disease entities may be consi......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The JAK2 V617F tyrosine kinase mutation is present in the great majority of patients with polycythemia vera (PV), and approximately half of the patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The three distinct disease entities may...... = 0.03), CD34 counts (P = 0.03), lactate dehydrogenase and Polycythemia Rubra Vera gene 1 levels (P = 0.03 and P

  14. The Evolution of Exploitation Strategies by Myrmecophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Sämi

    than outside ant nests (M. rubra) as well. This fungus can kill ant associated lycaenid larvae, justifying the assumption that these benefit from the entomopathogen poor environment of ant nests. This could explain why natural selection may act in favour of this strategy. In the third chapter I......Myrmecophiles are animals which have evolved to live in the nests of ants. This life history strategy appears in animals as different as insects, spiders, snails, crustaceans and even snakes. Myrmecophiles are very speciose with estimates of up to 100'000 species, which raises the question why...... this strategy has evolved so frequently and is maintained by natural selection. The type of association between Myrmecophiles and ants ranges from mutualistic through to parasitic. These types of symbioses can also be found between and within species of ants. Ant associations can therefore be broadly...

  15. Biological reduction of dust nuisance on power station waste dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J

    1978-01-01

    The results of pot trials and succeeding field trials carried out in 1966-72 to find out the best method of reclamationand stabilishing the fly ash and cinder waste dump at the Melnik power station are summarised. The material consists mainly of fine particles with a size range of less than 1 micron to 0.16 mm in diam., and creates a source of blown dust in dry weather. Treatment of the waste material before sowing grass and legume species, the species tested, sowing rates, applied fertilizers, irrigation and treatment of the resulting swards are discussed. The most suitable species were Festuca rubra, F. ovina, perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass; the cost of stabilising the dump was lowest with Italian ryegrass. (In English)

  16. Regulace produkce obohacené biomasy a lipidických látek u karotenogenních kvasinek

    OpenAIRE

    Hároniková, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Karotenoidy predstavujú jednu z najrozšírenejších a najpočetnejších tried prirodzených pigmentov s významnými biologickými účinkami. V posledných rokoch sa intenzívne študuje mikrobiologická produkcia karotenoidov pred syntetickou výrobou. Táto práca bola poňatá ako zrovnávacia štúdia troch druhov kvasiniek, a to Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula rubra a Sporobolomyces roseus. Kvasinky boli kultivované na rôznych živných médiách, kde sa ako nutričné zdroje používali vybrané odpadové materiály...

  17. Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, pGrowth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear

  18. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and polyarthritis associated with a novel CARD14 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlipnik, Sebastian; Castellanos-Moreira, Raul; Florez-Enrich, Helena; Arostegui, Juan Ignacio; Mascaró, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare toxicoderma characterised by an acute onset rash, with many sterile pustules on the surface, high fever and increased acute phase reactants. We report the case of a patient who presented to the dermatology department with an AGEP and polyarthritis, in which a novel CARD14 mutation was identified. The pathophysiological mechanism of AGEP remains unclear, although mutations in the IL36RN gene have been identified in a small subset of AGEP patients. Similarly, mutations in the CARD14 gene have been linked to pustular types of psoriasis and familiar cases of pityriasis rubra pilaris; however, there are no reports associating mutations in the CARD14 gene with AGEP. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  19. Purafil-filtration prevents the development of ozone-induced frost injury: A potential role for nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbour, E. A.; Pearson, M.; Mehlhorn, H.

    The relationship between exposure to ozone in the summer and the subsequent development of frost hardiness in the autumn was evaluated in recent experiments with red spruce ( Picea rubens Sarg. Syn. P. rubra). When O 3 was added to air filtered only through charcoal (contaminated with nitric oxide (NO)), frost sensitivity in late autumn was increased as measured by conductivity from electrocyte leakage. However, when O 3 was added to air filtered through charcoal and Purafil (no NO), no enhancement of frost sensitivity was found. A possible explanation of this difference, involving the chain-propagating property of NO in the O 3-initiated oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons (HCs), is proposed and discussed. N 2O 5, which was found to be generated at approximately 0.02 moles per mole of O 3 in the first year's experiment, only marginally modified O 3 toxicity.

  20. Uranium mobility across annual growth rings in three deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Kelly C; Widom, Elisabeth; Spitz, Henry B; Wiles, Gregory C; Glover, Sam E

    2018-02-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), and white ash (Fraxinus americana) trees were evaluated as potential archives of past uranium (U) contamination. Like other metals, U mobility in annual growth rings of trees is dependent on the tree species. Uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions (masses 234, 235, 236, and 238) were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to test the efficacy of using tree rings to retroactively monitor U pollution from the FFMPC, a U purification facility operating from 1951 to 1989. This study found non-natural U (depleted U and detectable 236 U) in growth rings of all three tree species that pre-dated the start of operations at FFMPC and compositional trends that did not correspond with known contamination events. Therefore, the annual growth rings of these tree species cannot be used to reliably monitor the chronology of U contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New data to the knowledge of macrofungi of Wolin National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of mycological studies conducted in the Wolin National Park from July to November 2012, and sporadically in the following 4 years. Explorations were made by a route method over the whole area of the Park, mainly in forest associations: Cephalanthero rubrae-Fagetum, Galio odorati-Fagetum, Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum, and Fago-Quercetum petraeae. In total, 322 taxa of macrofungi were found, 37 Ascomycota and 285 Basidiomycota. Two of them, Hericium coralloides and Inonotus obliquus, are under partial protection, 39 on the red list of fungi in Poland. For the first time, Russula torulosa, previously not reported from Poland, was found in Wolin National Park. Among the examined phytocoenoses, Galio odorati-Fagetum and Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum are characterized by the highest species variety and abundance.

  2. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  3. Phytostabilisation-A Sustainable Remediation Technique for Zinc in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems (Canada); Li, Loretta, E-mail: lli@civil.ubc.c [University of British Columbia, Department of Civil Engineering (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Two studies were conducted to determine a feasible and practical phytoremediation strategy for Zn-contaminated soils. The aim of the first study was to identify promising plant species capable of Zn remediation for the soils and climatic conditions of British Columbia. The purpose of the second study was to assess the effects of soil amendments in modifying the soil properties and providing the right conditions for the plants to immobilise Zn. Promising plants for phytostabilisation in the first study (Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis) were tested in the presence of soil amendments (lime, phosphate and compost, both individually and in combination) in the second study. The efficiency of treatments to stabilise Zn was based on Zn fractionation in the soil and on absorption and partitioning of Zn in plants. Maximum Zn immobilisation was achieved in the soil by a combination of lime, phosphate and compost, in conjunction with growth of P. pratensis.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  5. Seed conditioning of red oak: a recalcitrant North American seed Condicionamento de sementes de carvalho vermelho: semente recalcitrante da América do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Struve

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A ten day aerated water soak was developed as a seed conditioning treatment for red oak (Quercus rubra L.. Conditioned seeds had higher germination completeness, uniformity and speed compared to control seeds. Seeds could be conditioned under a wide range of temperatures and durations. Conditioned seeds were maintained at 7(0C for 30 days without loss of seed quality. During conditioning, pericarps split in response to seed hydration. Split pericarps could be used as a pre-sowing indicator for high quality seeds. Seed conditioning was ineffective on dormant seeds. Increased crop uniformity and higher stand establishment can be realized by subjecting red oak acorns to an aerated water soak treatment followed by selecting seeds with split pericarps. These results are especially important in container production systems where limited numbers of value seeds are available.Sementes de carvalho vermelho (Quercus rubra L. foram condicionadas diretamente em água, sob aeração, durante 10 dias. As sementes condicionadas fisiologicamente apresentaram maior percentagem, velocidade e uniformidade de germinação, quando comparadas com a testemunha. O condicionamento das sementes pode ser efetuado sob ampla variação de temperaturas e períodos de exposição. Sementes condicionadas podem ser mantidas a 7ºC/30 dias, sem perda de qualidade. Durante o condicionamento ocorre ruptura do pericarpo, em resposta à hidratação da semente; essa ocorrência pode ser utilizada para estimar a qualidade da semente. O condicionamento não apresentou efeitos em sementes dormentes. O condicionamento das sementes de carvalho vermelho em água, com aeração, seguido pela seleção de sementes com ruptura do pericarpo, proporciona o rápido estabelecimento e uniformidade das plântulas.

  6. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Elena

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  7. Evaluation of an ablative and non-ablative laser procedure in the treatment of striae distensae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Gungor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Striae distensae or stretch marks are atrophic linear dermal scars with epidermal atrophy. There are many therapeutic options for management, but no consistently effective modality is available yet. Objective: We compared the efficacy of 1064 nm long pulse (LP Nd: YAG laser and 2940 nm variable square pulse (VSP erbium: YAG laser in the treatment of striae distensae. Methods: Twenty female volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin types II-V aged between 20 and 40 years with striae (3 patients with the rubra type and 17 with the alba type were enrolled in the study. The duration of striae ranged from 4 months to 12 years. Lesions were located on the abdomen in all patients except one patient who had striae on the arms and two patients with striae in the lumbar region. Treatments were randomly allocated to both sides of the body in each patient, one side being treated with VSP erbium: YAG laser and the opposite side with LP Nd: YAG laser. All subjects were treated monthly for a total of three treatments. Two 3-mm punch biopsies were obtained from six subjects, both of the same striae, one before the first treatment and one 4 weeks after the last session. Results: Response was evaluated clinically by photographic comparison and was found to be poor in 17 subjects, both on the LP Nd: YAG laser treated side and VSP erbium YAG laser treated side. All these patients had mature lesions (striae distensae alba. Three subjects had a moderate response on both sides; these patients′ striae were immature (striae distensae rubra. Histologically, elastic fibers were slightly increased in post-treatment samples compared with pretreatment skin biopsies. Conclusion: We observed no satisfactory clinical improvement in striae distensae alba lesions although histopathological changes were seen. We suggest that variable square pulse Er: YAG and long pulse Nd: YAG lasers are not useful in the treatment of striae distensae alba.

  8. Patients presenting with miliaria while wearing flame resistant clothing in high ambient temperatures: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Anisa M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clothing can be a cause of occupational dermatitis. Frequent causes of clothing-related dermatological problems can be the fabric itself and/or chemical additives used in the laundering process, friction from certain fabrics excessively rubbing the skin, or heat retention from perspiration-soaked clothing in hot working environments. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of miliaria rubra associated with prolonged use of flame resistant clothing in the medical literature. Case presentation We report 18 cases (14 men and 4 women, with an age range of 19 to 37 years of moderate to severe skin irritation associated with wearing flame resistant clothing in hot arid environments (temperature range: 39 to 50°C, 5% to 25% relative humidity. We describe the medical history in detail of a 23-year-old Caucasian woman and a 31-year-old African-American man. A summary of the other 16 patients is also provided. Conclusions These cases illustrate the potential serious nature of miliaria with superimposed Staphylococcus infections. All 18 patients fully recovered with topical skin treatment and modifications to their dress ensemble. Clothing, in particular blend fabrics, must be thoroughly laundered to adequately remove detergent residue. While in hot environments, individuals with sensitive skin should take the necessary precautions such as regular changing of clothing and good personal hygiene to ensure that their skin remains as dry and clean as possible. It is also important that they report to their health care provider as soon as skin irritation or rash appears to initiate any necessary medical procedures. Miliaria rubra can take a week or longer to clear, so removal of exposure to certain fabric types may be necessary.

  9. Effects of structural complexity on within-canopy light environments and leaf traits in a northern mixed deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, Alexander T; Curtis, Peter S

    2017-10-01

    Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity. We used a combination of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and hemispherical photographs to quantify canopy structure and light environments, respectively, and a telescoping pole to sample leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen on an area basis (Narea) and chlorophyll on a mass basis (Chlmass) were measured in red maple (Acer rubrum), american beech (Fagus grandifolia), white pine (Pinus strobus), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) at different heights in plots with similar leaf area index but contrasting canopy complexity (rugosity). We found that more complex canopies had greater porosity and reduced light variability in the midcanopy while total light interception was unchanged relative to less complex canopies. Leaf phenotypes of F. grandifolia, Q. rubra and P. strobus were more sun-acclimated in the midstory of structurally complex canopies while leaf phenotypes of A. rubrum were more shade-acclimated (lower LMA) in the upper canopy of more complex stands, despite no differences in total light interception. Broadleaf species showed further differences in acclimation with increased Narea and reduced Chlmass in leaves with higher LMA, while P. strobus showed no change in Narea and Chlmass with higher LMA. Our results provide new insight on how light distribution and leaf acclimation in mature trees might be altered when natural and anthropogenic

  10. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Bleve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a “placebo” formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or 0, after 1 month (1, and at the end of the study (2. Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment.

  11. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N], phosphorus ([P], and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation. We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth.

  12. Community development on 35-year-old planted minespoil banks in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, W S; Hutnik, R J

    1987-07-01

    Invading plant communities were studied in 1982 on a series of 35-year old strip-mine test plantings in the main bituminous region of Pennsylvania. Ten of the original 22 sites were evaluated; the others had been significantly disturbed or destroyed. The sites varied in mean pH, in survival and basal area of the planted trees and in the species planted. The study involved 24 plots of the following species: eastern white pine (Pine strobus), red pine (Pinus resinosa), Japanese larch (Laprix leptolepis), red oak (Quercus rubra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and hybrid poplar (Populus hyb.) and seven plots where plantings were unsuccessful (control plots). In the cluster analysis of invading communities described by a modified Braun-Blanquet scale, strong clustering trends were evident by both site and planted species. Clustering by sites was most pronounced for those sites with extremes of soil pH. There was also strong clustering among pine plots and among some hardwood plots. Species richness was higher on white ash, red oak, Japanese larch and control plots than on white pine plots. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) was the most common of the 169 invading species and was especially numerous on black locust plots. Aspens (Populus sp.) were also common invaders, especially on pine and ash plots. These species, along with pin cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) and the planted black locust are declining in importance, whereas black cherry, red maple (Acer rubrum) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) are increasing. Invading oaks (Quercus sp.), hickories (Carya sp.) and a few sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) suggest future successional changes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Flux-based Enrichment Ratios of Throughfall and Stemflow Found to Vary Significantly within Urban Fragments and Along an Urban-to-Rural Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowtin, A. L.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Throughfall and stemflow are important inputs of water and solutes to forest soils in both rural and urban forests. In metropolitan wooded ecosystems, a number of factors can affect flux-based enrichment ratios, including combustion of fossil fuels and proximity to industry. Use of flux-based enrichment ratios provides a means by which this modification of net precipitation chemistry can be quantified for both throughfall and stemflow, and allows for a characterization of the relative contributions of stemflow and throughfall in the delivery of nutrients and pollutants to forest soils. This study utilizes five mixed deciduous forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient (3 urban fragments, 1 suburban fragment, and a portion of 1 contiguous rural forest) within a medium-sized metropolitan region of the United States' Northeast megalopolis, to determine how the size, shape, structure, and geographic context of remnant forest fragments determine hydrologic and solute fluxes within them. In situ observations of throughfall and stemflow (the latter of which is limited to Quercus rubra and Quercus alba) within each study plot allow for an identification and characterization of the spatial variability in solute fluxes within and between the respective sites. Preliminary observations indicate significant intra-site variability in solute concentrations as observed in both throughfall and stemflow, with higher concentrations along the respective windward edges of the study plots than at greater depths into their interiors. Higher flux-based stemflow enrichment ratios, for both Q. rubra and Q. alba, were also evident for certain ions (i.e., S2-, NO3-) in the urban forest fragments, with significantly lower ratios observed at the suburban and rural sites. Findings from this research are intended to aid in quantifying the spatial variability of the hydrologic and hydrochemical ecosystem service provisions of remnant metropolitan forest fragments. This research is supported in

  14. Studies in American orchids VII Studies in American orchids VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garay Leslie A.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827 / Epidendrum infaustum Rchb. f. in Hamb. Gartenz. 19: 13, 1863 / Epidendrum jejunum Rchb. f. in Otia Bot. Hamb, 12, 1878 / Epidendrum vernixium Rchb. f. & Warsc. in Bonpl. 2: 110, 1854 / Maxillaria ochracea (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov / Odontoglossum narthecioides (Krzl. Garay, comb. nov. / Sigmatostalix auriculata, Garay, sp. nov. / Sigmatostalix  Brownii Garay,· sp. nov / Rusbyella pusilla (C. Schweinf. Garay, comb. nov / Sphyrastylis ecuadorensis Garay, sp. nov / Pterostemma  calceolaris Garay, sp. nov.Vanilla rubra (Lam. Urb. in Fedde Rep. Beih, 5: 157, 1920 / Elleanthus Kalbreyeri Garay, nom. nov. / Elleanthus lancifolius Presl, Rel. Haenk. 97, 1827 / Pleurothallis cardiothallis Rchb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 15: 158, 1857 / Pleurothallis excelsa Garay, sp. nov. / Platystele Johnstonii (Ames Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele propinqua (Ames, Garay, comb. nov. / Platystele xiphochila (Rchb. f. Garay, comb. nov. / Lepanthopsis serrulata (Cogn. Hespenheide & Garay, comb. nov. / Masdevallia bulbophyllopsis Krzl. in Fedde Rep. 17: 412, 1921. / Masdevallia heteroptera Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 3: 590, 1875. / Masdevallia velutina  Rchb. f. in Gard. Chron. n. s. 4: 420, 1875 / Epidendrum bracteolatum Presl, ReI. Haenk. 100, 1827

  15. Roseomonas hibiscisoli sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus).

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    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Lin, Pei; Li, Chang-Tian; Kook, MooChang; Wang, Qi-Jun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid to short-rod-shaped bacterial strain (THG-N2.22T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus). Growth occurred at 20-40 °C (optimum 28 °C), at pH 5-9 (optimum 7) and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-N2.22T were identified as Roseomonas rhizosphaerae YW11T (98.5 % similarity), Roseomonas rubra S5T (98.5 %), Roseomonas cervicalis ATCC 49957T (98.2 %), Roseomonas aestuarii JC17T (97.8 %), Roseomonas oryzae JC288T (97.3 %) and Roseomonas ludipueritiae 170/96T (97.3 %); levels of similarity with the type strains of other Roseomonas species were lower than 97.0 %. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified lipids. The major quinone was ubiquinone-10. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 2-OH, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-N2.22T was 64.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain THG-N2.22T and R. rhizosphaerae YW11T, R. rubra S5T, R. cervicalis ATCC 49957T, R. aestuarii JC17T, R. oryzae JC288T and R. ludipueritiae 170/96T were 43.1 % (30.2 %, reciprocal analysis), 39.0 % (24.7 %), 34.4 % (15.2 %), 18.0 % (14.5 %), 14.7 % (9.7 %) and 11.0 % (5.6 %), respectively. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic data, physiological characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain THG-N2.22T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas hibiscisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-N2.22T (=KACC 18935T=CCTCC AB 2016176T).

  16. SKRINING FARMAKOGNOSI TANAMAN ETNOFARMASI ASAL KABUPATEN BULUKUMBA YANG BERPOTENSI SEBAGAI ANTIKANKER

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    Asni Amin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional medicine has long been known and used by the people of South Sulawesi and recorded since the 15th century in lontara 'pabbura. Bulukumba as one of the areas of south Sulawesi inhabited by ethnic of Kajang and ethnic of Makassar has also been used plants to treat several of diseases including. Screening studies pharmacognostic origin Bulukumba conducted to identify medicinal plants used by the community Bulukumba to treat cancer. The research location is the village of Bahari Bonto Lembanna District Bulukumba, The research location is the village Lembana of Bonto Bahari District Regency of Bulukumba, the surveys plants etnofarmasi through sanro (traditional healers, public figures and society who have knowledge of traditional medicine with purposive sampling method. Pharmacognosy screening includes determination etnofarmasi plants that have been collected, organoleptic examination, morphology, anatomy and identification of chemical constituents using color reagent and precipitation reactions. The results obtained five plants etnofarmasi potential for the treatment of cancer, leaf of landep (Barleria prionitis L. Family Acanthaceae, gewor (Basella rubra L Famili Acanhtaceae, pecut kuda (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Family Loranthaceae, rumput mutiara (Hedyotis corymbosa L. family Rubiaceae dan gondola (Commelina benghalensis L. Family Commelinaceae, with chemical ingredients contain flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, and tannins. The content of flavonoids and alkaloids in plants has the potential to be used as a cancer treatment. Keywords : Etnopharmacy, anticancer, Pharmacognosy screening. Abstrak Penggunaan obat tradisional telah lama dikenal dan digunakan oleh masyarakat Sulawesi Selatan dan dibukukan sejak abad ke-15 dalam lontara’ pabbura. Bulukumba sebagai salah satu wilayah Sulawesi Selatan dihuni oleh etnis Makassar dan etnis Kajang juga telah menggunakan tanaman termasuk untuk mengobati berbagai penyakit. Penelitian

  17. Exploring canopy structure and function as a potential mechanism of sustain carbon sequestration in aging forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, A. T.; Curtis, P.; Ricart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The notion that old-growth forests reach carbon neutrality has recently been challenged, but the mechanisms responsible for continued productivity have remained elusive. Increases in canopy structural complexity, defined by high horizontal and vertical variability in leaf distribution (rugosity), has been proposed as a mechanism for sustained high rates of above ground net primary production (ANPPw) in forests up to ~170 years by enhancing light use efficiency (LUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, a detailed understanding of how rugosity affects resource distribution within and among trees leading to greater LUE and NUE is not known. We propose that leaves in high rugosity plots receive greater photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) than leaves in low rugosity plots, causing shifts from shade- to sun- adapted leaves into deeper portions of the canopy, which is thought to increase the photosynthetic capacity of individuals and lead to higher carbon assimilation in forests. The goal of this research was to: 1) quantify different canopy structural characteristics using a portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and; 2) assess how these structural characteristics affect resource distribution and subsequent changes in leaf morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in three broadleaf species (e.g., Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra and Fagus grandifolia) and one conifer species (e.g., Pinus strobus) at different levels in the canopy in plots with similar leaf are index (LAI) but highly contrasting rugosity levels. We found that gap fraction had a strong positive correlation with rugosity. High rugosity plots had a bimodal distribution of LAI that was concentrated at the top and bottom of the canopy with an open midstory (between 10-50% of total canopy height) whereas low rugosity plots had a more even distribution of leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of all broadleaved species had a strong positive correlation with cumulative gap fraction (P. strobus had a relatively

  18. Análise, por CLAE, de carotenóides de cinco linhagens de Rhodotorula HPLC analysis of carotenoids from five Rhodotorula strains

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    Fabio M. Squina

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi otimizado para a análise da composição de carotenóides de cinco linhagens de Rhodotorula.A extração com ruptura mecânica da parede celular da levedura com areia tratada mostrou ser mais eficiente que a ruptura química com dimetilsulfóxido. Os carotenóides foram separados e quantificados por CLAE em coluna de C18 utilizando como fase móvel acetonitrila/metanol (0,1% trietilamina/acetato de etila (75:15:10 e 100% metanol (0,1% trietilamina entre as injeções, com vazão de 1 mL/min. Em todas as linhagens, os carotenóides majoritários encontrados foram torularrodina, toruleno, ³-caroteno e ²-caroteno. Os teores totais de carotenóides, em µg/g, foram de 251,7 em R. glutinis,123,5 em R. rubra,113,2 em R. araucariae,105,8 em R. lactosa ede 103,7 em R. minuta.A method for extraction and HPLC separation of carotenoids from fiveRhodotorula strains was optimized. The extraction by mechanical disruption of the yeast cell wall with fine treated sand was shown to be more efficient than chemical disruption with dimethylsulfoxide. The carotenoids were separated and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using as mobile phase acetonitrile/methanol (0.1% triethylamina/ethyl acetate (75:15:10 with 100% methanol (0.1% triethylamine between the injections, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. In all strains, the major carotenoids found were torularhodin, torulene, ³-carotene and ²-carotene. The total carotenoid contents, in µg/g, obtained were 251.7 for R. glutinis,123.5 for R. rubra,113.2 for R. araucariae,105.8 for R. lactosaand 103.7 for R. minuta.

  19. Fungal infections in neutropenic patients: a 8-year prospective study Infecções fúngicas em pacientes neutropênicos: estudo prospectivo de 8 anos

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    Marcio Nucci

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a eight-year prospective study designed to further characterize incidence, epidemiology, specific syndromes, treatment and prognosis associated with fungal infections in neutropenic patients. During the study period 30 fungal infections were diagnosed in 30 patients among 313 episodes of fever and neutropenia (10%. There were 15 cases of candidiasis, 5 pulmonary aspergillosis, 3 sinusitis by Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infections by Fusarium sp., one infection by Trichosporon sp., and one infection due to Rhodotorula rubra. Blood cultures were positive in 18 cases (60%. The predisposing factors for fungal infection in multivariate analysis were the presence of central venous catheter (pCom o objetivo de melhor caracterizar incidência, epidemiologia, síndromes específicas, tratamento e prognóstico associado com infecções fúngicas sistêmicas em pacientes neutropênicos foi feito um estudo prospectivo de 8 anos. Durante este período foram diagnosticadas 30 infecções fúngicas em 30 pacientes neutropênicos febris (10%. Houve 15 casos de candidíase, 5 aspergiloses pulmonares, 3 sinusites por Aspergillus fumigatus, 5 infecções por Fusarium sp., uma infecção por Trichosporon sp., e uma infecção por Rhodotorula rubra. As hemoculturas foram positivas em 18 casos (60%. Os fatores de risco para infecção fúngica em análise multivariada foram: presença de cateter venoso central (p<0,001, duração maior de neutropenia <100/mm³ (p<0,001, uso de corticosteróides (p<0,001, bacteremia por germes gram-positivos (p=0,002 e idade menor (p=0.03. Em análise multivariada apenas recuperação da neutropenia (p<0,001 esteve associada com bom prognóstico, enquanto que o diagnóstico de infecção por Fusarium sp. (p=0,006 se correlacionou com um mau prognóstico. A taxa de óbito foi de 43%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas taxas de óbito em pacientes que receberam (52% ou não (50% terapia anti

  20. Evaluating the piscicide rotenone as an option for eradication of invasive Mozambique tilapia in a Hawaiian brackish-water wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo; Englund, Ronald A.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2015-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were recently discovered in ‘Aimakapā Fishpond, a 12-hectare brackish-water wetland complex in Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, on the Island of Hawai’i. As a possible eradication method, we evaluated rotenone, a natural piscicide used in fish management and the active ingredient in plants traditionally used by indigenous Hawaiians for capturing fish. To assess rotenone’s efficacy in killing tilapia and effects on non-target species, laboratory toxicity tests involved exposing organisms to various concentrations of liquid CFT Legumine (5% rotenone) in static trials of 48-h to 72-h duration. Test organisms included: Mozambique tilapia, non-native guppy Poecilia reticulata, the non-native odonate Rambur’s forktail Ischnura ramburii, native feeble shrimp Palaemon debilis, and native ‘ōpae’ula shrimp Halocaridina rubra. All organisms and water used in tests were obtained from ‘Aimakapā (12.6–12.7 ppt salinity), or, for H. rubra, an anchialine pool (15.0–15.2 ppt salinity). Survival analyses indicated CFT Legumine concentrations >3 ppm (>0.15 mg/L rotenone) achieved 100% mortality of tilapia and 93% of guppies within 24 h, with most tilapia killed by 6 h and most guppies by 2 h. Little or no mortality was observed among invertebrate exposed to 1 to 5 mg/L CFT Legumine: 0% mortality for ‘ōpae’ula shrimp, 4% for feeble shrimp; and 16% for odonate larvae. The 48 h LC50 values for Mozambique tilapia and guppy were 0.06 and 0.11 mg/L rotenone, respectively. Results demonstrate rotenone’s potential for non-native fish eradication in brackish-water habitats, with benefit of low mortality to certain macro-invertebrates. High rotenone tolerance displayed by ‘ōpae’ula shrimp is noteworthy. Invasive fish are common in anchialine pools, threatening existence of shrimp and other invertebrate fauna. Although rotenone’s effects on freshwater organisms have been well studied, our research

  1. Tree Productivity Enhanced with Conversion from Forest to Urban Land Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briber, Brittain M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Reinmann, Andrew B; Raciti, Steve M; Dearborn, Victoria K; Holden, Christopher E; Dunn, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding, changing the structure and productivity of landscapes. While some urban areas have been shown to hold substantial biomass, the productivity of these systems is largely unknown. We assessed how conversion from forest to urban land uses affected both biomass structure and productivity across eastern Massachusetts. We found that urban land uses held less than half the biomass of adjacent forest expanses with a plot level mean biomass density of 33.5 ± 8.0 Mg C ha(-1). As the intensity of urban development increased, the canopy cover, stem density, and biomass decreased. Analysis of Quercus rubra tree cores showed that tree-level basal area increment nearly doubled following development, increasing from 17.1 ± 3.0 to 35.8 ± 4.7 cm(2) yr(-1). Scaling the observed stem densities and growth rates within developed areas suggests an aboveground biomass growth rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), a growth rate comparable to nearby, intact forests. The contrasting high growth rates and lower biomass pools within urban areas suggest a highly dynamic ecosystem with rapid turnover. As global urban extent continues to grow, cities consider climate mitigation options, and as the verification of net greenhouse gas emissions emerges as critical for policy, quantifying the role of urban vegetation in regional-to-global carbon budgets will become ever more important.

  2. Field-scale study of the influence of differing remediation strategies on trace metal geochemistry in metal mine tailings from the Irish Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, William T; Bird, Graham; Jacobs, Suzanne R; Devoy, Cora

    2016-03-01

    Mine tailings represent a globally significant source of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) to the environment. The management of large volumes of mine tailings represents a major challenge to the mining industry and environmental managers. This field-scale study evaluates the impact of two highly contrasting remediation approaches to the management and stabilisation of mine tailings. The geochemistry of the tailings, overlying amendment layers and vegetation are examined in the light of the different management approaches. Pseudo-total As, Cd and Pb concentrations and solid-state partitioning (speciation), determined via sequential extraction, were established for two Tailings Management Facilities (TMFs) in Ireland subjected to the following: (1) a 'walk-away' approach (Silvermines) and (2) application of an amendment layer (Galmoy). PHE concentrations in roots and herbage of grasses growing on the TMFs were also determined. Results identify very different PHE concentration profiles with depth through the TMFs and the impact of remediation approach on concentrations and their potential bioavailability in the rooting zone of grass species. Data also highlight the importance of choice of grass species in remediation approaches and the benefits of relatively shallow-rooting Agrostis capillaris and Festuca rubra varieties. In addition, data from the Galmoy TMF indicate the importance of regional soil geochemistry for interpreting the influence of the PHE geochemistry of capping and amendment layers applied to mine tailings.

  3. Monograph: In vitro efficacy of 30 ethnomedicinal plants used by Indian aborigines against 6 multidrug resistant Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria

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    Mahesh Chandra Sahu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf extracts of 30 common and noncommon plants used by aborigines in Kalahandi district, Odisha, against 6 clinically isolated multidrug resistant (MDR Gram-positive bacteria of 3 genera, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus. Methods: The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 6 bacterial strains were studied with the diskdiffusion method with 1 7 antibiotics belonging to 8 classes. Monitored plants have ethnomedicinal use and several are used as traditional medicines. Antibacterial properties were studied with the agar-well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of plants were determined by the microbroth-dilution method. Results: Ethanolic plant-extracts had the better antibacterial potencies in comparison to their corresponding aqueous extracts. Plants with most conspicuous antibacterial properties in controlling MDR strains of Gram-positive bacteria were aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Ixora coccinea, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Polycythaemia rubra, Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cumini, Carthamus tinctorius, Cucurbita maxima, Murraya koenigii, Leucas aspera, Plumbago indica and Psidium guajava. Ethanolic extracts of most plants had phytochemicals, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. Conclusions: These plants could be used further for the isolation of pure compounds to be used as complementary non-microbial antimicrobial medicines.

  4. Investigation of Polarization Phase Difference Related to Forest Fields Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, M.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD) statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.), poplar (Populus L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  5. USE OF AMAZONIAN SPECIES FOR AGING DISTILLED BEVERAGES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WOOD ANALYSIS

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    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of storing liquor in wooden barrels is a practice that aims to improve the sensory characteristics, such as color, aroma and flavor, of the beverage. The quality of the liquor stored in these barrels depends on wood characteristics such as density, permeability, chemical composition, anatomy, besides the wood heat treatment used to fabricate the barrels. Brazil has a great diversity of forests, mainly in the north, in the Amazon. This region is home to thousands of tree species, but is limited to the use of only a few native species to store liquors. The objective of this study was to determine some of the physical and chemical characteristics for four Amazon wood species. The results obtained in this study will be compared with others from woods that are traditionally used for liquor storage. The species studied were angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke cumarurana (Dipteryx polyphylla (Huber Ducke, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. and louro-vermelho (Nectandra rubra (Mez CK Allen. The trees were collected from Precious Woods Amazon Company forest management area, in Silves, Amazonas. Analyzes such as: concentration of extractives, lignin amount, percentage of minerals (ash and tannin content, density, elemental analysis (CHNS-O and thermal analysis were done. It was observed that the chemical composition (lignin, holocellulose and elemental analysis (percentage of C, H, N and O of the woods have significant differences. The jatobá wood presented higher tannin content, and in the thermal analysis, was that which had the lowest mass loss.

  6. How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Paź, Sonia; Frelich, Lee E; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous species distribution models have been developed, most were based on insufficient distribution data or used older climate change scenarios. We aimed to quantify changes in projected ranges and threat level by the years 2061-2080, for 12 European forest tree species under three climate change scenarios. We combined tree distribution data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, EUFORGEN, and forest inventories, and we developed species distribution models using MaxEnt and 19 bioclimatic variables. Models were developed for three climate change scenarios-optimistic (RCP2.6), moderate (RCP4.5), and pessimistic (RPC8.5)-using three General Circulation Models, for the period 2061-2080. Our study revealed different responses of tree species to projected climate change. The species may be divided into three groups: "winners"-mostly late-successional species: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, and Quercus petraea; "losers"-mostly pioneer species: Betula pendula, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris; and alien species-Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus rubra, and Robinia pseudoacacia, which may be also considered as "winners." Assuming limited migration, most of the species studied would face a significant decrease in suitable habitat area. The threat level was highest for species that currently have the northernmost distribution centers. Ecological consequences of the projected range contractions would be serious for both forest management and nature conservation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Spontaneous puerperal extraperitoneal bladder wall rupture in young woman with diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Debabrat Kumar; Panigrahi, Pradeep Kumar; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Acharya, Mousumi; Sahu, Mahesh Ch

    2015-01-01

    A young female presented with an acute abdominal pain and oliguria for 1 week following normal vaginal delivery. No history of hematuria was present. Patient was having lochia rubra. Sealed uterine rupture was suspected clinically. Initial ultrasound of the patient showed distended urinary bladder containing Foley catheter ballon with clamping of Foley catheter and particulate ascites. Abdominal paracentesis revealed hemorrhagic fluid. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdomen revealed ascites, distended urinary bladder and no extraluminal contrast extravasation in delayed scan. As patient condition deteriorated, repeat ultrasound guided abdominal paracentesis was done which revealed transudative peritoneal collection with distended bladder. Cystoscopy revealed urinary bladder ruptures with exudate sealing the rupture site. Exploratory laparotomy was done and a diagnosis of extraperitoneal bladder rupture was confirmed. The rent was repaired in layers. She was put on continuous bladder drainage for 3 weeks followed by bladder training. It presented in a unique way as there was hemorrhagic peritoneal tap, no macroscopic hematuria and urinary bladder was distended in spite of urinary bladder wall rupture which delayed the diagnosis and treatment. Complete emptying of urinary bladder before second stage of labor and during postpartum period with perineal repair is mandatory to prevent urinary bladder rupture.

  8. Tree Productivity Enhanced with Conversion from Forest to Urban Land Covers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittain M Briber

    Full Text Available Urban areas are expanding, changing the structure and productivity of landscapes. While some urban areas have been shown to hold substantial biomass, the productivity of these systems is largely unknown. We assessed how conversion from forest to urban land uses affected both biomass structure and productivity across eastern Massachusetts. We found that urban land uses held less than half the biomass of adjacent forest expanses with a plot level mean biomass density of 33.5 ± 8.0 Mg C ha(-1. As the intensity of urban development increased, the canopy cover, stem density, and biomass decreased. Analysis of Quercus rubra tree cores showed that tree-level basal area increment nearly doubled following development, increasing from 17.1 ± 3.0 to 35.8 ± 4.7 cm(2 yr(-1. Scaling the observed stem densities and growth rates within developed areas suggests an aboveground biomass growth rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 Mg C ha(-1 yr(-1, a growth rate comparable to nearby, intact forests. The contrasting high growth rates and lower biomass pools within urban areas suggest a highly dynamic ecosystem with rapid turnover. As global urban extent continues to grow, cities consider climate mitigation options, and as the verification of net greenhouse gas emissions emerges as critical for policy, quantifying the role of urban vegetation in regional-to-global carbon budgets will become ever more important.

  9. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Zeng

    Full Text Available Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp and the longest (233 bp ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  10. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  11. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  12. [Features of Professor Ma Kun's medication in treating ovulatory infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Chen, Yan-Xia; Dong, Mei-Ling; Ma, Kun

    2017-12-01

    In order to analyze Professor Ma Kun's medication in treating anovulatory infertility, her prescriptions for treating anovulatory infertility in 2012-2015 were collected. The medication features and the regularity of prescriptions were mined by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system, association rules, complex system entropy clustering and other mining methods. Finally, a total of 684 prescriptions and 300 kinds of herbs were screened out, with a total frequency of 11 156 times; And 68 core combinations and 8 new prescriptions were mined. The top three frequently used herbs by effect were respectively tonic herb, blood circulation promoting herb, and Qi-circulation promoting herb. The top three tastes were sweetness, bitterness and pungent flavor. The results showed 28 herbs with a high frequency of ≥100.The top 10 frequently used herbs were respectively Angelica Sinensis Radix, Cyperi Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizome, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Cyathulae Radix, Taxilli Herba, Cuscutae Semen, Codonopsis Radix, Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Paeoniae Albaand Paeoniae Radix Alba. The association rules analysis showed commonly used herbal pairs, including Rehmanniae Radix Preparata-Chuanxiong Rhizome, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata-Angelica Sinensis Radix, Cuscutae Semen-Dipsaci Radix. In conclusion, Professor Ma has treated anovulatory infertility by nourishing the kidney and activating blood throughout the treatment course, and attached the importance to the relationship between Qi and blood and there gulation of liver, spleen and kidney in treating anovulatory infertility. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, E.Emily V.; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D.

    2013-01-01

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  14. Formulating natural based cosmetic product - irradiated herbal lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2007-01-01

    Herbal lip balm was formulated in efforts to produce a safe product, attractive with multifunctional usage i.e. prevent chap lips, reduce mouth odour and benefits in improving the health quality. Problems faced in constructing formulations of herbal lip balm were focused to the extraction of anthocyanins, the stability of the pigments in the formulations and changes of colour during irradiation for the sterilization of herbal lip balm. Natural pigment, anthocyanin was used as a colorant agent in herbal lip balm, obtained from various herbs and vegetables i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle), Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) and Daucus carota (carrot). Water based extraction method was used in extracting the anthocyanins. The incorporation of honey in the formulations improved the colour of the lip balm. The usage of plant based ingredient i.e. cocoa butter substituting the normal based ingredient i.e. petroleum jelly in lip balm also affecting the colour of herbal lip balm. Irradiation at 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy was carried out as preservation and reducing of microbial load of the herbal lip balm and changes in colour were observed in formulations irradiated at 10 kGy. (Author)

  15. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  16. Spectroscopic studies, antimicrobial activities and crystal structures of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzalidene)1-aminonaphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Hüseyin; Yıldız, Mustafa; Dülger, Başaran; Özgen, Özen; Kendi, Engin; Durlu, Tahsin Nuri

    2005-03-01

    Schiff base N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzalidene)1-aminonaphthalene has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde with 1-aminonaphthalene. The compound were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-visible techniques. The UV-visible spectra of the Schiff base were studied in polar and nonpolar solvents in acidic and basic media. The structure of the compound has been examined cyrstallographically. There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit cell parameters: a=14, 602(2), b=5,800(1), c=16, 899(1) Å, V=1394.4(2) Å 3, Dx=1.321 g cm -3 and Z=4. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least squares to a find R=0.041 of for 1179 observed reflections. The title compound's antimicrobial activities also have been studied. The antimicrobial activities of the ligand has been screened in vitro against the organisms Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Micrococcus luteus La 2971, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, the yeast cultures Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL 2415, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403, Debaryomyces hansenii DSM 70238 and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii DSM 3432.

  17. The Role of Biopsy in Pediatric Dermatopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Şule Afşa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Pediatric dermatology is characterized by skin disorders which have frequencies different from those in adults. Skin biopsies are necessary for differential diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the pediatric dermatology cases in whom biopsy was performed for differential diagnosis and to investigate the contribution of biopsy to diagnosis of skin disorders. Material and Methods: The cases from whom biopsy was taken in the pediatric dermatology clinic during a three-year period were evaluated retrospectively for pre-diagnoses, biopsy diagnoses, and success of biopsies.Results: Two hundred thirteen (1.7% skin biopsies had been taken from a total of 12420 patients. Henoch-Schönlein purpura, psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides, pityriasis rosea, lichen planus, pityriasis rubra pilaris, erythema multiforme, atopic dermatitis, granuloma annulare, and pigmented purpuric dermatosis were the most frequent skin disorders diagnosed dermatopathologically. In a total of 120 (56.3% cases, the biopsy diagnosis was within the pre-diagnosis and a biopsy consistency was present. In 25 (11.7% cases, biopsy had no contribution to the differential diagnosis. An absolutely different diagnosis which was incompatible with the pre-diagnosis had been reported in 10 (4.6% cases. Conclusion: In pediatric dermatology, skin biopsy is very helpful for the differential diagnosis. An easy biopsy procedure for the patient, an effective designation of biopsy indication, a good dermatopathologic correlation and an experienced team of pediatric dermatopathology increase the success of skin biopsies.

  18. Hydrodistillation and in situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation of fresh and dried mint leaves: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Laura; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Binello, Arianna; Pignata, Giuseppe; Nicola, Silvana; Chemat, Farid

    2012-12-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) has been used since ancient times for the extraction of essential oils (EO). Despite the intrinsic limitations of this technique, it remains the most common method both in the laboratory and on an industrial scale. The main drawbacks are the long extraction time involved and the risk of thermal degradation. Over the last decade, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and in situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (MGH) have been shown to be the most promising techniques in improving plant extraction and hydrodistillation. In this study we compare HD with MGH in the extraction of several mint species cultivated in Piedmont: Mentha spicata L. var. rubra, Mentha spicata L. var. viridis and Mentha piperita L. MGH requires either fresh plant or rehydrated material, it is extremely fast and allows a reduction in energy consumption and overall cost. All the EO have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A mechanism of microwave-generated essential oil extraction has been proposed to explain the differences in the composition of the oil obtained from this environmentally friendly technique. The yields and composition percentages of the EO obtained by HD and in situ MGH of fresh and dried mint leaves lie in a relatively narrow range, although MGH is faster. MW polarization effects and the water solubility of the components influence extract composition. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acid Based Molecular Authentication for Identification of Four Medicinal Paeonia Species Using Melting Array Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate taxonomic identification of plant materials in herbal medicines is important for product quality control. The genus Paeonia (Saxifragales is the source of the herbal preparations Paeoniae Radix (Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra and Moutan Radicis Cotex. However, confusion has arisen regarding their contents due to linguistic and taxonomic ambiguities, similar morphologies and different definitions of Paeoniae Radix in the Korean and Chinese national pharmacopoeias, leading to the distribution of adulterated products. To develop a method for identifying the four Paeonia species used in these medicines, three fluorescently-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA probes were designed against ITS2 sequences containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and used in a real-time PCR melting curve assay. Each of the four Paeonia species was accurately identified using this analysis. The accuracy and analytical stability of the PNA melting curve assay was confirmed using commercially available samples of the four Paeonia species. This assay is a reliable genetic tool to distinguish between different Paeonia-derived herbal medicines and identify the botanical origins of Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex. This technique may also contribute to quality control and standardization of herbal medicines by providing a reliable authentication tool and preventing the distribution of inauthentic adulterants.

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acid Based Molecular Authentication for Identification of Four Medicinal Paeonia Species Using Melting Array Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wook Jin; Yang, Sungyu; Choi, Goya; Moon, Byeong Cheol

    2017-11-07

    Accurate taxonomic identification of plant materials in herbal medicines is important for product quality control. The genus Paeonia (Saxifragales) is the source of the herbal preparations Paeoniae Radix (Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra) and Moutan Radicis Cotex. However, confusion has arisen regarding their contents due to linguistic and taxonomic ambiguities, similar morphologies and different definitions of Paeoniae Radix in the Korean and Chinese national pharmacopoeias, leading to the distribution of adulterated products. To develop a method for identifying the four Paeonia species used in these medicines, three fluorescently-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were designed against ITS2 sequences containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used in a real-time PCR melting curve assay. Each of the four Paeonia species was accurately identified using this analysis. The accuracy and analytical stability of the PNA melting curve assay was confirmed using commercially available samples of the four Paeonia species. This assay is a reliable genetic tool to distinguish between different Paeonia -derived herbal medicines and identify the botanical origins of Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex. This technique may also contribute to quality control and standardization of herbal medicines by providing a reliable authentication tool and preventing the distribution of inauthentic adulterants.

  1. Characterization of methanotrophic bacteria on the basis of intact phospholipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J; Barcelona, M J; Semrau, J D

    2000-08-01

    The intact phospholipid profiles (IPPs) of seven species of methanotrophs from all three physiological groups, type I, II and X, were determined using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. In these methanotrophs, two major classes of phospholipids were found, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as well as its derivatives phosphatidylmethylethanolamine (PME) and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine (PDME). Specifically, the type I methanotrophs, Methylomonas methanica, Methylomonas rubra and Methylomicrobium album BG8 were characterized by PE and PG phospholipids with predominantly C16:1 fatty acids. The type II methanotrophs, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and CSC1 were characterized by phospholipids of PG, PME and PDME with predominantly C18:1 fatty acids. Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, a representative of type X methanotrophs, contained mostly PE (89% of the total phospholipids). Finally, the IPPs of a recently isolated acidophilic methanotroph, Methylocella palustris, showed it had a preponderance of PME phospholipids with 18:1 fatty acids (94% of total). Principal component analysis showed these methanotrophs could be clearly distinguished based on phospholipid profiles. Results from this study suggest that IPP can be very useful in bacterial chemotaxonomy.

  2. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzur, J.; Haubold-Rosar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km 2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Comparative Study Between Intense Pulsed Light IPLAND Pulsed Dye Laser In The Treatment Of Striae Distensae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, Gh.M.K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) and Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) have been used to treat Striae Distensae (SD). Thirty patients with age ranging from 14 - 42 years were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated on one side of their bodies with PDL and on the other side with IPL while seven patients were treated on both sides by IPL and three patients were treated on both sides by PDL for five sessions with four weeks interval between sessions. Skin biopsies were stained with H and E, Masson Trichrome, Orcein, Alcian blue and anti-collagen I Α1. After both PDL and IPL treatments striae width was decreased and the texture was improved in a highly significant manners where P value was 0.001. Collagen expression was increased in a highly significant manner and P values were <0.001 and 0.004 after PDL and IPL treatments respectively. However, PDL induced expression of collagen I in a highly significant manner compared to the treatment with IPL where P values were <0.001 and 0.193 respectively. Striae rubra gave a superior response with either PDL or IPL compared to striae alba which was evaluated clinically by the width, color and texture, although the histological changes could not verify this consequence. Both PDL and IPL can enhance the clinical picture of striae through collagen stimulation therapeutic modalities

  4. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 distribution, abundance, habitatuse and breeding performance in a recentlycolonized region in SW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olano, M., Aierbe, T., Beñaran, H., Hurtado, R., Ugarte, Urruzola, A., Vázquez, J., Ansorregi, F., Galdos, A. ... [et al.

    2015-01-01

    localidades potenciales utilizando inventarios forestales, y cada localidad fue visitada durante el periodo enero-marzo. Las localidades ocupadas se consideraron “dominios vitales reproductivos” cuando se pudo comprobar el emparejamiento o la nidificación, o cuando se registró presencia de individuos en un mínimo de tres visitas consecutivas. Se vigiló el desarrollo de la reproducción en nidos activos durante mayo y junio. Se detectaron y cartografiaron 21 "dominios vitales reproductivos", distribuidos fundamentalmente a lo largo de las franjas oriental y meridional del área de estudio. Las determinantes ambientales relacionadas positivamente con la presencia de "dominios vitales reproductivos" fueron elevada cobertura arbolada, estructura madura, superficies de haya Fagus sylvatica, bosque mixto caducifolio y pino laricio Pinus nigra, y parcelas forestales poco fragmentadas. Las plantaciones de pino de Monterrey P. radiata y las alturas bajas del arbolado se seleccionaron negativamente. Las parcelas de alimentación preferidas incluyeron proporciones de roble americano Quercus rubra y plantaciones de pino laricio. Se detectaron trece nidos activos. Todos los nidos salvo dos fueron excavados en hayas. El éxito de cría fue elevado (92% pero la tasa de vuelo (1.8 estuvo por debajo de los promedios descritos en Europa, lo que podría indicar limitaciones intrínsecas en esta población periférica.

  5. Epidemiological Importance of Yeasts Isolated from the Beak and Cloaca of Healthy Charadriiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dynowska Maria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents mycological studies conducted jointly with ornithologists on the epidemiology of mycoses and the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of fungi that colonise the selected onthocenoses in healthy, wild migratory birds. Aquatic ecosystem populations of healthy birds include a percentage of carriers of potential zoo- and anthropopathogens, and this study's purpose was to determine the percentage. The studies were performed on swabs sampled in vivo (during spring and autumn migrations from the beak and cloaca of nine species of Charadriiformes in two age categories. Macro- and microcultures of fungi were prepared according to the standards for diagnostic mycological laboratories. From the 450 birds examined, fungi were isolated from 130 (26.5% individuals. The sampling yielded 272 yeast isolates: 170 (62.5% from the beak and 102 (37.5% from the cloaca. The isolates represented 23 species, among which C. albicans, C. neoformans, and R. rubra were predominant. In both onthocenoses in young and adult birds, more fungi were recorded in autumn than in spring. As many as 15 species are included in the biosafety level classification, of which seven are categorised as category 2 and one as category 3.

  6. Northward migrating trees establish in treefall gaps at the northern limit of the temperate-boreal ecotone, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, Mark D; Anand, Madhur; Silva, Lucas C R

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is expected to promote migration of species. In ecotones, areas of ecological tension, disturbances may provide opportunities for some migrating species to establish in otherwise competitive environments. The size of and time since disturbance may determine the establishment ability of these species. We investigated gap dynamics of an old-growth red pine (Pinus resinosa Sol. ex Aiton) forest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest in northern Ontario, Canada, a transition zone between temperate and boreal forest. We investigated the effects of gaps of different sizes and ages on tree species abundance and basal area. Our results show that tree species from the temperate forest further south, such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white pine (Pinus strobus L.), establish more often in large, old gaps; however, tree species that have more northern distributions, such as black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and red pine show no difference in establishment ability with gap size or age. These differences in composition could not be attributed to autogenic succession. We conclude that treefall gaps in this forest facilitate the establishment of northward migrating species, potentially providing a pathway for future forest migration in response to recent changes in climate.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF POLARIZATION PHASE DIFFERENCE RELATED TO FOREST FIELDS CHARACTERIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L., red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill B.S.P., poplar (Populus L., red oak (Quercus rubra L. , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  8. Frequency and clinical features of the JAK2 V617F mutation in pediatric patients with sporadic essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Takuya; Imamura, Toshihiko; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Wakaizumi, Katsuji; Yamamoto, Tohru; Otabe, Osamu; Ishigami, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Souichi; Morimoto, Akira

    2008-12-01

    Pediatric essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a rare and heterogenous disease entity. While several recent studies have focused on the role of the JAK2 V617F mutation in pediatric ET, the frequency of pediatric ET cases with this mutation and the associated clinical features remain unclear. We examined six childhood cases who had been diagnosed with ET according to WHO criteria (onset age: 0.2-14 years) for the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation, MPLW515L mutation and JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Two sensitive PCR-based methods were used for the JAK2 V617F genotyping. We also examined the expression of polycythemia rubra vera-1 (PRV-1), which is a diagnostic marker for clonal ET. We found that three of the six cases had the JAK2 V617F mutation and that all six cases expressed PRV-1 in their peripheral granulocytes. Neither MPL W515L mutation nor JAK2 exon 12 mutations was detected in the patients without JAK2 V617F mutation. The two patients who developed thrombocythemia during infancy were JAK2 V617F-negative. These findings suggest that the JAK2 V617F mutation is not rare in childhood sporadic ET cases, and that these cases might be older and myeloproliferative features.

  9. Rapid quantitative analysis of individual anthocyanin content based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection with the pH differential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huayin

    2014-09-01

    A new quantitative technique for the simultaneous quantification of the individual anthocyanins based on the pH differential method and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed in this paper. The six individual anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, and malvidin 3-rutinoside) from mulberry (Morus rubra) and Liriope platyphylla were used for demonstration and validation. The elution of anthocyanins was performed using a C18 column with stepwise gradient elution and individual anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the pH differential method, the high-performance liquid chromatography peak areas of maximum and reference absorption wavelengths of anthocyanin extracts were conducted to quantify individual anthocyanins. The calibration curves for these anthocyanins were linear within the range of 10-5500 mg/L. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) all exceeded 0.9972, and the limits of detection were in the range of 1-4 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 for these anthocyanins. The proposed quantitative analysis was reproducible with good accuracy of all individual anthocyanins ranging from 96.3 to 104.2% and relative recoveries were in the range 98.4-103.2%. The proposed technique is performed without anthocyanin standards and is a simple, rapid, accurate, and economical method to determine individual anthocyanin contents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanin from Chinese bayberry and its effects on anthocyanin stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkai DUAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAnthocyanins are present in high concentrations in Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc. Herein, a microwave-assisted extraction was used to extract the anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry. The HPLC chromatogram of the extracts showed that the anthocyanin components were slightly hydrolysed during the extraction process. Further experiments confirmed that microwave irradiation slightly hydrolysed cyanidin-3-O-glucoside to cyanidin, but did not significantly influence the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Optimized extraction conditions for total anthocyanin content were a solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time of 1:50, 80 °C, and 15 min, respectively. Under these conditions, the anthocyanin content was 2.95 ± 0.08 mg·g−1, and the antioxidant activity yield was 279.96 ± 0.1 μmol.·g−1 Trolox equivalent on a dry weight basis. These results indicated that microwave-assisted extraction was a highly efficient extraction method with reduced processing time. However, under some extraction conditions it could damage the anthocyanins. These results provide an important guide for the application of microwave extraction.

  11. How Do Grass Species, Season and Ensiling Influence Mycotoxin Content in Forage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nawrath

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that have harmful effects on mammals. The aim of this study was to assess the content of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material of selected forage grass species both during and at the end of the growing season. We further assessed mycotoxin content in subsequently produced first-cutting silages with respect to the species used in this study: Lolium perenne (cv. Kentaur, Festulolium pabulare (cv. Felina, Festulolium braunii (cv. Perseus, and mixtures of these species with Festuca rubra (cv. Gondolin or Poa pratensis (Slezanka. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were mainly detected in the fresh-cut grass material, while fumonisin and aflatoxin contents were below the detection limits. July and October were the most risky periods for mycotoxins to occur. During the cold temperatures in November and December, the occurrence of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material declined. Although June was a period with low incidence of mycotoxins in green silage, contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in silages from the first cutting exceeded by several times those determined in their biomass collected directly from the field. Moreover, we observed that use of preservatives or inoculants did not prevent mycotoxin production.

  12. Endophytic fungi and soil microbial community characteristics over different years of phytoremediation in a copper tailings dam of Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jia; Miaowen, Cao; Juhui, Jing; Jinxian, Liu; Baofeng, Chai

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey of native grass species infected by endophytic fungi in a copper tailings dam over progressive years of phytoremediation. We investigated how endophytic fungi, soil microbial community structure and soil physiochemical properties and enzymatic activity varied in responses to heavy metal pollution over different stages of phytoremediation. endophyte infection frequency increased with years of phytoremediation. Rates of endophyte infection varied among different natural grass species in each sub-dam. Soil carbon content and soil enzymatic activity gradually increased through the years of phytoremediation. endophyte infection rates of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Festuca rubra were positively related to levels of cadmium (Cd) pollution levels, and fungal endophytes associated with Imperata cylindrical and Elymus dahuricus developed tolerance to lead (Pb). The structure and relative abundance of bacterial communities varied little over years of phytoremediation, but there was a pronounced variation in soil fungi types. Leotiomycetes were the dominant class of resident fungi during the initial phytoremediation period, but Pezizomycetes gradually became dominant as the phytoremediation period progressed. Fungal endophytes in native grasses as well as soil fungi and soil bacteria play different ecological roles during phytoremediation processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests

  14. Behavioral responses of three lemur species to different food enrichment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Morgan E; Shapiro, Hannah G; Ehmke, Erin E

    2018-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. Lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. We studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [Lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [Varecia rubra], and Coquerel's sifaka [Propithecus coquereli]) to determine both the overall and species-specific impacts of enrichment on lemur behavior. We recorded lemur behavior using the continuous sampling method to obtain behavior duration and analyzed our results using ANOVA Repeated Measures. Results showed enrichment effectiveness differed for each species and that different enrichment devices had varying impacts on lemur behavior across all species. We attributed the differences in species-specific responses to the unique locomotor patterns and methods of diet acquisition of each species, and the variances in behavioral responses across all species to the characteristics of each device. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific enrichment and encourages further research in this field in order to maximize the positive effects of enrichment, which in turn has the potential to affect the overall well-being of captive populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  16. Colour and viscosity of egg yolk after addition of beetroot to feed for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kopřiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour and viscosity of egg yolk are among major indicators assessed by consumers and food technology. This study attempts to evaluate the colour and viscosity of yolk in laying hens’ eggs after the addition of dried beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra at the amount of 1% and 2% per feeding dose (in July and August 2012. The experiment was performed on 24 hens that were divided into three groups of 8 laying hens. The preparatory phase lasted one week (standard diet, followed by four weeks during which experimental layers received a diet enriched with beetroot. Then, all layers were fed a mixture without beetroot for the following four weeks. Eggs were collected during the whole period of 8 weeks. In total, 30 eggs from each group were subjected to analysis. The colour of eggs was determined using spectrophotometry, by the Colour-guide sphere spex portable colorimeter. The results showed a significant (P ab did not show a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the control and experimental groups. The egg yolk viscosity was lower in experimental groups compared to the control group but the difference was not significant. The addition of dried beetroot at the amount of 1 and 2% per feeding dose had no effect on colour and viscosity. This paper supported the null hypothesis that the addition of dried beetroot to the feeding dose at the amount of 1% and 2% has no effect on the colour and viscosity of egg yolk.

  17. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  18. Linking Forests and Fish: The Relationship Between Productivities of Salmonids and Forest Stands in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilzbach, P.; Frazey, S.

    2005-05-01

    Productivities of resident salmonid populations, upland, and riparian areas in 25 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine if: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity than upland or riparian site productivity. Salmonid productivity was indexed by total salmonid biomass, length of age 1 fish, and percent habitat saturation. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using site indices for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid biomass or fish length at age one. Salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area, and length at age was best described by a positive relationship with percent of riparian hardwoods. Percent habitat saturation was not well described by any of the models constructed. Lack of a relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, strategies.

  19. Creation of variation in Basella for rust resistance through mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makambila, C [Phytopathology Lab., Faculty of Sciences, Brazzaville (Congo)

    1997-07-01

    African spinach, basella is grown as a leafy vegetable in Central Africa. Basella cultivars belong to the species Basella alba and B. rubra which are seed propagated and are likely Asiatic in origin. Basella alba seeds were irradiated with doses of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 Gy to create variation for rust resistance which is caused by the fungus, Uromyces basellae Sidow. The effects of irradiation were investigated on seed germination, plant mortality and height. Seed germination varied from 97% for those irradiated with 50 Gy to 39% with 500 Gy, and LD{sub 50} for seed germination was between 300 to 400 Gy. Doses between 50 and 150 Gy did not cause any mortality of plants obtained from irradiated seeds; however, doses between 200 to 500 Gy caused high mortality among such plants. Irradiation with 150 Gy inhibited plant growth by 48% in relation to the growth of control plants. Based on the results, radiation doses above 150 and up to 400 Gy were used for the production of desired variation. (author). 11 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  1. Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, Jose M.; Barrutia, Oihana; Gonzalez-Oreja, Jose A.; Garbisu, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the relationships between plant consortia, consisting of 1-4 metallicolous pseudometallophytes with different metal-tolerance strategies (Thlaspi caerulescens: hyperaccumulator; Jasione montana: accumulator; Rumex acetosa: indicator; Festuca rubra: excluder), and their rhizosphere microbial communities were studied in a mine soil polluted with high levels of Cd, Pb and Zn. Physiological response and phytoremediation potential of the studied pseudometallophytes were also investigated. The studied metallicolous populations are tolerant to metal pollution and offer potential for the development of phytoextraction and phytostabilization technologies. T. caerulescens appears very tolerant to metal stress and most suitable for metal phytoextraction; the other three species enhance soil functionality. Soil microbial properties had a stronger effect on plant biomass rather than the other way around (35.2% versus 14.9%). An ecological understanding of how contaminants, ecosystem functions and biological communities interact in the long-term is needed for proper management of these fragile metalliferous ecosystems. - Rhizosphere microbial communities in highly polluted mine soils are determinant for the growth of pseudometallophytes.

  2. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  3. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1993-06-01

    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  4. Volatile organic chemicals of a shore-dwelling cyanobacterial mat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W G

    1994-02-01

    The main components of a cyanobacterial mat community of a hypersaline lake shore consist of edaphic, mat-forming strains (ecophenes), and littoral strains ofOscillatoria animalis Agardh andO. subbrevis Schmidle, other microorganisms associated with these cyanobacteria, several species ofBembidion (Carabidae: Coleoptera), and two halophytic flowering plants:Puccinellia nuttalliana (salt meadow grass) andSalicornia europaea rubra (samphire). The volatile organic compounds of this community are a blend of those emitted by each of these components such as the C17 alka(e)nes, geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol,β-cyclocitral,β-ionone, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide of cyanobacteria and associated microorganisms; alcohols, esters, and aldehydes usually associated with flowering plants; and possibly some insect-derived esters, particularly isopropyl tetradecanoate. The dominant compounds were: C11, C13, C15, and C17 alka(e)nes, methyl esters of C16 and C18:2 acids, isopropyl tetradecanoate, heptanal, 3-octanone and 2-nonanone, the acyclic terpene linalool, and the alcohols 1-heptanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-octen-1-ol. It is concluded that this community may be distinguished from related communities by its repertoire of volatile organic compounds.

  5. Myrica faya: a new source of antioxidant phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J; Gouveia, Sandra; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-08

    Myrica faya is a fruit tree endemic of the Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira, and Canary Island), and its edible fruits are known as "amorinhos" (little loves), bright red to purple berries, used fresh and in jams and liquors. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of leaves and berries from M. faya are presented here for the first time. The screening of phytochemical compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with online UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). There were 55 compounds characterized, mostly galloyl esters of flavonoids and phenolic acids; 26 of the identified compounds (anthocyanins, isoflavonoids, lignans, terpenes, fatty acids, and phenylethanoids) have not been reported in Myrica genus so far. From the data presented here, it can be concluded that faya berries represent a rich source of cyanidin-3-glucoside, flavonoids, and vitamin C. In fact, higher antioxidant activity than that of the well-known Myrica rubra berries (Chinese bayberry) has been observed.

  6. Microbial Stereoselective One-Step Conversion of Diols to Chiral Lactones in Yeast Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Boratyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that whole cells of different strains of yeast catalyze stereoselective oxidation of meso diols to the corresponding chiral lactones. Among screening-scale experiments, Candida pelliculosa ZP22 was selected as the most effective biocatalyst for the oxidation of monocyclic diols 3a–b with respect to the ratio of high conversion to stereoselectivity. This strain was used in the preparative oxidation, affording enantiomerically-enriched isomers of lactones: (+-(3aR,7aS-cis-hexahydro-1(3H -isobenzofuranone (2a and (+-(3aS,4,7,7aR-cis-tetrahydro-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (2b. Scaling up the culture growth, as well as biotransformation conditions has been successfully accomplished. Among more bulky substrates, bicyclic diol 3d was totally converted into enantiomerically-pure exo-bridged (+-(3aR,4S,7R,7aS-cis-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoisobenzofuran -1(3H-one (2d by Yarrovia lipolytica AR71. Microbial oxidation of diol 3f by Candida sake AM908 and Rhodotorula rubra AM4 afforded optically-pure cis-3-butylhexahydro-1(3H -isobenzofuranone (2f, however with low conversion.

  7. Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Biotechnological methods for chalcone reduction using whole cells of Lactobacillus, Rhodococcus and Rhodotorula strains as a way to produce new derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Monika; Kałużny, Mateusz; Żarowska, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Microbial strains of the genera Dietzia, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Penicillium, Rhodotorula and Lactobacillus were screened for the ability to convert chalcones. Synthesis of chalcones was performed by the Claisen-Schmidt reaction. There were three groups of chalcones obtained as the products, which included the derivatives containing 4-substituted chalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone and 4'-methoxychalcone. The B ring of the chalcones was substituted in the para position with different groups, such as halide, hydroxyl, nitro, methyl, ethyl and ethoxy one. The structure-activity relationship of the tested chalcones in biotransformation processes was studied. It has been proven that Gram-positive bacterial strains Rhodococcus and Lactobacillus catalyzed reduction of C=C bond in the chalcones to give respective dihydrochalcones. The strain Rhodotorula rubra AM 82 transformed chalcones into dihydrochalcones and respective secondary alcohols. These results suggest that the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus can be used for biotransformations of chalcones, which has not been described before. The structure of new metabolites 14a and 15b were established as 4-ethoxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone and 3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4'-O-methylphenyl)-2-propan-1-ol, respectively, which was confirmed by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analysis.

  9. Creation of variation in Basella for rust resistance through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makambila, C.

    1997-01-01

    African spinach, basella is grown as a leafy vegetable in Central Africa. Basella cultivars belong to the species Basella alba and B. rubra which are seed propagated and are likely Asiatic in origin. Basella alba seeds were irradiated with doses of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 Gy to create variation for rust resistance which is caused by the fungus, Uromyces basellae Sidow. The effects of irradiation were investigated on seed germination, plant mortality and height. Seed germination varied from 97% for those irradiated with 50 Gy to 39% with 500 Gy, and LD 50 for seed germination was between 300 to 400 Gy. Doses between 50 and 150 Gy did not cause any mortality of plants obtained from irradiated seeds; however, doses between 200 to 500 Gy caused high mortality among such plants. Irradiation with 150 Gy inhibited plant growth by 48% in relation to the growth of control plants. Based on the results, radiation doses above 150 and up to 400 Gy were used for the production of desired variation. (author). 11 refs, 9 figs

  10. Correlated seed failure as an environmental veto to synchronize reproduction of masting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Steele, Michael A; Marino, Shealyn; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2018-07-01

    Variable, synchronized seed production, called masting, is a widespread reproductive strategy in plants. Resource dynamics, pollination success, and, as described here, environmental veto are possible proximate mechanisms driving masting. We explored the environmental veto hypothesis, which assumes that reproductive synchrony is driven by external factors preventing reproduction in some years, by extending the resource budget model of masting with correlated reproductive failure. We ran this model across its parameter space to explore how key parameters interact to drive seeding dynamics. Next, we parameterized the model based on 16 yr of seed production data for populations of red (Quercus rubra) and white (Quercus alba) oaks. We used these empirical models to simulate seeding dynamics, and compared simulated time series with patterns observed in the field. Simulations showed that resource dynamics and reproduction failure can produce masting even in the absence of pollen coupling. In concordance with this, in both oaks, among-year variation in resource gain and correlated reproductive failure were necessary and sufficient to reproduce masting, whereas pollen coupling, although present, was not necessary. Reproductive failure caused by environmental veto may drive large-scale synchronization without density-dependent pollen limitation. Reproduction-inhibiting weather events are prevalent in ecosystems, making described mechanisms likely to operate in many systems. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are present on Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, K K; Eidesen, P B; Davey, M L; Axelsen, J; Courtecuisse, E; Flintrop, C; Johansson, A G; Kiepert, M; Larsen, S E; Lorberau, K E; Maurset, M; McQuilkin, J; Misiak, M; Pop, A; Thompson, S; Read, D J

    2017-10-01

    A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp. arctica, Trisetum spicatum, Coptidium spitsbergense, Ranunculus nivalis, Ranunculus pygmaeus, Ranunculus sulphureus and Taraxacum arcticum) sampled from 10 sites. Both coarse AM endophyte, with hyphae of 5-10 μm width, vesicles and occasional arbuscules, and fine endophyte, consisting of hyphae of 1-3 μm width and sparse arbuscules, were recorded in roots. Coarse AM hyphae, vesicles, arbuscules and fine endophyte hyphae occupied 1.0-30.7, 0.8-18.3, 0.7-11.9 and 0.7-12.8% of the root lengths of colonised plants, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated no associations between the abundances of AM structures in roots and edaphic factors. We conclude that the AM symbiosis is present in grass and forb roots on Spitsbergen.

  12. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

  13. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  14. Interspecific variation in tree seedlings establishment in canopy gaps in relation to tree density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, R.J.; Bonser, S.P.; Duralia, T.E.; Bricker, B.D. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Botany

    1995-10-01

    We tested whether interspecific variation in tree seedling establishment in canopy gaps was significantly related to interspecific variation in tree density, for seven deciduous forest tree species (Quercus alba, Hamamelis virginiana, Acer rubrum, Sassafras albidum, Quercus rubra, Prunus serotina, Ostrya virginiana). For each species, seedling establishment was calculated as the difference in seedling density before experimental gap creation versus three years after gap creation. In each of the six experimentally-created gap types (33% or 66% removal of tree basal area from 0.01ha, 0.05ha or 0.20ha patches), differences in seedling establishment among species were significantly related to differences in their density in the tree canopy. A regression model with log{sub e} tree density as the independent variable accounted for between 93% and 98% of interspecific variation in seedling establishment. Our results provide empirical support for models of tree dynamics in gaps that assume seedling establishment depends on canopy tree density. 17 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  15. Radiosensitivity and recovery of tree crowns in a gamma-irradiated northern forest community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Crown mortality was observed on 13 tree species in a gamma-irradiated forest community located near Rhinelander, Wis. Observations at the end of the first (1973) and second (1974) postirradiation growing seasons are presented for each species. Crown mortality was most severe during 1973 for Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Ostrya virginiana, Populus tremuloides, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, and Ulmus americana. For some species, however, crown mortality was most severe during 1974. These were Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Tilia americana, and possibly Fraxinus americana and F. nigra. These differences in year of primary response are explained on the basis of bud differentiation and mortality. The most resistant species were A. saccharum, O. virginiana, and Populus tremuloides, and the most sensitive were T. americana and U. americana. Others were intermediate in sensitivity. Taken collectively, exposures less than 2 or 3 kr did not seriously affect crowns of most species, whereas exposures exceeding about 40 kr were lethal to the crowns of all tree species. The observed zonation of tree mortality closely approximated predictions published by others except for underestimating the resistance of A. saccharum and overestimating the resistance of T. americana, F. americana, and Prunus serotina. Not surprisingly, the tree stratum of the northern forest community was found to be more radiosensitive than lichen, grassland, or herbaceous communities in other irradiation studies

  16. Tree-shoot elongation patterns in a gamma-irradiated northern forest community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buech, R.R.; Salmonson, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Shoot elongation in the upper crowns of seven tree species was studied in a gamma-irradiated northern forest community near Rhinelander, Wis. Observations on the pattern and duration of shoot elongation are presented for the irradiation (1972) and postirradiation (1973) growing seasons. The gymnosperm Abies balsamea was the most radiosensitive species. Significant alteration in pattern and duration was observed in 1973 at exposure rates of 4 to 25 r/20-hr day; 31 r/20-hr day was lethal. At the other extreme, 116 r/20-hr day produced no significant effects on Acer saccharum shoot elongation pattern or duration. Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloides, Quercus rubra, and Tilia americana were intermediate in radiosensitivity. Observed responses to radiation were alteration in the elongation pattern, suppression of internodal elongation, and death. Effects of the 1972 growing-season exposure were most obvious in the subsequent growing seasons. Retardation of initial elongation was characteristic of all species. Cessation of elongation was variable, even within species (e.g., P. tremuloides). The results suggest that bud differentiation and morphology and dependency on food reserves contributed to the lag in manifestation of radiation damage. The resultant crown characteristics are described and explained

  17. Predicting effects of environmental change on river inflows to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuarine river watersheds provide valued ecosystem services to their surrounding communities including drinking water, fish habitat, and regulation of estuarine water quality. However, the provisioning of these services can be affected by changes in the quantity and quality of river water, such as those caused by altered landscapes or shifting temperatures or precipitation. We used the ecohydrology model, VELMA, in the Trask River watershed to simulate the effects of environmental change scenarios on estuarine river inputs to Tillamook Bay (OR) estuary. The Trask River watershed is 453 km2 and contains extensive agriculture, silviculture, urban, and wetland areas. VELMA was parameterized using existing spatial datasets of elevation, soil type, land use, air temperature, precipitation, river flow, and water quality. Simulated land use change scenarios included alterations in the distribution of the nitrogen-fixing tree species Alnus rubra, and comparisons of varying timber harvest plans. Scenarios involving spatial and temporal shifts in air temperature and precipitation trends were also simulated. Our research demonstrates the utility of ecohydrology models such as VELMA to aid in watershed management decision-making. Model outputs of river water flow, temperature, and nutrient concentrations can be used to predict effects on drinking water quality, salmonid populations, and estuarine water quality. This modeling effort is part of a larger framework of

  18. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  19. Wong-Type Dermatomyositis Showing Porokeratosis-Like Changes (Columnar Dyskeratosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Umanoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wong-type dermatomyositis (DM exhibits simultaneous pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP features. Case Report: A 50-year-old woman presented with a heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and a poikilodermic, erythematous rash in shawl distribution without evidence of muscle weakness. Despite topical corticosteroids, the eruption progressed 9 months later to include generalized hyperkeratotic follicular papules, islands of sparing, and atrophic macules with a collarette of scale suggestive of porokeratosis. Mild dysphonia was the only sign of muscle weakness. Serology showed positive ANA. Histopathology revealed interface dermatitis with dermal mucin and melanophages, irregular psoriasiform hyperplasia, alternating mounds of para- and orthokeratosis, and tiers of dyskeratotic cells (columnar dyskeratosis. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not tolerated; acitretin diminished the hyperkeratosis. While hyperpigmentation persisted, no progression of cutaneous or muscular symptoms has occurred after 22 months of follow-up and cessation of the therapy. Overall, her course did not differ from the natural history documented in the literature review of Wong-type DM. The most similar case also exhibited pseudocornoid lamella changes. Conclusion: Wong-type DM is a clinicopathologic DM-PRP hybrid that can also exhibit porokeratosis-like features best described as columnar dyskeratosis. Recognizing these types of lesions in DM is warranted in order to make an accurate assessment of their prognostic significance.

  20. Evaluation of methods for the physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from two residential wood combustion appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Kariher, Peter H.; Dong, Yuanji

    The fine particle emissions from a U. S. certified non-catalytic wood stove and a zero-clearance fireplace burning Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) cordwood each at two different moisture levels were determined. Emission testing was performed using both time-integrated and continuous instrumentation for total particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and fixed combustion gases using an atmospheric wind tunnel, full-flow laboratory dilution tunnel, and dilution stack sampler with a comparison made between the three dilution systems and two sampling filter types. The total mass emission factors (EFs) for all dilution systems and filter media are extremely variable ranging from fireplace emissions burning wet oak averaged 11 g kg -1. A substantial number of ultrafine particles in the accumulation size range were also observed during all tests as determined by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The PM-2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) fractions determined from the ELPI electrometer data ranged from 93 to 98% (mass) depending on appliance type as reported previously by Hays et al. (Aerosol Science, 34, 1061, 2003).

  1. [Possible evolutionary mechanisms of 'culture' in animals: The hypothesis of distributed social learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikova, Zh I; Panteleeva, S N

    2015-01-01

    There is a plethora of works on the origin and genesis of behavioral traditions in different animal species. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear as for which factors facilitate and which factors hinder the spreading those forms of behavior that are new for a population. Here, we present an analytical review on the topic, considering also the results of studies on 'culture' in animals and analyzing contradictions that arise when attempting to clarify the ethological mechanisms of cultural succession. The hypothesis of 'distributed social learning' is formulated, meaning that for spreading of complex behavioral stereotypes in a population the presence of few carriers of consistent stereotypes is enough under the condition that the rest of animals carry incomplete genetic programmes that start up these stereotypes. Existence of 'dormant' fragments of such programmes determines an inborn predisposition of their bearer to perform a certain sequence of acts. To complete the consistent stereotype, the simplest forms of social learning ('social alleviation') turn to be enough. The hypothesis is examined at the behavioral level and supported by experimental data obtained when studying the scenarios of hunting behavior development in ants Myrmica rubra L. It makes possible to explain the spreading of behavioral models in animal communities in a simpler way than cultural succession.

  2. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs, part 1: comparison of morphological and microscopic features of four Chinese Materia Medica before and after decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2011-04-01

    Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs are the residues of medicinal materials after decoction. Accurate identification of CMM in decoction dregs will be helpful for exploring the causes of poisoning or other medical incidents arising after the ingestion of CMM decoctions. To determine how decoction affects the characteristics used to authenticate specific CMM, a systematic study was carried out. In this study, two pairs of Materia Medica that are commonly confused-namely, Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma) and Cangzhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma), Baishao (Paeoniae Alba Radix) and Chishao (Paeoniae Rubra Radix)-were chosen for investigation. Each pair of Materia Medica has similar morphology in appearance, but they have different functions in Chinese clinic. After decoction, with regard to gross morphological characters, the results showed that bark and wood could be easily distinguished. The striation of vessels and fibers became more prominent because of the contraction of parenchymatous cells, but the lignified cells did not. As for the microscopic characteristics, the cells with thickened walls, such as stone cells and fibers, were basically stable. Most of the parenchymatous cells were broken. Crystals of calcium oxalate showed no changes as they were insoluble in water. Starch granules were gelatinized and aggregated in parenchymatous cells. Inulins were substantially reduced in number as they dissolved in water during decoction. According to these changes in morphological and microscopic characteristics after decoction, the dregs of two pairs of Materia Medica could be distinguished. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Microfouling development on artificial substrates deployed in the central Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Balqadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microfouling is the initial step in the growth of biofouling on hard substrata submerged in marine waters. In this study, microfouling development on nylon nets submerged in the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia was analyzed during the winter and summer seasons for a period of 5 days each. The results showed a well-established biofilm community on nylon nets submerged for 24 h, with bacteria and diatoms being the primary colonizers. Protein was the major organic component of the biofilm that developed on the nylon nets during the winter and summer seasons. Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Cylindrotheca spp., and Pluerosigma spp. were the dominant diatom species settled on the nylon nets. Pseudoalteromonas shioyasakiensis, Planomicrobium sp., Vibrio harveyi and Pseudoalteromonas rubra were the dominant bacteria isolated from the nylon nets. While the abundance of bacteria showed a positive correlation with the nutrient concentration of the biofilm during both winter and summer seasons, diatom density exhibited a significant positive relationship with the biofilm nutrients during the winter season only. The results also revealed significant seasonal variations in the abundance of microfouling organisms and accumulation of nutrients on nylon nets. Keywords: Biofilm, Biofouling, Nutrient cycling, Diatom, Larval settlement, Red Sea

  4. Phytomonitoring of chlorinated ethenes in trees: a four-year study of seasonal chemodynamics in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt A; Holmes, Amanda J; Burken, Joel G

    2014-09-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) of groundwater remedial projects is costly and time-consuming, particularly when using phytoremediation, a long-term remedial approach. The use of trees as sensors of groundwater contamination (i.e., phytoscreening) has been widely described, although the use of trees to provide long-term monitoring of such plumes (phytomonitoring) has been more limited due to unexplained variability of contaminant concentrations in trees. To assess this variability, we developed an in planta sampling method to obtain high-frequency measurements of chlorinated ethenes in oak (Quercus rubra) and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees growing above a contaminated plume during a 4-year trial. The data set revealed that contaminant concentrations increased rapidly with transpiration in the spring and decreased in the fall, resulting in perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) sapwood concentrations an order of magnitude higher in late summer as compared to winter. Heartwood PCE and TCE concentrations were more buffered against seasonal effects. Rainfall events caused negligible dilution of contaminant concentrations in trees after precipitation events. Modeling evapotranspiration potential from meteorological data and comparing the modeled uptake and transport with the 4 years of high frequency data provides a foundation to advance the implementation of phytomonitoring and improved understanding of plant contaminant interactions.

  5. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  6. Angiographic and hemodynamic evaluation of the mesoatrial shunt in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and inferior vena caval obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmond, P.L.; Kadir, S.; Cameron, J.L.; Kaufman, S.L.; White, R.I. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is not uncommon in patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome. The caval obstruction may be due to thrombus or compression by an enlarged caudate lobe. Conventional portosystemic shunts are not possible in the presence of an obstructed IVC; the mesoatrial shunt is indicated in these patients. Between 1973 and 1986, the authors studied 13 patients (ten female, three male) with Budd-Chiari syndrome and IVC obstruction in whom mesoatrial shunts were subsequently constructed. Polycythemia rubra vera was the most common predisposing condition. Preoperative evaluation included US, scintigraphy, CT, and angiography (hepatic arteriography, hepatic venography and pressure measurements, inferior vena cavography, arterial portography). Postoperatively shunts were assessed angiographically and hemodynamically, and several patients underwent CT. The shunts were catheterized via a brachial or femoral venous approach, which allowed pressures along the shunt from the superior mesenteric vein to the right atrium to be measured. The mesoatrial shunt is a relatively new procedure which is indicated in patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome complicated by IVC obstruction. Shunt patency may be demonstrated arteriographically or with CT, but hemodynamic evaluation with measurement of pressure gradients is required to assess shunt function

  7. Identification and screening of rare actinomycetes isolated from Neesia altissima Bl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. H.; Hidayat, I.; Hanafi, M.; Mangunwardoyo, W.

    2017-07-01

    Actinomycetes is the main source of antibiotics and endophytic actinomycetes from medicinal plants has considerable potential as like the host. The aim of this research is to identify rare actinomycetes isolated from Neesia altissima and to screen their antagonistic activity against diarrhea-causing bacteria in order to find new potential secondary metabolites. Samples of N. altissima were collected from mount Halimun-Salak National Park. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from roots of N. altissima by surface sterilization method. Screening of antagonistic activity was conducted against five diarrhea-causing bacteria such as Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 25241, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 by using diffusion disc methods. The endophytic actinomycete showed in vitro antibacterial activity against four diarrhea-causing bacteria, except the B. cereus ATCC 10876. The phylogenetic tree generated from 16S rRNA sequence showed that sequence of endophytic actinomycetes isolates nested in the clade belonging to the genus Nonomuraea. Sequence of UICC B-94 formed a monophyletic clade with N. jabiensis strain A4036 and N. rubra strain AC 615. Therefore, it is named as Nonomuraea sp. strain UICC B-94.

  8. Production of alcohol and edible yeast with extract of carob fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beundia, M; Arroyo, V; Inigo, B; Garrido, J M

    1961-01-01

    Media based on extraction from carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua) have been used successfully in laboratory production of edible yeast and of alcohol. The fruit is a pod, 25 to 40 g, with sweet meaty flesh containing 34% sugar (dry weight), half sucrose and half invert sugar. Because of butyric acid and tannin, no antimicrobial need be added to the pulp prepared by adding H/sub 2/O (3 times weight) and autoclaving 1 hour in flowing stream. Of 3 yeast spp., Candida pulcherrima, Hansenula anomala, and Rhodotorula rubra, the latter (notable for carotenoid content) produced the most dry material in 48 hours at 32/sup 0/ on a reciprocating shaker with medium containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 2.52 and extraction contributing 20 g reducing sugar/1. Alcohol fermentation, heretofore effected by natural microflora, was attempted with pure cultures of 4 yeast spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae (4 strains), S. oviformis (2 strains), S. beticus, and S. chevalieri. All were suitable except one strain of S. oviformis. The carob extraction had enough nitrogenous and growth substances so that no other medium ingredient was needed. With reducing sugar level t 23 g/100 mil, alcohol yield was close to the theoretical unitage (13.5) after 17-days growth. The range for the 7 isolates was 10.2 to 12.4. One strain of S. cereviseae reached its maximum, 11.8 in only 7 days.

  9. Role of grass-legume communities in revegetation of a subalpine mine site in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, K

    1982-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of the potential for pioneer grass-legume communities to stabilize and ameliorate geologically-fresh soil leading to the establishment of a self-sustaining, progressive plant succession on a surface-mined subalpine site. The study area is located 2000 m above sea level in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Field studies revealed chronological trends in grass-legume communities at four sites revegetated during 1974-1978 including: species composition, legumes (Trifolium repens L., T. hybridum L. and Medicago sativa L.) performing increasingly poorly on the older sites; biomass changes, a shoot to root ratio (S/R) decreasing from 2.3 to 0.2 as the communities aged; and litter accumulation which continued even on the oldest site. Fertilizer (13-16-10) operationally applied at 150-391 kg/ha enhanced the growth of Dactylis gomerata L. and litter degradation, and acidified the soil. Nitrogen fertilization was also associated with two clear inverse relationships identified between D. glomerata and Festuca rubra L. biomass, and between soil pH and phosphorus levels. In greenhouse tests grasses were revealed to be more efficient soil nitrogen consumers than were legumes and nitrogen fixation decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and linearly with increasing grass seeding rates.

  10. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PAPULOSQUAMOUS SKIN LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdari Balaji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Papulosquamous lesions form the largest group of skin diseases. Since, they are all characterized by scaling papules or plaques, clinical confusion may result in their diagnosis, hence definitive histopathological analysis is important for their differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study includes skin biopsies from 108 clinically diagnosed /suspected non-infectious, erythematous, papulosquamous skin diseases which were received in the Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam for a period of two years from January 2016 to December 2017. The specimens obtained were subjected to formalin fixation and was subjected to routine processing and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The lesions were classified as Lichen Planus, Psoriasis, along with rare conditions like Pityriasis Rosea, Parapsoriasis, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris, Prurigo Nodularis and Lichen Simplex chronicus and clinicopathological correlation was done. RESULTS A total of 108 cases were studied. Lichen planus (51 cases- 47.22% was the most common lesions followed by Psoriasis (34 cases - 31.48% and with majority of cases in the age group of 21 to 30 years (25 cases– 23.15%. Females were more commonly affected with a male to female ratio of 0.89:1. Out of 108 cases, clinicopathological correlation was seen in 68 cases (62.96%. CONCLUSION The importance of specific histopathological diagnosis lies in distinguishing these lesions into different entities as the treatment and prognosis varies widely and is disease-specific.

  11. Seed dispersal in six species of terrestrial orchids in Biebrza National Park (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Brzosko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about seed dispersal is required to explain problems in ecology, phylogeography, and conservation biology. Even though seed dispersal is a fundamental mechanism to understand problems at different levels of biological organization (individual, population, species, landscape, it remains one of the least recognized processes. Similar to other groups of plants, very little is known regarding patterns and distances of seed dispersal in orchids. Orchid seeds are generally assumed to be widely dispersed by wind because of their small size and low weight. Between 2006 and 2008, we conducted a field study of the distances at which orchid seeds are dispersed, and determined factors affecting dispersal. Investigations included 13 populations of six terrestrial orchid species – Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera repens, Neottia ovata, and Platanthera bifolia. To evaluate seed dispersal in orchid populations, 8.5-cm Petri dishes (traps with self-adhesive paper were placed along transects, starting from a group of fruiting plants, which were considered to be the dispersal source. Seeds of the investigated orchid species were dispersed over relatively short distances. There were statistically significant negative correlations between seed density and distance from the fruiting plants. Seeds of species with taller fruiting shoots were dispersed farther than those with shorter ones (R = 0.68, p < 0.05. We discuss the causes and consequences of the dispersal patterns of orchid seeds.

  12. Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [V.H.N.S.N College, Virudhunagar (India). Research Centre in Botany; Seiler, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in Aganosma cymosa (10.3%), Carissa carandas (5.8%), and Argemone mexicana (5.0%). Swietenia mahagoni yielded the highest protein content with 8.1%. The gross heat value of 4175.0 cal/g(17.5 MJ/kg) for Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), and 4112.0 cal/g for Dalbergia sissoo were the highest among the species analysed. NMR spectra of the hydrocarbon fractions of Alstonia scholaris, Carissa carandas, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Plumeria rubra, Thevetia neriifolia (white flowered var.), Vallaris solanacea, Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), Euphorbia hirta, E. splendens, Artocarpus integrifolia and Ficus religiosa revealed the presence of cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber), whereas Argemone mexicana showed the presence of trans-polyisoprene (gutta). Several new crop species were identified with potentially useful compounds. The potential exists for growing these alternate crops in areas of under-utilized lands, subsequently stimulating industrial and economic growth. (author)

  13. Estimating the ecology of extinct species with paleoecological data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiho, A.; McLachlan, J. S.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand long term, unobservable ecosystem processes, ecologists must use both paleoecoloigcal data and ecosystem models. Models parameterize species competitive interactions using modern data. But, modern ecological or physiological observations are not available for extinct species, making it difficult for models to conceptualize their ecology. For instance, American chestnut (Castanea dentata), who played a large role in forests of northeastern US, was decimated by disease to virtual extinction. Since chestnut's demise, defining its ecology has been controversial. Models typically assume that chestnut's ecology was very similar to oak; They parameterize chestnut like oak species. These assumptions are drawn from paleoecological data, but these data are often reported without uncertainty. Since the paleoecological data are often reported without uncertainty, paleoecological data has never been directly incorporated with ecosystem models. We developed a Bayesian statistical model to estimate fractional composition from paleoecological data with uncertainty. Then, we assimilated this data product into an ecosystem model for long term forest succession using a generalized ensemble adjustment filter to determine which species demographic parameters lead to changes in species composition over the last 2,000 years at Harvard Forest. We found that chestnut was strongly negatively correlated with white pine (Pinus strobus) and red oak (Quercus rubra) in the process covariance matrix, suggesting a strong competitive interaction that is not currently understood by models for forest succession. These findings provide support for utilizing a data assimilation framework to ecologically interpret paleoecological data or data products to learn about the ecology of extinct species.

  14. Characterisation of phenolics in Flor-Essence--a compound herbal product and its contributing herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ammar; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Harris, Cory; Asim, Muhammad; Tamayo, Carmen; Sit, Summer; Arnason, John Thor

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available herbal mixture FE, a proprietary natural health product manufactured by Flora Manufacturing and Distributing Ltd (Flora), is a unique North American traditional herbal product. FE is a chemically complex mixture of eight herbs and has not been subjected to phytochemical analysis. To develop analytical methods to undertake detailed phytochemical analyses of FE, and its eight contributing herbs, including burdock (Arctium lappa L.), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.), Turkish rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), slippery elm Muhl. (Ulmus rubra), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) and kelp (Laminaria digitata Lmx.). The identification was undertaken by a combination of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass selective detection (RP-HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSD) analysis and phenolics metabolomic library matching. New separation methods facilitated the identification of 43 markers in the individual herbs which constitute FE. Sixteen markers could be identified in FE originating from four contributing herbs including four caffeoyl quinic acids, three dicaffeoyl quinic acids and two caffeic acid derivatives from A. lappa, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, five apigenin glycosides and apigenin from R. acetocella and N. officinale and sissostrin from T. pretense. A validated method for quantitative determination of three markers is reported with good intraday, interday and interoperator repeatability using a reliable alcohol based extraction technique. FE and its contributing herbs predominantly contain phenolics. This methodology can be applied to further develop full-scale validation of this product.

  15. Spatial variability in oviposition damage by periodical cicadas in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William M; Holt, Robert D; Yao, Jin

    2001-03-01

    Effects of the periodical cicada (Magicicada spp.) on forest dynamics are poorly documented. A 1998 emergence of M. cassini in eastern Kansas led to colonization of a fragmented experimental landscape undergoing secondary succession. We hypothesized that per-tree rates of oviposition damage by cicadas would reflect: (1) distance from the source of the emergence, (2) patch size, and (3) local tree density. Ovipositing females displayed clear preferences for host species and damage incidence showed predictable spatial patterns. Two species (smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, and eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana) were rarely attacked, whereas others (rough-leaved dogwood, Cornus drummondii; slippery elm, Ulmus rubra; box elder, Acer negundo, and honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos) were strongly attacked. The dominant early successional tree, dogwood, received on average the most attacks. As predicted, attacks per stem declined strongly with distance from the emergence source, and with local stem density (a "dilution" effect). Contrary to expectations, there were more attacks per stem on larger patches. Because ovipositing cicadas cut damaging slits in host tree branches, potentially affecting tree growth rate, competitive ability, and capacity to reproduce, cicada damage could potentially influence spatial variation in secondary succession.

  16. Drug-Herb Interactions in the Elderly Patient with IBD: a Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Haider; Kim, Marina; Leung, Galen; Green, Jesse A; Katz, Seymour

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions. CAM includes herbal products, diet, dietary supplements, acupuncture, and prayer. In this paper, we will review common CAM, specifically herbs, that are used in patients with IBD including the herb background, suggested use, evidence in IBD, and most importantly, potential interactions with IBD medications used in elderly patients. Most important evidence-based adverse events and drug-herb interactions are summarized. The herbs discussed include Triticum aestivum (wheat grass), Andrographis paniculata (chiretta), Boswellia serrata, tormentil, bilberry, curcumin (turmeric), Plantago ovata (blond psyllium), Oenothera biennis (evening primrose oil), germinated barley foodstuff, an herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee extract, chios mastic gum, wormwood (absinthe, thujone), Cannabis sativa (marijuana, THC), tripterygium wilfordii (thunder god vine), Ulmus rubra (slippery elm bark), trigonella foenugraecum (fenugreek), Dioscorea mexicana (wild yam), Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), ginger, cinnamon, licorice, and peppermint.

  17. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ugrinovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra and radish (Raphanus sativus L., two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and fertilizing conditions was observed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, 67 out of 158 isolates from green bean roots were selected as rhizobia (42.4%, confirmed by detection of 780 bp nifH gene fragments in nifH-PCR, and then clustered in 27 phenotype patterns. Production of exopolysaccharide succinoglycan was observed in 23 rhizobial isolates, while 6 were detected to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Screening of genetic diversity using (GTG5-PCR fingerprinting showed presence of six different patterns on the 92% similarity level.

  18. Phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate humid regions of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y

    2009-08-01

    The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the aboveground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  19. Field observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange in red oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellin, Luca; Algarra Alarcon, Alberto; Herdlinger-Blatt, Irina; Sanchez, Juaquin; Biasioli, Franco; Martin, Scot T.; Loreto, Francesco; McKinney, Karena A.

    2017-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by forests strongly affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere. While the emission of isoprenoids has been largely characterized, forests also exchange many oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs), including methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and acetaldehyde, which are less well understood. We monitored total branch-level exchange of VOCs of a strong isoprene emitter (Quercus rubra L.) in a mixed forest in New England, where canopy-level fluxes of VOCs had been previously measured. We report daily exchange of several oVOCs and investigated unknown sources and sinks, finding several novel insights. In particular, we found that emission of MEK is linked to uptake of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), a product of isoprene oxidation. The link was confirmed by corollary experiments proving in vivo detoxification of MVK, which is harmful to plants. Comparison of MEK, MVK, and isoprene fluxes provided an indirect indication of within-plant isoprene oxidation. Furthermore, besides confirming bidirectional exchange of acetaldehyde, we also report for the first time direct evidence of benzaldehyde bidirectional exchange in forest plants. Net emission or deposition of benzaldehyde was found in different periods of measurements, indicating an unknown foliar sink that may influence atmospheric concentrations. Other VOCs, including methanol, acetone, and monoterpenes, showed clear daily emission trends but no deposition. Measured VOC emission and deposition rates were generally consistent with their ecosystem-scale flux measurements at a nearby site.

  20. Risk of spider predation alters food web structure and reduces local herbivory in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Roman; Menzel, Florian; Entling, Martin H

    2015-06-01

    Predators can indirectly enhance plant performance via herbivore suppression, with both prey consumption and changes in prey traits (e.g. changes in foraging behaviour) contributing to the reduction in herbivory. We performed a field experiment to determine the extent of such non-consumptive effects which consisted of repeatedly placing spiders (Pisaura mirabilis) on enclosed plants (Urtica dioica) for cue deposition. Control plants were enclosed in the same way but without spiders. After cue deposition, the enclosures were removed to allow arthropods to colonize the plants and feed on them. Arthropods were removed from the plants before the subsequent spider deposition or control enclosure. During six cycles of enclosure, we quantified leaf damage on the plants. After a seventh cycle, the colonizing arthropods were sampled to determine community composition in relation to the presence/absence of spider cues. We found that the presence of chemotactile spider cues reduced leaf damage by 50 %. In addition, spider cues led to changes in the arthropod community: smaller spiders avoided plants with spider cues. In contrast, the aphid-tending ant Myrmica rubra showed higher recruitment of workers on cue-bearing plants, possibly to protect aphids. Our results show that the risk of spider predation can reduce herbivory on wild plants and also demonstrate that non-consumptive effects can be particularly strong within the predator guild.

  1. Fungal Transformation of Tree Stumps into a Suitable Resource for Xylophagous Beetles via Changes in Elemental Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Filipiak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The elements present in dead pine stumps inhabited by larvae of wood-boring beetles (Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus and Chalcophora mariana were analyzed over the initial (first 5 years; a chronosequence stages of wood decay. The quantities of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Na (but not S increased with increases in the content of ergosterol (used as a proxy for the amount of fungal tissue. In fact, the amounts of P, N, K, Fe and Cu presented marked increases. These findings show that fungi stoichiometrically rearrange dead wood by importing externally occurring nutrients to decaying stumps. During the first years of wood decay, the ratios of C to other elements decrease substantially, but differently, for various elements, whereas the N:Fe, N:Cu, N:P and N:K ratios remain relatively stable. Therefore, the stoichiometric mismatch between xylophages and their food is greatly reduced. By changing the nutritional stoichiometry of dead wood, fungi create a nutritional niche for wood-eaters, and these changes enable the development of xylophages.

  2. Fungal Transformation of Tree Stumps into a Suitable Resource for Xylophagous Beetles via Changes in Elemental Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Sobczyk, Łukasz; Weiner, January

    2016-01-01

    The elements present in dead pine stumps inhabited by larvae of wood-boring beetles (Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus and Chalcophora mariana) were analyzed over the initial (first 5 years; a chronosequence) stages of wood decay. The quantities of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Na (but not S) increased with increases in the content of ergosterol (used as a proxy for the amount of fungal tissue). In fact, the amounts of P, N, K, Fe and Cu presented marked increases. These findings show that fungi stoichiometrically rearrange dead wood by importing externally occurring nutrients to decaying stumps. During the first years of wood decay, the ratios of C to other elements decrease substantially, but differently, for various elements, whereas the N:Fe, N:Cu, N:P and N:K ratios remain relatively stable. Therefore, the stoichiometric mismatch between xylophages and their food is greatly reduced. By changing the nutritional stoichiometry of dead wood, fungi create a nutritional niche for wood-eaters, and these changes enable the development of xylophages.

  3. Effects of a range-expanding sea urchin on behaviour of commercially fished abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M A Strain

    Full Text Available Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking.We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone.The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.

  4. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  5. The identification of growth lines in abalone shell using a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Yang, C.; Hawkes, G.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Day, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Ionoluminescence (IL) combined with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) imaging has been employed to identify intrinsic growth bands in the spire region, and extrinsic bands at the growth edge of Australian Black-lip abalone shell (Haliotis rubra). Previous studies using optical flood cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and Raman spectroscopy on samples from the same population suggest that the visible luminescence is due to Mn 2+ activated calcium carbonate. In this study we confirm Mn 2+ as the activator in both the spire and growth edge regions of the shell. The sensitivity of ionoluminescence to the co-ordination environment of the Mn 2+ activators in the shell allows for the spatial identification of the calcium carbonate polymorph responsible for the growth lines observed optically. Furthermore the detection and mapping of trace elements such as Mn and Sr with the PIXE technique enables comparisons to be made between calcite and aragonite biomineralized in the wild and under laboratory conditions

  6. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Jalali

    Full Text Available Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.

  7. Effects of a range-expanding sea urchin on behaviour of commercially fished abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Johnson, Craig R; Thomson, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour.

  8. The identification of growth lines in abalone shell using a nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Yang, C.; Hawkes, G.P.; Jamieson, D.N. E-mail: dnj@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Malmqvist, K.G.; Day, R.W

    1999-09-02

    Ionoluminescence (IL) combined with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) imaging has been employed to identify intrinsic growth bands in the spire region, and extrinsic bands at the growth edge of Australian Black-lip abalone shell (Haliotis rubra). Previous studies using optical flood cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and Raman spectroscopy on samples from the same population suggest that the visible luminescence is due to Mn{sup 2+} activated calcium carbonate. In this study we confirm Mn{sup 2+} as the activator in both the spire and growth edge regions of the shell. The sensitivity of ionoluminescence to the co-ordination environment of the Mn{sup 2+} activators in the shell allows for the spatial identification of the calcium carbonate polymorph responsible for the growth lines observed optically. Furthermore the detection and mapping of trace elements such as Mn and Sr with the PIXE technique enables comparisons to be made between calcite and aragonite biomineralized in the wild and under laboratory conditions.

  9. Predicting the distribution of commercially important invertebrate stocks under future climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayden D Russell

    Full Text Available The future management of commercially exploited species is challenging because techniques used to predict the future distribution of stocks under climate change are currently inadequate. We projected the future distribution and abundance of two commercially harvested abalone species (blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra and greenlip abalone, H. laevigata inhabiting coastal South Australia, using multiple species distribution models (SDM and for decadal time slices through to 2100. Projections are based on two contrasting global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The SDMs identified August (winter Sea Surface Temperature (SST as the best descriptor of abundance and forecast that warming of winter temperatures under both scenarios may be beneficial to both species by allowing increased abundance and expansion into previously uninhabited coasts. This range expansion is unlikely to be realised, however, as projected warming of March SST is projected to exceed temperatures which cause up to 10-fold increases in juvenile mortality. By linking fine-resolution forecasts of sea surface temperature under different climate change scenarios to SDMs and physiological experiments, we provide a practical first approximation of the potential impact of climate-induced change on two species of marine invertebrates in the same fishery.

  10. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  11. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  12. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  13. Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelde, Lur [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Department of Ecosystems, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Becerril, Jose M.; Barrutia, Oihana [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Oreja, Jose A. [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Department of Ecosystems, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos, E-mail: cgarbisu@neiker.ne [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Department of Ecosystems, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In the present work, the relationships between plant consortia, consisting of 1-4 metallicolous pseudometallophytes with different metal-tolerance strategies (Thlaspi caerulescens: hyperaccumulator; Jasione montana: accumulator; Rumex acetosa: indicator; Festuca rubra: excluder), and their rhizosphere microbial communities were studied in a mine soil polluted with high levels of Cd, Pb and Zn. Physiological response and phytoremediation potential of the studied pseudometallophytes were also investigated. The studied metallicolous populations are tolerant to metal pollution and offer potential for the development of phytoextraction and phytostabilization technologies. T. caerulescens appears very tolerant to metal stress and most suitable for metal phytoextraction; the other three species enhance soil functionality. Soil microbial properties had a stronger effect on plant biomass rather than the other way around (35.2% versus 14.9%). An ecological understanding of how contaminants, ecosystem functions and biological communities interact in the long-term is needed for proper management of these fragile metalliferous ecosystems. - Rhizosphere microbial communities in highly polluted mine soils are determinant for the growth of pseudometallophytes.

  14. Health policy model: long-term predictive results associated with the management of hepatitis C virus-induced diseases in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennini FS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Saverio Mennini,1,2 Andrea Marcellusi,1,3 Massimo Andreoni,4 Antonio Gasbarrini,5 Salvatore Salomone,6 Antonio Craxì71Centre for Economic and International Studies (CEIS – Economic Evaluation and HTA (EEHTA Faculty of Economics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 2Institute of Leadership and Management in Health, Kingston University, London, UK; 3Department of Demography, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 5Gastroenterology Division, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome, School of Medicine, Rome, Italy; 6Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 7Gastroenterology Division, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: At present, there are no specific nationwide epidemiological studies representing the whole Italian population. This study is aimed at describing the epidemiological and economic burden that HCV will generate in the next few years in Italy. Furthermore, the impact that future anti-HCV treatments may have on the burden of disease was considered. This analysis was developed for the period 2012–2030 from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (NHS. Methods: A published system dynamic model was adapted for Italy in order to quantify the HCV-infected population in terms of disease progression and the associated costs from 1950 to 2030. The model structure was based on transition probabilities reflecting the natural history of the disease. In order to estimate the efficacy of current anti-HCV treatment strategies for genotypes 1 and 4, the sustained virological response (SVR rate in registration clinical trials for both boceprevir and telaprevir was estimated. It was assumed that the efficacy for patients treated with peginterferon + ribavirin was equal to the placebo arm of a

  15. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections Teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais

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    Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte Mascaro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 µg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 µg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.OBJETIVO: Relatar resultados e avaliar a aplicabilidade do teste de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais oculares. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se teste de suscetibilidade pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, padronizado pelo NCCLS-EUA, em 15 amostras de leveduras de infecções corneanas a anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol e ketoconazol. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos episódios de infecção corneal foi causada por Candida albicans. As drogas antifúngicas testadas exibiram valores de concentra

  16. Estudo etnobotânico na comunidade de Conceição-Açu (alto da bacia do rio Aricá Açu, MT, Brasil Ethnobotany study in community of Conceição-Açu (on the upper basin of the River Aricá Açu, MT, Brazil

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    Maria Corette Pasa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar o levantamento etnobotânico de plantas classificadas em diferentes categorias de uso na comunidade de Conceição-Açu, no município de Cuiabá, MT, Brasil e estimar o valor de uso das espécies botânicas em matas de galeria. Entrevistas estruturadas e semi-estruturadas, o uso do questionário foram aplicados em 59 residentes adultos de ambos os sexos. Identificou-se as unidades de paisagem: quintais, roças e matas de galeria e o número total de espécies utilizadas foi de 180. A maioria das plantas foi coletada durante a entrevista e depositadas no Herbário da UFMT. Nos quintais das residências identificou-se 86 espécies, pertencentes a 43 famílias, a maioria cultivada e utilizada como alimento (48,1% e como remédio (44,5%. Nas roças os principais cultivos são: Manihot esculenta L. (100%, Carica papaya L. (76,2%, Musa paradisiaca L. (71,4%, Saccharum officinarum L. (57,1%. Na mata de galeria destacou-se a categoria medicinal (65%, com as espécies: Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (2,5, Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg. (2,5, Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart. (2,33, Diptychandra aurantiaca Tul. (2,0, Cariniana rubra Gardner ex. Miers (20 e as famílias botânicas Mimosaceae, Bignoniaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae e Sapindaceae. Os resultados demonstram que a população possui vasto conhecimento das plantas e de suas propriedades de cura.This paper aims at doing the ethnobotany survey of plants classified in different categories of use in the community of Conceição-Açu, in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil and estimate the value of use of the species botanic in the gallery forest. Structured and non-structured interviews and the questionnaire were used in 59 adult dwellers of both sexes. Were identified the landscape units: backyards, husbandry and gallery forest and the total number of used species is the 180. The majority of the plants was collected during the interview and is kept in the

  17. Intra-regional transportation of a tugboat fouling community between the ports of recife and natal, northeast Brazil

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the incrusting and sedentary animals associated with the hull of a tugboat active in the ports of Pernambuco and later loaned to the port of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Thus, areas with dense biofouling were scraped and the species then classified in terms of their bioinvasive status for the Brazilian coast. Six were native to Brazil, two were cryptogenic and 16 nonindigenous; nine of the latter were classified as established (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes, Herdmania pallida, Microscosmus exasperatus, and Symplegma rubra and three as invasive (Mytilopsis leucophaeta, Amphibalanus reticulatus, and Striatobalanus amaryllis. The presence of M. leucophaeata, Amphibalanus eburneus and A. reticulatus on the boat's hull propitiated their introduction onto the Natal coast. The occurrence of a great number of tunicate species in Natal reflected the port area's benthic diversity and facilitated the inclusion of two bivalves - Musculus lateralis and Sphenia fragilis - found in their siphons and in the interstices between colonies or individuals, respectively. The results show the role of biofouling on boat hulls in the introduction of nonindigenous species and that the port of Recife acts as a source of some species.Este trabalho objetivou identificar os animais incrustantes e sedentários associados ao casco de um rebocador que atuava nos Portos de Pernambuco e foi cedido para o Porto de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Áreas com densa bioincrustação foram raspadas e as espécies foram posteriormente classificadas em relação ao status de bioinvasão no litoral brasileiro. Dentre as espécies identificadas, seis eram nativas do Brasil, duas criptogênicas e 16 exóticas. Destas, oito foram classificadas como estabelecidas (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes

  18. Preliminary study on the development of an antistretch marks water-in-oil cream: ultrasound assessment, texture analysis, and sensory analysis.

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    Bogdan, Cătălina; Moldovan, Mirela L; Man, Ioana Manuela; Crișan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Striae distensae represent the result of the failure of the dermis to sustain intrinsic mechanical forces. Intensive moisturization of the lesions and use of emollient oils have been recommended for the prevention and treatment of striae distensae rubra. The aim of this research was to formulate an emollient water-in-oil cosmetic cream containing argan oil, which may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae. Sensory evaluation of the consistency, firmness, adhesiveness, oiliness, spreadability, and rapidity of penetration into the skin was evaluated by 22 volunteers using 10-point scales for each descriptor. The instrumental characterization of the cream was performed using Brookfield(®) CT3 Texture Analyzer. The cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of the cream were evaluated by assessing the thickness of the epidermis, hydration, and elasticity of the skin using DermaLab(®) Combo scanner. Ultrasound measurements showed an improvement in the elasticity of the epidermis following the application of cream. The product was well tolerated and appreciated by the consumers in terms of its spreadability, penetration ability, and lack of stickiness. The values recorded for texture analysis were firmness 10.16±0.15 mJ, adhesiveness 30.94±6.87 g, consistency 1229.50±119.78 g, spreadability 481.50±39 g, and stringiness 0.56±0.09 mJ. A water-in-oil cream containing argan oil and emollient ingredients with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on increasing the skin elasticity, suggesting that the cream may be helpful in the prevention or early treatment of striae distensae.

  19. Significance of clinicopathological correlation in psoriasis

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    Gopal Ambadasrao Pandit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psoriasis affects about 1.5% to 3% of world′s population. Other papulosquamous dermatoses are Pityriasis rosea, Lichen planus, Seborrheic dermatitis, Pityriasis rubra pilaris and Parapsoriasis. Drug eruptions, tinea corporis, and secondary syphilis may also have papulosquamous morphology. Because all papulosquamous disorders are characterized by scaling papules, clinical confusion may result during their diagnosis. Separation of each of these becomes important because the treatment and prognosis for each tends to be disease-specific. Aim: To study the pattern of clinical and histopathological features of psoriasis of the skin with clinicopathological correlation. Material and methods: The present study of 42 cases of psoriasis of the skin was carried out in the Department of Pathology of a tertiary care centre from December 2009 to October 2011. In this study, the patients which were clinically diagnosed as psoriasis of skin, before starting the treatment and attending the outdoor skin department were selected. Histopathological findings were interpreted in light of clinical details. Results: Out of 42 cases of psoriasis 24 (57.14% were males, 18 (42.86% were females with male to female ratio of 1.33:1. Mean age was 34.45 years. Maximum number of cases 22 (52.38% were encountered in 3rd and 4th decade of life. Histopathological findings: parakeratosis, acanthosis, suprapapillary thinning, Munro microabscesses and hypogranulosis were noted in most of the cases. Conclusion: Histopathology serves as a diagnostic tool and rules out other lesions which mimic psoriasis. The most accurate diagnosis is the one that most closely correlates with clinical outcome and helps to direct the most appropriate clinical intervention.

  20. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits

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    Di Cave David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP. From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential. Results G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%. Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted.

  1. Looking for age-related growth decline in natural forests: unexpected biomass patterns from tree rings and simulated mortality

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    Foster, Jane R.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest biomass growth is almost universally assumed to peak early in stand development, near canopy closure, after which it will plateau or decline. The chronosequence and plot remeasurement approaches used to establish the decline pattern suffer from limitations and coarse temporal detail. We combined annual tree ring measurements and mortality models to address two questions: first, how do assumptions about tree growth and mortality influence reconstructions of biomass growth? Second, under what circumstances does biomass production follow the model that peaks early, then declines? We integrated three stochastic mortality models with a census tree-ring data set from eight temperate forest types to reconstruct stand-level biomass increments (in Minnesota, USA). We compared growth patterns among mortality models, forest types and stands. Timing of peak biomass growth varied significantly among mortality models, peaking 20–30 years earlier when mortality was random with respect to tree growth and size, than when mortality favored slow-growing individuals. Random or u-shaped mortality (highest in small or large trees) produced peak growth 25–30 % higher than the surviving tree sample alone. Growth trends for even-aged, monospecific Pinus banksiana or Acer saccharum forests were similar to the early peak and decline expectation. However, we observed continually increasing biomass growth in older, low-productivity forests of Quercus rubra, Fraxinus nigra, and Thuja occidentalis. Tree-ring reconstructions estimated annual changes in live biomass growth and identified more diverse development patterns than previous methods. These detailed, long-term patterns of biomass development are crucial for detecting recent growth responses to global change and modeling future forest dynamics.

  2. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?

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    Foster, Jane R.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests’ ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals’ size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species likeAcer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92–95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth

  3. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

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    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  4. Inferring biome-scale net primary productivity from tree-ring isotopes

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    Pederson, N.; Levesque, M.; Williams, A. P.; Hobi, M. L.; Smith, W. K.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite estimates of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP), tree-ring records, and forest inventories indicate that ongoing climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration are altering productivity and carbon storage of forests worldwide. The impact of global change on the trends of NPP, however, remain unknown because of the lack of long-term high-resolution NPP data. For the first time, we tested if annually resolved carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) stable isotopes from the cellulose of tree rings from trees in temperate regions could be used as a tool for inferring NPP across spatiotemporal scales. We compared satellite NPP estimates from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensor (MODIS, product MOD17A) and a newly developed global NPP dataset derived from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) dataset to annually resolved tree-ring width and δ13C and δ18O records from four sites along a hydroclimatic gradient in Eastern and Central United States. We found strong correlations across large geographical regions between satellite-derived NPP and tree-ring isotopes that ranged from -0.40 to -0.91. Notably, tree-ring derived δ18O had the strongest relation to climate. The results were consistent among the studied tree species (Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera) and along the hydroclimatic conditions of our network. Our study indicates that tree-ring isotopes can potentially be used to reconstruct NPP in time and space. As such, our findings represent an important breakthrough for estimating long-term changes in vegetation productivity at the biome scale.

  5. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

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    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  6. Spectroscopic study, antimicrobial activity and crystal structures of N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzalidene)4-aminomorpholine and N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene)4-aminomorpholine

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    Yıldız, Mustafa; Ünver, Hüseyin; Dülger, Başaran; Erdener, Diğdem; Ocak, Nazan; Erdönmez, Ahmet; Durlu, Tahsin Nuri

    2005-03-01

    Schiff bases N-(2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzalidene)4-aminomorpholine ( 1) and N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene)4-aminomorpholine ( 2) were synthesized from the reaction of 4-aminomorpholine with 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Visible techniques. The UV-Visible spectra of the Schiff bases with OH group in ortho position to the imino group were studied in polar and nonpolar solvents in acidic and basic media. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 have been examined cyrstallographically, for two compounds exist as dominant form of enol-imines in both the solutions and solid state. The title compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c and P2 1/ n with unit cell parameters: a=8.410(1) and 11.911(3), b=6.350(9) and 4.860(9), c=21.728(3) and 22.381(6) Å, β=90.190(1) and 95.6(2)°, V=1160.6(3) and 1289.5(5) Å 3, Dx=1.438 and 1.320 g cm -3, respectively. The crystal structures were solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least squares. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 1 and 2 have also been studied. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands have been screened in vitro against the organisms Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Micrococcus luteus La 2971, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL 2415, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403, Debaryomyces hansenii DSM 70238 and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii DSM 3432.

  7. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

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    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  8. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

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    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  9. Effect of Wind on the Relation of Leaf N, P Stoichiometry with Leaf Morphology in Quercus Species

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    Peng Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry correlates closely to leaf morphology, which is strongly impacted by wind at multiple scales. However, it is not clear how leaf N, P stoichiometry and its relationship to leaf morphology changes with wind load. We determined the leaf N and P concentrations and leaf morphology—including specific leaf area (SLA and leaf dissection index (LDI—for eight Quercus species under a simulated wind load for seven months. Leaf N and P concentrations increased significantly under these conditions for Quercus acutissima, Quercus rubra, Quercus texana, and Quercus palustris—which have elliptic leaves—due to their higher N, P requirements and a resultant leaf biomass decrease, which is a tolerance strategy for Quercus species under a wind load. Leaf N:P was relatively stable under wind for all species, which supports stoichiometric homeostasis. Leaf N concentrations showed a positive correlation to SLA, leaf N and P concentrations showed positive correlations to LDI under each wind treatment, and the slope of correlations was not affected by wind, which indicates synchronous variations between leaf stoichiometry and leaf morphology under wind. However, the intercept of correlations was affected by wind, and leaf N and P use efficiency decreased under the wind load, which suggests that the Quercus species changes from “fast investment-return” in the control to “slow investment-return” under windy conditions. These results will be valuable to understanding functional strategies for plants under varying wind loads, especially synchronous variations in leaf traits along a wind gradient.

  10. Roseomonas aerofrigidensis sp. nov., isolated from an air conditioner.

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    Hyeon, Jong Woo; Jeon, Che Ok

    2017-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated HC1 T , was isolated from an air conditioner in South Korea. Cells were orange, non-motile cocci with oxidase- and catalase-positive activities and did not contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Growth of strain HC1 T was observed at 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Strain HC1 T contained summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and cyclo-C19 : 0ω8c as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-10 as the sole isoprenoid quinone. Phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and an unknown aminolipid were detected as the major polar lipids. The major carotenoid was hydroxyspirilloxanthin. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that strain HC1 T formed a phylogenetic lineage within the genus Roseomonas. Strain HC1 T was most closely related to the type strains of Roseomonas oryzae, Roseomonas rubra, Roseomonas aestuarii and Roseomonas rhizosphaerae with 98.1, 97.9, 97.6 and 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively, but the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain HC1 T and closely related type strains were less than 70 %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strain HC1 T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas aerofrigidensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HC1 T (=KACC 19097 T =JCM 31878 T ).

  11. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Long term growth of crop plants on experimental plots created among slag heaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halecki, Wiktor; Klatka, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    Suppression of plant growth is a common problem in post-mining reclaimed areas, as coarse texture of soils may increase nitrate leaching. Assessing feasibility of using solid waste (precipitated solid matter) produced by water and sewage treatment processes in field conditions is very important in mine soil reclamation. Our work investigated the possibility of plant growth in a degraded site covered with sewage-derived sludge material. A test area (21m × 18m) was established on a mine soil heap. Experimental plant species included Camelina sativa, Helianthus annuus, Festuca rubra, Miscanthus giganteus, Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica napus, Melilotus albus, Beta vulgaris, and Zea mays. ANOVA showed sufficient water content and acceptable physical properties of the soil in each year and layer in a multi-year period, indicating that these species were suitable for phytoremediation purposes. Results of trace elements assays indicated low degree of contamination caused by Carbocrash waste material and low potential ecological risk for all plant species. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that total porosity and capillary porosity were the most important variables for the biosolids among all water content related properties. Overall, crop plants were found useful on heavily degraded land and the soil benefited from their presence. An addition of Carbocrash substrate to mine soil improved the initial stage of soil reclamation and accelerated plant growth. The use of this substrate in phytoremediation helped to balance the content of nutrients, promoted plant growth, and increased plant tolerance to salinity. Sewage sludge-amended biosolids may be applied directly to agricultural soil, not only in experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground cover and tree growth on calcareous minesoils: Greater influence of soil surface than nitrogen rate or seed mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Growth of ground cover and trees was evaluated for five growing seasons on calcareous coal minesoil surfaces (standard graded topsoil, graded and ripped topsoil, graded gray cast overburden) in southeastern Ohio. Soil surface plots were seeded in September 1987 with either a standard herbaceous seed mix [orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), Ranger alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), Empire birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)], or a modified mix using no alfalfa and half the rate of orchardgrass. Nitrogen (45, 90, or 135 kg ha/N) was applied as ammonium nitrate in September 1987 and April 1989. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were planted in spring 1989 into 0.8 m-wide strips sprayed with glyphosate herbicide at 2.24 kg/ha in October 1988. Total cover and total biomass were highest in July 1989, following the last application of nitrogen fertilizer in April 1989. Total cover ranged from 44% to 56%, and total biomass ranged from 102 to 162 g/0.5 m 2 from 1990 to 1993. Total cover and total biomass were lower at the lowest nitrogen rate in 1989 only. Type of herbaceous seed mix did not affect growth of ground cover or trees. Overall tree survival was 82.0% the first year but declined to 40.6% after 5 yr. Survival varied significantly among all tree species (3.5% for pine, 22.2% for oak, 38.5% for maple, 98.1% for ash)

  14. Metal transfer to plants grown on a dredged sediment: use of radioactive isotope 203Hg and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caille, Nathalie; Vauleon, Clotilde; Leyval, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Improperly disposed of dredged sediments contaminated with metals may induce long-term leaching and an increase of metal concentrations in ground waters and vegetal cover plants. The objective of the study was to quantify the sediment-to-plant transfer of Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn with a particular focus on the pathway of Hg and to determine whether the establishment of vegetal cover modifies the metal availability. A pot experiment with rape (Brassica napus), cabbage (Brassica oleraccea) and red fescue (Festuca rubra) was set up using a sediment first spiked with the radioisotope 203 Hg. Zinc concentrations (197-543 mg kg -1 DM) in leaves were higher than Cu concentration (197-543 mg kg -1 DM), Pb concentration (2.3-2.6 mg kg -1 DM) and Hg concentration (0.9-1.7 mg kg -1 DM). Leaves-to-sediment ratios decreased as follows: Zn>Cu>Hg>Pb. According to Ti measurements, metal contamination by dry deposition was less than 1%. Mercury concentration in plant leaves was higher than European and French thresholds. Foliar absorption of volatile Hg was a major pathway for Hg contamination with a root absorption of Hg higher in rape than in cabbage and red fescue. Growth of each species increased Cu solubility. Zinc solubility was increased only in the presence of rape. The highest increase of Cu solubility was observed for red fescue whereas this species largely decreased Zn solubility. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements suggested that Cu solubilisation could result from organic matter or release of natural plant exudates. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measures suggested that the high Zn solubility in the presence of rape could originate from a generation of acidity in rape rhizosphere and a subsequent dissolution of calcium carbonates. Consequently, emission of volatile Hg from contaminated dredged sediments and also the potential increase of metal solubility by a vegetal cover of grass when used in phytostabilisation must be taken into account by decision makers

  15. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  16. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: Is tree size, age, competition, or climate response most important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jane R; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2 and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests' ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals' size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species like Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92-95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth responses

  17. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days plus conventional therapy (XBJ group. Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02 compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001 compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all P<0.05, but these values were significant improved in the XBJ group (all P<0.05. Only one patient had skin rash with itch within 30 minutes after injection and no severe adverse events were found in the XBJ group. In conclusion, XBJ treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events.

  18. Ontogeny reversal and phylogenetic analysis of Turritopsis sp.5 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Oceaniidae, a possible new species endemic to Xiamen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontogeny reversal, as seen in some cnidarians, is an unprecedented phenomenon in the animal kingdom involving reversal of the ordinary life cycle. Three species of Turritopsis have been shown to be capable of inverted metamorphosis, a process in which the pelagic medusa transforms back into a juvenile benthic polyp stage when faced with adverse conditions. Turritopsis sp.5 is a species of Turritopsis collected from Xiamen, China which presents a similar ability, being able to reverse its life cycle if injured by mechanical stress. Phylogenetic analysis based on both 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI genetic barcodes shows that Turritopsis sp.5 is phylogenetically clustered in a clade separate from other species of Turritopsis. The genetic distance between T. sp.5 and the Japanese species T. sp.2 is the shortest, when measured by the Kimura 2-Parameter metric, and the distance to the New Zealand species T. rubra is the largest. An experimental assay on the induction of reverse development in this species was initiated by cutting medusae into upper and lower parts. We show, for the first time, that the two dissected parts have significantly different potentials to transform into polyps. Also, a series of morphological changes of the reversed life cycle can be recognised, including medusa stage, contraction stage I, contraction stage II, cyst, cyst with stolons, and polyp. The discovery of species capable of reverse ontogeny caused by unfavorable conditions adds to the available systems with which to study the cell types that contribute to the developmental reversal and the molecular mechanisms of the directional determination of ontogeny.

  19. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  20. Structural basis for high substrate-binding affinity and enantioselectivity of 3-quinuclidinone reductase AtQR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Feng; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Michihiko; Takeshita, Daijiro; Kumashiro, Shoko; Uzura, Atsuko; Urano, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of AtQR has been determined at 1.72 Å. • NADH binding induces the formation of substrate binding site. • AtQR possesses a conserved hydrophobic wall for stereospecific binding of substrate. • Additional Glu197 residue is critical to the high binding affinity. - Abstract: (R)-3-Quinuclidinol, a useful compound for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, can be enantioselectively produced from 3-quinuclidinone by 3-quinuclidinone reductase. Recently, a novel NADH-dependent 3-quinuclidionone reductase (AtQR) was isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and showed much higher substrate-binding affinity (>100 fold) than the reported 3-quinuclidionone reductase (RrQR) from Rhodotorula rubra. Here, we report the crystal structure of AtQR at 1.72 Å. Three NADH-bound protomers and one NADH-free protomer form a tetrameric structure in an asymmetric unit of crystals. NADH not only acts as a proton donor, but also contributes to the stability of the α7 helix. This helix is a unique and functionally significant part of AtQR and is related to form a deep catalytic cavity. AtQR has all three catalytic residues of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family and the hydrophobic wall for the enantioselective reduction of 3-quinuclidinone as well as RrQR. An additional residue on the α7 helix, Glu197, exists near the active site of AtQR. This acidic residue is considered to form a direct interaction with the amine part of 3-quinuclidinone, which contributes to substrate orientation and enhancement of substrate-binding affinity. Mutational analyses also support that Glu197 is an indispensable residue for the activity

  1. DNA Probes Show Genetic Variation in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of the Azolla Fern and a Closer Relationship to Free-Living Nostoc Strains than to Free-Living Anabaena Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazinski, Jacek; Zheng, Qi; Taylor, Rona; Croft, Lynn; Rolfe, Barry G.; Gunning, Brian E. S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two isolates of Anabaena azollae derived from seven Azolla species from various geographic and ecological sources were characterized by DNA-DNA hybridization. Cloned DNA fragments derived from the genomic sequences of three different A. azollae isolates were used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphism among all symbiotic anabaenas. DNA clones were radiolabeled and hybridized against southern blot transfers of genomic DNAs of different isolates of A. azollae digested with restriction endonucleases. Eight DNA probes were selected to identify the Anabaena strains tested. Two were strain specific and hybridized only to A. azollae strains isolated from Azolla microphylla or Azolla caroliniana. One DNA probe was section specific (hybridized only to anabaenas isolated from Azolla ferns representing the section Euazolla), and five other probes gave finer discrimination among anabaenas representing various ecotypes of Azolla species. These cloned genomic DNA probes identified 11 different genotypes of A. azollae isolates. These included three endosymbiotic genotypes within Azolla filiculoides species and two genotypes within both A. caroliniana and Azolla pinnata endosymbionts. Although we were not able to discriminate among anabaenas extracted from different ecotypes of Azolla nilotica, Azolla mexicina, Azolla rubra and Azolla microphylla species, each of the endosymbionts was easily identified as a unique genotype. When total DNA isolated from free-living Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 was screened, none of the genomic DNA probes gave detectable positive hybridization. Total DNA of Nostoc cycas PCC7422 hybridized with six of eight genomic DNA fragments. These data imply that the dominant symbiotic organism in association with Azolla spp. is more closely related to Nostoc spp. than to free-living Anabaena spp. Images PMID:16348182

  2. Transgenerational plasticity as an important mechanism affecting response of clonal species to changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Hadincová, Věroslava

    2017-07-01

    In spite of the increasing number of studies on the importance of transgenerational plasticity for species response to novel environments, its effects on species ability to respond to climate change are still largely unexplored. We study the importance of transgenerational plasticity for response of a clonal species Festuca rubra . Individuals from four natural populations representing two levels of temperature and two levels of precipitation were cultivated in four growth chambers that simulate the temperature and precipitation of origin of the populations (maternal phase). Each population was represented in each growth chamber. After 6 months, single young ramets of these plants were reshuffled among the growth chambers and let to grow for additional 2 months (offspring phase). The results show that transgenerational effects (i.e., maternal phase conditions) significantly modify species response to novel climates, and the direction and intensity of the response depend on the climate of origin of the plants. For traits related to recourse acquisition, the conditions of maternal phase, either alone or in interaction mainly with climate of origin, had stronger effect than the conditions of cultivation. Overall, the maternal climate interacted more intensively with the climate of origin than with the offspring climate. The direction of the effect of the maternal climate was of different directions and intensities depending on plant origin and trait studied. The data demonstrated strong significant effects of conditions during maternal phase on species response to novel climates. These transgenerational affects were, however, not adaptive. Still, transgenerational plasticity may be an important driver of species response to novel conditions across clonal generations. These effects thus need to be carefully considered in future studies exploring species response to novel climates. This will also have strong effects on species performance under increasingly variable

  3. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  4. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  5. Experimentally reduced root-microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10-20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10-30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root trait variation, interactions with symbionts and recent

  6. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Lu, Zhidan; Xing, Jing; Wang, Na; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra), has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group) and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days) plus conventional therapy (XBJ group). Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02) compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001) compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all Ptreatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events.

  7. Continuous measurement of ethanol production by aerobic yeast suspensions with an enzyme electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verduyn, C.; Zomerdijk, T.P.L.; Dijken, J.P. van; Scheffers, W.A.

    1984-03-01

    An alcohol electrode was constructed which consisted of an oxygen probe onto which alcohol oxidase was immobilized. This enzyme electrode was used, in combination with a reference oxygen electrode, to study the short-term kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by aerobic yeast suspensions after pulsing with glucose. The results demonstrate that this device is an excellent tool in obtaining quantitative data on the short-term expression of the Crabtree effect in yeasts. Samples from aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae not producing ethanol, immediately (within 2 min) exhibited aerobic alcohol fermentation after being pulsed with excess glucose. With chemostat-grown Candida utilis, however, ethanol production was not detactable even at high sugar concentrations. The Crabtree effect in S. cerevisiae was studied in more detail with commercial baker's yeast. Ethanol formation occurred only at initial glucose concentrations exceeding 150 mgx1/sup -1/, and the rate of alcoholic fermentation increased with increasing glucose concentrations up to 1,000 mgx1/sup -1/ glucose. Similar experiments with batch cultures of certain ''non-fermentative'' yeasts revealed that these organisms are capable of alcoholic fermentation. Thus, even under fully aerobic conditions, Hansenula nonfermentans and Candida buffonii produced ethanol after being pulsed with glucose. In C. buffonii ethanol formation was already apparent at very low glucose concentrations (10 mgx1/sup -1/) and alcoholic fermentation even proceeded at a higher rate than in S. cerevisiae. With Rhodotorula rubra, however, the rate of ethanol formation was below the detection limit, i.e., less than 0.1 mmolxg cells/sup -1/xh/sup -1/.

  8. Structural basis for high substrate-binding affinity and enantioselectivity of 3-quinuclidinone reductase AtQR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Feng; Miyakawa, Takuya [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Kataoka, Michihiko [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 559-8531 (Japan); Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takeshita, Daijiro [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Kumashiro, Shoko [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uzura, Atsuko [Research and Development Center, Nagase and Co., Ltd., 2-2-3 Muratani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241 (Japan); Urano, Nobuyuki [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 559-8531 (Japan); Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagata, Koji [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shimizu, Sakayu [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Bioenvironmental Science, Kyoto Gakuen University, Sogabe-cho, Kameoka 621-8555 (Japan); Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of AtQR has been determined at 1.72 Å. • NADH binding induces the formation of substrate binding site. • AtQR possesses a conserved hydrophobic wall for stereospecific binding of substrate. • Additional Glu197 residue is critical to the high binding affinity. - Abstract: (R)-3-Quinuclidinol, a useful compound for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, can be enantioselectively produced from 3-quinuclidinone by 3-quinuclidinone reductase. Recently, a novel NADH-dependent 3-quinuclidionone reductase (AtQR) was isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and showed much higher substrate-binding affinity (>100 fold) than the reported 3-quinuclidionone reductase (RrQR) from Rhodotorula rubra. Here, we report the crystal structure of AtQR at 1.72 Å. Three NADH-bound protomers and one NADH-free protomer form a tetrameric structure in an asymmetric unit of crystals. NADH not only acts as a proton donor, but also contributes to the stability of the α7 helix. This helix is a unique and functionally significant part of AtQR and is related to form a deep catalytic cavity. AtQR has all three catalytic residues of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family and the hydrophobic wall for the enantioselective reduction of 3-quinuclidinone as well as RrQR. An additional residue on the α7 helix, Glu197, exists near the active site of AtQR. This acidic residue is considered to form a direct interaction with the amine part of 3-quinuclidinone, which contributes to substrate orientation and enhancement of substrate-binding affinity. Mutational analyses also support that Glu197 is an indispensable residue for the activity.

  9. Acitretin in pediatric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjyot Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acitretin, a synthetic retinoid and the active metabolite of etretinate has been increasingly used over the past two decades. It has proved effective in the treatment of many conditions associated with hyperkeratosis and dyskeratosis. A Google scholar search for the use of acitretin in pediatric dermatoses was done using the words “pediatric dermatoses,” “acitretin,” “etretinate,” “systemic retinoids,” “psoriasis,” “pityriasis rubra pilaris,” “ichthyoses,” “disorders of keratinization,” “Darier's disease,” “palmoplantar keratoderma,” “verrucae,” “lichen planus,” “lupus erythematosus,” and “lichen sclerosus.” All the articles were retrieved and classified into review articles, studies, double-blinded trials, and case reports. The final data were then analyzed and presented in a narrative fashion. It has been found that acitretin is useful in a number of pediatric dermatoses. It is preferred over other drugs in pustular psoriasis. Good results can be obtained in various disorders of keratinization, and it may even prove life-saving in conditions like harlequin ichthyosis. However, long-term maintenance therapy is required and exacerbations are known on discontinuing the drug. It can also be used as alternative therapy for many other pediatric dermatoses where the primary treatment has failed. Acitretin should be used even in children for the proper indications. However, proper clinical and laboratory surveillance has to be maintained in patients on long-term acitretin.

  10. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  11. Environmental variation shifts the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders along the continuum from mutualism to antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Gina M; Goldberg, Adam S; Steele, Michael A; Dalgleish, Harmony J

    2018-05-01

    The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time and space, and among species. We examined 4 tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata × Castanea mollissima) across 5 sites and 3 years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species. All species tested had increased emergence when buried. However, comparing benefits of burial to the probability of caching by scatterhoarders indicated a mutualism in red oak, while white oak was nearly always antagonistic. Chestnut was variable around the boundary between mutualism and antagonism, indicating a high degree of context dependence in the relationship with scatterhoarders. We found that different seed provenances did not vary in their potential for mutualism. Temperature did not explain microsite differences in seed emergence in any of the species tested. In hybrid chestnut only, emergence on the surface declined with soil moisture in the fall. By quantifying the variation in the conditional mutualism that was not caused by changes in scatterhoarder behavior, we show that environmental conditions and seed traits are an important and underappreciated component of the variation in the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders. © 2018 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  13. Seasonal N changes in alnus orientalis and populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted.The first was to study nodulation and N 2 fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of N changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results showed that frankia in soil from underneath Alnus orientalis nodulated and fixed nitrogen on roots of local alder as well as on roots of introduced alder species from distant and ecologically diverse localities. However, differences were found among species in the number of nodules formed and amount of nitrogen fixed. Percentages of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) ranged from 5% in A.viridis to 66% in A. orientalis. Microscopic study of Alnus orientalis nodules showed the presence of vesicles, and frankia belonging to Sp-type. Foliar N concentration was higher in alder than in poplar. Total N concentration in alder leaves remained relatively constant at about 3% during summer, whereas N concentration in poplar decreased sharply in leaves and increased in bark. No substantial increase in N concentration was found in alder bark, and the fallen leaves were rich in nitrogen. During autumn, leaf N concentration in poplar decreased by 43% and 51% for the first and the second year, respectively, whereas N concentrations in bark increased by 71% and 100%. Total N concentrations in alder leaves decreased only by 8-16% while, values in the adjacent bark remained stable. In contrast to poplar, it seems that Alnus orientalis does not exhibit net leaf retranslocation to bark tissues.(author)

  14. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi from Thorns and Thistles in Isfahan and Adjacent Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emami

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most important subcutaneous fungal infections in man are caused by injury due to contaminated thistles and thorns. From an epidemiological point of view , it is important to recognize the fungi as well as their frequency of them in various thistles and thorns Methods: The present research has been conducted on thorns and thistles of 16 regions including cities and villages of Isfahan province. 800 samples have been collected. Specimens were inoculated and incubated at 25◦C in S & SCC medium. In order to isolate and identify the fungi, cultures in specific media, intraperitoneal injections of mice and disc diffusion test have been applied. Results: Over one year of study, 1676 colonies of actinomycetes and fungi were recognized. The most common fungi were as follows: Alternaria (22/4%,Aspergillus(11/8% , Cladosporium (10/8%,Esteril mycellium(10/6% and Penicillium (9/7%. The prevalence was most in Shahreza city(10/2% , while the least was in Ardestan(3%. The most prevalent yeasts were Candida tropicalis (50% , Rodotrula rubra (12/5% , Candida kerusei(11/4%,Trichosporon candida (7/9% , Unknown yeasts (6/8%, Candida gillermondi (5/7%, Saccharomyces cervisia (3/4%, Geotricum candidum and Trichosporon glabrata (Candida glabrata each one (1/1%. The prevalence was most in Khansar city(19/2%. In this study, 4 species similar to Coccidioides immitis, Phialophora verrucosa (4 species and Exophiala jeanselmei (3 species were identified. Conclusion: In this study done for the first time in this area, pathogenic and opportunistic fungi were isolated. Furthermore, Exophiala jeanselmei and Nocardiopsis dassonvillei were isolated for the first time from thorns in the country.

  15. Gamma irradiation in developing consumer friendly lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Foziah Ali

    2008-01-01

    Main base ingredients of lip balm such as petroleum jelly and coloring materials are harmful to customers. Side effects from impurities in petroleum jelly in the manufacturing process have been implicated at causing cancer and long term damage to health. Artificial colours have been found to cause cancer in animals and many people experienced allergic reactions i.e. skin irritation and contact dermatitis. Therefore 'friendly' lip balm was formulated by substituting the base ingredient, i.e. petroleum jelly, with vegetable fats and incorporated with anthocyanin pigments from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) and Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) as natural colorants. Anthocyanins are considered secondary metabolites, allowed as food additives and act as powerful antioxidants. The herbal lip balm samples were gamma irradiated (2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy) at Mintec SINAGAMA, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi. The samples were tested for microbiology quality i.e. total microbial count and presence of yeast and mold. The results showed that there were no microbial and yeast/mold colonies were detected in non-irradiated samples (control) and after irradiation. The essential oils from herbs and spices included in the herbal lip balms not only improve the taste and aroma but also had potential as natural preservatives due to their antibacterial properties. Gamma irradiation at dose 2.5 kGy was suitable as minimum dose to decontaminate the herbal lip balm without affecting the colour and texture. From market survey, friendly lip balm is considered as a safe and attractive product, with multifunctional uses i.e. to prevent chapped lips, freshen the breath, reduces mouth odour and contributes to improving general health quality. (Author)

  16. An 11 000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Worona, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis were used to reconstruct an 11??000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history from Beaver Lake, Oregon, the first complete Holocene paleoecological record from the floor of the Willamette Valley. In the early Holocene (ca 11??000-7500 calendar years before present [cal??yr??BP]), warmer, drier summers than at present led to the establishment of xeric woodland of Quercus, Corylus, and Pseudotsuga near the site. Disturbances (i.e., floods, fires) were common at this time and as a result Alnus rubra grew nearby. High fire frequency occurred in the early Holocene from ca 11??200-9300??cal??yr??BP. Riparian forest and wet prairie developed in the middle Holocene (ca 7500??cal??yr??BP), likely the result of a decrease in the frequency of flooding and a shift to effectively cooler, wetter conditions than before. The vegetation at Beaver Lake remained generally unchanged into the late Holocene (from 4000??cal??yr??BP to present), with the exception of land clearance associated with Euro-American settlement of the valley (ca 160??cal??yr BP). Middle-to-late Holocene increases in fire frequency, coupled with abrupt shifts in fire-episode magnitude and charcoal composition, likely indicate the influence anthropogenic burning near the site. The paleoecological record from Beaver Lake, and in particular the general increase in fire frequency over the last 8500??years, differs significantly from other low-elevation sites in the Pacific Northwest, which suggests that local controls (e.g., shifts in vegetation structure, intensification of human land-use), rather than regional climatic controls, more strongly influenced its environmental history. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Environmental DNA for Detection of Endangered Grouper Species (Epinephelus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet A. Doğdu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems nestle species or populations known to be threatened due to human overexploitation. Reliable detection and monitoring of threatened organisms is crucial for data-driven conservation actions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA obtained directly from seawater samples to detect endangered grouper species (Epinephelus spp.. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI fragment of mtDNA was used to detect groupers species in the Mediterranean Coasts. We conducted eDNA sampling at sites by underwater diving across the range of the Grouper species habitats in Northeastern Mediterranean (Antalya-Kas Region and Iskenderun Bay. eDNA was isolated from 2 liter seawater samples which were vacuum-filtered onto 0.45-mm membrane filters. Filters were then folded inwards, placed in 2 ml tubes and stored at -20 oC until DNA extraction, which took place within 24 hours. DNA was extracted from the water sample filters using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen, USA. Manufacturer’s protocols were used during all steps. PCR amplification of eDNA samples were done using selective primers of COI region of mitochondrial DNA, and next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR application was conducted. For the successfully obtained COI sequences, maximum matching rates were revealed as 80% for Epinephelus marginatus, 78,95% for Epinephelus aeneus, 73,48% for Epinephelus costae, 63,45% for Epinephelus caninus, 60,12% for Mycteroperca rubra and 57,12% for Hyporthodus haifensis. Despite the methodological challenges inherent in eDNA analysis, the results demonstrated that eDNA method may be proved to step towards a new beginning to detect and monitor endangered grouper species.

  18. Evidence from Individual Inference for High-Dimensional Coexistence: Long-Term Experiments on Recruitment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S.; Soltoff, Benjamin D.; Powell, Amanda S.; Read, Quentin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background For competing species to coexist, individuals must compete more with others of the same species than with those of other species. Ecologists search for tradeoffs in how species might partition the environment. The negative correlations among competing species that would be indicative of tradeoffs are rarely observed. A recent analysis showed that evidence for partitioning the environment is available when responses are disaggregated to the individual scale, in terms of the covariance structure of responses to environmental variation. That study did not relate that variation to the variables to which individuals were responding. To understand how this pattern of variation is related to niche variables, we analyzed responses to canopy gaps, long viewed as a key variable responsible for species coexistence. Methodology/Principal Findings A longitudinal intervention analysis of individual responses to experimental canopy gaps with 12 yr of pre-treatment and 8 yr post-treatment responses showed that species-level responses are positively correlated – species that grow fast on average in the understory also grow fast on average in response to gap formation. In other words, there is no tradeoff. However, the joint distribution of individual responses to understory and gap showed a negative correlation – species having individuals that respond most to gaps when previously growing slowly also have individuals that respond least to gaps when previously growing rapidly (e.g., Morus rubra), and vice versa (e.g., Quercus prinus). Conclusions/Significance Because competition occurs at the individual scale, not the species scale, aggregated species-level parameters and correlations hide the species-level differences needed for coexistence. By disaggregating models to the scale at which the interaction occurs we show that individual variation provides insight for species differences. PMID:22393349

  19. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, Artur; Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  20. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Obidziński

    Full Text Available Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1 assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2 comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.