Sample records for cuprous ammonium lactate

  1. Ammonium Lactate Topical (United States)

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using ammonium lactate, call your doctor.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to natural or artificial sunlight to the affected skin area and to ...

  2. Production of Ammonium Lactate by Fed-batch Fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae from Corncob Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Dong-mei; LI Shi-zhong; LIN Fang-qian


    L- (+)-Lactic acid production from corncob hydrolysate as a cheap carbohydrate source by fed-batch fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was studied. After 96 h of fermentation in a 5 L fermentor, the final concentration of ammonium L-(+)-lactate, average productivity(based on initial xylose concentration) and max(+)-lactate was 98.8%.

  3. Recovery of ammonium lactate and removal of hardness from fermentation broth by nanofiltration. (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hyeon; Chang, Yong Keun; Chang, Ho Nam


    Nanofiltration (NF) was investigated as an alternative to desalting electrodialysis (ED) and ion exchange for the recovery of ammonium lactate from fermentation broth. Three commercial NF membranes, NF45, NF70, and NTR-729HF, were characterized with 50 mM NaCl, MgSO(4), and glucose solutions. NF45 membrane was selected because it showed the lowest rejection of monovalent ion, the highest rejection of divalent ion, and the highest rejection of nonpolar molecule. Effects of the operating pressure were investigated in a range of 100-400 psig, on the flux, lactate recovery, and glucose and magnesium removal from a real fermentation broth containing about 1.0 M of ammonium lactate. The flux and recovery rate increased linearly with the pressure. However, lactate rejection also increased with the pressure, lowering the recovery yield. More magnesium ions and glucose were rejected as the pressure was increased, and at 400 psig, for example, magnesium ion was almost completely rejected, highlighting the chance of obviating the necessity of ion exchange to remove hardness, by using NF instead of desalting ED. Membrane fouling was not so severe as expected, considering the complex nature and a rather high concentration of the fermentation broth treated.

  4. Effects of ammonium lactate on 2,3-pentanedione formation from lactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, M.S.; Jackson, J.E.; Miller, D.J.


    Ammonia is often used for pH adjustment during fermentation of glucose to lactic acid. Its presence as ammonium lactate in the catalytic upgrading of lactic acid to 2,3-pentanedione over CsOH/silica reduces diketone yields to nearly zero at high ammonia levels. Removal of ammonia from the feed restores 2,3-pentanedione yield, indicating that the catalyst itself is not poisoned by ammonia. Instead, 2,3-pentanedione continues to form in the presence of ammonia and is consumed in secondary reactions downstream of the catalyst bed. Both base-catalyzed self-condensation of 2,3-pentanedione to duroquinone (and oligomeric species) and direct reaction of ammonia with the diketone are observed.

  5. Magnetoexcitons in cuprous oxide (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Freitag, Marcel; Heckötter, Julian; Uihlein, Christoph; Aßmann, Marc; Fröhlich, Dietmar; Bayer, Manfred


    Two of the most striking experimental findings when investigating exciton spectra in cuprous oxide using high-resolution spectroscopy are the observability and the fine structure splitting of F excitons reported by J. Thewes et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 027402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.027402]. These findings show that it is indispensable to account for the complex valence band structure and the cubic symmetry of the solid in the theory of excitons. This is all the more important for magnetoexcitons, where the external magnetic field reduces the symmetry of the system even further. We present the theory of excitons in Cu2O in an external magnetic field and especially discuss the dependence of the spectra on the direction of the external magnetic field, which cannot be understood from a simple hydrogenlike model. Using high-resolution spectroscopy, we also present the corresponding experimental spectra for cuprous oxide in Faraday configuration. The theoretical results and experimental spectra are in excellent agreement as regards not only the energies but also the relative oscillator strengths. Furthermore, this comparison allows for the determination of the fourth Luttinger parameter κ of this semiconductor.

  6. Radiation annealing in cuprous oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajda, P.


    Experimental results from high-intensity gamma-irradiation of cuprous oxide are used to investigate the annealing of defects with increasing radiation dose. The results are analysed on the basis of the Balarin and Hauser (1965) statistical model of radiation annealing, giving a square-root relati......-root relationship between the rate of change of resistivity and the resistivity change. The saturation defect density at room temperature is estimated on the basis of a model for defect creation in cuprous oxide....

  7. Salicylic Acid 6% in an ammonium lactate emollient foam vehicle in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp psoriasis. (United States)

    Kircik, Leon


    Scalp psoriasis is a common life-altering skin condition causing a great deal of distress. It significantly affects quality of life and is difficult to manage. Treatment can provide variable results, often impacting patient compliance with therapy. Salicylic acid is used as adjunctive therapy to other topical treatments because of its marked keratolytic effect. Its effectiveness as a monotherapy is not fully understood. An emollient foam formulation of 6% salicylic acid (Salkera) in an ammonium lactate vehicle has recently become available. Efficacy, tolerability and patient acceptability of salicylic acid 6% emollient foam were assessed in an open-label pilot study of 10 subjects with scalp psoriasis. All psoriasis severity parameters were reduced with a significant decrease in Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) score from 15.3 to 3.0 after four weeks of monotherapy (PSalicylic acid 6% emollient foam provides a useful option in the treatment of psoriasis that is highly effective, well tolerated and acceptable to patients.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide. (United States)


    ... with potassium iodide under slightly acidic conditions. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1265 Cuprous iodide. (a) Cuprous iodide (copper (I) iodide, CuI, CAS...

  9. A double-blind clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of pure lanolin versus ammonium lactate 12% cream for the treatment of moderate to severe foot xerosis. (United States)

    Jennings, Maureen B; Alfieri, Donna M; Parker, Eunice Ramsey; Jackman, Lorraine; Goodwin, Susan; Lesczczynski, Christine


    Xerotic skin is a pattern of reaction to a variety of disorders (eg, winter xerosis, hereditary ichthyosis) with abnormalities of desquamation in common. The trial described in this article was a double-blind randomized-comparison clinical trial investigating the effect of pure lanolin versus ammonium lactate 12% cream in treating moderate to severe foot xerosis. Xerosis was clinically assessed at baseline visit, and designated sites were reevaluated after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of therapy. Ninety-two patients were enrolled; 41 of these were excluded from analysis (25 were lost to follow-up, 8 were noncompliant, 1 was discharged from study because of an adverse event after visit 1, and 7 were noncompliant after visit 2). Although there was significant improvement in xerosis scores for both treatment groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, no differences were statistically significant. Used twice daily for 4 weeks, pure lanolin and ammonium lactate cream were both effective in treating moderate to severe xerosis.

  10. Resistance switching of electrodeposited cuprous oxide (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Sanaz

    In this work, the resistance switching behavior of electrodeposited cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films in Au/Cu2O/top electrode (Pt, Au-Pd, Al) cells was studied. After an initial FORMING process, the fabricated cells show reversible switching between a low resistance state (16.6 O) and a high resistance state (0.4 x 106 O). Changing the resistance states in cuprous oxide films depends on the magnitude of the applied voltage which corresponds to unipolar resistance switching behavior of this material. The endurance and retention tests indicate a potential application of the fabricated cells for nonvolatile resistance switching random access memory (RRAM). The results suggest formation and rupture of one or several nanoscale copper filaments as the resistance switching mechanism in the cuprous oxide films. At high electric voltage in the as-deposited state of Au/Cu 2O/Au-Pd cell structure, the conduction behavior follows Poole-Frenkel emission. Various parameters, such as the compliance current, the cuprous oxide microstructure, the cuprous oxide thickness, top electrode area, and top electrode material, affect the resistance switching characteristics. The required FORMING voltage is higher for Au/Cu2O/Al cell compared with the Au/Cu2O/Pt which is related to the Schottky behavior of Al contact with Cu2O. Cu2O nanowires in Au-Pt/ Cu 2O/Au-Pt cell also show resistance switching behavior, indicating scalable potential of this cell for usage as RRAM. After an initial FORMING process under an electric field of 3 x 106 V/m, the Cu2O nanowire is switched to the LRS. During the FORMING process physical damages are observed in the cell, which may be caused by Joule heating and gas evolution.

  11. Preparation and Instability of Nanocrystalline Cuprous Nitride. (United States)

    Reichert, Malinda D; White, Miles A; Thompson, Michelle J; Miller, Gordon J; Vela, Javier


    Low-dimensional cuprous nitride (Cu3N) was synthesized by nitridation (ammonolysis) of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanocrystals using either ammonia (NH3) or urea (H2NCONH2) as the nitrogen source. The resulting nanocrystalline Cu3N spontaneously decomposes to nanocrystalline CuO in the presence of both water and oxygen from air at room temperature. Ammonia was produced in 60% chemical yield during Cu3N decomposition, as measured using the colorimetric indophenol method. Because Cu3N decomposition requires H2O and produces substoichiometric amounts of NH3, we conclude that this reaction proceeds through a complex stoichiometry that involves the concomitant release of both N2 and NH3. This is a thermodynamically unfavorable outcome, strongly indicating that H2O (and thus NH3 production) facilitate the kinetics of the reaction by lowering the energy barrier for Cu3N decomposition. The three different Cu2O, Cu3N, and CuO nanocrystalline phases were characterized by a combination of optical absorption, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electronic density of states obtained from electronic structure calculations on the bulk solids. The relative ease of interconversion between these interesting and inexpensive materials bears possible implications for catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  12. Determination of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte by EDTA back titration with ethanol-cuprous chloride-ammonium chloride-hydrochloric acid complex solvent separation%乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸复合溶剂分离-EDTA返滴定法测定铝电解质中单质铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲秋梅; 任凤莲; 曹福悦


    新型低温铝电解质体系物相组成复杂,单质铝的分离测定尤为困难.本文采用高选择性复合溶剂乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸(ECAH)直接分离后测定铝电解质中单质铝,成功解决了单质铝与其它铝的化合物分离困难的问题,有效降低了铝电解质溶样时铝的氟化物的微溶效应带来的误差,为铝电解质中单质铝的物相分析提供了可靠的研究方案.采用经典ED-TA络合返滴定法测得铝电解质样品中单质铝含量,加标回收率在97%~103%之间,RSD(n=6)为1.1%和1.5%.测定结果和Al-CAS-OP-CPC四元络合光度法测定结果进行比对,结果一致.%It was particularly difficult to separate and determine aluminum in new low-temperature aluminum electrolyte system because of its complicated components. In this paper, aluminum in aluminum electrolyte was directly separated and determined using high-selectivity ethanol -cuprous chlorideammomum chloride-hydrochloric acid (ECAH) as complex solvent. This method successfully settled the problem of difficult separation of aluminum from aluminum compounds, effectively reduced the determination error introduced by slight soluble effect of fluoride of aluminum during the dissolution of aluminum electrolyte, and provided a reliable research method for the phase analysis of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte. Aluminum in aluminum electrolyte samples was determined by classic EDTA complexing back titration method. The standard addition recoveries were 97%-103 %, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) were 1. 1 % and 1. 5 %, respectively. The determination results were in good agreement with those obtained by Al-CAS-OP-CPC quaternary complex photometry.

  13. Evaluation of defects in cuprous oxide through exciton luminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, Laszlo, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lenferink, Erik J. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chang, Kelvin B. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stern, Nathaniel P. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ketterson, John B. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)


    The various decay mechanisms of excitons in cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) are highly sensitive to defects which can relax selection rules. Here we report cryogenic hyperspectral imaging of exciton luminescence from cuprous oxide crystals grown via the floating zone method showing that the samples have few defects. Some locations, however, show strain splitting of the 1s orthoexciton triplet polariton luminescence. Strain is reduced by annealing. In addition, annealing causes annihilation of oxygen and copper vacancies, which leads to a negative correlation between luminescence of unlike vacancies. - Highlights: • We use luminescence to observe defects in high quality cuprous oxide crystals. • Strain is reduced by annealing. • Annealing causes annihilation of oxygen and copper vacancies.

  14. The Absorption of Benzotriazole on Copper and Cuprous Oxide (United States)


    Cornell University, Ithaca INY, 14853 Copper surfaces are commonly treated with benzotriazole ( BTA ), 1. to inhibit cor- rosion. H1+ is thought to be...00 00 SIOFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract N00014-82-K-0576 Technical Report No. 38 THE ADSORPTION OF BENZOTRIAZOLE ON COPPER AND CUPROUS OXIDE by M... Benzotriazole on Copper and Cuprous Oxide 12 7- `SONAL AUTHOR(S) M. C. Zonnevylle and R. Hoffmann 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year

  15. Potentiostatic Deposition and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films



    Electrodeposition technique was employed to deposit cuprous oxide Cu2O thin films. In this work, Cu2O thin films have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent conducting glass as a substrate by potentiostatic deposition of cupric acetate. The effect of deposition time on the morphologies, crystalline, and optical quality of Cu2O thin films was investigated.

  16. Sensitivity of cuprous azide towards heat and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartar Singh


    Full Text Available "Rates of thermal decomposition of azide at six different temperatures have been measured. The sigmoid shapes of the curves representing increase in pressure with time suggest that a given temperature a fixed number of nuclei are formed at the end of the induction period. The nuclei increase in size in three dimensions. The radius of any nucleus at any instant (tis directly proportional to (t-t/Sub/owhere t/Sub/o is the induction period. The activation energy involved in thermal has been found decomposition to be 26.5K calories. It is suggested that this activation energy corresponds to the energy required for thermal transition of an electron 3 d band to the Fermi level of the metallic copper nuclei. The impact sensitivity and induction period necessary for explosion at various temperatures for crystalline and precipitated samples of cuprous azide have been measured. The results indicate that cuprous azide is more sensitive towards heat and impact than lead azide. The impact sensitivity of cuprous azide is found to increase in crystal size."

  17. Green chemistry synthesis of nano-cuprous oxide. (United States)

    Ceja-Romero, L R; Ortega-Arroyo, L; Ortega Rueda de León, J M; López-Andrade, X; Narayanan, J; Aguilar-Méndez, M A; Castaño, V M


    Green chemistry and a central composite design, to evaluate the effect of reducing agent, temperature and pH of the reaction, were employed to produce controlled cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles. Response surface method of the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is allowed to determine the most relevant factors for the size distribution of the nanoCu2O. X-ray diffraction reflections correspond to a cubic structure, with sizes from 31.9 to 104.3 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the different shapes depend strongly on the conditions of the green synthesis.

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis and optical properties of cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dandan [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Du, Yi, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Tian, Xiuying, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hunan Institute of Humanities Science and Technology, Loudi 417000 (China); Li, Zhongfu; Chen, Zhongtao; Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass and Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were fabricated by a facile and green microwave-assisted method using soluble starch as reductant and dispersant. Spheres with the diameter of about 100 and 600 nm, octahedron and truncated octahedron with the edge length of about 0.8–3 μm cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were successfully obtained. Microwave heating was proved to be a efficient method and was advantageous to the homogeneous nucleation. Growth mechanism of the prepared Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals were investigated carefully. Furthermore, the optical properties of the prepared cuprous oxide microcrystals were investigated by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, demonstrating that their band gaps of obtained samples were 1.96–2.07 eV, assigned to their different sizes and morphologies. - Abstract: Cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were fabricated by a facile and green microwave-assisted method using soluble starch as reductant and dispersant. It was observed that the addition amounts of NaOH had a prominent effect on the morphologies and size of cuprous oxide products, and microwave heating was proved to be a efficient method and was advantageous to the homogeneous nucleation. The as-obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results indicated that the samples were pure cuprous oxide. Spheres with the diameter of about 100 and 600 nm, octahedron and truncated octahedron with the edge length of about 0.8–3 μm cuprous oxide micro/nanocrystals were successfully obtained. Furthermore, the UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to investigate the optical properties of the prepared cuprous oxide microcrystals, demonstrating that their band gaps of obtained samples were 1.96–2.07 eV, assigned to their different sizes and morphologies.

  19. Oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by aminopolycarboxylatocobaltate(III) complexes. (United States)

    Yoneda, G S; Mitchel, G L; Blackmer, G L; Holwerda, R A


    Rate parameters are reported for the oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)-(k(25.0 degrees) = 17.9 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0, Mu 0.5 M) and Co(CyDTA)-(k(25.1 degrees) = 17.0 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.7 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0 mu 0.5 M). The first order Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- dependences observed over wide concentration ranges contrast with the saturation behavior reported previously for Co(EDTA)- as the oxidant. It is concluded that the- CH3 and -(CH2)4-substituents of PDTA and CyDTA, respectively, prevent the alkylated derivatives of Co(EDTA)- from hydrogen bonding with the reduced blue protein, causing precursor complex formation constants to fall far below that of 149M(-1) (25.1 degrees) observed for the EDTA complex. The similarity between deltaH not equal to and deltaS not equal to values for the oxidation of stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- indicates that the size of alkyl substituents linked to the carbon atoms of the EDTA ethylenediamine backbone has little influence on activation requirements for Cu(I) to Co(III) electron transfer. The electron transfer reactivity of aminopolycarboxylatocobalt(III) complexes with cuprous stellacyanin therefore appears to be linked to the accessibility of one or more of the ligated acetate groups to outer-sphere contact with the type 1 Cu(I) center. Saturation in kobsd vs. [oxidant] plots found for the reactions of Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- with stellacyanin at pH 6 and at pH 7 in the presence of EDTA is attributed to the formation of "dead-end" oxidant-protein complexes.

  20. Microwave Synthesis of Cuprous Oxide Micro-/Nanocrystals with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingwei Zhu; Yihe Zhang; Jiajun Wang; Fengshan Zhou; Paul K. Chu


    Cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals were synthesized by using a simple liquid phase reduction process under microwave irradiation. Copper sulfate was used as the starting materials and macromolecule surfactants served as the templates.The morphologies phase and optical properties of them are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection absorptive spectra (UV-vis/DRS), respectively. The crystals had four different shapes, namely spheres, strips, octahedrons, and dandelions. The photocatalytic behavior of the cuprous oxide particles were investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B. In spite of the different morphologies, all of the cuprous oxide micro-/nanocrystals exhibited photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation in the following order: dandelions, strips, spheres, and octahedral crystals. The photocatalytic degradation rates of rhodamine B are 56.37%, 55.68%, 51.83% and 46.16%, respectively. The morphology affects significantly the photocatalytic performance.

  1. Enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids (United States)

    Hassan, Ali; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Ahmad, Ayyaz; Muryam, Hina


    The enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids were investigated. The nanofluids of different volume concentrations i-e 1%, 2.5% and 4.5% were prepared by the two step method. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles were ultrasonically stirred for four hours in the ethylene glycol (EG). The experimental study has been performed through circular tube geometry in laminar flow regime at average Reynolds numbers 36, 71 and 116. The constant heat flux Q = 4000 (W/m2) was maintained during this work. Substantial enhancement was observed in the convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids than the base fluid. The maximum 74% enhancement was observed in convective heat transfer coefficient at 4.5 vol% concentration and Re = 116.

  2. Copper electrodeposition from cuprous chloride solutions containing lead, zinc or iron ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Tchoumou; M. Roynette Ehics


    Cuprous chloride hydrochloric acid solutions were electrolysed in a two compartments cell without agitation for copper extraction. It is found that the current density affects the colour and the size of copper deposits. During electrodeposition of copper from cuprous solution in the presence of various concentrations of lead, zinc or iron ions at different current densities, it is observed that lead is codeposited with copper by increasing current density.In all experiments, the current efficiency for the copper deposition reaction fluctuates between 88.50% and 95.50%.

  3. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun


    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous ...

  4. Optical characterization of gold-cuprous oxide interfaces for terahertz emission applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanandan, G.K.P.; Adam, A.J.L.; Ramakrishnan, G.; Petrik, P.; Hendrikx, R.; Planken, P.C.M.


    We show that the interface between gold and thermally formed cuprous oxide, which emits terahertz radiation when illuminated with ultrafast femtosecond lasers, is in fact an AuCu/Cu2O interface due to the formation of the thermal diffusion alloy AuCu. The alloy enables the formation of a Schottky-ba

  5. Dinosaur lactation? (United States)

    Else, Paul L


    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  6. Insensitive Ammonium Nitrate. (United States)

    is reduced by replacing the ammonium nitrate with a solid solution of potassium nitrate in form III ammonium nitrate wherein the potassium nitrate...constitutes from more than zero to less than 50 weight percent of the solid solution . (Author)

  7. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka


    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  8. The fictile coordination chemistry of cuprous-thiolate sites in copper chaperones. (United States)

    Pushie, M Jake; Zhang, Limei; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N


    Copper plays vital roles in the active sites of cytochrome oxidase and in several other enzymes essential for human health. Copper is also highly toxic when dysregulated; because of this an elaborate array of accessory proteins have evolved which act as intracellular carriers or chaperones for the copper ions. In most cases chaperones transport cuprous copper. This review discusses some of the chemistry of these copper sites, with a view to some of the structural factors in copper coordination which are important in the biological function of these chaperones. The coordination chemistry and accessible geometries of the cuprous oxidation state are remarkably plastic and we discuss how this may relate to biological function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes.

  9. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna


    ]glutamate uptake and glutamate transport currents but had no effect on EAAT2. The maximal EAAT3-mediated glutamate transport current was increased but the apparent affinities for glutamate and Na(+) were unaltered. Ammonium did not affect EAAT3-mediated transient currents, indicating that EAAT3 surface expression...... was not enhanced. The ammonium-induced stimulation of EAAT3 increased with increasing extracellular pH, suggesting that the gaseous form NH(3) mediates the effect. An ammonium-induced intracellular alkalinization was excluded as the cause of the enhanced EAAT3 activity because 1) ammonium acidified the oocyte...... cytoplasm, 2) intracellular pH buffering with MOPS did not reduce the stimulation, and 3) ammonium enhanced pH-independent cysteine transport. Our data suggest that the ammonium-elicited uptake stimulation is not caused by intracellular alkalinization or changes in the concentrations of cotransported ions...

  10. Picosecond nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide with different nano-morphologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Harshavardhan Reddy; H Sekhar; D Narayana Rao


    Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. Phase purity and crystallinity of the samples were studied by using X-ray powder diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show different morphologies like nanoclusters, microcubes and microparticles. For linear and nonlinear optical measurements, the as-synthesized Cu2O with different morphologies were dispersed in isopropanol solution. The absorption spectrum recorded in the visible regions shows peaks that depend on the morphology of the particles and the peak shifts towards red region as one goes from nanoclusters to microparticles. Simple open-aperture Z-scan technique is used to measure nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide at 532 nm, 30 ps excitation at 10 Hz repetition rate. Cuprous oxide nanoclusters show reverse saturable absorption (RSA) behaviour, the microcubes and microparticles at a similar concentration exhibit saturable absorption (SA) type of behaviour at lower peak intensities and exhibit RSA within SA at higher peak intensities. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA can be ascribed to the two-photon absorption (TPA) process.

  11. Physico-chemical studies of cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) nanoparticles coated on amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johan, Mohd Rafie, E-mail:; Meriam Suhaimy, Syazwan Hanani; Yusof, Yusliza, E-mail:


    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNTs) were synthesized by a chemical reaction between ferrocene and ammonium chloride at a temperature (∼250 °C) in an air furnace. As- synthesized α-CNTs were purified with deionized water and hydrochloric acid. A purified α-CNTs were hybridized with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu{sub 2}O) through a simple chemical process. Morphology of the samples was analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the attachment of acidic functional groups onto the surface of α-CNTs and the formation of hybridized α-CNTs-Cu{sub 2}O. Raman spectra reveal the amorphous nature of the carbon. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the amorphous phase of the carbon and the formation of Cu{sub 2}O crystalline phase. The coating of Cu{sub 2}O was confirmed by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. Optical absorption of the samples has also been investigated and the quantum confinement effect was illustrated in the absorption spectra.

  12. Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy of simultaneous processes: Corrosion inhibition of cuprous oxide by benzotriazole (United States)

    Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Allred, Daniel B.; Saito, Nagahiro; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Takai, Osamu


    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was used to perform in situ studies of the corrosion inhibition of cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) by benzotriazole (BTA) in aqueous solution at concentrations from 1 to 20 μM. Because two separate processes occur simultaneously, that of Cu 2O corrosion and corrosion inhibition by BTA adsorption, the spectral information was subjected to deconvolution by a conjugate gradient minimization algorithm. Under these conditions, a solution phase concentration of 7-10 μM BTA nearly completely inhibited the corrosion of Cu 2O in deionized water. Using a Langmuir adsorption model, this represented only 25% of the maximally covered surface area.

  13. A photoemission study of benzotriazole on clean copper and cuprous oxide (United States)

    Fang, Bo-Shung; Olson, Clifford G.; Lynch, David W.


    Photoemission spectra of benzotriazole (BTA) chemisorbed on clean Cu and on cuprous oxide were compared with the spectra of condensed- and gas-phase BTA. Chemisorbed BTA bonds to both Cu and Cu 2O via lone-pair orbitais on the nitrogen ring. The lack of a chemical shift for the π- orbitais indicates that BTA does not lie flat on the surface. We propose a model for the geometry and bonding of chemisorbed BTA which accounts for its corrosion inhibition on Cu, and for the corrosion inhibition, or lack of inhibition, by molecules similar to BTA.

  14. Numerical simulation of exciton dynamics in cuprous oxide at ultra low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Sunipa


    This thesis is a theoretical investigation of the relaxation behaviour of excitons in Cuprous Oxide at ultra low temperatures when the excitons are confined within a potential trap and also in a homogeneous system. Under the action of deformation potential phonon scattering only, Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) occurs for all temperatures in the investigated range. In the case of Auger decay, we do not find at any temperature a BEC due to the heating of the exciton gas. In the case of elastic and phonon-scattering together BEC occurs in this case of 0.1 K.

  15. Cuprous Oxide Scale up: Gram Production via Bulk Synthesis using Classic Solvents at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Han, T. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Cuprous oxide is a p-type semiconducting material that has been highly researched for its interesting properties. Many small-scale syntheses have exhibited excellent control over size and morphology. As the demand for cuprous oxide grows, the synthesis method need to evolve to facilitate large-scale production. This paper supplies a facile bulk synthesis method for Cu₂O on average, 1-liter reaction volume can produce 1 gram of particles. In order to study the shape and size control mechanisms on such a scale, the reaction volume was diminished to 250 mL producing on average 0.3 grams of nanoparticles per batch. Well-shaped nanoparticles have been synthesized using an aqueous solution of CuCl₂, NaOH, SDS surfactant, and NH₂OH-HCl at mild temperatures. The time allotted between the addition of NaOH and NH₂OH-HCl was determined to be critical for Cu(OH)2 production, an important precursor to the final produce The effects of stirring rates on a large scale was also analyzed during reagent addition and post reagent addition. A morphological change from rhombic dodecahedra to spheres occurred as the stirring speed was increased. The effects of NH₂OH-HCl concentration were also studied to control the etching effects of the final product.

  16. A Facile One Step Solution Route to Synthesize Cuprous Oxide Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy U. Sandhya


    Full Text Available A cuprous oxide nanofluid stabilized by sodium lauryl sulfate, synthesized by using the one step method, has been reported. Nanofluids were synthesized by using a well‐ controlled surfactant‐assisted solution phase synthesis. The method involved reduction of copper acetate by glucose in a mixture of water and ethylene glycol serving as the base fluid. The synthesized fluid was characterized by X‐ray and electron diffraction techniques, in addition, transmission and field emission microscopic techniques and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic analysis was undertaken. The rheological property, as well as the thermal conductivity of the fluid, were measured. The variation of reaction parameters considerably affected the size of the particles as well as the reaction rate. The uniform dispersion of the particles in the base fluid led to a stability period of three months under stationary state, augmenting the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. The method is found to be simple, reliable and fast for the synthesis of Newtonian nanofluids containing cuprous oxide nanoparticles.

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase test (United States)

    ... this page: // Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  18. Intrinsic Defect Engineering of Cuprous Oxide to Enhance Electrical Transport Properties for Photovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Michael A.; Siah, Sin-Cheng; Brandt, Riley E.; Serdy, James; Johnston, Steve W.; Lee, Yun Seog; Buonassisi, Tonio


    Intrinsic point-defect species in cuprous oxide films are manipulated based on their thermodynamic properties via the implementation of a controlled annealing process. A wide range of electrical properties is demonstrated, with a window suitable for high-quality solar cell devices. A variation of carrier concentration over two orders of magnitude is demonstrated. Minority carrier lifetime is investigated by means of microwave photoconductance decay measurements, demonstrating a strong correlation with carrier concentration. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence yields are analyzed to provide insight into lifetime limiting mechanisms as a function of Cu2O processing parameters. Hall measurements of carrier mobility and concentration are taken at room temperature to provide insight into the effect of these processing conditions on net ionized defect concentration.

  19. Investigations of the interaction between cuprous oxide nanoparticles and Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN ChengLing; LI YuanFang; QI WenJing; HUANG ChengZhi


    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles of 30-50 nm in size were prepared in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).By taking Staphylococcus aureus (S.a),which always causes a variety of suppurative infections and toxinoses in humans,as a model bioparticle,the negative bioeffect of nano-Cu2O on S.a cells was evaluated,and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by imitating the MIC of antibiotics.Cellularity and bactericidal effect were measured by flow cytometry (FCM),dark field light scattering imaging and SEM photography.The results showed that nano-Cu2O particles may,by absorbing on the cell surface,impair the cell wall,damage the cell membrane,and finally increase permeability of the cell membrane,thus leading to a decrease in the viability of bacteria in the nano-Cu2O solution.

  20. Theory and experiment on the cuprous-cupric electron transfer rate at a copper electrode.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, J. W.; Smith, B. B.; Walbran, S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Rigney, R. O.; Sutjianto, A.; Hung, N. C.; Yonco, R. M.; Nagy, Z.; Univ. of Minnesota; NREL


    We describe results of experiment and theory of the cuprous-cupric electron transfer rate in an aqueous solution at a copper electrode. The methods are similar to those we reported earlier for the ferrous-ferric rate. The comparison strongly suggests that, in marked distinction to the ferrous-ferric case, the electron transfer reaction is adiabatic. The model shows that the activation barrier is dominated by the energy required for the ion to approach the electrode, rather than by the energy required for rearrangement of the solvation shell, also in sharp distinction to the case of the ferric-ferrous electron transfer at a gold electrode. Calculated activation barriers based on this image agree with the experimental results reported here.

  1. Theory and experiment on the cuprous{endash}cupric electron transfer rate at a copper electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, J.W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Smith, B.B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States); Walbran, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Curtiss, L.A.; Rigney, R.O.; Sutjianto, A.; Hung, N.C.; Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z. [Argonne National Laboratory, Divisions of Materials Science, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4837 (United States)


    We describe results of experiment and theory of the cuprous{endash}cupric electron transfer rate in an aqueous solution at a copper electrode. The methods are similar to those we reported earlier for the ferrous{endash}ferric rate. The comparison strongly suggests that, in marked distinction to the ferrous{endash}ferric case, the electron transfer reaction is adiabatic. The model shows that the activation barrier is dominated by the energy required for the ion to approach the electrode, rather than by the energy required for rearrangement of the solvation shell, also in sharp distinction to the case of the ferric{endash}ferrous electron transfer at a gold electrode. Calculated activation barriers based on this image agree with the experimental results reported here. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Investigations of the interaction between cuprous oxide nanoparticles and Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles of 30-50 nm in size were prepared in the presence of cetyltrimethylam-monium bromide (CTAB). By taking Staphylococcus aureus (S.a), which always causes a variety of suppurative infections and toxinoses in humans, as a model bioparticle, the negative bioeffect of nano-Cu2O on S.a cells was evaluated, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by imitating the MIC of antibiotics. Cellularity and bactericidal effect were measured by flow cytometry (FCM), dark field light scattering imaging and SEM photography. The results showed that nano-Cu2O particles may, by absorbing on the cell surface, impair the cell wall, damage the cell membrane, and finally increase permeability of the cell membrane, thus leading to a decrease in the viability of bacteria in the nano-Cu2O solution.

  3. Epitaxially aligned cuprous oxide nanowires for all-oxide, single-wire solar cells. (United States)

    Brittman, Sarah; Yoo, Youngdong; Dasgupta, Neil P; Kim, Si-in; Kim, Bongsoo; Yang, Peidong


    As a p-type semiconducting oxide that can absorb visible light, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an attractive material for solar energy conversion. This work introduces a high-temperature, vapor-phase synthesis that produces faceted Cu2O nanowires that grow epitaxially along the surface of a lattice-matched, single-crystal MgO substrate. Individual wires were then fabricated into single-wire, all-oxide diodes and solar cells using low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 and ZnO films to form the heterojunction. The performance of devices made from pristine Cu2O wires and chlorine-exposed Cu2O wires was investigated under one-sun and laser illumination. These faceted wires allow the fabrication of well-controlled heterojunctions that can be used to investigate the interfacial properties of all-oxide solar cells.

  4. Cuprous Sulfide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials: Solvothermal Synthesis and Enhanced Electrochemical Performance (United States)

    He, Zhanjun; Zhu, Yabo; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Zhengyuan


    The cuprous sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites have been successfully prepared via a facile and efficient solvothermal synthesis method. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that CuS micronspheres composed of nanosheets and distributed on the rGO layer in well-monodispersed form. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that graphene oxide (GO) had been reduced to rGO. The electrochemical performances of CuS/rGO nanocomposites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge techniques, which showed that the specific capacitance of CuS/rGO nanocomposites was enhanced because of the introduction of rGO.

  5. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    , it cannot store hydrogen reversibly. Recently, the first ammonium metal borohydride, NH4Ca(BH4)3 was published, which may be considered as substitution of K+ by NH4+ in KCa(BH4)3, due to the similar sizes of NH4+ and K+[1]. This compound successfully stabilizes NH4BH4. In the present work, a series of novel......, and the crystal structures and thermal decompositions are investigated. Mixtures of NH4BH4 - NaBH4 do not react, while solid solutions, K1-x(NH4)xBH4, are formed for NH4BH4 - KBH4. For the other composites, novel ammonium metal borohydrides are formed. Several of these structures have been solved from high...

  6. Contraception during lactation. (United States)

    Badraoui, M H; Hefnawi, F; Bahgat, R; Fawzi, G; El Gaali, O; Ismail, H; Hegab, M


    Seven hundred and seventy-two lactating mothers were studied from delivery for 1 year to select the best contraceptive method (oral drug, injected drug, or IUD) which did not affect lactation. Ten groups of mothers were studied, including 234 control subjects. The injectable progestational contraceptives caused an improvement in the amount of milk and its protein concentration, whereas the IUCDs did not influence the lactation pattern. Sulpiride was an ineffective contraceptive but a potent lactation stimulant. The side effects of each method (effects on milk yield, protein content and prolactin concentrations) were also noted; it was concluded that IUCDs are the ideal contraceptive method during lactation, with the use of a lactation stimulant when indicated.

  7. l-Lactate metabolism in HEP G2 cell mitochondria due to the l-lactate dehydrogenase determines the occurrence of the lactate/pyruvate shuttle and the appearance of oxaloacetate, malate and citrate outside mitochondria. (United States)

    Pizzuto, Roberto; Paventi, Gianluca; Porcile, Carola; Sarnataro, Daniela; Daniele, Aurora; Passarella, Salvatore


    As part of an ongoing study of l-lactate metabolism both in normal and in cancer cells, we investigated whether and how l-lactate metabolism occurs in mitochondria of human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) cells. We found that Hep G2 cell mitochondria (Hep G2-M) possess an l-lactate dehydrogenase (ml-LDH) restricted to the inner mitochondrial compartments as shown by immunological analysis, confocal microscopy and by assaying ml-LDH activity in solubilized mitochondria. Cytosolic and mitochondrial l-LDHs were found to differ from one another in their saturation kinetics. Having shown that l-lactate itself can enter Hep G2 cells, we found that Hep G2-M swell in ammonium l-lactate, but not in ammonium pyruvate solutions, in a manner inhibited by mersalyl, this showing the occurrence of a carrier-mediated l-lactate transport in these mitochondria. Occurrence of the l-lactate/pyruvate shuttle and the appearance outside mitochondria of oxaloacetate, malate and citrate arising from l-lactate uptake and metabolism together with the low oxygen consumption and membrane potential generation are in favor of an anaplerotic role for l-LAC in Hep G2-M.

  8. Enormous excitonic effects in bulk, mono- and bi- layers of cuprous halides using many-body perturbation technique (United States)

    Azhikodan, Dilna; Nautiyal, Tashi


    Cuprous halides (CuX with X = Cl, Br, I), intensely studied about four decades ago by experimentalists for excitons, are again drawing attention of researchers recently. Potential of cuprous halide systems for device applications has not yet been fully explored. We go beyond the one-particle picture to capture the two-particle physics (electron-hole interaction to form excitons). We have deployed the full tool kit of many-body perturbation technique, GW approximation + Bethe Salpeter equation, to unfurl the rich excitonic physics of the bulk as well as layers of CuX. The negative spin-orbit contribution at the valence band top in CuCl, compared to CuBr and CuI, is in good agreement with experiments. We note that CuX have exceptionally strong excitons, defying the linear fit (between the excitonic binding energy and band gap) encompassing many semiconductors. The mono- and bi- layers of cuprous halides are predicted to be rich in excitons, with exceptionally large binding energies and the resonance energies in UV/visible region. Hence this work projects CuX layers as good candidates for optoelectronic applications. With advancement of technology, we look forward to experimental realization of CuX layers and harnessing of their rich excitonic potential.

  9. Adjusting ammonium uptake via phosphorylation. (United States)

    Lanquar, Viviane; Frommer, Wolf B


    In plants, AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily mediates high affinity ammonium uptake. AMT/MEP transporters form a trimeric complex, which requires a productive interaction between subunits in order to be functional. The AMT/MEP C-terminal domain is highly conserved in more than 700 AMT homologs from cyanobacteria to higher plants with no cases found to be lacking this domain. AMT1;1 exists in active and inactive states, probably controlled by the spatial positioning of the C-terminus. Ammonium triggers the phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue (T460) in the C-terminus of AMT1;1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The T460 phosphorylation level correlates with a decrease of root ammonium uptake. We propose that ammonium-induced phosphorylation modulates ammonium uptake as a general mechanism to protect against ammonium toxicity.

  10. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.


    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  11. Ammonium assimilation in cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Reyes, Jose C; Florencio, Francisco J


    In cyanobacteria, after transport by specific permeases, ammonium is incorporated into carbon skeletons by the sequential action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). Two types of GS (GSI and GSIII) and two types of GOGAT (ferredoxin-GOGAT and NADH-GOGAT) have been characterized in cyanobacteria. The carbon skeleton substrate of the GS-GOGAT pathway is 2-oxoglutarate that is synthesized by the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). In order to maintain the C-N balance and the amino acid pools homeostasis, ammonium assimilation is tightly regulated. The key regulatory point is the GS, which is controlled at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The transcription factor NtcA plays a critical role regulating the expression of the GS and the IDH encoding genes. In the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, NtcA controls also the expression of two small proteins (IF7 and IF17) that inhibit the activity of GS by direct protein-protein interaction. Cyanobacteria perceive nitrogen status by sensing the intracellular concentration of 2-oxoglutarate, a signaling metabolite that is able to modulate allosterically the function of NtcA, in vitro. In vivo, a functional dependence between NtcA and the signal transduction protein PII in controlling NtcA-dependent genes has been also shown.

  12. Improvement in structural and electrical properties of cuprous oxide-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivani Dhall; Neena Jaggi


    In the present work, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are coated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using Fehling’s reaction. The coating of Cu2O nanoparticles on the nanotubes was confirmed by SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The calculated D/G ratio of Cu2O (using 3% CuSO4 by wt)-coated MWCNTs by Raman spectra is found to decrease to 0.94 as compared to 1.14 for pristine MWCNTs. It shows that the presence of Cu2O nanoparticles on nanotubes decreases the inherent defects present in the form of some pentagons/heptagons in the honeycomb hexagonal carbon atoms in the structure of graphene sheets of MWCNTs and increases the crystalline nature of MWCNTs, which is also confirmed by the XRD peaks. Whereas the value of D/G ratio increases to 1.39 for sample 2 (using 5% CuSO4 by wt), which represents the structural deformation. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of MWCNTs was increased by 3 times after coating the nanotubes with Cu2O (using 3% CuSO4 by wt).

  13. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanocrystalline Cuprous Oxide Thin Film Deposited By Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Bansilal Ahirrao


    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O is an interesting p-type semiconductor material used in solar cell applications.  The Modified Chemical Bath Deposition (M-CBD method is suitable for growing thin multilayer structure due to low deposition temperature. This method does not require any sophisticated instrument and substrate need not to be conductive. The nanocrystalline Cu2O thin films were deposited on glass substrates by M-CBD method. The deposited films were characterized by different characterization techniques to study structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The structural studies show that, the formation of Cu2O thin films with an average crystallite size of 14 nm. Optical studies show a direct band gap 2.48 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity is of the order of 1.3 kW-cm and activation energy 0.33 eV. The films exhibit p-type electrical conductivity as seen by thermo-emf measurements.

  14. Cuprous oxide photovoltaic cells. Final report, September 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivich, D.


    The research described represents the beginning of a second phase of research on cuprous oxide photovoltaic cells. The first phase was concerned with the development of procedures of making Schottky barriers on isolated films of Cu/sub 2/O, including single crystals. It was found that properties of these Schottky barrier cells, in particular the barrier heights, were limited by chemical changes at the junction especially with metals of low work function which tend to be more active chemically, e.g., Al. The motivation of the present phase of the research was to construct junctions that would avoid this chemical degradation while maintaining electrical contact between the Cu/sub 2/O and a low work function material in order to attain larger barrier heights. Essentially the approach involved placing the Cu/sub 2/O in contact with a stable oxide. When this oxide is used as a thin layer between the Cu/sub 2/O and a top metal contact this gives an MIS structure. As another approach the other oxide can be an n-type semiconductor in thicker layers to form a heterojunction. Results are reported. (WHK)

  15. Parameters controlling microstructures and resistance switching of electrodeposited cuprous oxide thin films (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Sanaz


    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were electrodeposited cathodically from a highly alkaline bath using tartrate as complexing agent. Different microstructures for Cu2O thin films were achieved by varying the applied potential from -0.285 to -0.395 V versus a reference electrode of Ag/AgCl at 50 °C in potentiostatic mode, and separately by changing the bath temperature from 25 to 50 °C in galvanostatic mode. Characterization experiments showed that both grain size and orientation of Cu2O can be controlled by changing the applied potential. Applying a high negative potential of -0.395 V resulted in smaller grain size of Cu2O thin films with a preferred orientation in [111] direction. An increase in the bath temperature in galvanostatic electrodeposition increased the grain size of Cu2O thin films. All the films in Au/Cu2O/Au-Pd cell showed unipolar resistance switching behavior after an initial FORMING process. Increasing the grain size of Cu2O thin films and decreasing the top electrode area increased the FORMING voltage and decreased the current level of high resistance state (HRS). The current in low resistance state (LRS) was independent of the top electrode area and the grain size of deposited films, suggesting a filamentary conduction mechanism in unipolar resistance switching of Cu2O.

  16. Cuprous oxide nanoparticle-inhibited melanoma progress by targeting melanoma stem cells. (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Wang, Ye; Yu, Xinlu; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Chen; Chen, Fei; Liu, Changcheng; Wang, Jingqiang; Zhu, Haiying


    Recent studies have shown that metal and metal oxide have a potential function in antitumor therapy. Our previous studies demonstrated that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) not only selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro but also inhibit the growth and metastasis of melanoma by targeting mitochondria with little hepatic and renal toxicities in mice. As a further study, our current research revealed that CONPs induced apoptosis of human melanoma stem cells (CD271(+/high) cells) in A375 and WM266-4 melanoma cell lines and could significantly suppress the expression of MITF, SOX10 and CD271 involved in the stemness maintenance and tumorigenesis of melanoma stem cells. CD271(+/high) cells could accumulate more CONPs than CD271(-/low) through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition, lower dosage of CONPs exhibited good anti-melanoma effect by decreasing the cell viability, stemness and tumorigenesis of A375 and WM266-4 cells through reducing the expression of SOX10, MITF, CD271 and genes in MAPK pathway involved in tumor progression. Finally, CONPs obviously suppressed the growth of human melanoma in tumor-bearing nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID) mice, accompanied with tumors structural necrosis and fibrosis remarkably and decreased expression of CD271, SOX10 and MITF. These results above proved the effectiveness of CONPs in inhibiting melanoma progress through multiple pathways, especially through targeting melanoma stem cells.

  17. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors (United States)

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho


    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  18. Towards printed perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide hole transporting layers: a theoretical design (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liang, Jun; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Yiming; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhou, Hang


    Solution-processed p-type metal oxide materials have shown great promise in improving the stability of perovskite-based solar cells and offering the feasibility for a low cost printing fabrication process. Herein, we performed a device modeling study on planar perovskite solar cells with cuprous oxide (Cu2O) hole transporting layers (HTLs) by using a solar cell simulation program, wxAMPS. The performance of a Cu2O/perovskite solar cell was correlated to the material properties of the Cu2O HTL, such as thickness, carrier mobility, mid-gap defect, and doping concentrations. The effect of interfacial defect densities on the solar cell performance was also investigated. Our simulation indicates that, with an optimized Cu2O HTL, high performance perovskite solar cells with efficiencies above 13% could be achieved, which shows the potential of using Cu2O as an alternative HTL over other inorganic materials, such as NiOx and MoOx. This study provides theoretical guidance for developing perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials via a printing process.

  19. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  20. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse


    Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials tested, viz, calcium stearate, dioctyl phthalate, kaoline, diethylphthalate, dinitrotoluene, shelac varnish, and beeswax. Attempts were made to confirm the waterproofing ability of mineral jelly to ammonium nitrate using differential thermal analysisand x-ray diffraction patterns as an experimental tool. Suitability of mineral jelly as an additive for the gun propellant was also assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations using THERMprogram.

  1. Feeding lactate for CHO cell culture processes: impact on culture metabolism and performance. (United States)

    Li, Jincai; Wong, Chun Loong; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf


    Lactate has long been regarded as one of the key metabolites of mammalian cell cultures. High levels of lactate have clear negative impacts on cell culture processes, and therefore, a great amount of efforts have been made to reduce lactate accumulation and/or to induce lactate consumption in the later stage of cultures. However, there is virtually no report on the impact of lactate depletion after initial accumulation. In this work, we observed that glucose uptake rate dropped over 50% at the onset of lactate consumption, and that catabolism of alanine due to lactate depletion led to ammonium accumulation. We explored the impact of feeding lactate as well as pyruvate to the cultures. In particular, a strategy was employed where CO(2) was replaced by lactic acid for culture pH control, which enabled automatic lactate feeding. The results demonstrated that lactate or pyruvate can serve as an alternative or even preferred carbon source during certain stage of the culture in the presence of glucose, and that by feeding lactate or pyruvate, very low levels of ammonia can be achieved throughout the culture. In addition, low levels of pCO(2) were also maintained in these cultures. This was in strong contrast to the control cultures where lactate was depleted during the culture, and ammonia and pCO(2) build-up were significant. Culture growth and productivity were similar between the control and lactate-fed cultures, as well as various product quality attributes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive study on lactate depletion and offers a simple yet effective strategy to overcome ammonia and pCO(2) accumulation that could arise in certain cultures due to early depletion of lactate.

  2. Ammonium Perchlorate and Ammonium Perchlorate- Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene Simulated Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Francisco Boschi Gonçalves


    Full Text Available The combustion simulation of ammonium perchlorate was carried out with the software Chemkin, in two steps: the burning behavior of pure ammonium perchlorate and the one of formulated ammonium perchlorate with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene binder. In both cases, the room pressure varied in order to verify its influence in the system. The burning environment conditions were diverse. During the combustion process, the data obtained from the kinetic chemistry simulation software were compiled. The flame structure can be described by the molar fraction of the burning products and the temperature evolution from the surface of the material.

  3. Comparison of Poly Aluminum Chloride and Chlorinated Cuprous for Chemical Oxygen Demand and Color Removal from Kashan Textile Industries Company Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseindoost Gh.1 MSPH,


    Full Text Available Aims Textile wastewaters are the most important health and environmental problems in Kashan. This research was aimed to compare the poly aluminum chloride and chlorinated cuprous efficiency for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color from Kashan Textile Industries Company wastewater. Materials & Methods This experimental bench scale study in a batch system was conducted on 20 composed wastewater samples collected from Kashan Textile Industries Company raw wastewater. During 5 months, in the beginning of every week a day was selected randomly and in the day a composed sample was taken and studied. PAC at the doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg.l-1 and chlorinated cuprous at the doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500mg.l-1 were applied. The optimum pH also optimum concentration of PAC and chlorinated cuprous were determined using Jar test. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics and Fisher Exact test. Findings The average concentration of COD in the raw textile wastewater was 2801.56±1398.29mg.l-1. The average COD concentration has been decreased to 1125.47±797.55mg.l-1. There was a significant difference between the effects of these two coagulants efficiency (p<0.05. The average COD removal efficiency for chlorinated cuprous and PAC was 58.52% and 72.56%, respectively. Also, the average color removal efficiency by chlorinated cuprous and PAC were 17.23 and 64.45%, respectively. Conclusion PAC is more efficient than chlorinated cuprous for both COD and color removal from KTIC wastewater.

  4. Carbon-layer-protected cuprous oxide nanowire arrays for efficient water reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai


    In this work, we propose a solution-based carbon precursor coating and subsequent carbonization strategy to form a thin protective carbon layer on unstable semiconductor nanostructures as a solution to the commonly occurring photocorrosion problem of many semiconductors. A proof-of-concept is provided by using glucose as the carbon precursor to form a protective carbon coating onto cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowire arrays which were synthesized from copper mesh. The carbon-layer-protected Cu2O nanowire arrays exhibited remarkably improved photostability as well as considerably enhanced photocurrent density. The Cu2O nanowire arrays coated with a carbon layer of 20 nm thickness were found to give an optimal water splitting performance, producing a photocurrent density of -3.95 mA cm-2 and an optimal photocathode efficiency of 0.56% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2). This is the highest value ever reported for a Cu 2O-based electrode coated with a metal/co-catalyst-free protective layer. The photostability, measured as the percentage of the photocurrent density at the end of 20 min measurement period relative to that at the beginning of the measurement, improved from 12.6% on the bare, nonprotected Cu2O nanowire arrays to 80.7% on the continuous carbon coating protected ones, more than a 6-fold increase. We believe that the facile strategy presented in this work is a general approach that can address the stability issue of many nonstable photoelectrodes and thus has the potential to make a meaningful contribution in the general field of energy conversion. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Cytotoxicity of cuprous oxide nanoparticles to fish blood cells: hemolysis and internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liqiang, E-mail:; Kang Bin [Yunnan University, Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-security (China); Ling Jian [Yunnan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)


    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu{sub 2}O NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties which are employed in a broad variety of applications. However, little is known about the adverse effects of Cu{sub 2}O NPs on organisms. In the current study, in vitro cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs (ca. 60 nm in diameter) to the blood cells of freshwater fish Carassius auratus was evaluated. A concentration-dependent hemolytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs to red blood cells (RBCs) and the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes were revealed. The results showed that dosages of Cu{sub 2}O NPs greater than 40 {mu}g/mL were toxic to blood cells, and could cause serious membrane damage to RBCs. The EC{sub 50} value of Cu{sub 2}O NPs as obtained from RBCs and whole blood exposure was 26 and 63 {mu}g/mL, respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the direct interaction between Cu{sub 2}O NPs and the cell membrane were suggested as the possible mechanism for cytotoxicity, and the intrinsic hemolytic active of Cu{sub 2}O NPs was the main contributor to the toxicity rather than solubilized copper ions. The adsorption of plasma proteins on the surfaces of Cu{sub 2}O NPs led to their aggregation in whole blood, and aggregate formation can significantly alleviate the hemolytic effect and subsequently mediate the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes.

  6. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)


    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  7. Novel doxorubicin loaded PEGylated cuprous telluride nanocrystals for combined photothermal-chemo cancer treatment. (United States)

    Wang, Xianwen; Ma, Yan; Chen, Huajian; Wu, Xiaoyi; Qian, Haisheng; Yang, Xianzhu; Zha, Zhengbao


    Recently, combined photothermal-chemo therapy has attracted great attention due to its enhanced anti-tumor efficiency via synergistic effects. Herein, PEGylated cuprous telluride nanocrystals (PEGylated Cu2Te NCs) were developed as novel drug nanocarriers for combined photothermal-chemo treatment of cancer cells. PEGylated Cu2Te NCs were fabricated through a simple two-step process, comprised of hot injection and thin-film hydration. The as-prepared PEGylated Cu2Te NCs (average diameter of 5.21±1.05nm) showed a noticeable photothermal conversion efficiency of 33.1% and good capacity to load hydrophobic anti-cancer drug. Due to the protonated amine group at low pH, the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded PEGylated Cu2Te NCs (PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs) exhibited an acidic pH promoted drug release profile. Moreover, a three-parameter model, which considers the effects of drug-carrier interactions on the initial burst release and the sustained release of drug from micro- and nano-sized carriers, was used to gain insight into how pH and laser irradiation affect drug release from PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs. Based on the results from in vitro cell study, PEGylated Cu2Te-DOX NCs revealed remarkably photothermal-chemo synergistic effect to HeLa cells, attributed to both the PEGylated Cu2Te NCs mediated photothermal ablation and enhanced cellular uptake of the drug. Thus, our results encourage the usage of Cu2Te-DOX drug nanocarriers for enhanced treatment of cancer cells by combined photothermal-chemo therapy.

  8. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))


    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  9. Headspace Analysis of Ammonium Nitrate (United States)


    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--17-9709 Headspace Analysis of Ammonium Nitrate January 25, 2017 Approved for public...TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Headspace Analysis of Ammonium Nitrate G...isobutane reagent ion from analysis of ammonia desorbed from packed tungsten oxide sampling tube .................. 18 E-1 Executive Summary The

  10. Lactation in Islam. (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I


    Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk.

  11. Hydrometallurgical process for the recycling of copper using anodic oxidation of cuprous ammine complexes and flow-through electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, T.; Yaguchi, M.; Koyama, K.; Tanaka, M. [Metals Recycling Group, Research Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Lee, J.-C. [Minerals and Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 30 Gajeong-dong, Yuseong-ku, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea)


    Flow-through electrolysis for copper electrowinning from cuprous ammine complex was studied in order to develop a hydrometallurgical copper recycling process using an ammoniacal chloride solution, focusing on the anodic oxidation of cuprous to cupric ammine complexes. The current efficiency of this anodic oxidation was 96% at a current density of 200 A m{sup -2} under a batch condition. In a flow-through electrolysis using a sub-liter cell and a carbon felt anode, the anodic current efficiency increased with the flow rate and was typically higher than 97%. This tendency was explained by the backward flow of the cupric ammine complex, which was formed on the anode, through the diaphragm. The anodic overpotential was lower than 0.3 V even at an apparent current density of 1500 A m{sup -2}. A similar current efficiency and overpotential were also achieved in a liter scale cell, which indicates the scale flexibility of this electrolysis. The power consumption requirements for copper electrowinning in this cell were 460 and 770 kWh t{sup -1} at the current densities of 250 and 500 A m{sup -2}, respectively, which were much lower than that of the conventional copper electrowinning despite the longer interpolar distance. (author)

  12. Plasmon-induced selective carbon dioxide conversion on earth-abundant aluminum-cuprous oxide antenna-reactor nanoparticles. (United States)

    Robatjazi, Hossein; Zhao, Hangqi; Swearer, Dayne F; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Zhou, Linan; Alabastri, Alessandro; McClain, Michael J; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J


    The rational combination of plasmonic nanoantennas with active transition metal-based catalysts, known as 'antenna-reactor' nanostructures, holds promise to expand the scope of chemical reactions possible with plasmonic photocatalysis. Here, we report earth-abundant embedded aluminum in cuprous oxide antenna-reactor heterostructures that operate more effectively and selectively for the reverse water-gas shift reaction under milder illumination than in conventional thermal conditions. Through rigorous comparison of the spatial temperature profile, optical absorption, and integrated electric field enhancement of the catalyst, we have been able to distinguish between competing photothermal and hot-carrier driven mechanistic pathways. The antenna-reactor geometry efficiently harnesses the plasmon resonance of aluminum to supply energetic hot-carriers and increases optical absorption in cuprous oxide for selective carbon dioxide conversion to carbon monoxide with visible light. The transition from noble metals to aluminum based antenna-reactor heterostructures in plasmonic photocatalysis provides a sustainable route to high-value chemicals and reaffirms the practical potential of plasmon-mediated chemical transformations.Plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis holds promise for the control of chemical reactions. Here the authors report an Al@Cu2O heterostructure based on earth abundant materials to transform CO2 into CO at significantly milder conditions.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1133 Ammonium alginate. (a) Ammonium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Ammonium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  15. Indirect determination of cefradine with n-propyl alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water system by extraction-flotation of cuprous thiocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li Wu; Wei Zhao; Quan Min Li


    A new method was developed for the determination of cefradine by extraction-flotation of CuSCN. The experiment indicatedthat in the presence of 0.20 mol/L NaOH the degradation of cefradine took place in water bath at 100℃. The thiol group (-SH) ofthe degradation product could reduce Cu(Ⅱ) to Cu(Ⅰ) for the formation of the emulsion CuSCN in the presence of NH<,4SCN at pH4.0. By determining the residual amount of Cu(Ⅱ) in the solution and calculating the flotation yield of Cu(Ⅱ), the indirectdetermination of cefradine can be obtained. This method has been applied to determine cefradine in capsules, human serum andurine samples, respectively.2008 Quan Min Li. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced graphene oxide–cuprous oxide composite via facial deposition for photocatalytic dye-degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, MingYan, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Huang, JunRao; Tong, ZhiWei [Department of Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Li, WeiHua [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Chen, Jun, E-mail: [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)


    Highlights: •Cubic Cu{sub 2}O were effectively loaded on n-propylamine (PA) intercalated graphene oxide. •The addition of PA on the carbon sheets supports the stable structure of the composites. •Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO showed superior adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Cubic Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized on n-propylamine (PA) intercalated graphene oxide (GO) with uniform distribution followed with a subsequent hydrazine hydrate reduction process to generate Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO composite. For comparison, Cu{sub 2}O conjugated reduced graphene oxide (Cu{sub 2}O/rGO) composite was also synthesized using the same method. The as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO and Cu{sub 2}O/rGO nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements. UV/vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed to estimate band gap energies of cuprous oxide composites. The results show that the intercalation of PA into the layered GO increases the surface area of the composites and provides an efficient strategy to load Cu{sub 2}O due to the large and uniform distribution of active sites for anchoring copper ions. The surface area of the Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO (123 m{sup 2}/g) nanocomposite was found to be almost 2.5 times higher than that of Cu{sub 2}O/rGO (55.7 m{sup 2}/g). The as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O/PA/rGO show significant improvement on both adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity towards organic pigment pollution compared with Cu{sub 2}O/rGO under identical performance conditions.

  17. Lactate metabolism in acute uremia. (United States)

    Leverve, Xavier; Mustafa, Iqbal; Novak, Ivan; Krouzecky, Ales; Rokyta, Richard; Matejovic, Martin; Ichai, Carole


    Lactate is a key metabolite that is produced by every cell and oxidized by most of them, provided that they do contain mitochondria. Its metabolism is connected to energetic homeostasis and the cellular redox state. It is well recognized as an indicator of severe outcome in severely ill patients, however, it is not a detrimental factor per se. Conversely, some recent data tend even to indicate a beneficial effect in several metabolic disorders. Although the liver has long been recognized as a key organ in lactate homeostasis, the kidney also plays a major role as a gluconeogenic organ significantly involved in the glucose-lactate cycle. In acute renal failure, sodium lactate is widely used as a buffer in replacement fluids because the anion (lactate - ) is metabolized and the cation (Na + ) remains, leading to decreased water dissociation and proton concentration. The metabolic disorders related to acute renal failure or associated with it, such as liver failure, may affect lactate metabolism, and therefore they are often regarded as limiting factors for the use of lactate-containing fluids in such patients. By investigating endogenous lactate production in severe septic patients with acute renal failure, we found that an acute exogenous load of lactate did not affect the basal endogenous lactate production and metabolism. This indicates that exogenous lactate is well metabolized even in patients suffering from acute renal failure and severe sepsis with a compromised hemodynamic status.

  18. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles inhibit prostate cancer by attenuating the stemness of cancer cells via inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Yang, Qi-Wei; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Tie; Shi, Min-Feng; Sun, Chen-Xia; Gao, Xiu-Xia; Cheng, Yan-Qiong; Cui, Xin-Gang; Sun, Ying-Hao


    Disordered copper metabolism plays a critical role in the development of various cancers. As a nanomedicine containing copper, cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) exert ideal antitumor pharmacological effects in vitro and in vivo. Prostate cancer is a frequently diagnosed male malignancy prone to relapse, and castration resistance is the main reason for endocrine therapy failure. However, whether CONPs have the potential to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer is still unknown. Here, using the castration-resistant PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line as a model, we report that CONPs can selectively induce apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without affecting normal prostate epithelial cells. CONPs can also attenuate the stemness of cancer cells and inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway, both of which highlight the great potential of CONPs as a new clinical castration-resistant prostate cancer therapy.

  19. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes. (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan


    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  20. One-pot synthesis of cuprous oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic and electrocatalytic performance (United States)

    Han, Fugui; Li, Heping; Yang, Jun; Cai, Xiaodong; Fu, Li


    We report on the facile one-step synthesis of porous cuprous oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (Cu2O-RGO) by synchronously reducing Cu2+ ions and GO with ethylene glycol. The basic chemical components, crystal structure and surface morphology of prepared nanocomposite was carefully characterized. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared nanocomposite was investigated by photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light. The electrocatalytic property of the nanocomposite was investigated by electrocatalytic determination of acetaminophen. The results indicate that the corporation of RGO with Cu2O nanoparticles could high enhance the both photocatalytic and electrocatalytic properties. Moreover, we found that the content of RGO introduced into nanocomposite could highly affect the product properties.

  1. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program (United States)


    ... to best notify agents (AN Agents) when ammonium nitrate purchasers (AN Purchasers) submit those AN... directly to ammonium nitrate sellers (AN Sellers) when it is not possible for an AN Seller to verify the...

  2. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  4. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia... investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from...

  6. Lactate in bitches with pyometra. (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D


    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra


    Volpato, R.; L. Rodello; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP


    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  8. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate (United States)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.


    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  9. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous lactate...

  10. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  11. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van


    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or derm

  12. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold


    of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  13. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne


    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated ...

  14. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.


    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  15. Treating ammonium-rich wastewater with sludge from water treatment plant to produce ammonium alum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Po Cheng


    Full Text Available This study applies a process to treat ammonium-rich wastewater using alum-generated sludge form water purification plant, and gain economic benefit by producing ammonium alum (Al(NH4(SO42·12H2O. The factors affecting production of ammonium alum include molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, mixing speed, mixing time, standing time, and temperature. According to the equation for the ammonium removal reaction, the theoretical quantity of ammonium alum was calculated based on initial and final concentrations of ammonium. Then, the weight of ammonium alum crystal was divided by the theoretical weight to derive the recovery ratio. The optimum sludge and sulfuric acid dosage to treat about 17 g L−1 ammonium wastewater are 300 g L−1 and 100 mL L−1, respectively. The optimal dosage for wastewater is molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum of about 1 due to the aluminum dissolving in acidified wastewater. The ammonium removal efficiency is roughly 70% and the maximum recovery ratio for ammonium alum is 93% when the wastewater is mixed for 10 min at the mixing velocity gradient of 100 s−1. Ammonium alum production or ammonium removal can be enhanced by controlling the reaction at low temperatures.

  16. [Effective method of isolating M4-lactate dehydrogenase from rat liver]. (United States)

    Gorbach, Z V; Maglysh, S S; Konovalenko, O V


    Lactate dehydrogenase M4-isoform in the homogeneous state was isolated from the rat liver by successive application of sulphate-ammonium fractionation, phosphocellulose ion-exchange chromatography with high-affinity elution of 1 mM NADH and subsequent hydroxyl apatite fractionation. The method permits obtaining the preparation amounts of the enzymic protein with yield 37.5%, specific activity 386.8 units per 1 mg of protein. It is established that 1 mM NAD+, 10 mM pyruvate and 100 mM lactate are also effective as agents of the selective enzyme elution.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions lactate dehydrogenase deficiency lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the ...

  18. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold


    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6H10FeO6... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid...

  20. Nonlinear optical properties of bulk cuprous oxide using single beam Z-scan at 790 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna, J.; Rueda, E. [Grupo de Óptica y Fotónica, Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia U de A, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); García, H., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois 60026 (United States)


    The two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β and the nonlinear index of refraction n{sub 2} for bulk cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) direct gap semiconductor single crystal have been measured by using a balance-detection Z-scan single beam technique, with an excellent signal to noise ratio. Both coefficients were measured at 790 nm using a 65 fs laser pulse at a repetition rate of 90.9 MHz, generated by a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator. The experimental values for β were explained by using a model that includes allowed-allowed, forbidden-allowed, and forbidden-forbidden transitions. It was found that the forbidden-forbidden transition is the dominant mechanism, which is consistent with the band structure of Cu{sub 2}O. The low value for β found in bulk, as compared with respect to thin film, is explained in terms of the structural change in thin films that result in opposite parities of the conduction and valence band. The n{sub 2} is also theoretically calculated by using the TPA dispersion curve and the Kramers-Kronig relations for nonlinear optics.

  1. Novel Facile Technique for Synthesis of Stable Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O Nanoparticles – an Ageing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S. Sawant


    Full Text Available A novel facile method to synthesize stable phase of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O nanoparticles at room temperature is demonstrated. The structural and optical properties of (Cu2O nanoparticles were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-VIS Spectroscopy. XRD analysis has indexed nanocrystalline nature of cubical phase Cu2O with an average edge length of about 20 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM measurements also ascertain the cubical morphology. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR affirms the presence of characteristic functional group of Cu2O. The absorbance peak at 485 nm in UV-VIS spectra also confirms the Cu2O synthesis. Furthermore, UV-VIS absorbance spectra at different ageing time substantiate the phase stability of Cu2O nanoparticles. The ageing leads to blue shift of absorbance peak mainly due to decrease in Cu2O particle size with no additional absorbance peak in UV-VIS spectra indicating the formation of secondary phase. The reduction in particle size may be attributed to tiny conversion Cu2O to CuO. The energy band gap measurements from Tauc plots for Cu2O nanoparticles shows the increasing trend (2.5 eV to 2.8 eV with ageing time (2 months, owing to quantum confinement effects.

  2. Effect of cuprous halide interlayers on the device performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60} organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinho; Park, Dasom; Heo, Ilsu; Yim, Sanggyu, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Effect of CuX interlayers on subsequently deposited films and devices was studied. • CuI is the most effective for the performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based solar cells. • Results were related to the molecular geometry of ZnPc and HOMO level of interlayers. - Abstract: The effect of various cuprous halide (CuX) interlayers introduced between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) layer and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer on the physical properties of the ZnPc thin films and device performances of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based small-molecule organic solar cells was studied. Strong substrate–molecule interaction between the CuX and ZnPc partly converted surface-perpendicular stacking geometry of ZnPc molecules into surface-parallel one. This flat-lying geometry led to an enhancement in electronic absorption and charge transport within the ZnPc films. As a result, the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell with CuI interlayer increased by ∼37%. In the case of the cells with CuBr and CuCl interlayer, however, the enhancement in device performances was limited because of the reduced conversion of the molecular geometry and increased energy barrier for hole extraction due to the low highest occupied molecular orbital level of the interlayer.

  3. Preparation of cuprous oxides with different sizes and their behaviors of adsorption, visible-light driven photocatalysis and photocorrosion (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Peng, Feng; Yu, Hao; Wang, Hongjuan


    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) nanoparticles and microparticles have been prepared by liquid phase chemical synthesis. The samples were characterized by means of SEM, XRD, UV/DRS and XPS. It was presented that as-prepared Cu 2O nanoparticles are substantially stable in ambient atmosphere and the Cu + as main state exists on the surface of Cu 2O nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu 2O microparticles can exist stably as a Cu 2O/CuO core/shell structure; and the Cu 2+ as main state exists on the surface of Cu 2O microparticles. The behaviors of adsorption, photocatalysis and photocorrosion of Cu 2O particles with different sizes were investigated in detail. The results show that Cu 2O nanoparticles are very easy to photocorrosion during the photocatalytic reaction, which cannot be used as photocatalyst directly to degrade organic compound, although as-prepared Cu 2O nanoparticles exhibit special property of adsorption. Cu 2O microparticles have a higher photocatalytic activity than Cu 2O nanoparticles because of its slower photocorrosion rate, although Cu 2O microparticles have much lower adsorption capacity than Cu 2O nanoparticles. The mechanisms of photocatalysis and photocorrosion for Cu 2O under visible light were also discussed.

  4. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  5. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit


    and also in other tissues. Studies using lactate isotopes have shown that skeletal muscle extracts lactate from the circulation despite a substantial net lactate release, and that skeletal muscle has a large capacity for lactate oxidation; these processes being enhanced with exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...... and lactate production associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later, it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only plays an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this in turn has led to a renewed interest in the metabolic fate of lactate in skeletal muscle...

  6. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  7. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  8. Equilibrium studies of sodium-ammonium potassium-ammonium, and calcium-ammonium exchanges on clinoptilolite zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jama, M.A.; Yuecel, H. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey))


    Forward and reverse ion-exchange isotherms for the binary sodium-ammonium, potassium-ammonium, and calcium-ammonium systems on clinoptilolite have been measured in aqueous solutions at a total concentration of 0.1 equiv/dm{sup 3} and at 298 K. Prior to exchange experiments it was attempted to prepare homoionic forms of the zeolite by exhaustive treatments with appropriate salt solutions of cations. With no binary exchanges, full replacement of the cation by the ammonium ion is observed, which conflicts with some earlier work on clinoptilolite. Despite the observed partial exchange levels, clinoptilolite shows a very high preference for ammonium ion over sodium and calcium but not over potassium. Thermodynamic values for the exchanges were calculated and compared with data in the literature. Both the selectivity and thermodynamic affinity sequence, in agreement with previous work reported in the literature, are K{sup +} > NH{sub 4}{sup +} > Na{sup +} > Ca{sup 2+}.

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  10. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit


    they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake...

  11. Lactating Adenoma of the Breast. (United States)

    Barco Nebreda, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Fraile, Manel; Canales, Lydia; González, Clarisa; Giménez, Nuria; García-Fernández, Antonio


    Lactating adenoma is an uncommon breast palpable lesion occurring in pregnancy or lactation. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires core biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. As with other solid lesions in pregnancy and lactation, lactating adenoma needs an accurate evaluation in order to ensure its benign nature. Work-up must include both imaging and histologic findings. Ultrasound evaluation remains the first step in assessing the features of the lesion. Some authors consider magnetic resonance imaging as a useful tool in cases of inconclusive evaluation after ultrasound and histologic exam in an attempt to avoid surgery. Most lactating adenomas resolve spontaneously, whereas others persist or even increase in size and must be removed. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old woman at 6 months postpartum with a lactating adenoma in her right breast. After surgical removal, breastfeeding was perfectly continued within the next 24 hours, which highlights the fact that breast surgery is most often compatible with breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate (United States)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.


    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  13. Effects of ammonium concentration and charge exchange on ammonium recovery from high strength wastewater using a microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Geleij, M.; Bruning, H.; Zeeman, G.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Ammonium recovery using a 2 chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated at high ammonium concentration. Increasing the ammonium concentration (from 0.07 g to 4 g ammonium-nitrogen/L) by addition of ammonium chloride did not affect the performance of the MFC. The obtained current densities by

  14. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (United States)


    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  15. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics


    Doherty, Joanne R.; Cleveland, John L.


    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacen...

  16. Optical Study of Cuprous Oxide and Ferric Oxide Based Materials for Applications in Low Cost Solar Cells (United States)

    Than, Thi Cuc; Bui, Bao Thoa; Wegmuller, Benjamin; Nguyen, Minh Hieu; Hoang Ngoc, Lam Huong; Bui, Van Diep; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Hoang, Chi Hieu; Nguyen-Tran, Thuat


    One of the interesting forms of cuprous oxide and ferric oxide based materials is CuFeO2 which can be a delafossite-type compound and is a well known p-type semiconductor. This compound makes up an interesting family of materials for technological applications. CuFeO2 thin films recently gained renewed interest for potential applications in solar cell devices especially as absorption layers. One of the interesting facts is that CuFeO2 is made from cheap materials such as copper and iron. In this study, CuFeO2 thin films are intentionally deposited on corning glass and silicon substrates by the radio-frequency and direct current sputtering method with complicated and well developed co-sputtering recipes. The deposition was performed at room temperature which leads to an amorphous phase with extremely low roughness and high density. The films also were annealed at 500°C in 5% H2 in Ar for the passivation. A detailed optical study was performed on these thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and by ultra-violet visible near infrared spectroscopy. Depending on sputtering conditions, the direct band gap was extrapolated to be from 1.96 eV to 2.2 eV and 2.92 eV to 2.96 eV and the indirect band gap is about 1.22 eV to 1.42 eV. A good electrical conduction is also observed which is suitable for solar cell applications. In future more study on the structural properties will be carried out in order to fully understand these materials.

  17. A novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide composite hydrogel with unexpected photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Congo red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jie; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Cao, Juan; Shen, Yuhua, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: Excellent photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel for CR degradation under UV–vis light irradiation. - Highlights: • The RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel was first synthesized via a facile method. • Photocatalytic performance was studied under UV–vis light. • The ternary composite hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity. • A possible photocatalysis mechanism was illustrated. - Abstract: In this work, a novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide (RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O) composite hydrogel with a 3D porous network has been successfully prepared via a one-pot method in the presence of cubic Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles. The as-synthesized ternary composites hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity such that Congo red (CR) degradation efficiency can reaches 97.91% in 20 min under UV–vis light irradiation, which is much higher than that of either the single component (Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles), or two component systems (RGO/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel and PANI/Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites). Furthermore, the ternary composite hydrogel exhibits high stability and do not show any significant loss after five recycles. Such outstanding photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel was ascribed to the high absorption ability of the product for CR and the synergic effect among RGO, PANI and Cu{sub 2}O in photocatalytic process. The product of this work would provide a new sight for the construction of UV–vis light responsive photocatalyst with high performance.

  18. The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate precipitated by ammonium chloride (United States)

    Du, Guangchao; Sun, Zhaohui; Xian, Yong; Jing, Han; Chen, Haijun; Yin, Danfeng


    The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was investigated under conditions of the simulated process for precipitation of NH4VO3 from the vanadium-containing solution. Induction periods for the nucleation of NH4VO3 were experimentally determined as a function of supersaturation at temperatures from 30 to 45 °C. Using the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension between NH4VO3 and supersaturated solution, the nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus for the homogeneous nucleation of NH4VO3 were estimated. With temperature increasing, the calculated interfacial tension gradually decreased from 29.78 mJ/m2 at 30 °C to 23.66 mJ/m2 at 45 °C. The nucleation rate was found to proportionally increase but the critical radius of nucleus exponentially decreased, with increase in supersaturation ratio at a constant temperature. The activation energy for NH4VO3 nucleation was obtained from the relationship between temperature and induction period, ranging from 79.17 kJ/mol at S=25 to 115.50 kJ/mol at S=15. FT-IR and Raman spectrum indicated that the crystals obtained in the precipitation process were NH4VO3.

  19. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco


    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  20. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil


    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  1. Substrate specificity of Rhbg: ammonium and methyl ammonium transport. (United States)

    Nakhoul, Nazih L; Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange M; Boulpaep, Emile L; Rabon, Edd; Schmidt, Eric; Hamm, L Lee


    Rhbg is a nonerythroid membrane glycoprotein belonging to the Rh antigen family. In the kidney, Rhbg is expressed at the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells of the distal nephron and is involved in NH4+ transport. We investigated the substrate specificity of Rhbg by comparing transport of NH3/NH4+ with that of methyl amine (hydrochloride) (MA/MA+), often used to replace NH3/NH4+, in oocytes expressing Rhbg. Methyl amine (HCl) in solution exists as neutral methyl amine (MA) in equilibrium with the protonated methyl ammonium (MA+). To assess transport, we used ion-selective microelectrodes and voltage-clamp experiments to measure NH3/NH4+- and MA/MA+-induced intracellular pH (pH(i)) changes and whole cell currents. Our data showed that in Rhbg oocytes, NH3/NH4+ caused an inward current and decrease in pH(i) consistent with electrogenic NH4+ transport. These changes were significantly larger than in H2O-injected oocytes. The NH3/NH4+-induced current was not inhibited in the presence of barium or in the absence of Na+. In Rhbg oocytes, MA/MA+ caused an inward current but an increase (rather than a decrease) in pH(i). MA/MA+ did not cause any changes in H2O-injected oocytes. The MA/MA+-induced current and pH(i) increase were saturated at higher concentrations of MA/MA+. Amiloride inhibited MA/MA+-induced current and the increase in pH(i) in oocytes expressing Rhbg but had no effect on control oocytes. These results indicate that MA/MA+ is transported by Rhbg but differently than NH3/NH4+. The protonated MA+ is likely a direct substrate whose transport resembles that of NH4+. Transport of electroneutral MA is also enhanced by expression of Rhbg.

  2. Modification of zeolities with ammonium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, E.J.


    A method for enhancing the shape selectivity and adjusting catalytic activity of a crystalline zeolite, including a highly siliceous zeolite, is disclosed. Such a method involves contacting the zeolite with an ammonium fluoride solution in the absence of an aluminum source, optionally contacting the treated zeolite with a warm aqueous solution of an ammonium salt, and then calcining the fluoride and ammonium treated zeolite to produce a more shape selective zeolite material. Such treated zeolite are useful in catalysts which promote shape selective conversion of organic compounds including, for example, hydrocarbon cracking reactions.

  3. Preparation of Cystein from Cysteine Cuprous Mercaptide%由半胱氨酸亚铜制取半胱氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勋; 胡敏; 姚小平


    In this paper ,a new preparation method of cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate from cysteine cu‐prous mcercaptide ,which is prepared by the reduction and precipitation of cystine with cuprous oxide has been introduced ,including re‐precipitation of cysteine cuprous mercaptide ,removal of copper using H2 S , decoloration ,crystallization and recrystalization .The yield of the product is up to 12 .4% ,with the quality according with the Japanese AJI standards .%研究了一种用氧化亚铜将胱氨酸还原沉淀为半胱氨酸亚铜,再由此制备半胱氨酸盐酸盐一水物的新方法.该方法包含半胱氨酸亚铜再沉淀,H2 S法脱铜,脱色,产品结晶,重结晶等步骤,半胱氨酸盐酸盐一水物收率达12.4%,产品质量符合日本味之素标准.

  4. Proteome analysis of Aspergillus niger: Lactate added in starch-containing medium can increase production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B2 by modifying acetyl-CoA metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Lametsch, Rene; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam


    and other processes that affect the intracellular level of acetyl-CoA or NADPH. This included enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, pyruvate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ammonium assimilation, fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidative stress protection. Conclusions Lactate added in a medium....... Production of a few other A. niger secondary metabolites was affected similarly by lactate and starch (fumonisin B4, orlandin, desmethylkotanin and pyranonigrin A), while production of others was not (ochratoxin A, ochratoxin alpha, malformin A, malformin C, kotanin, aurasperone B and tensidol B......). The proteome of A. niger was clearly different during growth on media containing 3% starch, 3% starch + 3% lactate or 3% lactate. The identity of 59 spots was obtained, mainly those showing higher or lower expression levels on medium with starch and lactate. Many of them were enzymes in primary metabolism...

  5. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program (United States)


    ..., Kenya. See Corky Siemaszko, Wtc Chemicals In Kenya Blast (Aug. 14, 1998), (last visited May 11, 2011). Ammonium...

  6. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program (United States)


    ...- accessible Internet access could obtain the access necessary to register online. 3. How to best notify... ammonium nitrate sellers (AN Sellers) when it is not possible for an AN Seller to verify the identity of...

  7. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of ... of water and applied at different time intervals; application on a day prior to .... and residual soil composition after plant exposure for 3 months. Treatment. C.

  8. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics. (United States)

    Doherty, Joanne R; Cleveland, John L


    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.

  9. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard


    Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According to...... of the favorable effects on the brain resulting from physical exercise......., such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...

  10. [Drugs and lactation. Part 2]. (United States)

    Alerany Pardo, C; Bassons Boncompte, M T; Font Pous, M


    This document lists categories of drugs and provides brief descriptions of the effects on lactation and nursing infants of specific drugs within categories. Because any drug may pass to some extent to the mother's milk, the effect on the infant must always be considered before a drug is given to the mother. This review provides information on the excretion of drugs through breast milk and identifies drugs that are contraindicated for nursing mothers. The medications considered include drugs for gastrointestinal pathology, drugs for the central nervous system, hormones and hormone substitution drugs, radioisotopes, vitamins and minerals, foods and additives, social toxics such as nicotine and caffeine, and environmental agents. Among hormones and hormone substitution drugs, combinations of estrogens, estrogens and progestins, or estrogens and androgens at high doses may suppress lactation. Low doses of oral contraceptives (OCs) have slight effects on the volume of milk but may suppress lactation in women in whom lactation is not established. OCs also alter the composition of milk, although the changes are within normal limits and their clinical significance is not clear. Cases have been described in which OCs have caused breast development in boys and proliferation of vaginal epithelium in girls, although the causal relationship has not been proven. Androgens are contraindicated because they may cause masculinization of girls or precocious development in boys. Doses of over 50 mcg/day of ethinyl estradiol diminish milk production and may produce feminization of boys. Mestranol at doses of under 100 mcg/day produces insignificant levels in milk.

  11. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation. (United States)

    Udipi, S A; Ghugre, P; Antony, U


    Nutrition at optimal levels is fundamental in the maintenance of positive health. Matemal nutrition is very important for the course and outcome of pregnancy. Lactation represents a stage wherein health and nutritional status of the infant are dependent on the mother. Successful pregnancy and lactation require adjustments in maternal body composition, metabolism and function of various physioogical systems. A diet that meets matemal nutritional needs is required for these adjustments, so that maternal well-being is safeguarded with birth of an healthy infant. Adequate nutrition supports the growth of both matemal and foetal tissues. Chronic undernutrition throughout pregnancy affects birth weights of newborns. Poor nutrition causes intra-uterine growth retardation. Specific nutrients like zinc, iodine and folate are also required for development of the foetus. Foetal iron deficiency exists in maternal iron deficiency anaemia. Maternal nutritional status, breast milk composition and volume are elaborated in the article. Proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins and their requirements are narrated in detail. Additional nutritional requirements during lactation have been tabulated in this article. Thus improving the nutrition and health of girls and younger women and of mothers during pregnancy and lactation will derive benefits in terms of improved health of their children throughout their lives.

  12. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.


    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Lar

  13. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients. (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K


    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  14. 77 FR 65532 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice of Rescission of... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice... the antidumping duty order on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) from the... Administrative Review: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium Nitrate) from the Russian...

  15. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M


    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...

  16. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken;


    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also ...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artiifcial Lactations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado


    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of

  19. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution (United States)

    Sullivan, E.C.


    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  20. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation


    Ashfaque K. Shaikh; Madhuri D. Kulkarni


    Drug use during pregnancy and lactation is an almost inevitable event. Some of the drugs may have adverse effects on the baby on exposure. It is therefore necessary for the physician to be aware of the changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during pregnancy. Knowledge about the known teratogens and drugs safe to be used during pregnancy is essential on the part of the prescribing physician. There are many factors affecting drug passage into the milk and thus affecting the child in s...

  1. Reduction in Ammonium Ions in Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Šlajūtė


    Full Text Available Liquor rejected from the centrifugation of the digested sludge can contain the concentrations of ammonium ions up to 1750 mg/L. These loads are usually returned to the intake of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP without additional treatment and can have a negative impact on biological wastewater and/or sludge treatment processes, e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This article deals with the use of naturally obtained sorbent, zeolite, in batch and column test procedure for removing ammonium from the rejected liquor. This research study was carried out using different sizes of zeolite particles: 0.8–1.6 mm and 1.6–2.5 mm. The highest efficiency of ammonium removal (up to 98 % was achieved by applying the zeolite particles of 0.8–1.6 mm.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Characterizations of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Technique with Different Additives for the Photoelectrochemical Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. C. Halin


    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique using different additives, namely, polyethylene glycol and ethylene glycol. It was found that the organic additives added had a significant influence on the formation of Cu2O films and lead to different microstructures and optical properties. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. Based on the FESEM micrographs, the grain size of film prepared using polyethylene glycol additive has smaller grains of about 83 nm with irregular shapes. The highest optical absorbance film was obtained by the addition of polyethylene glycol. The Cu2O thin films were used as a working electrode in the application of photoelectrochemical solar cell (PESC.

  3. A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal for selective photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives. (United States)

    Yao, Ru-Xin; Hailili, Reshalaiti; Cui, Xin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xian-Ming


    A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal has been synthesized and characterized, which can selectively decompose negatively charged dyes of Methyl Orange (MO) and Kermes Red (KR), and the photocatalytic efficiency is higher than that of nanosized (∼25 nm) TiO2 and ZnO. The direction and magnitude of the dipole moments as well as the band structure were calculated to reveal high photocatalytic efficiency. Moreover, luminescence studies indicate that the CuBr tube materials show very strong yellowish green emissions in the solid state and emulsion even at room temperature, and exhibit extremely high detection sensitivity towards nitro-explosives via fluorescence quenching. Detectable luminescence responses were observed at a very low concentration of 20 ppm with a high quenching efficiency of 94.90%. The results suggest that they may be promising multifunctional materials for photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives.

  4. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.


    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  5. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise. (United States)

    Brooks, G A


    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  6. Evidence of ammonium ion-exchange properties of natural bentonite and application to ammonium detection. (United States)

    Zazoua, A; Kazane, I; Khedimallah, N; Dernane, C; Errachid, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N


    Ammonium exchange with hybrid PVC-bentonite (mineral montmorillonite clay) thin film was revealed using FTIR spectroscopy, EDX, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of ammonium exchange on the charge transfer resistance of PVC-bentonite hybrid thin film was attributed to a modification of the intersheet distance and hydration of bentonite crystals. The obtained impedimetric ammonium sensor shows a linear range of detection from 10(-4)M to 1M and a detection limit around 10(-6)M. © 2013.

  7. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang


    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  8. 77 FR 59106 - Glufosinate Ammonium; Pesticide Tolerances (United States)


    ... identified. Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation) Classification: ``Not likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans... apple juice, pear juice, grape juice, and raisins, for which factors derived from the processing studies... crops that are currently registered for glufosinate ammonium if available. iii. Cancer. Based on the...

  9. Topaz concentrate desiliconization with ammonium bifluoride


    Andreev, V. A.; Buynovskiy, A. S.; Andreev, Artyom Andreevich; Dyachenko, Alexander Nikolaevich


    Fluoridizing agent for the process of topaz concentrate desiliconization has been selected, topaz thermodynamic potentials have been appraised, thermodynamic probabilities of fluorination reaction of topaz concentrate main constituents have been calculated. The results of studying the concentrate desiliconization process with ammonium bifluoride by the methods of thermogravimetry, RFA, microphotography are presented

  10. Detonation characteristics of ammonium nitrate products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, R.J.A.; Hengel, E.I.V. van den; Steen, A.C. van der


    The detonation properties of ammonium nitrate (AN) products depend on many factors and are therefore, despite the large amount of information on this topic, difficult to assess. In order to further improve the understanding of the safety properties of AN, the European Fertilizer Manufacturers Associ

  11. Review of Ammonium Dinitramide Toxicity Studies (United States)


    reproductive toxicant in rats, causing implantation failure in early gestation; follow-on studies implied that ADN is embryotoxic . EPR studies indicated that...mutagenic. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ammonium dinitramide, ADN, toxicity, reproductive, embryotoxic , genotoxicity 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17...reproductive studies, reproduction and fertility, pre-implantation and post-implantation studies, implied that ADN is embryotoxic . A mouse embryo


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1957; Ball 1967) but the effects of these salts on marine animals is less well known. .... The first clear result of the experiments is that concentrations of ammonium ... study it is useful to know the tolerance of different stages in the life history.

  13. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B


    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  14. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J


    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...... suggests that lactate may partially replace glucose as a substrate for oxidation. Thus, the notion of the human brain as an obligatory glucose consumer is not without exceptions....... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  16. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  17. Ladderanes as tracers for present and past anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rush, D.J.


    Ladderane lipids are membrane lipids produced exclusively by anaerobic ammonium oxidising (anammox) bacteria. Anammox bacteria are key players in the marine nitrogen cycle, performing the anammox reaction, converting equal parts of ammonium and nitrite into dinitrogen gas. This process is

  18. Pore mutations in ammonium transporter AMT1 with increased electrogenic ammonium transport activity. (United States)

    Loqué, Dominique; Mora, Silvia I; Andrade, Susana L A; Pantoja, Omar; Frommer, Wolf B


    AMT/Mep ammonium transporters mediate high affinity ammonium/ammonia uptake in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The Arabidopsis AMT1 proteins mediate uptake of the ionic form of ammonium. AMT transport activity is controlled allosterically via a highly conserved cytosolic C terminus that interacts with neighboring subunits in a trimer. The C terminus is thus capable of modulating the conductivity of the pore. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, pore mutants suppressing the inhibitory effect of mutations in the C-terminal trans-activation domain were characterized. AMT1;1 carrying the mutation Q57H in transmembrane helix I (TMH I) showed increased ammonium uptake but reduced capacity to take up methylammonium. To explore whether the transport mechanism was altered, the AMT1;1-Q57H mutant was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed electrophysiologically. AMT1;1-Q57H was characterized by increased ammonium-induced and reduced methylammonium-induced currents. AMT1;1-Q57H possesses a 100x lower affinity for ammonium (K(m)) and a 10-fold higher V(max) as compared with the wild type form. To test whether the trans-regulatory mechanism is conserved in archaeal homologs, AfAmt-2 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was expressed in yeast. The transport function of AfAmt-2 also depends on trans-activation by the C terminus, and mutations in pore-residues corresponding to Q57H of AMT1;1 suppress nonfunctional AfAmt-2 mutants lacking the activating C terminus. Altogether, our data suggest that bacterial and plant AMTs use a conserved allosteric mechanism to control ammonium flux, potentially using a gating mechanism that limits flux to protect against ammonium toxicity.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate. (United States)


    ... citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid, followed by treatment with ammonium hydroxide, evaporating, and drying. The resulting product occurs in two forms depending on the stoichiometry of the initial reactants. (1) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  1. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  2. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... antidumping duty order on certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or... Publication 4396 (May 2013), entitled Certain Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No....

  3. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Lactation in Half-lactating Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-cai; ZHONG Guang-hui; WANG Yong; PENG Xian-wen; MAO Yong-jiang; ZOU Si-xiang; CHEN Wei-hua; CHEN Jie


    Yaks of two lactating types, the half-lactating yak and the total lactating yak, were investigated in their milk compositions, milk coagulation properties, and contents of three kinds of hormones, glucose,and protein in plasma. The half-lactating Maiwa yak and Jiulong yak contained significantly higher contents of protein, fat, and activities of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in milk than that of the corresponding total-lactating yak breeds, with reduced milk yield and similar lactose level and relative percentages of main milk protein components. The half-lactatin yak resembled yaks in a late stage of lactation in their biochemical composition of milk; however, significant differences were also observed, which indicated that the former was in a special stage of lactation quite different from dairy cows. Milk of the total-lactating or halflactating yaks could be coagulated normally by adding chymosin, with a similar coagulation time. No significant difference was observed between prolactin and progesterone concentrations in plasma of the half-lactating yaks and total-lactating yaks; however, half-lactating yaks had significantly lower level of oestradiol-17 β in plasma than total-lactating yaks.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and weigh

  5. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis. (United States)

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J


    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  6. Ramadan fasting, pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo


    Full Text Available Background: Fasting and malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with deleterious consequences such as hypoglycemia, ketonemia, impaired fetal IQ, low birth weight and even abortion. Comparison of pregnancy length and year duration shows that about 75% of pregnancies coincided with Ramadan. Also, fasting during Ramadan is not equivalent to hunger and malnutrition, however, knowledge of the effects of Ramadan fasting on pregnancy outcome is important. In this review, the results of all studies related to the possible effects of Ramadan fasting in pregnancy and lactation have been collected. Material and Methods: Keywords such as "Ramadan", "Ramadan Fasting", "Islamic Fasting", "Fasting in Ramadan "and Fasting with words Pregnancy, Birth Weight, Lactation, Preterm, Milk Composition, Breast Milk were searched in PubMed Database, SID (Scientific Information Database, and some regional journals and 40 related articles (descriptive cross - sectional, cohort, clinical trial and review articles from 1968 to 2010 were studied. Results: Based on available information, if the maternal nutrition during Ramadan is good, the normal process of pregnancy will be maintained and Ramadan fasting would not have deleterious effects on fetal physical and mental growth. Conclusion: Considering nutritional tips, nursing mothers could also fast during Ramadan.

  7. Role of lactate in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugh Krishan


    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a common finding in critically ill patients. It has been used as a prognostic marker of the outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients. Lactic acid is produced as a product of anaerobic glycolysis and is reversibly converted to pyruvate in the presence of favorable metabolic environment. All the body tissues can produce and consume lactate with few having predominant function of production and others of consumption. Liver is a major organ for lactate consumption and it is the liver, which metabolizes the increased lactic acid produced in regional tissue beds. The lactate levels can be done on arterial, venous, or mixed venous blood and can be measured by various methods. Serial lactate concentrations and the difference in arterial and mixed venous lactate levels or between the arterial and regional blood lactate levels like jugular venous lactate levels have been shown to have better correlation with the outcome. High initial blood lactate levels and persistently high lactate levels have been correlated with poor outcome. There are various causes of lactic acid overproduction, which may produce either hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis. High blood lactate levels are found in critically ill patients with shock of any etiology and sepsis due to various reasons, which include increased catecholamine induced glucose flux apart from the tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Various other illnesses can cause an increase in blood lactate levels like acute lung/liver injury, severe asthma, poisoning, post cardiac surgery etc. Treating the underlying disease leading to lactic acidosis is the best measure to control lactic acidosis. Some therapeutic choices are available to neutralize the effect of lactic acid on cell function, but none has stood the test of time and are tried only in desperate situations.

  8. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) (United States)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.


    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  9. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska


    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  10. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.


    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.

    The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth

  11. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter


    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review t

  12. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.


    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth were determined and c

  13. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye


    ]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  14. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria


    +-depressed rat soleus muscle. The pH regulation associated with lactate incubation accelerated the Na+-K+ pump. To study whether the protective effect of lactate/lactic acid is a general mechanism, we stimulated muscles to fatigue with and without pre-incubation. None of the incubation solutions improved force...

  15. Constructing heterostructure on highly roughened caterpillar-like gold nanotubes with cuprous oxide grains for ultrasensitive and stable nonenzymatic glucose sensor. (United States)

    Chen, Anran; Ding, Yu; Yang, Zhimao; Yang, Shengchun


    In this study, a metal-metal oxide heterostructure was designed and constructed by growing cuprous oxide (Cu2O) grains on highly surface roughened caterpillar-like Au nanotubes (CLGNs) for ultrasensitive, selective and stable nonenzymatic glucose biosensors. The Cu2O grains are tightly anchored to the surface of CLGNs by the spines, resulting in a large increase in the contact area between Cu2O grains and the CLGNs, which facilitates the electron transport between metal and metal oxide and improves the sensitivity and stability of the sensors. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (ks) for redox reaction of Cu2O-CLGNs/GCE are found to be 0.50114 and 3.24±0.1 s(-1), respectively. The biosensor shows a linear response to glucose over a concentration range of 0.1-5mM and a high sensitivity of 1215.7 µA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a detection limit of 1.83 μM. Furthermore, the Cu2O-CLGNs biosensor exhibited strong anti-interference capability against uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium ascorbate (SA), as well as a high stability and repeatability. Our current research indicates that the Cu2O-CLGNs hybrid electrode is a promising choice for constructing nonenzyme based electrochemical biosensors.

  16. Multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode consisting of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers for asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Jiao, Yue; Li, Jian


    An easily-operated and inexpensive strategy (pencil-drawing-electrodeposition-electro-oxidation) is proposed to synthesize a novel class of multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode, which consists of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers. This interesting electrode structure plays a pivotal role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, facilitating ion and electron transport and shorting their diffusion pathways. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties with a high specific capacitance of 601 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and retains 83% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrahigh current density of 100 A g-1. In addition, a high energy density of 13.4 W h kg-1 at the power density of 0.40 kW kg-1 and a favorable cycling stability (95.3%, 8000 cycles) were achieved for this electrode. When this electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor with carbon paper as negative electrode, the device displays remarkable electrochemical performances with a large areal capacitances (122 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), high areal energy density (10.8 μW h cm-2 at 402.5 μW cm-2) and outstanding cycling stability (91.5%, 5000 cycles). These results unveil the potential of this composite electrode as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  17. Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B by Cuprous Oxide%氧化亚铜光催化降解罗丹明 B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 吕重安; 杨水金


    Cuprous oxide ( Cu2 O) was successfully prepared by the method of reduction in aqueous at room temperature.All the powders were characterized by X -rays diffraction ( XRD) and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) .The effect of different factors on the degradation was investigated .The best reaction conditions were found out.The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B by Cu 2 O under simulated natural light irradiation was investiga-ted.The results demonstrated that initial concentration of rhodamine B is 10 mg/L, catalyst dosage is 0.38 g/L and the pH is 5.2, the degradation ratio of rhodamine B is as high as 96.5%after 30 minutes simulated natural light ir-radiation .%利用室温液相还原法制备了氧化亚铜,通过XRD、 SEM对其进行了表征,探讨了该催化剂对罗丹明B的光催化降解的活性。在催化剂用量为0.38 g/L,过氧化氢量为1.8 mL,罗丹明B的浓度为10 mg/L, pH为5.2的条件下,光照30 min后罗丹明B的降解率为96.5%。

  18. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  19. Medical image of the week: lactate threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalabih MR


    Full Text Available The lactate or anaerobic threshold in exercise physiology is the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulate as the anaerobic component of metabolism increases and has been used to assess cardiopulmonary fitness. The V-slope method is a non-invasive way of estimating the lactate or anaerobic threshold (1. As lactate accumulates the H+ is mainly buffered by HCO3- and produces CO2. A point can be seen in Figure 1 where CO2 production (VCO2 abruptly increases relative to O2 consumption (VO2 . This represents the point at which anaerobic threshold occurs.

  20. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius. (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio


    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis.

  1. Stable Ammonium Bisulfate Clusters in the Atmosphere (United States)

    Vehkamäki, Hanna; Napari, Ismo; Kulmala, Markku; Noppel, Madis


    Liquid drop model based equilibrium thermodynamics predicts that in the presence of even small ammonia concentrations practically all the atmospheric sulfuric acid molecules are bound to tiny, stable ammonium-bisulfate clusters. Hitherto sulfuric acid has been believed to form hydrates with water. Thermodynamic theory predicts correctly the hydrate formation observed experimentally. Results from ab initio computer simulations contradict the thermodynamic results and also the experimental findings for cluster formation in both sulfuric acid-water and ammonia-sulfuric acid-water mixtures.

  2. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten


    (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating......OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  3. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming


    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  4. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.


    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  5. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation]. (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R


    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  6. Synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wei Guo; Xing Zhong; Hua Zhu; Li Juan Feng; Ying De Cui


    A series of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane were designed and synthesized from 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid.The structures of target surfactants were confirmed by 1H NMR,elements analysis and FTIR.Surface properties of these surfactants were investigated.Due to the lipophilicity of adamantane,the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and C20 values of the synthesized quaternary ammonium surfactants are lower than that of conventional quaternary ammonium surfactants.

  7. Effects on plasma glucose and lactate. (United States)

    Young, Andrew


    Injection of amylin or amylin agonists, including human and rat amylin, pramlintide, salmon calcitonin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), increases the plasma levels of lactate and glucose in non-diabetic fasting rats and mice. This response can be useful in identifying and defining amylin agonists (amylinomimetic agents) (Cooper et al.) and has been investigated in several studies. Increases in plasma glucose and lactate are not present in all species. In humans, for example, increases in lactate are observed at high pramlintide doses but not at doses that would be used to therapeutically regulate plasma glucose. In species where it occurs, the increase in plasma lactate with amylin is comparable to that observed with exercise or adrenergic agents, and it is distinguishable from the very high levels observed during lactic acidosis (as may occur with biguanides). In contrast to lactic acidosis, the plasma lactate with amylin is derived from skeletal muscle rather than liver. Increases in plasma lactate and glucose in some species may initially appear inconsistent with a glucose-lowering effect of amylin agonists. But glycemic effects are due to actions in skeletal muscle and are present only in some species, whereas glucose-lowering actions are attributable to effects in gastrointestinal systems and are present in all species studied to date. And while glycemic effects are most pronounced in the fasted state, glucose-lowering effects are most pronounced in the postprandial state. Since they were discovered first, effects of higher doses of amylin on plasma glucose, especially in the fasted state, are described first and are related to concomitant changes in plasma lactate. These effects are prominent in rodents but are barely discernible in humans. Effects of lower doses of pramlintide to suppress plasma glucose profiles in the postprandial period are also observable in normal and diabetic rats, however, and are covered here as well. The relationship

  8. Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer (United States)

    Oommen; Jain


    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus. (United States)

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J


    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production.

  10. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B


    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  12. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase...

  13. Lactate determination in ante- and intrapartum surveillance


    Wiberg-Itzel, Eva


    Lactate concentration is reported to be high in amniotic fluid (AF). Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) occur in about 20% of all pregnancies. The condition is associated with fetal and maternal complications, and might be a marker of imminent delivery. Therefore among women with suspected prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM), it is of great importance to accurately confirm the diagnosis. In our studies we wanted to assess whether lactate determination in vaginal/...

  14. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation. (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E


    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  15. Composition of sow milk during lactation. (United States)

    Klobasa, F; Werhahn, E; Butler, J E


    The composition of sow colostrum and milk was quantitated in 25 sows at 14 time points throughout lactation. All animals belonged to the same experimental herd of German Landrace, farrowed within 4 d, and were of various lactation numbers and various litter sizes. In the first 6 h of lactation colostrum total solids (TS) and protein contents were higher, while fat and lactose contents were lower than in mature milk. Decreased total protein and whey protein contents and concomitantly increased fat and lactose content, with nearly unchanged TS levels, indicate transition from colostrum to mature milk. The high protein content of colostrum was largely due to immunoglobulin (Ig). During the first 6 h, IgG accounts for nearly all the protein in colostrum but plays a decreasing role in sow milk as lactation proceeds. After 2 wk, IgA levels begin to increase and at the end of lactation, IgA constitutes 40% of the total whey protein. No influences of lactation number and litter size on milk composition could be ascertained in this study.

  16. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit


    of lactate in skeletal muscle. With the introduction of lactate isotopes muscle lactate kinetics and oxidation could be studied and a simultaneous lactate uptake and release was observed, not only in muscle but also in other tissues. Therefore, this review will discuss in vivo human: (1) skeletal muscle...... lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues....

  17. Nursing practices and lactation amenorrhoea. (United States)

    Elias, M F; Teas, J; Johnston, J; Bora, C


    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that nursing behavior is an independent underlying factor of importance in duration of amenorrhea. Multivariate analysis is applied to information on frequency and duration of nursing practices, maternal age, and nutritional status assessed by weight for height in a sample of 32 middle-class American women with a wide range of nursing behavior. The mothers were followed for 2 years postpartum, data being collected during 8 home visits by interview and by nursing records kept by the mothers. Amenorrhea lasted 1.3 to 27.1 months in the sample as a whole. Those women who nursed frequently (8/day) during exclusive breastfeeding remained amenorrheic longer than infrequent nursers, introduced supplements later, and did not resume menses as promptly thereafter. They continued an hour or more of night nursing during supplemented nursing. Duration of exclusive nursing and night nursing after supplementation were the major influences on duration of amenorrhea. This strong association favors the hypothesis that the underlying factor is nursing behavior. Mother's age, weight-for-height, and nursing frequency before supplementation showed no significant effect. Those women who introduced supplements late and maintained at least an hour of night nursing had a prolonged period of amenorrhea. The median for this group was 6-10 months longer than that for those who started supplements early and/or reduced subsequent night nursing to less than an hour. The recommendation that women must suckle their babies at least 5 times a day with a total suckling duration of more than 65 minutes per day is not sufficient. The findings reported here suggest that if women nurse exclusively for the 1st half year, maintaining night nursing after introducing supplements is important. If they supplement earlier, then they will lose the contraceptive protection of lactation, irrespective of how they nurse.

  18. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain. (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Zaar, Morten; Homann, Pernille; Evans, Kevin A; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H


    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10%, arterial oxygen saturation 72 ± 10%, mean ± sd). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension decreased by 13 mmHg (P<0.001). At the same time, cerebral lactate release increased from 0.15 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.6 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), corresponding to ∼10% of cerebral energy consumption. Concurrently, cerebral lactate uptake was 1.0 ± 0.9 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), of which 57 ± 9% was oxidized, demonstrating that lactate oxidation may account for up to ∼33% of the energy substrate used by the brain. These results support the existence of a cell-cell lactate shuttle that may involve neurons and astrocytes.

  19. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats. (United States)

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O


    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription of genes encoding factors involved in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) turnover and vascular function was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results demonstrated that omitting the dry period was possible in goats but was not as easy as claimed before. Renewal of MEC was suppressed in CL glands, which resulted in a smaller MEC population in the subsequent lactation. At the time of parturition (and throughout lactation), the mammary glands subjected to CL had smaller alveoli, more fully differentiated MEC, and a substantially larger capillary fraction compared with NL glands. The continuously lactating gland thus resembled a normally lactating gland in an advanced stage of lactation. None of the studied genomic factors could account for these treatment

  20. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise. (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Leblanc, Paul J; Hollidge, Melanie G; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased muscle and blood lactate during exercise with hyperoxia (60% inspired O2) vs. room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux. We measured pyruvate oxidation via PDH, muscle pyruvate and lactate accumulation, and lactate and pyruvate efflux to estimate total pyruvate and lactate production during exercise. We hypothesized that 60% O2 would decrease muscle glycogenolysis, resulting in decreased pyruvate and lactate contents, leading to decreased muscle pyruvate and lactate release with no change in PDH activity. Seven active male subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% VO2 peak on two occasions when breathing 21 or 60% O2. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples and blood flow measurements were obtained throughout exercise, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 10, 20, and 40 min of exercise. Hyperoxia had no effect on leg O2 delivery, O2 uptake, or RQ during exercise. Muscle glycogenolysis was reduced by 16% with hyperoxia (267 +/- 19 vs. 317 +/- 21 mmol/kg dry wt), translating into a significant, 15% reduction in total pyruvate production over the 40-min exercise period. Decreased pyruvate production during hyperoxia had no effect on PDH activity (pyruvate oxidation) but significantly decreased lactate accumulation (60%: 22.6 +/- 6.4 vs. 21%: 31.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/kg dry wt), lactate efflux, and total lactate production over 40 min of cycling. Decreased glycogenolysis in hyperoxia was related to an approximately 44% lower epinephrine concentration and an attenuated accumulation of potent phosphorylase activators ADPf and AMPf during exercise. Greater phosphorylation potential during hyperoxia was related to a significantly diminished rate of PCr utilization. The tighter metabolic match between pyruvate production and oxidation resulted in a decrease in total lactate production and efflux over 40 min of exercise during hyperoxia.

  1. Ultrasound promoted mild and facile one-pot, three component synthesis of 2H-indazoles by consecutive condensation, CN and NN bond formations catalysed by copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as an efficient heterogeneous nano-catalyst. (United States)

    Soltani Rad, Mohammad Navid


    An ultrasonic promoted facile and convenient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of 2H-indazole derivatives using copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as a heterogeneous nano-catalyst has been described. In this approach, ultrasonic mediated reaction of different substituted 2-bromobenzaldehydes, structurally diverse primary amines, and tetrabutylammonium azide (TBAA) as an azide source in the presence of CDSCS in DMSO at room temperature furnishes 2H-indazoles in good to excellent yields. Utilizing ultrasonic irradiation techniques provided the dramatic improvements in terms of higher yields and shorter reaction times compared with conventional heating method.

  2. Radiation-induced defects in magnesium lactate as ESR dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, G M; Takaki, S


    Magnesium lactate (Mg-lactate: (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COO) sub 2 Mg), magnesium lactate doped with lithium lactate (Mg(Li)-lactate) and nominal pure lithium lactate (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COOLi) doped with Mg-lactate (Li(Mg)-lactate) were irradiated by gamma-rays to study radicals for materials of radiation dosimeter with electron spin resonance (ESR). Quartet spectra were ascribed to lactate radicals in Mg-lactate and Li(Mg)-lactate with the spectroscopic splitting factors (g-factor) of 2.0032+-0.004 and 2.0029+-0.004 and the intensity ratio of 1:3:3:1 due to the hyperfine coupling constants of (A/g beta) of 1.92+-0.06 and 1.82+-0.06 mT, respectively. The response to gamma-ray dose and the thermal stability as well as the effect of UV-illumination have been studied to establish this material as an ESR dosimeter. The number of free radicals per 100 eV (G-value) was obtained to be 1.15+-0.32, 1.35+-0.35, 0.46+-0.14 and 0.78+-0.24 for Mg-lactate, Mg(Li)-lactate, Li-lactate and Lie(Mg)-lactate, respectively. Thermoluminescenc...

  3. Cupric and cuprous oxide by reactive ion beam sputter deposition and the photosensing properties of cupric oxide metal–semiconductor–metal Schottky photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min-Jyun; Lin, Yong-Chen; Chao, Liang-Chiun, E-mail:; Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Bohr-Ran


    Highlights: • CuO and Cu{sub 2}O were deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. • Single phase CuO thin film is obtained with Ar:O{sub 2} = 2:1. • CuO MSM PD shows photoresponse from 400 nm to 1.30 μm. • CuO MSM PD is RC limited with a decay time less than 1 μs. - Abstract: Cupric (CuO) and cuprous (Cu{sub 2}O) oxide thin films have been deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition at 400 °C with an Ar:O{sub 2} ratio from 2:1 to 12:1. With an Ar:O{sub 2} ratio of 2:1, single phase polycrystalline CuO thin films were obtained. Decreasing oxygen flow rate results in CuO + Cu{sub 2}O and Cu{sub 2}O + Cu mixed thin films. As Ar:O{sub 2} ratio reaches 12:1, Cu{sub 2}O nanorods with diameter of 250 nm and length longer than 1 μm were found across the sample. Single phase CuO thin film exhibits an indirect band gap of 1.3 eV with a smooth surface morphology. CuO metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) Schottky photodiodes (PD) were fabricated by depositing Cu interdigitated electrodes on CuO thin films. Photosensing properties of the CuO PD were characterized from 350 to 1300 nm and a maximum responsivity of 43 mA/W was found at λ = 700 nm. The MSM PD is RC limited with a decay time constant less than 1 μs.

  4. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites (United States)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.


    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=cΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  5. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides. (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas


    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  6. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo


    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Lactate oxidation at the mitochondria: a lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Kane


    Full Text Available Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid occurring in aqueous biological fluids, has been derided as a dead-end waste product of anaerobic metabolism. Catalyzed by the near-equilibrium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the reduction of pyruvate to lactate is thought to serve to regenerate the NAD+ necessary for continued glycolytic flux. Reaction kinetics for LDH imply that lactate oxidation is rarely favored in the tissues of its own production. However, a substantial body of research directly contradicts any notion that LDH invariably operates unidirectionally in vivo. In the current Perspective, a model is forwarded in which the continuous formation and oxidation of lactate serves as a mitochondrial electron shuttle, whereby lactate generated in the cytosol of the cell is oxidized at the mitochondria of the same cell. From this perspective, an intracellular lactate shuttle operates much like the malate-aspartate shuttle; it is also proposed that the two shuttles are necessarily interconnected. Among the requisite features of such a model, significant compartmentalization of LDH, much like the creatine kinase of the PCr shuttle, would facilitate net cellular lactate oxidation under a variety of conditions.

  8. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J;


    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying the im...

  9. Design and characterization of a lactate biosensor based on immobilized lactate oxidase onto gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casero, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, No 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:


    The design and characterization of a lactate biosensor and its application to the determination of this analyte in wine and beer are described. The biosensor is developed through the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) using two different strategies including direct adsorption and covalent binding. The characterization of the resulting lactate oxidase monolayers was performed in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. In presence of lactate and using hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator, biosensors obtained by either direct adsorption or by covalent binding exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity, and lactate could be determined amperometrically at 300 mV versus SSCE. Results obtained under these conditions give a linear current response versus lactate concentration up to 0.3 mM, with a detection limit of 10 {mu}M of lactate and a sensitivity of 0.77 {+-} 0.08 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. Finally, biosensors were applied to the determination of lactate in wine and beer. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by a well-established enzymatic-spectrophotometric assay kit.

  10. Kinetics of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, M.A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.


    Lactate clearance by liver plays an important role in lactate homeostasis and in the development of lactic acidosis. The role of lactate delivery to liver as a limiting factor in hepatic uptake of lactate is unclear. Lactate delivery of mechanisms could be important if rates of lactate transport approximate rates of lactate metabolism by liver. The rates of lactate transport into liver have been determined in vitro with isolated liver cells and the results have been conflicting. Therefore, the present studies measure the rate of transport of (14C)-L-lactate, and its poorly metabolizeable stereoisomer, (14C)-D-lactate, into rat liver in vivo using a portal vein injection technique. The transport of (3H)-water and of (14C)-sucrose, an extracellular reference compound, were also studied. Portal blood flow was determined from the kinetics of (3H)-water efflux in liver and was 1.93 +/- 0.22 mL/min/g. The volumes of distribution of (14C)-L-lactate, and (14C)-sucrose were 1.31 +/- 0.22, 0.71 +/- 0.07, and 0.22 +/- 0.07 mL/g, respectively. The extraction of unidirectional influx of (14C)-L-lactate and (14C)-D-lactate by rat liver was 93% +/- 10% and 91% +/- 9%, respectively. The rate of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo, 1.8 mumols.min-1.g-1, is approximately twofold greater than the rate of lactate metabolism by rat liver reported in the literature. Therefore, lactate uptake by liver may not be limited by transport under normal conditions. However, conditions such as decreased portal blood flow, which slow lactate delivery to liver by 50% or more, could cause lactate uptake by liver to be limited by transport of circulating lactate.

  11. How to make a living from anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, B.; De Almeida, N.M.; Maalcke, W.J.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Keltjens, J.T.


    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria primarily grow by the oxidation of ammonium coupled to nitrite reduction, using CO2 as the sole carbon source. Although they were neglected for a long time, anammox bacteria are encountered in an enormous species (micro)diversity in virtually any anoxi

  12. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. 73.1298 Section 73.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by...

  13. Seasonal patterns of ammonium regeneration from size-fractionated microheterotrophs (United States)

    Maguer, Jean-François; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Madec, Christian; Le Corre, Pierre


    Ammonium regeneration by size-fractionated plankton was measured for 1 year at a coastal station in the shallow well-mixed waters of the western English Channel. Rates of ammonium regeneration in the Journal of Plankton Research, 18, 355-370). Total ammonium regenerated in a year by the microheterotrophs was 15 g N m -2, equivalent to about 60% of the total nitrogen uptake. Microplankton (200-15 μm) accounted for about 50% of the regeneration measured between early spring and late summer. Percent contribution of nanoplankton to total ammonium regeneration varied considerably between the seasons, from very high (83-88%) levels in winter to very low (2-13%) levels in summer. Contribution by picoplankton (nano- and picoplankton fractions, appears to be different from that in deep well-mixed waters. Here, the relative contribution of ciliates and bacteria to ammonium regeneration shows little variation with an increase in macrozooplankton biomass.

  14. Ammonium removal from landfill leachate by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, Adelaida [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Urtiaga, Ane [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail:; Rivero, Maria-Jose [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Ortiz, Inmaculada [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)


    The feasibility of removing ammonium from landfill leachates by electrochemical oxidation was studied. Raw leachates and biologically/physico-chemically pretreated leachates from a municipal landfill site were treated. Boron doped diamond was used as anode and stainless steel as cathode, both electrodes with an area of 70 cm{sup 2}. The effects of the applied current density (15-90 mA cm{sup -2}), the initial ammonium concentration (480-2000 mg L{sup -1}), and the initial chloride concentration were experimentally studied. Total ammonium removal was obtained after 360 min of processing and almost half of the initial ammonium nitrogen was oxidized to nitrate. On the other hand, the concentration of chloride enhanced the rate of ammonium oxidation. In addition, the amount of N-NH{sub 4} {sup +} transformed into N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} decreased when additional chloride was provided.

  15. Reactive Uptake of Dimethylamine by Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Sulfate-Sucrose Mixed Particles. (United States)

    Chu, Yangxi; Chan, Chak K


    Short-chain alkyl amines can undergo gas-to-particle partitioning via reactive uptake by ammonium salts, whose phases have been thought to largely influence the extent of amine uptake. Previous studies mainly focused on particles of single ammonium salt at either dry or wet conditions without any addition of organic compounds. Here we report the uptake of dimethylamine (DMA) by ammonium sulfate (AS) and AS-sucrose mixed particles at different relative humidities (RHs) using an electrodynamic balance coupled with in situ Raman spectroscopy. DMA is selected as a representative of short-chain alkyl amines, and sucrose is used as a surrogate of viscous and hydrophilic organics. Effective DMA uptake was observed for most cases, except for the water-limiting scenario at <5% RH and the formation of an ultraviscous sucrose coating at 10% RH and below. DMA uptake coefficients (γ) were estimated using the particle mass measurements during DMA uptake. Addition of sucrose can increase γ by absorbing water or inhibiting AS crystallization and decrease γ by elevating the particle viscosity and forming a coating layer. DMA uptake can be facilitated for crystalline AS or retarded for aqueous AS with hydrophilic viscous organics (e.g., secondary organic material formed via the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds) present in aerosol particles.

  16. Lactation in insulin-dependent diabetes. (United States)

    Neubauer, S H


    The ability of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) women to breast-feed has been documented, however, there is little information concerning milk composition or factors that influence successful breastfeeding. Placental lactogen and prolactin levels can be normalized during pregnancy with good metabolic control. These hormones affect the readiness of the mammary gland for lactation. Prolactin maintains mammary gland insulin receptors to ensure anabolism. Lactation in IDDM women may be influenced by hyper- or hypoglycemia as women balance their insulin needs. Milk from diabetic animals has decreased lactose, fat, protein and volume and these effects can be reversed with insulin administration. Mature breast milk of IDDM women has increased glucose and sodium and mammary gland lipid metabolism may be impaired. Milk lactose and citrate, markers of lactogenesis II, suggest delayed lactation occurs in diabetic women. Many factors may influence lactation success and breast milk composition of IDDM women. Some of these include: method of delivery, feeding frequency, fetal condition, gestational age, mastitis incidence, metabolic control and maternal dietary intake. Lactation management of the IDDM woman must address these factors.

  17. Ammonium accumulation and cell death in a rat 3D brain cell model of glutaric aciduria type I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Jafari

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type I (glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that usually manifests in infancy by an acute encephalopathic crisis and often results in permanent motor handicap. Biochemical hallmarks of this disease are elevated levels of glutarate and 3-hydroxyglutarate in blood and urine. The neuropathology of this disease is still poorly understood, as low lysine diet and carnitine supplementation do not always prevent brain damage, even in early-treated patients. We used a 3D in vitro model of rat organotypic brain cell cultures in aggregates to mimic glutaric aciduria type I by repeated administration of 1 mM glutarate or 3-hydroxyglutarate at two time points representing different developmental stages. Both metabolites were deleterious for the developing brain cells, with 3-hydroxyglutarate being the most toxic metabolite in our model. Astrocytes were the cells most strongly affected by metabolite exposure. In culture medium, we observed an up to 11-fold increase of ammonium in the culture medium with a concomitant decrease of glutamine. We further observed an increase in lactate and a concomitant decrease in glucose. Exposure to 3-hydroxyglutarate led to a significantly increased cell death rate. Thus, we propose a three step model for brain damage in glutaric aciduria type I: (i 3-OHGA causes the death of astrocytes, (ii deficiency of the astrocytic enzyme glutamine synthetase leads to intracerebral ammonium accumulation, and (iii high ammonium triggers secondary death of other brain cells. These unexpected findings need to be further investigated and verified in vivo. They suggest that intracerebral ammonium accumulation might be an important target for the development of more effective treatment strategies to prevent brain damage in patients with glutaric aciduria type I.

  18. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter


    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  19. Dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka


    Full Text Available Since wellbeing and health have become fashionable and widespread polypragmasia is popular, adverse drug reactions are a particularly important medical problem. Pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers need very particular care from the physician. Treatment during pregnancy or lactation is a more complicated issue not only because it concerns at least two persons, but also because of the many anatomical and functional differences between the adult and fetus or newborn organism. The safety aspects of dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation are presented. Both topical and systemic treatment, mainly for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic dermatoses and acne, alopecia, psoriasis, and autoimmunological processes, are discussed. Moreover, the most recent methods of dermatological treatment are mentioned taking into consideration their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the traditional drug classification made by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the most modern division, which is under construction, are presented.

  20. 76 FR 49449 - Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the... (United States)


    ... Nitrate From the Russian Federation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... duty investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (``ammonium nitrate'') from the Russian... and the ITC instituted a second sunset review of the ammonium nitrate suspended investigation....

  1. 76 FR 23569 - Termination of the Suspension Agreement on Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the... (United States)


    ... Nitrate From the Russian Federation and Notice of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... (``AD'') Investigation on Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate from the Russian Federation (``the... determine whether imports of solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (``ammonium nitrate'') from Russia...

  2. Breast infections in non-lactating women. (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Maha S A; Bukharie, Huda A


    Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed. The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy. Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may provide specific diagnosis and aid the management.

  3. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman. (United States)

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley


    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol.

  4. Intermittent suckling enables estrus and pregnancy during lactation in sows: Effects of stage of lactation and lactation during early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Langendijk, P.; Dieleman, S.J.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.


    Previously we demonstrated that pre-ovulatory LH and post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) concentrations in plasma were low and embryo development was retarded when sows were induced to ovulate during lactation by submitting them to intermittent suckling (IS). The present study investigated whether this

  5. Lactate study using umbilical cord blood: agreement between Lactate Pro hand-held devices with blood gas analyser and evaluation of lactate stability over time. (United States)

    Su, Tina Y; Reece, Mifanwy; Chua, Seng C


    Lactate measurements have become increasingly preferred over pH analysis in the evaluation of fetal acidaemia in labour. In a busy labour ward, often the umbilical cord may be sampled late and as a result yield unreliable lactate values. To investigate the agreement of hand-held device Lactate Pro with a reference method blood gas analyser and evaluate the stability of umbilical cord lactate values over time. Prospective study carried out at elective caesarean section. Sixteen umbilical cords were double clamped immediately after delivery with paired arterial and venous blood samples collected by an independent researcher, at varying time intervals, and processed by two Lactate Pro devices and a reference method blood gas analyser. A significant difference of -0.41 to 0.10 mmol/L was found when different groups of Lactate Pro devices were compared with blood gas analyser at lactate values up to 5.70 mmol/L, with average lactate value of 2.45 mmol/L. Over time, there is progressive rise in lactate samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Lactate Pro devices have a significant difference, but when used in clinical practice on cord blood after delivery, this is unlikely to be meaningful. In intrapartum fetal surveillance, a systematic overestimation might lead to unnecessary intervention. It is possible to retrospectively predict the likely level of lactate at birth in delayed cord samples. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Size-dependent reactions of ammonium bisulfate clusters with dimethylamine. (United States)

    Bzdek, Bryan R; Ridge, Douglas P; Johnston, Murray V


    The reaction kinetics of ammonium bisulfate clusters with dimethylamine (DMA) gas were investigated using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Clusters ranged in size from 1 to 10 bisulfate ions. Although displacement of the first several ammonium ions by DMA occurred with near unit efficiency, displacement of the final ammonium ion was cluster size dependent. For small clusters, all ammonium ions are exposed to incoming DMA molecules, allowing for facile exchange ("surface" exchange). However, with increasing cluster size, an ammonium ion can be trapped in an inaccessible region of the cluster ("core" exchange), thereby rendering exchange difficult. DMA was also observed to add onto existing dimethylaminium bisulfate clusters above a critical size, whereas ammonia did not add onto ammonium bisulfate clusters. The results suggest that as the cluster size increases, di-dimethylaminium sulfate formation becomes more favorable. The results of this study give further evidence to suggest that ambient sub-3 nm diameter particles are likely to contain aminium salts rather than ammonium salts.

  7. Subcellular localization of ammonium transporters in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Carter T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of vertebrates, most organisms have plasma membrane associated ammonium transporters which primarily serve to import a source of nitrogen for nutritional purposes. Dictyostelium discoideum has three ammonium transporters, Amts A, B and C. Our present work used fluorescent fusion proteins to determine the cellular localization of the Amts and tested the hypothesis that the transporters mediate removal of ammonia generated endogenously from the elevated protein catabolism common to many protists. Results Using RFP and YFP fusion constructs driven by the actin 15 promoter, we found that the three ammonium transporters were localized on the plasma membrane and on the membranes of subcellular organelles. AmtA and AmtB were localized on the membranes of endolysosomes and phagosomes, with AmtB further localized on the membranes of contractile vacuoles. AmtC also was localized on subcellular organelles when it was stabilized by coexpression with either the AmtA or AmtB fusion transporter. The three ammonium transporters exported ammonia linearly with regard to time during the first 18 hours of the developmental program as revealed by reduced export in the null strains. The fluorescently tagged transporters rescued export when expressed in the null strains, and thus they were functional transporters. Conclusion Unlike ammonium transporters in most organisms, which import NH3/NH4+ as a nitrogen source, those of Dictyostelium export ammonia/ammonium as a waste product from extensive catabolism of exogenously derived and endogenous proteins. Localization on proteolytic organelles and on the neutral contractile vacuole suggests that Dictyostelium ammonium transporters may have unique subcellular functions and play a role in the maintenance of intracellular ammonium distribution. A lack of correlation between the null strain phenotypes and ammonia excretion properties of the ammonium transporters suggests that it is not

  8. [Reasons of high concentration ammonium in Yellow River, China]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-qing; Xia, Xing-hui; Yang, Zhi-feng


    Ammonium nitrogen contamination is one of the major problems of the Yellow River in China. The speciation, concentration and sources of nitrogen compounds as well as the water environment conditions of the Yellow River had been analyzed to study the reasons for the fact that the ammonium nitrogen concentration was above the water quality standard. In addition, laboratory experiments had been carried out to investigate the effects of suspended sediment (SS) on nitrification rate. The results indicated that the presence of SS could accelerate the nitrification process, therefore, the effects of SS on nitrification rate was not the reason for the high level of ammonium nitrogen in the river. The excessive and continuous input of nitrogen contaminants to the river was the fundamental reason for the high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. Organic and ammonium nitrogen with high concentration inhibitted the nitrification processes. When the initial NH4+ -N concentrations were 10.1, 18.4 and 28.2 mg/L, nitrification efficiencies were 17.4%, 13.0% and 2.5%, respectively. When the initial organic nitrogen concentrations were 5.5 and 8.6 mg/L, the maximum concentrations of ammonium nitrogen produced by the oxidation of organic nitrogen would reach 0.47 and 1.69 mg/L and they would last for 2 days and 6 days, respectively. The oxygen-consuming organics and toxic substance existing in the river water could inhibit the activity of nitrifying bacteria, and thus lead to the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen. In addition, the high pH value of river water resulted in the high concentration of nonionic ammonium nitrogen which would reduce the activity of nitrifying bacteria and decrease the nitrification rates. Besides, low river runoff, low SS content and low activity of nitrifying bacteria resulted in the high level of ammonium nitrogen of the river in the low water season.

  9. Modelling an Ammonium Transporter with SCLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Troina


    Full Text Available The Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (SCLS is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. It has been designed with the aim of combining the simplicity of notation of rewrite systems with the advantage of compositionality. It also allows a rather simple and accurate description of biological membranes and their interactions with the environment.In this work we apply SCLS to model a newly discovered ammonium transporter. This transporter is believed to play a fundamental role for plant mineral acquisition, which takes place in the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Due to its potential application in agriculture this kind of symbiosis is one of the main focuses of the BioBITs project. In our experiments the passage of NH3 / NH4+ from the fungus to the plant has been dissected in known and hypothetical mechanisms; with the model so far we have been able to simulate the behaviour of the system under different conditions. Our simulations confirmed some of the latest experimental results about the LjAMT2;2 transporter. The initial simulation results of the modelling of the symbiosis process are promising and indicate new directions for biological investigations.

  10. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue


    Full Text Available Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers.

  11. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)


    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased gly

  12. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation (United States)

    ... NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one of the newest additions to the ...

  13. Effects of protocol design on lactate minimum power. (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R


    The aim of this investigation was to use a validated lactate minimum test protocol and evaluate whether blood lactate responses and the lactate minimum power are influenced by the starting power (study 1) and 1 min inter-stage rest intervals (study 2) during the incremental phase. Study 1: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase comprising 5 continuous 4 min stages with starting power being 40% or 45% of the maximum power achieved during the lactate elevation phase, and with power increments of 5% maximum power. Study 2: 8 subjects performed 2 identical lactate minimum tests except that during one of the tests the incremental phase included 1 min inter-stage rest intervals. The lactate minimum power was lower when the incremental phase commenced at 40% (175±29 W) compared to 45% (184±30 W) maximum power (pvalidity and therefore training status evaluation and exercise prescription.

  14. Nanometer-Thick Gold on Silicon as a Proxy for Single-Crystal Gold for the Electrodeposition of Epitaxial Cuprous Oxide Thin Films. (United States)

    Switzer, Jay A; Hill, James C; Mahenderkar, Naveen K; Liu, Ying-Chau


    Single-crystal Au is an excellent substrate for electrochemical epitaxial growth due to its chemical inertness, but the high cost of bulk Au single crystals prohibits their use in practical applications. Here, we show that ultrathin epitaxial films of Au electrodeposited onto Si(111), Si(100), and Si(110) wafers can serve as an inexpensive proxy for bulk single-crystal Au for the deposition of epitaxial films of cuprous oxide (Cu2O). The Au films range in thickness from 7.7 nm for a film deposited for 5 min to 28.3 nm for a film deposited for 30 min. The film thicknesses are measured by low-angle X-ray reflectivity and X-ray Laue oscillations. High-resolution TEM shows that there is not an interfacial SiOx layer between the Si and Au. The Au films deposited on the Si(111) substrates are smoother and have lower mosaic spread than those deposited onto Si(100) and Si(110). The mosaic spread of the Au(111) layer on Si(111) is only 0.15° for a 28.3 nm thick film. Au films deposited onto degenerate Si(111) exhibit ohmic behavior, whereas Au films deposited onto n-type Si(111) with a resistivity of 1.15 Ω·cm are rectifying with a barrier height of 0.85 eV. The Au and the Cu2O follow the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations of the Si substrates, as determined by X-ray pole figures. The Au and Cu2O films deposited on Si(100) and Si(110) are both twinned. The films grown on Si(100) have twins with a [221] orientation, and the films grown on Si(110) have twins with a [411] orientation. An interface model is proposed for all Si orientations, in which the -24.9% mismatch for the Au/Si system is reduced to only +0.13% by a coincident site lattice in which 4 unit meshes of Au coincide with 3 unit meshes of Si. Although this study only considers the deposition of epitaxial Cu2O films on electrodeposited Au/Si, the thin Au films should serve as high-quality substrates for the deposition of a wide variety of epitaxial materials.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day with either an elevated temperature or constitutional symptoms of fever. ... Blood-stained nipple discharge during pregnancy and or lactation is fairly common. .... malignancy during gestation, after cervical cancer.16 ... (after surgery) or neo-adjuvant (prior to surgery). It is best avoided during the first trimester of ...

  16. Cadmium and zinc in pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucis, O.J.; Lucis, R.; Shaikh, Z.A.


    Radioactive cadmium (/sup 109/Cd) and zinc (/sup 65/Zn) were injected subcutaneously into pregnant rats. More cadmium than zinc was found in the placentae. After birth, newborns showed detectable /sup 109/Cd only in liver, gastrointestinal tract, and in the brain tissue. Zinc 65 was present in all newborns' tissues. During lactation, highest output of /sup 65/Zn was in colostrum and, on subsequent days, /sup 65/Zn in milk declined rapidly. Cadmium 109 in milk was present in low concentration throughout the lactation period. Rats injected with /sup 109/Cd and /sup 65/Zn after parturition excreted these isotopes in milk in a similiar pattern. Newborns nursed on radioactive milk showed rapid absorption of /sup 65/Zn, whereas /sup 109/Cd accumulated primarily in the intestinal tract; a lesser quantity of /sup 109/Cd was deposited in the liver. In other organs, only /sup 65/Zn was found. The lactating mammary gland contained more /sup 109/Cd than /sup 65/Zn; after lactation, /sup 65/Zn was depleted, whereas /sup 109/Cd remained in mammary tissue.

  17. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents. (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  18. [Non-lactational mastitis: our experience]. (United States)

    Gioffrè Florio, Maria Antonietta; Famà, Fausto; Buccheri, Giancarlo; Di Cara, Giovanni; Pollicino, Andrea; Scarfò, Paola; Gullo, Grazia


    The most frequent breast inflammatory diseases are lactational and non-lactational mastitis. The diagnosis of these lesions is always difficult, as they often mimic breast cancer. The Authors report on their experience about 830 clinical cases of non-lactational mastitis, 804 were superficial abscesses and 24 were phlegmons. In 379 cases an infectious cause was found: in 249 by Streptococcus/Pseudomonas and in 30 by Staphylococcus Aureus. All patients underwent surgical treatment. Diagnosis was obtained by clinical examination, routine investigations (ultrasound, mammography and cytology) and post-operatively by histological evaluation. The non-lactational mastitis are more frequent in the postmenopausal and the menopausal period, but MDAIDS (Mammary Ducts Associated Inflammatory Diseases Sequence) are particularly interesting. MDAIDS was observed in 178 cases, these are very peculiar lesions characterized by ducts ectasia, squamous metaplasia, lymphoid infiltration and strictly correlated with heavy smoking. Sometimes, only surgical treatment clarifies the nature of these lesions. Patients with inflammatory diseases of the breast present with mastalgia and secretions, symptoms which alert patients to consult quickly a specialist. Instrumental investigations often don't clarify the diagnosis and surgical treatment by incision and drainage or excision is definitive.

  19. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers (United States)

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos


    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  20. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.


    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvu

  1. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.


    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19

  2. Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koiter, TR; Moes, H; Valkhof, N; Wijkstra, S


    The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance

  3. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: Maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, C.D.; Stanley, W.C.; Hickey, R.F.; Neese, R.A.; Cason, B.A.; Demas, K.A.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))


    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. ({sup 14}C)lactate and ({sup 13}C)glucose tracers, or ({sup 13}C)lactate and ({sup 14}C)glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted {sup 14}C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  4. Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koiter, TR; Moes, H; Valkhof, N; Wijkstra, S

    The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moezelaar, R.; Teixeira, de M.J.; Stal, L.J.


    The cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806 was found to possess an NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (EC which catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to l-lactate. The enzyme required fructose 1,6-bisphosphate for activity and displayed positive cooperativity towards pyruvate. Lactate was not

  6. Ammonium removal by modified zeolite from municipal wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ya-ping; GAO Ting-yao; JIANG Shang-ying; CAO Da-wen


    Ammonium removal by modified zeolite, H-form and Na-form zeolite, were examined by batch-type methods. The adsorption of ammonium on modified zeolite was exothermic process. The saturation adsorption capacity of ammonium on H-form and Na-form zeolite were 21.23 and 41.15 mg/g, respectively. After ten times adsorption- desorption-readsorption cycles the standard deviations of H-form and Na-form zeolite were 6.34% and 6.59%. The zeolite adsorption process has proved cost effective and practical in reducing ammonium by H-form and Na-form zeolite in municipal wastewater from concentration 27.68 mg/L to 2.80 mg/L and 5.91 mg/L.

  7. Acid mine water neutralisation with ammonium hydroxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 30, 2013 ... Keywords: acid mine water, ammonium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, sulphate removal ... oxygen becomes oxidised to soluble iron and sulphuric acid, .... The effects of the following parameters on the Fe (II) oxidation.

  8. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids (United States)

    Halpern, Yuval


    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  9. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Quaternary Ammonium Pyridoxine Derivatives. (United States)

    Shtyrlin, Nikita V; Sapozhnikov, Sergey V; Koshkin, Sergey A; Iksanova, Alfiya G; Sabirov, Arthur H; Kayumov, Airat R; Nureeva, Aliya A; Zeldi, Marina I; Shtyrlin, Yurii G


    A series of 26 quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives were synthesized and their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities against clinically relevant bacterial strains were tested in vitro. The antibacterial activity of mono-ammonium salts increased with the rise of the lipophilicity and compound 3,3,5-trimethyl-8,8-dioctyl-1,7,8,9-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxino[5,4-d]pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-8-ium chloride (2d) reaches a maximum among them. Bis-ammonium salt of pyridoxine 4 with two dimethyloctylamine groups also demonstrated high antibacterial activity despite lower lipophilicity. The results of MTT assay indicated that HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than HSF to quaternary ammonium pyridoxine derivatives. Compounds 2d and 4 did not induce the damage of the DNA and might be of interest in the development of new antimicrobials.

  10. 14N NQR and relaxation in ammonium nitrate (United States)

    Stephenson, David


    The complete 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of ammonium nitrate is presented recorded using two double resonance techniques - double contact cross relaxation and zero field NQR. The spectra gave the quadrupole coupling constant (Qcc) and asymmetry parameter ( η) values for the nitro of 611 kHz, 0.229 and that for the ammonium nitrogen of 242 kHz, 0.835. The three relaxation transition probabilities have been determined for both the nitro and ammonium nitrogen atoms. The bi-exponential relaxation times (T 1) were measured at 295 K. The values for nitro are 16.9 s and 10.5 s and that of the ammonium are 23.0 s and 16.4 s.

  11. {sup 14}N NQR and relaxation in ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, David, E-mail: [University of the West Indies, Chemistry Department (Trinidad and Tobago)


    The complete {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of ammonium nitrate is presented recorded using two double resonance techniques – double contact cross relaxation and zero field NQR. The spectra gave the quadrupole coupling constant (Qcc) and asymmetry parameter (η) values for the nitro of 611 kHz, 0.229 and that for the ammonium nitrogen of 242 kHz, 0.835. The three relaxation transition probabilities have been determined for both the nitro and ammonium nitrogen atoms. The bi-exponential relaxation times (T {sub 1}) were measured at 295 K. The values for nitro are 16.9 s and 10.5 s and that of the ammonium are 23.0 s and 16.4 s.

  12. Fixed Ammonium Content and Maximum Capacity of Ammonium Fixation in Major Types of Tillage Soils in Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin


    In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in <0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in < 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with

  13. Synthesis of guanidine from ammonium thiocyanate in solid state


    Zaia Dimas A. M.; Santana Henrique de; Toppan Rodrigo; Zaia Cássia T. B. V.


    Guanidine is an important substance for modern living beings as well as for the prebiotic chemistry. We studied the reaction between ammonium and thiocyanate species in solid state with different substances (river sand, kaolin, transition metals, salts of seawater) and temperatures (80, 120 and 150 ºC). The recoveries of thiocyanate and ammonium in the samples with river sand or kaolin at 150 ºC were statistically different (p

  14. Synthesis of guanidine from ammonium thiocyanate in solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaia Dimas A. M.


    Full Text Available Guanidine is an important substance for modern living beings as well as for the prebiotic chemistry. We studied the reaction between ammonium and thiocyanate species in solid state with different substances (river sand, kaolin, transition metals, salts of seawater and temperatures (80, 120 and 150 ºC. The recoveries of thiocyanate and ammonium in the samples with river sand or kaolin at 150 ºC were statistically different (p<0.05 from the recoveries of thiocyanate and ammonium in the sample without them. The decomposition of ammonium thiocyanate in the samples river sand or kaolin at 150 ºC was about 40%. Kaolin showed to have more effect on the synthesis guanidine than river sand, because, the concentrations of guanidine in the samples with kaolin were always bigger than in the samples with river sand. The decomposition of ammonium thiocyanate in the samples with transition metals plus river sand at 120 ºC was about 30%. The salts of seawater or transition metals plus ammonium thiocyanate plus river sand (120 ºC showed to increase the concentration of thiourea (seawater: 538%; transition metals: 357% or guanidine (seawater: 393%, transition metals: 806% when they were compared to the samples without them. When the results obtained with sample of ammonium thiocyanate were compared to the samples of ammonium thiocyanate (at 120 ºC plus salts of seawater or transition metals also an increased on the production of thiourea (168% and guanidine (268% was obtained, respectively. The yield for the synthesis of guanidine showed in this paper is better than that obtained by other authors. Experiments showed that iron (III is involving in the formation of the yellow compound and Raman spectra showed this compound could be sulphur.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to answer the following question: are quaternary ammonium antibacterials suitable for dental materials? Reviewing the literature on quaternary ammonium compounds evidenced that this type of compounds is soluble in water. Our own findings also showed that they are well soluble in water and that their application as dental composites requires to check their solubility level in water.

  16. Ammonium Metabolism Enzymes Aid Helicobacter pylori Acid Resistance



    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori possesses a highly active urease to support acid tolerance. Urea hydrolysis occurs inside the cytoplasm, resulting in the production of NH3 that is immediately protonated to form NH4+. This ammonium must be metabolized or effluxed because its presence within the cell is counterproductive to the goal of raising pH while maintaining a viable proton motive force (PMF). Two compatible hypotheses for mitigating intracellular ammonium toxicity include (i) th...

  17. Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  18. The thermal decomposition behavior of ammonium perchlorate and of an ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.


    The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate whether the STMBMS can provide new data on these materials that will have sufficient detail on the reaction mechanisms and associated reaction kinetics to permit creation of a detailed model of the thermal decomposition process. Such a model is a necessary ingredient to engineering models of ignition and slow-cookoff for these AP-based composite propellants. Results show that the decomposition of pure AP is controlled by two processes. One occurs at lower temperatures (240 to 270 C), produces mainly H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl, and is shown to occur in the solid phase within the AP particles. 200{micro} diameter AP particles undergo 25% decomposition in the solid phase, whereas 20{micro} diameter AP particles undergo only 13% decomposition. The second process is dissociative sublimation of AP to NH{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} followed by the decomposition of, and reaction between, these two products in the gas phase. The dissociative sublimation process occurs over the entire temperature range of AP decomposition, but only becomes dominant at temperatures above those for the solid-phase decomposition. AP-based composite propellants are used extensively in both small tactical rocket motors and large strategic rocket systems.

  19. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)


    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  20. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation performance within the same lactation. (United States)

    Whist, A C; Østerås, O; Sølverød, L


    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between early lactation Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis, and culling in the same lactation. The 178 commercial dairy herds were randomly placed into 3 penicillin- or penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin-based dry-cow treatments and 3 different postmilking teat disinfection groups-negative control, iodine, or external teat sealant. All cows were sampled in early lactation, and Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows were followed throughout the remainder of the lactation. Mixed models, including repeated measurements, with test-day observation as dependent variable, were used to compare milk yield, SCC, and available milk quality variables throughout the remaining lactation. Survival analyses, using a positive frailty model to account for any herd random effects, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for clinical mastitis and culling. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive cows had a significantly higher SCC throughout the lactation compared to culture-negative cows. For primiparous or multiparous cows, respectively, the differences in the geometric mean SCC between Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows was 197,000 or 280,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the lactation, 24,000 or 46,000 cells/mL in mid lactation, and 39,000 or 111,000 cells/mL at the end of the lactation. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive primiparous or multiparous cows produced 334 or 246 kg less milk, respectively, during a 305-d lactation compared with culture-negative cows. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratios for clinical mastitis in Strep. dysgalactiae-positive cows were 2.3 (1.9 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) for culling. For cows with both Strep. dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the hazard ratio for culling significantly increased to 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2).

  1. Elevated cerebral lactate: Implications in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. (United States)

    Bosoi, Cristina R; Rose, Christopher F


    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, is a frequent complication of liver failure/disease. Increased concentrations of lactate are commonly observed in HE patients, in the systemic circulation, but also in the brain. Traditionally, increased cerebral lactate is considered a marker of energy failure/impairment however alterations in lactate homeostasis may also lead to a rise in brain lactate and result in neuronal dysfunction. The latter may involve the development of brain edema. This review will target the significance of increased cerebral lactate in the pathogenesis of HE.

  2. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR


    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  3. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H;


    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...

  4. 76 FR 39847 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final... investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (``ammonium nitrate'') from the Russian Federation...: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation, 64 FR 45236 (August 19, 1999)....

  5. 40 CFR 418.40 - Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. (United States)


    ... ammonium nitrate subcategory. 418.40 Section 418.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ammonium Nitrate Subcategory § 418.40 Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of ammonium...

  6. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.


    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  7. Electric organ lactate dehydrogenase:physical and kinetic properties of the purified enzyme from Electrophorus electricus (L.). (United States)

    Torres-da Matta, J; da Matta, A N; Hassón-Voloch, A


    L(+)lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (L.) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Purified LDH was homogeneous when examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. Both LDH activity and protein were demonstrable in the same band. The mobility of the LDH-5 isozyme is characteristic of the muscle type enzyme. Isoelectric focusing showed a single molecular species of pIO 6.5 +/- 0.4. The apparent molecular weight was 140,000 (+/- 10%) on the basis of gel filtration of Sephadex G-200. The effect of organic acids on the enzyme activity towards pyruvate (NADH) and lactate (NAD) was determined spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Sodium oxamate behaved as a mixed inhibitor when lactate (NAD) was the substrate, whereas ethyl oxamate was an uncompetitive inhibitor. Both the sodium salt and the ester of oxamic acid were competitive inhibitors when pyruvate (NADH) was the substrate.

  8. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia ePieulle


    Full Text Available The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation though the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant 26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant 32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species.

  9. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo


    Full Text Available During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtration rate increase; more water is lost trhough sweating and respiration. Placenta con- tains up to 500 mL of water, and there are between 500-1,200 mL of amniotic fluid. Different studies recommend a total water intake of 2,700-4,800 mL/day during pregnancy, of which 1,470-2,370 should be beverages and water. For the Mexican population, the recommendation is 3,000 mL/day. Based on energy intake and the rule of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal, water intake must increase in at least 300 mL/day at the beginning of the third pregnancy trimester. During lactation the recommended intake is of 3-3.6 L/ day, depending on age. Obesity and overweight during pregnancy are a major health problem, to which sugary beverages contribute. Water must be considered the best choice for hydration during pregnancy and lactation.

  10. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants: a quality review. (United States)

    van der Meer, Douwe H; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G J


    The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvulsants against the guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA). Except for one study on lamotrigine and one case report on gabapentin, no study on anticonvulsants had both the absolute infant dose (AID) and milk to plasma ratio (M : P) correctly assessed. Only one study on carbamazepine, phenytoin and vigabatrin was found that correctly assessed the AID. The main cause for this low number is the lack of essential details in published studies, since 25 of 62 studies were case reports, letters or abstracts. Other major shortcomings were the lack of information on sampling methods, the number of samples in a particular dose interval as well as the low number of study participants. The quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk is low, except for lamotrigine, which makes it hard to draw conclusions about the safety of the use of anticonvulsants during the lactation period. Therefore, further research is needed. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Treatment of port-wine stains by photodynamic therapy of cuprous bromide laser%溴化亚铜激光光动力学疗法治疗鲜红斑痣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建民; 刘爱琴; 陈祖林; 杨名娟


    运用溴化亚铜激光光动力学疗法治疗鲜红斑痣296例,红斑完全消退185例(62.5%),部分消退111例(37.5%),无效0,并发疤痕15例,证实该疗法疗效确切同时仍需完善。%296 Cases of port-wine stains(PWS) were treated by photodynamic therapy(PDT) of cuprous bromide laser,including which 185 cases (62.5%)gained the result of thorough remission,111 cases (37.5%)gained the result of partial remission and 15 cases complicated with scar formation.PDT is proved to be an effective therapy for PWS while it also needs improving.

  12. Correlation between Arterial Lactate and Central Venous Lactate in Children with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernández Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactate is an important indicator of tissue perfusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences between the arterial and central venous measurement of lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Methods. Longitudinal retrospective observational study. Forty-two patients were included between the age of 1 month and 17 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of a university referral hospital. The lactate value obtained from an arterial blood sample and a central venous blood sample drawn simultaneously, and within 24 hours of admission to the unit, was recorded. Results. The median age was 2.3 years (RIC 0,3–15, with a predominance of males (71.4%, having a 2.5 : 1 ratio to females. Most of the patients had septic shock (78.5% of pulmonary origin (50.0%, followed by those of gastrointestinal origin (26.1%. Using Spearman’s Rho, a 0.872 (p<0.001 correlation was found between arterial and venous lactate, which did not vary when adjusted for age (p<0.05 and the use of vasoactive drugs (p<0.05. Conclusion. There is a good correlation between arterial and venous lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and septic shock, which is not affected by demographic variables or type of vasoactive support.

  13. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Andrus


    Full Text Available An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide (pAam. Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors.

  14. In vivo voltammetric detection of rat brain lactate with carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with lactate oxidase. (United States)

    Shram, N F; Netchiporouk, L I; Martelet, C; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bonnet, C; Cespuglio, R


    To allow rat brain lactate measurement in vivo, a specific sensor based on a carbon fiber (phi = 30 microns) microelectrode coated with lactate oxidase was prepared. Combined with the differential normal pulse voltammetry measurement method, such a sensor, with a sensitivity of 9.15 +/- 0.91, provided a lactate linear response in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 mM. The measurements performed appeared to be essentially insensitive to usual interference caused by the electroactive compounds present in the brain (ascorbic acid and peptides). In vivo detection performed in the cortex of the anesthetized rat led to the determination of a lactate concentration of 0.41 +/- 0.02 mM. Moreover, to validate the results obtained in vivo, an ex vivo determination of the lactate level was also performed in samples of brain tissue, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid, using both voltammetry and a clinical analyzer with colorimetric-based detection. A good correlation was observed between the sets of data established by both methods.

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin;


    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  16. Quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of allylphenols with peripheral analgesic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Ammonium salt derivatives of natural allylphenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining potential peripheral analgesics. These drugs, by virtue of their physicochemical properties, would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier. Their inability to enter into the central nervous system (CNS should prevent several adverse effects observed with classical opiate analgesics (Ferreira et al., 1984. Eugenol (1 O-methyleugenol (5 and safrole (9 were submitted to nitration, reduction and permethylation, leading to the ammonium salts 4, 8 and 12. Another strategy applied to eugenol (1, consisting in its conversion to a glycidic ether (13, opening the epoxide ring with secondary amines and methylation, led to the ammonium salts 16 and 17. All these ammonium salts showed significant peripheral analgesic action, in modified version of the Randall-Sellito test (Ferreira et al. 1978, at non-lethal doses. The ammonium salt 8 showed an activity comparable to that of methylnalorphinium, the prototype of an ideal peripheral analgesic (Ferreira et al., 1984.

  17. Removing ammonium from water using modified corncob-biochar. (United States)

    Vu, Thi Mai; Trinh, Van Tuyen; Doan, Dinh Phuong; Van, Huu Tap; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Ngo, Huu Hao


    Ammonium pollution in groundwater and surface water is of major concern in many parts of the world due to the danger it poses to the environment and people's health. This study focuses on the development of a low cost adsorbent, specifically a modified biochar prepared from corncob. Evaluated here is the efficiency of this new material for removing ammonium from synthetic water (ammonium concentration from 10 to 100mg/L). The characteristics of the modified biochar were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that ammonium adsorption on modified biochar strongly depended on pH. Adsorption kinetics of NH4(+)-N using modified biochar followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherm models could simulate well the adsorption behavior of ammonium on modificated biochar. The highest adsorption capacity of 22.6mg NH4(+)-N/g modified biochar was obtained when the biochar was modified by soaking it in HNO3 6M and NaOH 0.3M for 8h and 24h, respectively. The high adsorption capacity of the modified biochar suggested that it is a promising adsorbent for NH4(+)-N remediation from water.

  18. Difficultly Extractable Fixed Ammonium in Some Soils of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Ninety-three soil samples and 19 sedimentary rock samples collected from 21 provinces of China were analyzed for their contents of fixed ammonium and total N by Kjeldahl-HF method.Results showed that amount of difficultly extractable fixed ammonium(the fixed ammonium that is not determinable by Kjeldahl procedures commonly used for soils) in soils ranged from 0 to 202 mg kg-1,It was generally more than 50 mg kg-1 in soils in Changji and Turpan districts,Xinjiang,accounting for 3.2%-36.8% with an average of 13.9% of the total N.For some Orthents derived from purple shale and purple sandstone in Sichuan and Hunan provinces and Chao soils derived from secondary loess in Henan Province and Ningxia Autonomous Region it was generally around 30 mg kg-1,accounting for 4%-7% of the total soil N,and for most of the rest of soils studied,with the exception of some subsoils,no or trace difficultly extractable fixed ammonium could be detected.It was sugested that the difficultly extractable fixed ammonium was originated from parent rock,and for slightly weathered soils derived from parent materials rich in this form of N the Kjeldahl method might give underestimation of total soil N.

  19. Fractionation of bamboo hemicelluloses by graded saturated ammonium sulphate. (United States)

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Xian-Ming; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang


    The hemicelluloses were isolated with 10% KOH at 25°C from dewaxed and delignified bamboo powder. The alkali-soluble hemicelluloses from Sinocalamus affinis were fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The bamboo alkali-soluble hemicelluloses yielded seven hemicellulosic fractions obtained at 0, 5, 15, 25, 40, 55, and 70% saturation with ammonium sulphate. It was found that the more branched hemicelluloses were precipitated at higher ammonium sulphate concentrations (55 and 70%), the more linear hemicelluloses were precipitated at lower ammonium sulphate concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25, and 40%). The molecular weights of hemicellulosic fractions become lower from 35,270 (H0) to 18,680 (H70)gmol(-1) with the increasing concentrations of saturated ammonium sulphate from 0 to 70%. Based on the FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and 2D HSQC NMR studies, the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were 4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylans composed of the (1→4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl backbone with branches at O-3 of α-L-arabinofuranosyl or at O-2 of 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid.

  20. Effects of bisphenol A on ammonium assimilation in soybean roots. (United States)

    Sun, Hai; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiao Hua


    Bisphenol A (BPA), which is ubiquitous in the environment, is an example of an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC). Ammonium assimilation has an important function in plant growth and development. However, insufficient information on the potential effect of BPA on ammonium assimilation in plants is available. In this study, the effects of BPA on ammonium assimilation in roots of soybean seedlings were investigated. During the stress period, 1.5 mg L(-1) of BPA improved glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) cycle and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) pathway in ammonium assimilation. The amino acid and the soluble protein contents increased in the soybeans. At 17.2 and 50.0 mg L(-1) of BPA, the GS/GOGAT cycle was inhibited and the GDH pathway was promoted. The amino acid content increased and the soluble protein content decreased. During the recovery period, the GS/GOGAT cycle and the GDH pathway recovered at 1.5 and 17.2 mg L(-1) of BPA but not at 50.0 mg L(-1) of BPA. The amino acid content continuously increased and the soluble protein content decreased compared with those in the control treatment. In summary, BPA treatment could affect the contents of soluble protein and amino acid in the soybean roots by regulating ammonium assimilation.

  1. A maritime pine antimicrobial peptide involved in ammonium nutrition. (United States)

    Canales, Javier; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M


    A large family of small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is involved in the innate defence of plants against pathogens. Recently, it has been shown that AMPs may also play important roles in plant growth and development. In previous work, we have identified a gene of the AMP β-barrelin family that was differentially regulated in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in response to changes in ammonium nutrition. Here, we present the molecular characterization of two AMP genes, PpAMP1 and PpAMP2, showing different molecular structure and physicochemical properties. PpAMP1 and PpAMP2 displayed different expression patterns in maritime pine seedlings and adult trees. Furthermore, our expression analyses indicate that PpAMP1 is the major form of AMP in the tree, and its relative abundance is regulated by ammonium availability. In contrast, PpAMP2 is expressed at much lower levels and it is not regulated by ammonium. To gain new insights into the function of PpAMP1, we over-expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PpAMP1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, indicating that it exhibits antimicrobial activity. We have also found that PpAMP1 alters ammonium uptake, suggesting that it is involved in the regulation of ammonium ion flux into pine roots.

  2. Ammonium Removal from Synthetic Stormwater using Clinoptilolite and Hydroaluminosilicate Columns. (United States)

    Khorsha, Golnaz; Davis, Allen P


    Ammonium can enter stormwater control measures (SCMs) with the influent, but is also the intermediate product between organic nitrogen and nitrate, and it is important to retain and treat ammonium within the SCM. In this study the use of aluminosilicate aggregates (CA) and clinoptilolite zeolite (ZT) was investigated under SCM (column) conditions. ZT was found to have the highest capacity (0.45 mg -N/g ZT vis-à-vis 0.33 mg -N/g CA) at 2.5 mg NH4-N/L. The presence of Ca2+ and K+ was found to reduce the capacity of the media significantly. Increasing the contact time from 10 minutes to 47 minutes enhanced the removal efficiency of the system by 70% for CA and 23% for ZT, respectively. Finally, changes in the influent ammonium concentration resulted in successful removal during concentration increases, but desorption of ammonium for sudden concentration reduction. The use of ZT in media-based SCMs is recommended for ammonium removal.

  3. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. (United States)

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E; Sonveaux, Pierre


    Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. It depends on the uptake of extracellular lactate by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Lactate first stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and HIF-2α then transactivates c-Myc in a pathway that mimics a response to hypoxia. Consequently, lactate-induced c-Myc activation triggers the expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and of glutaminase 1 (GLS1), resulting in improved glutamine uptake and catabolism. Elucidation of this metabolic dependence could be of therapeutic interest. First, inhibitors of lactate uptake targeting MCT1 are currently entering clinical trials. They have the potential to indirectly repress glutaminolysis. Second, in oxidative cancer cells, resistance to glutaminolysis inhibition could arise from compensation by oxidative lactate metabolism and increased lactate signaling.

  4. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Newman

    Full Text Available When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  5. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing. (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E


    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  6. Lactate-a suicide mode or survival kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cellular energy status is often believed to be crucial in the patho physiology of severe acute diseases involving sepsis or trauma such as multiorgan failure, mu ltiorgan dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response system, etc. Wit h this in mind increased blood lactate, mainly considered only as a marker or t issue hypoxia is a classical tool used to assess the severity of the illness an d to predict the pejorative outcome. However, during the past years the actual r ole of hypoxia in the pathophysiology of such acute diseases with an increased b lood lactate has been questioned. The association between increased blood lactate concentration and poor prognosi s in ICU patients is well documented but it is clearly not a cause-effect relat ionship. It is similar to what occurs in the case of increased blood ketone I n severe insulin deficient state and it would be a major understanding to be lieve that lactate is a toxic compound in acute states. In acute illness, incre ased lactate concentration or lactate metabolism can be due to the combination of various origin in which the role of splanchnic bed is prominent. In the case of strong reduction in oxygen delivery, such as severe shock, it is quite clear that there is a relationship between cellular energy defect and increased lact ate production. But even in these cases a decrease in lactate metabolism (eithe r oxidative or recycling routes) may also be involved. In septic states, the ro le of blood lactate is a matter of controversy and several reports have e mphasiz ed the fact that hyperlactatemia in sepsis was not due to the oxygen d eficit. It has been shown that mild hyperlactatemia in stable septic patients was due to an impaired lactate clearance rather than overproduction. Besides the main conc lusion that any therapeutic attempts to increase oxygen delivery in such situa tion may not be adapted, another point can be raised concerning the meaning of s uch lactate increase. In fact, increased blood

  7. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied.The results showed that both SO42-and NH4+ were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions.They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst(sludge).The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing ammonium with sulfate anaero-bically.The average reduction of sulfate and ammonium was 71.67 mg.L-1 and 56.82 mg.L-1 at high concentrations.The reaction between SO42-and NH4+ was difficult,though feasible,due to its low standard Gibbs free energy change.The experiment demonstrated that high substrate concentrations and low oxidation-reduction potential(ORP) may be favourable for the biological reaction.

  8. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammo-nium oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; ZHENG Ping; HE YuHui; JIN RenCun


    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied. The results showed that both SO42- and NH4+ were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions. They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst (sludge). The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing ammonium with sulfate anaero-bically. The average reduction of sulfate and ammonium was 71.67 mg.L-1 and 56.82 mg.L-1 at high concentrations.The reaction between SO42- and NH4+ was difficult, though feasible, due to its low standard Gibbs free energy change. The experiment demonstrated that high substrate concentrations and low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) may be favourable for the biological reaction.

  9. Rocket Solid Propellant Alternative Based on Ammonium Dinitramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN


    Full Text Available Due to the continuous run for a green environment the current article proposes a new type of solid propellant based on the fairly new synthesized oxidizer, ammonium dinitramide (ADN. Apart of having a higher specific impulse than the worldwide renowned oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, ADN has the advantage, of leaving behind only nitrogen, oxygen and water after decomposing at high temperatures and therefore totally avoiding the formation of hydrogen chloride fumes. Based on the oxidizer to fuel ratios of the current formulations of the major rocket solid booster (e.g. Space Shuttle’s SRB, Ariane 5’s SRB which comprises mass variations of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (70-75%, atomized aluminum powder (10-18% and polybutadiene binder (12-20% a new solid propellant was formulated. As previously stated, the new propellant formula and its variations use ADN as oxidizer and erythritol tetranitrate as fuel, keeping the same polybutadiene as binder.

  10. The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Obłąk


    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium salts (QASs, especially those of cationic surfactant character, are applied as antibacterial and antifungal disinfectants. QASs affect lipid-enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, but not non-enveloped viruses. These compounds are extensively used in domestic (as ingredients of shampoos, hair conditioners, agricultural (as fungicides, pesticides, insecticides, healthcare (as medications, and industrial applications (as biocides, fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors. The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. Thus [i]Staphylococcus[/i] [i]aureus[/i] strains contain the plasmid-carrying genes [i]qacA[/i] and [i]qacB [/i]encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and acriflavine. The membrane proteins QacA and QacB confer multidrug resistance by exporting the compound by the proton motive force which is generated by the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient.

  11. [The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs)]. (United States)

    Obłak, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej


    Quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), especially those of cationic surfactant character, are applied as antibacterial and antifungal disinfectants. QASs affect lipid-enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), but not non-enveloped viruses. These compounds are extensively used in domestic (as ingredients of shampoos, hair conditioners), agricultural (as fungicides, pesticides, insecticides), healthcare (as medications), and industrial applications (as biocides, fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors). The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. Thus Staphylococcus aureus strains contain the plasmid-carrying genes qacA and qacB encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and acriflavine. The membrane proteins QacA and QacB confer multidrug resistance by exporting the compound by the proton motive force which is generated by the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient.

  12. Study on mechanism of isomerization between ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Niu, Meng-Xiao


    Application of ammonium thiocyanate that can be separated from wastewater in coking plant is limited. It may isomerize to thiourea which has widely applied in industry. However, the isomerization yield is low. Moreover, the isomerization temperature is more than 145 °C. In this paper, the isomerization was investigated. The mechanism of the isomerization was supposed based on quantum chemistry calculations. Ammonia was employed as a catalyst to lower isomerization temperature and improved the yield of thiourea in the isomerization reaction. Results of quantum chemical calculation and experiments support the supposed mechanism. The mechanism can be applied in production of thiourea from isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate. The paper suggests a useful way of resourcizing ammonium thiocyanate in wastewater.

  13. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jie


    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from the East China Sea and discusses the nitrogen removal efficiency of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of anammox bacteria with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.37kg-N m-3day-1. In this study, The nitrogen removal efficiency was up to 80% and the molar-reaction ratio of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate was 1.0:1.22:0.22 which was a little different from a previously reported ratio of 1.0:1.32:0.26 in a freshwater system.

  14. Efficient production of pyruvate from DL-lactate by the lactate-utilizing strain Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The platform chemical lactate is currently produced mainly through the fermentation of sugars presented in biomass. Besides the synthesis of biodegradable polylactate, lactate is also viewed as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Pyruvate, another important platform chemical, can be produced from lactate through biocatalysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was established that whole cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM catalyze lactate oxidation with lactate-induced NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases (iLDHs through the inherent electron transfer chain. Unlike the lactate oxidation processes observed in previous reports, the mechanism underlying lactate oxidation described in the present study excluded the costliness of the cofactor regeneration step and production of the byproduct hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biocatalysis conditions were optimized by using the cheap dl-lactate as the substrate and whole cells of the lactate-utilizing P. stutzeri SDM as catalyst. Under optimal conditions, the biocatalytic process produced pyruvate at a high concentration (48.4 g l(-1 and a high yield (98%. The bioconversion system provides a promising alternative for the green production of pyruvate.

  15. Steady state growth of E. Coli in low ammonium environment (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Deris, Barret; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terry


    Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for many microorganisms. In medium with low ammonium concentrations, enteric bacteria turn on the nitrogen responsive (ntr) genes to assimilate ammonium. Two proteins in E. coli, Glutamine synthetase (GS) and the Ammonium/methylammonium transporter AmtB play crucial roles in this regard. GS is the major ammonium assimilation enzyme below 1mM of NH4 + . AmtB is an inner membrane protein that transports NH4 + across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. In order to study ammonium uptake at low NH4 + concentration at neutral pH, we developed a microfluidic flow chamber that maintains a homogenous nutrient environment during the course of exponential cell growth, even at very low concentration of nutrients. Cell growth can be accurately monitored using time-lapse microscopy. We followed steady state growth down to micro-molar range of NH4 + for the wild type and Δ amtB strains. The wild type strain is able to maintain the growth rate from 10mM down to a few uM of NH4 + , while the mutant exhibited reduced growth below ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + . Simultaneous characterization of the expression levels of GS and AmtB using fluorescence reporters reveals that AmtB is turned on already at 1mM, but contributes to function only below ~ 30 ~uM in the wild-type. Down to ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + , E.~coli can compensate the loss of AmtB by GS alone.

  16. Perfluorooctanoate: Placental and lactational transport pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Mylchreest, E.; Gannon, S. A.; Butenhoff, J. L.; Kennedy, G.L., Jr.


    This study was conducted to develop a quantitative understanding of the potential for gestational and lactational transfer of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in the rat. Time-mated female rats were dosed by oral gavage once daily at concentrations of 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day of the ammonium salt of PFOA (APFO) starting on gestation (G) day 4 and continuing until sacrifice. On days 10, 15, and 21G, five rats per dose level were sacrificed and blood samples were collected 2h post-dose. Embryos were collected on day 10G, amniotic fluid, placentas, and embryos/fetuses were collected on days 15 and 21G, and fetal blood samples were collected on day 21G. Five rats per dose level were allowed to deliver and nurse their litters, and on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-partum (PP) milk and blood samples of maternal and pup were collected 2h post-dose. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for PFOA concentration. Concentrations of PFOA in maternal plasma and milk attained steady state during the sampling interval. The steady-state concentrations in maternal plasma were 10-15, 25-30, and 60-75 microg/mL in rats receiving 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Steady-state concentrations in milk were approximately 10 times less than those in maternal plasma. The concentration of PFOA in fetal plasma on day 21G was approximately half the steady-state concentration in maternal plasma. The milk concentrations appeared to be generally comparable to the concentrations in pup plasma. Pup plasma concentrations decreased from day 3PP to day 7PP, and were similar on days 7, 14, and 21PP at all dose levels. PFOA was detected in placenta (days 15 and 21G), amniotic fluid (days 15 and 21G), embryo (days 10 and 15G), and fetus (day 21G). These pharmacokinetics allow estimation of the dose to developing and nursing rat offspring following maternal exposure.

  17. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of milk protein synthesis and development of the mammary gland (MG. However, the specific functions of miRNAs in these regulations are not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of miRNA expression profiles in the MG is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of lactogenesis. Results Two miRNA libraries were constructed from MG tissues taken from a lactating and a non-lactating Holstein dairy cow, respectively, and the short RNA sequences (18–30 nt in these libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing method. The libraries included 885 pre-miRNAs encoding for 921 miRNAs, of which 884 miRNAs were unique sequences and 544 (61.5% were expressed in both periods. A custom-designed microarray assay was then performed to compare miRNA expression patterns in the MG of lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. A total of 56 miRNAs in the lactating MG showed significant differences in expression compared to non-lactating MG (P Conclusion Our study provides a broad view of the bovine MG miRNA expression profile characteristics. Eight hundred and eighty-four miRNAs were identified in bovine MG. Differences in types and expression levels of miRNAs were observed between lactating and non-lactating bovine MG. Systematic predictions aided in the identification of lactation-related miRNAs, providing insight into the types of miRNAs and their possible mechanisms in regulating lactation.

  18. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit


    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10...... matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial...... is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function....

  19. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.


    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2 nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  20. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates (United States)

    Sikora, Karol; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Podgórska, Beata


    Summary This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic. PMID:27559394

  1. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dmochowska


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxyhexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic.

  2. Effect of peroxodisulfate on uranium leaching with ammonium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbek Nurpeisov


    Full Text Available In this study, uranium leaching from ore material using acid solution and bicarbonate in a presence peroxodisulfate ion was examined. For experiments two different tips of leaching methods were used: leaching in static and dynamic conditions. The determination of uranium concentrations in product solutions were analyzed by titrimetric (by ammonia vanadate solution method. The maximum yield of uranium leached with ammonium bicarbonate in a presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (5 g/L was only 33%, which is half the corresponding value obtained by sulfuric acid (65%.

  3. Precipitation of phenyl and phenoxypenicillin from solutions using ammonium sulfate. (United States)

    Luengo, J M


    An easy, rapid, and available method for separating 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), benzylpenicillin (penicillin G), and other related molecules from aqueous solutions or complex industrial broths is described. A high concentration of ammonium sulphate induces partially or totally the precipitation of the penicillin present in the solutions, while 6-APA, phenylacetic, and phenoxyacetic acid always remain in the supernatant. The filtration through No. 4 Pyrex glass-fiber filter or Whatman 3MM paper permits the separation of the compounds present in the supernatant from the other ones precipitated. The precipitated product was identified, in all cases, as ammonium penicillin. This method is described here for the first time.

  4. Determination of Ammonium Ion in Lake Water by Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yun-hua; Fei Jun-jie; Dang Xue-ping; Hu Sheng-shui


    An electroanalytical method for the determination of armonium ion using a platinized platinum electrode is described. Under optimized analytical conditions, the linear range of the calibration graphs for ammonium ion is 3. 0×10(-5)-5.0×10-3 mol·L-1.The Method has been applide to the determination of ammonium ion in lake water samples and recoveries of 100%-103%0 are obtained. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with spectrophotometric results.

  5. Construction techniques for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators using ferric ammonium alum (United States)

    Wilson, Grant W.; Timbie, Peter T.


    We describe techniques used to fabricate the cold stage of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator that uses the paramagnetic salt ferric ammonium alum. We discuss the design of a leak-tight housing for the salt as well as a technique for growing ferric ammonium alum crystals that results in a housing filled with >98% refrigerant. These techniques have proven to be reliable in creating robust single-stage refrigerators. Similar techniques can be used for the second stage of a dual-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator.

  6. Enhanced responsiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Jury

    Full Text Available The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST and marble burying task (MBT. Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although

  7. [Pregnancy and lactation in rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Murakawa, Yohko


    Previously, female RA patients wishing to become pregnant were treated with only glucocorticoid, NSAIDs and sulfasalazine. However, these limited therapy sometimes fail to sustain RA remission, though pregnancy in most cases is associated with improving RA activity. High RA activity and relative high dose of glucocorticoid also involved poor fertility. Recently, a variety of medications are available to treat patients with RA. This article reviewed the safety or not safety of these medications during prior to conception, pregnancy and post-partum period. Accumulating experience with TNF blockade provide the useful insights for the treatment of RA patients during pre-conception, pregnancy or lactation.

  8. Self-assembled monolayers with biospecific affinity for lactate dehydrogenase for the electroenzymatic oxidation of lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlereth, Daniela D.; Kooyman, R.P.H.


    Surface modified gold electrodes with high biospecific affinity for NAD(H)-dependent lactate dehydrogenase have been prepared by covalent attachment of several traizine dyes to stepwise functionalized mixed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. The biospecific affinity of such ligand-anchored

  9. Not only osmoprotectant: betaine increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and L-lactate production in lactobacilli. (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Wu, Zaiqiang; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Cao, Yujin


    Lactobacilli are commonly used for industrial production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid. The present study tested the Tween 80 alternative betaine in L-lactate production by several industrial lactobacilli. In flask fermentation of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, the betaine addition (2g/l) had similar osmoprotectant effect with Tween 80 but had increased the lactate dehydrogenase activities and L-lactate production than Tween 80 control. In fed-batch fermentation of L. casei, betaine supplementation improved the L-lactic acid titer to 190 g/l, the yield to 95.5% (g L-lactic acid/g glucose), the productivity to 2.6g/lh, and the optical purity to 97.0%. The results demonstrated that supplementation of Tween 80 alternative - betaine in the fermentation medium is feasible for industrial l-lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli, which will improve the lactate production but will not increase the process costs and modify any process conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma. (United States)

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R


    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure.

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin


    A series of mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis were constructed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities ranging from below 1% to 133% of the wild-type activity level. The mutants with 59% to 133% of lactate dehydrogenase activity had growth rates similar to the wild-type and showed...... a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation. (United States)

    Ryu, Rachel J; Eyal, Sara; Easterling, Thomas R; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataraman, Raman; Hankins, Gary; Rytting, Erik; Thummel, Kenneth; Kelly, Edward J; Risler, Linda; Phillips, Brian; Honaker, Matthew T; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation. Serial plasma, urine, and breast milk concentrations of metoprolol and its metabolite, α-hydroxymetoprolol, were measured over 1 dosing interval in women treated with metoprolol (25-750 mg/day) during early pregnancy (n = 4), mid-pregnancy (n = 14), and late pregnancy (n = 15), as well as postpartum (n = 9) with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) lactation. Subjects were genotyped for CYP2D6 loss-of-function allelic variants. Using paired analysis, mean metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher in mid-pregnancy (361 ± 223 L/h, n = 5, P pregnancy (568 ± 273 L/h, n = 8, P pregnancy (P pregnancy-induced changes in metoprolol pharmacokinetics, if inadequate clinical responses are encountered, clinicians who prescribe metoprolol during pregnancy should be prepared to make aggressive changes in dosage (dose and frequency) or consider using an alternate beta-blocker.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore


    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  14. Studies of pituitary function in lactating ewes. (United States)

    Restall, B J; Kearins, R D; Starr, B G


    The release of LH from the pituitary of lactating ewes was studied. In Exp. 1, ewes were injected with 50 microng oestradiol benzoate (OB), 2-0 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or oil only (control) on days 5, 10, or 20 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples obtained 20-38 h after treatment, and the ovulations were recorded. The number of ewes in which an LH release was detected, and the amount released, declined between Day 5 and 20 after OB treatment but increased after TP treatment. The releases of LH were not always accompanied by ovulation and the incidence of ovulation was higher in ewes treated with TP. In Exp. 2, lactating ewes were injected with 1 or 5 (at 2-h intervals) doses of 50 microng Gn-RH, on Days 12 or 25 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples collected every 2 h for 10 h and every 3 h for a further 70 h. Release of LH occurred in all ewes, the amount being greater in ewes receiving multiple injections and in ewes treated on Day 25. The incidence of ovulation was higher after treatment on Day 25. Multiple injections of Gn-RH appeared to reduce the incidence of abnormal corpora lutea.

  15. Carboxylates and the uptake of ammonium by excised maize roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, H.


    The effect of carboxylates (organic acid anions) on NH 4 uptake was studied by changing the carboxylate level of roots prior to uptake experi ments. Succinate was the most effective stimulator of ammonium uptake. The oxocarboxylates (α-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate and

  16. Growth features of ammonium hydrogen -tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sajeevkumar; R Raveendran; B S Remadevi; Alexander Varghese Vaidyan


    Ammonium hydrogen -tartrate (-AHT) single crystals were grown in silica gel. The growth features of these crystals with variation of parameters like specific gravity of the gel, gel pH, acid concentrations, concentration of the feed solution and gel age were studied in detail.

  17. Characterization of ammonium polyuranate powders from a continuous precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oolman, T.


    Ammonium polyuranate powders produced in a continuous, well-mixed precipitator were characterized by means of electron microscopy. The powders were qualitatively analyzed with the scanning electron microscope and the elementary crystallites were quantivatively analyzed with the transmission electron microscope. The results were fit to a kinetic theory of continuous precipitation. A phase analysis was also preformed by x-ray powder diffraction.

  18. Aqueous Media Oxidation of Alcohols with Ammonium Persulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IMANZADEH, Gholam Hassan; ZAMANLOO, Mohammad R.; MANSOORI, Yaghoob; KHODAYARI, Ali


    Oxidation of series of various primary and secondary alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds with ammonium persulfate in aqueous media was described. No over oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids and secondary alcohols to esters was observed. Under such conditions benzoin was converted to benzoic acid.


    In order to determine the probable cause and mechanism of the explosion of cargoes of fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate on shipboard at Texas City...undergo explosion and in turn initiate the explosion of unconsumed nitrate fertilizer . A hypothesis of the mechanism of the Texas City disaster was established on this basis. (Author)

  20. Global modeling of nitrate and ammonium aerosols using EQSAM3 (United States)

    Xu, L.; Penner, J. E.


    Atmospheric aerosols, particles suspending in air, are important as they affect human health, air quality, and visibility as well as climate. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride and sodium are among the most important inorganic aerosol species in the atmosphere. These compounds are hygroscopic and absorb water under almost all ambient environmental conditions. The uptake of water alters the aerosol size, and causes water to become the constituent with the largest atmospheric aerosol mass, especially when the aerosols grow into fog, haze or clouds. Furthermore, several global model studies have demonstrated that rapid increases in nitrogen emissions could produce enough nitrate in aerosols to offset the expected decline in sulfate forcing by 2100 for the extreme IPCC A2 scenario (Bauer et al., 2007). Although nitrate and ammonium were identified as significant anthropogenic sources of aerosols by a number of modeling studies, most global aerosol models still exclude ammonium-nitrate when the direct aerosol forcing is studied. In this study, the computationally efficient equilibrium model, EQSAM3, is incorporated into the UMICH-IMPACT-nitrate model using the hybrid dynamical solution method (Feng and Penner, 2007). The partitioning of nitrate and ammonium along with the corresponding water uptake is evaluated by comparing the model to the EQUISOLVE II method used in Feng and Penner (2007). The model is also evaluated by comparison with the AERONET data base and satellite-based aerosol optical depths.

  1. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov


    Full Text Available Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  2. New synthetic method and properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, H.; Onda, T.; Shi Ino, K.; Kiname, S.I. [Technical Center, Hosoya Kako, Osawa (Japan); Miyazaki, S.; Suzuki, S. [Research et Development Center, Nissan Motor Co, Saitama (Japan)


    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is one of the energetic materials, its hazard, however, has never been presented yet. In this paper, new synthetic method of ADN and its properties are contained. It has been found out that ADN has little hazard and is a safe energetic compound. (authors) 4 refs.

  3. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8 (United States)


    ... diet of humans, animals, and plants and currently have Food and Drug Administration and EPA approved.../kg/day (6 times the limit dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day) on days 2 to 13 of pregnancy and musculo-skeletal... plants. Ammonium salts of fatty acid are not likely to persist in the environment and are expected to...

  4. Treating leachate mixture with anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-guo; ZHOU Shao-qi


    Large amounts of ammonium and a low content of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand(COD) are contained in leachate from aged landfills, together with the effluent containing high concentration of nitric nitrogen after biochemical treatment.Treatment effect of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process on the mixture of the leachate and its biochemical effluent was investigated. The results show that the average removal efficiencies of ammonium, nitric nitrogen and total nitrogen are 87.51%,74.95% and 79.59%, respectively, corresponding to the average ratio of removed nitric nitrogen to ammonium, i.e. 1.14 during the steady phase of anammox activity. The mean removal efficiency of COD is only 24.01% during the experimental period. The demand of total phosphorous for the anammox process is unobvious. Especially, the alkalinity and pH value of the effluent are close to those of the influent during the steady phase of anammox activity. In addition, it is demonstrated that the status of the anammox bioreactor can be indicated by the alkalinity and pH value during the course of the experiment. The anammox bioreactor has shown potential for nitrogen removal in the leachate mixture. However, COD and total phosphorous in the leachate mixture need further treatment for removal efficiencies of COD and total phosphorous are not good in the anammox bioreactor.

  5. Profiling the origin of ammonium nitrate: proof-of-principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; Farmache, M.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der


    In many Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) the main charge consists of ammonium nitrate (AN). For forensic reasons, screening for the origin of AN is of importance. By assessing specifi c characteristics, diff erent AN batches can be profi led, in this way providing extra information which could

  6. Synthetic receptors for ammonium ions using dynamic combinatorial chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamieh, Saleh


    The general topic of this dissertation is the development of synthetic receptors for organic ammonium ions in near physiological conditions using disulfide dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). Chapter 1 explains the importance of this development and the associated difficulties when using the conv

  7. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems. (United States)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte


    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  8. Profiling the origin of ammonium nitrate: proof-of-principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; Farmache, M.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der


    In many Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) the main charge consists of ammonium nitrate (AN). For forensic reasons, screening for the origin of AN is of importance. By assessing specifi c characteristics, diff erent AN batches can be profi led, in this way providing extra information which could le

  9. Clinical significance of lactate in acute cardiac patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiara; Lazzeri; Serafina; Valente; Marco; Chiostri; Gian; Franco; Gensini


    Lactate, as a metabolite of easy and quick assessment, has been studied over time in critically ill patients in order to evaluate its prognostic ability. The present review is focused on the prognostic role of lactate levels in acute cardiac patients(that is with acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, non including post cardiac surgery patients). In patients with STelevation myocardial infarction treated with mechanical revascularization, hyperlactatemia identified a subset of patients at higher risk for early death and in-hospital complications, being strictly related mainly to hemodynamic derangement. The prognostic impact of hyperlactatemia on mortality has been documented in patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with cardiac arrest even if there is no cut-off value of lactate to be associated with worse outcome or to guide resuscitation or hemodynamic management. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to affect per se lactate values which have been shown to progressively decrease during hypothermia. The mechanism(s) accounting for lactate levels during hypothemia seem to be multiple ranging from the metabolic effects of reduced temperatures to the hemodynamic effects of hypothermia(i.e., reduced need of vasopressor agents). Serial lactate measurements over time, or lactate clearance, have been reported to be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value also in acute cardiac patients. Despite differences in study design, timing of lactate measurements and type of acute cardiac conditions(i.e., cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, refractory cardiac arrest), available evidence strongly suggests that higher lactate levels can be observed on admission in non-survivors and that higher lactate clearance is associated with better outcome.

  10. Maximizing ammonium nitrogen removal from solution using different zeolites. (United States)

    Penn, Chad J; Warren, Jason G; Smith, Savannah


    Zeolite minerals are ideal for removing ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from animal wastes, leachates, and industrial effluents. The objectives of this study were to compare NH4+ removal and kinetics among several commercially available zeolites under various conditions and determine if calorimetry could provide information regarding kinetics of NH4+ removal. Ammonium sorption onto potassium (K) saturated zeolites was compared using synthetic vs. natural swine effluent and with either traditional batch-shaken system or a "tea bag" approach in which zeolites were contained in a mesh sack and suspended in a solution of swine effluent. Ammonium sorption was measured at four retention times using a flow-through system, and the resulting heat response was measured using isothermal calorimetry. Ammonium removal was not significantly different in synthetic vs. natural swine effluent. Ammonium removal was lower in batch-stirred compared to batch-shaken systems, suggesting that diffusion between particles was rate-limiting in the former system. Flow-through cells possessing contact times > 100 s displayed greater NH4+ sorption than batch systems, suggesting that maintaining high NH4+ concentration in solution, removal of exchange products, and sufficient reaction time are critical to maximizing NH4+ removal by zeolites. Within 100 s after NH4+ addition, endothermic heat responses indicated that NH4(+)-K+ exchange had peaked; this was followed by significant heat rate reduction for 50 min. This confirmed findings of an initial fast NH4(+)-K+ exchange followed by a slower one and suggests the 100-s period of rapid reaction is an indicator of the minimum flow through retention time required to optimize NH4+ sorption to zeolites used in this study.

  11. Recycle use of magnesium ammonium phosphate to remove ammonium nitrogen from rare-earth wastewater. (United States)

    Huang, H M; Xiao, X M; Yan, B


    This paper presents a recycle MAP process (magnesium ammonium phosphate) to remove NH4-N from a typical rare-earth wastewater. The optimum conditions for the MAP precipitation and recycle use of the MAP with a newly-designed process were investigated in laboratory. The results showed that the pH value and dosages of P (phosphate) and Mg reagents have a significant influence on NH4-N removal, with a maximum removal efficiency of 99.4% at the conditions of pH=9 and Mg:N:P molar ratio=1.2:1:1.2. In the process of recycle use of the MAP, adding some HCl to dissolve MAP decomposition residues could effectively enhance NH4-N removal. The NH4-N removal efficiency reached 99.6% by adding an HCl amount of H+:OH- molar ratio=0.8 into the reused MAP decomposition residues, whereas the NH4-N removal efficiency without addition of HCl was only 96.4%. Moreover, the residual PO4-P from the end of reaction was recovered and the optimum recovery efficiency was achieved at a Mg:P molar ratio=6 and pH=10. Under these optimum conditions, the residual NH4-N and PO4-P concentrations in the treated wastewater, through 6 times of the recycling, were less than 15 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of this, an economic evaluation of the recycling MAP was made, and this recycle process could save 48.6% cost used in the chemicals for treating per cubic meter of the rare-earth wastewater, compared to the conventional MAP process.

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of quaternary ammonium electrolytes : Unexpected side reactions in organic electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri Nigjeh, Eslam; de Vries, Marcel; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.


    Quaternary ammonium salts are among the most widely used electrolytes in organic electrochemistry, but there is little known about their unwanted side oxidation reactions. We have, therefore, studied the constant potential oxidation products of quaternary ammonium electrolytes using mass spectrometr

  13. Antibacterial activity of reactive quaternary ammonium compounds in solution and in nonleachable coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozzelino, G.; Romero Tobar, D.E.; Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.


    Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs), end

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of quaternary ammonium electrolytes : Unexpected side reactions in organic electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri Nigjeh, Eslam; de Vries, Marcel; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    Quaternary ammonium salts are among the most widely used electrolytes in organic electrochemistry, but there is little known about their unwanted side oxidation reactions. We have, therefore, studied the constant potential oxidation products of quaternary ammonium electrolytes using mass

  15. Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broka Līga


    Full Text Available Although benefits of breast-feeding have been known for a long time and breast milk is considered as ideal nutrition for infants, the composition of breast milk is still being studied, since breast milk differs among mothers and populations, as well as during different times of lactation. Further, no study has been performed among lactating women in Latvia during recent years. The objective of the study was to determine the breast milk composition and influencing factors among lactating women in Latvia in different lactation periods, as well as to compare the results with data from other countries. Fifty breast milk samples were obtained from 44 mothers (on the 5th-7th and 11th-28th day of lactation, whose neonates were treated in the Neonatal Care Unit, Children’s Clinical University Hospital, Rīga. Milk analysis (pH, density, protein, fat, and lactose concentration was performed in the Latvia University of Agriculture. Breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia on the 5th-7th lactation day more resembled transitional milk containing a higher amount of protein and a lower amount of fat. The composition of the studied milk samples on the 11th-28th lactation day was comparable to data from other countries. Concentration of lactose was correlated with neonatal weight and not gestational age.

  16. Lactate to creatinine ratio in amniotic fluid : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Helen L.; Pistorius, Lourens; Voorbij, Hieronymus A. M.; Visser, Gerard H. A.


    Measurement of amniotic fluid (AF) lactate concentration in complicated pregnancies may provide information on the extent of fetal acidemia. However, normalisation for AF volume may be necessary by calculating the lactate: creatinine (L: C) ratio. We measured these AF parameters and compared them to

  17. Lactic acid and Lactates in Health and wellness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan; Schreurs, Victor


    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  18. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Brander, Lukas; Jansen, Sebastiaan P. A.; Rommes, Johannes H.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.


    Background: Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients admit

  19. Controlling lactation oestrus: The final frontier for breeding herd management. (United States)

    van Wettere, William H E J; Weaver, Alice C; Greenwood, Emma C; Terry, Robyn; Hughes, Paul E; Kind, Karen L


    Lactation anoestrus limits the flexibility of modern pig production systems such that any increase in lactation length reduces farrowing frequency, and thus profit. This review focuses on post-partum development of the sow's reproductive system, the physiology of lactation anoestrus and how it can be overcome, as well as the fertility of sows mated while lactating. The propensity for sows to ovulate spontaneously while lactating is high (24-31%), and a high proportion of sows will ovulate rapidly and synchronously in response to combinations of altered suckling (split weaning, interrupted suckling), daily boar contact, exogenous gonadotrophins, and group housing. The apparent ease with which lactation anoestrus can be overcome represents an opportunity to uncouple sow mating from weaning, thus reducing the impact of lactation length on productivity. This is especially true when considering the benefits of the described stimulation methods on the reproductive performance (i.e., shorter weaning to oestrus intervals and higher litter sizes) of the low proportion of sows that maintain lactation anoestrus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Kinetics of lactate and pyruvate transport in cultured rat myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Grumbckow, Lena; Elsner, Peter; Hellsten, Ylva;


    Skeletal muscle transport of lactate and pyruvate was studied in primary cultures of rat myotubes, applying the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2', 7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The initial rate of decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) upon lactate or pyruvate incubation was used...

  1. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A.; Dalsgaard, Mads


    was determined in nine men during sodium lactate infusion to enhance the evaluation (0.5 mol x L(-1) at 16 ± 1 mL x min(-1); mean ± s) both at rest and during cycling exercise (heart rate 139 ± 5 beats x min(-1)). The renal release of erythropoietin was used to detect kidney tissue ischaemia. At rest, the a-v O......(2) (CaO(2)-CvO(2)) and lactate concentration differences were 0.8 ± 0.2 and 0.02 ± 0.02 mmol x L(-1), respectively. During exercise, arterial lactate and CaO(2)-CvO(2) increased to 7.1 ± 1.1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), respectively (P ...Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference...

  2. Early Embryo Survival and Development in Sows with Lactational Ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.


    During lactation, daily separation of sow and piglets, intermittent suckling (IS), can induce lactational oestrus and ovulation. This study examined effects of IS on subsequent early embryo survival and development. Multiparous Topigs40 sows were separated from their piglets for either 12 consecutiv

  3. Evidence for facilitated lactate uptake in lizard skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Donovan, E R; Gleeson, T T


    To understand more fully lactate metabolism in reptilian muscle, lactate uptake in lizard skeletal muscle was measured and its similarities to the monocarboxylate transport system found in mammals were examined. At 2 min, uptake rates of 15 mmol l(-1) lactate into red iliofibularis (rIF) were 2.4- and 2.2-fold greater than white iliofibularis (wIF) and mouse soleus, respectively. alpha-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (15 mmol l(-1)) caused little inhibition of uptake in wIF but caused a 42-54 % reduction in the uptake rate of lactate into rIF, suggesting that much of the lactate uptake by rIF is via protein-mediated transport. N-ethymaleimide (ETH) (10 mmol l(-1)) also caused a reduction in the rate of uptake, but measurements of adenylate and phosphocreatine concentrations show that ETH had serious effects on rIF and wIF and may not be appropriate for transport inhibition studies in reptiles. The higher net uptake rate by rIF than by wIF agrees with the fact that rIF shows much higher rates of lactate utilization and incorporation into glycogen than wIF. This study also suggests that lactate uptake by reptilian muscle is similar to that by mammalian muscle and that, evolutionarily, this transport system may be relatively conserved even in animals with very different patterns of lactate metabolism.

  4. Salt iodization and iodine status among infants and lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt iodization and iodine status among infants and lactating mothers in papua ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... intake of iodine was 186.93ug, which is below the 250ug recommended for ... There is, therefore, a need to advocate strongly for increased dietary intake of iodine by lactating mothers.

  5. 0.3 MM Diameter Flexible Amperometric Lactate Probe. (United States)


    also the oxidation of the FADH 2 by 02, whereby H202 is formed. LOX-FAD + Lactate -, Pvruvate + LOX-FADH2 (1) Amperometric lactate sensors have been...tile reduced forms of a diffusional mediator, such :is 0- H-,O, or Fc-/Fc (where Fc is a ferrocene derivativei. 5 -10 FAD/ FADH - centers of LOX were also

  6. [Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis]. (United States)

    Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu


    Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs

  8. Nutritional regulation of mammary cell apoptosis in lactating ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Colitti


    Full Text Available Recent advances in understanding the control of the mammary cell population now offer new insights to understand the decline in milk yield of dairy animals, which has long been a biological conundrum for the mammary biologists. Evidence indicates that change in mammary cell number is the result of an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell removal and that this is a principal cause of declining production (Stefanon et al., 2001. Further, it suggests that the persistency of lactation, the rate of decline in milk yield with stage of lactation, is strongly influenced by the rate of cell death by apoptosis in the lactating gland (Wilde et al., 1997. The most significant advance in understanding the cell biology underpinning persistency of lactation has come from the demonstration that cell loss during lactation occurs by apoptosis. Several researches obtained in cell cultures in mouse and rat have indicated that gene expression and cellular activities are modulated by the reactive oxygen species..........

  9. Induction of lactational estrus in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik


    The longer lactation period required in organic piglet producing herds reduces the potential number of produced litters per sow per year compared with that of conventional production. Induction and use of lactational estrus may be a way to increase the productivity in organic production. However...... in an organic outdoor system based on ad libitum feeding, individual housing until Day 35 in lactation, followed by grouping and introduction of a boar and weaning of piglets after 8 wk. Five groups with four sows ((Danish Yorkshire × Danish Landrace) × Danish Duroc) in each were observed, and rank...... study indicate that it is possible to combine lactational estrus and batch farrowing procedures to increase the number of weaned piglets per year per sow in organic piglet production based on 8 wk of lactation or more....

  10. Regulation and Function of Lactate Oxidation in Streptococcus faecium (United States)

    London, Jack


    Regulation of the synthesis and function of an l(+)-specific lactate-oxidizing enzyme system found in a homofermentative Streptococcus was investigated. With the exception of fructose, aerobic growth at the expense of a variety of substrates resulted in the formation of a lactate oxidation system; anaerobic growth resulted in a marked reduction or complete loss of lactate-oxidizing activity. Growth on fructose, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, invariably produced a decrease in the activity of the lactate oxidation system. A negative control, activated by an early intermediate product of glycolysis, appeared to be responsible for repression of the lactate-oxidizing enzyme(s). The enzyme system confers upon the organism the ability to grow aerobically at the expense of l(+)-lactic acid. PMID:5646625

  11. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride... § 520.310 Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of 5st caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and 80 milligrams of ammonium chloride.1 1...

  12. 40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. (United States)


    ... ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415.240 Section 415.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. 77 FR 21527 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request... of the antidumping duty orders and inadvertently omitted Ammonium Nitrate from Russia, POR 5/2/2011-3... include the Ammonium Nitrate from Russia administrative review in the referenced notice. Dated: April...

  14. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie


    BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact...... questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice...... they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from...

  15. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie;


    BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact...... questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice...... they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from...

  16. Managing Migraine During Pregnancy and Lactation. (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Turner, Dana P; Lee, Michelle; Bishop, Laura; Strauss, Lauren


    While over half of women with migraine report improvement during pregnancy, having a history of migraine may increase the chance of negative health outcomes. The state of pregnancy increases the risk of several dangerous secondary headache disorders, especially those associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and providers need to know the red flags to diagnose and treat emergently. Non-pharmacological migraine treatments can be instituted in advance of pregnancy as many are considered the safest options during pregnancy, but understanding the safety of medications and dietary supplements ensures appropriate care for the refractory migraine patient. New controversy exists over the safety of several historically routine and safe migraine treatment options in pregnancy, such as magnesium, acetaminophen, ondansetron, and butalbital. While it is not clear if breastfeeding decreases the postpartum recurrence of migraine, understanding safe treatment options during lactation can allow women to continue breastfeeding while achieving migraine relief.

  17. [Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis]. (United States)

    Gehlen, M; Lazarescu, A D; Hinz, C; Boncu, B; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, M; Schwarz-Eywill, M; Pollähne, W; Minne, H W


    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis, which occurs in the last trimester or postpartum. So far 100 cases have been published. The leading symptoms are severe low back pain or less frequently hip pain. Many patients develop postpartum depression due to inability to care for the baby and vertebral fractures. The therapeutic decision has to be made individually but teriparatid and bisphosphonates seem to be the best option. We report the clinical course (16 years) of a 37-year-old patient with PLO, who suffered 6 vertebral fractures. There were severe physical limitations and mental problems caused by the disease. The patient was treated by multimodal therapy including physiotherapy and psychotherapy and bisphosphonates were given. The time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5 months. No further fractures occurred in the following 16 years. The physical and mental condition significantly improved.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂崇实; 顾亦君; 孙杰


    本文研究了零价铜在邻菲罗啉水溶液中的反应.当溶液敞露于空气并存在有机阴离子X-时,例如苯甲酸盐(Bz)、对甲基苯磺酸盐(Ts)等,铜的表面生成了致密的反应产物的薄层,经IR、UV/VIS、MS和元素分析证明了该薄层为相当纯的亚铜的邻菲罗啉配位化合物,结构为[Cu(phen)2]+X-.在乙醇/甲苯混合溶剂中得到了表面反应产物的晶体[Cu(phen)2](CH3C4H6SO3)C2HsOH,并用X-ray测得了结构.本工作表明溶液中的Cu1离子抑制Cu0氧化成Cu1而影响反应层的形成,同时又促进Cu1氧化成Cu1的过程.%The formation of cuprous complex on metallic copper surface in 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) aqueous solution has been investigated as exposed in air and in the presence of common organic anions (X-) such as benzoate (Bz-) and toluene sulphonate (Ts-). The complexes deposited on the surface of metallic copper have been proved to be rather pure cuprous phenanthroline complexes having the structure [Cu(phen)2]X based on the elemental analysis, IR, UV/C2H5OH was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The work demonstrated that the Cu1 ion in the reaction solution hindered the process of Cu0 to Cu1 and in the meanwhile accelerated the process of Cu 1 to Cu 1.

  19. Recent Advances in Lactate Estimation and Lactate Sensors for Diagnosis of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Lactate is one of the principle products of anaerobic metabolism in living organism. Determination of lactate (lactic acid is required in the diagnosis and medical management of various diseases such as tissue hypoxia, the individual causes include shock (hypovolemic, cardiogenic or endotoxic, systemic disorder (neoplastic diseases, liver or renal failure, diabetes mellitus, respiratory failure (asphyxia, severe congestive heart failure and also in food industry. Various methods are available for the measurement of lactic acid such as colorimetric, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ion exchange chromatography, near IR spectroscopy, HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, FIA, enzymic colorimetric and finally biosensor and biochip method. The principle, advantage and disadvantages of these methods have been compared and summarized in this review.

  20. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. (United States)

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L


    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids.

  1. [Lactate acidosis: a rare or common disease?]. (United States)

    Kubát, K


    The authors present a survey of 50 documented cases of metabolic lactic acidosis (MLAC) recorded in the course of 5 years. To this study cases of severe hyperlactataemia (determined minimum lactate level of concentration 4 mmol/l) have been included. The sample consists of patients hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine Litomĕrice (hinterland of about 110,000 inhabitants). Liver involvement in 5 cases, cardiogenous shock in 6 cases, sepsis in 2 cases were the cause of lactic acidosis. The administration of biguanids (Adebit, Silubin R, Diformin) seems to be the probable cause in 21 cases, other cases were triggered by rarer causes. Dehydratation (16), vomiting (9), diarrhoea (11) dominate often in the clinical picture. The patients were admitted to the hospital often unconscious, with diagnose of vasculo-cerebral incidence, transitory ischaemic incidence... Quit rarely the typical Kussmaul's respiratory (only 9 cases) was recorded. Hyperlactatemia was usually associated with decrease of blood pH (theta = 7.12, pH less than 7.35 was recorded in 49 cases, pH less than 6.8 in 5 cases) and with decrease of BE value (= Ccoase, theta = -15.3 mmol/l). When the hypochloremia and/or hypocapnia was simultaneously more severe, only in these cases the value of pH was within physiological limits or even increased (10). The conclusions show that MLAC is not a rare disorder, however, its occurrence is depended rather on the clinician's capacity to diagnose this disorder and to indicate lactate examination. Usual signs of acidosis (Kussmaul's respiratory, decrease of pH, decrease of BE) can be missing in many cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. New Research Strategies in Lactation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Ogorevc


    Full Text Available Different approaches have been used to study milk related traits in farm animals, reaching from statistical dissection of phenotypic variation to the search of candidate genes with major phenotypic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a new research tool devoted to in vitro studies of physiological pathways responsible for mammary gland development, lactation, remodeling and immune response, supported by a user friendly map based bioinformatics tool for integration of different types of data. We established goat mammary gland derived primary epithelial cell line with predominantly epithelial morphology, responsive to lactogenic hormones and exhibiting regeneration potential in heterologous mouse system. The response of primary epithelial cells to pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae was studied using RNA sequencing approach and 1553 differentially expressed genes were detected 24h post infection. The majority of differentially expressed genes belonged to cell cycle regulating genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and genes involved in lipid metabolism. Bioinformatic analysis of 359 putative target sites for mammary gland expressed miRNAs revealed polymorphic miRNA target sites for bta-miR-199b, -199a-5p, and -361 in the IL1B gene and for -miR-126 in the CYP11B1 gene. Graphical integration of different types of data to DairyVis platform allowed identification of genomic regions with higher number of potential functional elements that deserve further experimental analysis. The newly developed MEC line and integration of bioinformatics tools into DairyVis database represent a promising methodological support for further research in the field of lactation biology.

  3. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency. (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R


    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  4. Lactate uptake into mouse cardiomyocytes is coupled to CO2-dependent acid/base regulation


    Peetz, Jan


    The heart is reported to show a net consumption of lactate. This may contribute up to 15% to the total body lactate disposal. In this work, the consumption of lactate was shown for the first time on the single cell level with the new FRET-based lactate sensor Laconic. Research published until today, almost exclusively reports the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) as the transporter responsible for myocardial lactate uptake. As this membrane transporter transports lactate togeth...

  5. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav


    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  6. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav;


    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  7. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyne Bolognini Pereira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of lactation time. Methods: We followed 51 lactating adolescents, between the 6th and 14th weeks postpartum (WPP. The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk were conducted, respectively, by the methods of Lucas, Lowry and Perry & Doan. Micronutrients were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data was presented by the mean and standard error. ANOVA with repeated measures was used and Tukey as post test. It was accepted a significance level of 5%. Results: There was a significant reduction (P<0.05 in protein content during the postpartum weeks studied (6th: 16.6 ± 1.1; 10th: 13.7 ± 1.0; 14th WPP: 12.3 ± 1.1 g/day. The lactose (6th: 60.2 ± 1.9; 10th: 60.4 ± 2.6; 14th WPP: 65.1 ± 4.0 g/day and fat (6th: 41.6 ± 3.3; 10th: 36.2 ± 3.4; 14th WPP: 31.5 ± 9.0 g/day concentration remained unaffected. The zinc concentration in the breast milk was lower than that is commonly found in literature (mean 1.16 mg/day. The copper, iron, calcium and phosphorus concentration was sufficient to meet the needs of the infants between 0 and 6 months old. Conclusion: The lactation period did not influence the concentration of micronutrients, lactose and lipids, but there is a reduction on protein of the breast milk. In spite of the reducing concentration of protein, it is sufficient to meet the needs of infants from 0 to 6 months old.

  8. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida


    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  9. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in the East China Sea sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Song


    Full Text Available Benthic nitrogen transformation pathways were investigated in the sediment of the East China Sea in June of 2010 using the 15N isotope pairing technique. Slurry incubations indicated that denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA as well as nitrate release by nitrate storing organisms occurred in the East China Sea sediments. These four processes did not exist independently, the nitrate release therefore diluted the 15N labeling fraction of NO3−, a part of the 15NH4+ derived from DNRA also formed 30N2 via anammox. Therefore current methods of rate calculations led to over and underestimations of anammox and denitrification respectively. Following the procedure outlined in Thampdrup and Dalsgaard (2002, denitrification rates were slightly underestimated by on average 6% without regard to the effect of nitrate release, while this underestimation could be counteracted by the presence of DNRA. On the contrary, anammox rates calculated from 15NO3− experiment were significantly overestimated by 42% without considering nitrate release. In our study this overestimation could only be compensated 14% by taking DNRA into consideration. In a parallel experiment amended with 15NH4+ + 14NO3−, anammox rates were not significantly influenced by DNRA due to the high background of 15NH4+ addition. Excluding measurements in which bioirrigation was present, integrated denitrification rates decreased from 10 to 4 mmol N m−2 d−1 with water depth, while integrated anammox rates increased from 1.5 to 4.0 mmol N m−2 d−1. Consequently, the relative contribution of anammox to the total N-loss increased from 13% at the shallowest site near the Changjiang estuary to 50% at the deepest site on the outer shelf. This study represents the first time in which anammox has been demonstrated to play a significant role in benthic nitrogen cycling in the East China Sea sediment, especially on the outer shelf. N

  10. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.


    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  11. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loussouarn C.


    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  12. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity of lamotrigine and its ammonium derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Qian; Peng-Cheng Lv; Lei Shi; Rui-Qin Fang; Zhong-Cheng Song; Hai-Liang Zhu


    Antiepileptic drug lamotrigine and its thirteen ammonium salt complexes (4a-4m) were synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, and MS spectral methods. Many of the ammonium salts (4a-4m) were first reported. Furthermore, the crystal structure of compound 3 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these complexes were tested in vitro for their antibacterial activity (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae). The results indicated that most of the complexes showed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. faecalis), but showed mild, even inactive against Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  13. Preparation of nanodispersed titania using stabilized ammonium nitrate melts

    KAUST Repository

    Raciulete, Monica


    An expedite one-step approach using simple precursors has been proposed to obtain metallic oxide compounds and exemplified by preparation of highly dispersed TiO2. The technique consists in heating to 400500 °C of molten ammonium nitrate stabilized with an organic nitrogen-containing compound (urea, melamine, ammonium oxalate) and containing dissolved metal salt precursor (TiOCl2). The crystallites of the resulting TiO2 demonstrated variable size and shape as a function of stabilizer used. Their activity in photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid also depends on the nature of the stabilizer. The catalysts as-prepared showed high photocatalytic performance, superior to that of the Degussa P25 reference. Nitrogen containing stabilizers play a double role of increasing the process safety and modifying the properties of the solid products. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal stability assessment of anti-explosive ammonium nitrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijin Shen; Xuguang Wang


    The explosivity experiment of anti-explosive ammonium nitrate (AEAN) shows that the explosive characteristic of AEAN is eliminated. The adiabatic decompositions of ammonium nitrate and AEAN were investigated with an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). The curves of thermal decomposition temperature and pressure versus time, self-heating rate and pressure versus temperature for two systems were obtained. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor were calculated.The safety of AEAN was analyzed. It was indicated that AEAN has a higher thermal stability than AN. At the same time, it can be shown that the elimination of its explosive characteristic is due to the improvement on the thermal stability of AEAN.

  15. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a bioreactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Reginatto


    Full Text Available Ammonium oxidation was thought to be an exclusively aerobic process; however, as recently described in the literature, it is also possible under anaerobic conditions and this process was named ANAMMOX. This work describes the operation of a system consisting of a denitrifying reactor coupled to a nitrifying reactor used for removal of nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater. During operation of the denitrifying reactor an average nitrogen ammonium removal rate of 50 mg/Ld was observed. This biomass was used to seed a second reactor, operated in repeated fed batch mode, fed with synthetic medium specific to the growth of bacteria responsible for the ANAMMOX process. The nitrogen loading rate varied between 33 and 67 mgN/Ld and average nitrogen removal was 95% and 40%, respectively. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the presence of anammox-like microorganisms in the enriched biomass.

  16. Thorium adsorption behaviour on mixed ammonium lanthanum oxalate, LAOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini Ganzerli, M.T.; Maggi, L.; Crespi Caramella, V


    The cation-exchange properties of mixed ammonium lanthanum oxalate, LAOX, were studied by batch equilibration as a function of the concentration of some cations, such as alkaline earths or ammonium and of some anions and acids. The distribution coefficients for thorium are high, while U(VI) is not adsorbed over a large acidity range. Thus, the separation of thorium from uranium may be successfully carried out. The experimental conditions of adsorption, elution and recovery of thorium were investigated as well, by using chromatographic columns filled with LAOX, in order to set best the separation conditions from uranyl ions. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, ICP emission spectrometry and the UV spectrometry were used to evaluate the thorium, uranium and lanthanum concentrations00.

  17. Dimethyl-ammonium 3-carb-oxy-benzoate. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Tausif; Koteswara Rao, Vandavasi; Zeller, Matthias; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri R


    The asymmetric unit of the title organic salt, C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(8)H(5)O(4) (-), consists of two dimethyl-ammonium cations and two 3-carb-oxy-benzoate anions. The 3-carb-oxy-benzoate anions are linked via strong inter-molecular and nearly symmetrical O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite chains parallel to [111]. Neighbouring chains are further connected by the dimethyl-ammonium cations via N-H⋯O bonds, resulting in a double-chain-like structure. The dihedral angles of all carboxylate groups with respect to the phenylene rings are in the range 7.9 (1)-20.48 (9)°.

  18. The nitrogen Sternheimer antishielding factor in the ammonium ion (United States)

    Fowler, P. W.; Kelly, H. M.; Brown, R. J. C.


    Coupled Hartree-Fock calculations in various basis sets yield values in the range 6.7 to 6.8 for the Sternheimer antishielding factor (1 - γ ∞) of the nitrogen nucleus in the ammonium ion. These are in substantial agreement with the value of 9 that is obtained from a model of measured relaxation times in solid ammonium chloride when allowance is made for effects of the crystalline environment on the chloride ion Sternheimer antishielding factor. Other experimental estimates of the nitrogen Sternheimer factor are discussed. The new value is used to derive cation field gradients from measured quadrupole coupling constants in solid NH 4ReO 4 and NH 4IO 4.

  19. Subsurface ammonium maxima in northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Satyanarayana, D.; Sahu, S.D.; Panigrahy, P.K.; Sarma, V.V.; Suguna, C.

    of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 52, Kirlampudi Layout, Visakhapatnam 530 023, India (Received 13 February 1990; revised version received 25 October 1990; accepted 23 November 1990) ABSTRACT Chemical oceanographic data collected on RV Gaveshani cruises 181...-borne 'Autosal' with a precision of +_0.003 x 10 -3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chemical oceanographic data collected in the Bay of Bengal during March-April, 1987 showed an interesting pattern of ammonium distri- bution. The water column is divided into three...

  20. Nanomodified vermiculite NMV - a new material for recycling ammonium nitrogen (United States)

    Rama, Miradije; Laiho, Taina; Eklund, Olav; Lehto, Kirsi; Shebanov, Alex; Smått, Jan-Henrik


    Vermiculites ((Mg,Fe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24H2O) are naturally occurring minerals from hydromica group with a high cation exchange capacity and large surface area. Since vermiculite is a hydrated mineral, its structure can be changed with heat. In this study vermiculite samples were heated in an oven until the interlayer distance of them diminished from 14 Å to 11.7 Å. This method for improving vermiculites intake of ammonium ions by heating, is an invention made at the University of Turku. Nanomodified vermiculite (NMV) is able to absorb up to 4.7 wt% of ammonium. NMV can be used as an efficient filter and immobilizer of ammonium in different environments. NMV has been efficiently tested on waste water from a biogas plant, human urine, combustion experiments, industrial chimneys, excrements from farms etc. Ammonium doped vermiculite (ADV) is further developed for fertilizer use. Performed experiments have testified the usability of ADV as a fertilizer. At first step the NMV was processed with the reject water from a biogas plant, were it absorbed NH4+ into the lattice. At second, the ADV was used as nutrient source for garden plants. Geraniums and begonias were used as test plants of the work. Plant growth rate was evaluated based on plant weight. Results showed that significant increase of the growth of geraniums and of begonias were observed when comparing to those cultivations where plants have got normal fertilization. Moreover, ADV has been tested as a fertilizer in greenhouse experiments with spruces and pines. After five months, the weight of the plants that had grown in a substrate containing ADV was 10 times the weight of plants growing in the reference substrate.

  1. Proton- and ammonium- sensing by histaminergic neurons controlling wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvgenij eYanovsky


    Full Text Available Orexinergic and histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus are involved in the control of arousal. Extracellular levels of acid /CO2 are fundamental physicochemical signals controlling wakefulness and breathing. Acidification excites orexinergic neurons like the chemosensory neurons in the brain stem. Hypercapnia induces c-Fos expression, a marker for increased neuronal activity, in the rat histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN, but the mechanisms of this excitation are unknown. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are gated by protons and also by ammonium. Recordings in rat brain slices revealed now that acidification within the physiological range (pH from 7.3 to 7.0 as well as ammonium chloride (5mM excite histaminergic neurons. We detected variable combinations of 4 known types of ASICs in single TMN neurons, along with the pharmacological properties of pH-induced current. At pH 7.0 however, activation of ASICs in TMN neurons was negligible. Block of type I metabotropic glutamate receptors abolished proton- but not ammonium- induced excitation. Mouse TMN neurons were identified within a novel HDC-Cre transgenic reporter mouse line. In contrast to the rat these lacked pH 7.0-induced excitation and showed only a minimal response to the mGluR I agonist DHPG (0.5µM. Ammonium-induced excitation was similar in mouse and rat. Thus glutamate, which is released by glial cells and orexinergic axons amplifies CO2/acid-induced arousal through the recruitment of the histaminergic system in rat but not in mouse. These results are relevant for the understanding of neuronal mechanisms controlling H+/CO2-induced arousal in hepatic encephalopathy and obstructive sleep apnoea. The new HDC-Cre mouse model will be a useful tool for studying the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the histaminergic system.

  2. Ammonium sulphate precipitation overestimates titres of anti-peptide antisera. (United States)

    Roth, B; Barkas, T


    Precipitation by 50% final saturation of ammonium sulphate, a method commonly used to estimate titres and affinity constants of antibodies, was found consistently to overestimate the titre of anti-peptide antisera when compared with other antibody precipitants. The effect could not be attributed to non-IgG fractions, and similar overestimations were found when pure IgG was used. We suggest that the lower values represent a more physiologically relevant estimation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Marzagão Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Mate tea leaves are the product of commercialization of the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., which leads to a great export of N, requiring its reposition. In previous nutritional studies of the mate-tea tree, it was observed that its production and metabolism was positively influenced by the ammonium form nitrogen fertilizer. This investigation tested different levels of nitrogen fertilization, in its ammonium form, in a commercial plantation, for verifying its effects on the nutritional status and on the productivity. The experiment was assembled in the region of Ivaí - Paraná, using, as fertilizer, the ammonium sulfate in the dosages of 00, 40, 60, 80 kg N ha-1. The statistical design was randomized blocks, with a split-plot arrangement, consisting of four treatments, two evaluation seasons with five replications and twenty plants per plot, being laid out in a 2,0 m x 3,5 m spacing. The evaluation of the plant’s nutritional status was performed through foliar analysis total N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Al, in winter and summer, with fertilizations performed for two years. It was concluded that nitrogen supplied in the form of ammonium sulfate has a positive influence on the biomass up to the rate of 52,5 kg N ha-1. The harvesting season influences the plant’s chemical composition. The fertilization significantly influences the foliar contents of N, K and Mg and Zn during winter and Fe, Cu e Al during summer.

  4. Ammonium photo-production by heterocytous cyanobacteria: potentials and constraints. (United States)

    Grizeau, Dominique; Bui, Lan Anh; Dupré, Catherine; Legrand, Jack


    Over the last decades, production of microalgae and cyanobacteria has been developed for several applications, including novel foods, cosmetic ingredients and more recently biofuel. The sustainability of these promising developments can be hindered by some constraints, such as water and nutrient footprints. This review surveys data on N2-fixing cyanobacteria for biomass production and ways to induce and improve the excretion of ammonium within cultures under aerobic conditions. The nitrogenase complex is oxygen sensitive. Nevertheless, nitrogen fixation occurs under oxic conditions due to cyanobacteria-specific characteristics. For instance, in some cyanobacteria, the vegetative cell differentiation in heterocyts provides a well-adapted anaerobic microenvironment for nitrogenase protection. Therefore, cell cultures of oxygenic cyanobacteria have been grown in laboratory and pilot photobioreactors (Dasgupta et al., 2010; Fontes et al., 1987; Moreno et al., 2003; Nayak & Das, 2013). Biomass production under diazotrophic conditions has been shown to be controlled by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, aeration rate, and inorganic carbon concentration, also, more specifically, by the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium. Currently, there is little information regarding the production of extracellular ammonium by heterocytous cyanobacteria. This review compares the available data on maximum ammonium concentrations and analyses the specific rate production in cultures grown as free or immobilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Extracellular production of ammonium could be coupled, as suggested by recent research on non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria, to that of other high value metabolites. There is little information available regarding the possibility for using diazotrophic cyanobacteria as cellular factories may be in regard of the constraints due to nitrogen fixation.

  5. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  6. Removal of chloridazon by natural and ammonium kerolite samples (United States)

    Socías-Viciana, M. M.; Tévar de Fez, J.; Ureña-Amate, M. D.; González-Pradas, E.; Fernández-Pérez, M.; Flores-Céspedes, F.


    The adsorption of chloridazon (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-one) on natural and ammonium kerolite samples from aqueous solution at 10, 25 and 40 °C has been studied by using batch experiments. The experimental data points were fitted to the Langmuir equation in order to calculate the adsorption capacities ( Xm) of the samples; two straight lines were obtained, which indicates that the adsorption process takes place in two different stages. Values for Xm1 (first stage) ranged from 1.1 × 10 -2 mol kg -1 for natural kerolite at 40 °C up to 5.1 × 10 -2 mol kg -1 for ammonium kerolite at 10 °C and the values for Xm2 (second stage) ranged from 9.1 × 10 -2 mol kg -1 for natural kerolite at 40 °C up to 14 × 10 -2 mol kg -1 for natural kerolite at 10 °C. The adsorption experiments showed on the one hand, that the ammonium kerolite is more effective than natural kerolite to adsorb chloridazon in the range of temperature studied and on the other hand, that the lower temperature, the more effective the adsorption of chloridazon on the adsorbents studied.

  7. Investigation of ammonium adsorption on Algerian natural bentonite. (United States)

    Angar, Yassmina; Djelali, Nacer-Eddine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima


    Adsorption of several chemical contaminants onto clay minerals is the most recommended technique applied in the wastewater treatment field, owing to its low economic cost, efficiency, and low power consumption. In this context, natural bentonite particles with 80-μm diameter were investigated for the ammonium adsorption in aqueous solution using an incubator that kept the constant temperature and stirring speed at 200 RPM. The study of different experimental parameters effect on the adsorption process revealed that the raw bentonite have adsorbed approximately 53.36 % of the initial ammonium concentration at pH 7 and temperature of 30 °C. This percentage has been improved by increasing the adsorbent dosage in solution, which could reach up to 81.2 % at 40 g/L of bentonite with an initial ammonium concentration of 10 mg-NH4(+)/L. Moreover, experimental data modeling allowed us to conclude that the adsorption isotherm obeys to both models of Langmuir and Freundlich.

  8. Ammonium nitrogen in fetuses of urea-treated sheep. (United States)

    Yelverton, C C; Roller, M H; Swanson, R N


    Eight pregnant Southdown ewes were treated (by drench) with 12.5 ml of 3.3 M urea solution per kilogram of body weight, and ammonium nitrogen concentrations of blood and tissues of these ewes and their fetuses were measured and compared with those of control ewes (given water by drench) and their fetuses. Blood ammonium nitrogen (BAN) and tissue ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations for liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle of ewes and fetuses were determined by an ion-exchange procedure. Samples of blood were collected before treatment, at 30, 90 and 150 minutes after treatment, and at death of the dam. The principal ewes had increasing BAN concentrations with time after drench, and their fetuses had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) BAN concentrations than fetuses from control ewes. All fetuses were alive after death of the dams and had lower TAN values than their dams. The differences in ammonia concentrations between ewes and fetuses were larger in the principal group than in the control group. Except for ewe muscle and fetal liver, all tissues of principals had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) TAN concentrations than those of controls. Muscle of principal ewes and hepatic tissues of their fetuses had greater (P less than 0.05) TAN concentrations than those of control ewes and their fetuses.

  9. Extraction Factor Of Pure Ammonium Paratungstate From Tungsten Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.


    Full Text Available Typical oxidation process of tungsten scraps was modified by the rotary kiln with oxygen burner to increase the oxidation rate of tungsten scraps. Also to accelerate the solubility of solid oxidized products, the hydrothermal reflux method was adapted. By heating tungsten scraps in rotary kiln with oxygen burner at around 900° for 2hrs, the scraps was oxidized completely. Then oxidized products (WO3 and CoWO4 was fully dissolved in the solution of NaOH by hydrothermal reflux method at 150° for 2hrs. The dissolution rate of oxidized products was increased with increasing the reaction temperature and concentration of NaOH. And then CaWO4 and H2WO4 could be generated from the aqueous sodium tungstate solution. Ammonium paratungstate (APT also could be produced from tungstic acid using by aqueous ammonium solution. The morphologies (cubic and plate types of APT was controlled by the stirring process of purified solution of ammonium paratungstate.

  10. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation. (United States)

    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C


    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation.

  11. Gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium in mice during gestation and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Whelton, B.D.; Peterson, D.P.


    The effect on cadmium retention of continuous exposure to drinking water containing low levels of cadmium during pregnancy and lactation was studied in mice. Female mice were provided drinking water ad libitum containing /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ (0.03 /sup 109/Cd/ml, 0.11 ppb total cadmium) throughout either gestation, lactation, or a combined period of pregnancy and lactation. Nonpregnant control mice were exposed to the same cadmium solution for similar time periods. Dams in all three experimental groups retained two to three times cadmium (expressed as percentage of ingested dose) than did nonpregnant controls. The /sup 109/Cd contents of liver, kidney, mammary tissue, and duodenum increased strikingly in all three groups. Increases in kidney and mammary tissue were particularly apparent during lactation, with increases of fivefold for kidney and at least ninefold for mammary tissue, compared to levels in nonpregnant controls. Increases in /sup 109/Cd retention by the duodenum were fivefold during gestation and three- to fourfold during lactation. The kidneys of dams exposed during lactation retained 53% of the whole body /sup 109/Cd, while kidneys of nonpregnant controls retained only 27%. Results indicate that pregnant and lactating mice absorb and subsequently retain substantially more cadmium from their diets than do nonpregnant mice.

  12. Lactation Consultants' Perceived Barriers to Providing Professional Breastfeeding Support. (United States)

    Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M


    Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.

  13. Cerebral Lactate Dynamics Across Sleep/Wake Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rempe


    Full Text Available Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA in the electroencephalogram (EEG, increases as a function of time spent awake or in rapid eye movement sleep and declines as a function of time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS. We sought to determine whether lactate concentration exhibits homeostatic dynamics akin to those of SWA in SWS. Lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex was measured by indwelling enzymatic biosensors. A set of equations based conceptually on Process S (previously used to quantify the homeostatic dynamics of SWA was used to predict the sleep/wake state-dependent dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. Additionally, we applied an iterative parameter space-restricting algorithm (the Nelder-Mead method to reduce computational time to find the optimal values of the free parameters. Compared to an exhaustive search, this algorithm reduced the computation time required by orders of magnitude. We show that state-dependent lactate concentration dynamics can be described by a homeostatic model, but that the optimal time constants for describing lactate dynamics are much smaller than those of SWA. This disconnect between lactate dynamics and SWA dynamics does not support the concept that lactate concentration is a biochemical mediator of sleep homeostasis. However, lactate synthesis in the cerebral cortex may nonetheless be informative with regard to sleep function, since the impact of glycolysis on sleep slow wave regulation is only just now being investigated.

  14. Quaternary ammonium salt N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride induced alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    We investigated the influence of the quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) called IM (N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride) on yeast cells of the parental strain and the IM-resistant mutant (EO25 IMR)growth. The phenotype of this mutant was pleiotropic. The IMR mutant exhibited resistance to ethanol, osmotic shockand oxidative stress, as well as increased sensitivity to UV. Moreover, it was noted that mutant EO25 appears to havean increased resistance to clotrimazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, nystatin and cycloheximide. It also toleratedgrowth in the presence of crystal violet, DTT and metals (selenium, tin, arsenic). It was shown that the presence ofIM decreased ergosterol level in mutant plasma membrane and increased its unsaturation. These results indicatechanges in the cell lipid composition. Western blot analysis showed the induction of Pma1 level by IM. RT-PCRrevealed an increased PMA1 expression after IM treatment.

  15. Evidence for surface nucleation: efflorescence of ammonium sulfate and coated ammonium sulfate aerosol particles (United States)

    Ciobanu, V. Gabriela; Marcolli, Claudia; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Zuend, Andreas; Peter, Thomas


    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and can undergo different phase transitions, such as deliquescence and efflorescence. Using optical microscopy, we investigated the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate (AS) in supersaturated AS and 1:1 and 8:1 (by weight) poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400)/AS particles, which were deposited as droplets with diameters in the 16 - 35 μm range on a hydrophobically coated slide. The PEG-400/AS particles that are exposed to decreasing relative humidity (RH) exhibit a liquid-liquid phase separation below 90 % RH with the PEG-400 phase surrounding the aqueous AS inner phase (Marcolli and Krieger, 2006; Ciobanu et al., 2009). Pure AS particles effloresced in the RH range from 36.3 to 43.7 % RH, in agreement with literature data (31 - 48 % RH). In contrast, 1:1 PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 7.2 - 19.2 μm effloresced between 26.8 - 33.9 % RH and 8:1 PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 1.8 - 7.3 μm between 24.3 - 29.3 % RH. Such low efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) values have never been reached before for AS particles of this size range. We show that neither a potential inhibition of water evaporation via anomalously slow diffusion through the PEG coating, nor the presence of low amounts of PEG-400 in the AS phase, nor different timescales between various experimental techniques could possibly explain the low AS ERH values of PEG-400/AS particles in our setup. High-speed photography of the efflorescence process allowed to monitor the proceeding of the AS crystallization fronts within the particles with millisecond time resolution. The nucleation locations were deduced based on the initial crystals growth locations. Statistical analysis of 31 and 19 efflorescence events for pure AS and 1:1 PEG-400/AS particles, respectively, identified the air/droplet/substrate contact line and the air/droplet interface as preferred nucleation locations in the case of pure AS particles

  16. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  17. Induced lactation: a study of 37 non-puerperal mothers. (United States)

    Nemba, K


    Of a series of 37 non-puerperal women aged between 19 and 55 years who requested bottle feeding, 27 were known to have completed a lactation induction programme and 24 (89 per cent) of these women were known to be successfully breast feeding well nourished children. All 11 women who had never previously lactated were successful. Of the three mothers in whom induction was unsuccessful, two obtained a bottle from other sources and both their children were malnourished. This study indicates that given a high degree of motivation combined with medication, support, and encouragement, lactation induction is likely to be highly successful and may thus be an important factor in child survival.

  18. NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase is required for L-lactate utilization in Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various Pseudomonas strains can use L-lactate as their sole carbon source for growth. However, the L-lactate-utilizing enzymes in Pseudomonas have never been identified and further studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-iLDH was purified from the membrane fraction of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of L-lactate to pyruvate by using FMN as cofactor. After cloning its encoding gene (lldD, L-iLDH was successfully expressed, purified from a recombinant Escherichia coli strain, and characterized. An lldD mutant of P. stutzeri SDM was constructed by gene knockout technology. This mutant was unable to grow on L-lactate, but retained the ability to grow on pyruvate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is proposed that L-iLDH plays an indispensable function in Pseudomonas L-lactate utilization by catalyzing the conversion of L-lactate into pyruvate.

  19. Psychological stress and breast diseases during lactation. (United States)

    Abou-Dakn, Michael; Schäfer-Graf, Ute; Wöckel, Achim


    Termination of breastfeeding in the first six months after childbirth is frequently caused by breastfeeding-related diseases and problems of the breast such as pain, milk stasis or mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between psychological stress and the occurrence of breastfeeding associated disorders. In a prospective cohort study of 379 primiparous women without breast anomalies or diseases, psychometric data were collected from participants between the confirmation of the pregnancy and one year post-partum. Primarily, standardised questionnaires (PSQ, WHO QoL and F-SOZU K22) were used for data analysis while additional data was gathered in follow-up interviews. The subgroup analysis showed a significant relationship between stress and breastfeeding-related diseases. Women with pain, cracked nipples, milk stasis or mastitis reported a higher stress level than women without breast problems. Additionally, the majority of women with breast problems and increased psychological stress gave up breastfeeding sooner and, in contrast to the group without problems, indicated significantly more frequently that the milk quantity was insufficient. Breast diseases during lactation are associated with higher levels of psychological stress. Further studies are needed to examine the causes of the higher stress in order to develop strategies to prolong breastfeeding duration.

  20. [Lactation after breast plastic surgery: literature review]. (United States)

    Bouhassira, J; Haddad, K; Burin des Roziers, B; Achouche, J; Cartier, S


    The occurrence of lactation is a rare complication of breast plastic surgery. During the course of his practice, the plastic surgeon will probably encounter this complication. The goal of this article is to carry out a literature review of all published galactorrhea and/or galactocele cases following a breast-reduction or a breast-augmentation, representing a total of 34 cases reported in 21 articles. The physiopathology of this complication is linked to an inappropriate secretion of prolactin in a surgical context. The factors favoring this complication would be the number of pregnancies, a history of recent and extensive nursing, and the intake of certain medicines such as an oestro-progestative pill. The main symptom of this complication is the occurrence of a uni- or bilateral galactorrhea, on average 12.6 days after the surgery. The main differential diagnosis is a postoperative infection. The explorations presented a hyperprolactinemia in 69% of cases. No biological inflammatory syndrome was reported. A fluid collection evoking a galactocele was visible on the ultrasound in 65% of cases. One case of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was reported. Depending on the case, the treatment varied from a simple surveillance to the association of a dopamine agonist, an antibiotic therapy, and a surgical revision. A diagnostic and therapeutic management strategy is proposed.

  1. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hou, Lei


    dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry...... period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription...

  2. Effect of methylxanthines on lactational performance of rats. (United States)

    Hart, A D; Grimble, R F


    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are commonly consumed methylxanthines. There are conflicting reports that methylxanthines may adversely affect the outcome of pregnancy. The effects of methylxanthines on lactational performance were investigated by administration of pure alkaloids via drinking water to Wistar albino rats throughout pregnancy and lactation. Litter growth was used as an index of lactational performance in relation to maternal food and fluid intake, changes in weight, and lipid content of the carcass. Caffeine induced increased fluid intake (p less than 0.01). While theophylline produced no significant differences in litter growth, maternal weight and carcass fat during pregnancy/lactation compared with controls, caffeine and theobromine significantly enhanced litter growth (p less than 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). The enhancement in pup growth did not involve increases in maternal food intake or maternal lipid mobilization.

  3. Study of safflower on blood lactate concentration and exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 17, 2011 ... The blood lactate concentration (BLA) experiment results indicated that the BLA of mice in the experimental ... linolenic acid, flavonoids, amino acids and polysac- .... Determination of mice experiments on exercise function.

  4. [Maintenance of lactation: a challenge for hospitalized premature infant's mothers]. (United States)

    de Azevedo, Melissa; Mendes, Eliane Norma Wagner


    Preterm birth is a difficult situation for all family members, interfering with the establishment of parental bonding and attachment with the baby. This paper is a qualitative and collective case study, carried out with the purpose of identifying the perception of mothers concerning the maintenance of lactation during the hospital stay of premature infants at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Clinic Hospital of Porto Alegre), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected from March to April/2006 through interviews and observations and resulted in four categories. This article focuses only on the categories that refer to the mechanisms used by mothers to maintain lactation during hospitalization: beliefs and attitudes related to maintenance of lactation and breast milk expression at the human milk bank. The maintenance of lactation constitutes a complex process to be learnt by mothers involved with their infant's prematurity and hospitalization.

  5. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  6. Determination of cadmium in human milk during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Loebbert, F.J. (Univ., Muenster, Ger.); Bohn, G.


    During lactation,, Cd-levels in human milk were determined by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels in colostrum were some 50 to 65% higher than in transitional and mature milk.

  7. Food variety, dietary diversity and perceived hunger among lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding has profound benefits for the child and has always been the gold ... Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional status of lactating ... that can be used in nutrition intervention programs for optimising breast feeding.

  8. Suppression of puerperal lactation using jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac). (United States)

    Shrivastav, P; George, K; Balasubramaniam, N; Jasper, M P; Thomas, M; Kanagasabhapathy, A S


    The efficacy of jasmine flowers (Jasminum Sambac) applied to the breasts to suppress puerperal lactation was compared that of Bromocriptine. Effectiveness of both regimens was monitored by serum prolactin levels, clinical evaluation of the degree of breast engorgement and milk production and the analgesic intake. While both bromocriptine and jasmine flowers brought about a significant reduction in serum prolactin, the decrease was significantly greater with bromocriptine. However, clinical parameters such as breast engorgement, milk production and analgesic intake showed the 2 modes of therapy to be equally effective. The failure rates of the 2 regimens to suppress lactation were similar; however, rebound lactation occurred in a small proportion of women treated with bromocriptine. Jasmine flowers seem to be an effective and inexpensive method of suppressing puerperal lactation and can be used as an alternative in situations where cost and nonavailability restrict the use of bromocriptine.

  9. Metagenomics of rumen bacteriophage from thirteen lactating dairy cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, Elizabeth M; Petrovski, Steve; Moate, Peter J; Hayes, Ben J


    ... (the rumen microbiome). We used massively parallel sequencing of virus like particles to investigate the diversity of the rumen virome in thirteen lactating Australian Holstein dairy cattle all housed in the same location...

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee [Dnakook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Tae Hee [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate ultrasonographic findings and usefulness in the diagnosis of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period. The authors evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of 18 breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation retrospectively. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed with linear-array 5 MHz transducer (ATL). Final diagnoses were obtained by the excisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration and clinical follow-up. Total 18 cases of breast diseases were consisted of 8 cases of galactocele, 4 cases of fibroadenoma, 3 cases of axillary accessory breast, 2 cases of lactating adenoma, and 1 case of phylloides tumor. The ultrasonographic findings of the above breast diseases were valuable in the diagnosis and therapeutic planning. Ultrasonography is the initial and useful method of diagnosing breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period.

  11. Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women (United States)

    GUIDELINE Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women This is one of a series of statements discussing the ... text. This guide- line updates a previously issued guideline on this topic. 1 In preparing this guideline, ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    positive factors, Morocco's dairy goat production has increased to 80% of self- ... consumers because of a very low specific consumption of about 100 grams .... goat milk is directly influenced by the stage of lactation; that is, levels of dry matters,.

  13. Lack of Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on Blood Lactate. (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.


    Nine healthy women were tested before, during, and after exercise during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles to determine the effect of menstruation on blood lactate levels. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  14. Bacterial Load in Expressed and Stored Breast Milk of Lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial Load in Expressed and Stored Breast Milk of Lactating Mothers in Abia ... Using antiseptic procedures, breast milk samples were collected from these 20 ... bacteria isolated in the breast milk samples under both storage conditions.

  15. Treatment of insufficient lactation is often not evidence-based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Paul Bryde; Bjerrum, Flemming; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth


    INTRODUCTION: Breast milk has many advantages over formula for infants in developed and developing countries alike. Despite intentions of breastfeeding, some women develop insufficient lactation. Treatment options traditionally include breastfeeding education and pharmacotherapy. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire regarding treatment of insufficient lactation was sent to all obstetric departments (n = 21) and neonatal wards (n = 17) in Denmark. Three main questions were included which focused on: breastfeeding education for women, use of pharmacotherapy and availability of local...... guidelines. RESULTS: In all, 30 out of a total of 38 departments participated; and among those, 93% offered some form of breastfeeding education. 50% used either metoclopramide or syntocinon to promote lactation. None used domperidone. 73% had a local clinical guideline. 77% offered sessions with a lactation...

  16. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare


    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  17. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas


    increased lactate dehydrogenase activity as a consequence of increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide substrate availability due to upregulation of the polyol pathway, i.e., pseudohypoxia. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in mediating these metabolic alterations using state......The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels...

  18. Gluconeogenesis and hepatic glycogenolysis during exercise at the lactate threshold. (United States)

    Emhoff, Chi-An W; Messonnier, Laurent A; Horning, Michael A; Fattor, Jill A; Carlson, Thomas J; Brooks, George A


    Because the maintenance of glycemia is essential during prolonged exercise, we examined the effects of endurance training, exercise intensity, and plasma lactate concentration ([lactate]) on gluconeogenesis (GNG) and hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) in fasted men exercising at, and just below, the lactate threshold (LT), where GNG precursor lactate availability is high. Twelve healthy men (6 untrained, 6 trained) completed 60 min of constant-load exercise at power outputs corresponding to their individual LT. Trained subjects completed two additional 60-min sessions of constant-load exercise: one at 10% below the LT workload (LT-10%), and the other with a lactate clamp (LT-10%+LC) to match the [lactate] of the LT trial. Flux rates were determined by primed continuous infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose, [3-(13)C]lactate, and [(13)C]bicarbonate tracers during 90 min of rest and 60 min of cycling. Exercise at LT corresponded to 67.6 ± 1.3 and 74.8 ± 1.7% peak O(2) consumption in the untrained and trained subjects, respectively (P < 0.05). Relative exercise intensity was matched between the untrained group at LT and the trained group at LT-10%, and [lactate] during exercise was matched in the LT and LT-10%+LC trials via exogenous lactate infusion. Glucose kinetics (rate of appearance, rate of disposal, and metabolic clearance rate) were augmented with the lactate clamp. GNG was decreased in the trained subjects exercising at LT and LT-10% compared with the untrained subjects, but increasing [lactate] in the LT-10%+LC trial significantly increased GNG (4.4 ± 0.9 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) compared with its corresponding control (1.7 ± 0.4 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05). Hepatic GLY was higher in the trained than untrained subjects, but not significantly different across conditions. We conclude that GNG plays an essential role in maintaining total glucose production during exercise in fasted men, regardless of training state. However, endurance training increases the ability to

  19. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells


    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K.; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F.; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E.; Sonveaux, Pierre


    Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning th...

  20. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  1. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers


    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.


    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol wi...

  2. Use of cosmeceuticals during pregnancy and lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız


    Full Text Available Use of topical or systemic herbs and herbal extracts (cosmeceuticals during pregnancy and lactation period has increased in the recent years. These cosmeceuticals are not only viewed as having clinical benefits but are also generally believed to be safe by users. A small part of thousands of plants and botanical ingredients has been investigated scientifically. The purpose of this review was to provide the safety information about the dermatologic cosmeceuticals which can be used during pregnancy and lactation period.

  3. Feedback inhibition of ammonium uptake by a phospho-dependent allosteric mechanism in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Lanquar, Viviane; Loqué, Dominique; Hörmann, Friederike; Yuan, Lixing; Bohner, Anne; Engelsberger, Wolfgang R; Lalonde, Sylvie; Schulze, Waltraud X; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Frommer, Wolf B


    The acquisition of nutrients requires tight regulation to ensure optimal supply while preventing accumulation to toxic levels. Ammonium transporter/methylamine permease/rhesus (AMT/Mep/Rh) transporters are responsible for ammonium acquisition in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The ammonium transporter AMT1;1 from Arabidopsis thaliana uses a novel regulatory mechanism requiring the productive interaction between a trimer of subunits for function. Allosteric regulation is mediated by a cytosolic C-terminal trans-activation domain, which carries a conserved Thr (T460) in a critical position in the hinge region of the C terminus. When expressed in yeast, mutation of T460 leads to inactivation of the trimeric complex. This study shows that phosphorylation of T460 is triggered by ammonium in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Neither Gln nor l-methionine sulfoximine-induced ammonium accumulation were effective in inducing phosphorylation, suggesting that roots use either the ammonium transporter itself or another extracellular sensor to measure ammonium concentrations in the rhizosphere. Phosphorylation of T460 in response to an increase in external ammonium correlates with inhibition of ammonium uptake into Arabidopsis roots. Thus, phosphorylation appears to function in a feedback loop restricting ammonium uptake. This novel autoregulatory mechanism is capable of tuning uptake capacity over a wide range of supply levels using an extracellular sensory system, potentially mediated by a transceptor (i.e., transporter and receptor).

  4. Influence of heterogeneous ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the expression of nitrogen fixation and ammonium transporter genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouser, P.J.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Elifantz, H.; Holmes, D.E.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.


    The impact of ammonium availability on microbial community structure and the physiological status and activity of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by as much as two orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 {micro}M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that ammonium influenced the composition of the microbial community prior to acetate addition with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species at the site with the highest ammonium, and Dechloromonas species dominating at sites with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added, and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to the concentration of acetate that was delivered to each location rather than the amount of ammonium available in the groundwater. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium importer gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during in situ uranium reduction, and that the abundance of amtB transcripts was inversely correlated to ammonium levels across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression by subsurface Geobacter species are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of Geobacter species in subsurface environments during bioremediation. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical/physiological interactions at the field scale, in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes.

  5. Lactational transfer of volatile chemicals in breast milk. (United States)

    Fisher, J; Mahle, D; Bankston, L; Greene, R; Gearhart, J


    Lactational transfer of chemicals to nursing infants is a concern for occupational physicians when women who are breast-feeding return to the workplace. Some work environments, such as paint shops, have atmospheric contamination from volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Very little is known about the extent of exposure a nursing infant may receive from the mother's occupational exposure. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for a lactating woman to estimate the amount of chemical that a nursing infant ingests for a given nursing schedule and maternal occupational exposure. Human blood/air and milk/air partition coefficients (PCs) were determined for 19 VOCs. Milk/blood PC values were above 3 for carbon tetrachloride, methylchloroform, perchloroethylene, and 1,4-dioxane, while the remaining 16 chemicals had milk/blood PC values of less than 3. Other model parameters, such as solid tissue PC values, metabolic rate constants, blood flow rates, and tissue volumes were taken from the literature and incorporated into the lactation model. In a simulated exposure of a lactating woman to a threshold limit value concentration of an individual chemical, only perchloroethylene, bromochloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency non-cancer drinking water ingestion rates for children. Very little data exists on the pharmacokinetics of lactational transfer of volatile organics. More data are needed before the significance of the nursing exposure pathway can be adequately ascertained. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models can play an important role in assessing lactational transfer of chemicals.

  6. The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina


    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

  7. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density (United States)

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh


    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  8. Effects of Pregnancy and Lactation on Iron Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofen Gao


    Full Text Available In female, inadequate iron supply is a highly prevalent problem that often leads to iron-deficiency anemia. This study aimed to understand the effects of pregnancy and lactation on iron metabolism. Rats with different days of gestation and lactation were used to determine the variations in iron stores and serum iron level and the changes in expression of iron metabolism-related proteins, including ferritin, ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ceruloplasmin (Cp, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, and the major iron-regulatory molecule—hepcidin. We found that iron stores decline dramatically at late-pregnancy period, and the low iron store status persists throughout the lactation period. The significantly increased FPN1 level in small intestine facilitates digestive iron absorption, which maintains the serum iron concentration at a near-normal level to meet the increase of iron requirements. Moreover, a significant decrease of hepcidin expression is observed during late-pregnancy and early-lactation stages, suggesting the important regulatory role that hepcidin plays in iron metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. These results are fundamental to the understanding of iron homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation and may provide experimental bases for future studies to identify key molecules expressed during these special periods that regulate the expression of hepcidin, to eventually improve the iron-deficiency status.

  9. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A


    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  10. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele


    to their individual requirements for maintenance and milk production. Thus, a basal diet was formulated and supplied to meet the energy requirement for maintenance and a lactation supplement was formulated to meet the dynamic requirement of nutrients for milk production. Sows and piglets were weighed and feed intake......The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidh Kaseer


    Full Text Available 31Overall crystal growth kinetics for ammonium perchlorate in laboratory scale batch  agitated vessel crystallizer have been determined from batch experiments performed in an integral mode. The effects of temperature between 30-60ºC, seed size 0.07, 0.120 and 0.275 mm and stirrer speed 160, 340, and 480 rpm, on the kinetics of crystal growth were investigated. Two different methods, viz. polynomial fitting and initial derivative were used to predict the kinetics expression. In general both methods gave comparable results for growth kinetics estimation. The order of growth process is not more than two. The activation energy for crystal growth of ammonium perchlorate was determined and found  to be equal to 5.8 kJ/ mole.            Finally, the influence of the affecting parameters on the crystal growth rate gives general expression that had an obvious dependence of the growth rate on each variables of concern (temperature, seed size, and stirrer speed .The general overall growth rate expression had shown that super saturation is the most significant variable. While the positive dependence of the stirrer speed demonstrates the importance of the diffusional step in the growth rate model. Moreover, the positive dependence of the seed size demonstrate the importance of the surface integration  step in the growth rate model. All the studied variables tend to suggest that the growth rate characteristics  of ammonium perchlorate from aqueous solution commenced in a batch crystallizer are diffusion kinetic controlled process.

  12. The effect of erythropoietin on lactate, pyruvate and excess lactate under physical exercise in dialysis patients. (United States)

    Meierhenrich, R; Jedicke, H; Voigt, A; Lange, H


    To investigate EPO-induced increase of hemoglobin on energy metabolism plasma concentrations of lactate (L), pyruvate (P) and excess lactate (XL) were determined in ten dialysis patients at rest, immediately after 6 minutes of ergometric exercise as well as after recovery for 15 and 30 min. The investigations were performed before EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 7.5 +/- 0.9 g/dl and under EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 10.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl and at a mean Hb = 11.9 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Ten healthy subjects were subjected to the same investigation at Hb = 14.7 +/- 1.1 g/dl. There was a significant rise of L and XL in all patient groups under ergometric exercise. The increase of hemoglobin from 7.5 g/dl to 10.0 g/dl led to significantly (p beyond 10.5 g/dl will have an additional positive effect on oxygen supply only in occasional cases. The comparison with healthy subjects shows that despite a very large degree of normalization of the hemoglobin content, no normalization of energy metabolism can be attained.

  13. Quantifying inter-group variability in lactation curve shape and magnitude with the MilkBot® lactation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Ehrlich


    Full Text Available Genetic selection programs have driven development of most lactation models, to estimate the magnitude of animals’ productive capacity from sampled milk production data. There has been less attention to management and research applications, where it may also be important to quantify the shape of lactation curves, and predict future daily milk production for incomplete lactations since residuals between predicted and actual daily production can be used to quantify the response to an intervention. A model may decrease the confounding effects of lactation stage, parity, breed, and possibly other factors depending on how the model is constructed and used, thus increasing the power of statistical analyses. Models with a mechanistic derivation may allow direct inference about biology from fitted production data. The MilkBot® lactation model is derived from abstract suppositions about growth of udder capacity. This permits inference about shape of the lactation curve directly from parameter values, but not direct conclusions about physiology. Individual parameters relate to the overall scale of the lactation, the ramp, or rate of growth around parturition, decay describing the senescence of productive capacity (inversely related to persistence, and the relatively insignificant time offset between calving and the physiological start of milk secretion. A proprietary algorithm was used to fit monthly test data from two parity groups in 21 randomly selected herds, and results displayed in box-and-whisker charts and Z-test tables. Fitted curves are constrained by the MilkBot® equation to a single peak that blends into an exponential decline in late lactation. This is seen as an abstraction of productive capacity, with actual daily production higher or lower due to random error plus short-term environmental effects. The four MilkBot® parameters, and metrics calculated directly from them including fitting error, peak milk and cumulative production, can

  14. The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramine (ADN): Part 2: Melt Casting (United States)

    Hahma, A.; Edvinsson, H.; Östmark, H.


    A melt casting technique for ammonium dinitramine (ADN) and ADN/aluminum was developed. ADN proved relatively easy to cast, when 1% of magnesium oxide was used as a stabilizer and crystallization kernels. Densities of ADN/MgO 99/1 were 92 to 97% of theoretical mean density (TMD) and those of ADN/Al/MgO 64/35/1 were between 95 and 99% of TMD. Sedimentation of Al in the melt was prevented and the particle wetting was ensured by selecting a suitable particle size for Al. No gelling agents or other additives were used. The casting process and factors influencing it are discussed.

  15. Experimental study of the detonation of technical grade ammonium nitrate (United States)

    Presles, Henri-Noël; Vidal, Pierre; Khasainov, Boris


    The detonation of technical grade ammonium nitrate at the density ρ=0.666 g/cm confined in PVC and steel tubes was experimentally studied. The results show that the detonation is self-sustained and steady in steel tubes with diameter as small as 12 mm. Critical detonation diameter lies between 8 and 12 mm in 2 mm thick steel tubes and between 55 and 81 mm in PVC tubes. These values testify a strong detonation sensitivity of this product. To cite this article: H.-N. Presles et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  16. Further laboratory and theoretical investigations of ammonium dinitramide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulis, A.J.; Snelson, A. [IIT Research Institut, Chicago (United States); Heberlein, C.; Patel, D.L. [U.S. Army Cecom RD et E Center, NVESD (United States)


    Hydrogen and deuterated ammonium dinitramide have been vaporized under high vacuum and the IR matrix isolation spectra of the decomposition products obtained. Tentative vibration assignments have been made for HN(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} and DN(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} assuming a symmetrical non-planar structure in which the H or D is bonded to the central nitrogen atom. Other structures are also possible. Ab initio calculations have been made for the various structural isomers of hydrogen dinitramide. Vibration frequencies calculated for the hydrogenated and deuterated species are compared with the experimental values with the object of identifying the molecules` structure. (authors) 3 refs.

  17. Ammonium diamminesilver(I bis(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Peng Deng


    Full Text Available The reaction of silver nitrate with 5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid in the presence of ammonia yielded the title salt, (NH4[Ag(NH32](C6H4ClO4S2·3H2O. The AgI ion shows linear coordination [N—Ag—N = 175.2 (1 °]. The ammonium and diamminesilver cations, the benzenesulfonate anion and the lattice water molecules interact through an intricate network of N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network.

  18. Lactate shuttles at a glance: from physiological paradigms to anti-cancer treatments


    Nihed Draoui; Olivier Feron


    Hypoxia and oncogene expression both stimulate glycolytic metabolism in tumors, thereby leading to lactate production. However, lactate is more than merely a by-product of glycolysis: it can be used as a metabolic fuel by oxidative cancer cells. This phenomenon resembles processes that have been described for skeletal muscle and brain that involve what are known as cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles. Two control points regulate lactate shuttles: the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-depen...

  19. Lactate does not activate NF-κB in oxidative tumor cells


    Van Hée, Vincent F.; Jhudit ePérez-Escuredo; Andrea eCacace; Tamara eCopetti; Pierre eSonveaux


    The lactate anion is currently emerging as an oncometabolite. Lactate, produced and exported by glycolytic and glutaminolytic cells in tumors, can be recycled as an oxidative fuel by oxidative tumors cells. Independently of hypoxia, it can also activate transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in tumor and endothelial cells, promoting angiogenesis. These protumoral activities of lactate depend on lactate uptake, a process primarily facilitated by the inward, passive lactate-pro...

  20. Lactate as a Signaling Molecule That Regulates Exercise-Induced Adaptations


    Nalbandian, Minas; Takeda, Masaki


    Lactate (or its protonated form: lactic acid) has been studied by many exercise scientists. The lactate paradigm has been in constant change since lactate was first discovered in 1780. For many years, it was unfairly seen as primarily responsible for muscular fatigue during exercise and a waste product of glycolysis. The status of lactate has slowly changed to an energy source, and in the last two decades new evidence suggests that lactate may play a much bigger role than was previously belie...

  1. Impact of feed restriction on the performance of highly prolific lactating sows and its effect on the subsequent lactation. (United States)

    De Bettio, S; Maiorka, A; Barrilli, L N E; Bergsma, R; Silva, B A N


    A total of 50 mixed parity sows of a high-prolificacy genetic line were used to evaluate the impact of feed restriction during lactation on their production and reproductive performance and their performance in the subsequent lactation. From day 7 of lactation, sows were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into two treatments. In treatment 1, sows were fed 8.0 kg feed/day (control) and in treatment 2, sows were fed 4.0 kg/day. The same suckling pressure was maintained until weaning on day 28 of lactation. Average minimum and maximum temperatures measured during the experimental period were 32.1°C and 16.5°C, respectively. Control sows presented significantly higher feed intake (P0.10) in weaning-to-estrus interval and averaged 4.3 days. No effect of the treatment (P>0.10) was observed on any of the studied performance traits in the subsequent lactation, except for litter size at birth that tended (15.2 v. 14.1; Psows. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that feed restriction during lactation leads to intense catabolism of the body tissues of sows, negatively affecting their milk production, and the litter weight gain and possibly number of piglets born in the next litter. On the other hand, restricted-fed sows are more efficient, producing more milk per amount of feed intake.

  2. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra. (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika


    Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3-4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1.6 mmol l(-1) (range pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l(-1)) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, alpha2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS

  3. Interaction between Ammonium Toxicity and Green Tide Development Over Seagrass Meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marin, Francisco Moreno; Vergara, Juan J.; Pérez-Llorens, J. Lucas


    Eutrophication affects seagrasses negatively by increasing light attenuation through stimulation of biomass of fast-growing, bloom-forming algae and because high concentrations of ammonium in the water can be toxic to higher plants. We hypothesized nevertheless, that moderate amounts of nitrophilic...... influence on the performance of Z. noltei. The presence of Ulva sp. without ammonium supply had a similar, but slightly smaller, negative effect on seagrass fitness due to light attenuation. When ammonium enrichment was combined with presence of Ulva sp., Ulva sp. ameliorated some of negative effects caused...... by high ammonium availability although Ulva sp. lowered the availability of light. Benthic microalgae, which increased in biomass during the experiment, seemed to play a similar role as Ulva sp.–they contributed to remove ammonium from the water, and thus, aided to keep the ammonium concentrations...

  4. Biological removal of selenate and ammonium by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. (United States)

    Mal, J; Nancharaiah, Y V; van Hullebusch, E D; Lens, P N L


    Wastewaters contaminated by both selenium and ammonium need to be treated prior to discharge into natural water bodies, but there are no studies on the simultaneous removal of selenium and ammonium. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with activated sludge and operated for 90days. The highest ammonium removal efficiency achieved was 98%, while the total nitrogen removal was 75%. Nearly a complete chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency was attained after 16days of operation, whereas complete selenate removal was achieved only after 66days. The highest total Se removal efficiency was 97%. Batch experiments showed that the total Se in the aqueous phase decreased by 21% with increasing initial ammonium concentration from 50 to 100mgL(-1). This study showed that SBR can remove both selenate and ammonium via, respectively, bioreduction and partial nitrification-denitrification and thus offer possibilities for treating selenium and ammonium contaminated effluents.

  5. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. (United States)

    Krohn, M. Dennis; Kendall, Carol; Evans, John R.; Fries, Terry L.


    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH 4 + by K + or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14‰ range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles.

  6. Effects of Calcium Lignosulfonate and Silicic Acid on Ammonium Nitrate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman


    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate salts are the most commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers in industry. However, storage of ammonium nitrate is problematic, since its initial properties can decline because of environmental factors, leading to large economic losses. In this study, in order to prevent the caking and degradation of ammonium nitrate, an alternative composition with additional calcium lignosulfonate and silicic acid was studied. The resulting fertilizer was analyzed by screening analysis, ion chromatography, and electron microscopy methods.

  7. An Integrated Chemical Reactor-Heat Exchanger Based on Ammonium Carbamate (POSTPRINT) (United States)


    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2013-0237 AN INTEGRATED CHEMICAL REACTOR-HEAT EXCHANGER BASED ON AMMONIUM CARBAMATE (POSTPRINT) Douglas Johnson and Jamie...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN INTEGRATED CHEMICAL REACTOR-HEAT EXCHANGER BASED ON AMMONIUM CARBAMATE (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b...Ammonium carbamate (AC) which has a decomposition enthalpy of 1.8 MJ/kg is suspended in propylene glycol and used as the heat exchanger working fluid

  8. Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Toshio; Hirose, Yasuo; Ishii, Yoshinori; Takatsudo, Atsushi; Wakasugi, Kazuhico; Hayashi, Hiroshi


    The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO{sub 3} solution of 6 M and NH{sub 4}OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH{sub 3} gas from NH{sub 4}OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH{sub 4}OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day.

  9. Regulation by ammonium of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Bogonez, E; Satrústegui, J; Machado, A


    The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC; NADP-GDH) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is decreased under conditions in which intracellular ammonia concentrations increases. A high internal ammonia concentration can be obtained (a) by increasing the ammonium sulphate concentration in the culture medium, and (b) by growing the yeast either in acetate + ammonia media, where the pH of the medium rises during growth, or in heavily buffered glucose + ammonia media at pH 7.5. Under these conditions cellular oxoglutarate concentrations do not vary and changes in NADP-GDH activity appear to provide a constant rate of oxoglutarate utilization. The following results suggest that the decrease in NADP-GDH activity in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells is brought about by repression of synthesis: (i) after a shift to high ammonium sulphate concentrations, the number of units of activity per cell decreased as the inverse of cell doubling; and (ii) the rate of degradation of labelled NADP-GDH was essentially the same in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells and in controls, whereas the synthesis constant was much lower in the ammonia-accumulating cells than in the controls.

  10. Shock Initiation and Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate (United States)

    Robbins, David; Sheffield, Steve; Dattelbaum, Dana; Chellappa, Raja; Velisavljevic, Nenad


    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive commonly found in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil. Neat AN is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities approaching 4 km/s. Previously, we reported a thermodynamically-complete equation of state for AN based on its maximum density, and showed that near-full density AN did not initiate when subjected to shock input conditions up to 22 GPa. In this work, we extend these initial results, by presenting new Hugoniot data for intermediate density neat AN obtained from gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. AN at densities from 1.8 to 1.5 g/cm3 were impacted into LiF windows using a two-stage light gas gun. Dual VISARs were used to measure the interfacial particle velocity wave profile as a function of time following impact. The new Hugoniot data, in addition to updates to thermodynamic parameters derived from structural analysis and vibrational spectroscopy measurements in high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, are used to refine the unreacted EOS for AN. Furthermore, shock initiation of neat AN was observed as the initial porosity increased (density decreased). Insights into the relationship(s) between initial density and shock initiation sensitivity are also presented, from evidence of shock initiation in the particle velocity profiles obtained for the lower density AN samples.

  11. Fabrication and cytocompatibility of spherical magnesium ammonium phosphate granules. (United States)

    Christel, Theresa; Geffers, Martha; Klammert, Uwe; Nies, Berthold; Höß, Andreas; Groll, Jürgen; Kübler, Alexander C; Gbureck, Uwe


    Magnesium phosphate compounds, as for example struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O), have comparable characteristics to calcium phosphate bone substitutes, but degrade faster under physiological conditions. In the present work, we used a struvite forming calcium doped magnesium phosphate cement with the formulation Ca0.75Mg2.25(PO4)2 and an ammonium phosphate containing aqueous solution to produce round-shaped granules. For the fabrication of spherical granules, the cement paste was dispersed in a lipophilic liquid and stabilized by surfactants. The granules were characterized with respect to morphology, size distribution, phase composition, compressive strength, biocompatibility and solubility. In general, it was seen that small granules can hardly be produced by means of emulsification, when the raw material is a hydraulic paste, because long setting times promote coalescence of initially small unhardened cement droplets. Here, this problem was solved by using an aqueous solution containing both the secondary (NH4)2HPO4 and primary ammonium phosphates NH4H2PO4 to accelerate the setting reaction. This resulted in granules with 97 wt.% having a size in the range between 200 and 1,000 μm. The novel solution composition doubled the compressive strength of the cement to 37 ± 5 MPa without affecting either the conversion to struvite or the cytocompatibility using human fetal osteoblasts.

  12. Efficient ozone, sulfate, and ammonium free resist stripping process (United States)

    Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe


    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide from these processes. As a result, conventional SPM (H2SO4 + H2O2) was replaced with Ozone water (DIO3) for resist stripping and organic removal to eliminate chemical haze formation [1, 2]. However, it has been shown that DIO3 basted strip and clean process causes oxidative degradation of photomask materials [3, 4]. Such material damage can affect optical properties of funcitional mask layers, causeing CD line-width, phase, transmission and reflection changes, adversely affecting image transfer during the Lithography process. To overcome Ozone induced surface damage, SUSS MicroTec successfully developed a highly efficient strip process, where photolysis of DIO3 is leading to highly reactive hydroxyl radical formation, as the main contribution to hydrocarbon removal without surface damage [5]. This technology has been further extended to a final clean process, which is utilizing pure DI water for residual organic material removal during final clean [6]. Recently, SUS MicroTec did also successfully release strip and clean processes which completely remove NH4OH, eliminating any chemicals known today to induce haze [7]. In this paper we show the benefits of these new technologies for highly efficient sulfate and ammonium free stripping and cleaning processes.

  13. Removal of vanadium from ammonium molybdate solution by ion exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-gang; ZHANG Qi-xiu; ZENG Li; XIAO Lian-sheng; YANG Ya-nan


    The separation techniques of vanadium and molybdenum were summarized, and a new method of removal V(Ⅴ) from Mo(Ⅵ) by adsorption with chelate resin was presented. Nine kinds of chelate resins were used to investigate the adsorbent capability of V(Ⅴ) in ammonium molybdate solution with static method. The test results show that DDAS, CUW and CW-2 resins can easily adsorb V(Ⅴ) in ammonium molybdate solution, but hardly adsorb Mo(Ⅵ). The dynamic experimental results show more than 99.5% of V(Ⅴ) can be adsorbed, and the adsorption rate of Mo(Ⅵ) is less than 0.27% at 294-296 K for 60 min at pH 7.42-8.02. The mass ratio of V to Mo decreases to l/5 0000 in the effluent from 1/255 in the initial solution. The loaded resin can be desorbed by 5% NH3·H2O solution, and the vanadium desorption rate can reach 99.6%. The max concentration of vanadium in desorbed solution can reach 20 g/L, while the concentration of molybdenum is less than 0.8 g/L.

  14. Antibiotics with anaerobic ammonium oxidation in urban wastewater treatment (United States)

    Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming


    Biofilter process is based on biological oxidation process on the introduction of fast water filter design ideas generated by an integrated filtration, adsorption and biological role of aerobic wastewater treatment process various purification processes. By engineering example, we show that the process is an ideal sewage and industrial wastewater treatment process of low concentration. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation process because of its advantage of the high efficiency and low consumption, wastewater biological denitrification field has broad application prospects. The process in practical wastewater treatment at home and abroad has become a hot spot. In this paper, anammox bacteria habitats and species diversity, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in the form of diversity, and one and split the process operating conditions are compared, focusing on a review of the anammox process technology various types of wastewater laboratory research and engineering applications, including general water quality and pressure filtrate sludge digestion, landfill leachate, aquaculture wastewater, monosodium glutamate wastewater, wastewater, sewage, fecal sewage, waste water salinity wastewater characteristics, research progress and application of the obstacles. Finally, we summarize the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process potential problems during the processing of the actual waste water, and proposed future research focus on in-depth study of water quality anammox obstacle factor and its regulatory policy, and vigorously develop on this basis, and combined process optimization.

  15. A facile one-pot oxidation-assisted dealloying protocol to massively synthesize monolithic core-shell architectured nanoporous copper@cuprous oxide nanonetworks for photodegradation of methyl orange (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Long; Dong, Xin; Yan, Jiazhen; Li, Ning; Shi, Sanqiang; Zhang, Shichao


    In this report, a facile and effective one-pot oxidation-assisted dealloying protocol has been developed to massively synthesize monolithic core-shell architectured nanoporous copper@cuprous oxide nanonetworks (C-S NPC@Cu2O NNs) by chemical dealloying of melt-spun Al 37 at.% Cu alloy in an oxygen-rich alkaline solution at room temperature, which possesses superior photocatalytic activity towards photodegradation of methyl orange (MO). The experimental results show that the as-prepared nanocomposite exhibits an open, bicontinuous interpenetrating ligament-pore structure with length scales of 20 ± 5 nm, in which the ligaments comprising Cu and Cu2O are typical of core-shell architecture with uniform shell thickness of ca. 3.5 nm. The photodegradation experiments of C-S NPC@Cu2O NNs show their superior photocatalytic activities for the MO degradation under visible light irradiation with degradation rate as high as 6.67 mg min-1 gcat-1, which is a diffusion-controlled kinetic process in essence in light of the good linear correlation between photodegradation ratio and square root of irradiation time. The excellent photocatalytic activity can be ascribed to the synergistic effects between unique core-shell architecture and 3D nanoporous network with high specific surface area and fast mass transfer channel, indicating that the C-S NPC@Cu2O NNs will be a promising candidate for photocatalysts of MO degradation.

  16. Preparation of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) monolithic column modified with β-cyclodextrin and nano-cuprous oxide and its application in polymer monolithic microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls. (United States)

    Zheng, Haijiao; Liu, Qingwen; Jia, Qiong


    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) monolithic column was prepared with in situ polymerization method and modified with allylamine-β-cyclodextrin (ALA-β-CD) and nano-cuprous oxide (Cu2O). A polymer monolith microextraction method was developed with the modified monolithic column for the preconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good intra-day/inter-day relative standard deviations. Because of the hydrophobic properties of β-CD and the porous nano structure of Cu2O, the enrichment capacity of the poly(BMA-EDMA) monolithic column was significantly improved. The extraction efficiency followed the order: poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD-Cu2O)>poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD)>poly(BMA-EDMA)>direct GC analysis. When applied to the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in wine samples, low limits of detection (0.09ngmL(-1)) were obtained under the preoptimized conditions (sample volume 1.0mL, sample flow rate 0.1mLmin(-1), eluent volume 0.1mL, and eluent flow rate 0.05mLmin(-1)). In addition, the present method was employed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls in red wine samples and the accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments. The obtained recovery values were in the range of 78.8-104.1% with relative standard deviations less than 9.0%.

  17. Ambient and laboratory observations of organic ammonium salts in PM1. (United States)

    Schlag, P; Rubach, F; Mentel, T F; Reimer, D; Canonaco, F; Henzing, J S; Moerman, M; Otjes, R; Prévôt, A S H; Rohrer, F; Rosati, B; Tillmann, R; Weingartner, E; Kiendler-Scharr, A


    Ambient measurements of PM1 aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, the Netherlands, implicate higher ammonium concentrations than explained by the formation of inorganic ammonium salts. This additional particulate ammonium is called excess ammonium (eNH4). Height profiles over the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) tower, of combined ground based and airborne aerosol mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements on a Zeppelin airship show higher concentrations of eNH4 at higher altitudes compared to the ground. Through flights across the Netherlands, the Zeppelin based measurements furthermore substantiate eNH4 as a regional phenomenon in the planetary boundary layer. The excess ammonium correlates with mass spectral signatures of (di-)carboxylic acids, making a heterogeneous acid-base reaction the likely process of NH3 uptake. We show that this excess ammonium was neutralized by the organic fraction forming particulate organic ammonium salts. We discuss the significance of such organic ammonium salts for atmospheric aerosols and suggest that NH3 emission control will have benefits for particulate matter control beyond the reduction of inorganic ammonium salts.

  18. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts. (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei


    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density.

  19. Studies on Biquaternary Ammonium Salt Algaecide for Removing Red Tide Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁生; 张珩; 杨维东; 高洁; 柯琼


    The paper deals with the removal and control of red tide algae, Phaeoecystis globosa and Alexandrium tamarense by biquaternary ammonium salt algaecide. The results show that the efficient concentration of biquaternary ammonium salt to control the two algaes in 96 h is 0.8 mg · L-1 and 0.4 mg · L-1, respectively. It is found that biquaternary ammonium salt has high efficiency and longer duration of action in the removal and control of algae.Biquaternary ammonium salt might be an excellent algaecide to control HAB.

  20. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija


    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  1. Lactation in Al-Quran Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Rokhman Saleh


    Full Text Available 800x600 One of the provisions of law which has been described in the Qur'an is the problem radha'ah (feeding or lactation. The word of Radha'ah in the Qur’an is used for two meaning: first, as one reason for marriage forbidden due to foster sister (QS. al-Nisa’: 23, and second, as the activity of breastfeeding for the mother to her baby, in which the milk becomes the main food for babies, especially the first six months of birth, and highly recommended it be given to infants until two years old (Surah al-Baqarah: 233. Feeding activity is a series of pregnancy, childbirth and infant care. The fourth activity has been established by Allah to each of women as the nature  and the trust as well. All of these gifts, recognized by the Qur'an as a condition that is very exhausting and burdensome to mother, but noble in the sight of Allah. Therefore, children must be grateful, respectful and dutiful to his parents, so that they can remember the good, service, and the struggle of his parents (Luqman: 14, al-Ahqaf: 15 Radha'ah as the main activity of the mother after the birth of her baby, bring benefits to both mother and baby. Breastfeeding can build psychological situation of calm and full of affection between mother and child. However, in practice, interest of mother in giving breastfeed declined, whereas the Qur’an has set the terms of breastfeeding, obligations and rights of mothers to breastfeed, breastfeeding and weaning time limit. The father should provide to mother during breastfeeding or find a woman to give breastfeeding and these conditions causes mahram. In addition, breast-feeding should be intended for the worship of Allah so the mother had the pleasure and reward from Him. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  2. Porcine milk oligosaccharides and sialic acid concentrations vary throughout lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd


    Full Text Available Background: Milk oligosaccharides (OS are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. Objectives: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in characterizing and quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Methods: Up to 250 ml of milk was collected from 7 sows at each of three time points: d 0 (colostrum, d 7-9 (mature, and d 17-19 (weaning. Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and three-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano LC Chip QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection.Results: Sixty unique OS were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OS were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%, followed by acidic-sialylated OS (16-29% and neutral-fucosylated OS (2-4%. As lactation progressed, acidic OS decreased (P < 0.05, whereas neutral-fucosylated and neutral OS increased (P < 0.05 throughout lactation. Six OS were present in all samples analyzed across lactation (LDFH-I, 2´-FL, LNFP-I, LNnH, 3-Hex, 3´-SL, while LDFT was present only in colostrum samples. Analysis of individual OS concentrations indicated differences (P < 0.05 between days 0 and 7. Conversely, between days 7 and 18, OS concentrations remained stable with only LNnH and LNDFH-I decreasing (P < 0.05 over this period. Analysis of free SA indicated a decrease (P < 0.05 as lactation progressed, while bound and total SA increased (P < 0.05 across lactation. Conclusions: The present data suggest that while porcine milk OS profiles and

  3. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika


    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range 2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, α2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS negative pyometra cases. Conclusion Increased blood lactate concentrations were demonstrated in 3% (1

  4. Stem/progenitor cells in non-lactating versus lactating equine mammary gland. (United States)

    Spaas, Jan H; Chiers, Koen; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R


    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Based on the facts that (i) mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) are proposed to be the driving forces behind mammary growth and function and (ii) variation exists between mammalian species with regard to physiological and pathological functioning of this organ, we believe that studying MaSC from different mammals is of great comparative interest. Over the years, important data has been gathered on MaSC of men and mice, although knowledge on MaSC in other mammals remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate and characterize MaSC from the mammary gland of horses. Hereby, our salient findings were that the isolated equine cells met the 2 in vitro hallmark properties of stem cells, namely the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, the cells were immunophenotyped using markers for CD29, CD44, CD49f, and Ki67. Finally, we propose the mammosphere assay as a valuable in vitro assay to study MaSC during different physiological phases since it was observed that equine lactating mammary gland contains significantly more mammosphere-initiating cells than the inactive, nonlactating gland (a reflection of MaSC self-renewal) and, moreover, that these spheres were significantly larger in size upon initial cultivation (a reflection of progenitor cell proliferation). Taken together, this study not only extends the current knowledge of mammary gland biology, but also benefits the comparative approach to study and compare MaSC in different mammalian species.

  5. L-lactate metabolism can occur in normal and cancer prostate cells via the novel mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    De Bari, Lidia; Chieppa, Gabriella; Marra, Ersilia; Passarella, Salvatore


    Both normal (PTN1A) and cancer (PC3) prostate cells produce high levels of L-lactate because of a low energy supply via the citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Since some mammalian mitochondria possess a mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH), we investigated whether prostate cells can take up L-lactate and metabolize it in the mitochondria. We report here that externally added L-lactate can enter both normal and cancer cells and mitochondria, as shown by both the oxygen consumption and by the increase in fluorescence of NAD(P)H which occur as a result of L-lactate addition. In both cell types L-lactate enters mitochondria in a carrier-mediated manner, as shown by the inhibition of swelling measurements due to the non-penetrant thiol reagent mersalyl. An L-lactate dehydrogenase exists in mitochondria of both cell types located in the inner compartment, as shown by kinetic investigation and by immunological analysis. The mLDHs proved to differ from the cytosolic enzymes (which themselves differ from one another) as functionally investigated with respect to kinetic features and pH profile. Normal and cancer cells were found to differ from one another with respect to mLDH protein level and activity, being the enzyme more highly expressed and of higher activity in PC3 cells. Moreover, the kinetic features and pH profiles of the PC3 mLDH also differ from those of the PNT1A enzyme, this suggesting the occurrence of separate isoenzymes.

  6. Targeting the lactate transporter MCT1 in endothelial cells inhibits lactate-induced HIF-1 activation and tumor angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sonveaux

    Full Text Available Switching to a glycolytic metabolism is a rapid adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Although this metabolic conversion may primarily represent a rescue pathway to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferating tumor cells, it also creates a gradient of lactate that mirrors the gradient of oxygen in tumors. More than a metabolic waste, the lactate anion is known to participate to cancer aggressiveness, in part through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 pathway in tumor cells. Whether lactate may also directly favor HIF-1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs thereby offering a new druggable option to block angiogenesis is however an unanswered question. In this study, we therefore focused on the role in ECs of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 that we previously identified to be the main facilitator of lactate uptake in cancer cells. We found that blockade of lactate influx into ECs led to inhibition of HIF-1-dependent angiogenesis. Our demonstration is based on the unprecedented characterization of lactate-induced HIF-1 activation in normoxic ECs and the consecutive increase in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression. Furthermore, using a variety of functional assays including endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis together with in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis through intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we documented that MCT1 blockers could act as bona fide HIF-1 inhibitors leading to anti-angiogenic effects. Together with the previous demonstration of MCT1 being a key regulator of lactate exchange between tumor cells, the current study identifies MCT1 inhibition as a therapeutic modality combining antimetabolic and anti-angiogenic activities.

  7. Evaluation of metal impurities in foods preserved with sodium lactate. (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Carter, Gregory L


    The public is being bombarded by the media almost dailywith real and potential food health concerns leadingto a public sentiment that questions the vulnerability and quality of our food. Sodium lactate is a food-grade product that in recent years has been used in bioremediation to stimulate microbial growth and contaminant breakdown processes. In previous work, impurities including arsenic and chromium were discovered to be present in the sodium lactate concentrate. The study described in this article was performed to determine whether arsenic and chromium were at detectable levels, posing a potential concern in food products preserved with sodium lactate available to the general public. A pilot sampling of three sodium-lactate-preserved food products was obtained from a local market and used to determine the commercial laboratory's detection and reporting limits for arsenic and chromium for these food products. Once these limits were established, a random sampling and analyses of 17 food products was performed. Arsenic was not reported above the detection limits in either the pilot or subsequent study, but chromium was detected at concentrations up to 0.30 parts per million in a pilot test sample and lower concentrations in the subsequent study. This study suggests that the sodium lactate in the sampled products was diluted enough for the arsenic concentration to be below the laboratory detection limit. Chromium was detected and may be an unaccounted source of chromium in diets of vulnerable populations.

  8. [The role of lactate besides the lactic acidosis]. (United States)

    Brucculeri, S; Urso, C; Caimi, G


    Lactic acidosis (LA) is the most common form of metabolic acidosis defined by values of lactate greater than 5 mmol / l and by a pH lactate levels on admission could be predictors of mortality even in the absence of organ dysfunction or shock. The outcome is mainly dependent on the cardiovascular effects of acidosis. In subjects with cardiogenic shock, the increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, detectable at onset, is correladed with mortality. An early assessment of blood and tissue lactate levels could play a role in the therapeutic management as well as in outcome. LA could be a unfavorable prognostic factor in cancer. The lactate would act also as "signal molecule" and as a promoting factor in angiogenesis and tumor progression. In the presence of risk factors for LA the role of metformin may be overrated. Despite the doctrinal progress to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology, there is not univocal consensus on the therapeutic treatment of LA. The identification and the attempt to remove the cause of acidosis are main aims; treatment with sodium bicarbonate is a matter of debate as the data on the cardiovascular effects and mortality are unclear. The therapy with carbicarb, dichloroacetate or THAM has shown no specific advantages in terms of mortality. In experimental models of LA and shock the use of sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE1) selective inhibitors reduces cell damage and inflammatory cytokines synthesis; it also improves cardiac performance and decreases mortality.

  9. Lactate, a Neglected Factor for Diabetes and Cancer Interaction. (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Dong, Yunzhou; Atefi, Mohammad; Liu, Yanjun; Elshimali, Yahya; Vadgama, Jaydutt V


    Increasing body of evidence suggests that there exists a connection between diabetes and cancer. Nevertheless, to date, the potential reasons for this association are still poorly understood and currently there is no clinical evidence available to direct the proper management of patients presenting with these two diseases concomitantly. Both cancer and diabetes have been associated with abnormal lactate metabolism and high level of lactate production is the key biological property of these diseases. Conversely, high lactate contribute to a higher insulin resistant status and a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells, promoting diabetes and cancer development and progression. In view of associations between diabetes and cancers, the role of high lactate production in diabetes and cancer interaction should not be neglected. Here, we review the available evidence of lactate's role in different biological characteristics of diabetes and cancer and interactive relationship between them. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind metabolic remodeling of diabetes- and cancer-related signaling would endow novel preventive and therapeutic approaches for diabetes and cancer treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY To study the various breast conditions during pregnancy and lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at various nursing homes in Jammu region during the period of one year (2011—2012. All pregnant/Lactating women with breast related problems were enrolled for the study. A detailed clinical examination was carried out on the first visit and all relevant investigations were carried out. RESULTS Majority of cases were of infective etiology like mastitis (94.11% out of which 60 were lactating and 20 were pregnant, they all got treated with antibiotics and analgesics. Antibioma and abscesses was noted in 1% each, they were drained surgically. Galactocele was noted in one lactating female (1. 16%. Only one patient (1.17%. was noted to have a mass lesion on clinical examination which proved to be malignant on FNAC. CONCLUSION Invariably, most breast disorders during pregnancy or lactation will ultimately prove to be benign. Nevertheless, the possibility of cancer should be kept in mind so as to intervene earliest possible without any risk to mother or fetus.

  11. Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis. (United States)

    Acharya, Abhinav P; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C; Gardner, Austin B; Murthy, Niren


    Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD(+)/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis.

  12. Treatment of 62 Patients with Postpartum Lactation Disorder by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Sixty-two patients with postpartum lactation disorder were treated by needling Neiguan(PC 6), Zusanli(ST 36), Rugen(ST 18) and Jianzhen(SI 9), and moxibustion at Danzhong(CV 17). After 7 treatments, 30 puerperae were vigorous and could lactate 400 mL every day, 26 puerperae could lactate 250 mL every day, and need other milk to feed the children, and 6 puerperae had no improvement in lactation, and lactate a little as pressing the breasts.%针刺内关,足三里,乳根和肩贞穴,温灸膻中,治疗了62例产后缺乳患者.经7次治疗,30例产妇乳汁分泌每天400 mL以上,精神饱满;26例乳汁分泌每天250 mL左右,需补充牛奶喂养婴儿;6例乳汁分泌无明显改善,挤压双侧乳房极少量乳汁分泌.

  13. Formation and transformation of metastable double salts from the crystallization of mixed ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate particles. (United States)

    Ling, Tsz Yan; Chan, Chak K


    Ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium sulfate (AS) are ubiquitous components of atmospheric aerosols. Thermodynamic models predict formation of pure (AN and AS) and double salts (3AN. AS and 2AN. AS) for the AN/AS system. Because of the high supersaturation at which a droplet crystallizes, metastable crystal formation is possible. In this study, the identity of the crystals formed from the crystallization of equimolar AN/AS mixed droplets was investigated in an electrodynamic balance coupled with a Raman spectroscopic system. Raman spectra of bulk AN/AS double salts possibly formed in this system are first reported for comparison with the single particle Raman results. The double-salt 3AN. AS, not predicted from thermodynamics, was observed in the freshly crystallized single particles. The degree of metastability can be different among several crystallization processes of the same particles. The metastable salt 3AN. AS gradually transformed into stable 2AN. AS, and the rate of such transformation increased with increasing relative humidity. This study illustrates the possibility of occurrence of metastable salts in atmospheric aerosols.

  14. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas


    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  15. Contributions of two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isozymes to ammonium assimilation in Arabidopsis roots. (United States)

    Konishi, Noriyuki; Ishiyama, Keiki; Beier, Marcel Pascal; Inoue, Eri; Kanno, Keiichi; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Hideki; Kojima, Soichi


    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes a reaction that incorporates ammonium into glutamate and yields glutamine in the cytosol and chloroplasts. Although the enzymatic characteristics of the GS1 isozymes are well known, their physiological functions in ammonium assimilation and regulation in roots remain unclear. In this study we show evidence that two cytosolic GS1 isozymes (GLN1;2 and GLN1;3) contribute to ammonium assimilation in Arabidopsis roots. Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion lines for GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 (i.e. gln1;2 and gln1;3 single-mutants), the gln1;2:gln1;3 double-mutant, and the wild-type accession (Col-0) were grown in hydroponic culture with variable concentrations of ammonium to compare their growth, and their content of nitrogen, carbon, ammonium, and amino acids. GLN1;2 and GLN1;3 promoter-dependent green fluorescent protein was observed under conditions with or without ammonium supply. Loss of GLN1;2 caused significant suppression of plant growth and glutamine biosynthesis under ammonium-replete conditions. In contrast, loss of GLN1;3 caused slight defects in growth and Gln biosynthesis that were only visible based on a comparison of the gln1;2 single- and gln1;2:gln1;3 double-mutants. GLN1;2, being the most abundantly expressed GS1 isozyme, markedly increased following ammonium supply and its promoter activity was localized at the cortex and epidermis, while GLN1;3 showed only low expression at the pericycle, suggesting their different physiological contributions to ammonium assimilation in roots. The GLN1;2 promoter-deletion analysis identified regulatory sequences required for controlling ammonium-responsive gene expression of GLN1;2 in Arabidopsis roots. These results shed light on GLN1 isozyme-specific regulatory mechanisms in Arabidopsis that allow adaptation to an ammonium-replete environment.

  16. Quantitative remote sensing of ammonium minerals, Cedar Mountains, Esmeralda County, Nevada (United States)

    Baugh, William M.; Kruse, Fred A.


    Mineral-bound ammonium (NH4+) was discovered by the U.S. Geological Survey in the southern Cedar Mountains of Esmeralda County, Nevada in 1989. At 10 km in length, this site is 100 times larger than any previously known occurrence in volcanic rocks. The ammonium occurs in two hydrothermally altered, crystal-rich rhyolitic tuff units of Oligocene age, and is both structurally and stratigraphically controlled. This research uses Advanced Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data to quantitatively map the mineral-bound ammonium (buddingtonite) concentration in the altered volcanic rocks. Naturally occurring mineral-bound ammonium is fairly rare; however, it has been found to occur in gold-bearing hydrothermal deposits. Because of this association, it is thought that ammonium may be a useful too in exploration for gold and other metal deposits. Mineral-bound ammonium is produced when an ammonium ion (NH4+) replaces the alkali cation site (usually K+) in the crystal structure of silicate minerals such as feldspars, micas and clays. Buddingtonite is an ammonium feldspar. The ammonium originates in buried organic plant matter and is transported to the host rock by hydrothermal fluids. Ammonium alteration does not produce visible changes in the rock, and it is barely detectable with standard x-ray diffraction methods. It is clearly identified, however, by absorption features in short wave-infrared (SWIR) wavelengths (2.0 - 2.5 micrometers). The ammonium absorption features are believed to be caused by N-H vibrational modes and are analogous to hydroxyl (O-H) vibrational modes, only shifted slightly in wavelength. Buddingtonite absorption features in the near- and SWIR lie at 1.56, 2.02 and 2.12 micrometers. The feature at 2.12 micrometer is the strongest of the three and is the only one used in this study. The southern Cedar Mountains are sparsely vegetated and are an ideal site for a remote sensing study.

  17. Assessment of the potential for ammonium nitrate formation and reaction in Tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.


    Two principal scenarios by which ammonium nitrate may be formed were considered: (a) precipitation of ammonium nitrate in the waste, and (b) ammonium nitrate formation via the gas phase reaction of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The first of these can be dismissed because ammonium ions, which are necessary for ammonium nitrate precipitation, can exist only in negligibly small concentrations in strongly alkaline solutions. Gas phase reactions between ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase represent the most likely means by which ammonium nitrate aerosols could be formed in Tank 241-SY-101. Predicted ammonium nitrate formation rates are largely controlled by the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. This gas has not been detected among those gases vented from the wastes using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. While detection limits for nitrogen dioxide have not been established experimentally, the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the gas phase in Tank 241-SY-101 was estimated at 0.1 ppm based on calculations using the HITRAN data base and on FTIR spectra of gases vented from the wastes. At 50 C and with 100 ppm ammonia also present, less than one gram of ammonium nitrate per year is estimated to be formed in the tank. To date, ammonium nitrate has not been detected on HEPA filters in the ventilation system, so any quantity that has been formed in the tank must be quite small, in good agreement with rate calculations. The potential for runaway exothermic reactions involving ammonium nitrate in Tank 241-SY-101 is minimal. Dilution by non-reacting waste components, particularly water, would prevent hazardous exothermic reactions from occurring within the waste slurry, even if ammonium nitrate were present. 41 refs.

  18. Tumor metabolism: cancer cells give and take lactate. (United States)

    Semenza, Gregg L


    Tumors contain well-oxygenated (aerobic) and poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) regions, which were thought to utilize glucose for oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, respectively. In this issue of the JCI, Sonveaux et al. show that human cancer cells cultured under hypoxic conditions convert glucose to lactate and extrude it, whereas aerobic cancer cells take up lactate via monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and utilize it for oxidative phosphorylation (see the related article beginning on page 3930). When MCT1 is inhibited, aerobic cancer cells take up glucose rather than lactate, and hypoxic cancer cells die due to glucose deprivation. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with an inhibitor of MCT1 retarded tumor growth. MCT1 expression was detected exclusively in nonhypoxic regions of human cancer biopsy samples, and in combination, these data suggest that MCT1 inhibition holds potential as a novel cancer therapy.

  19. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas


    The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying......-of-the-art hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls, untreated diabetic (streptozotocin treatment to induce insulinopenic diabetes), and diabetic, receiving chronic antioxidant treatment with TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels...

  20. Antiparasitic drugs and lactation: focus on anthelmintics, scabicides, and pediculicides. (United States)

    Porto, Isabel


    Infections involving helminths or parasitic worms affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. Because lactating women and their infants are often affected by the complications of these infections such as iron deficiency anemia and malnutrition, they benefit the most from drug therapy. However, scientific literature offers little information regarding transfer of anthelmintics in breast milk and its effects in lactating infants. Scabies and pediculosis, or lice, are common skin infections affecting school-aged children. Close contacts of infected children, which often include lactating mothers, need treatment with one of the several topical products available in the market. This article will review the physicochemical properties and use of anthelmintics, pediculicides, and scabicides while breastfeeding.

  1. Exposure to mother's pregnancy and lactation in infancy is associated with sexual attraction to pregnancy and lactation in adulthood. (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Aronsson, Hanna; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Jannini, Emmanuele A


    Several theories, including psychodynamic theories, sexual imprinting and early conditioning have been formulated to explain sexual development. Empirical data, however, remain insufficient for a thorough evaluation of these theories. In this study, we test the hypothesis that a critical period exists for the acquisition of sexual preferences, as suggested by empirical findings in birds and mammals (sexual imprinting). An Internet questionnaire was used. We gather data from individuals with a sexual preference for pregnant and/or lactating women, under the hypothesis that pregnancy or lactation may become sexually attractive in adulthood following an exposure to pregnant or lactating women in infancy. We find that these preferences are more common in older siblings, i.e., in individuals who have been exposed to more maternal pregnancy and lactation. This result is independent of respondent and sibling sex. In addition, only maternal pregnancies and lactations experienced between 1.5 and 5 years of age are associated with the preferences. We discuss our findings in relation to theories of sexual development and to earlier reports of birth order effects on sexual behavior. We suggest that this age range may constitute a sensitive period for the acquisition of sexual preferences. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Evidence for the mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex in rat neurons: demonstration of an essential component of brain lactate shuttles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the presence of components of a putative Intracellular Lactate Shuttle (ILS in neurons, we attempted to determine if monocarboxylate (e.g. lactate transporter isoforms (MCT1 and -2 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH are coexpressed in neuronal mitochondria of rat brains. Immunohistochemical analyses of rat brain cross-sections showed MCT1, MCT2, and LDH to colocalize with the mitochondrial inner membrane marker cytochrome oxidase (COX in cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic neurons. Immunoblotting after immunoprecipitation (IP of mitochondria from brain homogenates supported the histochemical observations by demonstrating that COX coprecipitated MCT1, MCT2, and LDH. Additionally, using primary cultures from rat cortex and hippocampus as well as immunohistochemistry and immunocoprecipitation techniques, we demonstrated that MCT2 and LDH are coexpressed in mitochondria of cultured neurons. These findings can be interpreted to mean that, as in skeletal muscle, neurons contain a mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex (mLOC that has the potential to facilitate both intracellular and cell-cell lactate shuttles in brain.

  3. Ammonium derivatives of chromenones and quinolinones as lead antimicrobial agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shilpi Gupta; Seema Singh; Abha Kathuria; Manish Kumar; Sweta Sharma; Ram Kumar; Virinder S Parmar; Bharat Singh; Anjali Gupta; Erik Van Der Eycken; Gainda L Sharma; Sunil K Sharma


    A series of novel ammonium derivatives were synthesized and examined for their antimicrobial efficacy. Comparison of antimicrobial spectrum revealed that compounds 9, 11, 16 and 23 had strong potential against pathogens in vitro. Cytotoxicity results showed compound 9 to be least toxic, it is non-toxic to A549 and U87 cells in MTT assay and exhibits marginal toxicity (15-20%) to human erythrocytes at a concentration of 1000 g/ml as compared to 100% lysis of cells by 31.25 g/ml of the standard drug amphotericin B. This compound has MIC values in the range of 1.95-31.25 g/disc in DDA against different pathogens and may considered to be an important lead antimicrobial molecule for further exploration.

  4. Polymerization and photochromism of ammonium molybdate in porous glass (United States)

    Pak, V. N.; Borisov, A. N.


    Modification of porous glass (PG) plates is carried out by impregnation with aqueous solutions of ammonium molybdate (NH4)2MoO4 with subsequent removal of water at 120°C. A long-wavelength shift of absorption spectra upon accumulation of the salt in PG indicates polymerization of MoO 4 2- anions at low concentrations of the encapsulated salt. Photochromism manifests itself as the anionic forms in PG become larger. UV irradiation of the modified plates causes enhancement of continuous absorption in the visible range. The proposed mechanism of photoreduction of the polianions in PG involves the removal of oxygen atoms from the bridging-Mo-O-Mo-bonds and stabilization of the colored forms by means of conjugation of the electrons released from the 4 d-levels of pentavalent molybdenum.

  5. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.


    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  6. Review of Options for Ammonia/Ammonium Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report is a review of literature supporting practical ammonia/ammonium destruction processes. Melter research supporting Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass production has shown that significant amounts of ammonia will be in the melter offgas condensate. Further work with secondary waste forms indicates the potential need to remove the ammonia, perhaps by an oxidative process. This review finds likely practical chemical methods to oxidize ammonia in aqueous solution at moderate temperatures and atmospheric pressure, using easily obtained reagents. Leading candidates include nitrite oxidation to produce nitrogen gas, various peroxide oxidative processes, and air stripping. This work reviews many other processes and provides reasoning to not consider those processes further for this application.

  7. Polishing of quartz by rapid etching in ammonium bifluoride. (United States)

    Vallin, Orjan; Danielsson, Rolf; Lindberg, Ulf; Thornell, Greger


    The etch rate and surface roughness of polished and lapped AT-cut quartz subjected to hot (90, 110, and 130 degrees C), concentrated (50, 65, 80 wt %) ammonium bi-fluoride have been investigated. Having used principal component analysis to verify experimental solidity and analyze data, we claim with confidence that this parameter space does not, as elsewhere stated, allow for a polishing effect or even a preserving setting. Etch rates were found to correlate well, and possibly logarithmically, with temperature except for the hottest etching applied to lapped material. Roughness as a function of temperature and concentration behaved well for the lapped material, but lacked systematic variation in the case of the polished material. At the lowest temperature, concentration had no effect on etch rate or roughness. Future efforts are targeted at temperatures and concentrations closer to the solubility limit.

  8. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry (Israel); Domb, Abraham J., E-mail: [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel)


    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  9. Ammonium nitrate emulsion : physical properties and decomposition using thermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, H.; Goldthorp, S.; Singh, S.; Turcotte, R.


    This presentation discussed methods of determining the physical properties and decomposition rates of commercial water-based explosives. Ammonium nitrate emulsions can explode when heated to critical temperatures or when a localized thermal energy deposition occurs. An accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) was used to investigate the emulsion under adiabatic conditions. Simultaneous mass spectroscopy (MS) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to conduct an evolved gas analysis. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the AN emulsions have ARC onset temperatures of approximately 220 degrees C. The mass loss reaction occurred in 2 steps. The initial step was related to water evaporation and oil phase volatilization. The second step was related to AN decomposition in a closed system, and AN dissociation in an open system. tabs., figs.

  10. Crystal structure of tris-(hydroxyl-ammonium) orthophosphate. (United States)

    Leinemann, Malte; Jess, Inke; Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian


    The crystal structure of the title salt, ([H3NOH](+))3·[PO4](3-), consists of discrete hydroxyl-ammonium cations and ortho-phos-phate anions. The atoms of the cation occupy general positions, whereas the anion is located on a threefold rotation axis that runs through the phospho-rus atom and one of the phosphate O atoms. In the crystal structure, cations and anions are linked by inter-molecular O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. Altogether, one very strong O-H⋯O, two N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds of medium strength and two weaker bifurcated N-H⋯O inter-actions are observed.

  11. Rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated urinary ammonium acid urate crystals. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Kato, Eiji; Ohta, Kazuhide; Ishikawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Masaki; Yachie, Akihiro


    Although ammonium acid urate (AAU) calculi are extremely rare renal stone components, it was recently found that many urinary tract calculi that cause post-renal renal failure in rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are AAU calculi. The mechanism of AAU calculi development in RV gastroenteritis has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed data from eight RV gastroenteritis patients who transiently had AAU crystals in their urinary sediment. In these patients, formation of AAU crystals occurred earlier than the formation of AAU calculi. No difference was observed in serum and urine uric acid levels between RV gastroenteritis patients with or without AAU crystals. Interestingly, fractional excretion of sodium was extremely low among patients with AAU crystals. These results suggest that the formation of AAU crystals might not be due to excretion of uric acid, but excretion of sodium.

  12. Synthesis of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide by cell diaphragm electrolytic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Under the conditions of tetramethyl ammonia chloride (TMAC) used as starting material, Ti-based Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA), stainless steel used as cathode and Nafion 900 cation membrane as cell diaphragm, this paper studies the synthesis of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) by cell diaphragm electrolytic method, examining not only the effects of current density, concentration of starting material and cell temperature, on the product purity and current efficiency, but also the effects of electrolyte circulation rate on the service life of Ti-based DSA.The experiment puts forward an optimum processing condition, and experimental findings show that preparing TMAH by using this technique can obtain a current efficiency 74.7 % and get product with a purity greater than 99.9%.

  13. Lactulose production from cheese whey using recyclable catalyst ammonium carbonate. (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Han, Jong-In


    Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3) was used as an alkaline catalyst of lactulose production from cheese whey. Maximum yield of 29.6% was obtained at reaction time of 28.44 min, (NH4)2CO3 of 0.76% at 97°C. During reaction, (NH4)2CO3 was fully decomposed to NH3 and CO2, and these gases were recovered. To boost up NH3 recovery, various methods such as heating, aeration, and pH adjustment were applied. The optimal condition for the purpose of NH3 retrieval was temperature of up to 60°C alongside aeration. Easy separation and recovery make (NH4)2CO3 a catalyst alternative to common alkaline chemicals especially for the weak alkaline reaction.

  14. A facile synthesis of ω-aminoalkyl ammonium hydrogen phosphates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Bo Kong; Xiao Yong Zhou; Yang Yang; Xing Yi Xie


    A series of ω-aminoalkyl ammonium hydrogen phosphates were synthesized through a simple and efficient three-step method.The starting materials,ω-aminoalkyl alcohols (AC-n,with carbon number n =3,4,5,6),were amino-protected with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (Fmoc-Cl),followed by phosphorylation with POCl3 and deprotection in piperidine/DMF The structures of each intermediate and final product were confirmed by 1H NMR,FTIR and mass spectrum.The yield of each step was about 77-92%,with a total yield higher than 56%.This new method was superior in low-cost raw materials,mild reaction temperatures (0-25 ℃) and easy purification methods.

  15. Studies on a Cationically Modified Quaternary Ammonium Salt of Lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ai-li; JIANG Wen-ju


    A new quaternary ammonium salt monomer was synthesized and a quaternary amination of lignin( noted as QL),with the monomer was carried out by grafting copolymerization. The products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy(FTIR). The experimental results indicate that the yield of the monomer was 99.06%, and the conversion of the monomer and the grafting yield of QL were 93.69% and 185.78%, respectively. The feasibility of QL as the fiocculant to be applied in color removal of five artificial dyes, eriochrome black T( dye A), gongo red( dye B), direct fast black G (dye C), cuprofix blue green B (dye D), and acid black ATT (dye E) was examined.Results show that QL exhibits the favorable flocculation performance and high stability.

  16. Engineering application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Mao, Nianjia; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke


    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), a promising biological nitrogen removal process, has been verified as an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternative to conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than 110 full-scale anammox plants have been installed and are in operation, treating industrial NH4(+)-rich wastewater worldwide, and anammox-based technologies are flourishing. This review the current state of the art for engineering applications of the anammox process, including various anammox-based technologies, reactor selection and attempts to apply it at different wastewater plants. Process control and implementation for stable performance are discussed as well as some remaining issues concerning engineering application are exposed, including the start-up period, process disturbances, greenhouse gas emissions and especially mainstream anammox applications. Finally, further development of the anammox engineering application is proposed in this review.

  17. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles (United States)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira; Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I.; Domb, Abraham J.


    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  18. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — Ammonium Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of ammonium nitrate (AN). AN was tested, in most cases, as both received from manufacturer and dried/sieved. The participants found the AN to be: 1) insensitive in Type 12A impact testing (although with a wide range of values), 2) completely insensitive in BAM friction testing, 3) less sensitive than the RDX standard in ABL friction testing, 4) less sensitive than RDX in ABL ESD testing, and 5) less sensitive than RDX and PETN in DSC thermal analyses.

  19. Cold Case: Radar investigation of ammonium sulfate cryovolcanism on Titan (United States)

    Thomann, C.; Hayes, A. G.; Hofgartner, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Le Gall, A.


    The detection of a large tidal k2 value from Cassini [1] constitutes very strong evi-dence for a subcrustal ocean, most plausibly dominated by water. However, the secondary constituents are not known. One interesting possibility that has received scant attention in analysis of surface data sets is that the ocean contain aqueous ammonium sulfates, which erupted on the surface in the past to create vast, smooth plains [2]. We adopt the hypothesis that the undifferentiated plains—the "bland-lands" in the mid-latitudes of Titan—are these deposits, and test it using radiometry with SAR data. Lopez et al (this conference) investigate the global distribution and possible origin of this type of unit. We extracted SAR and radiometry-during-SAR data sets from the PDS, and pro-duced maps of brightness temperatures. The SAR imagery was used to identify locations where crossovers exist -some of which are in the undifferentiated plains--and hence where brightness temperatures at different incidence angles are available. We derived emissivities from the data using a simple radiometric model [3] to ac-count for the brightness temperature differences as a function of surface roughness, volume scattering and emissivity. We test the hypothesis by assessing whether the derived emissivities and volume scattering in the bland-lands are consistent with the model cryoclastic ash of ice and ammonium sulfate proposed in [2], distinct from that in other terrains. [1] L. Iess, R.A. Jacobson, M. Ducci, D.J. Stevenson, J.I. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, P. Racioppa, N.J. Rappaport, P. Tortora, Science, 337, 457 (2012). [2] A.D. Fortes, P.M. Grinrod, S.K. Trickett, L. Vocadlo. Icarus, 188, 139 (2007). [3] T.L. White and J.R. Cogdell. The Moon, 6, 235 (1973).

  20. Postpartum Sexuality and the Lactational Amenorrhea Method for Contraception. (United States)

    Labbok, Miriam H


    This chapter reviews the literature on postpartum coital behavior, anovulatory and ovulatory bleeding episodes, and the methodology and efficacy of Lactational Amenorrhea Method and progesterone-only oral contraceptives. Of interest is the finding that breastfeeding women may resume coital behavior earlier postpartum, but report increased discomfort over time. The high efficacy of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method is confirmed and data illustrating possible relaxation of some criteria are presented. The conflicting guidance of CDC and WHO concerning immediate postpartum use of progestin-only methods is presented. The dearth of recent studies calls for new research on these topics.