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Sample records for curable composition color

  1. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  2. Thixotropic, radiation curable compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    A reactive metal oxide or metal hydroxide, such as ZnO, MgO, HgO or Ba(OH) 2 and acrylic or methacrylic acid are added to a liquid, hydrophobic, essentially solvent-free coating vehicle capable of being cured by high-energy radiation. The resulting coating composition, as compared to the vehicle alone, can be cured with lower radiation doses, is less susceptible to oxygen inhibition of curing with ionizing radiation and exhibits a thixotropic viscosity which prevents excessive penetration of the coating into porous substrates and contributes non-drip, low-flow characteristics to the composition

  3. Radiation-curable organopolysiloxane composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.J.; Ziemelis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A radiation-curable polydiorganosiloxane composition comprises (A) a triorganosiloxane-endblocked polydiorganosiloxane with a major proportion of methyl radicals and a minor proportion of mercaptoalkyl radicals, (B) optionally a polymethylvinylsiloxane and (C), 1,1'-oxy-bis(1-methyl-1-silacyclopentene). From 0.2 to 2.0 silicon-bonded aliphatically unsaturated radicals are present for every silicon-bonded mercaptoalkyl radical. The molar ratio of silicon-bonded vinyl radicals to 1-methyl-1-silacyclopentenyl radicals is from 0 to 1.0. The composition is useful for coating onto a solid substrate and, after curing, improves the release of adhesive materials from the substrate. (author)

  4. Radiation-curable coating composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mibae, Jiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masao.

    1970-01-01

    A radiation-curable coating composition, suitable for metal precoating, is provided. The composition is prepared by mixing 50 to 90 parts of a long chain fatty acid ester (A) with 10 to 50 parts of monomer (B) which is copolymerizable with (A). (A) is prepared by reacting a dimer acid (particularly the dimer of linolenic acid) with hydroxyalkyl methacrylate or glycidyl methacrylate. Upon irradiation with electron beams (0.1 to 3 MeV) the composition cures to yield a coating of high adhesion, impact resistance and bending resistance. In one example, 100 g of dimer acid (Versadime 216, manufactured by General Mills) was esterified with 50 g of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. A zinc plated iron plate was coated with the product and irradiated with electron beams (2 Mrad). Pencil hardness was F; adhesion 0: impact resistance (Du Pont) 1 kg x 30 cm; bending resistance 2T. (Kaichi, S.)

  5. Radiation-curable prepreg composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.B.; Dickson, L.W.; Singh, A.; Carmichael, A.A.; Lopata, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    A potential application of electron-beam processing in composite manufacturing is curing carbon-fibre prepregs. These thermally curable prepregs, carbon fibres or fabrics preimpregnated with liquid polymer resin, are commonly used in the aircraft industry. A radiation-property specifications of a leading aircraft manufacturing company. Characterization studies showed that the maximum gel fraction in the cured polymer occurred at a dose of about 50 kGy and varied from 91 to 97%, depending on the type of atmosphere (air or nitrogen) and the pressure (100 to 1000 kPa) during irradiation. Only the acrylate groups of the resin took a significant part in the curing reactions. Some carbon dioxide was produced during radiation curing. The polymer was amorphous with a softening point of about 235 degrees Celsius and a linear thermal expansion coefficient of 1.3 x 10 -4 m/(m·degrees Celsius) between 25 and 150 degrees Celsius (30 to 50 kGy). Preliminary mechanical and physical testing of the prepreg composites has also been started

  6. Radiation curable compositions useful as transfer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, W.H.; Nagy, F.A.; Guarino, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is on a method for applying a coating to a thin porous substrate and reducing absorption of the coating into the substrate by applying a radiation-curable composition to a carrying web; the radiation-curable coating composition having a crosslink density of 0.02 to about 1.0 determined by calculation of the gram moles of branch points per 100 grams of uncured coating, and a glass transition temperature of the radiation cured coating within the approximate range of -80 degrees to +100 degrees C. The carrying web being of a nature such that the coating composition, when cured, will not adhere to its surface

  7. Radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesive composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuben, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesive composition comprises: a polyoxyalkylene homo- or copolymer which is either a polyoxyethylene homopolymer or a poly (oxyethylene-oxypropylene) copolymer, or mixture thereof, having a molecular weight of from 1,700 to 90,000, in which at least 40 percent by weight of the oxyalkylene units are oxyethylene units; a liquid carbamyloxy alkyl acrylate; and, optionally, a photoinitiator

  8. Radiation curable compounds for use in coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, C.B.; McMullen, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation curable compounds are disclosed which are derived from the reaction of a siloxy-containing carbinol, a polyisocyanate and polyfunctional compound having hydroxy and acrylic functional groups. The compounds have high cure rates, are compatible with other components of radiation curable, film forming compositions and impart good slip and other properties to cured film coatings. (author)

  9. Radiation curable adhesive compositions and composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.

    1984-01-01

    This disclosure relates to novel adhesive compositions and composite structures utilizing the same, wherein said adhesive compositions contain an elastomer, a chemically compatible ethylenically unsaturated monomer, a tackifier, an adhesion promoter, and optionally, pigments, fillers, thickeners and flow control agents which are converted from the liquid to the solid state by exposure to high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam. A particularly useful application for such adhesive compositions comprises the assembly of certain composite structures or laminates consisting of, for example, a fiber flocked rubber sheet and a metal base with the adhesive fulfilling the multiple functions of adhering the flocked fiber to the rubber sheet as well as adhering the rubber sheet to the metal base. Optionally, the rubber sheet itself may also be cured at the same time as the adhesive composition with all operations being carried out at ambient temperatures and in the presence of air, with exposure of said assembly to selected dosages of high energy ionizing radiation. These adhesive compositions contain no solvents thereby almost eliminating air pollution or solvent toxicity problems, and offer substantial savings in energy and labor as they are capable of curing in very short time periods without the use of external heat which might damage the substrate

  10. Coating composition curable by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromasa; Iijima, Ken-ichi.

    1971-01-01

    Here is provided a coating composition curable with low dose of electron beams to give a smooth coating film having no surface tackiness. In one example, 126 parts of melamine was reacted with 682 parts of formalin followed by 697 parts of β-hydroxyethyl acrylate to produce component (A) (viscosity 780 cp). On the other hand, 900 parts of tung oil was reacted with 343 parts of maleic anhydride followed by 22 parts of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and 406 parts of β-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The resulting product was diluted with 508 parts of methyl methacrylate to give component (B) (dark red, viscous substance). 900 parts of (A), 100 parts of (B), 0.5 part of bees wax and 0.2 part of paraffin wax were blended together. A sized material was coated with the mixture and irradiated with electron beams (6 Mrad) in the presence of air. A smooth film free from surface tackiness was obtained. β-hydroxyethyl acrylate may be replaced by other hydroxyalkyl esters of α,β-unsaturated acids, and melamine may be replaced by urea, benzoguanamine or acetoguanamine. Tung oil may be replaced by linseed, safflower, soybean, rice, oiticica or cotton seed oil. A more flexible film is obtained by using component (B) in a larger proportion. (A)/(B) ratio should be in the range of 90/10 to 10/90 by wt. (Kaichi, S.)

  11. Preparation and characterization of UV-curable cationic composite adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Yang Wenbin; Li Yintao; Xie Changqiong; Li Yingjun; Cheng Yafei; Zhou Yuanlin; Lu Zhongyuan

    2011-01-01

    UV-curable cationic composite adhesives containing TiO 2 nanostructures were prepared by using 3, 4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3, 4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate(CE) as monomer, triphenylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salt (PI-432) as photoinitiator and titanium isopropoxide (TIP) as inorganic precursor. The morphology of the composite adhesives was characterized by atom force microscopy (AFM). The effect of TIP content on refractive index and transmittance of adhesives were studied. The results show that TiO 2 nanostructures, the average diameter of which is 20 nm or so, can be uniformly dispersed in polymers of composite adhesives. The refractive index of adhesives can be adjusted from 1.501 9 to 1.544 9 with the change of TIP content. The transmittance of adhesives has a slight reduce with the increase of TIP content. When TIP content is up to 40%, the transmittance of composite adhesives remains around 90% or so. (authors)

  12. Process for the production of radiation curable coating compositions containing microcapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.; Shackle, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A process for producing a radiation curable coating composition containing microcapsules comprises the steps of preparing a dispersion of substantially discrete microcapsules in a continuous phase, the continuous phase comprising a liquid volatile solvent, preparing a liquid radiation curable suspending medium, the liquid radiation curable suspending medium comprising one or more ethylenically unsaturated organic compounds having at least one terminal ethylenic group per molecule, mixing the dispersion of substantially discrete microcapsules in the continuous phase and the liquid radiation curable suspending medium with turbulent agitation to form an intimate mixture of the dispersion of microcapsules and the liquid radiation curable suspending medium, and applying heat and vacuum to the mixture, while maintaining the agitation, until the liquid volatile solvent is substantially removed from the mixture to form a dispersion of substantially discrete microcapsules in the liquid radiation curable suspending medium. The heat is applied to maintain the mixture at a temperature above the boiling point of the volatile solvent at the vacuum level

  13. Siloxane urethane acrylate radiation curable compounds for use in coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, C.B.; McMullen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation curable compounds are disclosed which are derived from the reaction of siloxy-containing carbinol, a polyisocyanate and a polyfunctional compound having hydroxy and acrylic functional groups. The compounds have high cure rates, are compatible with other components of radiation curable, film forming compositions and impart good slip and other properties to cured film coatings

  14. Unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu; Murata, Koichiro.

    1971-01-01

    An unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations and excellent in weather resistance is provided. The composition is obtained by reacting 10-12 moles of a polyhydric alcohol (e.g. ethylene glycol) with 10 moles of an acid mixture (25.45% by mole of endo-cis-bicyclo (2,2,1)-5-heptene-2-3-dicarboxylic acid (A), 20-40% of unsaturated dibasic acid and 15-55% of saturated dibasic acid) so that the acid value reaches 4-11. The composition is useful as coating, laminating and molding materials. As a coating material it is excellent in surface hardening property. The ionizing radiation used is preferably β-, α-rays or electron beams. In one example, and unsaturated polyester was prepared by reacting 3 moles of fumaric acid, 2 moles of phthalic anhydride, 3 moles of adipic acid 3, moles of (A), 10 moles of neopentyl glycol and 1 mole of trimethylolpropane. The resin was dissolved into a mixture of styrene, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate (50:8:42) and incorporated with titanium white. An ABS plate was coated with the enamel thus obtained and irradiated with electron beams (12 Mrad). In exposure test at 60 0 C, luster of the film was 92 before exposure and 83 after 30 months. In a comparative run in which (A) was not used, luster of the film decreased from 90 to 45 in 30 months. (Sakaichi, S.)

  15. Composite properties for S-2 glass in a room-temperature-curable epoxy matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. L.; Moore, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The authors have measured thermal and mechanical properties of several composites of S-2 glass fiber in a room-temperature-curable epoxy matrix. The filament-wound composites ranged from 50 to 70 vol% fiber. The composites had generally good to excellent mechanical properties, particularly in view of the moderate cost of the material. However, the composites showed rapid increases in transverse thermal expansion above 50 C, and this property must be carefully considered if any use above that temperature is contemplated.

  16. Ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive for piezoelectric composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liao, Qingwei; Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Zhong, Chao; Zhang, Di

    2018-01-01

    Limited by the low thermal resistance of composite material, ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conduction treatment of piezoelectric composite material. An ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength for the applications of piezoelectric composite material was investigated. The crystal structure of cured adhesive, SEM/EDS analysis, thermal analysis, adhesive properties and conductive properties of different content of nano-silver filler or micron-silver doping samples were studied. The results show that with 60 wt.% nano-silver filler the ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive had the relatively good conductivity as volume resistivity of 2.37 × 10-4 Ω cm, and good adhesion strength of 5.13 MPa. Minor micron-doping (below 15 wt.%) could improve conductivity, but would decrease other properties. The ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive could successfully applied to piezoelectric composite material.

  17. Solid radiation curable polyene compositions containing liquid polythiols and solid styrene-allyl copolymer based polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Novel styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer based solid polyene compositions which when mixed with liquid polythiols can form solid curable polyene-polythiol systems are claimed. These solid polyenes, containing at least two reactive carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, are urethane or ester derivatives of styrene-allyl alcohol copolymers. The solid polyenes are prepared by treating the hydroxyl groups of a styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer with a reactive unsaturated isocyanate, e.g., allyl isocyanate or a reactive unsaturated carboxylic acid, e.g., acrylic acid. Upon exposure to a free radical generator, e.g., actinic radiation, the solid polyene-polythiol compositions cure to solid, insoluble, chemically resistant, cross-linked polythioether products. Since the solid polyene-liquid polythiol composition can be cured in a solid state, such a curable system finds particular use in preparation of coatings, imaged surfaces such as photoresists, particularly solder-resistant photoresists, printing plates, etc

  18. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  19. Method of coating using active radiation curable polyene-polythiol compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A curable composition comprising compatible polyene and polythiol in which both the components ae derived from a hydantoin glycol is claimed. The polyene is typically a reaction product of N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylhydantoin, a diisocyanate and an unsaturated alcohol, e.g., allyl alcohol. The polythiol is typically a reaction product of N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylhydantoin and a mercapto carboxylic acid, e.g., β-mercaptopropionic acid. Upon exposure to a free radical generator, e.g., actinic radiation, this polyene-polythiol composition cures to solid, insoluble, chemically resistant, cross-linked polythioether products

  20. Mechanical and thermal properties of UV curable polyurethane acrylate composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sofian Alias; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mohd Hamzah Harun; Mohd Yusof Hamzah; Rosley Che Ismail

    2012-01-01

    UV curable coating formulation comprises urethane acrylate resin and nano silica as filter were synthesized to develop UV curable inorganic hybrid composite (PUA). The surface of the nano silica was chemically modified to improve its chemical interaction within the urethane acrylate matrix. The modification had been undertaken by applying vinyltrymetoxysilane (VTMOS) that acted as a coupling agent to produce organophilic silica shell (SIMA). The shell is linked to the silica via reaction with the surface silanol group of the silica. The disappearance of methoxy groups in VTMOS was demonstrated by FTIR spectrum. The percentage of silica particles in UV curable hybrid formulation were varied on 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 25 wt % respectively. In this work, the formulation was applied on medium density fiber board (MDF) substrate and subsequent has been irradiated under UV light. Then, the coated MDF were characterized by several testing equipment (TGA, DSC, scratch tester, instron, SEM). From the result, we found that the addition of silica nanoparticles exhibit significant improvement in coating film properties as compared to film without silica nanoparticle includes significant improvement in its modulus and scratch resistance. This make them as promising coating candidate for MDF product. On the other hand, we also found that an increase of silica particle up to 25 wt %, the viscosity has increased rapidly indicates that it is not suitable for acrylate coating formulation due to disappearance of desired effect known as thixotropy. (Author)

  1. Influence of monomer on structure, processing and application characteristics of UV curable urethane acrylate composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigale-Sorocina, Z; Kalnins, M; Gross, K A

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest in the esthetical natural nail coatings have encouraged more in-depth studies particularly of UV curable coatings: their formation, processing, structure, characteristics and removing. Typical requirement for nail coatings is good adhesion, but preferably for the short time of functioning (usual 2-4 weeks). This study investigated the impact of four different monomers (tertiobutyl cyclohexyl acrylate (TBCHA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate (THFA), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA)) to viscosity of uncured mixture and degree of conversion, mechanical properties, surface gloss, micro hardness and adhesion loss for cured films. Specific coating application requires comparatively high coating flexibility and stability of deformation characteristics. This can be achieved with composition containing 30% of monomer TBCHA, what shows ultimate elongation ε B = 0,23 - 0,24, modulus of elasticity E = 670-710 MPa and comparatively constant properties in 72 hours (ΔE = 1.3%, Δε B =6.0%). A composition with 40% of TBCHA shows the fastest coating destruction achieving adhesion loss within 3 min. (paper)

  2. New photo-curable resin compositions for stereolithography with a new photo-fabricator: SCS-300P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura Tetsuya; Tanabe Takayoshi; Ukachi Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Stereolithography is the technology which can create a three-dimensional free-forin in short time according to the slice data of an object. A thin layer of the solidified resin is formed at the surface of the liquid UV curable resin by irradiation of UV laser which is driven by the slice data of the object. Ever since the invention of the stereolithography, there has been a considerable interest to realize the CAD date into a practical three dimensional model. Conventional stereolithographic machines equip gas lasers which are operated at high voltage and requires water cooling system. These disadvantages prevent a wide spread of application of stereolithographic technology. A new sterolithographic machine, SCS-300P has been developed and introduced by SONY Corporation last year. This brand new machine is featuring a high power solid-state UV laser, low machine price, small in size and equips easy-resin-exchange system for maintenance. The biggest difference of SCS-300P from the conventional machines is the laser system. SCS-300P equips pulse laser with the wave length of 355 run which is a third harmonic of YAG laser. The energy of each pulse with a duration time of 20 nsec is more than five thousand times higher than that of continuous emission such as Argon ion laser employed in the conventional machines. With using conventional LTV curable resins, high photo-energy tends to give a gelation even in a dark region or give an undesirable excess-cure underneath of the cured layer. It is thus needed to develop the resin suitable for high power pulse lasers. In this paper, we report a newly developed UV curable resin compositions suitable for SCS-300P which equips high power solid-state pulse laser

  3. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  4. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  5. Understanding of the color in composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Park

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In clinic, esthetic restoration of a defective natural tooth with composite resin is challenging procedure and needs complete understanding of the color of tooth itself and materials used. The optical characteristics of the composites are different because the chemical compositions and microstructures are not same. This review provided basic knowledge of the color and the color measurement devices, and analyze the color of the natural tooth. Further, the accuracy of the shade tab, color of the composite resins before and after curing, effect of the water, food and bleaching agent, and translucency, opalescence, and fluorescence effects were evaluated.

  6. UV-curable hybrid organic-inorganic composite inks with a high refractive index for printing interference images and holograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremeeva, Elena A.; Yakovlev, Aleksandr V.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Vinogradov, Alexandr V.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report a new, facile and inexpensive methodology for obtaining highly refractive polymers suitable for inkjet printing using hexacoordinated titanium complexes (THC) and a UV-curable lacquer based on triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TGD) that is a cheap and non-toxic monomer that can be

  7. Silane effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of transparent SiO2/UV-curable resin nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Chang, Yu-Lun; Chen, Chi-Yu; Yen, Fu-Su

    2011-01-01

    Transparent ultraviolet curable nano-composite coatings consisting of nano-sized SiO 2 and acrylate resin have been developed to improve the abrasion resistance of organic polymers. The nano-sized SiO 2 particles were surface-modified using various amounts of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane concentration effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of the transparent SiO 2 /ultraviolet-curable resin nano-composites were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.6, the dispersion, compatibility and cross-linking density between the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane-modified SiO 2 particles and acrylate resin were improved, leading to an increase in abrasion resistance. However, as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio was increased to 1.5, the additional 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane may exceed that needed to fill the pores with the probability of SiO 2 nano-particles existing on the coating surface was lower than that for samples with a 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio of 0.6. This produced a decrease in abrasion resistance.

  8. Composite Techniques Based Color Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ibrahim Abood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compression for color image is now necessary for transmission and storage in the data bases since the color gives a pleasing nature and natural for any object, so three composite techniques based color image compression is implemented to achieve image with high compression, no loss in original image, better performance and good image quality. These techniques are composite stationary wavelet technique (S, composite wavelet technique (W and composite multi-wavelet technique (M. For the high energy sub-band of the 3rd level of each composite transform in each composite technique, the compression parameters are calculated. The best composite transform among the 27 types is the three levels of multi-wavelet transform (MMM in M technique which has the highest values of energy (En and compression ratio (CR and least values of bit per pixel (bpp, time (T and rate distortion R(D. Also the values of the compression parameters of the color image are nearly the same as the average values of the compression parameters of the three bands of the same image.

  9. Diazo Printing of ERTS Color Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 color composites were made with the help of a Diazo developer and printer. Five single channel, density standards were established, using typical ERTS images, in order to determine exposure time. These standards were used to develop a graph from which the exposure time for any transparency can be estimated. Exposure times varied from 3 to 30 minutes, and clear colored polyester sheets from two manufactures were used with slightly different, but equally successful, results.

  10. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  12. Improvements in and relating to radiation curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A radiation curable liquid prepolymer for preparing a radiation curable composition is described, the prepolymer comprising the reaction product of a polyamide polyamine and an unsaturated polybasic carboxylic acid or an anhydride or lower alkyl ester of such an acid. (author)

  13. Improvements in and relating to radiation curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A radiation curable coating composition is described comprising a radiation curable liquid prepolymer which includes a waxy or oil material therein, the waxy or oily material being of limited compatibility with the liquid prepolymer so that a thin layer of the waxy or oily material migrates to the surface of the coating. (author)

  14. Radiation curable oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huemmer, T.F.; Edison, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    A process is described for the high energy radiation curing of oligomers for use as coatings. The method is particularly applicable to the reaction products of certain low molecular weight epoxy compounds and certain low molecular weight mono-hydroxy vinyl compounds having at least one vinylic unsaturation. The curable mixture is applied as a thin film and cured very quickly

  15. Radiation curable epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najvar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    A carboxyl containing polymer is either prepared in the presence of a polyepoxide or reacted with a polyepoxide. The polymer has sufficient acid groups to react with only about 1 to 10 percent of the epoxide (oxirane) groups. The remaining epoxide groups are reacted with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid such as acrylic or methacrylic acid to form a radiation curable resin

  16. Radiation curable inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolon, D.A.; Lucas, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation curable ink is provided which is convertible to a conductive coating when cured on the surface of a substrate. When used as a printing ink, improved results are achieved if a minor amount of a blend of paraffin waxes is employed to control solvent evaporation

  17. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  18. Composite shade guides and color matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Gaetano; Orsini, Giovanna; Manauta, Jordi; Devoto, Walter; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable systems that can help the clinician match the color of direct composite restorations is often an issue. After reviewing several composite shade guides available on the market and outlining their main characteristics and limits (unrealistic specimen thickness, not made with the same material the clinician will use, only a few allow to overlap enamel tabs on dentin ones), the authors evaluated the reliability of a system designed to produce self-made standardized "tooth-shaped" shade guide specimens. Small changes in composite enamel thickness may determine huge differences in esthetic outcomes. In conclusion, the results showed that all the specimens demonstrated comparable enamel thickness in all the examined areas (cervical, middle, incisal).

  19. Photosensitizers for radiation-curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, W.F. III.

    1977-01-01

    2-Alkoxy-1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione compounds have been found useful as photosensitizers in radiation-curable coating compositions. The novel photosensitizers of this invention have the structural formula in which R is an alkyl radical of from one eight carbon atoms. 11 claims

  20. Radiation-curable adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-curable adhesives may be classified into two broad categories. In the first category, adhesive bonding occurs as a direct result of irradiation. The second category includes pressure-sensitive and hot-melt adhesives, which are composed of linear or lightly cross-linked polymers prepared by a radiation-induced polymerization reaction. This chapter is mainly concerned with radiation-curable adhesives of the first category. The various adhesive types are discussed and adhesive performance is examined, particularly in relation to the chemistry and chemical technology which underlies the individual materials. A description of a limited number of representative applications is included as is an outline of recent developments of curing and dispensing equipment. 268 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Curable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hochster, Howard S.

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer, though already metastatic, may still be curable through multi-modality approaches, which require combined planning between medical and surgical oncologists. Retrospective surgical series have historically shown 5-year survival or “cures” for 30% to 50% of patients with solitary or a few resectable liver metastases. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting has been poorly defined. A recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study randomize...

  2. EB curable laminating adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Asao; Kobayashi, Masahide; Gotoh, Sakiko

    1992-01-01

    New developed solvent free EB curable laminating adhesives have two liquid components, A with hydroxy and acryloyl group, B with isocyanate and acryloyl group in a molecule. These EB laminating adhesives do not need any aging process, which is a big advantage, and are very suitable for environment, safety, and health because of no heating process and solvent free formulas. And we have made basic research about the relation of peel strength or heat seal strength versus Tg of cured film, elongation at break, elastic modulus, and so on. Basic specifications of the new developed adhesives are shown. (author)

  3. Electron beam curable polymer thick film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    Currently, most printed circuit boards are produced by the selective etching of copper clads laminated on dielectric substrates such as paper/phenolic resion or nonwoven glass/epoxy resin composites. After the etchig, various components such as transistors and capacitors are mounted on the boards by soldering. But these are troublesome works, therefore, as an alternative, printing method has been investigated recently. In the printing method, conductor circuits and resistors can be made by printing and curing of the specially prepared paste on dielectric substrates. In the near future, also capacitors are made by same method. Usually, conductor paste, resistor paste and dielectric paste are employed, and in this case, the printing is screen printing, and the curing is done thermally. In order to avoid heating and the deterioration of substrates, attention was paid to electron beam curing, and electron beam curable polymer thick film system was developed. The electron beam curable paste is the milled mixture of a filler and an electron beam curable binder of oligomer/monomer. The major advantage of electron beam curable polymer thick film, the typical data of a printed resistor of this type and its trial are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornavoi, Denise Cremonezzi; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Panzeri, Heitor; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color change of composite resins used in dentistry. Three composite resins were evaluated: Two microhybrids and one hybrid of higher viscosity, with different amounts and sizes of filler particles, shades C2 and B2. A total of 54 specimens were obtained (18 for each composite resin), made of a Teflon matrix (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height). The color measurements were obtained with a Spectrophotometer, (PCB 6807 BYK Gardner) before and after AAA. Data were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α >0.05), ANOVA and Tukey test (α 3). Considering the variable ∆E, it was observed that the color tone C2 was already statistically different for the microhybrid composite resin prior to AAA (P aging the composite resin hybrid of higher viscosity B2 showed the highest color variation rate and microhybrid with zirconium/silica C2 showed the lowest. All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2) and after (B2). It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  5. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  6. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  7. Digital color analysis of color-ratio composite LANDSAT scenes. [Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented that can be used to calculate approximate Munsell coordinates of the colors produced by making a color composite from three registered images. Applied to the LANDSAT MSS data of the Goldfield, Nevada, area, this method permits precise and quantitative definition of the limonitic areas originally observed in a LANDSAT color ratio composite. In addition, areas of transported limonite can be discriminated from the limonite in the hydrothermally altered areas of the Goldfield mining district. From the analysis, the numerical distinction between limonitic and nonlimonitic ground is generally less than 3% using the LANDSAT bands and as much as 8% in ratios of LANDSAT MSS bands.

  8. A composite model of the space-time and 'colors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1987-03-01

    A pregeometric and pregauge model of the space-time and ''colors'' in which the space-time metric and ''color'' gauge fields are both composite is presented. By the non-triviality of the model, the number of space-time dimensions is restricted to be not larger than the number of ''colors''. The long conjectured space-color correspondence is realized in the model action of the Nambu-Goto type which is invariant under both general-coordinate and local-gauge transformations. (author)

  9. Effect of Ingested Liquids on Color Change of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Afzali, Beheshteh; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirani, Asrin; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Akbarzade Baghban, Alireza; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-08-01

    Color change of composite restorations is well known to dentists. However, the effect of commonly consumed drinks on discoloration of composite resins has yet to be determined. This study sought to assess the color change of a nanofilled (Premise) and a flowable composite resin (Premise flowable) following simulated consumption of tea, cola, iron drops and multivitamin syrup. Forty disk-shaped specimens (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from each composite resin. The baseline color values were measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using digital imaging. The specimens of each restorative material were randomly divided into five groups (eight each) according to the storage media namely tea, cola, iron drops, multivitamin syrup or distilled water (control). The specimens were immersed in staining solutions for three hours daily over a 40-day test period. Following this, the color change values (ΔE*) were calculated. For statistical analyses, the color differences were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (Pcomposite resins (P>0.05). In both composite materials, the difference among the solutions was not significant (P>0.05). Under the tested experimental conditions, both restorative materials were susceptible to discoloration by all four staining solutions. The color change values were not related to the solution or the type of material used.

  10. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOUFIK MANSOUR

    An r-color composition of a positive integer n is a sequence of positive integers, called parts, summing ... A non-increasing sequence of positive integers, called parts, whose sum is a given positive integer is called a ..... of d-ary r-color words according to the number of rises and the value of the statistic σ. (here, the variable y ...

  11. Curable fluorocarbon substituted polyetherurethaneacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, R.G.; Wolf, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable compositions comprise polyetherurethaneacrylates having pendant fluorocarbon substituents. The compositions may be radiation polymerized, e.g. by electron beam, actinic light or heat, to a light transmissive material. The fluorocarbon substituent generally has the formula-W-Rsub(f), wherein W is a divalent connecting moiety and Rsub(f) is a highly fluorinated, preferably perfluorinated, aliphatic, aryl or alkaryl radical. These compositions may be utilized as 100% solids. The compositions are particularly useful for joining electro-optical components, and as a protective coating. (author)

  12. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  13. Novel yellow colored flame compositions with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of colored flames is the primary purpose of military signaling, projectile tracing, and illuminating devices. Certain elements and compounds when heated to high temperature have the unique property of emitting lines or narrow bands in the visible region (380–780 nm. This study, reports on the development of novel yellow colored flame compositions with enhanced spectral performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality to standard Russian yellow tracer. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed yellow flares were measured using digital luxmeter and UV–Vis. spectrometer respectively. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity, and color quality of Russian yellow tracer were improved by 287%, and 170% respectively. This was accomplished by means of optimizing the ratio of novel binder to color source using aluminum metal fuel. Aluminum-based formulations were found to maximize the formation of yellow reactive emitting specimens, and to eliminate any interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO. Quantification of yellow color emitting specimens in the combustion gaseous products was achieved using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology in Germany, Virgin 2008; in an attempt to judge the light quality. This improvement in yellow flare performance established the rule that the emission intensity increases as the reaction temperature increases. In the meantime upper limit of temperature was avoided to maximize the color quality.

  14. Improvements in and relating to radiation curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of producing a liquid prepolymer for preparing a radiation curable composition, comprising progressively adding a secondary polyether polyol to a polyisocyanate thereby effecting a controlled reaction in which the polyisocyanate is at all times in excess, and further adding an ethylenically unsaturated reactive hydrogen containing compound in sufficient quantity to react with substantially all of the unreacted polyisocyanate. (author)

  15. Relationship between Color and Translucency of Multishaded Dental Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Naeimi Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the translucency of different shades of two highly aesthetic multilayered restorative composite resins. In total nine shades from Esthet.X and ten shades from Filtek Supreme composite resins were chosen. Discs of each shade were prepared (N=3 and light-cured. Total and diffuse transmittance values for each sample were measured. Statistical analysis showed that the opaque dentine shades of both composites were the least translucent and the enamel shades had the highest translucency. There was a significant decrease in translucency from A2 to C2 of regular body shades and also from A4 to C4 of opaque dentine shades of Esthet.X composite resin. Grey enamel shade had a significantly higher diffuse translucency compared to clear and yellow enamel shades. There was a significant decrease in translucency from A2B to D2B and also in diffuse translucency from A4D to C6D shades of Filtek Supreme composite resin. It can be concluded that the color of the composite resins tested in this study had a significant effect on their translucency. Information on the translucency of different shades of composite resins can be very useful for the clinicians in achieving optimal esthetic restorative outcome.

  16. Munsell color analysis of Landsat color-ratio-composite images of limonitic areas in southwest New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    The causes of color variations in the green areas on Landsat 4/5-4/6-6/7 (red-blue-green) color-ratio-composite (CRC) images, defined as limonitic areas, were investigated by analyzing the CRC images of the Lordsburg, New Mexico area. The red-blue-green additive color system was mathematically transformed into the cylindrical Munsell color coordinates (hue, saturation, and value), and selected areas were digitally analyzed for color variation. The obtained precise color characteristics were then correlated with properties of surface material. The amount of limonite (L) visible to the sensor was found to be the primary cause of the observed color differences. The visible L is, is turn, affected by the amount of L on the material's surface and by within-pixel mixing of limonitic and nonlimonitic materials. The secondary cause of variation was vegetation density, which shifted CRC hues towards yellow-green, decreased saturation, and increased value.

  17. A Study on the Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Photo-Curable Ceramic/Polymer Composites with Different Silane Coupling Agents for SLA 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Se Yeon; Park, Min Soo; Lee, Jung Woo; Yun, Ji Sun

    2018-02-07

    Silane coupling agents (SCAs) with different organofunctional groups were coated on the surfaces of Al₂O₃ ceramic particles through hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and the SCA-coated Al₂O₃ ceramic particles were dispersed in a commercial photopolymer based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs). The organofunctional groups that have high radical reactivity and are more effective in UV curing systems are usually functional groups based on acryl, such as acryloxy groups, methacrloxy groups, and acrylamide groups, and these silane coupling agents seem to improve interfacial adhesion and dispersion stability. The coating morphology and the coating thickness distribution of SCA-coated Al₂O₃ ceramic particles according to the different organofunctional groups were observed by FE-TEM. The initial dispersibility and dispersion stability of the SCA-coated Al₂O₃/High-temp composite solutions were investigated by relaxation NMR and Turbiscan. The rheological properties of the composite solutions were investigated by viscoelastic analysis and the mechanical properties of 3D-printed objects were observed with a nanoindenter.

  18. A Study on the Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Photo-Curable Ceramic/Polymer Composites with Different Silane Coupling Agents for SLA 3D Printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Yeon Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Silane coupling agents (SCAs with different organofunctional groups were coated on the surfaces of Al2O3 ceramic particles through hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and the SCA-coated Al2O3 ceramic particles were dispersed in a commercial photopolymer based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs. The organofunctional groups that have high radical reactivity and are more effective in UV curing systems are usually functional groups based on acryl, such as acryloxy groups, methacrloxy groups, and acrylamide groups, and these silane coupling agents seem to improve interfacial adhesion and dispersion stability. The coating morphology and the coating thickness distribution of SCA-coated Al2O3 ceramic particles according to the different organofunctional groups were observed by FE-TEM. The initial dispersibility and dispersion stability of the SCA-coated Al2O3/High-temp composite solutions were investigated by relaxation NMR and Turbiscan. The rheological properties of the composite solutions were investigated by viscoelastic analysis and the mechanical properties of 3D-printed objects were observed with a nanoindenter.

  19. [Effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenzhong; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins. Five resin composite materials were tested in this in vitro study. The five composites were as follow: two indirect composite resins (Adoro SR, Ceramage) and three direct composite resins (Filtek Z350, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, and Gradia Direct Anterior). For each material, twenty disk-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into five groups according to the color parameters of specimens before bleaching treatment. The composite resin specimens were treated by one of five sample solutions which were at-home bleaching agents (10% and 15% carbarmide peroxide), in- office bleaching agents (38% H(2)O(2) and 35%H(2)O(2)) and deionized water (control group). The color parameters of specimens were measured by spectrophotometer at baseline and after bleaching treatments. The color differences (ΔE values) between baseline and post-treatments were calculated. The data of color differences were evaluated statistically using two-way analysis with a significance level of 0.05. The color changes of the resin composites were less than 2.0 after bleaching agent treatment, therefore were not perceptible. Slight increase of L(*) values and decrease of C(*)ab values in color parameters of specimens were observed. There were statistically significant differences in ΔE values for different bleaching treatments and resin materials (P = 0.001). The bleaching agents did not affect the color of indirect and direct composite resins tested.

  20. Effect of preheat repetition on color stability of methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed Kahnamouei, Mehdi; Gholizadeh, Sarah; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Rezaei, Yashar

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins on their color stability up to 40 times at 55‒60°C. Methods. Seventy-six methacrylate and silorane-based composite resin samples, with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 2 mm, were divided into 4 groups (n=19). After the samples were prepared, their color parameters were determined using a reflective spectrophotometer. The composite resin samples were separately stored in a solution of tea for 40 consecutive days. Then the samples underwent a color determination procedure again using a spectrophotometer and color changes were recorded. Finally two-way ANOVA was used to study the effect of composite temperature on its staining (Pcomposite resin samples compared to non-heated samples at P=0.005 and P=0.029 for silorane-based and Z250 composite resin samples, respectively. Results. Both composite resin type (P=0.014) and preheating (Pcomposite resin samples, up to 55‒60°C for 40 rounds, resulted in more color changes compared with unheated composite resin samples. After storage in a solution of tea the color change rate in the composite resin samples of silorane-based was higher than the Z250 composite resin samples.

  1. Fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (45°x: 45°) for color analysis of dental composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Marco; Ludwig, Nicola; Federighi, Veronica; Sykes, Ros; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Varoni, Elena M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the application of a fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) prototype probe for 45°x: 45° FORS for determining color of dental materials. A portable spectrophotometer with a highly manageable fiber optics co-axial probe was used to apply 45°x: 45° FORS for color matching in restorative dentistry. The color coordinates in CIELAB space of two dental shade guides and of the corresponding photopolymerized composites were collected and compared. The 45°x: 45° FORS with the co-axial probe (test system), the integrating sphere spectroscopy (reference system) and a commercial dental colorimeter (comparator system) were used to collect data and calculate color differences (ΔE and ΔE00). FORS system displayed high repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy. ΔE and ΔE00 values between the shade-guide, each other, and the corresponding composites resulted above the clinically acceptable limit. The 45°x: 45° FORS test system demonstrated suitable in vitro performance for dental composite color evaluation. 45°x: 45° fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy allows reliable color analysis of small surfaces of dental composites, favoring the color matching of material with the closely surrounding dental tissue, and confirming significant color differences between shade guide tabs and photo-polymerized composites.

  2. Radiation curable polymer coatings. January 1972-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1972-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and compositions used in radiation-curable polymer coatings. Protective and decorative coatings on metallic and non-metallic substrates curable with light, including ultraviolet, are disclosed. Abrasion-resistant coating techniques are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 186 citations, 16 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Radiation-curable polymer coatings. January 1970-October 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and compositions used in radiation curable polymer coatings. Protective and decorative coatings on metallic and nonmetallic substrates curable with light, including ultraviolet, are disclosed. Abrasion-resistant coating techniques are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 170 citations, 11 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Effect of Bleaching on Color Change and Surface Topography of Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Pruthi, Gunjan; Jain, Veena; Kandpal, H. C.; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Shah, Naseem

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Esthet X (Dentsply India), and Admira (Voco, Germany). Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS). 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Den...

  5. Radiation curable hydantoin diacrylate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, R.; DiPrima, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The diacrylate compounds are liquid at room temperature, easily processable as adhesives, casting and laminating resins and when cured possess excellent resistance to water. These compositions are easily cured exposure to ionizing radiations

  6. Pluto and Charon: Surface Colors and Compositions - A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The surface of Pluto displays an array of colors ranging from yellow to red to brown, while the surface of Charon is largely gray with a north polar zone of red color similar to regions on Pluto. Pluto's surface shows layers of intensely colored material in tilted and transported blocks, and fractured geo-graphical units. This arrangement suggests episodes of formation or deposition of that material interspersed with episodes of emplacement of ices having little or no color. The ices identified on the surfaces of these two bodies (N2, CH4, CO, C2H6, H2O on Pluto, and H2O and NH3 on Charon) are colorless, as are nearly all ices in a powdery state. The colors on Pluto probably arise from the in situ formation of a macro-molecular carbonaceous material generated by energetic processing of the ices on the surface. Laboratory experiments producing refractory tholins particularly relevant to Pluto explored the chemistry of both UV and low-energy electron bombardment of a mix of Pluto ices (N2:CH4:CO = 100:1:1). We can term this Pluto ice tholin PIT. Water ice in the crystalline state characterizes Charon's surface, and while most of Charon's surface is neutral in color, with geometric albedo approximately 0.38, the polar zone and a light cover of fainter but similar reddish color over some surface regions suggest a common origin with the colored material on Pluto. NH3 or NH3 x nH2O was identified from disk-integrated Earth-based spectra, and a few concentrated NH3 exposures have been found in the New Horizons spectral images.

  7. Color and opacity of composites protected with surface sealants and submitted to artificial accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fabiano Gamero; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the color similarity, stability and opacity of composites (TPH, Charisma, and Concept, shade A2) protected with surface sealants (Fortify Plus and Biscover) and cyanoacrylate (Super Bonder). Forty specimens of each composite were made and separated into 4 groups (n=10) according to the surface protection: GI - without sealant; GII - cyanoacrylate; GIII - Fortify Plus; GIV - Biscover. Color and opacity readings were taken before and after Artificial Acelerated Aging (AAA) and the values obtained for color stability were submitted to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (P<.05). The values acquired for color similarity were submitted to 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P<.05). The specimen sufaces were compared before and after AAA using Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). Studied composites did not present the same values for the coordinates L*, a* and b * before AAA, indicating that there was no color similarity among them. All composites presented color alteration after AAA with clinically unacceptable values. Protected groups presented lower opacity variation after AAA, in comparison with the control goup. SEM evaluation demonstrated that AAA increased the surface irregularities in all of the studied groups. Surface sealants were not effective in maintaining composite color, but were able to maintain opacity.

  8. UV-curable polyurethane coatings derived from cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M. M.; Patel, K. I.; Patel, H. B.; Parmar, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    At the present time coating industry is devoting much research in the direction of low volatile organic compounds to make eco-friendly coating material. In this study, such materials are developed from cellulose derived from bagasse, a sugar industry waste. Cellulose is converted to cellulose glyco glycoside by acid hydrolysis of cellulose under heterogeneous condition. Cellulose glyco glycoside is treated with polyethylene glycol having different molecular weights to give glyco glycosides which in turn are reacted with various diisocyanates to obtain polyurethane having free NCO groups. These materials are then reacted with hydroxyethylmethacrylate to give polyurethane acrylates. The acrylates are characterized for specific gravity, viscosity, colour and molecular weight as well as by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The UV-curable coating composition was prepared by blending PU-acrylate, reactive diluents and photoinitiator. Coating compositions were cured under UV-light and characterized for adhesion, flexibility, impact resistance, solvent resistance and for dynamic mechanical analysis as well as by thermal gravimetric analysis for thermal stability. The cured films give thickness of 23-24 microns and cure time required is less than 1.5-2.0 min. There is no liberation of any volatiles during curing and films have good adhesion to mild steel substrate. The cured coatings give excellent dynamic, mechanical and chemical properties. The scratch resistance was found to be satisfactory. The application was made in unpigmented form but it is found that various pigments can be used to give coloured UV-curable coatings.

  9. Radiation curable Michael addition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.W.; Friedlander, C.B.; McDonald, W.H.; Dowbenko, R.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable acrylyloxy-containing reaction products are provided from Michael addition reaction of an amide containing at least two acrylate groups with a primary or secondary amine. The resulting amine adducts of the amide, which contain at least one acrylate group per molecule, possesses high cure rates in air and are useful in compositions for forming coatings. (author)

  10. Effect of different polishing systems and drinks on the color stability of resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Asll; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Baseren, Meserret; Gurgan, Sevil

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composit using different finishing systems and drinks. Composit disks (5 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each nanofilled composite using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 5 finishing system groups Mylar strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del., USA), Soft Lex (3M(™) ESPE(™) St. Paul, MN, USA), Enhance (Dentsply-DeTrey GmbHD Konstanz, Germany), Hiluster (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland), Opti Disc (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland) and each group was divided into 10 subgroups (n = 10) and stored for 24 hours at 37°C in different drinks water coffee, coffee with sugar, tea, tea with sugar, diet coke, coke, light sour cherry juice or sour cherry juice. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* relative, and color changes (ΔE*) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). For the drinks, the lowest ΔE* values were observed in the water and highest ΔE* values were observed in sour cherry juice. When drinks with and without sugar were compared, all groups with sugar demonstrated a higher color difference than without sugar. For the different finishing systems, Mylar strip group demonstrated significantly highest color change; Enhance groups demonstrated significantly lowest color change. Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the color stability of resin composite. The presence of sugar in drinks increased the color difference compared to drinks without composit. Polishing techniques and drinking drinks with sugar may affect the color of esthetic restorations.

  11. A statistic on n-color compositions and related sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, 3498838 Haifa, Israel. E-mail: .... term the resulting combinatorial objects as rn-compositions of m. 2. ...... [13] Narang G and Agarwal A K, Lattice paths and n-colour compositions, Discrete Math.

  12. Influence of Mechanical and Chemical Degradation in the Surface Roughness, Gloss, and Color of Microhybrid Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aa; Mauro, Silvio J; Dos Santos, Paulo H; Briso, Andre Lf; Fagundes, Ticiane C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of different degradations on the roughness, gloss, and color changes of microhybrid composites. Ten specimens were prepared for Charisma, Amelogen Plus, Point 4, and Opallis resins. Surfaces were polished and baseline measurements of roughness, gloss, and color were recorded. Specimens were then submitted to chemical and mechanical challenges, and the specimens were reevaluated. Roughness and gloss were analyzed by Kruskal -Wallis and Dunn's test (p one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (p gloss (p gloss, there was no difference between composites before challenges. However, all composites showed a significant increase of roughness after challenges, with highest values for Charisma. The gloss was influenced by challenges, evidencing the best gloss for Point 4. Charisma showed the highest value of color change. There was no correlation between surface roughness and gloss for the initial analysis, and after the challenges. Composites were influenced by association of challenges, and Charisma showed the highest changes for roughness, gloss, and color. The type of composite resin influenced the properties of materials, which are surface roughness, gloss, and color change. The dentist should be aware of the performance of different brands, to choose the correct required composite resin for each type of patient or region to be restored.

  13. [Aging of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins: effects on color and translucency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie; Lin, Hong; Shen, Song

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the color stability and translucency of silorane-based low shrinkage composite after in vitro aging procedures of thermal cycling and water storage respectively, and to compare with those of conventional methacrylate-based posterior composite. Three light-cured composite resins, dimethacrylate-based composite A (Filtek™ Z350), B (Filtek™ P60) and silorane-based composite C (Filtek™ P90), were tested in this study. Ten specimens (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm in height) of each composite were prepared. The ten specimens in each group were then divided into two subgroups (n = 5). One subgroup underwent thermal cycling [(5.0 ± 0.5)~(55.0 ± 1.0) °C, 10 000 cycles] and the other was stored in 37 C° distilled water for 180 days. With a spectrophotometer, the CIE L * a * b * parameters of the specimens were tested before and after artificial aging against white, medium grey and black backgrounds, respectively. △E, TP and △TP were calculated and data were analyzed using independent-samples t test and partial analysis (P composite showed color alteration above the clinically acceptable levels (△E > 3.3), and also showed higher △E with a statistically significant difference in comparison with the other composites (B and C) (P composite C showed more alteration compared with composite B (P composite underwent greater alteration with regard to color stability and translucency.

  14. Composite Resin Dosimeters: A New Concept and Design for a Fibrous Color Dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinashi, Kenji; Iwata, Takato; Tsuchida, Hayato; Sakai, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Naoto

    2018-04-11

    Polystyrene (PS)-based composite microfibers combined with a photochromic spiropyran dye, 1,3,3-trimethylindolino-6'-nitrobenzopyrylospiran (6-nitro BIPS), and a photostimulable phosphor, europium-doped barium fluorochloride (BaFCl:Eu 2+ ), were developed for the detection of X-ray exposure doses on the order of approximately 1 Gy. To produce the PS-based composite microfibers, we employed a forcespinning method that embeds a high concentration of phosphor in PS in a safe, inexpensive, and simple procedure. On the basis of the optimization of the forcespinning process, fibrous color dosimeters with a high radiation dose sensitivity of 1.2-4.4 Gy were fabricated. The color of the dosimeters was found to transition from white to blue in response to X-ray exposure. The optimized fibrous color dosimeter, made from a solution having a PS/6-nitro BIPS/BaFCl:Eu 2+ /C 2 Cl 4 ratio of 7.0/0.21/28.0/28.0 (wt %) and produced with a 290 mm distance between the needle and collectors, a 0.34 mm 23 G needle nozzle, and a spinneret rotational rate of 3000 rpm, exhibited sensitivity to a dose as low as 1.2 Gy. To realize practical applications, we manufactured the optimized fibrous color dosimeter into a clothlike color dosimeter. The clothlike color dosimeter was mounted on a stuffed bear, and its coloring behavior was demonstrated upon X-ray exposure. After exposure with X-ray, a blue colored and shaped in the form of the letter "[Formula: see text]" clearly appeared on the surface of the clothlike color dosimeter. The proposed fibrous color dosimeters having excellent workability will be an unprecedented dosimetry and contributed to all industries utilizing radiation dosimeters. This new fibrous "composite resin dosimeter" should be able to replace traditional, wearable, and individual radiation dose monitoring devices, such as film badges.

  15. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  16. Curability of esophageal carcinoma treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shogo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hoshi, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1994-01-01

    The curability of 168 squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus treated with more than 60 Gy of irradiation between 1980 and 1987 were discussed. There were 49 autopsied cases. The curability rat was calculated after the conversion of 13 local free or 46 metastasis free patients who had not undergone autopsy into unknown cases in each analysis. Disease free, local free, and metastasis free rates were 11.2, 20.0, and 26.0%, respectively. The curability rate was higher in the superficial type cancer and stage I cases. The local control rate and the metastasis free rate were extremely poor in the infiltrative type cancer. The actuarial survival rate of overall patients was 31.5% at one year, 11.3% at three years, and 7.1% at five years. Reconstructed survival rates: disease free, local free, and metastasis free survival rates, indicated that the survival rates of overall patients might be improved by decreasing the number of intercurrent death in stage I and by elevating the ratio of the local control in stages II and III. The disease free survival rate of cases treated with low dose rate telecobalt therapy as a boost was better than that of the conventionally fractionated irradiation alone cases in stages II and III. (author)

  17. Correlation between three-dimentional surface topography and color stability of different nanofilled composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Elif; Güder, Gizem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional (3D) surface topography and color stability of four different resin composites after immersion in different soft-beverages. One hundred sixty disk-shaped specimens (diameter: 10 mm, and thickness: 2 mm) were made from four different resin composites (i.e., Filtek Z550, Tetric N-Ceram, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, and Cavex Quadrant Universal LC). Each specimen was cured under mylar strips for 20 sec for both top and bottom surfaces. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Surface measurements were carried out using a noncontact 3D-optical-profilometer in terms of surface topography (Ra values). Color measurements of each specimen were performed with Vita Easy Shade system. All the measurements were performed at baseline and after 30 days of immersion in the selected soft-beverages (Redbull, Coca-Cola and Dimes-Lemonade). Control groups were stored in distilled water during the study. Ra values and color changes (ΔE values) of the groups were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using a one way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (SPSS 18.0). The tested soft-beverages in the present study caused color changes at a 30-day evaluation period for the tested resin composites (p composites was not influenced by the tested soft-beverages (p > 0.05). There was no significant interaction between the composite and beverage type on the Ra values of the resin composites (p > 0.05). No correlation was found between color stability and 3D surface topography of the resin composites. Color stability of resin composites may be affected by soft beverages. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Influence of Bleaching Agents on Color and Translucency of Aged Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Maristela; Mozzaquatro, Lisandra R; Rodrigues, Camila; Kaizer, Marina R; Mallmann, André; Jacques, Letícia B

    2017-09-01

    Evaluate the influence of two bleaching agents (16% carbamide peroxide-CP and 35% hydrogen peroxide-HP) on color and translucency of one resin composite (Filtek Z350 XT) in two opacities (enamel and dentin) previously aged in deionized water or red wine. Sixty specimens of each material were divided in two groups (n = 30): aged in water or red wine for 14 days. Then the specimens were divided in three subgroups (n = 10): control/no treatment, treated with 16% carbamide peroxide (Mix Night), treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Mix One). Color readings were performed 24 hours after polishing (baseline); after the 14 days of aging; and after bleaching treatment. Color coordinates CIE L*a*b* were measured using a spectrophotometer (SP60 X-Rite). Color change (CIEDE2000) and translucency parameter were calculated. Data were analyzed with repeated measures two-way ANOVA, and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (5%). Bleaching decreased color change in stained resin composites (aged in red wine), whereas increased it in non-stained enamel resin composites (aged in water). CP had better bleaching results with stained resin composites than HP. Translucency of non-stained dentin resin composite decreased with aging, but did not change with bleaching. For stained resin composites, aging caused reduced translucency, whereas bleaching increased it. Effective bleaching of discolored resin composites aged in an acidic and alcoholic media rich in staining agents was achieved, improving color and translucency. Carbamide peroxide showed better performance than hydrogen peroxide for the bleaching of stained resin composites. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:368-377, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of staining solutions and repolishing on color stability of direct composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Mariano Mundim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the color change of three types of composite resins exposed to coffee and cola drink, and the effect of repolishing on the color stability of these composites after staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen specimens (15 mm diameter and 2 mm thick were fabricated from microhybrid (Esthet-X; Dentsply and Filtek Z-250; 3M ESPE and high-density hybrid (Surefil; Dentsply composites, and were finished and polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex; 3M ESPE. Color of the specimens was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system in a refection spectrophotometer (PCB 6807; BYK Gardner. After baseline color measurements, 5 specimens of each resin were immersed in different staining solutions for 15 days: G1 - distilled water (control, G2 - coffee, G3 - cola soft drink. Afterwards, new color measurement was performed and the specimens were repolished and submitted to new color reading. Color stability was determined by the difference (ΔE between the coordinates L*, a*, and b* obtained from the specimens before and after immersion into the solutions and after repolishing. RESULTS: There was no statistically signifcant difference (ANOVA, Tukey's test; p>0.05 among the ΔE values for the different types of composites after staining or repolishing. For all composite resins, coffee promoted more color change (ΔE>3.3 than distilled water and the cola soft drink. After repolishing, the ΔE values of the specimens immersed in coffee decreased to clinically acceptable values (ΔE<3.3, but remained signifcantly higher than those of the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: No signifcant difference was found among composite resins or between color values before and after repolishing of specimens immersed in distilled water and cola. Immersing specimens in coffee caused greater color change in all types of composite resins tested in this study and repolishing contributed to decrease staining to clinically acceptable

  20. Effects of cold light bleaching on the color stability of composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun; Huang, Lijuan; Wu, Meisheng; Wei, Hua; Zhao, Shouliang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cold light bleaching on the color stability of four restorations using a thermocycling stain challenge. 160 specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from 4 composite resins (Gradia Direct-A, Z350XT, Premisa, and Précis) and divided into 4 subgroups. Color was assessed according to the CIEL*a*b* color scale at baseline, after the first cycle of bleaching, after thermocycling stain challenges, and after the second cycle of bleaching. Mean values were compared using three-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons of the mean values were performed using the Tukey-Kramer test. All groups showed significant color changes after stain challenge, the color change was more significant in Gradia Direct and Z350XT than in Premisa and Précis. After the second cycle of bleaching, color mostly recovered to its original values. The color stability of Gradia Direct and Z350XT was inferior to that of Premisa and Précis. The discoloration of composite resin materials can be partly removed after cold light bleaching. PMID:26309549

  1. Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss, and color of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Nagafuji, Junichi; Kotaku, Mayumi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Powers, John M

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss, and color of regular, opaque, and enamel shades for each of three resin composites. Two-mm-thick resin disks made with Estelite Σ Quick, Clearfil Majesty, and Beautifil II were final polished with 180-, 1000-, and 3000-grit silicon carbide paper. Surface roughness, gloss, and color were measured one week after curing. Estelite Σ Quick had significantly lower roughness values and significantly higher gloss values as compared with Clearfil Majesty and Beautifil II. The effects of surface roughness and gloss on color (L*a*b*) differed among resin composites and by shade. Correlation coefficients between surface roughness and L*a*b* color factors were generally high for Clearfil Majesty, partially high (i.e., between roughness and L*) for Beautifil II, and low for Estelite Σ Quick. Correlation coefficients between gloss and L*a*b* color parameters were generally high for Beautifil II and low for Estelite Σ Quick and Clearfil Majesty. However, for all resin composites, the values of the color differences between 3000-grit and 180-grit polishing groups for all shades were imperceptible by the naked eye.

  2. Effect of sealant agents on the color stability and surface roughness of nanohybrid composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Şahin, Onur; Koroglu, Aysegül; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-07-01

    The effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of nanohybrid composite resins is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealant agents on the surface roughness and color stability of 4 nanohybrid composite resin materials. Forty disks (10×2 mm) were fabricated for each nanohybrid composite resin material (Z-550, Tetric EvoCeram, Clearfill Majesty, Ice) (N=160) and divided into 4 surface treatment groups: 1 conventional polishing (control) and 3 different sealant agent (Palaseal, Optiglaze, BisCover) coupling groups (n=10). The specimens were thermocycled, and surface roughness (Ra) values were obtained with a profilometer. Scanning electron microscope images were also recorded. CIELab color parameters of each specimen were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after 7 days of storage in a coffee solution. Color differences were calculated by the CIEDE 2000 (ΔE00) formula. The data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The surface treatment technique significantly affected the Ra values of the composite resins tested (Pcomposite resin material was also significant for ΔE00 values (Pcomposite resin groups, significant decreases in Ra were observed only for the Palaseal agent coupled composite resin groups (except Ice) compared with the control groups (Pcomposite resin group, except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty (Pcomposite resin groups, significant differences were observed between the color change seen with BisCover and other sealants for Clearfill Majesty composite resin (Pcomposite resins except for Ice produced smoother surfaces. All surface sealant agents provided less discoloration of nanohybrid composite resins after coffee staining compared with conventional polishing except for BisCover applied Clearfill Majesty composite resin. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Influence of artificial accelerated aging on the color stability and opacity of composites of different shades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, F M; Da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, L; Silva Sousa, A B; Cruvinel, D R; De Carvalho Panzeri Pires-De-Souza, F

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of artificial accelerated aging on the color stability and opacity of composites of different shades. Four composites for direct use (Heliomolar, 4 Seasons, Tetric EvoCeram; QuiXfil) and one for indirect use (SR Adoro) in two shades were used: light (A2) and dark (C3 for direct, and D4 for indirect composite). QuiXfil was obtained in Universal shade. A Teflon matrix (12 X 2 mm) was used to obtain 54 specimens (N=6), which were submitted to color and opacity analysis (Spectrophotometer PCB 6807, Byk Gardner) before and after artificial accelerated aging for 384 hours. After the statistical analysis (2-way ANOVA - Bonferroni - PArtificial accelerated aging interfered in the optical properties assessed; however, the alterations seemed to be more related to the composites composition than to their shade.

  4. Radiation-curable coatings containing reactive pigment dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansel, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Liquid coating compositions adapted to be cured by exposure to penetrating radiation are disclosed in which a liquid vehicle of coating viscosity having an ethylenically unsaturated portion comprising one or more polyethylenically unsaturated materials adapted to cure on radiation exposure, pigment dispersed in the vehicle, and an ethylenically unsaturated radiation-curable dispersant containing a carboxyl group for wetting the pigment and assisting in the stable dipsersion of the pigment in the vehicle. This dispersant is a half amide or half ester of an ethylenically unsaturated polycarboxylic acid anhydride, such as maleic anhydride, with an organic compound having a molecular weight of from 100 to 4000 and which contains a single hydroxy group or a single amino group as the sole reactive group thereof

  5. Effect of a surface sealant on the color stability of composite resins after immersion in staining solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Lauana Borges; Barreto, Luma Franciélle Cabreira; Miotti, Leonardo Lamberti; Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Durand, Leticia Brandão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of surface sealants on the color stability of 2 different composite resins after immersion in coffee. Four groups were created (n = 10): microhybrid composite, microhybrid with surface sealant, nanofilled composite, and nanofilled composite with surface sealant. Half of the specimens of each group were immersed in distilled water and half were immersed in coffee for 48 hours. Color was measured before and after immersion. Groups with surface sealants presented less color variation when compared with the groups without surface sealants. The nanofilled resin specimens presented the greatest color variation within the groups without sealant. The surface sealant positively influenced the color stability of composite resin specimens immersed in coffee. When surface sealant was not applied, the microhybrid specimens had better color stability than the nanofilled.

  6. Ultra-low Temperature Curable Conductive Silver Adhesive with different Resin Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Liao, Qingwei; Yan, Chao; Li, Xing; Qin, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conductive treatment of piezoelectric composite material due to the low thermal resistance of composite material and low adhesion strength of adhesive. An ultra-low temperature curable conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength was obtained for the applications of piezoelectric composite material. The microstructure, conductive properties and adhesive properties with different resin matrix were investigated. The conductive adhesive with AG-80 as the resin matrix has the shorter curing time (20min), lower curing temperature (90°C) and higher adhesion strength (7.6MPa). The resistivity of AG-80 sample has the lower value (2.13 × 10-4Ω·cm) than the 618 sample (4.44 × 10-4Ω·cm).

  7. Tuberculosis una enfermedad prevenible y curable

    OpenAIRE

    García-Goez, José Fernando; Bedoya Quintero, Yamile

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculosis (TB) es una de las infecciones mas importante a nivel mundial, pues causa un número importante de muertes a pesar de ser prevenible y curable La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) estima que 1/3 de la población mundial se encuentra infectada por el Mycobacterium tuberculosis causante de la TB y anualmente se reportan 8.8 millones de casos nuevos de TB, que fallecen 3 millones de personas a consecuencia de esta enfermedad y entre un 10% y 12% de los pac...

  8. Radiation curable polymer blends for magnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosusso, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Binder resins in magnetic coating formulations must fulfil a diverse set of requirements. These polymers must have the ability to accept high pigment loadings while maintaining good abrasion resistance, substrate adhesion, inherent lubricity and resistance to temperature and humidity effects. In addition, they must act as grinding aids in the dispersion of the magnetic pigment. In the thermally converted coatings now in use, these requirements are usually met by combining several polymers and crosslinking agents into an optimized blend. This approach is also effective in designing radiation curable binder systems. An overview of the methods employed to achieve such optimized blends will be discussed. (author)

  9. UV curable aqueous dispersions for wood coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, S.; Bleus, J.P.; Wang, Z.J.; Arceneaux, J. A.; Hall, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the characterisation of aqueous dispersions of UV curable resins is described. Two types of dispersions were used: dispersions that are tacky after water evaporation and tack - free before cure dispersions. The physical and rheological properties of these products have been determined and the performance of these dispersions in various formulations, especially for wood applications has been studied. With these dispersions, it is possible to produce coatings having a good cure speed, good surface hardness and good solvent -, chemical - and water resistance

  10. Interaction between staining and degradation of a composite resin in contact with colored foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Soares-Geraldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Composite resins might be susceptible to degradation and staining when in contact with some foods and drinks. This study evaluated color alteration and changes in microhardness of a microhybrid composite after immersion in different colored foods and determined whether there was a correlation between these two variables. Eighty composite disks were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups (n = 10: kept dry; deionized water; orange juice; passion fruit juice; grape juice; ketchup; mustard and soy sauce. The disks were individually immersed in their respective test substance at 37 ºC, for a period of 28 days. Superficial analysis of the disk specimens was performed by taking microhardness measurements (Vickers, 50 g load for 45 seconds and color alterations were determined with a spectrophotometer (CINTRA 10- using a CIEL*a*b* system, 400-700 nm wavelength, illuminant d65 and standard observer of 2º at the following times: baseline (before immersion, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. Both variables were also submitted to Pearson's correlation test (p < 0.05. The passion fruit group underwent the greatest microhardness change, while the mustard group suffered the greatest color alteration. Significant positive correlation was found between the two variables for the groups deionized water, grape juice, soy sauce and ketchup. Not all color alteration could be associated with surface degradation.

  11. Influences of Thermo-Vacuum Treatment on Colors and Chemical Compositions of Alder Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With high temperature-heat treatment, the dimensional stability and durability of wood is improved and wood color is darkened as well. In this paper, alder birch wood (Betula alnoides was treated by the Thermo-Vacuum Treatment (TVT. The changes of wood color parameters and the chemical composition were determined by the CIE1976 L*a*b* method and the chemical analysis method, respectively. The results were revealed as follows: (1 A lower value of lightness, L*, and a higher value of total color difference, △E*, were obtained at the higher heat-treatment temperatures and longer treatment time. (2 The higher the heat-treatment temperatures and the longer the heat-treatment times were, the lower the contents of hemicellulose and cellulose were and the higher the content of lignin was. Moreover, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis demonstrated that the characteristic absorption peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin diminished. The acetylation reaction of hemicellulose and the degradation reaction of groups of lignin side chain occurred during TVT. (3 TVT degraded the chemical composition of cell walls, which resulted in further changes of the wood color. A significant correlation existed between the differences of color indices and the differences of the chemical composition after TVT.

  12. Computer-Generated Abstract Paintings Oriented by the Color Composition of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Designers and artists often require reference images at authoring time. The emergence of computer technology has provided new conditions and possibilities for artistic creation and research. It has also expanded the forms of artistic expression and attracted many artists, designers and computer experts to explore different artistic directions and collaborate with one another. In this paper, we present an efficient k-means-based method to segment the colors of an original picture to analyze the composition ratio of the color information and calculate individual color areas that are associated with their sizes. This information is transformed into regular geometries to reconstruct the colors of the picture to generate abstract images. Furthermore, we designed an application system using the proposed method and generated many works; some artists and designers have used it as an auxiliary tool for art and design creation. The experimental results of datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and can give us inspiration for our work.

  13. THE EFFECT OF MOUTH RINSES ON THE COLOR STABILITY OF SONICFILL AND A NANOHYBRID COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Toz-Akalın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 mouth rinses on the color stability of two different resin composites. Materials and Methods: A2 shade sonic-activated bulk fill material SonicFill (Kerr and conventional nanohybrid composite Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE were used. Forty disc-shaped specimens (10 mm x 2 mm were fabricated for both composites and finished using 400-grit SiC paper and polished. After polishing and immersing in distilled water for 24h all specimens were subjected to color measurements. The baseline color values (L*, a*, b* of each specimen were measured with a colorimeter. Following baseline measurement each composite group was divided into 5 groups: Oral-B Pro Expert Clinic Line Alcoholfree (Oral-B group, Listerine Tooth Defense Rinse (Listerine group, Pharmol Zn Mouth rinse (Çözümilaç group, Nilera Mouth rinse (Nilera group and Distilled water (control group. The specimens were incubated in mouth rinses (20 ml at 37°C for 12 hours and subjected to color measurement. Two-way ANO VA was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: SonicFill showed significantly higher discoloration when exposed to Oral-B Pro Expert Clinic Line Alcohol-free, Listerine Tooth Defense Rinse and Pharmol Zn Mouth rinse. The color differences of two resin composites were not statistically significant for distilled water and Nilera Mouth rinse. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it can be concluded that the SonicFill showed higher discoloration than nanohybrid resin composite Filtek Z550.

  14. Effect of commercial mannoprotein addition on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2008-10-08

    Commercially available mannoprotein preparations were tested in Tempranillo winemaking to determine their influence on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition. No effect was found in the content of grape arabinogalactans, homogalacturonans, and type II rhamnogalacturonans. In contrast, mannoprotein-treated samples showed considerably higher values of high-molecular-weight mannoproteins (bMP) than controls from the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, although these differences diminished as vinification progressed. The bMP decrease observed in the mannoprotein-treated samples coincided with a substantial reduction in their proanthocyanidin content and wine stable color, suggesting a precipitation of the coaggregates mannoprotein-tannin and mannoprotein-pigment. Contrary to what is widely described, these results revealed that at the studied conditions, mannoproteins did not act as stabilizing colloids. Mannoprotein addition did not modify the content and composition of either monomeric anthocyanins or other monomeric phenolics, and it did not affect monomeric anthocyanin color.

  15. Prior states: evolution of composition and color in two Barnett Newman paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Bradford A.; Rogge, Corina E.

    2015-11-01

    The color field paintings of Barnett Newman, one of the great American abstract expressionist painters, are seminal works of the modern era. They feature large flat fields of vibrant colors intended to allow the viewer to connect with the paintings in immediate, visceral ways. Despite the apparent simplicity of his compositions, Newman considered himself an intuitive painter and allowed his compositions to evolve during the painting process. Two paintings in the Menil Collection, Untitled 2 (1950) and Unfinished Painting [Blue and Brown 1970— #2] (1970) display visual evidence of former states, but attempts to elucidate earlier compositions by X-radiography were inconclusive due to the lack of contrast in paint densities. We applied limited sampling and used a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a `scanning' manner to determine the color and composition of the previous states of these paintings to help us better understand their evolution. Newman altered his initial cadmium red and alizarin composition in Untitled 2 (1950) by overpainting the alizarin region with a wider band of Mars black paint. He then modulated the surface of the black by partially covering it with a carbonaceous black with a different gloss. For Unfinished Painting [Blue and Brown 1970— #2] (1970), Newman not only changed the cadmium red to an umber but simplified the composition, removing multiple zips and refining it to its current monumental state. This evidence of Newman's decision-making processes permits a tantalizing glimpse of the artist consistently looking both ahead and backward, experimenting and revisiting.

  16. Mapping lichen color-groups in western Arctic Alaska using seasonal Landsat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping lichens at a landscape scale has received increased recent interest due to fears that terricolous lichen mats, primary winter caribou forage, may be decreasing across the arctic and boreal zones. However, previous efforts have produced taxonomically coarse, total lichen cover maps or have covered relatively small spatial extents. Here we attempt to map lichens of differing colors as species proxies across northwestern Alaska to produce the finest taxonomic and spatial- grained lichen maps covering the largest spatial extent to date. Lichen community sampling in five western Alaskan National Parks and Preserves from 2007-2012 generated 328 FIA-style 34.7 m radius plots on which species-level macrolichen community structure and abundance was estimated. Species were coded by color and plot lichen cover was aggregated by plot as the sum of the cover of each species in a color group. Ten different lichen color groupings were used for modeling to deduce which colors were most detectable. Reflectance signatures of each plot were extracted from a series of Landsat composites (circa 2000-2010) partitioned into two-week intervals from June 1 to Sept. 15. Median reflectance values for each band in each pixel were selected based on filtering criteria to reduce likelihood of snow cover. Lichen color group cover was regressed against plot reflectance plus additional abiotic predictors in two different data mining algorithms. Brown and grey lichens had the best models explaining approximately 40% of lichen cover in those color groups. Both data mining techniques produced similarly good fitting models. Spatial patterns of lichen color-group cover show distinctly different ecological patterns of these color-group species proxies.

  17. Efficacy of polishing kits on the surface roughness and color stability of different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaagaoglu, H; Aslan, T; Gürbulak, A; Albayrak, H; Taşdemir, Z; Gumus, H

    2017-05-01

    Different polishing kits may have different effects on the composite resin surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and color stability of four different composites which was applied different polishing technique. Thirty specimens were made for each composite resin group (nanohybrid, GrandioSo-GS; nanohybrid, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic-CME; hybrid, Valux Plus-VP; micro-hybrid, Ruby Comp-RC; [15 mm in diameter and 2 mm height]), with the different monomer composition and particle size from a total of 120 specimens. Each composite group was divided into three subgroups (n = 10). The first subgroup of the each composite subgroups served as control (C) and had no surface treatment. The second subgroup of the each composite resin groups was polished with finishing discs (Bisco Finishing Discs; Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA). The third subgroup of the each composite resin was polished with polishing wheel (Enhance and PoGo, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany). The surface roughness and the color differences measurement of the specimens were made and recorded. The data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test, and regression analysis was used in order to examine the correlation between surface roughness and color differences of the specimens (α = 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated significant difference among the composite resins in terms of ΔE (P composite resins in terms of surface roughness (P > 0.05). Result of the regression analysis indicated statistically significant correlation between Ra and ΔE values (P < 0.05, r2 = 0.74). The findings of the present study have clinical relevance in the choice of polishing kits used.

  18. Effect of Diluent on Ultra-low Temperature Curable Conductive Silver Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Liao, Qingwei; Yan, Chao; Du, Haibo; Qin, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive needed urgently for the surface conductive treatment of piezoelectric composite material. The effect of diluent acetone on ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive were investigated for surface conductive treatment of piezoelectric composite material. In order to improve the operability and extend the life of the conductive adhesive, the diluent was added to dissolve and disperse conductive adhesive. With the increase of the content of diluent, the volume resistivity of conductive adhesive decreased at first and then increased, and the shear strength increased at first and then decreased. When the acetone content is 10%, the silver flaky bonded together, arranged the neatest, the smallest gap, the most closely connected, the surface can form a complete conductive network, and the volume resistivity is 2.37 × 10-4Ω · cm, the shear strength is 5.13MPa.

  19. Composition and color stability of anthocyanin-based extract from purple sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-li He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurple sweet potato (PSP can provide products with attractive color besides nutritious benefits in food processing. So, the compositions and color stability of an aqueous anthocyanin-based PSP extract were investigated in order to promote its wide use in food industry. PSP anthocyanins were extracted with water, and nine individual anthocyanins (48.72 ug mL–1 in total, 24.36 mg/100 g fresh PSP in yield were found by HPLC analysis. The PSP extract also contained 17.11 mg mL–1 of protein, 0.44 mg mL–1 of dietary fiber, 2.82 mg mL–1 of reducing sugars, 4.02 ug mL–1 of Se, 54.21 ug mL–1 of Ca and 60.83 ug mL–1 of Mg. Changes in color and stability of the PSP extract, as affected by pH, heat, light and extraction process, were further evaluated. Results indicated that PSP anthocyanins had good stability at pH 2.0-6.0, while the color of PSP extract kept stable during 30 days of storage at 20 °C in dark. Both UV and fluorescent exposure weakened the color stability of PSP extract and UV showed a more drastic effect in comparison. A steaming pretreatment of fresh PSP is beneficial to the color stability.

  20. Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Process Modeling of Synthesis of UV Curable Glyceryl and Neopentyl Glycol Acrylates

    OpenAIRE

    R. D. Kulkarni; Mayur Chaudhari; S. Mishra

    2008-01-01

    Curing of paints by exposure to UV radiations is emerging as one of the best film forming technique as an alternative to traditional solvent borne oxidative and thermal curing coatings. The composition and chemistry of UV curable coatings and role of multifunctional and monofunctional monomers, oligomers, and photoinitiators have been discussed. The limitations imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium and tendency for acrylic double bond polymerizations during synthesis of mu...

  1. Effect of Accelerated Aging on Color Change of Direct and Indirect Fiber-Reinforced Composite Restorations

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    Masomeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of artificial accelerated aging (AAA on color change of direct and indirect fiber-reinforced composite (FRC restorations.Materials and Methods: Direct (Z250 and indirect (Gradia composite resins were reinforced with glass (GF and polyethylene fibers (PF based on the manufacturers’ instructions. Forty samples were fabricated and divided into eight groups (n=5. Four groups served as experimental groups and the remaining four served as controls. Color change (∆E and color parameters (∆L*, ∆a*, ∆b* were read at baseline and after AAA based on the CIELAB system. Three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used for statistical analysis.Results: Significant differences were found in ΔE, ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* among the groups after AAA (P<0.05. Most of the studied samples demonstrated an increase in lightness and a red-yellow shift after AAA.Conclusions: The obtained ∆E values were unacceptable after AAA (∆E≥ 3.3. All indirect samples showed a green-blue shift with a reduction in lightness except for Gradia/PF+ NuliteF.Keywords: Aging; Composite Resins; Color

  2. Effects of air-polishing powders on color stability of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Duran, Ibrahim; Yücel, Ali Çağin; Ozkan, Pelin

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different air-polishing powders on the color stability of different types of composite resin restorative materials. Thirty cylindrical specimens (15×2 mm) were prepared for each of 7 composite resin restorative materials. All specimens were polished with a series of aluminum oxide polishing discs (Sof-Lex). The prepared specimens of each composite resin were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each, for control (Group-C) and two air-powder applications (Group-CP: Cavitron Prophy-Jet; Group-PS: Sirona ProSmile prophylaxis powder). A standard air-polishing unit (ProSmile Handly) was used. All specimens were air-powdered for 10 s at 4-bar pressure. The distance of the spray nosel from the specimens was approximately 10 mm and angulation of the nosel was 90°. Specimens were stored in 100 mL of coffee (Nescafe Classic) for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurement of all specimens was recorded before and after exposure to staining agent with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300). Color differences (∆E*) between the 2 color measurements (baseline and after 24 h storage) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA test, and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p.05) and these groups demonstrated the highest ∆E* values. For Filtek Silorane and IntenS, the highest ∆E* values were observed in Group-PS. The lowest ∆E* values for all composite resin groups were observed in Group-C. When comparing the 7 composite resin restorative materials, Aelite Aesthetic Enemal demonstrated significantly less ∆E* values than the other composite resins tested. The highest ∆E* values were observed in Quixfil. Except for Quixfil, all control groups of composite resins that were polished Sof-Lex exhibited clinically acceptable ∆E values (<3.7). Air-polishing applications increased the color change for all composite resin restorative materials tested. Composite restorations may require re

  3. Effects of air-polishing powders on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different air-polishing powders on the color stability of different types of composite resin restorative materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty cylindrical specimens (15×2 mm were prepared for each of 7 composite resin restorative materials. All specimens were polished with a series of aluminum oxide polishing discs (Sof-Lex. The prepared specimens of each composite resin were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each, for control (Group-C and two air-powder applications (Group-CP: Cavitron Prophy-Jet; Group-PS: Sirona ProSmile prophylaxis powder. A standard air-polishing unit (ProSmile Handly was used. All specimens were air-powdered for 10 s at 4-bar pressure. The distance of the spray nosel from the specimens was approximately 10 mm and angulation of the nosel was 90°. Specimens were stored in 100 mL of coffee (Nescafe Classic for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurement of all specimens was recorded before and after exposure to staining agent with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300. Color differences (∆E* between the 2 color measurements (baseline and after 24 h storage were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA test, and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p.05 and these groups demonstrated the highest ∆E* values. For Filtek Silorane and IntenS, the highest ∆E* values were observed in Group-PS. The lowest ∆E* values for all composite resin groups were observed in Group-C. When comparing the 7 composite resin restorative materials, Aelite Aesthetic Enemal demonstrated significantly less ∆E* values than the other composite resins tested. The highest ∆E* values were observed in Quixfil. CONCLUSION: Except for Quixfil, all control groups of composite resins that were polished Sof-Lex exhibited clinically acceptable ∆E values (<3.7. Air-polishing applications increased the color change for all composite resin restorative materials

  4. The Effects of Fresh Detox Juices on Color Stability and Roughness of Resin-Based Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikilgan, İhsan; Akgul, Sinem; Hazar, Ahmet; Kedıcı Alp, Cemile; Baglar, Serdar; Bala, Oya

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the effects of three fresh detox juices, including an orange, green, and red beverage, on the color stability and surface roughness of three anterior esthetic resin-based composites (RBCs). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared with three different esthetic RBCs (Amaris, G-aenial Anterior, Clearfil Majesty ES-2) according to the manufacturers' instructions. Forty specimens were prepared for each RBC, and all specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 24 hours. The initial color values and surface roughness measurements of the specimens were taken using a spectrophotometer and a profilometer. The specimens were then divided into 4 subgroups (n = 10). All specimens except the control specimens were immersed in their designated fresh detox juices (green, red, or orange) for 10 minutes twice a day. Color and surface roughness measurements were taken on day 15 and day 30, and the results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. The association between color change and surface roughness was evaluated by Spearman's Rank Correlation analysis. Color changes and surface roughness increased upon exposure to fresh detox juices for 15 and 30 days for all of the RBCs. All of the G-aenial and Amaris groups displayed color changes above the threshold of acceptability, whereas Clearfil Majesty ES-2 displayed a color change above the threshold of acceptability only after exposure to the red beverage for 30 days (ΔE > 3.7). With regard to surface roughness, Clearfil Majesty ES-2 outperformed the other RBCs (p  0.001). Exposure to the fresh detox juices used in this study led to similar color changes in the RBCs used in this study. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Color change of CAD-CAM materials and composite resin cements after thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdal, Isil; Atay, Ayse; Eichberger, Marlis; Cal, Ebru; Üsümez, Aslihan; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2018-04-24

    The color of resin cements and computer-aided-design and computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD-CAM) restorations may change with aging. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of thermocycling on the color of CAD-CAM materials with underlying resin cement. Seven different CAD-CAM materials, composite resins and glass-ceramics were cut into 0.7-mm and 1.2-mm thicknesses (n=10) and cemented with a dual-polymerizing resin cement, a light-polymerizing resin cement, and a preheated composite resin (N=420). Color values were measured by using spectrophotometry. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5°C and 55°C; 5000 cycles). The measured color difference (ΔE) data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Normality of data distribution was tested by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Three-way and 1-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test and unpaired 2-sample Student t test were computed to determine the significant differences among the tested parameters (α=.05). ΔE values were significantly influenced by the CAD-CAM material (η p 2 =0.85, Pcement (η P 2 =0.03, P=.003) but were not influenced by thickness (P=.179). Significant interactions were present among thickness, cement, and CAD-CAM materials (Pcement showed significantly lower ΔE values than the preheated composite resin (P=.003). Restoration materials and composite resin cement types used for cementation influence the amount of color change due to aging. Copyright © 2018 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation curable resistant coatings and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, K.

    1976-01-01

    A prepolymer containing unsaturated hydrocarbon groups is prepared and mixed on a roller mill with one or more acrylic ester monomers and various additives to make a coating formulation of a desired viscosity. In general, low viscosity formulations are used for overprint varnishes, on paper or foil, or with pigments, for certain types of printing inks. Higher viscosity formulations are used to apply thick films on panels, tiles, or other bodies. Thin films are cured to hardness by brief exposure to ultraviolet light. Thicker films require more energetic radiation such as plasma arc and electron beam radiation. The prepolymers particularly useful for making such radiation curable coatings are the reaction products of polyether polyols and bis- or polyisocyanates and hydroxy alkenes or acrylic (or methacrylic) hydroxy esters, and, likewise, reactive polyamides modified with dicarboxy alkenes, their anhydrides or esters. A small amount of wax incorporated in the coating formulations results in coatings with release characteristics similar to those of PTFE coatings. 10 claims

  7. Composition of Carotenoids and Flavonoids in Narcissus Cultivars and their Relationship with Flower Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Narcissus is widely used for cut flowers and potted plants, and is one of the most important commercial bulbous flowers in the floricultural industry. In this study, ten carotenoid and eighteen flavonoid compounds from the perianths and coronas of fifteen narcissus cultivars were measured by HPLC-APCI-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Among these, six carotenoids, a total of seventeen flavonols and chlorogenic acid were identified in narcissus for the first time. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between flower color and pigment composition. We found that all-trans-violaxanthin and total carotenoid content were the main factors that affected flower color. These investigations could provide a global view of flower color formation and a theoretical basis for hybridization breeding in narcissus.

  8. Color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on a discolored composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, P; Harorlı, O T; Ocal, I B; Ergin, Z; Barutcigil, C

    2017-10-01

    Discoloration of resin-based composites is a commonly encountered problem, and bleaching agents may be used for the therapy of the existing discoloration. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on the heavily discolored composite resin. Fifty disk-shaped dental composite specimens were prepared using A2 shade nanohybrid universal composite resin (3M ESPE Filtek Z550, St. Paul, MN, USA). Composite samples were immersed in coffee and turnip juice for 1 week in each. One laser activated bleaching (LB) (Biolase Laserwhite*20) and three conventional bleaching systems (Ultradent Opalescence Boost 40% (OB), Ultradent Opalescence PF 15% home bleaching (HB), Crest 3D White [Whitening Mouthwash]) were tested in this study. Distilled water was used as control group. The color of the samples were measured using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easy shade Compact, VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Color changes (ΔE00) were calculated using the CIEDE2000 formula. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired samples test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). The staining beverages caused perceptible discoloration (ΔE00 > 2.25). The color recovery effect of all bleaching systems was statistically determined to be more effective than the control group (P OB group was found as the most effective bleaching system, there was no statistically significant difference among HB, OB, and LB groups (P > 0.05). Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the highest recovery effect was determined in office bleaching system among all bleaching systems. However, home and laser bleaching systems were determined as effective as office bleaching system.

  9. Lithological discrimination of accretionary complex (Sivas, northern Turkey) using novel hybrid color composites and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Özyavaş, Aziz

    2018-02-01

    One of the most appropriate approaches to better understand and interpret geologic evolution of an accretionary complex is to make a detailed geologic map. The fact that ophiolite sequences consist of various rock types may require a unique image processing method to map each ophiolite body. The accretionary complex in the study area is composed mainly of ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks along with epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks. This paper attempts to map the Late Cretaceous accretionary complex in detail in northern Sivas (within İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in Turkey) by the analysis of all of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) bands and field study. The new two hybrid color composite images yield satisfactory results in delineating peridotite, gabbro, basalt, and epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks of the accretionary complex in the study area. While the first hybrid color composite image consists of one principle component (PC) and two band ratios (PC1, 3/4, 4/6 in the RGB), the PC5, the original ASTER band 4 and the 3/4 band ratio images were assigned to the RGB colors to generate the second hybrid color composite image. In addition to that, the spectral indices derived from the ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) bands discriminate clearly ultramafic, siliceous, and carbonate rocks from adjacent lithologies at a regional scale. Peridotites with varying degrees of serpentinization illustrated as a single color were best identified in the spectral indices map. Furthermore, the boundaries of ophiolitic rocks based on fieldwork were outlined in detail in some parts of the study area by superimposing the resultant maps of ASTER maps on Google Earth images of finer spatial resolution. Eventually, the encouraging geologic map generated by the image analysis of ASTER data strongly correlates with lithological boundaries from a field survey.

  10. Effect of bleaching on color change and surface topography of composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Gunjan; Jain, Veena; Kandpal, H C; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Shah, Naseem

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Esthet X (Dentsply India), and Admira (Voco, Germany). Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS). 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Dentsply) using SEM. Statistical analysis. One way ANOVA and Multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was declared if the P value was .05 or less. Results and conclusion. All the specimens showed significant discoloration (ΔE > 3.3) after their immersion in solutions representing food and beverages. The total color change after bleaching as compared to baseline color was significant in Filtek Z350 (P = .000) and Esthet X (P = .002), while it was insignificant for Admira (P = .18). Esthet X showed maximum surface roughness followed by Admira and Filtek Z350. Bleaching was effective in reducing the discoloration to a clinically acceptable value in all the three groups (ΔE < 3.3).

  11. Effect of Bleaching on Color Change and Surface Topography of Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Pruthi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of 15% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on color change and surface topography of different composite veneering materials (Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, Esthet X (Dentsply India, and Admira (Voco, Germany. Methods. 30 samples were fabricated for evaluation of color change using CIELAB color system and Gonioreflectometer (GK 311/M, ZEISS. 45 disc-shaped specimens were made for evaluation of surface topography after bleaching (Nupro White Gold; Dentsply using SEM. Statistical analysis. One way ANOVA and Multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was declared if the P value was .05 or less. Results and conclusion. All the specimens showed significant discoloration (ΔE>3.3 after their immersion in solutions representing food and beverages. The total color change after bleaching as compared to baseline color was significant in Filtek Z350 (P=.000 and Esthet X (P=.002, while it was insignificant for Admira (P=.18. Esthet X showed maximum surface roughness followed by Admira and Filtek Z350. Bleaching was effective in reducing the discoloration to a clinically acceptable value in all the three groups (ΔE<3.3.

  12. Assessment of color parameters of composite resin shade guides using digital imaging versus colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanel, Kivanc; Caglar, Alper; Özcan, Mutlu; Gulsah, Kamran; Bagis, Bora

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color parameters of resin composite shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method. Four composite shade guides, namely: two nanohybrid (Grandio [Voco GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany]; Premise [KerrHawe SA, Bioggio, Switzerland]) and two hybrid (Charisma [Heraeus Kulzer, GmbH & Co. KG, Hanau, Germany]; Filtek Z250 [3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany]) were evaluated. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2, C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital imaging and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test. Overall, the mean ΔE values from different composite pairs demonstrated statistically significant differences when evaluated with the colorimeter (p 6.8). For all shade pairs evaluated, the most significant shade mismatches were obtained between Grandio-Filtek Z250 (p = 0.021) and Filtek Z250-Premise (p = 0.01) regarding ΔE mean values, whereas the best shade match was between Grandio-Charisma (p = 0.255) regardless of the measurement method. The best color match (mean ΔE values) was recorded for A1, A2, and A3 shade pairs in both methods. When proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings, and suitable illumination conditions are provided, digital imaging method could be used in the assessment of color parameters. Interchanging use of shade guides from different composite systems should be avoided during color selection. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Radiosensitivity, radio-curability and DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogin, G.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in accuracy stand as the heart of the success of today's radiotherapy. The dose may be delivered with a sub millimetric accuracy, may also conform to complex shapes, or track external and internal organ motions. In parallel, we may increase the tumour's radio-curability by modulating the biological effects generated by ionizing radiation into the patient. It was precisely the topic of the 2009 Lucien-Mallet prize organized by the French Society for Radiation Oncology (SFRO) and the Centre Antoine-Beclere under the auspices of the Fondation de France. In this review we will precisely describe the integrated molecular response to ionizing radiations. Starting from early observations, we are going to introduce the concept of cellular radiosensitivity as the global response of the irradiated cell. We will then focus into the cell and especially its nucleus. We will describe here the most complex and deleterious radioinduced damages. In the next chapter, we will dissect the molecular pathway that aims to detect and repair the previous lesions. The last part of the review will finally deal with the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic impacts emerging from the alliance between clinical and molecular radiobiology. (author)

  14. Anthocyanin Composition and Content in Rye Plants with Different Grain Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykin, Pavel A; Andreeva, Elena A; Lykholay, Anna N; Tsvetkova, Natalia V; Voylokov, Anatoly V

    2018-04-19

    The color of grain in cereals is determined mainly by anthocyanin pigments. A large level of genetic diversity for anthocyanin content and composition in the grain of different species was observed. In rye, recessive mutations in six genes (vi1...vi6) lead to the absence of anthocyanins in all parts of the plant. Moreover, dominant genes of anthocyanin synthesis in aleurone (gene C) and pericarp (gene Vs) also affect the color of the grain. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to study anthocyanins in 24 rye samples. A lack of anthocyanins in the lines with yellow and brown grain was determined. Delphinidin rutinoside and cyanidin rutinoside were found in the green-seeded lines. Six samples with violet grains significantly varied in terms of anthocyanin composition and content. However, the main aglycone was cyanidin or peonidin in all of them. Monosaccharide glucose and disaccharide rutinose served as the glycoside units. Violet-seeded accession forms differ in the ratio of the main anthocyanins and the range of their acylated derivatives. The acyl groups were presented mainly by radicals of malonic and sinapic acids. For the colored forms, a profile of the revealed anthocyanins with the indication of their contents was given. The obtained results are discussed in connection to similar data in rice, barley, and wheat, which will provide a perspective for future investigations.

  15. Anthocyanin Composition and Content in Rye Plants with Different Grain Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Zykin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The color of grain in cereals is determined mainly by anthocyanin pigments. A large level of genetic diversity for anthocyanin content and composition in the grain of different species was observed. In rye, recessive mutations in six genes (vi1...vi6 lead to the absence of anthocyanins in all parts of the plant. Moreover, dominant genes of anthocyanin synthesis in aleurone (gene C and pericarp (gene Vs also affect the color of the grain. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to study anthocyanins in 24 rye samples. A lack of anthocyanins in the lines with yellow and brown grain was determined. Delphinidin rutinoside and cyanidin rutinoside were found in the green-seeded lines. Six samples with violet grains significantly varied in terms of anthocyanin composition and content. However, the main aglycone was cyanidin or peonidin in all of them. Monosaccharide glucose and disaccharide rutinose served as the glycoside units. Violet-seeded accession forms differ in the ratio of the main anthocyanins and the range of their acylated derivatives. The acyl groups were presented mainly by radicals of malonic and sinapic acids. For the colored forms, a profile of the revealed anthocyanins with the indication of their contents was given. The obtained results are discussed in connection to similar data in rice, barley, and wheat, which will provide a perspective for future investigations.

  16. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

  17. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  18. Color stability of sealed composite resin restorative materials after ultraviolet artificial aging and immersion in staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelan, Anderson; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld, Renato Hermann; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique

    2011-04-01

    The color alteration of resin-based materials is one of the most common reasons to replace esthetic dental restorations. This study assessed the influence of surface sealant (Biscover) on the color stability of nanofilled (Supreme XT) and microhybrid (Vit-l-escence and Opallis) composite resins after artificial aging. One hundred disc-shaped (6 × 1.5 mm) specimens were made for each composite resin. After 24 hours, all specimens were polished and sealant was applied to 50 specimens of each material. Baseline color was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using a reflection spectrophotometer. Ten specimens of each group were aged for 252 h in an ultraviolet (UV)-accelerated aging chamber or immersed for 4 weeks in cola soft drink, orange juice, red wine staining solutions or distilled water as control. Color difference (ΔE) after aging was calculated based on the color coordinates before (baseline) and after aging/staining treatment. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Fisher's test (α=.05). The results showed significant changes in color after artificial aging in all the groups (Paging, and the cola soft drink. The lowest values of ΔE were found for specimens stored in distilled water. All composite resins showed some color alteration after the aging methods. The surface sealant did not alter the color stability of the tested materials. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphology, chemical composition , and electrochemical characteristics of colored titanium passive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerkiewicz, G.; Hrapovic, S.; Vatankhah, G.; Luan, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Brightly and uniformly colored passive layers on Ti are formed by application of AC polarization in aqueous NH 4 BF 4 . A wide spectrum of well-defined colors is accomplished by varying the AC voltage. The passive films are stable in the ambient and in aqueous chloride, perchlorate, sulfate solutions. Optical microscopy and SEM analyses indicate that the passive layers are compact and do not reveal fractures or cracks. XPS characterization of the colored passive layers reveals that their surface-chemical composition depends on the AC polarization voltage. The main constituents of the passive layers are Ti z+ , O 2- , and F - (z varies from 4 to 2 depending on the depth). Fluoride in the film originates form decomposition of NH 4 BF 4 and it accumulates at the inner metal/passive-film interface. XPS depth profiling shows that the higher the AC voltage applied, the thicker the passive film formed. Electrochemical properties of the colored Ti passive layers are determined by recording polarization curves in the -0.8 - 3.2 V, RHE, range and Tafel plots in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) region in 1.0 M aqueous H 2 SO 4 solution. The polarization curves show that the corrosion potential of the colored passive layers shifts towards less-negative potential indicating that they are more stable than Ti under the same conditions. The Tafel plots for the HER demonstrate that the passive layers have much higher activity than Ti towards the HER. The Tafel relations reveal new features that can be associated with the partial breakdown/decomposition of the passive layers and with H absorption. (author)

  20. Effect of Salivary pH on Color Stability of Different Flowable Composites - A Prospective In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Renu; Kataria, Pratik; Kapoor, Sonali

    2016-10-01

    Scientifically and clinically there has been lot of development in the field of aesthetic dentistry. However, there is limited or restricted information regarding the color stability of flowable composite materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spectrophotometric color stability of three different flowable composite materials with respect to three different pH of saliva. The study included 90 different samples. Thirty samples in each composite group; (Group A: G-aenial universal flo; Group B: Z 350 XT flowable; Group C: Esthet x flow). All samples from each group were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours. Total color difference (ΔE) was recorded for each sample. After this 10 samples from each group were respectively immersed in 6.5, 7 and 7.5 pH of artificial saliva. All samples were kept in dark room for seven days and then ΔE for each sample was recorded and was compared to previous recorded ΔE for the same sample. Maximum color change was seen irrespective of material in 6.5 pH of saliva. G-aenial universal flo showed least change irrespective of pH of saliva. Thus, the present study reveals that acidic pH level affects the coloration of composite resins by affecting the surface integrity and as reported in previous studies, various coloring agents in beverages and other dietary components assists the process due to absorption of these coloring substances into the resin matrix.

  1. Color stability assessment of two different composite resins with variable immersion time using various beverages: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Senthil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Study: The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in the color of microhybrid (MH and nanofilled (NF composite resins after 24 and 48 h in beverages such as red wine (RW, Coca-Cola, and distilled water. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of the colorant solutions on the dental composites. Materials and Methods: MH and NF composite resins (A2 shade were used in this current study. Sixty disk-shaped material specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm in thickness were prepared using a fiber mold (ring, with the desired dimensions. The specimen surfaces were polished using super-snap polishing system. Sixty specimens were divided into two groups of 30 each (Group I: MH resin composite; Group II: NF resin composite. Both the groups divided into six subgroups (Subgroup I: RW for 24 h [RW-24]; Subgroup II: RW for 48 h; Subgroup III: Coca-Cola for 24 h [CC-24]; Subgroup IV: Coca-Cola for 48 h [CC-48]; Subgroup V: Distilled water for 24 h [DW-24]; Subgroup VI: Distilled water for 48 h [DW-48]. All the samples were immersed in respective drinks for a period of 24 h, and color differences were measured using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Once again, all the samples were immersed for another 24 h in the same drinks. After 48 h, the color change of the samples was measured. Measurements were made according to the CIE L × a × b × color space relative to the CIE standard illuminant D65. The color changes of the specimens were evaluated using the following formula: [INSIDE:1]Statistical analysis was performed. The data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and t-test at a significance level of 0.05. Conclusion: Color stability of MH composite resin was found to be inferior than the NF resin composite irrespective of immersion medium and time. In RW, the color change observed was maximum for both composite resins followed by Coca-Cola. Immersing the resin composites in distilled water for 24 and

  2. Color Stability Assessment of Two Different Composite Resins with Variable Immersion Time Using Various Beverages: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Senthil; Ajay, R; Miskeen Sahib, S A; Chittrarasu, M; Navarasu, M; Ragavendran, N; Burhanuddin Mohammed, Omar Farooq

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in the color of microhybrid (MH) and nanofilled (NF) composite resins after 24 and 48 h in beverages such as red wine (RW), Coca-Cola, and distilled water. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of the colorant solutions on the dental composites. MH and NF composite resins (A2 shade) were used in this current study. Sixty disk-shaped material specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm in thickness) were prepared using a fiber mold (ring), with the desired dimensions. The specimen surfaces were polished using super-snap polishing system. Sixty specimens were divided into two groups of 30 each (Group I: MH resin composite; Group II: NF resin composite). Both the groups divided into six subgroups (Subgroup I: RW for 24 h [RW-24]; Subgroup II: RW for 48 h; Subgroup III: Coca-Cola for 24 h [CC-24]; Subgroup IV: Coca-Cola for 48 h [CC-48]; Subgroup V: Distilled water for 24 h [DW-24]; Subgroup VI: Distilled water for 48 h [DW-48]). All the samples were immersed in respective drinks for a period of 24 h, and color differences were measured using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Once again, all the samples were immersed for another 24 h in the same drinks. After 48 h, the color change of the samples was measured. Measurements were made according to the CIE L × a × b × color space relative to the CIE standard illuminant D65. The color changes of the specimens were evaluated using the following formula: Statistical analysis was performed. The data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and t -test at a significance level of 0.05. Color stability of MH composite resin was found to be inferior than the NF resin composite irrespective of immersion medium and time. In RW, the color change observed was maximum for both composite resins followed by Coca-Cola. Immersing the resin composites in distilled water for 24 and 48 h had negligible color change. A 48-h immersion of both composite resins in

  3. Effects of adhesive used as modeling liquid on the stability of the color and opacity of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Fernanda Santos; Barros, Mellany Cristie Ramos; Santana, Márcia Luciana Carregosa; de Jesus Oliveira, Ludmila Smith; Silva, Paula Fernanda Damasceno; Lima, Giana da Silveira; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adhesive type used as modeling liquid on the stability of the color and opacity of composites submitted to thermal cycling in staining solutions followed by a bleaching procedure. Thirty cylinder-shaped composite specimens (10 mm diameter × 1.5 mm thickness) were built using or not using (control) an adhesive (Adper Universal or Scotchbond Multipurpose) as the modeling liquid. After polishing procedures, the color and opacity were measured, and the specimens were submitted to 200 thermal cycles with 10 s of dwell time in baths of grape juice at 5°C, water at 37°C, and coffee at 55°C. Changes in opacity and color caused by the staining solutions were measured. Then, the specimens were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 45 minutes followed by color/opacity measurements. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The use of modeling liquids did not affect the initial color and opacity of composite. Reduced changes to color (E 00  = 3.44) and opacity (+2.67%) were observed for specimens modeled using Adper Universal. Bleaching procedures reduced the color (E 00  = 1.9-3.8) and opacity (-2.3 to 3.1%) alterations caused by staining solutions but were unable to restore the values observed at baseline. The use of universal adhesive as modeling liquid significantly reduced the color and opacity changes caused by staining solutions, and the bleaching procedure partially re-established the opacity and color of the composites. This study evaluates whether using adhesive systems for modeling a composite affects the color and opacity changes caused by staining solutions followed by a bleaching procedure. The findings suggest that the use of a universal adhesive as modeling liquid can reduce the alterations in optical properties caused by staining solutions, and the application of high-concentrated hydrogen peroxide over the composite reduce the color changes without fully recover the initial color. © 2018

  4. The Aesthetics of Astrophysics: How to Make Appealing Color-composite Images that Convey the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Levay, Zoltan G.; Frattare, Lisa M.; Arcand, Kimberly K.; Watzke, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Astronomy has a rich tradition of using color photography and imaging, for visualization in research as well as for sharing scientific discoveries in formal and informal education settings (i.e., for “public outreach”). In the modern era, astronomical research has benefitted tremendously from electronic cameras that allow data and images to be generated and analyzed in a purely digital form with a level of precision that previously was not possible. Advances in image-processing software have also enabled color-composite images to be made in ways that are much more complex than with darkroom techniques, not only at optical wavelengths but across the electromagnetic spectrum. The Internet has made it possible to rapidly disseminate these images to eager audiences. Alongside these technological advances, there have been gains in understanding how to make images that are scientifically illustrative as well as aesthetically pleasing. Studies have also given insights on how the public interprets astronomical images and how that can be different than professional astronomers. An understanding of these differences will help in the creation of images that are meaningful to both groups. In this invited review, we discuss the techniques behind making color-composite images as well as examine the factors one should consider when doing so, whether for data visualization or public consumption. We also provide a brief history of astronomical imaging with a focus on the origins of the "modern era" during which distribution of high-quality astronomical images to the public is a part of nearly every professional observatory's public outreach. We review relevant research into the expectations and misconceptions that often affect the public's interpretation of these images.

  5. New raw materials for radiation curable coatings: what are they, where they come from

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybny, C.B.; Trebellas, J.C.; Vona, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of reasonably priced coating systems which meet the criteria of low-energy cure and minimum effluent pollution is of critical concern to the coatings industry. To appreciate the problems associated with radiation curable coatings, those manufacturing and utilizing these materials should be aware of their raw material compositions and the starting products from which they are derived. The utility and economics of ultraviolet coatings are also of prime interest. These topics are discussed, with emphasis on the photocurable polymers and their cross-linking monomers as well as the economics of this new technology in relation to energy cost savings. 7 references

  6. Aging effect on the pigment composition and color of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat wines. Contribution of the main pigment families to wine color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boido, Eduardo; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Carrau, Francisco; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julian C

    2006-09-06

    Red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tannat grapes are known to possess high contents of tannins and intense color, features that are responsible for the originality of these wines. This work aimed to study the evolution of the pigment composition and CIELAB color parameters as Tannat wines become older, as well as to establish the contribution to wine color of the main pigment families. Tannat wines produced in Uruguay from grapes of the same vineyard in six consecutive vintages (1998-2003) and Tannat grapes of the 2003 harvest were analyzed by means of HPLC-DAD-MS and UV-vis spectrometric techniques. The correlations between the different pigment families and the CIELAB parameters revealed the importance of the variations of the percentage, found in anthocyanins and flavanol-anthocyanin acetaldehyde-mediated condensation products (decrease) and pyranoanthocyanins and direct condensation products (increase), in the modification of the color from purple-red hues to more orange-red ones. The color suffered qualitative rather than quantitative changes, that is, the hue (h*ab) increased, whereas the chroma (C*ab) and lightness (L) did not show a defined trend with time.

  7. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio García-Estévez; Cristina Alcalde-Eon; Víctor Puente; M. Teresa Escribano-Bailón

    2017-01-01

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the...

  8. EB curable wetting resins for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, L.; Ansel, R.E.; Murray, K.P.; Schmid, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic media industry is studying means to improve the recording density, durability, product uniformity and production efficiency and to reduce wetting agent migration in the magnetic film. The use of electron beam curable resin binders for magnetic coatings is one of the approaches being studied for this. This paper compares the wetting efficiencies of several electron beam curable systems with a conventional resin and a conventional wetting agent. In this study it has been demonstrated that EB resins can be designed to effect proper magnetic pigment dispersion

  9. A visible light-curable yet visible wavelength-transparent resin for stereolithography 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Key; Shin, Mikyung; Kim, Bongkyun; Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Haeshin

    2018-04-01

    Herein, a new polymeric resin for stereolithography (SLA) three-dimensional printing (SLA-3DP) is reported. An ultraviolet (UV) or visible (VIS) light source is critical for SLA printing technology. UV light can be used to manufacture 3D objects in SLA-3DP, but there are significant occupational safety and health issues (particularly for eyes). These issues prevent the widespread use of SLA-3DP at home or in the office. Through the use of VIS light, the safety and health issues can largely be solved, but only non-transparent 3D objects can be manufactured, which prevents the application of 3DP to the production of various common transparent consumer products. For these reasons, we developed a VIS light-curable yet visibly transparent resin for SLA-3DP, which also retains UV curability. The key was to identify the photoinitiator diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (DPTBP). DPTBP was originally designed as a UV photoinitiator, but we found that VIS light irradiation is sufficient to split DPTBP and generate radicals due to its slight VIS light absorption up to 420 nm. The cured resin displays high transparency and beautiful transparent colors by incorporating various dyes; additionally, its mechanical properties are superior to those of commercial resins (Arario 410) and photoinitiators (Irgacure 2959).

  10. Effect of finishing and polishing procedures on surface roughness, gloss and color of resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Roeder, Leslie; Lu, Huan; Vogel, Karin; Powers, John M

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of different finishing and polishing procedures on surface roughness, gloss and color of five resin composites: two experimental microhybrid composites - FZ-Dentin (FZD) and FZ-Enamel (FZE), one commercial microhybrid composite - Esthet-X (EX), and two microfilled composites - Heliomolar (HM) and Renamel Microfill (RM). Surface roughness, gloss and color of the disc-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2-mm thick) were measured as Mylar (baseline), 16-fluted carbide bur and polishing were completed. Sixteen specimens of each composite were randomized to four groups of four. After finishing with a 16-fluted finishing bur, each group was polished by a different system: 1. Astropol (A), 2. Sof-lex disc (S), 3. Po-Go (P), 4. Enhance (E). Average surface roughness (Ra) was measured with a profilometer. Gloss measurements were performed using small-area glossmeter, while color coordinate values were recorded using a spectrophotometer. A deltaE*abgloss ranked according to polishing system (for all five composites together) was: P > E > A > S. The order of gloss values for the polished composites (for each of four polishing systems) was: RM > FZD > FZE > HM > EX. Fisher's PLSD intervals at the 0.05 level of significance for comparisons of means of surface roughness among five composites and four polishing systems were 0.01 and 0.01 microm, respectively. Fisher's PLSD intervals at the 0.05 level of significance for comparisons of means of gloss among five composites and four polishing systems were 6 and 5 GU, respectively. Color differences (deltaE*ab) among five composites and four polishing methods were found to range from 0.2 to 1.1.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of various types of fluoride varnishes on color stability of a composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Khodadadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fluoride varnish as an extrinsic factor may cause discoloration in tooth-colored restorative materials. This research compared the impact of different fluoride varnishes on color change of a composite restorative material. METHODS: This laboratory experimental study was conducted on 40 specimens of flowable composite resin were divided into four groups based on the brand of applied varnishes (Durashield, Nupro, Fluorilaque, and Profluoride varnishes (n = 10. Color measuring (ΔE was performed using the easy shade device and according to Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE L*a*b* system at three times: 24 hours after immersing in artificial salvia (baseline, 24 hours after fluoride varnishes application and after brushing. The amount of color changes was calculated for all of the specimens as follows: ΔE1 (difference between fluoride application-base line, ΔE2 (difference between brushing-fluoride application, and ΔE3 (difference between brushing-base line. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey. RESULTS: The maximum and minimum color changes after applying varnishes were observed by Nupro and Profluoride, respectively. A significant difference was observed between ΔE 1 values of all types of studied varnishes (P < 0.01 except Durashield and Fluorilaque (P = 0.35. After brushing, no significant difference was shown between color change of stained specimens due to Durashield, Fluorilaque, and Nupro. There was no significant difference between ΔE 3 values of Durashield and Fluorilaque. CONCLUSION: Trends of color change after using all studied varnishes were clinically acceptable (ΔE < 3.3. Durashield, Nupro, Fluorilaque, and Profluoride varnishes can be used without adversely affecting the color of flowable composite resin.

  12. Comparison of color, chemical and mineralogical compositions of mine drainage sediments to pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, C.S. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States). Geology Dept.; Decker, S.M. [Boston College, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Macander, N.K. [Parsons Engineering Science, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Forty-three untreated and actively and passively (wetland) treated coal mine drainage sediments and five yellow-red pigments were characterized using X-ray fluorescence, fusion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and tristimulus colorimeter. Primary crystalline iron-bearing phases were goethite and lepidocrocite, and iron phases converted to hematite upon heating. Quartz was nearly ubiquitous except for synthetic pigments. Gypsum, bassinite, calcite, and ettringite were found in active treatment sediments. Iron concentrations from highest to lowest were synthetic pigment>wetland sediment>natural pigment>active treatment (untreated sediments varied more widely), and manganese was highest in actively treated sediments. Loss on ignition was highest for passively treated sediments. No clear trends were observed between quantified color parameters (L*, a*, b*, and Redness Index) and chemical compositions. Because sediments from passive treatment are similar in chemistry, mineralogy, and color to natural pigments, the mine drainage sediments may be an untrapped resource for pigment. (orig.)

  13. Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

  14. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Anna L; Smith, Paul; Close, Dugald C; Curtin, Chris; Dambergs, Robert G

    2013-10-16

    Extraction and stabilization of wine phenolics can be challenging for wine makers. This study examined how yeast choice affected phenolic outcomes in Pinot noir wine. Five yeast treatments were applied in replicated microvinification, and wines were analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. At bottling, yeast treatment Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 wine had significantly higher concentrations of total pigment, free anthocyanin, nonbleachable pigment, and total tannin and showed high color density. Some phenolic effects were retained at 6 months' bottle age, and RC212 and S. cerevisae EC1118 wines showed increased mean nonbleachable pigment concentrations. Wine tannin composition analysis showed three treatments were associated with a higher percentage of trihydroxylated subunits (skin tannin indicator). A high degree of tannin polymerization was observed in wines made with RC212 and Torulaspora delbruekii , whereas tannin size by gel permeation chromatography was higher only in the RC212 wines. The results emphasize the importance of yeast strain choice for optimizing Pinot noir wine phenolics.

  15. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Dahlan; Harun, Abdul Ghani [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  16. Radiation-curable coatings with emphasis on the graphic arts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragin, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter presents a general overview of the production and use of radiation-curable coatings, especially as applied to the graphic arts. Topics covered in this chapter include an examination of industry demands and requirements, selection of UV or EB energy source, application/deposition methods, coating strategies, and curing equipment. 10 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  18. Sensory Properties and Color Measurements of Dietary Chocolates with Different Compositions During Storage for Up to 360 Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka V. Popov-Raljić

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work sensory characteristics (appearance – color, brilliance, shape and surface; texture – structure, break, firmness and chewiness; aroma – odor and taste of dietary chocolates of different compositions were evaluated, in parallel with color parameter measurements. Color was determined instrumentally on the top and bottom surfaces, using a "MINOLTA" Chroma meter CR 400 thristimulus colorimeter. Sensory evaluation was performed by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (0 – 30 days, and then after 90, 180, 270 and 360 days of storage under ambient conditions (t = 18 – 20°C. Results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA and with the LSD – test. It was concluded that the storage time up to one year had statistically highly significant (p < 0.01 effects on the sensory attributes of chocolate, as well as on instrumentally measured color parameters.

  19. Effects of Fibers on Color and Translucency Changes of Bulk-Fill and Anterior Composites after Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Tuncdemir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glass and polyethylene fibers on the color and translucency change of bulk-fill and anterior composites before and after artificial accelerated aging (AAA. Two types of teflon molds were used to fabricate samples which were 13 mm in diameter and, respectively, 2 mm and 4 mm in height. Polyethylene fiber (PF and glass fiber (GF were incorporated in the middle of the composite samples. Color and translucency changes of each composite were evaluated before and after AAA with spectrophotometer. ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc statistical analysis were used at a significance level of 0.05. Before AAA (for anterior composites, there were no significant differences in L* and b* parameters among the three groups (p>0.05; there were no significant differences in L* parameter between PF and GF groups or in TP between GF and control groups (p>0.05 (for bulk-fill composites. After AAA, there were no significant differences in L* parameter between GF and control groups, in a* parameter between PF and control groups, in b* parameter among all groups, or in TP parameter between GF and control groups (p>0.05. Fiber reinforcement led to color and TP change in both anterior and bulk-fill resin composites.

  20. Near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals: Luminescence and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P., E-mail: voitovich@imaph.bas-net.by; Kalinov, V.S.; Stupak, A.P.; Novikov, A.N.; Runets, L.P.

    2015-01-15

    Lithium fluoride nanocrystals are irradiated by gamma quanta at 77 K. The radiation color centers formed in a near-surface layer of nanocrystals are studied. Absorption, luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra of the surface defects have been measured. It has been found that the luminescence excitation spectra for aggregated surface centers consist of two or three bands with not very much different intensities. Reactions of the surface centers separately with electrons and with anion vacancies have been investigated. Numbers of anion vacancies and electrons entering into the centers composition have been established and it has been found that F{sub S1}, F{sub S1}{sup −}, F{sub S2}, F{sub S2}{sup −}, F{sub S3}{sup +} and F{sub S3} types of the surface centers are formed. The degree of luminescence polarization has been defined and it has been determined that the polarization degree for F{sub S2}{sup +} centers changes sign under transition from one excitation band to another. It has been shown that during irradiation at 77 K radiation-induced defects are formed more efficiently on the surface than in the bulk. - Highlights: • Radiative color centers were fabricated in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. • The unique absorption and luminescence characteristics are inherent in the centers. • The reactions of these centers with electrons and anion vacancies were studied. • The degree of luminescence polarization was defined. • Numbers of anion vacancies and electrons forming the centers were established.

  1. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Da Col dos Santos Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE and surface roughness (Ra of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2 submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA. Materials and Methods : Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm and separated into six groups (n = 10, according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER and Ra (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R a were taken. Results: Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10 statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05. For Ra , Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  2. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gustavo Da Col dos Santos; Dias, Kleber Campioni; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Consani, Simonides; Pires-De-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2013-01-01

    To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE ) and surface roughness (R(a)) of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2) submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA). Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm) and separated into six groups (n = 10), according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER) and R(a) (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm) readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim) for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R(a) were taken. Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10) statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05). For R(a), Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  3. Bleaching agent action on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattacaso, Raphael Mendes Bezerra; da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, Lucas; Aguilar, Fabiano Gamero; Consani, Simonides; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bleaching agent action on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of composites (Charisma, Filtek Supreme and Heliomolar - A2) submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA). A Teflon matrix (12 x 2 mm) was used to fabricate 18 specimens (n=6) which, after polishing (Sof-Lex), were submitted to initial color reading (ΔE), Knoop microhardness (KHN) (50 g/15 s load) and roughness (R(a)) (cut-off 0.25 mm) tests. Afterwards, the samples were submitted to AAA for 384 hours and new color, microhardness and roughness readings were performed. After this, the samples were submitted to daily application (4 weeks) of 16% Carbamide Peroxide (NiteWhite ACP) for 8 hours and kept in artificial saliva for 16 hours. New color, microhardness and roughness readings were made at the end of the cycle, and 15 days after bleaching. Comparison of the ΔE means (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni, P<.05) indicated clinically unacceptable color alteration for all composites after AAA, but without significant difference. Statistically significant increase in the KHN values after AAA was observed, but without significant alterations 15 days after bleaching. For R(a) there was no statistically significant difference after AAA and 15 days after bleaching. The alterations promoted by the bleaching agent and AAA are material dependent.

  4. Influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emel; Tuncer, Duygu; Firat, Esra; Ozdemir, Oguz Suleyman; Karahan, Sevilay

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins. Three different composite resins (Filtek Silorane, Filtek P60, Filtek Supreme XT) were tested. Thirty cylindrical specimens (10 × 2 mm) per material were prepared and polished with a series of aluminum-oxide polishing disks. Each group was then randomly subdivided into three groups according to the test beverages: distilled water (control), cola and coffee. The samples were immersed into different beverages for 15 days. Color, surface roughness and microhardness values were measured by a spectrophotometer, prophylometer and Vickers hardness device respectively, at baseline and after 15 days. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Immersion in coffee resulted in a significant discoloration for all the composites tested, although the color change was lower in Filtek Silorane than that of MBCs (p composites tested showed similar surface roughness changes after immersion in different beverages (p > 0.05). Besides coffee caused more roughness change than others. Immersion in coffee caused highest microhardness change in Filtek Supreme XT (p resin composites, depending on the characteristics of the materials.

  5. Color stability and degree of cure of direct composite restoratives after accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafianou, Aspasia; Iosifidou, Soultana; Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Eliades, George

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the color changes and amount of remaining C = C bonds (%RDB) in three dental composites after hydrothermal- and photoaging. The materials tested were Estelite sigma, Filtek Supreme and Tetric Ceram. Specimens were fabricated from each material and subjected to L* a* b* colorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy before and after aging. Statistical evaluation of the deltaL,* deltaa,* deltab,* deltaE and %deltaRDB data was performed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The %RDB data before and after aging were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. In all cases an alpha = 0.05 significance level was used. No statistically significant differences were found in deltaL*, deltaa*, deltaE and %deltaRDB among the materials tested. Tetric Ceram demonstrated a significant difference in deltab*. All the materials showed visually perceptible (deltaE >1) but clinically acceptable values (deltaE statistically significant differences in %RDB were noticed before and after aging (p statistically significantly different among all the groups tested. No correlation was found between deltaE and %deltaRDB.

  6. The combined effect of food-simulating solutions, brushing and staining on color stability of composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara Da; Sales, Ana Luísa Leme Simões; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the effect of food-simulating media associated with brushing and coffee staining on color stability of different composite resins. Materials and methods: Eighty specimens were prepared for each composite: Grandio SO (Voco), Amaris (Voco), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE), Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE). They were divided into four groups according to food-simulating media for 7 days: artificial saliva (control), heptane, citric acid and ethanol. The composite surface was submitted to 10,950 brushing cycles (200 g load) in an automatic toothbrushing machine. The specimens were darkened with coffee solution at 37 °C for 24 h. After each treatment, color measurements were assessed by spectrophotometry, using CIE L*a*b* system. The overall color change (ΔE) was determined for each specimen at baseline (C1) and after the treatments (food-simulating media immersion/C2, brushing/C3 and dye solution/C4). Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p composites (p = .001), time (p = .001) and chemical degradation (p = .002). The mean of ΔE for composites were: Z350XT (5.39)a, Amaris (3.89)b, Grandio (3.75)bc, P90 (3.36)c. According to food-simulating media: heptane (4.41)a, citric acid (4.24)a, ethanol (4.02)ab, artificial saliva (3.76)b. For the treatments: dye solution (4.53)a, brushing (4.26)a, after food-simulating media (3.52)b. Conclusions: The composite resin Filtek Z350XT showed significantly higher staining than all other composite resin tested. The immersion in heptane and citric acid produced the highest color alteration than other food-simulating media. The exposure of samples to brushing protocols and darkening in coffee solution resulted in significant color alteration of the composite resins. PMID:28642926

  7. Exploring Group Composition among Young, Urban Women of Color in Prenatal Care: Implications for Satisfaction, Engagement, and Group Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Cunningham, Shayna D; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Stasko, Emily; Tobin, Jonathan; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-01-01

    Group models of prenatal care continue to grow in popularity. However, little is known about how group composition (similarity or diversity between members of groups) relates to care-related outcomes. The current investigation aimed to explore associations between prenatal care group composition with patient satisfaction, engagement, and group attendance among young, urban women of color. Data were drawn from two studies conducted in New Haven and Atlanta (2001-2004; n = 557) and New York City (2008-2011; n = 375) designed to evaluate group prenatal care among young, urban women of color. Women aged 14 to 25 were assigned to group prenatal care and completed surveys during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Group attendance was recorded. Data were merged and analyzed guided by the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using multilevel regression. Analyses explored composition in terms of age, race, ethnicity, and language. Women in groups with others more diverse in age reported greater patient engagement and, in turn, attended more group sessions, b(se) = -0.01(0.01); p = .04. The composition of prenatal care groups seems to be associated with young women's engagement in care, ultimately relating to the number of group prenatal care sessions they attend. Creating groups diverse in age may be particularly beneficial for young, urban women of color, who have unique pregnancy needs and experiences. Future research is needed to test the generalizability of these exploratory findings. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Weathering Time on the Physical - Mechanical Properties and Color Change in Wood Flour/HDPE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of weathering time on the physical and mechanical properties and color change in composite made of wood flour and high density polyethylene (HDPE. For this purpose, wood flour and polyethylene at a weight ratio of 60:40 with coupling agent were compounded in an internal mixer, and the samples were made in injection molding. Then, the weathering process by ultraviolet irradiation and water spray was done on the samples at different times of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 hours in accelerated weathering apparatus. Finally, the physical and mechanical properties and color measurement of samples were tested, and compared with control samples. Results indicated that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with an increase in weathering time; however, the water absorption increased. Also, the yellowness of wood plastic samples decreased with an increase in weathering time and due to the lightness and color change increased.

  9. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García-Estévez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS. Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L* values and higher chroma (C*ab values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  10. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Puente, Víctor; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-11-23

    Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L*) values and higher chroma (C* ab ) values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color.

  11. Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Justo Polli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of finishing/polishing methods and staining solutions using different immersion periods on the color stability of a microhybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were fabricated using a stainless steel mold and polyester strips. The samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the finishing and polishing performed: Control group (no surface treatment was performed, Diamond Pro group, Diamond burs group, Enhance group, and SiC paper group. After finishing and polishing, six samples from each group were immersed in coffee, red wine, or water for 30 days. The color measurements were obtained using digital photography before immersion and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion. The red, green, and blue values provided by the Adobe Photoshop software were converted into CIELab values. A three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05. Results: The finishing and polishing methods, staining solutions, immersion times, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the color change (P = 0.00. Coffee and red wine caused intense staining. Among the polishing methods, the highest color change value was observed in the control group (P < 0.05 and the Diamond Pro disks provided the most stain-resistant surfaces (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The finishing and polishing method, staining solution, and immersion time influences the color stability. Finishing and polishing should be applied to obtain a more stain-resistant surface.

  12. Comparative analysis of the protein compositions between wild type and body color mutant of helicoverpa armigera adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Chen Jin'e; Liu Yan; Wang Yongqiang; Liu Peigang; Meng Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the fineness and regulation mechanism of body color mutant of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner, the protein composition differences between adult of dominant mutant, recessive mutant and wild type were studied using the SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the protein composition of the dominant mutant and wild type had little difference. However, there were obvious differences between the recessive mutant and wild-type. Three specific stripe were chosen for mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, and two types of proteins related to energy metabolism and cytoskeleton were identified. These findings suggested that the two types of proteins may be associated with occurrence and regulation of body color mutant traits of H. armigera. (authors)

  13. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  14. Composition and color stability of carbon monoxide treated dried porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, P R; Gomide, L A M; Fontes, E A F; Ramos, E M; Ramos, A L S

    2010-07-01

    Color stability of swine blood was studied over 12 weeks of storage in plastic bags, after pH (7.40, 6.70, or 6.00) adjustment, saturation with carbon monoxide (CO) and spray-drying. CO-treated dried blood presented a redder color and higher reflectance between 610 and 700 nm, compared to a brownish-red color and lower reflectance of untreated samples. As indicated by reflectance spectra, blood pH adjustment did not influence (P>0.05) the initial color of dried blood but influenced (Pvalues, which was more pronounced in polyethylene (OTR=4130 cm(3)/m(2)/day/atm) packaged samples. After 12 weeks of storage, CO-treated samples packaged in high OTR bags presented color indexes similar to those of the untreated dried samples. CO-treated samples packaged in nylon-polyethylene (OTR=30-60 cm(3)/m(2)/day/atm) bags showed a smaller rate of discoloration and color difference (DeltaE(*)) between the CO-treated and untreated samples. Even with some darkening, packaging CO-treated dry blood in low OTR bags still gives an acceptable reddish color after 12 weeks of storage while untreated dry blood has a brownish color just after drying. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Study of Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Color-composition Relation of Roselle Cultivars with Contrasting Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Jara-Palacios, M José; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Gordillo, Belén; Hernanz, Dolores; Paredes-López, Octavio; Vanegas-Espinoza, Pablo E; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    Roselle is a plant that accumulates anthocyanins significantly, hence its importance as food coloring and as a source of antioxidant compounds for human health. This study was aimed to determine phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts, and beverages obtained from native roselle cultivars in Mexico (Negra, Sudan, Rosa and Blanca) with different degrees of pigmentation, and to establish the color-composition relationship. Chromatographic methods were used to determine phenolic compounds: flavanols, flavonols, benzoic, hibiscus and phenolic acids as well as two main anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by ABTS and FRAP assays. Tristimulus colorimetry showed to be a useful technique to determine the color-composition relationship, leading to equations that allowed to predict anthocyanin content of roselle (R > 0.84). Also, a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was developed in order to classify roselle cultivars. The obtained mathematical model could be an important tool to be used in colorimetric characterization of functional compounds used in food processing.

  16. Gamma radiation effects on chemical composition and color of raspberries (Rubus Idaeus L.) and blueberries (Vaccinium Corymbosum) cultivated in South of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Manquian T, N.

    1988-01-01

    Raspberries and blueberries grown in the X th Region, Valdivia, were irradiated in a 137 Cs irradiador BPCDI (Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development irradiator) with dosis of 1,5 KGy and 2,5 KGy in order to measure the effect on the chemical composition and the changes of color due to pigments damage using a colorimetric method. Analysis of pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C were made. Color was analized comparing the pink color of the diluted fruit juice with a color scale of different concentrations of a cobalt scale of different concentrations of cobalt chloride. Results demonstrated that the radurization treatment does not affect chemical composition with dosis up to 2,5 KGy. It was possible to detect differences of color in raspberries and not in blueberries because of the less sensitivity of color pigments to radiation. (author)

  17. Six-month color change and water sorption of 9 new-generation flowable composites in 6 staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ARREGUI

    Full Text Available Abstract Color match and water sorption are two factors that affect restorative materials. Discoloration is essential in the lifespan of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate color change and water sorption of nine flowable composites at multiple time points over 6 months. 60 samples of each composite were divided into two groups (Color Change and Water Sorption/Solubility. Each Color Change group was divided into six subgroups, which were immersed in distilled water (DW, coffee (CF, Coca-Cola (CC, red wine (RW, tea (TE and orange juice (OJ. The color was measured at the baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months and color change values (ΔE were calculated. Each Water Sorption [WS]/Solubility [WL] group was tested according to ISO 4049:2009. The data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA, Fisher’s post-hoc test and Pearson’s correlation test. The composite with the lowest ΔE differed for each solution: Filtek™ Bulk Fill in DW (∆E = 0.73 (0.17–1.759; Vertise Flow in CF (∆E = 14.75 (7.91–27.41, in TE (∆E = 7.27 (2.81–24.81 and OJ (∆E = 3.17 (0.87–9.92; Tetric EvoFlow® in CC (∆E = 1.27 (0.45–4.02; and Filtek™ Supreme XTE in RW (∆E = 8.88 (5.23–19.59. RW caused the most discoloration (∆E = 23.62 (4.93–51.36. Vertise Flow showed the highest water sorption (WS = 69.10 ± 7.19. The Pearson test showed statistically significant positive correlations between water sorption and solubility and between water sorption and ∆E; the positive solubility-∆E correlation was not statistically significant. The findings suggest that water sorption is one factor associated with the ability of composites to discolor; however, discoloration is a multifactorial problem.

  18. Six-month color change and water sorption of 9 new-generation flowable composites in 6 staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Maria; Giner, Luis; Ferrari, Marco; Vallés, Marta; Mercadé, Montserrat

    2016-11-28

    Color match and water sorption are two factors that affect restorative materials. Discoloration is essential in the lifespan of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate color change and water sorption of nine flowable composites at multiple time points over 6 months. 60 samples of each composite were divided into two groups (Color Change and Water Sorption/Solubility). Each Color Change group was divided into six subgroups, which were immersed in distilled water (DW), coffee (CF), Coca-Cola (CC), red wine (RW), tea (TE) and orange juice (OJ). The color was measured at the baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months and color change values (ΔE) were calculated. Each Water Sorption [WS]/Solubility [WL] group was tested according to ISO 4049:2009. The data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA, Fisher's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation test. The composite with the lowest ΔE differed for each solution: Filtek™ Bulk Fill in DW (∆E = 0.73 (0.17-1.759)); Vertise Flow in CF (∆E = 14.75 (7.91-27.41)), in TE (∆E = 7.27 (2.81-24.81)) and OJ (∆E = 3.17 (0.87-9.92)); Tetric EvoFlow® in CC (∆E = 1.27 (0.45-4.02)); and Filtek™ Supreme XTE in RW (∆E = 8.88 (5.23-19.59)). RW caused the most discoloration (∆E = 23.62 (4.93-51.36)). Vertise Flow showed the highest water sorption (WS = 69.10 ± 7.19). The Pearson test showed statistically significant positive correlations between water sorption and solubility and between water sorption and ∆E; the positive solubility-∆E correlation was not statistically significant. The findings suggest that water sorption is one factor associated with the ability of composites to discolor; however, discoloration is a multifactorial problem.

  19. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  20. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2014-04-23

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk ( p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing ( p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds ( p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  1. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chugh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF, are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF. HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05 but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05, but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05. The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  2. Comparing Color Change Value of Three Types of Composite Resins in Distilled Water during the First 24 Hours after Exposure to Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afkhami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Color change of composite resin restorations is one the most common causes for replacing these restorations, which might occur due to internal and external factors. This research was carried out to study and compare color change value of three types of composite resins in distilled water during the first 24 hours after exposure to light. METHODS: In this laboratory research, 120 samples were prepared from three types of composites (Z350, Z250 and Heliomolar and were divided into 3 groups of 40. Samples with 2 mm thickness and 7 mm diameter were prepared. After assessing the initial color by spectrophotometer, samples were exposed to distilled water for 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Then, the final color was assessed by EasyShade device and the color change value (ΔE was calculated for all samples. Moreover, ΔE<3.3 was clinically acceptable. FINDINGS: In 12h group, Heliomolar composite showed lowest color change value compared with two other composites (Z350=1.385, Z250=1.179 and Heliomolar=0.854 (p<0.05, while no significant difference was observed in other groups. Furthermore, lowest color change value in each composite was observed 1 hour after curing (Z350=0.352, Z250=0.641 and Heliomolar=0.298 and color change value increased 24 hours after curing (Z350=1.888, Z250=1.903 and Heliomolar=1.929. CONCLUSION: Results of the study revealed that color change value of all three composites in distilled water was less than 3.3 after 24 hours and it was clinically acceptable

  3. Analysis of pollen load based on color, physicochemical composition and botanical source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna F.H. Modro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen load samples from 10 hives of Apis mellifera (L. were analyzed based on their physicochemical composition and botanical source, considering color as a parameter for quality control. In seven samples it was possible to establish the occurrence of more than 80% of a single pollen type, characterizing them as unifloral but with protein content variation. One of the samples was exclusively composed of saprophytic fungi (Cladosporium sp.. Comparing the mean results of the fungi loads with those of the nutritional components of pollen load, the former presented higher protein, mineral matter and dry matter and lower organic matter, ethereal extract and total carbohydrate values. The monochromatic samples met the physicochemical specifications regulating pollen load quality. The results showed that homogeneous coloration of the pollen load was not found to be a good indication of unifloral pollen, confirming the importance of physicochemical analysis and melissopalynological analysis for characterization of the quality of commercial pollen load.Amostras de cargas de pólen de 10 colméias de Apis mellifera (L. foram analisadas quanto a sua composição físico-química e origem botânica, tomando-se a coloração como parâmetro para o controle de qualidade. Em sete amostras foi possível estabelecer a ocorrência de mais de 80% de um único tipo polínico, caracterizando-as como monoflorais, porém com variações nos valores protéicos. Uma das amostras era composta exclusivamente por fungos saprofíticos (Cladosporium sp.. Comparando-se as bolotas de fungos com os resultados médios dos componentes nutricionais das bolotas de pólen, as primeiras apresentaram maior valor protéico, matéria mineral e matéria seca e menores valores de matéria orgânica, extrato etéreo ecarboidratos totais. As amostras monocromáticas estiveram de acordo com as especificações físico-químicas reguladoras da qualidade de pólen apícola. Os resultados

  4. A comparative evaluation of the staining capacity of microhybrid and nanohybrid resin-based composite to indian spices and food colorants: An In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Carounanidy; Rao, Sathyanarayanan Rama; George, Geena Mary

    2018-01-01

    Resin composite restorative materials can mimic the natural color and shade of the tooth. However, exogenous colorants from food and drinks can stain them due to adsorption. The influence of Indian food colorants and spices on resin composite restorations has not been evaluated extensively. This study aims to evaluate the staining capacity of microhybrid and nanohybrid resin-based composites, to saffron extract, tandoori powder, and turmeric powder. Forty samples of microhybrid (Kulzer Charisma) and nanohybrid (3M Filtek Z350) resin composites were prepared using an acrylic template of dimension 5 mm × 3 mm. They were randomly divided into four groups and immersed into solutions of saffron extract, tandoori powder, and turmeric powder. Distilled water was used as the control group. Color values (LFNx01, aFNx01, bFNx01) were measured by colorimeter using the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 system before and after 72 h of immersion. Color differences ΔEFNx01ab were statistically analyzed. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey (honest significant difference) test were done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. : All the immersion media changed the color of the resin composites to varying degrees. However, turmeric solution showed the maximum mean color variation ΔEFNx01ab of 14.8 ± 2.57 in microhybrid resin composites and 16.8 ± 3.50 in nanohybrid resin composites. Microhybrid and nanohybrid resin composites tend to stain to Indian food colorants, especially to turmeric powder.

  5. Cellulose Nanocrystal/Poly(ethylene glycol) Composite as an Iridescent Coating on Polymer Substrates: Structure-Color and Interface Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue; Jiang, Chenyu; Liu, Dagang; Prempeh, Nana; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2016-11-30

    The broad utility as an environmentally friendly and colorful coating of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was limited by its instability of coloration, brittleness, and lack of adhesion to a hydrophobic surface. In the present work, a neutral polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was introduced into CNC coatings through evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) on polymer matrices. The structure-color and mechanical properties of the composite coating or coating film were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), and tensile tests. Results showed that the reflective wavelength of the iridescent CNCs could be finely tuned by incorporation of PEG with varied loadings from 2.5 to 50 wt %, although the high loading content of PEG would produce some side effects because of the severe microphase separation. Second, PEG played an effective plasticizer to improve the ductility or flexibility of the CNC coating or coating film. Furthermore, as a compatibilizer, PEG could effectively and tremendously enhance the adhesion strength between CNCs and neutral polymer matrices without destroying the chiral nematic mesophases of CNCs. Environmentally friendly CNC/PEG composites with tunable iridescence, good flexibility, and high bonding strength to hydrophobic polymer matrices are expected to be promising candidates in the modern green paint industry.

  6. Thermo-curable epoxy systems for nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have used solvent-free thermo-curable epoxy systems for low-pressure and moderate-temperature nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The curing kinetic parameters and conversion of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin with different ambient-cure 930 and 954 hardeners were studied by the isothermal DSC technique. They are useful for the study of epoxy resins in the imprinting application. The DGEBA/930 and DGEBA/954 epoxy resists can be imprinted to obtain high-density nano- and micro-scale patterns on a flexible indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (ITO/PET) substrate. The DGEBA/930 epoxy resin is not only suitable for resist material, but also for plastic mold material. Highly dense nanometer patterns can be successfully imprinted using a UV-curable resist from the DGEBA/930 epoxy mold. Using the replicated DGEBA/930 epoxy mold instead of the expensive master can prevent brittle failure of the silicon molds in the NIL

  7. Effects of 15% carbamide peroxide and 40% hydrogen peroxide on the microhardness and color change of composite resins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Sadat Hashemi Kamangar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 40% hydrogen peroxide and 15% carbamide peroxide on microhardness and color change of a silorane-based composite resin in comparison with two methacrylate-based composites.Fifty-four disc-shaped specimens (A3 shade were fabricated of Filtek P90 (P90, Filtek Z350XT Enamel (Z350 and Filtek Z250 (Z250 (3MESPE (n=18. The samples of each composite were randomly divided into three subgroups of 6. The control subgroups were immersed in distilled water; the test groups were exposed to Opalescence Boost (OB once; and Opalescence PF (OP (Ultradent for two weeks. Vickers microhardness testing and a spectrophotometric analysis of the color of samples were performed before and after each intervention.The baseline microhardness of P90 was significantly lower than that of the other two composites (P=0.001, but no difference was found between Z250 and Z350 in this respect (P=0.293. Bleaching treatments significantly decreased the microhardness of Z250 and Z350 (P 0.05. No significant difference was detected between the two types of bleaching (P>0.05. After bleaching with OB, ΔE value was measured to be 3.12(1.97, 3.31(1.84 and 3.7(2.11 for P90, Z250 and Z350, respectively. These values were 5.98(2.42, 4.66(2.85 and 4.90(2.78 after bleaching with OP with no significant difference.Bleaching decreased the microhardness of methacrylate-based but not silorane-based composites. Although no significant differences were found in ΔE of composites, ΔE of all groups did not remain in the clinically acceptable range after bleaching except for P90 after bleaching with 40% H2O2 (ΔE < 3.3.

  8. Shear bond strength of a denture base acrylic resin and gingiva-colored indirect composite material to zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubochi, Kei; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Yagawa, Shogo; Mori, Serina; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strengths of two gingiva-colored materials (an indirect composite material and a denture base acrylic resin) to zirconia ceramics and determine the effects of surface treatment with various priming agents. A gingiva-colored indirect composite material (CER) or denture base acrylic resin (PAL) was bonded to zirconia disks with unpriming (UP) or one of seven priming agents (n=11 each), namely, Alloy Primer (ALP), Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB+Act), Metal Link (MEL), Meta Fast Bonding Liner (MFB), MR. bond (MRB), and V-Primer (VPR). Shear bond strength was determined before and after 5000 thermocycles. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Steel-Dwass test. The mean pre-/post-thermalcycling bond strengths were 1.0-14.1MPa/0.1-12.1MPa for the CER specimen and 0.9-30.2MPa/0.1-11.1MPa for the PAL specimen. For the CER specimen, the ALP, CPB, and CPB+Act groups had significantly higher bond strengths among the eight groups, at both 0 and 5000 thermocycles. For the PAL specimen, shear bond strength was significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. After 5000 thermocycles, bond strengths were significantly higher in the CPB and CPB+Act groups than in the other groups. For the PAL specimens, bond strengths were significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. The MDP functional monomer improved bonding of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material and denture base acrylic resin to zirconia ceramics. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteri...

  10. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  11. Data on color and chemical composition of dried scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis produced in different areas of Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Enda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dried scallop is used in Chinese, Japanese, and French cuisines for its unique flavor and taste. The quality of dried scallop is rated according to its clear, shiny brown color, developed by the Maillard reaction between sugars and amino acids. This article reports the colors, represented by L* and a* values, and chemical composition (water, salinity, Brix, proteins, and amino acids of dried scallop products. The dried scallops were produced in Tokoro, Sarufutsu, and Saroma in Hokkaido, Japan. The color of the dried scallops had values of 45.7–52.0 for L* and 2.31–5.08 for a*. The salinity of the products was 15.1–17.7%. The amino acid contents were 1350.8–1668.6 mg/100 g. The data collected here are provided in table format. The data can serve as a reference for commercial dried scallop products to determine product quality. Keywords: Quality of products, Dried scallop, Seasoning ingredient, Browning

  12. Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam Ali, M.; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah, A.; Ishiaku, U.S.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of the impact of initial red wine composition on changes in color and anthocyanin content during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Echávarri, José-Federico; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-12-15

    Sixteen commercial red wines, selected to cover a different range of color and total polyphenols index (TPI), were stored at 25°C during 6months under controlled and different oxygen additions (0, 1.1, 3.1, 10.6 and 30.4mgL(-1)) during the bottling process. Changes in color and the anthocyanic composition were evaluated using transmittance spectra and UPLC-MS-UV/Vis respectively. Results reveal a general pattern in the evolution of wines. However, different patterns of evolution related to initial wine composition, especially to TPI, were observed. Wines with higher TPI had a lower evolution, whereas wines with lower TPI showed a higher evolution and greater variability in behavior. In general, oxygen seemed to accelerate all changes observed during aging although the oxygen effect was more limited than the effect of the storage time. These results are relevant for wine experts and help explain the evolution of wine at the bottling stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational Tools and Approaches for Design and Control of Coating and Composite Color, Appearance, and Electromagnetic Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Sapper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport behavior of electromagnetic radiation through a polymeric coating or composite is the basis for the material color, appearance, and overall electromagnetic signature. As multifunctional materials become more advanced and next generation in-service applications become more demanding, a need for predictive design of electromagnetic signature is desired. This paper presents various components developed and used in a computational suite for the study and design of electromagnetic radiation transport properties in polymeric coatings and composites. Focus is given to the treatment of the forward or direct scattering problem on surfaces and in bulk matrices of polymeric materials. The suite consists of surface and bulk light scattering simulation modules that may be coupled together to produce a multiscale model for predicting the electromagnetic signature of various material systems. Geometric optics ray tracing is used to predict surface scattering behavior of realistically rough surfaces, while a coupled ray tracing-finite element approach is used to predict bulk scattering behavior of material matrices consisting of microscale and nanoscale fillers, pigments, fibers, air voids, and other inclusions. Extension of the suite to color change and appearance metamerism is addressed, as well as the differences between discrete versus statistical material modeling.

  15. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yong-Z; Zhang, Jian-Y; Zhao, Li-H; Ma, Qiu-G; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-25

    This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

  16. Controlling composition and color characteristics of Monascus pigments by pH and nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kan; Song, Da; Chen, Gong; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Quan, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Submerged fermentations of Monascus anka were performed with different nitrogen sources at different pH in 3 L bioreactors. The results revealed that the Monascus pigments dominated by different color components (yellow pigments, orange pigments or red pigments) could be selectively produced through pH control and nitrogen source selection. A large amount of intracellular pigments dominated by orange pigments and a small amount of water-soluble extracellular yellow pigments were produced at low pH (pH 2.5 and 4.0), independently of the nitrogen source employed. At higher pH (pH 6.5), the role of the nitrogen source became more significant. In particular, when ammonium sulfate was used as nitrogen source, the intracellular pigments were dominated by red pigments with a small amount of yellow pigments. Conversely, when peptone was used, intracellular pigments were dominated by yellow pigments with a few red pigments derivatives. Neither the presence of peptone nor ammonium sulfate promoted the production of intracellular orange pigments while extracellular pigments with an orangish red color were observed in both cases, with a higher yield when peptone was used. Two-stage pH control fermentation was then performed to improve desirable pigments yield and further investigate the effect of pH and nitrogen sources on pigments composition. These results provide a useful strategy to produce Monascus pigments with different composition and different color characteristics. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ricotta Cheese Whey-Fruit-Based Beverages: Pasteurization Effects on Antioxidant Composition and Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rizzolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to minimize the precipitate formation upon pasteurization for whey-fruit juice-based beverages, a novel type of functional beverage was prepared, in which whey was replaced with Ricotta-cheese whey (RCW. Aiming at evaluating the influence of fruit juice type (yellow: apple, pear; red: blueberry, strawberry and pasteurization conditions on color and antioxidants, four fruit-RCW-based beverages (juice/RCW ratio: 80/20, 14% soluble solids content were prepared and divided into two lots, and each lot was pasteurized according to different times/temperatures. After pasteurization, no formation of precipitate was observed in the bottles, even if some turbidity, ranging from 25 NTU (pear-RCW to 190 NTU (blueberry-RCW, was observed. The blending of juices with RCW caused color darkening in apple, pear, and strawberry blends, and brightening in the blueberry one. The pasteurization conditions had a greater impact on the color changes of ‘yellow’ beverages than those of the ‘red’ ones. With a lethal rate F 100 10 = 14 , there was a greater decrease in the total phenolic content (TPC in blueberry-, strawberry-, and apple-RCW beverages, and a greater decrease in the monomeric anthocyanin pigment (MAP and a smaller increase in the percent of polymeric color, in the blueberry-RCW beverage. Results on the antioxidant activity suggested that the Maillard reaction products formed in response to thermal treatment and/or the formation of anthocyanin polymers, likely compensate for the loss of antioxidant activity due to TPC and MAP degradations.

  18. Actinic radiation-curable formulations from the reaction product of organic isocyanate, poly(alkylene oxide) polyol and an unsaturated addition-polymerizable monomeric compound having a single isocyanate-reactive hydrogen group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Energy-curable compositions which can be cured in the presence of air by exposure to actinic radiation contain at least one unsaturated urethane oligomer. The oligomer comprises the reaction product of at least one poly(alkylene oxide) polyol, at least one polyisocyanate, and at least one unsaturated active hydrogen-containing compound

  19. Relationship between the composition of flavonoids and flower colors variation in tropical water lily (Nymphaea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlan Zhu

    Full Text Available Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection (DAD and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga, delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh, delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside (Dp3acetylG and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh, one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (My7RhRh, quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh, quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga, kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh, myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga, kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh, myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh, kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga, isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga, isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy, kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside (Km3-3"acetylRh and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and yellow group

  20. Relationship between the Composition of Flavonoids and Flower Colors Variation in Tropical Water Lily (Nymphaea) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-6″-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2″-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2′-O-galactoside (Chal2′Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3″-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3″acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3′-galactoside (Dp3′Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within

  1. Influence of micro-oxygenation treatment before oak aging on phenolic compounds composition, astringency, and color of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaudy, María del Carmen; Canals, Roser; González-Manzano, Susana; Canals, Joan Miquel; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Zamora, Fernando

    2006-06-14

    Micro-oxygenation is usually applied to red wines as a cheaper alternative to oak aging. It has been suggested, however, that micro-oxygenation can also be used to complement oak aging in order to improve the quality of very astringent and herbaceous red wines. In this paper we study how applying the micro-oxygenation technique before oak aging affects the composition and quality of astringent red wines. When this technique is applied prior to oak aging, the wines have a slightly less intense red color and significantly higher levels of combined and free anthocyanins and ethyl-bridged anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. On the other hand, no differences in other newly formed pigments are found. Applying micro-oxygenation before oak aging does not affect the total proanthocyanidin concentration, but it produces wines with a slightly (though significantly) higher mean degree of proanthocyanidin polymerization and a drastically lower astringency. These wines also present a clearer impact of wood aromas.

  2. Standardization of radiotherapy for less radio-curable malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shogo [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1982-09-01

    Standardization of radiotherapy for esophageal and gastric cancer was discussed, as the representatives of less radio-curable malignancies. In esophageal carcinoma, it was concluded that radiotherapy should be valuable as a curative procedure. The curative indications for radiotherapy should be the cases of T1-2 N0-1M0 with tumorous or some ulcerous types of carcinoma. Target volume should be defined to the small region, including the primary tumor and the regional lymph node (N1). The dose of 60 to 70 Gy should be optimal and given with the homogeneity of 90%. In gastric carcinoma, it seemed that radiotherapy was a palliative treatment for inoperable carcinoma and should be indicated for the cases of T1-3NxM0 with radio-responsive tumor. Target volume should be localized to the primary lesion and the dose of 50 to 60 Gy should be given as the maximum. Split course radiotherapy was recommended to avoid the serious complications.

  3. Effect of Hyperbranched Polymers on Curing Behavior of UV Curable Inks in Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Jafarifard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A high quality and high resolution printing can be rapidly created by inkjet printing technology. Inkjet printing is one of the most economic printing methods and ink waste in this technique is very low. Inkjet process provides printing on any type of substrates. The UV curable inks are special types of printing inks that have been widely used in the last decades. The use of UV curable inks is more attractive in inkjet printing technology in comparison to other methods of printing. The most important advantage of UV curable inks in this method is that they are VOC-free and compatible and have good adhesion on many types of substrates. In this research, the effect of hyperbranched polymers on the curing behavior of UV curable inks was investigated. Two types of hyperbranched polymers with hydroxyl and fatty acid chain terminal groups were used in ink formulations. The effect of hyperbranched polymers on the curing behavior of UV curable ink was investigated by real-time FTIR analysis. The results showed that the hyperbranched polymers could improve curing process by increasing the conversion rate of the third curing stage. All ink formulations containing hyperbranched polymers showed higher conversion than a neat sample. The highest conversion was 77 % for the blend containing a hyperbranched polymer with hydroxyl end groups while the neat sample showed a final conversion of 55%. UV curable inks in inkjet process containing hyperbranched polymers with hydroxyl end groups showed a higher final conversion than neat sample.

  4. Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Revilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain, Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA.

  5. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP, crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire♀×Duroc♂ (LYD, Berkshire (Ber, and Duroc (Du pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05. It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05. Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05. Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  6. Composite correlation filter for O-ring detection in stationary colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G.

    2009-04-01

    O-rings are regularly replaced in aircraft and if they are not replaced or if they are installed improperly, they can result in catastrophic failure of the aircraft. It is critical that the o-rings be packaged correctly to avoid mistakes made by technicians during routine maintenance. For this reason, fines may be imposed on the o-ring manufacturer if the o-rings are packaged incorrectly. That is, a single o-ring must be packaged and labeled properly. No o-rings or more than one o-ring per package is not acceptable. We present an industrial inspection system based on real-time composite correlation filtering that has successfully solved this problem in spite of opaque paper o-ring packages. We present the system design including the composite filter design.

  7. Effect of micro-oxygenation and wood type on the phenolic composition and color of an aged red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Iglesias, Montserrat; González-Sanjosé, Ma Luisa; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-12-23

    Many studies have recently been published focused on the effects of micro-oxygenation on the quality of wines, its application modes, and doses, etc. However, there are still few scientific papers on how previously micro-oxygenated wines perform during storage or barrel aging. This study focused on the evolution of the phenolic composition, especially of anthocyanins, and color, together with astringency and tannins, during micro-oxygenation before barrel aging. In addition, to evaluate whether wine evolution during aging depends on barrel type, wines were aged in four different oak barrel types. Tempranillo wines, some micro-oxygenated before malolactic fermentation and others not, were aged for 12 months in American, French, Central European, and Spanish oak, following wine evolution during that period. The study was carried out for two consecutive vintages. Results showed that all wines evolved similarly; therefore, the micro-oxygenation treatment neither accelerated nor delayed the typical changes of aging. Slightly different evolutions were detected according to the barrel wood type, whether or not the wine was micro-oxygenated. The varied evolutions must therefore be associated with the differences from each oak type (structure, grain and density, composition, etc.).

  8. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  9. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and

  10. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-08-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (pham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (pham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (pham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (phams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (pcolor and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  11. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  12. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  13. Study on properties of UV-curable films based on alkali-soluble photosensitive polysiloxane urethane acrylate oligomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fang; Zhang Nan; Du Hongguang; Jiang Shengling

    2011-01-01

    A UV-curable alkali-soluble polysiloxane urethane acrylate (APSUA) for solder mask was designed and synthesized in this work. The effect of composition of APSUA on physical and mechanical properties of UV curing APSUA materials including water resistance, volume shrinkage, hardness, tensile strength, elongation and heat resistance, was investigated in this paper. The results showed that reactive monomers with hydroxyl bonding could increase water absorption of the APSUA. The water absorption of the APSUA decreased with increasing crosslinking yields. The volume shrinkage of the APSUA decreased with increasing APSUA concentrations in the system and the volume shrinkage of investigated APSUA was lower than 6%. Multi-functional monomer and acrylate monomer with rigid structure could improve hardness of APSUA. When functionality of reactive monomer increased the heat resistance of APSUA could enhanced. The APSUA possesses excellent compatibility with most of acrylate monomers. (authors)

  14. Chemotherapy curable malignancies and cancer stem cells: a biological review and hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Philip

    2016-11-21

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy brings routine cures to only a small select group of metastatic malignancies comprising gestational trophoblast tumours, germ cell tumours, acute leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, high grade lymphomas and some of the rare childhood malignancies. We have previously postulated that the extreme sensitivity to chemotherapy for these malignancies is linked to the on-going high levels of apoptotic sensitivity that is naturally linked with the unique genetic events of nuclear fusion, meiosis, VDJ recombination, somatic hypermutation, and gastrulation that have occurred within the cells of origin of these malignancies. In this review we will examine the cancer stem cell/cancer cell relationship of each of the chemotherapy curable malignancies and how this relationship impacts on the resultant biology and pro-apoptotic sensitivity of the varying cancer cell types. In contrast to the common epithelial cancers, in each of the chemotherapy curable malignancies there are no conventional hierarchical cancer stem cells. However cells with cancer stem like qualities can arise stochastically from within the general tumour cell population. These stochastic stem cells acquire a degree of resistance to DNA damaging agents but also retain much of the key characteristics of the cancer cells from which they develop. We would argue that the balance between the acquired resistance of the stochastic cancer stem cell and the inherent chemotherapy sensitivity of parent tumour cell determines the overall chemotherapy curability of each diagnosis. The cancer stem cells in the chemotherapy curable malignancies appear to have two key biological differences from those of the more common chemotherapy incurable malignancies. The first difference is that the conventional hierarchical pattern of cancer stem cells is absent in each of the chemotherapy curable malignancies. The other key difference, we suggest, is that the stochastic stem cells in the chemotherapy curable malignancies

  15. Calculation of optical properties of dental composites as a basis for determining color impression and penetration depth of laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Kirsten K.; Muller, Gerhard J.

    2005-03-01

    In order to achieve esthetic dental restorations, there should be no visible difference between restorative material and treated teeth. This requires a match of the optical properties of both restorative material and natural teeth. These optical properties are determined by absorption and scattering of light emerging not only on the surface but also inside the material. Investigating different dental composites in several shades, a method has been developed to calculate the optical parameters absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, anisotropy factor g and reduced scattering coefficient μs'. The method includes sample preparation and measurements of transmittance and reflectance in an integrating sphere spectrometer, followed by inverse Monte Carlo simulations. Determination of optical properties is more precise and comprehensive than with the previously used Kubelka Munk theory because scattering can be looked at separated into pure scattering with the scattering coefficient μs and its direction with the anisotropy factor g. Moreover the use of the inverse Monte Carlo simulation not only minimizes systematic errors and considers the scattering phase function, but also takes into account the measuring geometry. The compilation of a data pool of optical parameters now enables the application of further calculation models as a basis for optimization of the composition of new materials. For example, a prediction of the general color impression for multiple layers can be carried out as well as the calculation of the wavelength dependent penetration depths of light with regard to photo polymerization. Further applications are possible in the area of laser ablation.

  16. Phenolic composition and related antioxidant properties in differently colored lettuces: a study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Usue; Pinzino, Calogero; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ranieri, Annamaria; Sgherri, Cristina

    2014-12-10

    Differently colored lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars (green, green/red, and red) were studied to correlate their phenolic composition with their antioxidant kinetic behavior. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was employed to monitor decay kinetics of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), which allowed the identification of three differently paced antioxidants. The results showed that as long as lettuce had higher red pigmentation, the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity increased together with the contents in free and conjugated phenolic acids, free and conjugated flavonoids, and anthocyanins. EPR allowed the identification of slow-rate antioxidants in green and green/red cultivars, intermediate-rate antioxidants in green, green/red, and red cultivars, and fast-rate antioxidants in green/red and red cultivars. At present, the different kinetic behaviors cannot be attributed to a specific antioxidant, but it is suggested that the flavonoid quercetin accounted for the majority of the intermediate-rate antioxidants, whereas the anthocyanins accounted for the majority of the fast-rate antioxidants.

  17. Assessment of the differences in the phenolic composition and color characteristics of new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars by HPLC-MS and Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lara, Rebeca; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Lourdes González-Miret, M; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Heredia, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    The phenolic composition (by HPLC-DAD-MS) and color characteristics (by Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry) of four strawberry cultivars that have shown good climate adaptation to subtropical area (Nikte, Zamorana, Jacona and Pakal) have been assessed. 24 monomeric phenolics were identified, including 15 anthocyanins, 5 phenolic acids, 1 flavanol and 4 flavonols. Nikte and Zamorana showed the highest phenolic potential mainly due to their higher content of anthocyanins, while Pakal was richer in phenolic acids. Regarding color, Nikte and Zamorana were the more similar cultivars having the lowest values of lightness and hue. On the contrary, the color of Pakal was quite different from all the rest, due to the specific distribution between pelargonidin and cyanidin. The inclusion of both phenolic and colorimetric information in the Linear Discriminant Analysis allowed reaching very good discriminations among cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of red light irradiation on skin coloration and carotenoid composition of stored ''Miyauchi'' iyo (Citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, H.; Watanabe, J.; Kadoya, K.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of red light irradiation on skin color development and carotenoid composition of stylar end of Miyauchi iyo (citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit was examined during storage. Both increase in a and a/b value and decrease in b value were enhanced by the irradiation. The a/b values of the fruit exposed were higher than those of control during the whole storage period. HPLC analyses also revealed the increase in total carotenoids content, of which the carotenoids that were tentatively named B and F most greatly accumulated. Similar tendencies were observed at equator and stem end portions. These results indicate that red light irradiation is involved in not only acceleration of overall color development but also enhancement of red color pigmentation by influencing a certain specific pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis

  19. Development of UV-curable liquid for in-liquid fluorescence alignment in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Kento; Kikuchi, Eri; Ishito, Yota; Kumagai, Mari; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    We studied a fluorescent UV-curable resin suitable for fluorescence alignment in UV nanoimprinting. The addition of a cationic fluorescent dye caused radical photopolymerization of a UV-curable resin by exposure to visible excitation light for fluorescence microscope observation. The microscope observation of a resin film prepared by pressing resin droplets on a silica substrate with a fluorinated silica superstrate revealed that the cationic dye molecules were preferably adsorbed onto the silica surface. It was indicated that the dye molecules concentrated on the silica surface may cause the photocuring. A nonionic fluorescent dye was selected owing to its low polar symmetrical structure and its solubility parameter close to monomers. The fluorescent UV-curable resin with the nonionic dye showed uncured stability to exposure to visible excitation light for 30 min with a light intensity of 8.5 mW cm‑2 detected at 530 nm.

  20. Stress and flow analyses of ultraviolet-curable resin during curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Eisaku; Okano, Akira; Koyama, Hiroto

    2014-06-01

    The stress and flow generated in ultraviolet (UV)-curable resin during curing in molds were measured to investigate their relationship. The specimens were molds consisting of glass plates and acrylic bars, and UV-curable liquid resin. The specimens were illuminated from above with UV rays. Photoelastic and visual images were separately obtained at a constant time interval using cameras during curing. To help obtain the visual images, acrylic powder was mixed with the liquid resin. The stress was obtained from the photoelastic images by a digital photoelastic technique with phase stepping, and the flow was obtained from the visual images by a particle-tracking velocimetry technique. Results indicate that the stress generated in the UV-curable resin during curing depends on the degree of contact between the mold and the cured area of the resin, and is hardly related to the flow.

  1. Study on Biodegradation of Palm Oil-based UV-Curable Films in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Siti Farhana Fathy; Mohamad Norahiman Abdurahman; Anis Asmi Azman; Nur Amira Hamidi; Mek Zah Salleh; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh

    2014-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (UV)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex which is near the BTS building at block 42. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based UV-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the film morphology and the film weight loss which are analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based UV-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels. (author)

  2. The mineral composition and the effect of particle size of carbonized rice straw as colorant of a traditional cake kue jongkong Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtini, E. S.; Yuwono, S. S.; Setyawan, H. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Carbonized rice straw (CRS) is a term defined for the residue of incomplete combustion of rice straw. Utilization of CRS as a natural food coloring agent has been the local Indonesian wisdom. However, study of this local food coloring agent is rare in the literature. This study was aimed to determine the mineral composition of the CRS, and to investigate the effect of particle size of the CRS to the black color intensity of a traditional Indonesian cake called kue jongkong Surabaya. The mineral content of the CRS was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The CRS was grounded and sieved passing through different screen sizes (40, 80, 100, 120 and 200 mesh).The particle size distribution was measured using particle size analyzer. The CRS with different particle sizes were then applied as a natural coloring agent of the kue jongkong, from which the intensity of black color was determined using a color reader. It was found that the dominant minerals of the CRS were SiO2, carbon, and K2O. Other trace elements found were Cl, CaO, Na2O, MgO, P, S, Fe, Al2O3 and Mn. The CRS which passed to the sieve of 40 mesh has particle size distribution of 28μm, 115μm, and 348μm for a standard of D10, D50, and D90, respectively. However, CRS that passing through the sieve of 60-200 mesh have similar particle sizes (D10: 12-14μm, D50: 49-60μm, and D90: 114-145 μm). The smaller of CRS particle size produced a darker color of the kue jongkong due to better molecule dispersion and wider surface area.

  3. Effect of at-home whitening strips on the surface roughness and color of a composite and an ormocer restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Pelin; Yilmaz, Kerem; Yilmaz, Burak; Durkan, Rukiye

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenating agents like carbamide peroxide or H(2) O(2) are commonly used whitening agents. They have varying influence on the color and surface roughness of resin-based restorative materials and teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an at-home peroxide whitening agent applied through a whitening strip on the color and surface roughness of a nanofilled composite resin and an ormocer-based resin. Disc-shaped (2 mm thick, 10 mm diameter) nanofilled resin composite (n = 10) and ormocer (n = 10) specimens were prepared. All specimens were treated with a whitening strip. Whitening procedures were performed applying a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strip (Crest White Strips Professional) for 30 minutes twice each day for a period of 21 consecutive days. During the test intervals, the specimens were rinsed under running distilled water for 1 minute to remove the whitening agents and immersed in 37°C distilled water until the next treatment. Surface roughness and color of the specimens were measured with a profilometer and a colorimeter, respectively, before and after whitening. Color changes were calculated (ΔE) using L*, a*, and b* coordinates. Repeated measures of variance analysis and Duncan test were used for statistical evaluation (α= 0.05). The average surface roughness of composite increased from 1.4 Ra to 2.0 Ra, and from 0.8 Ra to 0.9 Ra for the ormocer material; however, these changes in roughness after whitening were not significant (p > 0.05). Also, when two materials were compared, the surface roughness of restorative materials was not different before and after whitening (p > 0.05). L* and b* values for each material changed significantly after whitening (p composite (11.9) and ormocer (16.1) were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). The tested whitening agent did not affect the surface roughness of either resin-based restorative material. Both materials became brighter after whitening. The behavior of the

  4. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Li Meitian; Kim Youshi; Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai; Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo; Li Rongwu

    2011-01-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  5. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin, E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.c [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Meitian; Kim Youshi [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, Jiangxi Province 330025 (China); Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Rongwu [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  6. Evaluation of degree of conversion and the effect of thermal aging on the color stability of resin cements and flowable composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Pimenta de Araújo, Cíntia Tereza; Araujo Pierote, Josué Junior; Salles de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos; Coppini, Erick Kamiya; Sartini Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability and degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cure and light-cure cements and flowable composites after thermal aging. A total of 50 human incisors were prepared and divided into six groups ( n = 10). Veneers were fabricated using IPS Empress Direct composite resin were bonded with three types of luting agents: Light-cured, conventional dual, and flowable composite according to the manufacturer's instructions. The groups were as follows: Filtek Z350XT Flow/Single Bond 2, RelyX ARC/Single Bond 2, RelyX Veneer/Single Bond 2, Tetric N-Flow/Tetric N-Bond, and Variolink II/Tetric N-Bond. Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage L*, a* and b* color coordinates were measured 24 h after cementation procedure with a color spectrophotometer and reevaluated after 10,000 thermal cycles. To evaluate the DC 50 specimens ( n = 10) of each resin material were obtained and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to evaluate the absorption spectra. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). No statistically significant differences in ΔE* occurred after aging. The greatest change in lightness occurred in the Variolink II resin cement. Changes in red-green hue were very small for the same cement and largest in the Tetric N-Flow flowable resin composite, while the greatest change in blue-yellow hue was a yellowing of the RelyX ARC luting cement. RelyX ARC exhibited the highest DC, and there were no statistically significant differences in DC among the other cements. Resin-based luting agent might affect the final of ceramic veneer restorations. The thermal aging affected the final color of the evaluated materials, and these were regarded as clinically unacceptable (ΔE >3.3).

  7. Color optimization of conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid white light emitting diodes by incomplete energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Lai, Chun-Feng; Madhusudhana Reddy, P.; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chiou, Wei-Yung; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2015-01-01

    By using the wavelength conversion method, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced by applying mixtures of polysiloxane and fluorescent polymers on InGaN based light emitting diodes. UV curable organic–inorganic hybrid materials with high refractive index (1.561), compromised optical, thermal and mechanical properties was used as encapsulants. Red light emitting fluorescent FABD polymer (with 9,9-dioctylfluorene (F), anthracene (A) and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (B), and 4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (D) repeating units) and green light emitting fluorescent FAB polymer were used as wavelength converters. The encapsulant/fluorescent polymer mixture and InGaN produce the white light by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. WLEDs with high color rendering index (CRI, about 93), and tunable correlated color temperature (CCT) properties can be produced by controlling the composition and chemical structures of encapsulating polymer and fluorescent polymer in hybrid materials, offering cool-white and neutral-white LEDs. - Highlights: • Highly efficient white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced. • Conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid WLEDs by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. • WLEDs with high color-rendering index and tunable correlated color temperature. • Polysiloxane encapsulant with superior optical, mechanical and thermal properties

  8. Hybrid 2D patterning using UV laser direct writing and aerosol jet printing of UV curable polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Kotaro; Schonewille, Adam; Slobin, Shayna; Hohnholz, Arndt; Unger, Claudia; Koch, Jürgen; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2017-09-01

    The hybrid technique of aerosol jet printing and ultraviolet (UV) laser direct writing was developed for 2D patterning of thin film UV curable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A dual atomizer module in an aerosol jet printing system generated aerosol jet streams from material components of the UV curable PDMS individually and enables the mixing in a controlled ratio. Precise control of the aerosol jet printing achieved the layer thickness of UV curable PDMS as thin as 1.6 μm. This aerosol jet printing system is advantageous because of its ability to print uniform thin-film coatings of UV curable PDMS on planar surfaces as well as free-form surfaces without the use of solvents. In addition, the hybrid 2D patterning using the combination of UV laser direct writing and aerosol jet printing achieved selective photo-initiated polymerization of the UV curable PDMS layer with an X-Y resolution of 17.5 μm.

  9. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  10. Preparation and Characterization of UV-Curable Cyclohexanone-Formaldehyde Resin and Its Cured Film Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-curable cyclohexanone-formaldehyde (UVCF resin was prepared with cyclohexanone-formaldehyde (CF resin, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA as base substance, bridging agent, and functional monomer, respectively. The structure of UVCF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The viscosity and photopolymerization behavior of the UV-curable formulations were studied. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of the cured films were also investigated. The results showed that UVCF resin was successfully prepared, the number of average molecular weight was about 2010, and its molecular weight distribution index was 2.8. With the increase of UVCF resin content, the viscosity of the UV-curable formulations increased. After exposure to UV irradiation for 230 s, the photopolymerization conversion of the UV-curable formulations was above 80%. Moreover, when the UVCF content was 60%, the formulations had high photopolymerization rate, and the cured UVCF films showed good thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  11. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels

  12. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  13. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida, E-mail: rida@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Mek Zah, E-mail: mekzah@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik, E-mail: nik-ghazali@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman, E-mail: iman5031@yahoo.com [Division of Radiation Processing Technology, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salih, Ashraf Mohammed, E-mail: ashraf.msalih@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, 1111 Sudan (Sudan); Fathy, Siti Farhana, E-mail: farhana811@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience (IBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Anis Asmi, E-mail: anisasmi18@gmail.com; Hamidi, Nur Amira, E-mail: amirahamidi93@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  14. Conservation experiments applying radiation-curable impregnating agents to intact and artifically decayed wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.

    1983-02-01

    Conservation experiments have been performed applying 10 selected impregnating agents to intact and chemically as well as biologically decayed wood samples. The quality of the radiation-curable impregnating agents could be valued by determination of the monomer uptake, the alteration of dimensions and volume and the deformation of the samples. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  15. Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal behavior of a novel UV-curable coating containing phosphorus and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Weiyi; Song Lei; Lv Pin; Jie Ganxin; Wang Xin; Lv Xiaoqi; Hu Yuan

    2010-01-01

    A novel phosphorus monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol acryloyloxyethyl phosphate (DPHA), has been synthesized through phosphorus oxychloride reacting with neopentyl glycol and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P NMR). A series of UV-curable resins were manufactured by blending DPHA with triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA) at different weight ratio. The fire performance was examined by Microscale Combustion Calorimetry (MCC). The results obtained from MCC indicated that the addition of DPHA to TGICA decreased the peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC) and total heat of combustion (THC). The char residues of the composites were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal decomposition behavior of DPHA/TGICA composites was characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The test results indicated that when the weight ratio of DPHA: TGICA = 1/1, the onset temperature of the composite was highest and the largest char residue at 700 deg. C was observed. The change of chemical structure during the thermal degradation process was monitored by real-time FTIR analysis. TGA-IR results indicated that the evolved products were CO, CO 2 , water, NH 3 , carbonyl, phosphorus oxides and aromatic compounds according to the temperature of onset formation.

  16. Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal behavior of a novel UV-curable coating containing phosphorus and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Song Lei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lv Pin; Jie Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Wang Xin; Lv Xiaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel phosphorus monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol acryloyloxyethyl phosphate (DPHA), has been synthesized through phosphorus oxychloride reacting with neopentyl glycol and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR) and {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P NMR). A series of UV-curable resins were manufactured by blending DPHA with triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA) at different weight ratio. The fire performance was examined by Microscale Combustion Calorimetry (MCC). The results obtained from MCC indicated that the addition of DPHA to TGICA decreased the peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC) and total heat of combustion (THC). The char residues of the composites were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal decomposition behavior of DPHA/TGICA composites was characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The test results indicated that when the weight ratio of DPHA: TGICA = 1/1, the onset temperature of the composite was highest and the largest char residue at 700 deg. C was observed. The change of chemical structure during the thermal degradation process was monitored by real-time FTIR analysis. TGA-IR results indicated that the evolved products were CO, CO{sub 2}, water, NH{sub 3}, carbonyl, phosphorus oxides and aromatic compounds according to the temperature of onset formation.

  17. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF). HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05) but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05), but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05). The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments. PMID:28234317

  18. Color-Tunable and High-Efficiency Dye-Encapsulated Metal-Organic Framework Composites Used for Smart White-Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenwei; Zhuang, Yixi; Wang, Le; Lv, Ying; Liu, Jianbin; Zhou, Tian-Liang; Xie, Rong-Jun

    2018-05-25

    Luminescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (typically dye-encapsulated MOFs) are considered as one kind of interesting downconversion materials for white-light-emitting diodes (LEDs), but their quantum efficiency (QE) is not sufficient and thus needs to be significantly enhanced for practical applications. In this study, we successfully synthesized a series of Rh@bio-MOF-1 (Rh = rhodamine) with an internal QE as high as ∼79% via a solvothermal reaction followed by cation exchanges. The high efficiency of the Rh@bio-MOF-1 composites was attributable to the high intrinsic luminescent efficiency of the selected Rh dyes, the confinement effect in the bio-MOF-1 host, and the uniform particle morphology. The emission maximum could be continuously tuned from 550 to 610 nm by controlling the species and concentration of encapsulated dye molecules, showing great color tunability of the dye-encapsulated MOFs. The emission lifetime of ∼7 ns was 1 or 2 magnitude orders shorter than that of Ce 3+ - or Eu 2+ -doped inorganic phosphors, allowing for visible light communication (VLC). White LEDs, fabricated by using the synthesized Rh@bio-MOF-1 composite and inorganic phosphors of green (Ba,Sr) 2 SiO 4 :Eu 2+ and red CaAlSiN 3 :Eu 2+ , exhibited a high color rendering index of 80-94, a luminous efficacy of 94-156 lm/W, and an excellent stability in color point against drive current. The Rh@bio-MOF-1 composites with tunable colors, short emission lifetime, and high QE are expected to be used for smart white LEDs with multifunctions of both lighting and VLC.

  19. Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer filled resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Miyazaki, Masashi; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss and color of different shades of surface reaction type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filled nano-hybrid resin composite. Resin disks of 15 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness and final polish with 1000-grit SiC paper, super fine cut diamond (FG) point, silicon (MFR) point and Super-Snap mini-disk red (SNAP) were made with Beautifil II shades: A2, A20, Inc). One week after curing, the surface roughness, gloss and color were measured. Data was analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD with alpha= 0.05 For all shades, the order of roughness (Ra) ranked according to groups of 1000-grit SiC > FG > MFR > SNAP with significant differences among all groups. For all shades, the order of gloss ranked according to groups of SNAP > MFR > FG > 1000-grit SiC with significant differences among the groups except for between MFR and FG without significant difference. The influence of the surface roughness on color differed among the polishing groups and shades. However, the values of the color differences (deltaE*ab) between the polishing groups of all shades were imperceptible to the naked eye.

  20. Distinction between amorphous and healed planar deformation features in shocked quartz using composite color scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Maartje F.; Pennock, Gill M.; Herwegh, Marco; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-10-01

    Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are one of the most reliable and most widely used forms of evidence for hypervelocity impact. PDFs can be identified in scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images, but not all PDFs show the same CL behavior: there are nonluminescent and red luminescent PDFs. This study aims to explain the origin of the different CL emissions in PDFs. Focused ion beam (FIB) thin foils were prepared of specific sample locations selected in composite color SEM-CL images and were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FIB preparation technique allowed a direct, often one-to-one correlation between the CL images and the defect structure observed in TEM. This correlation shows that composite color SEM-CL imaging allows distinction between amorphous PDFs on one hand and healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins on the other: nonluminescent PDFs are amorphous, while healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins are red luminescent, with a dominant emission peak at 650 nm. We suggest that the red luminescence is the result of preferential beam damage along dislocations, fluid inclusions, and twin boundaries. Furthermore, a high-pressure phase (possibly stishovite) in PDFs can be detected in color SEM-CL images by its blue luminescence.

  1. Minerals from Macedonia. XII. The dependence of quartz and opal color on trace element composition - AAS, FT IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makreski, Petre; Jovanovski, Gligor; Stafilov, Trajce; Boev, Blazho

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the color of quartz and opal natural minerals, collected from different localities in the Republic of Macedonia (Alinci, Belutche, Budinarci, Mariovo, Sasa, Sazhdevo, Chanishte, Cheshinovo, Zletovo) on their element composition is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR), micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In order to determine the content of different trace elements (Al, Cd, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn), 15 quartz and 2 opal mineral samples, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) are studied. To avoid matrix interferences, the method for elimination of silicium is proposed. Optimal instrumental parameters for ETAAS determination (temperature and time for drying, pyrolysis and atomizing) are established by extensive testing for each investigated element. It is found that the milky white color of quartz minerals is due to the presence of traces of Ca, the appearance of black color is the result of the existence of Pb, Mn and Al impurities, and the occurrence of Fe and Cr introduce appearance of red and green color, respectively. Preliminary identification of the minerals is based on the comparison of our results, obtained by using the infrared and Raman vibrational spectroscopy, with the corresponding literature data for the analogous mineral species originating all over the world. An overview of the basic morphological and physico-chemical characteristics of the quartz and opal minerals and the geology of the localities is given. The colored pictures of the studied quartz and opal minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  2. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  3. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  4. The effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite veneering material to three implant framework materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizuka, Mai; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the shear-bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material to three different implant framework materials (zirconia ceramics, gold alloy, and titanium), and to investigate the effect of surface pretreatment by air-particle abrasion and four priming agents. A gingiva-colored indirect composite (Ceramage) was bonded to three framework materials (n = 80): commercially pure titanium (CP- Ti ), ADA (American Dental Association)-type 4 casting gold alloy (Type IV), and zirconia ceramics (Zirconia) with or without airborne-particle abrasion. Before bonding, the surface of the specimens was treated using no (control) or one of four priming agents: Alloy Primer (ALP), Estenia Opaque Primer (EOP), Metal Link Primer (MLP), and V-Primer (VPR). Shear-bond strength was determined after 24-h wet storage. Data were analyzed using Steel-Dwass for multiple comparisons, and Mann-Whitney U-test (P = 0.05). For both CP- Ti and Zirconia substrates, three groups, ALP, EOP, and MLP, showed significantly higher bond strengths (P composite material to commercially pure titanium and zirconia frameworks. Combined use of a thione monomer with a phosphoric monomer enhances the bond strengths to airborne-particle abraded type IV gold alloy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Evaluation of the surface hardness, roughness, gloss and color of composites after different finishing/polishing treatments and thermocycling using a multitechnique approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Kanşad; Tekçe, Neslihan; Tuncer, Safa; Serim, Merve Efe; Demirci, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of resin composites. The materials evaluated were the Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Filtek Z550 and G-aenial Posterior composites. A total of 189 specimens were fabricated for microhardness, roughness, gloss and color tests. The specimens were divided into three finishing and polishing systems: Enhance, OneGloss and Sof-Lex Spiral. Microhardness, roughness, gloss and color were measured after 24 h and after 10,000 thermocycles. Two samples from each group were evaluated using SEM and AFM. G-aenial Posterior exhibited the lowest microhardness values. The mean roughness ranged from 0.37 to 0.61 µm. The smoothest surfaces were obtained with Sof-Lex Spiral for each material. G-aenial Posterior with Enhance was determined to be the glossiest surfaces. All of the materials exhibited similar ΔE values ranging between 1.69 and 2.75. Sof-Lex Spiral discs could be used successfully to polish composites.

  6. Nanocarbon–{[Na10(PrW10O36]2·130H2O} composite to detect toxic food coloring dyes at nanolevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taposhree Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monitoring of adulterated and toxic food colors is important due to their potential toxicity and pathogenicity. Here, we repot an Ln–POM (lanthanide polyoxometalate cluster, {[Na10(PrW10O36]2·130H2O}, with carbon nano-onion (CNO hybrid composite which is a highly efficient sensor for the rapid detection of toxic dyes like metanil yellow, auramine O, Orange II and in allura red (red 40 as low as 3.83; 4.73; 4.14 and 2.90 nmol ml−1 concentration, respectively, by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  7. Light Color Attraction and Dietary Sugar Composition for Several Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species Found in North Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-02

    Osten Sacken), 2,841 chaoborids (Corethrella spp.), and 26 Lutzomyia shannon: (Dyar) were collected respectively. Proportions of trap collections...for Cx. (melanoconion) spp. Although female Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar), were collected, no significant color differences were observed given the small

  8. Research and development in the field of radiation curable coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmler, K.; Goethlich, L.; Osterloh, R.; Zosel, A.

    1977-08-01

    Suitable monomers for radiation curable coatings are mono- and polyfunctional acrylates and N vinylcompounds like vinylpyrrolidone and divinylpropyleneurea. Methacrylates, vinylesters and vinylethers are less suited. The residual monomer content of two completely cured coatings (UP and epoxyacrylate resins) amounts to 0.01 to 0.05%. Electron beam cured UP/acrylate films are particularly soil resistant. Peroxide and electron beam cured UP resin coatings differ in their curing pattern. Development of radiation sources now allows for testing radiation curable coatings on laboratory units. Modern EB and UV radiators deliver comparable results. The patent literature on electron beam curing comprises more than 700 known applications. In the course of the work described herein 4 patents were applied for. (orig.) [de

  9. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  10. New UV-curable acrylated polyester prepolymers from palm oil based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azam Ali; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah Ahmad; Umaru, S.I.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    1999-01-01

    Acrylated polyester prepolymers (PEPP-1 and PEPP-2) were synthesized from palm oil and its products. UV-curing and characteristic properties of UV-cured films of synthesized polyester resins were studied. The characteristic properties studied include pendulum hardness, gel content, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength and elongation at break. The materials have good potential for the production of radiation curable coating applications

  11. Characterization of curing behavior of UV-curable LSR for LED embedded injection mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Joon-Sung; Yim, Kyung-Gyu; Rhee, Byung-Ohk; Kwak, Jae B.

    2016-11-01

    For many applications, liquid silicone rubber (LSR) injection molding is widely used for their great design flexibility and high productivity. In particular, a sealing part for a mobile device such as smartphone and watch has been produced by injection molding. While thermally curable LSR causes deformation problem due to a high mold temperature, UV-curable LSR can be molded at room temperature, which has advantages for over-molding with inserts of temperature-sensitive materials. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have advantages such as a longer service life, a lower heat dissipation, and smaller size to equip into the mold than conventional halogen or mercury UV lamps. In this work, rheological behavior of UV-curable LSR during curing process was analyzed by UV LEDs available in the market. UV-LEDs of various wave lengths and intensities were tested. The steady shear test was applied to find the starting time of curing and the SAOS was applied to find the ending time of curing to estimate processing time. In addition, the hardness change with irradiation energy was compared with the rheological data to confirm the reliability of the rheological test.

  12. Case and partnership reproduction numbers for a curable sexually transmitted infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijne, Janneke C M; Herzog, Sereina A; Althaus, Christian L; Low, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2013-08-21

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are, by definition, transmitted between sexual partners. For curable STIs an infected index case can potentially re-infect the same partner multiple times. Thus, R0, the average number of secondary infections one typical infected individual will produce during his or her infectious period is not necessarily the same as the average number of secondary cases (infected persons). Here we introduce the new concept of the case reproduction number (Rc). In addition, we define the partnership reproduction number (Rp) as the average number of secondary partnerships consisting of two infected individuals one typical infected individual will produce over his or her infectious lifetime. Rp takes into account clearance and re-infection within partnerships, which results in a prolongation of the duration of the infectious period. The two new reproduction numbers were derived for a deterministic pair model with serial monogamous partnerships using infection parameters for Chlamydia trachomatis, an example of a curable STI. We showed that re-infection within partnerships means that curable STIs can be sustained endemically even when the average number of secondary cases a person produces during his or her infectious period is below one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Color stability of bulk-fill and incremental-fill resin-based composites polished with aluminum-oxide impregnated disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzay Koc-Vural

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and nanohybrid resin-based composites polished with 3 different, multistep, aluminum-oxide impregnated finishing and polishing disks. Materials and Methods Disk-shaped specimens (8 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness were light-cured between two glass slabs using one nanohybid bulk-fill (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent, one micro-hybrid bulk-fill (Quixfil, Dentsply, and two nanohybrid incremental-fill (Filtek Ultimate, 3M ESPE; Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr resin-based composites, and aged by thermocycling (between 5 - 55℃, 3,000 cycles. Then, they were divided into subgroups according to the polishing procedure as SwissFlex (Coltène/Whaledent, Optidisc (Kerr, and Praxis TDV (TDV Dental (n = 12 per subgroup. One surface of each specimen was left unpolished. All specimens were immersed in coffee solution at 37℃. The color differences (ΔE were measured after 1 and 7 days of storage using a colorimeter based on CIE Lab system. The data were analyzed by univariate ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedmann tests (α = 0.05. Results Univariate ANOVA detected significant interactions between polishing procedure and composite resin and polishing procedure and storage time (p 0.05. Polishing reduced the discoloration resistance of Tetric EvoCeram/SwissFlex, Tetric EvoCeram/Praxis TDV, Quixfil-SwissFlex, and all Herculite XRV Ultra groups after 7 days storage (p < 0.05. Conclusions Discoloration resistance of bulk-fill resin-based composites can be significantly affected by the polishing procedures.

  14. Effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips on tooth surface color, surface microhardness, surface and subsurface ultrastructure, and microchemical (Raman spectroscopic) composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschner, Heinz; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Kozak, Kathleen M; Zoladz, James R

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching strips on the surface hardness and morphology of enamel and the ultrastructure and chemical composition of enamel and dentin in vitro. Sound human molars were ground and polished to prepare a uniform substrate for bleaching treatments. A cycling treatment methodology was employed which alternated ex vivo human salivary exposures with bleaching treatments under conditions of controlled temperature and durations of treatment. Bleaching treatments included commercial Crest Whitestrips bleaching strips, which utilize hydrogen peroxide in a gel as the in situ bleaching source at 6.0 and 6.5% concentrations of H2O2. Control treatments included an untreated group. Crest Whitestrips bleaching included treatment exposures simulating 2x the recommended clinical exposures (28 hours bleaching). Surface color measurements were taken prior to and following bleaching to ensure tooth bleaching activity. The effects of bleach on physical properties of enamel were assessed with microhardness measures. Ultrastructural effects were classified by surface and subsurface confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. In addition, the effects of bleaching on tooth microchemical composition was studied in different tooth regions by coincident assessment of Raman spectroscopic signature. Color assessments confirmed significant ex vivo tooth bleaching by Whitestrips. Surface microhardness and SEM measures revealed no deleterious effects on the enamel surfaces. CLSM micromorphological assessments supported the safety of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips both on surface and subsurface enamel, DEJ, and dentin ultrastructure. Raman spectroscopy analysis demonstrated no obvious effects of bleaching treatments on the microchemical composition of enamel and dentin. These results confirm that tooth bleaching with hydrogen peroxide whitening strips does not produce changes in surface

  15. The effect of season, sex, and portion on the carcass characteristics, pH, color, and proximate composition of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2013-12-01

    The carcass yield, physical characteristics, and proximate composition of Egyptian geese (Alopochen aegyptiacus), a southern African gamebird species, have been studied. A total of 69 geese were harvested during 2 seasons: summer (n = 36) and winter (n = 33). This total group of geese consisted of 27 female birds and 42 male birds. Sex alone affected (P ≤ 0.05) the live and carcass weights, and the average muscle weight (g) of each portion was higher for the male fowl. The data does not indicate differences between the meat's physical characteristics on account of sex; however, the meat from the female birds did have a higher intramuscular fat content. Season (winter vs. summer) did not influence the average muscle weights (g) of the breast, thigh, and drumstick portions, but the intramuscular fat content content of the birds hunted in winter was higher. Muscle color and pH differed as a result of season with the summer meat having a higher pH and more vivid red color compared with winter. The physical characteristics and the proximate composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick portions varied considerably. This is essentially connected to a difference in physical activity of the muscles in the portions. Overall, this study revealed that to ensure a consistent eating quality the harvesting periods of Egyptian geese should be considered.

  16. Effect of wood flour content on the optical color, surface chemistry, mechanical and morphological properties of wood flour/recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chan Kok; Amin, Khairul Anuar Mat; Kee, Kwa Bee; Hassan, Mohd Faiz; Ali, E. Ghapur E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, effect of wood flour content on the color, surface chemistry, mechanical properties and surface morphology of wood-plastic composite (WPC) on different mixture ratios of recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and wood flour were investigated in detail. The presence of wood flour in the composite indicates a significant total color change and a decrease of lightness. Functional groups of wood flour in WPC can be seen clearer from the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra as the wood flour content increases. The mechanical tensile testing shows that the tensile strength of Young's modulus is improved, whereas the strain and elongation at break were reduced by the addition of wood flour. The gap between the wood flour microvoid fibre and rHDPE matrix becomes closer when the wood flour content is increased as observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) image. This finding implies a significant improvement on the interaction of interfacial adhesion between the rHDPE matrix and wood flour filler in the present WPC.

  17. Colorful and transparent poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films filled with layered zinc hydroxide salts, intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes (methyl orange and orange II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves da Silva, Marlon Luiz; Marangoni, Rafael; Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Schreiner, Wido Herwig; Wypych, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc hydroxide salts were successfully intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes. ► The anionic dye was co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. ► The orange materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol). ► Transparent, homogeneous, colorful PVA films were obtained by wet casting. ► Some composites stored at lower humidity exhibited improved mechanical properties. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide salts (zinc LHS) were intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and orange II (OII), and co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. After characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Colorful transparent films were obtained by wet casting, revealing good dispersion of the material into the polymer. In the case of zinc LHS/OII, PVA was intercalated between the zinc LHS layers. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the PVA composite films revealed that the layered colorful materials were able to increase the mechanical properties of the PVA films only when the films were stored under lower relative humidity. As expected, films with higher water content displayed reduced tensile strength and modulus because of the plasticizing effect of water. As for the films stored at 43% relative humidity, more pronounced improvement of modulus was observed for 1 and 4% zinc LHS/OII, and enhanced tensile strength was achieved for 0.5 and 1% zinc LHS/OII. This effect can be attributed to better dispersion of the layered filler and its better adhesion to the PVA matrix.

  18. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    OpenAIRE

    Chugh, Anupam; Khanal, Dipendra; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Corredig, Milena; Duizer, Lisa; Griffiths, Mansel

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF) and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF), are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF) was c...

  19. Exploring the Use of Color Photographs in Chinese Picture Composition Writings: An Action Research in Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiyan, Wang; Kian Chye, Lim; Huay Lit Woo

    2006-01-01

    Writing picture compositions is part of the requirements for the mother tongue language learning in Singapore primary schools. For Chinese as a mother tongue, the prevailing materials used for learning picture composition are confined to only black-and-white drawn pictures. This has caused some problems: (1) not many good and suitable…

  20. Addition of wood chips in red wine during and after alcoholic fermentation: differences in color parameters, phenolic content and volatile composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kyraleou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the time of wood chip addition on phenolic content, color parameters and volatile composition of a red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko was evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak and Acacia were added in the wine during and after fermentation. Various chemical parameters of wines were studied after one, two and three months of contact with chips. The results showed that the addition of oak chips during alcoholic fermentation did not favor ellagitannin extraction and the reactions involved in tannin condensation and anthocyanin stabilization. Moreover, wines fermented with wood chips contained higher contents of whiskey lactones, eugenol, ethyl vanillate and acetate esters while their ethyl ester content was lower compared with the wines where chip addition took place after fermentation. Practical Application: The outcomes of this study would be of practical interest to winemakers since they could improve the control over the wood extraction process. When chips are added after fermentation wines seem to have a greater ageing potential compared to the wines fermented with chips due to their higher ellagitannin content and enhanced condensation reactions. On the other hand, color stabilization and tannin polymerization occur faster when chips are added during fermentation resulting in shorter ageing periods suitable for early consumed wines.

  1. Radiation-curable impregnating agents for the conservation of archaeologic wooden objects. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Wendrinsky, J.; Kalteis, H.; Grienauer, W.

    1982-12-01

    As a continuation of the work described in OEFZS Ber. No. 4165, impregnating agents curable by ionizing radiation, such as free radical polymerizable monomers or artificial resins, have been investigated. Specific weight and viscosity of the liquid mixtures have been as well determined as the specific weight and gel content of the gamma radiation-cured samples. Hardness and elastic behaviour have been estimated only. The shrinkage during hardening was found to be 5 to 12 % for low viscous mixtures (up to 600 mPa.s) and 3 to 8 % for higher viscous impregnating agents. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  2. Electron beam curable branched chain polyurethane acrylates for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukachi, Takashi; Haga, Kei-ichi; Matsumura, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Electron beam curable binder resins have been studied to realize the high quality magnetic coatings. It was supposed that resins with a higher crosslink density could lead to magnetic coatings with higher abrasion resistance. Branched chain polyurethane acrylates show a higher degree of cure by irradiation with an electron beam in comparison with linear polyurethane acrylates. This paper describes the potential wear resistance between properties of magnetic coatings and the physical properties of the cured unpigmented branched chain polyurethane acrylates that were used as the binder resins. (author)

  3. Zirconia UV-curable colloids for additive manufacturing via hybrid inkjet printing-stereolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Massimo; Barou, C.; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Currently, additive manufacturing of ceramics by stereolithography (SLA) is limited to single materials and by a poor thickness resolution that strongly depends on the ceramic particles-UV light interaction. Combining selective laser curing with inkjet printing represents a novel strategy...... to overcome these constrains. Nonetheless, this approach requires UV-curable inks that allow hardening of the printed material and sintering to high density. In this work, we report how to design an ink for inkjet printing of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which can be impressed by addition of UV...

  4. Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 μm filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

  5. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  6. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  7. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  8. Visible and UV-curable chitosan derivatives for immobilization of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Han, Ga-Dug; Kim, Jae-Won; Noh, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Gwan; Ito, Yoshihiro; Son, Tae-Il

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, which has many biocompatible properties, is used widely in medical field like wound healing, drug delivery and so on. Chitosan could be used as a biomaterial to immobilize protein-drug. There are many methods to immobilize protein-drug, but they have some drawbacks such as low efficiency and denaturation of protein. Therefore, photo-immobilization method is suggested to immobilize protein-drug. Photo-immobilization method is simple-reaction and also needs no additional crosslinking reagent. There has been some effort to modify chitosan to have an ability of photo-immobilization. Generally, visible and UV light reactive chitosan derivatives were prepared. Various types of photo-curable chitosan derivatives showed possibility for application to medical field. For example, they showed ability for protein-immobilization and some of them showed wound-healing effect, anti-adhesive effect, or property to interact directly with titanium surface. In this study, we introduce many types of photo-curable chitosan derivative and their possibility of medical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  10. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  11. Process for the production of a pressure-sensitive carbonless copy sheet using microcapsules formed in situ in a radiation curable binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.S.; Shackle, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of a coating composition containing microcapsules having a hydrophilic core for use in the manufacture of pressure-sensitive carbonless transfer papers comprising the following steps. A hydrophilic emulsion component is prepared by dispersing at least one chromogenic material being soluble in the hydrophilic liquid. A hydrophobic emulsion component is prepared by dispersing an emulsifier in a radiation curable hydrophobic liquid. A first wall-forming material and a second wall-forming material are added to the hydrophobic emulsion component, with mixing. The first and second wall-forming materials are soluble in the hydrophobic emulsion component, and the first wall-forming material is reactive with the second wall-forming material to form a polymeric capsule wall. The resultant polymeric capsule wall is substantially insoluble in the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic emulsion components. The hydrophobic emulsion component is mixed together with the hydrophilic emulsion component to form an emulsion containing droplets of the hydrophilic emulsion component dispersed in the hydrophobic emulsion component. Mixing is maintained for a period of time sufficient to allow the first and second wall-forming materials to react to form a dispersion of microcapsules in the hydrophobic emulsion component. The formed microcapsules have capsule walls substantially impermeable to the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic emulsion components. Pressure-sensitive carbonless transfer paper may be produced by applying the despersion of the microcapsules prepared as above to a substrate,and curing the dispersion by subjecting the dispersion on the substrate to radiation for a period of time sufficient to cure the radiation curable hydrophobic liquid, thereby producing a tack-free, resinous film on the substrate

  12. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  13. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  14. Pick a Color MARIA: Adaptive Sampling Enables the Rapid Identification of Complex Perovskite Nanocrystal Compositions with Defined Emission Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezinge, Leonard; Maceiczyk, Richard M; Lignos, Ioannis; Kovalenko, Maksym V; deMello, Andrew J

    2018-06-06

    Recent advances in the development of hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite (LHP) nanocrystals (NCs) have demonstrated their versatility and potential application in photovoltaics and as light sources through compositional tuning of optical properties. That said, due to their compositional complexity, the targeted synthesis of mixed-cation and/or mixed-halide LHP NCs still represents an immense challenge for traditional batch-scale chemistry. To address this limitation, we herein report the integration of a high-throughput segmented-flow microfluidic reactor and a self-optimizing algorithm for the synthesis of NCs with defined emission properties. The algorithm, named Multiparametric Automated Regression Kriging Interpolation and Adaptive Sampling (MARIA), iteratively computes optimal sampling points at each stage of an experimental sequence to reach a target emission peak wavelength based on spectroscopic measurements. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method through the synthesis of multinary LHP NCs, (Cs/FA)Pb(I/Br) 3 (FA = formamidinium) and (Rb/Cs/FA)Pb(I/Br) 3 NCs, using MARIA to rapidly identify reagent concentrations that yield user-defined photoluminescence peak wavelengths in the green-red spectral region. The procedure returns a robust model around a target output in far fewer measurements than systematic screening of parametric space and additionally enables the prediction of other spectral properties, such as, full-width at half-maximum and intensity, for conditions yielding NCs with similar emission peak wavelength.

  15. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  16. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  17. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  18. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  19. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  20. Primary study on synthesis and characterization of the new type EB curable resins. Pt.2: Alkyd resins modified by LFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Min; Wei Jinshan; Li Jun; Wang Ruiyu; Ha Hongfei

    1995-01-01

    The authors have synthesized a new type of EB curable resin by using oil fatty acid. The preparation method of coating and the performance of EB curing coating film were described. The synthesis process has been simplified and the price of the raw materials was lower

  1. BARRIERS TO THE USE OF RADIATION-CURABLE ADHESIVES IN THE COATED AND LAMINATED SUBSTRATE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of barriers to the use of radiation-cured technology in the coated and laminated substrate manufacturing industry. t presents information gathered from radiation-curable coating and equipment suppliers as well as technical publications....

  2. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  3. Preparation and characterization of a novel UV-curable plastic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jun [Engineering Research Center of High Performance Polymer and Molding Technology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621010 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ding, Yunyu [Engineering Research Center of High Performance Polymer and Molding Technology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhu, Jiayi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Qi, Di [Engineering Research Center of High Performance Polymer and Molding Technology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Su, Ming [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu, Yewei; Bi, Yutie [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621010 (China); Lin, Runxiong, E-mail: qdlrx@qust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of High Performance Polymer and Molding Technology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: zhlmy@sina.com [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621010 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-05-01

    A novel UV-curable plastic scintillator was first prepared by using the technology of photosensitivity rapid prototyping. It used the copolymer of 621A-80, TPGDA and styrene as the matrix doped with PPO and POPOP. Its fluorescence spectra displayed a maximum emission wavelength at 428 nm. The light yield of the plastic scintillator was approximately 7.1% of anthracene on the basis of a comparison with the commercially available scintillator (ST-401). The as-prepared plastic scintillator also displayed a fast scintillation decay. Its decay time is 2.6 ns approximately. Importantly, through the technology of photosensitivity rapid prototyping, the plastic scintillator could be prepared in a short period of time at low temperature. What's more, this preparation method provides the possibility of combining the plastic scintillator with 3D printing technology, and then the applications of the plastic scintillator may be expanded greatly.

  4. Investigation of Ultraviolet Light Curable Polysilsesquioxane Gate Dielectric Layers for Pentacene Thin Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibao, Hideto; Nakahara, Yoshio; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) comprising 3-methacryloxypropyl groups was investigated as an ultraviolet (UV)-light curable gate dielectric-material for pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs). The surface of UV-light cured PSQ films was smoother than that of thermally cured ones, and the pentacene layers deposited on the UV-Iight cured PSQ films consisted of larger grains. However, carrier mobility of the TFTs using the UV-light cured PSQ films was lower than that of the TFTs using the thermally cured ones. It was shown that the cross-linker molecules, which were only added to the UV-light cured PSQ films, worked as a major mobility-limiting factor for the TFTs.

  5. Color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to beverages and food dye: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Gujjari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to tea, coffee, cola, and food dye. Materials and Methods: Two provisional crown and bridge resins, one DPI self-cure tooth molding powder (PMMA (Group A, and one Protemp 4 Temporization Material (bis-acrylic composite (Group B were used. Disk-shaped specimens for color stability testing (n = 30 for each material and bar-shaped specimens for flexural strength testing (n = 30 for each material were fabricated using a metal mold. The specimens were immersed in artificial saliva, artificial saliva + tea, artificial saliva + coffee, artificial saliva + cola, and artificial saliva + food dye solutions and stored in an incubator at 37°C. Color measurements were taken before immersion, and then after 3 and 7 days of immersion. Flexural strength was evaluated after 7 days of immersion. Results: Group A showed significantly higher color stability as compared to Group B, and artificial saliva + coffee solution had the most staining capacity for the resins. Test solutions had no effect on the flexural strength of Group A, but Group B specimens immersed in artificial saliva + cola showed significantly lower flexural strength values as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that for materials used in the study, PMMA was more color stable than bis-acrylic composite based resin. Also, material based on PMMA was more resistant to damage from dietary beverages as compared to bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge resin.

  6. Color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to beverages and food dye: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjari, Anil K; Bhatnagar, Vishrut M; Basavaraju, Ravi M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to tea, coffee, cola, and food dye. Two provisional crown and bridge resins, one DPI self-cure tooth molding powder (PMMA) (Group A), and one Protemp 4 Temporization Material (bis-acrylic composite) (Group B) were used. Disk-shaped specimens for color stability testing (n = 30 for each material) and bar-shaped specimens for flexural strength testing (n = 30 for each material) were fabricated using a metal mold. The specimens were immersed in artificial saliva, artificial saliva + tea, artificial saliva + coffee, artificial saliva + cola, and artificial saliva + food dye solutions and stored in an incubator at 37°C. Color measurements were taken before immersion, and then after 3 and 7 days of immersion. Flexural strength was evaluated after 7 days of immersion. Group A showed significantly higher color stability as compared to Group B, and artificial saliva + coffee solution had the most staining capacity for the resins. Test solutions had no effect on the flexural strength of Group A, but Group B specimens immersed in artificial saliva + cola showed significantly lower flexural strength values as compared to the control group. The findings of the study showed that for materials used in the study, PMMA was more color stable than bis-acrylic composite based resin. Also, material based on PMMA was more resistant to damage from dietary beverages as compared to bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge resin.

  7. Preparation and property of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate film filled with cationic surfactant treated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinghong; Cai, Xia; Shen, Fenglei, E-mail: shenfenglei@suda.edu.cn

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • The non-covalent modification of graphene maintains the intrinsic structure of graphene compared with the covalent functionalization of graphene. • The initial degradation temperature of nanocomposite film increases by 57 °C which is much higher than that of PUA nanocomposite previously reported. • The nanocomposite film exhibits improved dielectric property and electrical conductivity. • The outstanding performance of CTAB-G/PUA films will open up enormous opportunities for applications in various regions such as high temperature or electrical field. - Abstract: The preparation of nanocomposite films composed of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) and modified graphene were demonstrated in this paper. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide modified graphene (CTAB-G) was prepared via intercalation of cationic surfactant and subsequently incorporated into PUA by UV curing technology. Fourier transform infrared spectra, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of CTAB-G, as well as CTAB-G/PUA nanocomposite films. The results revealed that the CTAB-G sheets were layer-by-layer structure and dispersed uniformly in PUA matrix. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stabilities of UV-curable PUA nanocomposite films in this work were much higher than that of PUA nanocomposites previously reported. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that the dynamic mechanical properties of nanocomposite films were greatly enhanced in the presence of modified graphene sheets. In addition, the CTAB-G/PUA nanocomposite films exhibited improved dielectric properties and electrical conductivities compared with the pure PUA.

  8. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  9. Coloring your information: How designers use Theory of Color in creative ways to present infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, C. R.; Fuad, A.

    2017-12-01

    Various methods of data presentation is now visualized through engaging infographics and perform the presentation techniques a new kind of storytelling. Geometric elements for infographics perform interesting data, which is developed with color harmony. There are categories of colors based on color circle from the theory of color design: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. This color circle allows a designer to visualize the balance and harmony of colors when they are side by side. These composition of colors can be formed as a harmonious dyad, triad, or tetrads. A harmonious dyad is formed from two diametrically opposed colors on the color circle, which known as contrast complementary and works best in color harmonious if one of the colors is dominant. A harmonious triad is represented by three colors from the color circle which positions with an equilateral triangle. An triangle of yellow-red-blue shows the most powerful of harmonious triad and call as the fundamental triad. A harmonious tetrad is developed from two pairs of complementary colors, which can be formed by rectangle or square on the color circle. It help to figure out how objects are connected on presenting data. To create an efficiency infographic, presenting data has to prepare with some strategic. The color circle has the power to perform the infographic when it is made for a fascinating design.

  10. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  11. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  12. Biochemical Basis of Fresh Ham Color Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stufft, Kristen Marie

    2015-01-01

    Commercial hams display variation in color uniformity across the cut surface, especially the semimembranosus (SM) muscle. This variation in fresh ham color, or two-toning, persists through further processing and contributes to production of a less desirable end product. In an attempt to understand the underlying source of this color variation, we evaluated the differences in muscle fiber-type composition and glycolytic metabolism in the SM muscle of fresh hams differing in color uniformity. F...

  13. Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  14. Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Llewellyn, Carrie; Lau, Jason; Mahmud, Mohammad; Smith, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine screening is key to sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and control. Previous studies suggest that clinic-based screening programmes capture only a small proportion of people with STIs. Self-sampling using non- or minimally invasive techniques may be beneficial for those reluctant to actively engage with conventional sampling methods. We systematically reviewed studies of patients’ experiences of obtaining self-samples to diagnose curable STIs. Methods We conducted an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, BNI, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant articles published in English between January 1980 and March 2014. Studies were included if participants self-sampled for the diagnosis of a curable STI and had specifically sought participants’ opinions of their experience, acceptability, preferences, or willingness to self-sample. Results The initial search yielded 558 references. Of these, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies assessed patients’ acceptability and experiences of self-sampling. Pooled results from these studies shows that self-sampling is a highly acceptable method with 85% of patients reporting the method to be well received and acceptable. Twenty-eight studies reported on ease of self-sampling; the majority of patients (88%) in these studies found self-sampling an “easy” procedure. Self-sampling was favoured compared to clinician sampling, and home sampling was preferred to clinic-based sampling. Females and older participants were more accepting of self-sampling. Only a small minority of participants (13%) reported pain during self-sampling. Participants were willing to undergo self-sampling and recommend others. Privacy and safety were the most common concerns. Conclusion Self-sampling for diagnostic testing is well accepted with the majority having a positive experience and willingness to use again. Standardization of self-sampling procedures

  15. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyngarden, A L; Pérez-Montaño, S; Bui, J V H; Li, E S W; Nelson, T E; Ha, K T; Leong, L; Iraci, L T

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal

  16. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  17. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  18. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Jie, Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Song, Lei; Hu, Shuang; Lv, Xiaoqi; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-01-20

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  19. Discharge of viscous UV-curable resin droplets by screen printing for UV nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Akira; Uehara, Takuya; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated a coating method of screen printing for discharging droplets of a high-viscosity resin on a substrate for ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Compared with a spin-coated resin film on a silicon substrate, discharged resin droplets on a silicon substrate were effective in terms of the uniformity of residual layer thickness (RLT) in contact with a mold with various pattern densities. Fluorescence microscope observations with a fluorescent-dye-containing UV-curable resin enabled the evaluation of the shapes of resin droplets discharged on a substrate surface. Widely used screen mesh plates composed of a stainless mesh covered with a patterned emulsion film caused defects of undischarged parts, whereas defects-free resin droplets with a narrow size distribution were discharged by mesh-free plates prepared with laser ablation. The pitch-to-diameter ratio in the configuration of 10-µm-diameter holes needs to be larger than 2.5 times for printing a resin having a viscosity of 12,800 mPa s.

  20. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Nanoparticles Based Visible Light-Curable Hydrogel for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Bakó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles and hydrogels have gained notable attention as promising potential for fabrication of scaffolds and delivering materials. Visible light-curable systems can allow for the possibility of in situ fabrication and have the advantage of optimal applicability. In this study nanogel was created from methacrylated poly-gamma-glutamic acid nanoparticles by visible (dental blue light photopolymerization. The average size of the particles was 80 nm by DLS, and the NMR spectra showed that the methacrylation rate was 10%. Polymerization time was 3 minutes, and a stable nanogel with a swelling rate of 110% was formed. The mechanical parameters of the prepared structure (compression stress 0.73 MPa, and Young’s modulus 0.93 MPa can be as strong as necessary in a real situation, for example, in the mouth. A retaining effect of the nanogel was found for ampicillin, and the biocompatibility of this system was tested by Alamar Blue proliferation assay, while the cell morphology was examined by fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy. In conclusion, the nanogel can be used for drug delivery, or it can be suitable for a control factor in different systems.

  1. Development of UV Curable Overprint Varnishes (OPV) Formulation from Epoxidized Palm Olein Acrylated (EPOLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Huda Mudri; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mek Zah Salleh

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis procedure of Epoxidized Palm Olein Acrylated (EPOLA) has been established by Radiation Curing and Synthesis Group. The quality control test such as acid value, oxirane oxygen content and Fourier- Transform Infra Red (FTIR) were done to monitor the synthesis process. The completion of synthesis process was observed via FTIR with the presence of hydroxyl (-OH) absorption between 3440-3480 cm -1 and an absorption of acrylate groups at 819 cm -1 . The EPOLA was then coated on glass plate and irradiated with UV light. It was found that EPOLA is curable under exposure of UV light and has potential in the application of Overprint Varnishes (OPV). Several formulations have been developed which basically consist of oligomer, monomer, photo initiator EPOLA and additives. The formulations were then coated on black and white paper and irradiated under UV light. The speed of the conveyer was set at 5 m/ min and 20 m/ min during irradiation and the number of passes for the coated substrate to be cured is recorded. The physical characterization such as adhesion and curing rate were observed compared with desirable finished products. (author)

  2. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  3. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  4. [Study of spectrum drifting of primary colors and its impact on color rendering properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    LEDs are currently used widely to display text, graphics and images in large screens. With red, green and blue LEDs as three primary colors, color rendition will be realized through color mixing. However, LEDs' spectrum will produce drifts with the changes in the temperature environment. With the changes in the driving current simulating changes in the temperature, the three primary color LEDs' spectral drifts were tested, and the drift characteristics of the three primary colors were obtained respectively. Based on the typical characteristics of the LEDs and the differences between LEDs with different colors in composition and molecular structure, the paper analyzed the reason for the spectrum drifts and the drift characteristics of different color LEDs, and proposed the equations of spectrum drifts. Putting the experimental data into the spectrum drift equations, the paper analyzed the impacts of primary colors on the mixed color, pointed out a way to reduce the chromatic aberration, and provided the theory for engineering application of color LEDs.

  5. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  6. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  7. High prevalence of curable sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in a rural county hospital in Kilifi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chengo Masha

    Full Text Available Women attending antenatal care (ANC in resource-limited countries are frequently screened for syphilis and HIV, but rarely for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We assessed the prevalence of curable STIs, defined as infection with either Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis, from July to September 2015.In a cross-sectional study, women attending ANC at the Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, had a urine sample tested for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae by GeneXpert® and a vaginal swab for T. vaginalis by culture. Bacterial vaginosis (BV was defined as a Nugent score of 7-10 of the Gram stain of a vaginal smear in combination with self-reported vaginal discharge. Genital ulcers were observed during collection of vaginal swabs. All women responded to questions on socio-demographics and sexual health and clinical symptoms of STIs. Predictors for curable STIs were assessed in multivariable logistic regression.A total of 42/202 (20.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI:15.4-27.0 women had a curable STI. The prevalence was 14.9% for C. trachomatis (95% CI:10.2-20.5, 1.0% for N. gonorrhoeae (95% CI: 0.1-3.5, 7.4% for T. vaginalis (95% CI:4.2-12.0, 19.3% for BV (95% CI: 14.1-25.4 and 2.5% for genital ulcers (95% CI: 0.8-5.7. Predictors for infection with curable STIs included women with a genital ulcer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 35.0, 95% CI: 2.7-461.6 compared to women without a genital ulcer, women who used water for cleaning after visiting the toilet compared to those who used toilet paper or other solid means (AOR = 4.1, 95% CI:1.5-11.3, women who reported having sexual debut ≤ 17 years compared to women having sexual debut ≥18 years (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1-6.6, and BV-positive women (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1-6.6 compared to BV-negative women.One in five women attending ANC had a curable STI. These infections were associated with genital ulcers, hygiene practices, early sexual debut and bacterial vaginosis.

  8. High prevalence of curable sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in a rural county hospital in Kilifi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, Simon Chengo; Wahome, Elizabeth; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Cools, Piet; Crucitti, Tania; Sanders, Eduard J

    2017-01-01

    Women attending antenatal care (ANC) in resource-limited countries are frequently screened for syphilis and HIV, but rarely for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of curable STIs, defined as infection with either Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis, from July to September 2015. In a cross-sectional study, women attending ANC at the Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, had a urine sample tested for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae by GeneXpert® and a vaginal swab for T. vaginalis by culture. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was defined as a Nugent score of 7-10 of the Gram stain of a vaginal smear in combination with self-reported vaginal discharge. Genital ulcers were observed during collection of vaginal swabs. All women responded to questions on socio-demographics and sexual health and clinical symptoms of STIs. Predictors for curable STIs were assessed in multivariable logistic regression. A total of 42/202 (20.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI):15.4-27.0) women had a curable STI. The prevalence was 14.9% for C. trachomatis (95% CI:10.2-20.5), 1.0% for N. gonorrhoeae (95% CI: 0.1-3.5), 7.4% for T. vaginalis (95% CI:4.2-12.0), 19.3% for BV (95% CI: 14.1-25.4) and 2.5% for genital ulcers (95% CI: 0.8-5.7). Predictors for infection with curable STIs included women with a genital ulcer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 35.0, 95% CI: 2.7-461.6) compared to women without a genital ulcer, women who used water for cleaning after visiting the toilet compared to those who used toilet paper or other solid means (AOR = 4.1, 95% CI:1.5-11.3), women who reported having sexual debut ≤ 17 years compared to women having sexual debut ≥18 years (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1-6.6), and BV-positive women (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.1-6.6) compared to BV-negative women. One in five women attending ANC had a curable STI. These infections were associated with genital ulcers, hygiene practices, early sexual debut and bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  10. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  11. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  12. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  13. Surface contamination to UV-curable acrylates in the furniture and parquet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, J; Lindh, T; Rosén, G; Fischer, T

    2001-03-01

    Surface contamination to ultraviolet radiation curable coatings (UV coatings), used increasingly in the parquet and furniture industry, is a matter of concern as a source for skin contamination. UV coatings contain chemically and biologically reactive acrylates, well known as skin contact irritants and sensitizers. Surface contamination may spread secondarily to equipment and other unexpected areas even outside the workplace. Yet, studies concerning this type of contamination are lacking due to lack of suitable sampling methods. Surface contamination of the work environment with risk for skin exposure to UV coating was measured employing a quantitative adhesive tape sampling method developed for this purpose. A pilot study was first performed at three workplaces to evaluate the contamination. In the main study, we wanted to locate and identify in detail the surface contamination of areas where problems exist, and to determine the extent of the problem. Measurements were performed at seven workplaces on two separate workdays (round 1 and 2) within a six-month period. Samples were collected from the workplaces based on the video monitoring of skin contact frequency with the surfaces and categorized into three groups to analyze risk. The pilot study indicated that surface contamination to TPGDA containing UV coatings was common, found in 76 percent of the surfaces, and varied with a maximum of 909 microg TPGDA 10 cm(-2) sampling area. In the main study TPGDA was found in 153 out of 196 collected samples (78.1%); for round one 78.1 percent (82 out of 105 samples) and for round two 78.0 percent (71 out of 91 samples). The average TPGDA mass on positive surface samples was on the first round 2,247 +/- 7,462 microg, and on the second round 2,960 +/- 4,590 microg. We conclude that surface contamination to uncured UV coatings at UV-curing lines is common and this involves a risk for harmful, unintentional skin exposure to acrylates.

  14. Chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zuohui; Xue, Yongqiang; Ju, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems of high temperature and non-uniformity of coloring on stainless steel, a new chemical coloring process, applying ultrasonic irradiation to the traditional chemical coloring process, was developed in this paper. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and power density (sound intensity) on chemical coloring on stainless steel were studied. The uniformity of morphology and colors was observed with the help of polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), meanwhile, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance were investigated, and the effect mechanism of ultrasonic irradiation on chemical coloring was discussed. These results show that in the process of chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation, the film composition is the same as the traditional chemical coloring, and this method can significantly enhance the uniformity, the wear and corrosion resistances of the color film and accelerate the coloring rate which makes the coloring temperature reduced to 40°C. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the chemical coloring can be attributed to the coloring rate accelerated and the coloring temperature reduced by thermal-effect, the uniformity of coloring film improved by dispersion-effect, and the wear and corrosion resistances of coloring film enhanced by cavitation-effect. Ultrasonic irradiation not only has an extensive application prospect for chemical coloring on stainless steel but also provides an valuable reference for other chemical coloring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  16. Strong composition dependence of adhesive properties of ultraviolet curing adhesives with modified acrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yefeng; Li, Yandong; Wang, Fupeng; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Zhichao; Hu, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) curable adhesives have been widely researched in fields of health care and electronic components. UV curing systems with modified acrylic ester prepolymers have been frequently employed. In order to clarify composition dependence of adhesive properties of adhesives containing modified acrylates, in this work, several UV curing adhesives bearing urethane and epoxy acrylates were designed and fabricated. The effects of prepolymer, diluent, feed ratio, initiator and assistant on adhesive performances were investigated. This work might offer a facile route to gain promising high-performance UV curable adhesives with desired adhesive traits through regulating their compositions.

  17. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by
    raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed
    by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were

  18. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  19. Web 2.0 Tools in the Prevention of Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lorente, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2018-03-22

    The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. ©María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  20. Workers' dermal exposure to UV-curable acrylates in the furniture and Parquet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, J; Lindh, T; Rosén, G; Fischer, T

    2000-12-01

    The use of ultraviolet radiation-curable coatings (UV-coatings) has increased rapidly in the parquet and furniture industry. Work with UV-coatings involves risk from skin exposure to chemically reactive, concentrated acrylates that are known skin contact irritants and sensitizers. Yet, the methods and tools for measuring and quantifying dermal exposure from hazardous chemicals directly on the skin are limited and methods to measure skin exposure to UV-coatings in occupational or environmental settings have been lacking. Skin exposure to UV-coatings was measured employing a quantitative tape stripping method that we have developed for this purpose. A pilot study was performed at three workplaces. In the main study, workers' skin exposure to uncured UV-coatings was measured at seven workplaces and on two separate workdays (rounds 1 and 2) within a six-month period to determine exposure variation. Skin exposure was measured at four standardized sites on the hand, 3-4 times per work shift. The forehead was sampled once. A questionnaire was carried out with the workers in both rounds to find out factors that can affect skin exposure to UV-coatings. The pilot study indicated that both skin and surface contamination to TPGDA-containing UV-coatings were common and varied up to 2110 microgram on the sampling area of 10cm(2). In the main study skin contamination due to TPGDA was found on 16 of 23 workers, at 6 out of the 7 workplaces, and from 36 (5. 4%) of the 664 samples. In round one 8.6% (n=383) of the samples contained TPGDA and in round two 1.1 % (n=281). The average TPGDA mass on all the positive samples (n=36) was 30.4+/-77.0 microgram for the first and second rounds alone this mass was 30.6+/-80 (n=33) and 28.3+/-16.5 microgram (n=3), respectively. Despite the limited sampling area and sampling sites, we could find residues of TPGDA at all sampling times, even at the beginning of the work shift. This may be due to transfer of UV-coatings through contaminated

  1. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of E-Beam and Thermally Curable IPN Thermosets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ... composites in a single step. Because of the complexity and thickness of composite integral armor structures, e-beam curing is an attractive processing method for Future Combat System applications, and the development...

  2. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  3. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  4. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  5. The Influence of Zirconium Acrylate on Curable Palm Oil Resin as Coating Material by Using UV Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sofian Alias; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hamzah Harun; Rida Tajau; Khairul Azhar Abdul Halim; Nurul Huda Mudri

    2016-01-01

    Epoxidized Palm oil liquid acrylate (EPOLA) was introduced with commercial monomer and oligomer to produce coating film by using radiation technique. The percentage of EPOLA in curable formulation has varied in order to study the influence of EPOLA on coating film properties. Meanwhile Zirconium Acrylate was added and varied as additive into curable formulation to investigate the influence on film coating. FTIR analysis was used to monitor the crosslinking process by observed the disappearance of acrylate group. The performance of coating film were investigated by doing several mechanical analysis such as pencil hardness and adhesion test. Meanwhile, in order to determine gloss properties for cured film at different dose of radiation, gloss meter was used to measure gloss value. According to mechanical analysis result, an increasing of EPOLA compound in coating formulation will reduce film hardness and adhesion properties. However after additional of zirconium acrylate into resin formulation the properties of coating film were improved due to presence of zirconium in crosslinking network (author)

  6. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Kyung Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. The product (Bioactive® [BA] was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC] and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC] counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and alizarin red staining (ARS. Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (p0.05. Ca (~110 ppm and hydroxide ions (pH 11 were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions.

  7. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  8. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  9. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  10. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  11. Polymer nanoimprinting using an anodized aluminum mold for structural coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-06-01

    Polymer nanoimprinting of submicrometer-scale dimple arrays with structural coloration was demonstrated. Highly ordered aluminum dimple arrays measuring 530-670 nm in diameter were formed on an aluminum substrate via etidronic acid anodizing at 210-270 V and subsequent anodic oxide dissolution. The nanostructured aluminum surface led to bright structural coloration with a rainbow spectrum, and the reflected wavelength strongly depends on the angle of the specimen and the period of the dimple array. The reflection peak shifts gradually with the dimple diameter toward longer wavelength, reaching 800 nm in wavelength at 670 nm in diameter. The shape of the aluminum dimple arrays were successfully transferred to a mercapto-ester ultra-violet curable polymer via self-assembled monolayer coating and polymer replications using a nanoimprinting technique. The nanostructured polymer surfaces with positively and negatively shaped dimple arrays also exhibited structural coloration based on the periodic nanostructure, and reflected light mostly in the visible region, 400-800 nm. This nanostructuring with structural coloration can be easily realized by simple techniques such as anodizing, SAM coating, and nanoimprinting.

  12. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  13. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO 3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm 2 C -1 and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g -1 , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg -1 and 6.8-16.9 kW kg -1 . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  15. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  16. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  17. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  19. Tuning the luminescence color and enhancement of afterglow properties of Sr(4−x−y)CaxBayAl14O25:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor by adjusting the composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luitel, Hom Nath; Watari, Takanori; Chand, Rumi; Torikai, Toshio; Yada, Mitsunori; Mizukami, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excitation and fluorescence emission spectra of three extreme compositions of Ca, Sr and Ba in Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 phosphor (viz. 4CaO·7Al 2 O 3 , 4SrO·7Al 2 O 3 and 4BaO·7Al 2 O 3 ) doped with 4 at% Eu 2+ and 8 at% Dy 3+ (inset shows the digital micrograph of corresponding phosphors). -- Highlights: • Bright phosphor, Sr (4−x−y) Ca x Ba y Al 14 O 25 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ , was synthesized by adjusting the composition. • The solid solubility of Ca and Ba in the Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 host was determined to be 20 and 10 mol%, respectively. • Substituting part of Sr by Ca, the emission color can be well tuned from blue to green. • A white afterglow was observed when 3.2 mol of Sr was substituted by Ca. • The afterglow luminescence was enhanced by 1.5 times by 0.2 mol Ca substitution. -- Abstract: Color point tuning is an important challenge for improving the practical applications of various displays, especially there are very limited white color single hosts that emits in the white spectrum. In this paper, the possibility of color tuning by substituting part of host lattice cation (Sr 2+ ions) by Ca 2+ or Ba 2+ ions in an efficient strontium aluminate phosphor, Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ , is reported and found to be very promising for displays. A detail study by replacing part of Sr 2+ with Ca 2+ or Ba 2+ has been investigated. X-ray diffraction study showed that crystal structure of Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 is preserved up to 20 mol of Ca 2+ ion exchange while it is limited to 10 mol of Ba 2+ ions exchange. Substantial shift in the emission band and color were observed by substitution of Sr 2+ by Ca 2+ or Ba 2+ ions. A bluish-white emission and afterglow was observed at higher Ca 2+ ions substitution. Further, partial Ca 2+ substitutions (up to 0.8 mol) resulted in enhanced afterglow of Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ phosphor. However, Ba 2+ substitution decreased the fluorescence as well afterglow of the Sr 4 Al 14 O 25 :Eu 2+ ,Dy 3+ phosphor

  20. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  1. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of E-Beam and Thermally Curable IPN Thermosets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... E-beam curing of composites and adhesives offers advantages, such as reduced cure shrinkages, over traditional autoclave processing by curing multiple resins through the thickness for thick-section...

  2. Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiltunen, Marianne; Puustinen, Jarkko; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Karioja, Pentti

    2009-12-07

    Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 microm or 6 microm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32% at 1530 nm wavelength and 45% at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.

  3. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  4. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  5. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Nurulhuda Mohd Yunus; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  6. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  7. Effect of light-curable fluoride varnish on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets: an in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anurag; Paramshivam, Ganesh; Chugh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Surjit; Halkai, Sudha; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this in-vivo study was to evaluate the effect of a single application of Clinpro XT (3M ESPE, Pymble, New South Wales, Australia), a light-curable fluoride varnish, on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Thirty-eight patients (152 teeth) whose orthodontic treatment involved extraction of 4 first premolars were recruited. Two premolars each were assigned to the control group (no treatment) and the experimental group (received fluoride varnish application). The study was designed as a nonrandomized split-mouth study in which diagonally opposite quadrants received the same treatment. After the bonding procedures, a sectional T-loop was ligated into each bracket to serve as a site for plaque retention for enhanced demineralization. Clinpro XT was applied on the buccal surfaces adjacent to the brackets on all teeth in the experimental group only. Teeth in both groups were extracted after 15 days (n = 30), 30 days (n = 30), 45 days (n = 30), 90 days (n = 18), and 120 days (n = 18). Buccolingual sections were then evaluated under polarized light microscopy. After we excluded the dropouts, the mean depth of the demineralized enamel lesions was measured in final sample of 126 teeth. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of the groups. In the control group, the depths of the demineralized enamel lesions increased from 30 to 120 days, whereas in the experimental group no sign of demineralization was noted throughout the observation period except for 3 teeth. Significant differences in the depths of demineralized lesions were found between the study groups. Clinpro XT light-curable fluoride varnish may be a reasonable alternative in the reduction of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets, especially in noncompliant and high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  9. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  11. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  12. Color change using HSB color system of dental resin composites immersed in different common Amazon region beverages Alteração de cor de resinas compostas imersas em diferentes bebidas comuns da região Amazônica, utilizando o sistema de cor HSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Costa e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate in vitro the color stability of composite resins when exposed to beverages with high coloring contents from the Amazon region. 240 samples from four different composite brands (Natural Look, Z350, 4Seasons and Opallis of hue A3 were fabricated using an acrylic matrix. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours. The initial color (T0 was registered using a Canon EOS Rebel XTi 10 mp camera, and then the samples were divided into four groups (n=15: G1 (coffee, G2 (açaí juice, G3 (energetic guaraná and G4 (control - distilled water. The samples were exposed to solutions of DES (6hs and RE (18hs and placed in a double boiler under constant agitation, at 37ºC for 30 days. The samples were immersed in the coloring solutions for 15 minutes daily. After 7, 15 and 30 days, new photographic registers were made (T1, T2 and T3. The images were analyzed using Corel PHOTO-PAINT 12 software to identify the colors through the HSB system. The Kruskal-Wallis and t tests (pEste estudo propôs avaliar in vitro a estabilidade de cor de alguns compósitos quando expostos a bebidas da Região Amazônica com alto teor de corante. Foram confeccionados 240 corpos de prova (CP de quatro resinas (Natural Look, Z350, 4Seasons e Opallis no matiz A3 utilizando uma matriz de acrílico. As amostras foram armazenadas em água deionizada a 37ºC por 24 horas. A cor inicial das resinas (T0 foi registrada utilizando a máquina Canon EOS Rebel XTi 10Mp, e em seguida os CP foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=15: G1 (café, G2 (suco de açaí, G3 (guaraná energético e G4 (controle - água destilada. Os CP foram submetidos às soluções DES (6hs e RE (18hs e colocados em banho-maria, sob constante agitação, à temperatura de 37ºC durante 30 dias. Diariamente os corpos de prova foram imersos nas soluções corantes durante 15 minutos. Após 7, 15 e 30 dias realizaram-se novos registros fotográficos (T1, T2 e T3. As

  13. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world's largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide

  14. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  15. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  16. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  17. Immunocastration as an alternative to caponization: evaluation of its effect on body and bone development and on meat color and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M A G; Antunes, I C; Ribeiro, M F; Prazeres, S; Bessa, R J B; da Costa, P Martins

    2017-10-01

    Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment. The administration of Improvac was associated with a considerable reduction in serum testosterone concentration (reduced by 79% compared to average serum testosterone of roosters). Regarding significant differences among experimental groups, birds from the Improvac group were intermediate between capons and slips with respect to abdominal fat pad weight and yield, breast meat water and protein contents, and femur length. Conversely, color parameters such as lightness, redness, and hue angle for Improvac birds were intermediate between roosters and capons. Thus, immunocastration with Improvac could represent an alternative solution to caponization, with considerable improvements in animal welfare. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  19. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  20. A color-communication scheme for digital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Alex

    1987-01-01

    Color pictures generated from digital images are frequently used by geologists, foresters, range managers, and others. These color products are preferred over black and white pictures because the human eye is more sensitive to color differences than to various shades of gray. Color discrimination is a function of perception, and therefore colors in these color composites are generally described subjectively, which can lead to ambiguous color communication. Numerous color-coordinate systems are available that quantitively relate digital triplets representing amounts of red, free, and blue to the parameters of hue, saturation, and intensity perceived by the eye. Most of these systems implement a complex transformation of the primary colors to a color space that is hard to visualize, thus making it difficult to relate digital triplets to perception parameters. This paper presents a color-communcation scheme that relates colors on a color triangle to corresponding values of "hue" (H), "saturation" (S), and chromaticity coordinates (x,y,z). The scheme simplifies the relation between red, green, and blue (RGB) digital triplets and the color generated by these triplets. Some examples of the use of the color-communication scheme in digital image processing are presented.

  1. Influência das características físico-químicas e composição elementar nas cores de méis produzidos por Apis mellifera no sudoeste da Bahia utilizando análise multivariada Influence of physicochemical and elemental composition on honey colors produced by Apis mellifera in southwest Bahia using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Júnio de Jesus Lacerda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study honey samples produced in the southwest of Bahia were characterized based on physicochemical and mineral (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe and Zn composition. The metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The application of multivariate analysis showed that the honey colors are consequence of the mineral and physicochemical compositions. The darkest honey samples are characterized by higher values of pH and for presenting a strong relationship with Ca and Fe content.

  2. 完全图和星的合成的点可区别正常边染色%Vertex-distinguishing proper edge coloring of composition of complete graph and star

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 王治文; 陈祥恩; 马春燕

    2013-01-01

    首先,给出了完全图Kp和星Sq的合成的点可区别正常边色数的一个上界:当p≥2,q≥4时,上界是pq+1.再利用正多边形的对称性以及组合分析的方法来构造染色,分别得到了当p=2,q≥4;p≥3,q=4;p是偶数且p≥4,q=5;pq是奇数且p≥3,q≥5时,完全图Kp和星Sq的合成的点可区别正常边色数.%Firstly,we gave an upper bound for the vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number of composition of complete graph Kp and star Sq,which is pq + 1 for p ≥ 2,q ≥ 4.Then by constructing coloring in terms of the symmetry of regular polygons and the methods of combinatorial analysis,we obtained respectively vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic numbers for composition of complete graph Kp and star Sq when p=2,q≥4;p≥3,q=4;pisevenandp≥4,q=5;pqisoddandp≥3,q≥5.

  3. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  4. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  5. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  6. Epidemiology of curable sexually transmitted infections among women at increased risk for HIV in northwestern Tanzania: inadequacy of syndromic management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna C Francis

    Full Text Available Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania.HIV-negative women aged 18-44 years (N = 966 were enrolled and followed for 12 months in a microbicides feasibility study. We collected sociodemographic and behavioural data, performed clinical examinations, and tested for STIs, at enrolment and 3-monthly. Risk factors for STIs were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of syndromic management were calculated.At enrolment, the prevalences of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and high-titre active syphilis were 111/956 (12%, 42/955 (4%, 184/945 (19% and 46/965 (5%, respectively. There were significant decreases over time for C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis (OR trend per month: 0.94 [95% CI 0.91, 0.97]; and 0.95 [0.93, 0.98], respectively; both p<0.001. The majority of these infections were not diagnosed by the corresponding syndrome; therefore, most participants were not treated at the diagnosis visit. Syndromic management was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed infections. We identified a number of risk factors for STIs, including low educational level, some sexual behaviours, and ever having been pregnant.This analysis demonstrates that the prevalences of curable STIs are high among women who work in food and recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania. Most of these infections are missed by syndromic management. Accurate and affordable rapid-point-of-care tests

  7. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  8. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  9. Improvement of thermal stability of UV curable pressure sensitive adhesive by surface modified silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Beili; Ryu, Chong-Min; Kim, Hyung-Il, E-mail: hikim@cnu.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: • Silica nanoparticles were modified to carry the vinyl groups for photo-crosslinking. • Acrylic copolymer was modified to have the vinyl groups for photo-crosslinking. • Strong and extensive interfacial bondings were formed between polymer and silica. • Thermal stability of PSA was improved by forming nanocomposite with modified silica. -- Abstract: Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with higher thermal stability were successfully prepared by forming composite with the silica nanoparticles modified via reaction with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The acrylic copolymer was synthesized as a base resin for PSAs by solution polymerization of 2-EHA, EA, and AA with AIBN as an initiator. The acrylic copolymer was further modified with GMA to have the vinyl groups available for UV curing. The peel strength decreased with the increase of gel content which was dependent on both silica content and UV dose. Thermal stability of the composite PSAs was improved noticeably with increasing silica content and UV dose mainly due to the strong and extensive interfacial bonding between the organic polymer matrix and silica.

  10. Miliary tuberculosis with no pulmonary involvement in myelodysplastic syndromes: a curable, yet rarely diagnosed, disease: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krambovitis Elias

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although tuberculosis is not uncommon among patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, only a few reports of such patients suffering from miliary tuberculosis (MT exist. MT often presents as a fever of unknown origin and it is a curable disease, yet fatal if left untreated. Case presentation We report a case of MT with no clinical or laboratory indications of pulmonary involvement in a patient with MDS, and review the relevant literature. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the liquid culture of a bone marrow aspirate. Conclusion Even if the initial diagnostic investigation for a fever of obscure etiology is negative, MT should not be excluded from the differential diagnosis list. Since it is a curable disease, persistent and vigorous diagnostic efforts are warranted. In suspected cases, mycobacterial blood cultures should be collected as soon as possible after hospital admission and early bone marrow aspirate with mycobacterial cultures is advocated.

  11. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k b , were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10 −8 to 2.0 × 10 −5 mol L −1 , with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for SY and 1.43 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for TT (S N −1 = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the

  12. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k{sub b}, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for SY and 1.43 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for TT (S N{sup −1} = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant

  13. Performance Considerations for the SIMPL Single Photon, Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter as Applied to Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Harding, David J.; Valett, Susan R.; Vasilyev, Aleksey A.; Yu, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is a multi-beam, micropulse airborne laser altimeter that acquires active and passive polarimetric optical remote sensing measurements at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. SIMPL was developed to demonstrate advanced measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved, more efficient spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL data have been acquired for wide diversity of forest types in the summers of 2010 and 2011 in order to assess the potential of its novel capabilities for characterization of vegetation structure and composition. On each of its four beams SIMPL provides highly-resolved measurements of forest canopy structure by detecting single-photons with 15 cm ranging precision using a narrow-beam system operating at a laser repetition rate of 11 kHz. Associated with that ranging data SIMPL provides eight amplitude parameters per beam unlike the single amplitude provided by typical laser altimeters. Those eight parameters are received energy that is parallel and perpendicular to that of the plane-polarized transmit pulse at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near IR), for both the active laser backscatter retro-reflectance and the passive solar bi-directional reflectance. This poster presentation will cover the instrument architecture and highlight the performance of the SIMPL instrument with examples taken from measurements for several sites with distinct canopy structures and compositions. Specific performance areas such as probability of detection, after pulsing, and dead time, will be highlighted and addressed, along with examples of their impact on the measurements and how they limit the ability to accurately model and recover the canopy properties. To assess the sensitivity of SIMPL's measurements to canopy properties an instrument model has been implemented in the FLIGHT radiative transfer code, based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport. SIMPL data collected in 2010 over

  14. Primary study on synthesis and characterization of the new type EB curable resins. Pt.1: Acrylic resins modified by light-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jinshan; Yi Min; Wang Ruiyu; Li Jun; Ha Hongfei

    1995-01-01

    An acrylic resin modified by vegetable oil with high degree of unsaturation level has been synthesized. The characterization of coating film EB cured by the modified acrylic resin was studied primarily. The new type of EB curable acrylic resin is possessed of many merits such as cheap raw materials, simple synthesis technique and pretty characteristics of coating film. It is especially fit for timber surface coatings cured by EB radiation

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  1. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  3. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  5. A poly(glycerol sebacate) based photo/thermo dual curable biodegradable and biocompatible polymer for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Lei, Dong; Liu, Zenghe; Chen, Shuo; Sun, Lijie; Lv, Ziying; Huang, Peng; Jiang, Zhongxing; You, Zhengwei

    2017-10-01

    Due to its biomimetic mechanical properties to soft tissues, excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) has emerged as a representative bioelastomer and been widely used in biomedical engineering. However, the typical curing of PGS needs high temperature (>120 °C), high vacuum (>1 Torr), and long duration (>12 h), which limit its further applications. Accordingly, we designed, synthesized and characterized a photo/thermo dual curable polymer based on PGS. Treatment of PGS with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate without additional reagents readily produced a methacrylated PGS (PGS-IM). Photo-curing of PGS-IM for 10 min at room temperature using salt leaching method efficiently produced porous scaffolds with a thickness up to 1 mm. PGS-IM was adapt to thermo-curing as well. The combination of photo and thermo curing provided a further way to modulate the properties of resultant porous scaffolds. Interestingly, photo-cured scaffolds exhibited hierarchical porous structures carrying extensive micropores with a diameter from several to hundreds micrometers. All the scaffolds showed good elasticity and biodegradability. In addition, PGS-IM exhibited good compatibility with L929 fibroblast cells. We expect this new PGS based biomaterial will have a wide range of biomedical applications.

  6. Primary pancreatic lymphoma – pancreatic tumours that are potentially curable without resection, a retrospective review of four cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimison, Peter S; Chin, Melvin T; Harrison, Michelle L; Goldstein, David

    2006-01-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphomas (PPL) are rare tumours of the pancreas. Symptoms, imaging and tumour markers can mimic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but they are much more amenable to treatment. Treatment for PPL remains controversial, particularly the role of surgical resection. Four cases of primary pancreatic lymphoma were identified at Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. A literature review of cases of PPL reported between 1985 and 2005 was conducted, and outcomes were contrasted. All four patients presented with upper abdominal symptoms associated with weight loss. One case was diagnosed without surgery. No patients underwent pancreatectomy. All patients were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and two of four patients received rituximab. One patient died at 32 months. Three patients are disease free at 15, 25 and 64 months, one after successful retreatment. Literature review identified a further 103 patients in 11 case series. Outcomes in our series and other series of chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared favourably to surgical series. Biopsy of all pancreatic masses is essential, to exclude potentially curable conditions such as PPL, and can be performed without laparotomy. Combined multimodality treatment, utilising chemotherapy and radiotherapy, without surgical resection is advocated but a cooperative prospective study would lead to further improvement in treatment outcomes

  7. Fabrication of engineered particle-doped light diffuser with a soft transparent mold of UV-curable polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jicheng; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-11-01

    Engineered particle-doped light diffuser is realized by a simple, low-cost soft lithographic method. A flexible photopolymerizable mold is employed as an intermediate transferring template directly from the developed photoresist texture to fabricate engineered particle-doped light diffuser. The well-designed surface microstructure can directionally scatter the incident light, while the doped ultra-violet curable resin with low concentration of the 2 μm-diameter organosilicone particles can homogenize the scattering light without decreasing transmittance. Experimental results show that the measured transmittance can be as high as 96.9% with little backscattering effect over the whole visible regime. Meanwhile, the haze raises from 30% to 75% with increased dopant concentration from 1 wt% to 7 wt% and thickness of the residual layer from 10 μm to 40 μm remained in the imprinting process. The proposed engineered particle-doped light diffuser can manage scattering angle, luminance uniformity and haze, thus it has the capability of homogenizing light and eliminating striations to create more visually pleasing structured lighting in commercial and residential environments. We anticipate that the approach appears to be a strong candidate for future development because of its scalable nature, environmentally-friendly process and relatively low cost.

  8. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  9. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  10. The colors of icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ordinary icebergs of meteoric glacier ice appear bluish-white, i.e. intermediate in color between the white of snow and the blue of pure ice, depending on the bubble content. However, clear dark bubble-free icebergs are occasionally seen in the Antarctic Ocean; they originate from freezing of seawater to the base of ice shelves. On parts of the Amery Ice Shelf, frozen seawater contributes up to one-third of the ice-shelf thickness. Many of the icebergs produced by the Amery are therefore composite icebergs; the upper part consists of meteoric glacier ice from snowfall, but the lower part is frozen seawater ("marine ice"). When these icebergs capsize, the marine ice is exposed to view; it can be accessed for study in springtime when the icebergs are embedded in shorefast sea ice. The marine ice varies in color from blue to green depending on the content of dissolved organic matter. The color is therefore an indicator of biological productivity in the seawater from which the ice froze. To infer processes at the ice-shelf base, these icebergs may be examined and cored for spectral reflectance, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, organic matter, particles, and distribution of cracks and stripes. Seasonal and interannual variations may be quantified from samples collected along the marine ice-growth trajectory at the meteoric/marine-ice interface. The scale of small turbulent eddies at the ice-shelf base, which govern the transfer of heat between ocean and ice, can be inferred from the size of scallops in the iceberg surface (typically a few centimeters). Dark stripes within meteoric ice result from tension-cracks at the grounding line, forming basal crevasses that fill suddenly with seawater; their width, spacing, and salinity can give clues to processes at the grounding line. Results will be shown from icebergs sampled on Australian expeditions near Davis and Mawson stations. Marine ice is more readily accessed by sampling an iceberg than by drilling through an ice shelf

  11. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  12. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  13. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  14. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  16. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  17. Vapor-phase deposition of regioregular and oriented poly(3-hexylthiophene) structures and novel nanostructured composites of interpenetrating poly(3-hexylthiophene) and polyaniline exhibiting full-color wavelength (400-1000 nm) photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Bayer, I. S.; Karulkar, P. C.; Tripathi, A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2007-10-01

    A promising solvent-free technique of electron-beam-assisted vapor-phase codeposition method is presented which allows uniform blending of different conjugated and nonconjugated polymers at the nanoscale. The technique allows direct incorporation of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer with different structural orientations into conventional and semiconducting polymers without fractionation or degradation of P3HT while maintaining the nanoscale morphology of deposited organic films. The results of fabricated novel nanostructured organic composites (˜100-200nm) comprising regioregular and oriented P3HT and different conjugated and nonconjugated polymers including selective assembly of P3HT nanonodules into a copolymer template are presented. We show a typical example of blending of P3HT and polyaniline (PANI) that formed a unique nanoscale morphology comprising interpenetrating networks of different shapes and sizes of nanospherulites (˜100nm) of P3HT in PANI. The so fabricated nanocomposites (˜200nm) exhibited remarkable broadband photoluminescence features covering the entire blue, green, and red wavelength regions between 400 and 1000nm. Such organic nanocomposites might be useful for flexible full-color screen flat panel displays and organic white-light solid-state lighting applications.

  18. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  19. COLOR STABILITY FOR WOOD PRODUCTS DURING USE: EFFECTS OF INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Blanchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress having been achieved in recent years to improve wood’s durability, additional developments are still necessary to increase its color stability. ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to UV absorbers (Tinuvin 477 DW, 292 and 5151 commonly used to stabilize the wood products color. Nanoparticles, with concentrations in the range 1 to 2 wt%, and UV absorbers, using concentrations advised by the manufacturer, were dispersed in a waterborne UV curable polyurethane/polyacrylate resin. Dispersions were carried out with a high speed mixer at 2,500 RPM with micro glass beads or not, depending on the form of the nanoparticles. Nanocomposite coatings were aged with a weather-o-meter (CI 3000+ - Atlas according ASTM G155. Color variations were measured with a colorimeter (BYK Gardner – Color Guide 45/0 working with the CIE L*a*b* system. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of inorganic UV absorbers on the stabilization of color under indoor conditions. Results showed that nanoparticles (ZnO, CeO2 absorbed UV light frequencies in a manner similar to common organic molecules. Their efficiency was better at medium durations of light exposure, for which they could achieve the action of organic absorbers. Finally, the simultaneous use of both absorbers seems to create a protective synergy when degradation is due to UV energy alone.

  20. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mengkaji Penggunaan Software Apple Color untuk Color Grading saat Pasca Produksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-production process, there is one process that is not as well known as the video editing process, the addition of animation, special effects enrichment, motion graphics or audio editing and audio mixing, an important process which is rarely realized called Color Correction or Color Grading. Various software have been made to handle this process, ranging from additional filters are already available for free in any editing software, to high-end devices worth billions of dollars dedicated for specifically conducting Color Correction. Apple Color is one of the software included in the purchase of Final Cut Studio package which also include Final Cut Pro for Video Editing, Soundtrack Pro for Sound Editing and Mixing, and Motion for compositing. Apple's Color is specially designed for color correction tasks after previously edited in Final Cut Pro. This paper is designed to introduce Apple's software as well as analyze the feasibility of Apple Color as a professional device in the world of production, especially post-production. Some professional color correction software will be compared briefly with Apple Color to get an objective conclusion. 

  2. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  3. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  4. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  5. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  6. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  7. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  8. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  9. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  10. Hair treatment device for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, Bruce E.; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2016-01-26

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  11. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  12. The use of epoxidised palm oil products (EPOP) for the synthesis of radiation curable resins 1. Synthesis of epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohd Hilmi bin Mahmood; Hamirin bin Kifli; Masni bin Abdul Rahman; Azman bin Rafie

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of acrylated olein utilizing epoxidised refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein has been carried out by acrylation reaction. This is done by the introduction of acrylic acid into oxirane group of the epoxidised RBD palm olein. The reaction was confirmed by analytical data i.e. oxirane oxygen content, iodine value and acid value and IR spectrophotometric method. It was found that, oxirane group in triglyceride molecule of epoxidised RBD palm olein (EPOL) is attacked by acrylic acid to yield epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate (EPOLA). The EPOLA was found curable when subjected to ultraviolet radiation

  13. The use of epoxidised palm oil products (EPOP) for the synthesis of radiation curable resins. II. Ultraviolet (UV) curing of epoxidised RBD palm oil acrylate (EPOLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hilmi bin Mahmood; Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Hamirin bin Kifli; Masni bin Abdul Ragman; Azman bin Rafei

    1991-01-01

    Epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and polyurethane acrylate (PUA) prepared at UTN laboratory were used as base polymers or oligomers in the formulations of ultraviolet (UV) curable resins. Mono-, di- and trifunctional monomers were utilized both as crosslinkers as well as for diluents. Curing was done by means of 20 cm wide IST UV machine with the conditions of 8A current and 4m/min conveyor speed. The properties of the cured films were investigated by using pencil hardness tester and gel content analysis

  14. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  16. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  17. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  18. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  19. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  20. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  2. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  3. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  4. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  5. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  6. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  7. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  8. UV curable materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  9. Curability of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alexanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among 792 patients with multiple myeloma treated from 1987 to 2010 and assessed after 18 months, there were 167 patients with complete remission. For those 60 patients treated between 1987–1998 and with long followup, the latest relapse occurred after 11.8 years, so that 13 patients have remained in sustained complete remission for longer than 12 years (range 12–22 years. These results suggest that 3% of all patients treated during that period may be cured of multiple myeloma. In addition to immunofixation, more sensitive techniques for the detection of residual disease should be applied more consistently in patients with apparent complete remission in order to identify those with potential cure.

  10. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  11. Realizable Triples in Dominator Colorings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Douglas M

    2007-01-01

    Given a graph G and its vertex set V(G), the chromatic number, Chi(G), represents the minimum number of colors required to color the vertices of G so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color...

  12. Effects of the Amount and Type of Diol Ring Openers on the Properties of Oligolactide Acrylates for UV-Curable Printing Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Kulsiriswad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to synthesize low viscosity oligolactide acrylates for UV-curable inks from oligolactide diols. Firstly, low molecular weight oligolactide diols were prepared by ring opening reaction of L-lactide with diols. Oligolactide acrylates were then synthesized by functionalizing the oligolactide diols with acrylic acid. In this study, three diol ring openers having short and long alkyl chain length were used to investigate the effects of the amount and type of diols on the properties of the oligolactide acrylates. The obtained oligomers were characterized, and the viscosities of oligolactide acrylates were measured. Results showed that oligolactide acrylates were successfully synthesized in all cases of ring openers, as confirmed by 1H-NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An increase in the alkyl chain length of the ring openers resulted in oligomers with lower viscosity and a decrease in Tg. Following that, the obtained oligolactide acrylates were employed for the formulation of UV-curable screen printing inks and their properties were investigated. Results showed that the inks formulated from oligomers with lower molecular weight exhibited better ink flow. Additionally, all ink films cured by UV radiation were very flexible with excellent adhesion, high impact resistance, and excellent water resistance.

  13. Preparation and Research of Coloured UV Curable Plastic Coatings%有色UV固化塑料涂料的制备与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方博; 钟伟山; 李国军; 黄海庆

    2015-01-01

    In the view of present situation of UV curable plastic coatings,the coloured UV curable plastic coatings with the high efficiency productivity,energy saving and reducing consumption,and good appearance and excellent performances was introduced. The selection of UV resin,photoinitiator,active diluent,wetting leveling agent and environmentally-friendly solvent for the coating system,and the influence of light energy on the film properties were discussed.%针对UV固化塑料涂料的现状,介绍一种高效生产率、节能降耗,且具有良好外观与优异性能的有色UV固化塑料涂料。讨论了该涂料体系用UV树脂、光引发剂、活性稀释剂、润湿流平剂和环保溶剂的选择,以及光能量对涂膜性能的影响。

  14. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  15. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  16. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  17. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  18. Effect of nightguard vital bleaching gel on the color stability of provisional restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Omar Bajunaid

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Composite-based provisional material showed highest color stability when exposed to vital tooth bleaching gel, whereas methacrylate-based material was the least color stable. Polycarbonate crowns were more color stable when exposed to 15% bleaching gel as opposed to 10% bleaching gel.

  19. Process for curing ionizing radiation-highly sensitive resin composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, K.; Sasaki, T.; Tabei, K.; Goto, K.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for curing a radiation curable composition consisting essentially of (a) an amide represented by the formula R,CONR 2 R 3 and (b) an unsaturated polyester resin by irradiating the composition with an ionizing radiation. R 1 is H, an alkyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms or an alkenyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms, and R 2 and R 3 are each -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 OH. R 1 and R 2 taken together represent alkylene having 2 to 5 carbon atoms

  20. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

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  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... after your vision… The Mystery of the Ghostly White Ring MAR 30, 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ... not just at Halloween. But few know the risks associated with these lenses . "Most people believe that ...

  8. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

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    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  2. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  3. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  4. Physics of structural colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S; Yoshioka, S; Miyazaki, J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field

  5. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  6. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  7. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  8. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  9. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  10. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  11. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  12. A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1984-01-01

    I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)

  13. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  14. Development of the foremost light-curable calcium-silicate MTA cement as root-end in oral surgery. Chemical-physical properties, bioactivity and biological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Siboni, Francesco; Modena, Enrico; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Prati, Carlo

    2011-07-01

    An innovative light-curable calcium-silicate cement containing a HEMA-TEGDMA-based resin (lc-MTA) was designed to obtain a bioactive fast setting root-end filling and root repair material. lc-MTA was tested for setting time, solubility, water absorption, calcium release, alkalinizing activity (pH of soaking water), bioactivity (apatite-forming ability) and cell growth-proliferation. The apatite-forming ability was investigated by micro-Raman, ATR-FTIR and ESEM/EDX after immersion at 37°C for 1-28 days in DPBS or DMEM+FBS. The marginal adaptation of cement in root-end cavities of extracted teeth was assessed by ESEM/EDX, and the viability of Saos-2 cell on cements was evaluated. lc-MTA demonstrated a rapid setting time (2min), low solubility, high calcium release (150-200ppm) and alkalinizing power (pH 10-12). lc-MTA proved the formation of bone-like apatite spherulites just after 1 day. Apatite precipitates completely filled the interface porosities and created a perfect marginal adaptation. lc-MTA allowed Saos-2 cell viability and growth and no compromising toxicity was exerted. HEMA-TEGDMA creates a polymeric network able to stabilize the outer surface of the cement and a hydrophilic matrix permeable enough to allow water absorption. SiO(-)/Si-OH groups from the mineral particles induce heterogeneous nucleation of apatite by sorption of calcium and phosphate ions. Oxygen-containing groups from poly-HEMA-TEGDMA provide additional apatite nucleating sites through the formation of calcium chelates. The strong novelty was that the combination of a hydraulic calcium-silicate powder and a poly-HEMA-TEGDMA hydrophilic resin creates the conditions (calcium release and functional groups able to chelate Ca ions) for a bioactive fast setting light-curable material for clinical applications in dental and maxillofacial surgery. The first and unique/exclusive light-curable calcium-silicate MTA cement for endodontics and root-end application was created, with a potential

  15. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2002-12-01

    We present additional techniques for using mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator) to produce composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to present more detail and additional techniques, taking advantage of new or improved features available in the latest software versions. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels.

  16. Green colorants based on energetic azole borates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Johann; Klapötke, Thomas M; Rusan, Magdalena; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2014-11-24

    The investigation of green-burning boron-based compounds as colorants in pyrotechnic formulations as alternative for barium nitrate, which is a hazard to health and to the environment, is reported. Metal-free and nitrogen-rich dihydrobis(5-aminotetrazolyl)borate salts and dihydrobis(1,3,4-triazolyl)borate salts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and vibrational spectroscopy. Their thermal and energetic properties have been determined as well. Several pyrotechnic compositions using selected azolyl borate salts as green colorants were investigated. Formulations with ammonium dinitramide and ammonium nitrate as oxidizers and boron and magnesium as fuels were tested. The burn time, dominant wavelength, spectral purity, luminous intensity, and luminous efficiency as well as the thermal and energetic properties of these compositions were measured. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  18. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  19. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of traditional and new partner notification technologies for curable sexually transmitted infections: observational study, systematic reviews and mathematical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, Christian L; Turner, Katherine M E; Mercer, Catherine H; Auguste, Peter; Roberts, Tracy E; Bell, Gill; Herzog, Sereina A; Cassell, Jackie A; Edmunds, W John; White, Peter J; Ward, Helen; Low, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Partner notification is essential to the comprehensive case management of sexually transmitted infections. Systematic reviews and mathematical modelling can be used to synthesise information about the effects of new interventions to enhance the outcomes of partner notification. To study the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of traditional and new partner notification technologies for curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Secondary data analysis of clinical audit data; systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) published from 1 January 1966 to 31 August 2012 and of studies of health-related quality of life (HRQL) [MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA)] published from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2011; static models of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness; and dynamic modelling studies to improve parameter estimation and examine effectiveness. General population and genitourinary medicine clinic attenders. Heterosexual women and men. Traditional partner notification by patient or provider referral, and new partner notification by expedited partner therapy (EPT) or its UK equivalent, accelerated partner therapy (APT). Population prevalence; index case reinfection; and partners treated per index case. Enhanced partner therapy reduced reinfection in index cases with curable STIs more than simple patient referral [risk ratio (RR) 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 0.89]. There are no randomised trials of APT. The median number of partners treated for chlamydia per index case in UK clinics was 0.60. The number of partners needed to treat to interrupt transmission of chlamydia was lower for casual than for regular partners. In dynamic model simulations, >10% of partners are chlamydia positive with look-back periods of up to 18 months

  1. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  2. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  3. EXAFS analysis of full color glasses and glass ceramics: local order and color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, Petrus A.; Sa, Gilberto F. de; Malta, Oscar L.; Silva, Jose expedito Cavalcante

    1996-01-01

    The generation and control of the relative intensities of the primary additive colors in solid state light emitters is very important to the development of higher resolution media, used in color monitors, solid state sensors, large area and flat displays and other optoelectronic devices. We have developed a multi-doped glassy material named FCG (full color glass, to generate and to control the primary light colors, allowing the simulation of any color of light by additive synthesis. Tm(III), Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions were used (0.01 to 5.0 mol%) as blue, green and red narrow emitters. A wide color gamut was obtained under ultraviolet excitation by varying the material composition. The chromaticity diagram is covered, including the white simulation. We proposed a mechanism to control the chromaticity of a fixed composition of the material, using the Er (III) as a selective quencher that may be deactivated by infrared excitation. Although this new material presents at this time a high efficiency, it may be improved because the energy transfer between the rare earth triad may be still reduced. Optical spectroscopy measurements confirms that it is still possible to improve the efficiency of the FCC material. EXAFS analysis will be used to probe the local environment around the triad of rare earth that generates the primary colors. For this purpose we have prepared single doped glasses with each component of the triad with the same concentration than FCG. The devitrification of these glasses will be analyzed in order to produce glassceramics with ion segregation. (author)

  4. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  5. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  6. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  7. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  8. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  9. Composites comprising novel RTIL-based polymers, and methods of making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Douglas; Carlisle, Trevor; Noble, Richard; Nicodemus, Garret; McDanel, William; Cowan, Matthew

    2017-06-27

    The invention includes compositions comprising curable imidazolium-functionalized poly(room-temperature ionic liquid) copolymers and homopolymers. The invention further includes methods of preparing and using the compositions of the invention. The invention further includes novel methods of preparing thin, supported, room-temperature ionic liquid-containing polymeric films on a porous support. In certain embodiments, the methods of the invention avoid the use of a gutter layer, which greatly reduces the overall gas permeance and selectivity of the composite membrane. In other embodiments, the films of the invention have increased gas selectivity and permeance over films prepared using methods described in the prior art.

  10. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  11. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  12. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  13. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  14. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  15. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  18. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  19. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an ... the cause: a rare inflammatory condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your ...

  1. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  2. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  3. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  4. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  5. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  6. Colorization-Based RGB-White Color Interpolation using Color Filter Array with Randomly Sampled Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Paul; Lee, Sukho; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-06-28

    Recently, several RGB-White (RGBW) color filter arrays (CFAs) have been proposed, which have extra white (W) pixels in the filter array that are highly sensitive. Due to the high sensitivity, the W pixels have better SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) characteristics than other color pixels in the filter array, especially, in low light conditions. However, most of the RGBW CFAs are designed so that the acquired RGBW pattern image can be converted into the conventional Bayer pattern image, which is then again converted into the final color image by using conventional demosaicing methods, i.e., color interpolation techniques. In this paper, we propose a new RGBW color filter array based on a totally different color interpolation technique, the colorization algorithm. The colorization algorithm was initially proposed for colorizing a gray image into a color image using a small number of color seeds. Here, we adopt this algorithm as a color interpolation technique, so that the RGBW color filter array can be designed with a very large number of W pixels to make the most of the highly sensitive characteristics of the W channel. The resulting RGBW color filter array has a pattern with a large proportion of W pixels, while the small-numbered RGB pixels are randomly distributed over the array. The colorization algorithm makes it possible to reconstruct the colors from such a small number of RGB values. Due to the large proportion of W pixels, the reconstructed color image has a high SNR value, especially higher than those of conventional CFAs in low light condition. Experimental results show that many important information which are not perceived in color images reconstructed with conventional CFAs are perceived in the images reconstructed with the proposed method.

  7. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  8. COLORS AND COLOR GRADIENTS IN BULGES OF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALCELLS, M; PELETIER, RF

    We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a complete optically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, to investigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Color profiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedges opening on the semiminor axes.

  9. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  10. Public response to bridge colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    To determine people's reactions to bridges painted in colors as white, yellow, green, blue, red, brown, black, and aluminum, two test bridges were selected in Charlottesville, Virginia. One was painted a different color each month and the other was k...

  11. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  12. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  13. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The colors of paintings and viewers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M M; Montagner, Cristina; João, Catarina A R; Amano, Kinjiro; Alfaro, Catarina; Bailão, Ana

    2017-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain the aesthetics of paintings is that it depends on the extent to which they mimic natural image statistics. In fact, paintings and natural scenes share several statistical image regularities but the colors of paintings seem generally more biased towards red than natural scenes. Is the particular option for colors in each painting, even if less naturalistic, critical for perceived beauty? Here we show that it is. In the experiments, 50 naïve observers, unfamiliar with the 10 paintings tested, could rotate the color gamut of the paintings and select the one producing the best subjective impression. The distributions of angles obtained are described by normal distributions with maxima deviating, on average, only 7 degrees from the original gamut orientation and full width at half maximum just above the threshold to perceive a chromatic change in the paintings. Crucially, for data pooled across observers and abstract paintings the maximum of the distribution was at zero degrees, i.e., the same as the original. This demonstrates that artists know what chromatic compositions match viewers' preferences and that the option for less naturalistic colors does not constrain the aesthetic value of paintings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual wetness perception based on image color statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Masataka; Adelson, Edward H; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2017-05-01

    Color vision provides humans and animals with the abilities to discriminate colors based on the wavelength composition of light and to determine the location and identity of objects of interest in cluttered scenes (e.g., ripe fruit among foliage). However, we argue that color vision can inform us about much more than color alone. Since a trichromatic image carries more information about the optical properties of a scene than a monochromatic image does, color can help us recognize complex material qualities. Here we show that human vision uses color statistics of an image for the perception of an ecologically important surface condition (i.e., wetness). Psychophysical experiments showed that overall enhancement of chromatic saturation, combined with a luminance tone change that increases the darkness and glossiness of the image, tended to make dry scenes look wetter. Theoretical analysis along with image analysis of real objects indicated that our image transformation, which we call the wetness enhancing transformation, is consistent with actual optical changes produced by surface wetting. Furthermore, we found that the wetness enhancing transformation operator was more effective for the images with many colors (large hue entropy) than for those with few colors (small hue entropy). The hue entropy may be used to separate surface wetness from other surface states having similar optical properties. While surface wetness and surface color might seem to be independent, there are higher order color statistics that can influence wetness judgments, in accord with the ecological statistics. The present findings indicate that the visual system uses color image statistics in an elegant way to help estimate the complex physical status of a scene.

  16. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  17. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  18. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  19. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  20. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user's ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies