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Sample records for cupressus lusitanica suspension

  1. Production of beta-thujaplicin in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures fed with organic acids and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Fujita, K; Sakai, K

    2001-05-01

    Effects of some organic acids and monoterpenes on production of beta-thujaplicin were studied in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures. The fungal elicitor-induced biosynthesis of beta-thujaplicin was promoted by the feedings of malate, pyruvate, fumarate, succinate, and acetate. These results suggest some relationships between acetate/pyruvate metabolism and beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, or between tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis. Feedings of C. lusitanica suspension cultures with some monoterpenes inhibited elicitor-triggered beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, but 2-carene and terpinyl acetate feedings significantly improved the beta-thujaplicin production of C. lusitanica suspension cultures. These results indicate a possible involvement of terpinyl acetate and 2-carene in beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, as well as potential uses of these monoterpenes in large-scale beta-thujaplicin production.

  2. Improved beta-thujaplicin production in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures by fungal elicitor and methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Fujita, K; Yamada, J; Sakai, K

    2001-04-01

    Production of a novel antimicrobial tropolone, beta-thujaplicin, in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures was studied by using a variety of chemicals and fungal elicitors. Sodium alginate, chitin, and methyl jasmonate resulted in 2-, 2.5-, and 3-fold higher beta-thujaplicin production, respectively, than in the control. Significantly improved beta-thujaplicin production (187 mg l(-1)) was obtained using a high cell density (180-200 g l(-1)) and fungal elicitor treatment [10 mg (g fresh cells)(-1)] in a production medium with a high ferrous ion concentration (0.3 mM). This improved volumetric productivity was 3- to 4-fold higher than obtained under standard conditions. A synergistic effect of fungal elicitor and ferrous ion on beta-thujaplicin production was also suggested by our study. Plant cell culture technology is a promising alternative for producing a large variety of secondary metabolites that are widely used as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and dairy products (Verpoorte et al. 1999). Thus, beta-thujaplicin production by plant cell cultures was developed with the goal of commercial application (Berlin and Witte 1988; Itose and Sakai 1997; Ono et al. 1998). However, the production of beta-thujaplicin by plant cell cultures is still not competitive for use in industrial applications. In this study, we assessed the effects of methyl jasmonate, alginate, chitin, and fungal elicitor on beta-thujaplicin production; we obtained a significantly elevated beta-thujaplicin production by using an improved culture strategy.

  3. Feedback regulation of beta-thujaplicin production and formation of its methyl ether in a suspension culture of Cupressus lusitanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Junko; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2002-07-01

    Suspension cell cultures of Cupressus lusitanica produce beta-thujaplicin, a tropolone found mostly in Cupressaceae heartwood. The factors controlling beta-thujaplicin accumulation in this cell culture system were investigated. Initial cell density of the cultures did not affect beta-thujaplicin levels, though initial addition of beta-thujaplicin suppressed its de novo production. When beta-thujaplicin accumulation reached a certain level (ca. 40 mg/l) in the medium, the cultures seemed to cease beta-thujaplicin production. However, beta-thujaplicin productivity was restored when the beta-thujaplicin-containing medium was exchanged for fresh medium; the formation of 2-methoxy-6-(methylethyl)cyclohepta-2,4,6-trien-1-one, an isomer of methylated beta-thujaplicin, in medium was also observed. These results suggest that beta-thujaplicin synthesis was regulated by product feedback mechanism in this cell line, and that excess accumulation of beta-thujaplicin is relieved by conversion of beta-thujaplicin to its methyl ether.

  4. Cupressus lusitanica (Cupressaceae) leaf extract induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopéz, L; Villavicencio, M A; Albores, A; Martínez, M; de la Garza, J; Meléndez-Zajgla, J; Maldonado, V

    2002-05-01

    A crude ethanolic extract of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. leaves demonstrate cytotoxicity in a panel of cancer cell lines. Cell death was due to apoptosis, as assessed by morphologic features (chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies formation) and specific DNA fragmentation detected by in situ end-labeling of DNA breaks (TUNEL). The apoptotic cell death was induced timely in a dose-dependent manner. Despite the absence of changes in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, proapoptotic Bax protein variants omega and delta were increased. These results warrant further research of possible antitumor compounds in this plant.

  5. Asexual propagation of Cupressus lusitanica Propagação assexuada de Cupressus lusitanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagma Kratz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective was to evaluate the induction of epicormic shoots in strains and techniques of cutting, grafting and minicutting for Cupressus lusitanica cloning. For cutting, concentrations of IBA and substrates in plants of 5 and 10 years of age were tested. In minicutting evaluated the type of propagules. Grafting seedlings of trees 10 years as grafts for the first sub-culture, and from this, the shoots were collected for the second subculture. The species presented difficult rooting. The grafting showed the best result. Shoots induction of strains showed low viability.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.161

  1. Signal transduction and metabolic flux of beta-thujaplicin and monoterpene biosynthesis in elicited Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Matsunaga, Yoko; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2006-01-01

    beta-Thujaplicin is an antimicrobial tropolone derived from geranyl pyrophosphate(GPP) and monoterpene intermediate. Yeast elicitor-treated Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures accumulate high levels of beta-thujaplicin at early stages and other monoterpenes at later stages post-elicitation. The different regulation of beta-thujaplicin and monoterpene biosynthesis and signal transduction directing metabolic flux to beta-thujaplicin firstly and then shifting metabolic flow from beta-thujaplicin to other monoterpene biosynthesis were investigated. The earlier rapid induction of beta-thujaplicin accumulation and a later stimulation of monoterpene biosynthesis by yeast elicitor are in well agreement with elicitor-induced changes in activity of three monoterpene biosynthetic enzymes including isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, GPP synthase, and monoterpene synthase. Yeast elicitor induces an earlier and stronger beta-thujaplicin production and monoterpene biosynthetic enzyme activity than methyl jasmonate (MeJA) does. Profiling all monoterpenes produced by C. lusitanica cell cultures under different conditions reveals that beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis parallels with other monoterpenes and competes for common precursor pools. Yet beta-thujaplicin is produced pre-dominantly at early stage of elicitation whereas other monoterpenes are mainly accumulated at late stage while beta-thujaplicin is metabolized. It is suggested that yeast elicitor-treated C. lusitanica cells preferentially accumulate beta-thujaplicin as a primary defense and other monoterpenes as a secondary defense. Inhibitor treatments suggest that immediate production of beta-thujaplicin post-elicitation largely depends on pre-existing enzymes and translation of pre-existing transcripts as well as recruitment of precursor pools from both the cytosol and plastids. The later beta-thujaplicin and other monoterpene accumulation strictly depends on active transcription and translation. Induction of beta

  2. Chromium Biosorption from Cr(VI) Aqueous Solutions by Cupressus lusitanica Bark: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzahuatl-Muñoz, Alma Rosa; Cristiani-Urbina, María del Carmen; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of chromium (Cr) ion biosorption from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions by Cupressus lusitanica bark (CLB). CLB total Cr biosorption capacity strongly depended on operating variables such as initial Cr(VI) concentration and contact time: as these variables rose, total Cr biosorption capacity increased significantly. Total Cr biosorption rate also increased with rising solution temperature. The pseudo-second-order model described the total Cr biosorption kinetic data best. Langmuir´s model fitted the experimental equilibrium biosorption data of total Cr best and predicted a maximum total Cr biosorption capacity of 305.4 mg g-1. Total Cr biosorption by CLB is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process as indicated by the thermodynamic parameters. Results from the present kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies suggest that CLB biosorbs Cr ions from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions predominantly by a chemical sorption phenomenon. Low cost, availability, renewable nature, and effective total Cr biosorption make CLB a highly attractive and efficient method to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated water and wastewater. PMID:26352933

  3. Chromium Biosorption from Cr(VI Aqueous Solutions by Cupressus lusitanica Bark: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa Netzahuatl-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of chromium (Cr ion biosorption from Cr(VI aqueous solutions by Cupressus lusitanica bark (CLB. CLB total Cr biosorption capacity strongly depended on operating variables such as initial Cr(VI concentration and contact time: as these variables rose, total Cr biosorption capacity increased significantly. Total Cr biosorption rate also increased with rising solution temperature. The pseudo-second-order model described the total Cr biosorption kinetic data best. Langmuir´s model fitted the experimental equilibrium biosorption data of total Cr best and predicted a maximum total Cr biosorption capacity of 305.4 mg g(-1. Total Cr biosorption by CLB is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process as indicated by the thermodynamic parameters. Results from the present kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies suggest that CLB biosorbs Cr ions from Cr(VI aqueous solutions predominantly by a chemical sorption phenomenon. Low cost, availability, renewable nature, and effective total Cr biosorption make CLB a highly attractive and efficient method to remediate Cr(VI-contaminated water and wastewater.

  4. Reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and their interactions play different roles in Cupressus lusitanica cell death and phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2007-01-01

    Beta-thujaplicin Is a natural troponoid with strong antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer activities. Beta-thujaplicin production in yeast elicitor-treated Cupressus lusitanica cell culture and its relationships with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production and hypersensitive cell death were investigated. Superoxide anion radical (O2*-) induced cell death and inhibited beta-thujaplicin accumulation, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation but did not significantly affect cell death. Both elicitor and O2*- induced programmed cell death, which can be blocked by protease inhibitors, protein kinase inhibitors, and Ca2+ chelators. Elicitor-induced NO generation was nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent. Inhibition of NO generation by NOS inhibitors and NO scavenger partly blocked the elicitor-induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation and cell death, and NO donors strongly induced cell death. Interaction among NO, H2O2, and O2*- shows that NO production and H2O2 production are interdependent, but NO and O2*- accumulation were negatively related because of coconsumption of NO and O2*-. NO- and O2*- -induced cell death required each other, and both were required for elicitor-induced cell death. A direct interaction between NO and O2*- was implicated in the production of a potent oxidant peroxynitrite, which might mediate the elicitor-induced cell death.

  5. Chromium Biosorption from Cr(VI) Aqueous Solutions by Cupressus lusitanica Bark: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzahuatl-Muñoz, Alma Rosa; Cristiani-Urbina, María del Carmen; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of chromium (Cr) ion biosorption from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions by Cupressus lusitanica bark (CLB). CLB total Cr biosorption capacity strongly depended on operating variables such as initial Cr(VI) concentration and contact time: as these variables rose, total Cr biosorption capacity increased significantly. Total Cr biosorption rate also increased with rising solution temperature. The pseudo-second-order model described the total Cr biosorption kinetic data best. Langmuir´s model fitted the experimental equilibrium biosorption data of total Cr best and predicted a maximum total Cr biosorption capacity of 305.4 mg g(-1). Total Cr biosorption by CLB is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process as indicated by the thermodynamic parameters. Results from the present kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies suggest that CLB biosorbs Cr ions from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions predominantly by a chemical sorption phenomenon. Low cost, availability, renewable nature, and effective total Cr biosorption make CLB a highly attractive and efficient method to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated water and wastewater.

  6. Multiple signalling pathways mediate fungal elicitor-induced beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis in Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Sakai, Kokki

    2003-02-01

    The biosynthesis of a phytoalexin, beta-thujaplicin, in Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures can be stimulated by a yeast elicitor, H(2)O(2), or methyl jasmonate. Lipoxygenase activity was also stimulated by these treatments, suggesting that the oxidative burst and jasmonate pathway may mediate the elicitor-induced accumulation of beta-thujaplicin. The elicitor signalling pathway involved in beta-thujaplicin induction was further investigated using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Treatment of the cells with calcium ionophore A23187 alone stimulated the production of beta-thujaplicin. A23187 also enhanced the elicitor-induced production of beta-thujaplicin. EGTA, LaCl(3), and verapamil pretreatments partially blocked A23187- or yeast elicitor-induced accumulation of beta-thujaplicin. These results suggest that Ca(2+) influx is required for elicitor-induced production of beta-thujaplicin. Treatment of cell cultures with mastoparan, melittin or cholera toxin alone or in combination with the elicitor stimulated the production of beta-thujaplicin or enhanced the elicitor-induced production of beta-thujaplicin. The G-protein inhibitor suramin inhibited the elicitor-induced production of beta-thujaplicin, suggesting that receptor-coupled G-proteins are likely to be involved in the elicitor-induced biosynthesis of beta-thujaplicin. Indeed, both GTP-binding activity and GTPase activity of the plasma membrane were stimulated by elicitor, and suramin and cholera toxin affected G-protein activities. In addition, all inhibitors of G-proteins and Ca(2+) flux suppressed elicitor-induced increases in lipoxygenase activity whereas activators of G-proteins and the Ca(2+) signalling pathway increased lipoxygenase activity. These observations suggest that Ca(2+) and G-proteins may mediate elicitor signals to the jasmonate pathway, and the jasmonate signalling pathway may then lead to the production of beta-thujaplicin.

  7. Chemical composition and antidermatophytic properties of volatile fractions of hexanic extract from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Bessière, Jean Marie; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam; Kuate, Serge Philibert

    2006-01-16

    The chemical composition of five column fractions of hexanic leaf extract of Cupressus lusitanica were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and then tested for their antidermatophytic activities using the agar dilution method. The first fraction (F(1)) has only hydrocabon monoterpenes with alpha-pinene (80.0%) as major component. The main constituents of the second fraction (F(2)) were epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (35.3%), epi-zonarene (10.3%), 1S, cis-calamenene (13.1%) and beta-himachalene (10.4%). The third fraction (F(3)) was rich in hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (45.4%) and a relatively high amount of diterpenes (29.8%) with epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (14.3%), pimaric acid (7.5%), kaurenoic acid (6.9%) and 8-beta-hydroxysandaracopimarane (3.5%) as main components. The last two fractions contain high molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons, their main constituents been eicosane (41.1%) and tricosane (37.3%) and heptacosane (22.1%). The agar dilution method was used to evaluate the antifungal properties of the crude extract and its fractions. These fractions showed several degrees of antidermatophytic activities against Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum Langeronii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. Fractions F(1) and F(3) exhibited the highest antidermatophytic activities with repective MICs of 250 and 125 mug/ml while the fractions F(4) and F(5) did not prevent the growth of the tested fungi up to dose 2,500 mug/ml.

  8. MASA TOTAL Y CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES EN RAÍCES FINAS DE ECOSISTEMAS FORESTALES (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill y Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA TOTAL FINE ROOT MASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) FROM PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (£ 5 mm) en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham), ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50- 80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida ...

  9. Tabla Local de Rendimiento para Ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Miller Válida para los Alrededores de Medellín

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    Illencik Zani Guillermo

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente tabla de rendimiento del ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica, confeccionada a base de muestras tomadas en los cipresales del Valle de Aburrá y de los montes colindantes, es de carácter local. A pesar de la escasez, la débil distribución y la heterogeneidad del levantamiento de las parcelas de muestra disponibles, esta obra es bastante aceptable para llenar interinamente un vacío existente en nuestra literatura forestal económica. La tabla de rendimiento presenta la composición y el desarrollo de un cipresal normal (ideal, puro y coetáneo de una hectárea, en dependencia de las condiciones estacionales y de la edad. Sirve de medida en la clasificación de cualquier cipresal de los amplios alrededores de Medellín. Se suponen aclareos quinquenales, moderados, de 9 a 15%, en el rodal principal. El conocimiento de la edad es una condición cardinal para el liso de una tabla de rendimiento. Sin embargo, conociendo el área basal o la masa y la altura dominante o medida del rodal, pueden sacarse conclusiones referentes a la edad física o económica del mismo.

  10. Jasmonate and ethylene signalling and their interaction are integral parts of the elicitor signalling pathway leading to beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis in Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures.

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    Zhao, Jian; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2004-05-01

    Roles of jasmonate and ethylene signalling and their interaction in yeast elicitor-induced biosynthesis of a phytoalexin, beta-thujaplicin, were investigated in Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures. Yeast elicitor, methyl jasmonate, and ethylene all induce the production of beta-thujaplicin. Elicitor also stimulates the biosynthesis of jasmonate and ethylene before the induction of beta-thujaplicin accumulation. The elicitor-induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation can be partly blocked by inhibitors of jasmonate and ethylene biosynthesis or signal transduction. These results indicate that the jasmonate and ethylene signalling pathways are integral parts of the elicitor signal transduction leading to beta-thujaplicin accumulation. Methyl jasmonate treatment can induce ethylene production, whereas ethylene does not induce jasmonate biosynthesis; methyl jasmonate-induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation can be partly blocked by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, while blocking jasmonate biosynthesis inhibits almost all ethylene-induced beta-thujaplicin accumulation. These results indicate that the ethylene and jasmonate pathways interact in mediating beta-thujaplicin production, with the jasmonate pathway working as a main control and the ethylene pathway as a fine modulator for beta-thujaplicin accumulation. Both the ethylene and jasmonate signalling pathways can be regulated upstream by Ca(2+). Ca(2+) influx negatively regulates ethylene production, and differentially regulates elicitor- or methyl jasmonate-stimulated ethylene production.

  11. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  12. Oxidative stress in plant cell culture: a role in production of beta-thujaplicin by Cupresssus lusitanica suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2005-06-05

    Oxidative stress is a common physiological stress that often challenges plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major factors in oxidative stress that significantly affect plant cell growth and secondary metabolism. Here we used beta-thujaplicin production by Cupressus lusitanica cell culture as an example to demonstrate the common occurrence of oxidative stress in cultivated plant cells and its effect on multiple aspects of cell culture process. C. lusitanica cells cultivated under Fe(2+) stress generate a significant level of ROS, and oxidative stress also occurs at late stages of C. lusitanica cell cultures under normal conditions. ROS production inhibited cell growth, induced lipid peroxidation and cell death, and enhanced ethylene and beta-thujaplicin production. It is demonstrated that Fe(2+) stress enhances ROS production via the Fenton reaction and promotes beta-thujaplicin production via ROS-induced lipid peroxidation that may activate cyclic oxylipin and ethylene pathways. Results further indicate that H(2)O(2) is a positive signal for beta-thujaplicin production, whereas superoxide anion radical (O(2) (- )) negatively affects beta-thujaplicin induction and strongly induces cell death. The study suggests that evaluating the oxidative stress and plant responses in a cell culture process is very necessary and important for understanding biochemical processes and for gaining the maximal productivity of target secondary metabolites.

  13. Annual Height Growth Dynamics and Overwintering Survival Situation of Cupressus lusitanica Seedling%引种墨西哥柏幼苗越冬情况及苗高生长节律初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包珩; 万福绪

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究不同种源地墨西哥柏1年生幼苗在南京地区自然状态下的越冬成活率及其苗高的生长特征.[方法]对南京六合区种植的10个种源地的墨西哥柏1年生幼苗的越冬存活率和苗高进行了为期1年的观测.[结果]不同种源地墨西哥柏1年生幼苗的越冬存活率差异明显,其中D5种源地的幼苗存活率最高,超过了90%,D8种源地的幼苗存活率最低;10个种源苗木的生长时间和趋势基本一致,1年中的生长期在240 d左右,苗高生长动态总体呈现“慢-快-慢”的生长节律.[结论]10个种源地的墨西哥柏1年生幼苗在南京地区的苗高生长基本遵循Logistic规律,但不同种源地幼苗平均苗高生长量之间仍存在明显差异.%[Objective] In order to study overwintering survival rate of Cupressus lusitanica 1 year seedlings under the natural state of overwintering survival rate and the seedling height growth characteristics in Nanjing.[Method] Overwintering survival rate and height of Cupressus lusitanica 1 year seedlings were observed one year in Nanjing Liuhe District.[Result] Overwintering survival rates of Cupressus lusitanica 1 year seedlings had significant difference.Among them the seedling survival rate of D5 provenance was highest,more than 90%.The seedling survival rate of D8 provenance was lowest.The growth time and trends of the seedling were basically identical to 10 provenances.The growth of the seedling height presented a dynamic "slow-fast-slow" general rhythm.[Conclusion] Through this experiment,we know seedling height growth of 10 provenance of Cupressus lusitanica 1 year seedlings in Nanjing mainly follow Logistic rules,but high average seedlings growth of different provenance had significant difference.

  14. Monoterpenes produced by Cupressus lusitanica cultured cells including a novel monoterpene (1R, 2S, 6S)-(+)-1,6-epoxy-4(8)-p-menthen-2-ol [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Yoko; Fujita, Koki; Yamada, Junko; Ashitani, Tatsuya; Sakai, Kokki

    2003-12-01

    A novel monoterpene,(1R, 2S, 6S)-(+)-1,6-epoxy-4(8)-p-menthen-2-ol [corrected], was isolated from an elicitor-treated cell culture of Cupressus lusitanica (Mexican cypress). Ten known monoterpenes--limonene, myrcene, beta-ocimene, sabinene, terpinolene, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, 4(8)-p-menthen-1,2-diol, 4-hydroxyphellandric acid methylester and beta-thujaplicin methylether--were also identified. Regioselective metabolisms of monoterpenes were observed in this culture.

  15. HIDROFOBICIDAD EN ANDISOLES BAJO ROBLEDAL (Quercus humboldtii Y PLANTACIONES FORESTALES (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA HYDROPHOBICITY OF ANDISOLS OF OAK GROVES (Quercus humboldtii AND TREE PLANTATIONS (Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Duque Zapata

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas se evaluó la persistencia de la repelencia al agua en el horizonte A de Andisoles bajo tres coberturas vegetales: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii y en tres posiciones topográficas diferentes a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas, mediante el método de WDPT, en muestras con la humedad de campo y secas al aire. En todas las coberturas se encontró repelencia al agua en los suelos. Además, cuando las muestras fueron secadas al aire, la persistencia de la repelencia al agua se incrementó. Se encontró diferencia significativa en la distribución de la persistencia de la repelencia al agua entre las coberturas y entre las posiciones en la vertiente de las colinas, sin que se presentara un comportamiento similar para las tres coberturas. Los suelos bajo cobertura de ciprés fueron los que presentaron los mayores valores de WDPT en todas las condiciones de medida, siendo este el primer reporte que se hace en la literatura, con un amplio respaldo muestral, de repelencia al agua en suelos bajo dicha cobertura vegetal. En ninguno de los casos, la humedad de las muestras fue el parámetro que explicara el comportamiento observado en la repelencia al agua de los suelos estudiados.The persistence of water repellency in the A horizon of Andisols was evaluated in the Piedras Blancas watershed under three vegetative covers: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica, and Quercus humboldtii, and in three different topographic conditions across the slope of a low hill, using the WDPT method with samples containing field humidities and airdried samples. In all vegetative covers, water repellency of the soils was documented. Also, when the samples were air-dried, the persistency of the water repellency increased. A significant difference in the distribution of water repellency was documented among the different vegetative covers and topographic conditions, without a consistent pattern for the

  16. Rapid accumulation and metabolism of polyphosphoinositol and its possible role in phytoalexin biosynthesis in yeast elicitor-treated Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Guo, YingQing; Kosaihira, Atsushi; Sakai, Kokki

    2004-05-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)] rapidly accumulates in elicited Cupressus lusitanica Mill. cultured cells by 4- to 5-fold over the control, and then it is metabolized. Correspondingly, phospholipase C (PLC) activity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] is stimulated to high levels by the elicitor and then decreases whereas Ins(1,4,5)P(3) phosphatase activity declines at the beginning of elicitation and increases later. These observations indicate that elicitor-induced biosynthesis and dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) occur simultaneously and that the Ins(1,4,5)P(3) level may be regulated by both PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-PLC and Ins(1,4,5)P(3) phosphatases. Studies on the properties of PLC and Ins(1,4,5)P(3) phosphatases indicate that PLC activity toward PtdIns(4,5)P(2) was optimal at a lower Ca(2+) concentration than activity toward phosphatidylinositol whereas Ins(1,4,5)P(3) phosphatase activity is inhibited by high Ca(2+) concentration. This suggests that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) biosynthesis and degradation may be regulated by free cytosolic Ca(2+). In addition, a relationship between Ins(1,4,5)P(3) signaling and accumulation of a phytoalexin (beta-thujaplicin) is suggested because inhibition or promotion of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) accumulation by neomycin or LiCl affects elicitor-induced production of beta-thujaplicin. Moreover, ruthenium red inhibits elicitor-induced accumulation of beta-thujaplicin while thapsigargin alone induces beta-thujaplicin accumulation. These results suggest that Ca(2+) released from intracellular calcium stores may mediate elicitor-induced accumulation of beta-thujaplicin via an Ins(1,4,5)P(3) signaling pathway, since it is widely accepted that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) can mobilize Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. This work demonstrates an elicitor-triggered Ins(1,4,5)P(3) turnover, defines its enzymatic basis and regulation, and suggests a role for Ins(1,4,5)P(3) in elicitor-induced phytoalexin accumulation via a Ca(2

  17. 盐胁迫对10个墨西哥柏种源幼苗生理生化的影响%Effects of salt stress on physiological and biochemical index of ten provenances of Cupressus lusitanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕琳; 万福绪; 娄晓瑞

    2013-01-01

    采用5个盐分梯度,对10种墨西哥柏(Cupressus lusitanica)幼苗进行盐胁迫处理.通过对苗高、地径净生长量、叶片含水量、叶绿素总含量、相对电导率、脯氨酸和丙二醛含量等指标的测定,观测其在盐胁迫下的一系列生理生化反应.结果表明:随着盐胁迫的加剧,墨西哥柏苗高、地径净生长量、叶片含水量逐渐降低,且盐胁迫对苗高的影响较对地径的大;叶片脯氨酸、丙二醛含量则随着盐胁迫程度增加显著上升;叶绿素总含量在低强度胁迫下增大而在高强度胁迫下降低;相对电导率不能真实地反映出墨西哥柏受盐胁迫的影响程度.根据隶属函数法综合评价各种源耐盐能力,筛选出了3个强抗盐种源为:D10(‘Ejido sierra de agua’)、D3(‘La cienega’)、D4(‘La cumbre del manzano’).%This article aimed to determine the effect of salt stress on physiological and biochemical index of 10 provenances of Cupressus lusitanica by measuring seedling height,ground diameter,relative water content,chlorophyll content,relative conductivity,proline content and malonaldehyde (MDA) content under five salinity gradient levels.The results showed that under salt stress,the seedling's height,ground diameter and relative water content decreased,while proline content and malonaldehyde (MDA) content increased outstandingly.Salt stress affected the height growth more than ground diameter growth.Total content of chlorophyll increased under low level of salt stress and decreased under high level of salt stress.Relative conductivity could not show the real growth condition of Cupressus lusitanica suffering salt stress.Based on subordination function method,the three high salt-resistant provenances (D10,D3 and D4) among ten provenances are obtained.

  18. HUMEDAD CRÍTICA Y REPELENCIA AL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO COBERTURA DE Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA CRITICAL MOISTURE AND WATER REPELLENCY ON ANDISOLS UNDER Cupressus lusitanica AND Quercus humboldtii COVER IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Caballero Mejía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En dos vertientes de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas (Medellín, Colombia se estudió la relación humedad - persistencia de la repelencia al agua en la parte superficial de andisoles bajo dos coberturas vegetales: Cupressus lusitanica (ciprés y Quercus humboldtii (roble, en tres posiciones a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas: superior, media e inferior y en dos condiciones de humedad: con la humedad de campo y con la humedad adquirida al equilibrar al aire durante dos días muestras que habían sido secadas a 105 °C. En cada sitio de la vertiente se ubicó una parcela de 6 m x 5 m y en ella se tomaron 60 muestras de suelo en una malla de 1 m x 0,5 m. La persistencia de la repelencia al agua se evaluó con el método del WDPT en muestras tamizadas a 1 mm. Se presentó un alto número de muestras fuertemente repelentes al agua en todas las condiciones de trabajo, siendo mayor la frecuencia en ciprés que en roble. Tanto la repelencia al agua como la humedad presentaron comportamiento diferencial por cobertura y por posición en la vertiente dentro de la misma cobertura. No se pudo establecer una relación consistente entre el contenido de humedad de las muestras y la persistencia de la repelencia al agua que presentaron, así como tampoco se pudo definir una zona de transición de humedad crítica para que se manifestara la repelencia al agua en ellas, en ninguna de las dos coberturas vegetales y en ninguna posición en la vertiente.In two hillside of the Piedras Blancas watershed ( Medellín, Colombia was studied the relation humidity - persistence of the water repellency on the surface of the andisols under two vegetable covers: Cupressus lusitanica (cypress and Quercus humboldtii (oak groves. These were found in three different positions along the side of low hills: upper, middle and lower grounds, as well as in two conditions of humidity: with the humidity acquired when equilibrated with the air during two days (samples

  19. MASA TOTAL Y CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES EN RAÍCES FINAS DE ECOSISTEMAS FORESTALES (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill y Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA TOTAL FINE ROOT MASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. FROM PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Barreto Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (£ 5 mm en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham, ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50- 80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida que aumentaba la profundidad, encontrándose en la parcela de ciprés el 83 % de las raíces en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad, en pino pátula el 75 % y en roble el 68 %. Los elementos con mayor participación en las raíces finas fueron calcio y potasio, siendo el primero de ellos mucho mayor en la cobertura de ciprés con respecto a las parcelas restantes, seguido en abundancia del potasio, a excepción de la parcela de roble en donde la concentración de un oligoelemento como Fe, fue incluso superior a la de calcio. Los elementos Ca, Mg, K, P, Mn, Cu y Zn acumulados en las raíces finas, hasta los 80 cm de profundidad, fueron superiores en la cobertura de ciprés, con la única excepción de Fe, que fue superior en la parcela de roble. En las parcelas de pino pátula y ciprés, el patrón de abundancia siguió la secuencia decreciente Ca > K Mg > Fe > P. En este trabajo se pretendió resaltar la importancia de las raíces finas y la concentración de los elementos, en los ecosistemas forestales naturales y plantados y su relación con el ciclo de nutrientes. Para ello, la aproximación metodológica comprendió la masa total de raíces, esto es raíces vivas y muertas en conjunto.In the Piedras Blancas region, Antioquia-Colombia, a sampling of fine roots (£ 5 mm was conducted in three permanent plots established in forest ecosystems of pine (Pinus patula Schltdl, cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill and oak (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., at

  20. Masa total y contenido de nutrientes en raíces finas de ecosistemas forestales (pinus patula schltdl y cham cupressus lusitanica mill y quercus humboldtii bonpl.) de piedras blancas, antioquia-colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (5 mm) en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham), ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50-80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida q...

  1. 盐胁迫对不同种源墨西哥柏幼苗SS·SP·POD的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Different Provenances of Cupressus lusitanica Seedlings SS,SP,POD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英团; 万福绪; 娄晓瑞; 冷慧梅

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Provide theoretical basis for the Cupressus lusitanica in China's,successful introduction and expansion of breeding.[Method] Study the change of POD,soluble protein (SP) and soluble sugar content in the seeds sprout of 10 different provenances Cupressus lusitanica under indoor simulation salt stress conditions.[Result] The accumulation of soluble sugar and oxide activity of 10 different provenances C.lusitanica generally decreased along with the prolonging of stress in the entire stress process.While the soluble protein content increased in general,there' s a fluctuations under the fall and rise.In addition,the variation of soluble sugar,soluble protein and peroxidase activity are similar to the control group,there' s little change along with the prolonging of salt stress,under the low salinity gradient (T1,T2,T3) condition.But in low salinity (T4,T5) gradient condition there' s an obviously differences.[Conclusion] Salt stress could obviously affect the contents of soluble sugar,soluble protein and peroxidase activity in needles of C.lusitanica seedlings.%[目的]为墨西哥柏在我国成功引进和扩大繁育提供理论基础.[方法]在室内模拟盐分胁迫条件,探讨10个不同种源墨西哥柏种子萌发苗的可溶性糖(SS)、可溶性蛋白(SP)和过氧化物酶(POD)含量的变化规律.[结果]在整个胁迫过程中,随着盐胁迫时间的延长,10个种源墨西哥柏可溶性糖含量和氧化物酶活性总体上呈下降趋势,而可溶性蛋白含量总体上呈上升趋势,下降和上升的过程中都有波动;另外,在低盐分(T1、T2、T3)梯度下,随着盐胁迫时间的增加,可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白和过氧化物酶活性的变化规律与对照组相似且变化不大,但在低盐分(T4、T5)梯度下出现了差异.[结论]盐胁迫对不同种源墨西哥柏苗木可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白和过氧化物酶活性有显著影响.

  2. Desarrollo de un método para controlar la calidad de producción de plántulas en viveros forestales: estudio de caso con ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S\\u00E1nchez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En viveros forestales de especies latifoliadas tropicales, por lo general no se cuenta con criterios ni valores de referencia para realizar controles de calidad en la producción de plántulas, ni con un método de muestreo apropiado. Se revisó y adaptó un sistema de muestreo por bancales de plántulas de ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica con base en parcelas aleatorias de 28 plántulas, en las que se registró 11 variables cualitativas y cuantitativas en cada plántula muestreada. Se propone una intensidad de muestreo de un 6% para bancales de 2000 plántulas, que se reduce con la escala de producción de modo que asegure un error de muestreo 15%, plántulas suprimidas >10%, >15% de plántulas enfermas severamente, mortalidad >10%, sean criterios e indicadores de rechazo del lote o bancal de producción de plántulas de ciprés.

  3. The Chronological History and Taxonomic Variation of the Genus Cupressus(Cupressaceae) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Silba

    2006-01-01

    Recent embryological evidence of studies of seedlings of Cupressus L. Along with chemotaxonomic studies of heart wood components has demonstrated that Cupressus lusitanica Mill. Did indeed originate from the country of India. In the midsixteenth century, Portuguese merchants established early trade routes between India and Portugal. The trade developed from the spice industry confirms Miller's (1768) original description that Cupressus lusitanica did indeed originate from India.Later authors suggested that Cupressus lusitanica cultivated in Portugal was introduced from wild populations of Cupressus in Mexico. However, this latter theory was never accepted by native botanist in the country of Mexico, including noted botanist M. Martinez (1948). In fact, all Cupressus species in India seem to have a different embryology than that of all Cupressus species in Nepal, Bhutan, China and Vietnam (Silba, 1994).

  4. Study on Relationship of Root Morphological Characters and Biomass of Cupressus lusitanica in Different Age Classes%墨西哥柏不同龄级根系形态特征与生物量关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷慧梅; 万福绪; 张英团

    2013-01-01

    [目的]对引进的3个种源墨西哥柏苗木生物量及根系生长状况进行研究,为今后困难地造林提供技术支撑。[方法]以引进的3个种源3个龄级(1龄、2龄、3龄)墨西哥柏实生幼苗为研究对象,对其地上、地下部分生物量及根系形态特征、表面积、体积等方面进行研究。[结果]随龄级的增加,幼苗的株高和地径生长明显增加,不同种源苗木差异较大,且幼苗的根冠比、根系长度、表面积与体积呈上升趋势;2、3龄级幼苗整体稳定生长,中根、大根在总根系中所占比重增大,地下部分需要更多的光合产物,幼苗根系逐渐向中根和大根发育。[结论]地上生物量与根系形态各指标间存在相关性,根系形态与生物量关系密切。不同种源幼苗在相同的生长环境和时间内,积累生物量的能力不同。%[Objective] The aim was to explore biomass and growth of Cupressus lusitanica seedlings in order to provide technological supports for afforestation. [Method] The introduced Cupressus lusitanica seedlings at different ages were re-searched to explore biomass (ground or underground) morphological shape, surface area and volume of a root system. [Result] As age grew, plant height and ground diameter increased significantly, varying dramatical y upon seed provenance, and root-canopy ratio, root length, surface area and volume of seedlings were increas-ing. Specifical y, seedlings at two-year-old and three-year-old kept a stable growth;moderate and big roots took higher proportions in a root system; underground parts for a plant required more photosynthetic products; root systems of young seedlings grew to moderate and big roots. [Conclusion] Ground biomass is of correlation with root system indices and the morphological characteristics of root systems are close to biomass. The accumulation capacity of biomass differed for seedlings from differ-ent provenances, even in the same

  5. 施肥对10个墨西哥柏种源幼苗生长的影响%Effect of fertilization on seedings growth of provenince of Cupressus lusitanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦雨薇; 万福绪

    2012-01-01

    A fertilization trial under greenhouse condition was conducted on 10 cultivars Cupressus lusitanica seedlings. The seedling height, ground diameter, chlorophyll content of leaves and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration in leaves were determined. The trial had 4 treatment level; Control (CK, normal greenhouse maintenance) , appling compound fertilized N: P: K = 1: 1: 1, total nutrient ≥45% ,T1) , appling compound fertilizer( N: P: K =4: 1: 1 , total nutrient ≥48% T2) , appling urea(N 46% ,T3). The results showed that: The absorption rate of Cupressus lusitanica seedlings was different under different fertilizer treatments. Fertilizer could significantly improve seedling growth. The influence of different fertilizer ratio on seedling growth index was different ( T2 > T3 > T1). The accumulation of chlorophyll was very well promoted by Tl and T2 treatments (T1 > T2). While the effect of T3 treatment on chlorophyll was not significant. There was a significant difference between T2 treatment and CK in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of seedling leaves from ten cultivars. The next was Tl and T3.%对温室条件下的10个墨西哥柏种源幼苗进行施肥试验,并测定了其苗高、地径、叶片叶绿素含量和叶片N、P、K浓度.试验设3个处理水平:正常温室养护管理,为对照(CK);施用复合肥N、P、K质量比为1∶1∶1,总养分≥45%(T1);施用复合肥N、P、K质量比为4∶1∶1,总养分≥48%(T2);施用尿素(N 46%)(T3).结果表明,10个墨西哥柏种源对不同施肥处理的吸收效率各不相同;施肥能显著促进墨西哥柏苗木的生长,不同施肥比例对生长指标的影响各不相同,其中T2 >T3 >T1;T1、T2处理水平很好的促进了叶绿素的积累,其中T1 >T2,而T3对墨西哥柏叶绿素影响不显著;处理T2下的10个种源叶片N、P、K元素浓度与CK差异最显著,其次是T1、T3.

  6. Effect of Water Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of 10 Varieties of Cupressus lusitanica%水分胁迫对10种墨西哥柏生长及生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄晓瑞; 万福绪; 孙波

    2012-01-01

    以10种不同种源的墨西哥柏为材料,采用室内试验与野外观测相结合的方法,研究了10种墨西哥柏在不同水分胁迫条件下生长指标和生理生化指标的变化.结果表明,水分胁迫减缓了墨西哥柏苗高和地径的长势;随胁迫强度的增大,各种源相对含水量明显下降;相对电导率和叶绿素总合量呈先下降而后上升的趋势;脯氨酸和可溶性蛋白质含量明显上升.根据隶属函数法综合评价各种源抗旱能力由强至弱依次为D6、D2、D8、D10、D3、D1、D5、D9、D4、D7.%Based on C. Lusitanica of different provenances as materials, using the combination method of laboratory experiment and field observation, this article studied the changes of growth index and physiological and biochemical indexes of 10 varieties of C. Lusitanica at seedling stage in the condition of different water stress, the results show that water stress slow down the growth vigor of seedling height and root-stem; with the increasing of stress intensity, the relative water content of every variety drops obviously, relative electric conductivity and chlorophyll content appear drop to rise, but the content of proline and soluble protein rise obviously. Based on subordination function method, the drought-resistant abilities of 10 varieties from the high to low are D6, D2, D8, D10, D3, Dl, D5 , D9, D4, D7.

  7. Sesquiterpenes from Cupressus macrocarpa foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Laurence G

    2005-01-01

    Ten sesquiterpenes, many with unusual carbon skeletons, were identified in foliage of Cupressus macrocarpa. These are (-)-10-epi-beta-acoradiene; ent-widdra-2,4(14)-diene; (E)-iso-gamma-bisabolene, i.e., (4E)-4-(1,5-dimethylhex-5-enylidene)-1-methylcyclohexene; (-)-cumacrene, i.e., (4S)-4-[(1R,2S)-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutyl]-1-methylcyclohexene; (-)-alpha-chamipinene, i.e., (1S,6S,7S)-2,2,6,8-tetramethyltricyclo[5.3.1.01,6]undec-8-ene; and five sesquiterpenes with a 3,3,4'-trimethyl-1,1'-bi(cyclohexyl) skeleton for which the trivial name macrocarpane is proposed. The possible single-enzyme biogenesis of these sesquiterpenes is discussed.

  8. Afforestanon trial for Cupressus torulosa and Cupressus lusitanica Mill introduction%藏柏、墨西哥柏引种造林试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承芬; 汪萍珍

    2001-01-01

    试验结果表明:藏柏和墨西哥柏6年生时树高平均生长量达0.77~0.8m,胸径年平均生长量达0.83~0.95cm,方差分析的结果表明:藏柏6年生的树高生长量分别比对照马尾松和柏木大35%和55%,胸径大35%和56%,墨西哥柏的树高则比对照大29%和48%,胸径大20%和39%.

  9. Constituents from fruits of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Preeti; Khan, Mohammad F; Kumar, Manmeet; Tamarkar, Akhilesh K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Arya, Kamal R; Maurya, Rakesh

    2010-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides (1, 2), along with fourteen known compounds (3-16) have been isolated from the fruit of Cupressus sempervirens. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis and were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against glycogen phosphorylase and glucose-6-phosphatase enzymes. Compounds 14 showed a moderate inhibition against glucose-6-phosphatase and 15 against glycogen phosphorylase enzymes.

  10. Research on Cold Tolerance of Cupressus lusitanica seedling%墨西哥柏幼苗耐寒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡祺; 万福绪; 韩李荃

    2014-01-01

    [目的]研究不同墨西哥柏幼苗在不同低温环境下各生理指标的变化.[方法]以10个不同种源的墨西哥柏离体叶片为材料进行低温胁迫试验,研究低温胁迫对墨西哥柏可溶性糖含量、可溶性淀粉含量、可溶性蛋白含量、过氧化物酶活性的影响.[结果]墨西哥柏可溶性糖含量呈现一直上升的变化趋势,可溶性糖含量的增加有利于提高苗木的抗寒性;可溶性淀粉含量呈现“低-高-低”的变化趋势,可溶性淀粉含量的减少有利于提高苗木的抗寒性;可溶性蛋白含量呈现“低-高-低”的趋势,可溶性蛋白含量的增加有利于提高苗木的抗寒性;过氧化物酶活性大多呈现“低-高-低”的趋势,过氧化物酶活性的增加有利于提高苗木的抗寒性.[结论]不同低温处理下,墨西哥柏幼苗可溶性糖含量、可溶性淀粉含量、可溶性蛋白含量、过氧化物酶活性差异极显著.

  11. La Clasificación de Sitios y el Crecimiento del Cupressus Lusitánica en Antioquia, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschinkel Heinrich

    1972-04-01

    Full Text Available En plantaciones jóvenes de Cupressus lusitanica, en la Cordillera Central del Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, se midieron 57 parcelas de las cuales se derivaron curvas de índice de sitio. Por medio de análisis de regresión de desarrollo una tabla de rendimiento expresando el volumen, área basal, y diámetro a la altura del pecho en función de la edad y del índice de sitio. Fueron notables, la amplia variación de la productividad entre sitios y la excesiva densidad de variación de la productividad entre sitios y la excesiva densidad de las plantaciones. Dentro de distancias de pocos metros el índice de sitio (con edad base de 15 años puede variar entre 7 y 21 m. y el volumen en pie a los 15 años puede fluctuar entre 30 y 300m3/ha. Para el Oriente Antioqueño se desarrolló un método sencillo para pronosticar el índice de sitio antes de plantar, con base en la pendiente y en una clasificación visual de la convexidad o concavidad topográfica. Esta especie parece excepcionalmente sensible al sitio y su crecimiento es lento sobre formas topográficas convexas.

  12. New lignan glycosides from Cupressus duclouxian (Cupessaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Feng; Cao, De-Hua; Tan, Ning-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Yang, Ya-Bin

    2006-01-01

    From the branches and leaves of Cupressus duclouxiana two new lignan glycosides named cupressoside A (1) and cupressoside B (2), together with matairesinoside (3), dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (4), dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (5), dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (6), ( - )-isolariciresinol (7) and ( - )-isolariciresinol-9-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (8), were isolated. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of their HR-FAB-MS, IR, UV, 1H and 13C NMR (DEPT), and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) spectral data.

  13. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CIPRÉS (Cupressus lusitánica Mill. EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ÁRBOLES DE NAVIDAD BAJO CONDICIONES DE CLIMA ALTO ANDINO, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Petit-Aldana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones agroecológicas del estado Mérida, Venezuela tienen potencialidad para establecer plantaciones de árboles de navidad con fines de comercialización. Se estudió el comportamiento silvicultural de la especie Cupressus lusitánica Mill., en condiciones de la zona alto-andina, con el fin de promocionar el cultivo de árboles de navidad entre las comunidades interesadas, El ensayo se estableció en la Estación Experimental Santa Rosa, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de la Universidad de Los Andes. Los árboles fueron monitoreados y evaluados a lo largo de 20 meses, realizando mediciones de diámetro basal, altura total; aplicando podas apicales y de formación. Se obtuvo una sobrevivencia de 82.69 % y mortalidad de 17.31 %; altura promedio de 2.56 m. y diámetro basal de 7.79 cm, con respuestas positivas a las podas apicales y de formación. El incremento anual en altura fue de 1.51 m y de 3.80 cm en diámetro. Se concluyó que Cupressus lusitanica demostró adaptación a las condiciones ambientales del estado Mérida, de acuerdo a los parámetros evaluados.

  14. Antimicrobial and antiparastic abietane diterpenoids from Cupressus sempervirens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupressus sempervirens L. (Cupressaceae) is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region. The ethanol extract of the powdered cone (fruits) of this plant, collected from Oxford, Mississippi, USA during the fall of 2010, exhibited potent antimicrobial and antiparastic a...

  15. A new modified sesquiterpene glycoside from Cupressus chengiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Li, Rong-Jiao; Li, Yan; McGarvey, Brian D; Wu, Hai-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene glycoside, cupressusoside (1), and five known compounds were isolated from the 70% aqueous ethanol extract of the branches and leaves of Cupressus chengiana. Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. All the isolates expressed no remarkable cytotoxic activity against colon carcinoma (HCT-8) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines, with IC50>40 mg/mL.

  16. BIOMASS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF CUPRESSUS LUSITANICA PLANTATION%墨西哥柏人工林生物量和生产力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘攀; 李荣伟; 向成华; 朱志芳; 尹学明

    2002-01-01

    对四川川中丘陵地区20世纪80年代中叶引种造林的墨西哥柏人工林分生物量和生产力进行了测定和研究.按"径阶平均标准木法"和"样方收获法"分别调查了乔木层、草本植物层和枯枝落叶层的生物量.据调查数据,用"相对生长法则"建立了乔木层单株立木各器官生物量干重的回归方程,方程的精度均在98.5%以上.同时还研究了林分平均净生产量和产量结构.结果表明:川中丘陵区11年生墨西哥柏林分生物量平均为77.756 t/hm2,净生产量为8 928.73 kg/hm2·a.其中,乔木层生物量为75.710 t/hm2,占林分总量的97.37%;净生产量为6 882.73 kg/hm2·a,占林分净生产量的77.09%.林分中草本的生物量和净生产量分别为1.050 t/hm2和1 050 kg/hm2·a;枯枝落叶现存量为0.996 t/hm2,占林分平均生物量的1.28%,林分年枯枝落叶量为996 kg/hm2·a,占林分生产力的11.15%.

  17. Study on the introduced variety and culture of Cupressus lusitanica cv. Zhongshan%中山柏引种栽培研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗新云; 肖正泽; 杨承铁; 刘荡平; 刘成明

    2002-01-01

    中山柏是江苏省植物研究所二十世纪五十年代初从印度引进的墨西哥柏群系中选育出的一个优良无性系。我市经过十几年的引种栽培试验,结果认为:中山柏适应性广,速生性能特别好,适宜于丘岗山地的石灰岩、炭质页岩、紫色页岩地区造林,也是理想的城乡四旁绿化树种。

  18. Extraction and component analysis of Cupressus lusitanica essential oil%墨西哥柏精油的提取及成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉; 陈君; 朱凯; 万福绪

    2016-01-01

    以墨西哥柏的枝、叶为原料,研究水蒸气蒸馏法和溶剂法提取精油工艺,并采用GC-MS分析茎叶油与枝干油的化学成分,以及水蒸气蒸馏法与溶剂提取法所得精油成分的差异.研究表明,水蒸气蒸馏法较佳工艺条件为:茎叶原料粒度1.0 mm,提取时间4h,渗透剂NaCl 6%,料液比1∶6,在此条件下精油得率为1.17%;溶剂提取法以石油醚、乙醇为溶剂,提取所得浸膏得率(去除石油醚和乙醇溶剂后的得率)分别为16.06%和28.79%.成分分析结果表明,茎叶油中含有36种成分,其中单萜类物质12种;枝干油中含有24种成分,其中7种为单萜类物质;溶剂提取浸膏中有42种成分,含倍半萜类20种.此外,墨西哥柏木油中石竹烯、A-毕橙茄醇、(+)-柠檬烯含量明显高于其他品种柏木油.

  19. How to reduce air pollution by Cupressus pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisel, Y; Epstein, V

    2000-03-01

    Cypress trees are among the most famous trees of the Mediterranean region. The origin of Cupressus sempervirens is apparently in the East Mediterranean. A nice description of the site of origin of Cupressus was provided by the Roman philosopher Plinius: "cypress trees sprout spontaneously on Mt. Ida on the island of Crete, whenever the soil there is disturbed". The aesthetic shape of the trees, the quality of their timber and their adaptation to harsh environmental conditions has attracted people. Certain varieties of the tree (e.g., var. Pyramidalis) were spread rapidly all over the Mediterranean and since the 16th century were introduced into the Western Hemisphere and other parts of the world. During historical times, Cupressus sempervirens was so widely used in the East Mediterranean countries that it reached the brink of extinction. Nowadays it is planted on a large scale as an ornamental plant as a windbreak and as a forest tree. Such plantations have various impacts on their environment, many positive ones, some negative ones, and some disastrous ones. This last aspect is where cypresses come in.

  20. Application of petG-tm P sequence to systematic study of Chinese Cupressus species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Linchun; WANG Li; YAO Li; HAO Bingqing; LUO Qin

    2006-01-01

    Chinese Cupressus L.includes five species.The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Cupressus species and Chamaecyparis L.were determined by comparing 417-479 bp of chloroplast petG-trnP intergenic spacer sequence.In PAUP* analysis,Platycladus orientalis was used as the functional out group.By using the maximum likelihood method 1077 trees were examined and the result showed that one tree had a best score of -Ln=2 232.47.The phylogenetic tree clearly showed that Chamaecyparis nootkatensis was diverged from other Chamaecyparis species.Based on the results,together with evidences from other aspects,we consider that Cupressus funebris and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis should be placed in the genus Cupressus.The use of cpDNA intergenic spacer petG-trnP in Cupressus was also discussed.

  1. Morphological variation in two genetically distinct groups of the golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica (Amphibia: Urodela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrino, J.; Ferrand, N.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Morphometric and colour pattern variation in the endemic Iberian salamander Chioglossa lusitanica is concordant with the genetic differentiation of two groups of populations separated by the Mondego river in Portugal. Salamanders from the south have shorter digits than those from the north. Clinal v

  2. Molecular evidence for the natural production of homozygous Cupressus sempervirens L. lines by Cupressus dupreziana seed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, J L R; Buonamici, A; Vendramin, G G; Pichot, C

    2010-02-01

    Paternal apomixis was recently reported in the endangered Mediterranean cypress, Cupressus dupreziana. This species acts as a surrogate mother for the development of all-paternal embryos from pollen grains. C. dupreziana production of Cupressus sempervirens haploid or diploid seedlings from C. sempervirens pollen was also demonstrated. The haploid progeny was derived from the embryogenic development of haploid gametes, but the origin of the diploid progeny remained unknown. To determine the ontogenic origin of the diploid C. sempervirens progeny, we analyzed the heterozygozity of 63 diploid all-paternal C. sempervirens seedlings using highly variable co-dominant nuclear microsatellite markers. The bi-parental inheritance of the markers was checked in C. sempervirens controlled crosses. A high level of polymorphism was observed among the diploid all-paternal trees. All but three individuals exhibited single-band profiles as expected for homozygotes, which may originate from natural diploidization of a C. sempervirens haploid embryo or from the fusion of two male gametes produced by the same C. sempervirens microgametophyte. The three heterozygous seedlings must be derived from the fusion of male gametes produced by two different C. sempervirens microgametophytes. These findings offer a unique opportunity in conifers to produce homozygous lines, highly valuable for genetic analyses or breeding.

  3. Morphological and genetic variation in Cicindela lusitanica Mandl, 1935 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of taxonomic and geographical boundaries is a common problem when analysing clinal distributions. This is of particular concern when the assessment of intraspecific groupings is required for conservation management. The tiger beetle Cicindela lusitanica Mandl, 1935 (Coleoptera, Carabidae is a typical case in which two recognised subspecies are distributed in a clinal latitudinal fashion in the dune systems along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. This habitat is increasingly under threat, and conservation measures are needed. We investigated the validity of the two named subspecies, based on a re-analysis of elytral and genitalic measurements using multivariate analysis. We also analysed variation in mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene for a total of six populations along the cline. Multivariate analysis supported the idea of a morphological cline and revealed a clear distinction of the southernmost population and also some degree of distinctiveness of the most northern populations, partially supporting the recognised subspecific ranking. The mtDNA analysis identified two main groups corresponding to northern and southern populations. Both sets of markers showed that variation within the C. lusitanica assemblage is complex, with the boundaries between morphological and mtDNA groups not in agreement. However, populations at either end of the distributional range are clearly distinct from each other, and should be considered as provisional units for conservation programmes.El reconocimiento de límites taxonómicos y geográficos de la variabilidad observada es un problema habitual cuando se analizan distribuciones clinales. Esto es particularmente problemático cuando se requiere la determinación de agrupamientos intraespecíficos para tomar medidas de conservación. El cicindélido Cicindela lusitanica Mandl, 1935 (Coleoptera, Carabidae constituye un caso típico en el que dos subespecies reconocidas se hayan distribuidas a

  4. Factores Limitantes del Crecimiento de Plantaciones de Cupressus Lusitánica en Antioquia, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschinkel Heinrich

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de las plantaciones de Cupressus lusitánica en el Oriente Antioqueño, Colombia, es muy variable y está estrechamente relacionado con la fisiografía. Con el objeto de encontrar los factores que en algunos sitios limitan el crecimiento, se emprendió una serie de investigaciones enfocadas desde diferentes puntos de vista. De estas investigaciones se dedujo que la baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno y fósforo en el suelo limitaban el crecimiento, se emprendió una serie de investigaciones enfocadas desde diferentes puntos de vista. De estas investigaciones se dedujo que la baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno y fosforo en el suelo limitaban el crecimiento. La fertilización con estos dos elementos mejoró considerablemente el crecimiento de las plantaciones de 15 años de edad. Estas conclusiones se basaron en las siguientes investigaciones: 1°- Análisis de los perfiles de los suelos (Dystrandepts típicos de diferentes condiciones fisiográficas, los cuales incluyeron curvas de retención de la humedad, densidad aparente y porosidad los cuales indicaron que las propiedades físicas del suelo eran favorables para el crecimiento de los árboles. Sin embargo, los análisis químicos mostraron que a pesar de los altos contenidos de carbón y de nitrógeno, la rata de mineralización de este último elemento era extremadamente baja. La disponibilidad del fósforo fue baja en todos los sitios. 2°- Mediciones de la tensión de la humedad del suelo, las cuales indicaron tensiones bajas aun durante la estación seca. La humedad del suelo era adecuada en todos los sitios. 3°- La comparación de los síntomas de deficiencia de nutrientes observados en el campo con los obtenidos en el campo con los obtenidos en ensayos realizados en soluciones nutritivas, indicaron una probable deficiencia de fósforo. 4°- Un ensayo de fertilización en macetas que también señalo al fósforo como elemento limitante. 5°- Dos ensayos de fertilización en

  5. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-22

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.

  6. Influence of a combination of agricultural chemicals on embryos of the endangered gold-striped salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, M E; Fernández-Benéitez, M J; Lizana, M; Marco, A

    2011-05-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline of amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of a fertiliser, ammonium nitrate, and a commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate Roundup Plus were tested on the embryonic development of Chioglossa lusitanica. This study introduces new data at three different levels. First, we provide previously unknown information about hatchling traits of C. lusitanica. Second, we present the first ecotoxicological study of this endangered species, to which environmental pollution is considered a major threat. Third, we conduct the first experiment with an amphibian species exposed to a mixture of a glyphosate-based herbicide and a nitrogenous fertiliser. Control individuals hatched with an average (±SD) total length of 18.77 (±2.02) mm and at an average Harrison's developmental stage of 44.58 (±1.24). Mean hatching time among controls was 11.52 (±1.29) weeks. None of the chemicals or their interaction produced lethal effects; however, a significant interaction was found when analysing total length at hatching. Individuals exposed to the herbicide hatched at a larger size than controls, and this effect was especially clear when the fertiliser was added to the water. The absence of pollutant-related mortality or severe sublethal effects is in agreement with most studies indicating a high tolerance of amphibian embryos to agrochemicals. However, further research considering other life stages and additional natural factors (i.e., predators, food availability) is needed to estimate the ecological impact of chemical mixtures on C. lusitanica.

  7. Hydration, sporoderm breaking and germination of Cupressus arizonica pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichiriccò, G; Spanò, L; Torraca, G; Tartarini, A

    2009-05-01

    In vitro and in vivo rehydration and germination in Cupressus arizonica pollen were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Shed pollen has 12.6% water content, which reduced to 8.2% after dispersal, and this latter pollen survived for some months at room temperature and for years at -10 degrees C. Rehydration requires breaking of the sporoderm walls and depends on the composition and pH of the rehydration medium. Acidity restrains the breakage, while alkalinity promotes it. Pollen division follows exine shedding and requires the persistence of the mucilaginous layer; hence, pH values countering these outcomes prevent division. Division results in a large and a small cell separated by a callosic wall. A pollen tube develops from the innermost intine of the large cell, which is callosic, and extends into the mucilaginous middle intine. The percentage germination never exceeded 17% in all tested media. In vivo, pollen rehydrates and casts off the exine in the micropylar drop. Drop withdrawal brings pollen to the apical nucellar cells that degenerate in the meantime, and it leaves a deposit on the surface of the micropylar canal. After contaction of the nucellar cells, the pollen flattens and its mucilaginous layer shrinks and disappears. This occurs simultaneously with sealing of the micropylar canal. During this time, pollen divides asymmetrically without the callosic wall, and the larger cell develops a tube in the interface with the nucellus. Only some pollen grains accomplish adhesion to the nucellus and germinate. The in vitro and in vivo developmental stages are discussed.

  8. Novel insights for permeant lead structures through in vitro skin diffusion assays of Prunus lusitanica L., the Portugal Laurel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria do Céu; Duarte, Patrícia; Neng, Nuno R.; Nogueira, José M. F.; Costa, Filomena; Rosado, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution for the generation of libraries in which a natural product (NP) is used as the guiding structure, this work sought to investigate molecular features of triterpenes as deliver leads to cross the stratum corneum at a significant rate. Seeking a bioguided investigation of the dermocosmetic lead-like potential of triterpenes in Prunus lusitanica L., various extracts were obtained by two different methods (Soxhlet extractor and Accelerated Solvent Extraction-ASE) and analyzed by GC-MS and NMR. In vitro assays were conducted to quantify the friedelin 1 and crude plant extract permeation through a membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), as well as their skin penetration enhancement capacity using two model molecules, caffeine 19 and ibuprofen 20. Friedelin 1 was identified as the major component (16-77%, GC) with isolated yield of 51% w/w (94%, GC) from Soxhlet residue (1.7% p/p) of the dried aerial parts of the plant harvested when in early flowering stage. Friedelin 1 promoted the penetration of the lipophilic molecule 20, however, it did not influence the permeation of the hydrophilic permeant 20. On the other hand, the crude extract acted as a retardant of the penetration of both substances. Molecular characteristics for the applicability of P. lusitanica L. in the development of dermocosmetics, as well as a new potential use for friedelin 1 in particular, are demonstrated. Probable mechanisms for chemical penetration enhancement using triterpenes as models for transdermal administration are herein discussed.

  9. Fasi fenologiche di Cupressus Sempervirens all'IIS Caffè, a Roma durante l'inverno 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Ricciardi, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    The phenology of 10 trees of Cupressus Sempervirens has been monitored weekly during the winter 2016. In the month of February 2016 all pollinations occurred for our sample trees near new Moon and last quarter.

  10. 568 Prevalence of Sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus Pollens in Patients from Craic

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Garcia, Liborio Rafael; González-Díaz, Sandra; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; del Carmen Zarate, Maria; Garcia-Calderin, Diego; Gallego, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Background The pollens of Cupressus, Parietaria, Pinus and Morus are important causes of allergic respiratory diseases. In a study of pollen concentration in Monterrey in 2004, these pollens occupied the first places in frequency. The objective was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus in patients from CRAIC (Regional Center of allergy and clinical immunology, Monterrey, México) Methods Is an observational, cross-comparative, double-blind study...

  11. HPLC Quantification of Flavonoids and Biflavonoids in Cupressaceae Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Romani; C. GALARDI; P. PINELLI; Mulinacci, N.; D. HEIMLER

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain qualitative and quantitative profiles of the flavonoid and biflavonoid composition of six cypress species - Cupressus funebris L., Cupressus semper- Wrens L., Cupressus glabra L., Cupressus arizonica L., Cupressus goveniana L., and Cupressus lusitanica L. HPLC-diode-array detection (DAD), HPLC-MS, and HPTLC were used to identify the individual compounds. A chromatographic method was optimized for identification and quantification of t...

  12. The responses of nitrogen deposition on growth and photosynthetic physiology of Cupressus lusitanica seedlings%墨西哥柏幼苗生长和光合生理对氮沉降的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 万福绪; 李杰; 有连兴

    2014-01-01

    选取2年生墨西哥柏幼苗为试验对象,以NH4NO3为外加氮源,通过模拟氮沉降试验,研究其生长和光合生理对氮增加的响应.结果表明:幼苗在高氮水平处理下其生长不断受到抑制,而在中氮水平处理下,幼苗生长不断得到促进.随着施氮浓度增加,墨西哥柏幼苗的根质量和根长均降低,表明氮处理抑制根的生长,分配到根部分的生物量下降.幼苗的净光合速率呈现出随氮处理浓度增加而先增加后降低的趋势,即中氮组的净光合速率最高,而高氮组开始逐渐下降.幼苗的水分利用效率变化趋势与净光合速率一致.幼苗叶片光合色素含量随氮处理水平增加而增加.说明短期内中氮水平对幼苗生长和光合作用影响最显著,而高氮水平对幼苗光合色素影响最显著.

  13. Construction of Cupressus lusitanica Seed Orchard and Progeny Test of Superior Tree%墨西哥柏实生种子园营建及其优树子代测定的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁刚; 曾德贤; 刘永平; 吴翕; 吴子欢; 王天兴; 范林元

    2007-01-01

    通过种子园与子代测定相结合的方式,在位于滇中的石林林场建立了含102个优树(家系)的墨西哥柏实生种子园,从中探讨了墨西哥柏实生种子园的营建途径.对该种子园的52个墨西哥柏自由授粉优树子代测定的结果表明,墨西哥柏速生,10年生树高、胸径、材积、冠幅的年均生长量分别为1.04 m、1.43 cm、0.009 6 m3和0.22 m.生长性状和结实性状家系间的差异达显著水平.树高、胸径、材积、冠幅、结实量的家系遗传力分别为0.76、0.66、0.68、0.74和0.65,单株遗传力分别为0.27、0.16、0.18、0.23和0.16,其生长性状和结实性状呈显著的负相关.从该种子园中评选出了9个优良家系,22个优良单株,其材积遗传增益平均为13.47 %和25.2 %.此外,还揭示了墨西哥柏10年生期间的生长规律.

  14. 墨西哥柏52个优树自由授粉子代遗传测定%Progeny Test on 52 Openly- pollinated Families of Cupressus lusitanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德贤; 朱仁刚; 范林元; 吴子欢; 段丽晶; 王天兴

    2006-01-01

    对52个墨西哥柏优树自由授粉家系进行子代测定,结果表明:墨西哥柏速生,10年生树高、胸径、材积、冠幅年均生长量分别为1.04 m,1.43 cm,0.009 6 m3和0.22 m;生长性状和结实性状家系间差异达显著水平,树高、胸径、材积、冠幅、结实量家系遗传力分别为0.76,0.66,0.68,0.74和0.65,单株遗传力分别为0.27,0.16,0.18,0.23和0.16;生长性状和结实性状呈显著的负相关,选择了9个优良家系,22个优良单株,其材积遗传增益平均为13.47%和25.20%;对墨西哥柏10年生的生长规律进行了分析.

  15. Study on Relationship of Root Morphological Characters and Biomass of Cupressus lusitanica in Different Age Classes%墨西哥柏不同龄级根系形态特征与生物量关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷慧梅; 万福绪; 张英团

    2013-01-01

    [目的]对引进的3个种源墨西哥柏苗木生物量及根系生长状况进行研究,为今后困难地造林提供技术支撑.[方法]以引进的3个种源3个龄级(1龄、2龄、3龄)墨西哥柏实生幼苗为研究对象,对其地上、地下部分生物量及根系形态特征、表面积、体积等方面进行研究.[结果]随龄级的增加,幼苗的株高和地径生长明显增加,不同种源苗木差异较大,且幼苗的根冠比、根系长度、表面积与体积呈上升趋势;2、3龄级幼苗整体稳定生长,中根、大根在总根系中所占比重增大,地下部分需要更多的光合产物,幼苗根系逐渐向中根和大根发育.[结论]地上生物量与根系形态各指标间存在相关性,根系形态与生物量关系密切.不同种源幼苗在相同的生长环境和时间内,积累生物量的能力不同.

  16. 不同激素和基质对墨西哥柏扦插影响的研究%Study on Different Hormones and Substrates Affected the Cupressus lusitanica Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 万福绪

    2014-01-01

    为了提高墨西哥柏扦插成活率,以两年生嫩枝插穗为试验材料进行扦插试验.采用不同浓度的IBA、NAA及ABT生根粉浸泡插穗,以清水作对照,并分别在河沙、草炭土、珍珠岩及混合土(草炭土:珍珠岩为1:2)等基质上进行扦插.试验表明:以IBA吲哚乙酸300 mg/L浸泡插穗6h效果最佳,生根率达到65%以上;珍珠岩插壤比其它基质扦插效果要好.秋季移植,珍珠岩扦插苗翌年移植成活率高达95.4%,当年新梢生长量5.7 cm.

  17. 抗旱保水剂在墨西哥柏工程造林上的试验研究%An Experimental Study on the Application of Moisture-holding Agent on the Afforestation of Cupressus lusitanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁克成; 刘奎

    2003-01-01

    干热河谷石灰岩地区的立地条件差,导致造林成活率低,使用白金子抗旱保水剂结合ABT生根粉、地膜覆盖技术应用于墨西哥柏工程造林,检测结果:①显著地提高了造林成活率,达99%,比对照试验地提高了21%~27%; ②植株生长迅速,长势旺盛,平均高生长达116cm,比对照试验地提高17.5cm,与定植时高度相比,平均增高41cm,地径增粗0.3cm.对比效果明显.该项技术适宜在同类地区的林业工程造林中推广应用.

  18. 半干热石质山地墨西哥柏伴生树种选择研究%Study on Associated Species Selection for Cupressus lusitanica in Semi-Dry and Hot Stone Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史富强; 袁连珍; 许林红

    2009-01-01

    在云南省开远市浑水塘试验地设置了35个20 m×20 m的标准地,对标准地内4 a生的主要造林树种墨西哥柏及4个供选伴生树种(羽叶山黄麻、新银合欢、直干桉、赤桉)地径、树高、胸径、冠幅分别进行测量,选择平均木,对平均木生物量、生长量进行测定.经数据分析后认为,新银合欢生长速度慢于墨西哥柏且枝少叶疏,适宜作为墨西哥柏的伴生树种,羽叶山黄麻冠幅虽大,但枝叶稀疏,可作为墨西哥柏的次适宜伴生树种.

  19. A Preliminary Report on Open- Pollinated Progeny Test of Elite Trees of Cupressus lusitanica%墨西哥柏优树自由授粉子代测定初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁刚; 吴子欢; 郑行生; 曾德贤; 刘永平; 吴翕

    2002-01-01

    对从四川省引进的52株墨西哥柏优树自由授粉种子子代进行了单点测定.结果表明:树高、胸径均大于群体平均值5%以上的共有9个家系,以20%的入选率,遗传增益分别为16.7%和41.4%;各家系的生长差异受遗传控制的同时,也受立地条件的影响;苗高与幼林树高存在一定的相关性.

  20. Humedad crítica y repelencia al agua en andisoles bajo cobertura de cupressus lusitanica y quercus humboldtii en la cuenca de la quebrada piedras blancas (Medellín, Colombia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bibiana Caballero Mejía; Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2007-01-01

      En dos vertientes de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas (Medellín, Colombia) se estudió la relación humedad - persistencia de la repelencia al agua en la parte superficial de andisoles bajo dos coberturas vegetales...

  1. Biodiversity patterns of epifaunal assemblages associated with the gorgonians Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in response to host, space and time

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biodiversity (alpha- and beta-diversity), abundance and community structure of the epifaunal assemblages associated with two gorgonians, Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica, were analysed in relation to host, colony size, location and time. Colony size and time were the major factors shaping attendant assemblages. Patterns of alpha-diversity and beta-diversity were host-dependent. Assemblages associated with E. gazella showed a significant inter-annual variability for most of the metrics analysed, while in those associated with L. lusitanica only Shannon-Wiener varied significantly between years. In L lusitanica Hurlbert\\'s expected number of taxa was significantly lower in small-sized than in medium- to large-sized colonies, but an opposite pattern was detected for beta-diversity, reflecting the higher heterogeneity among small-sized colonies. The dbRDA analysis segregated the assemblages associated with each of the two hosts; the faunal patterns were mainly explained by colony size related attributes (area, number of branches and, to a lesser extent, width) and the "colonial" epibiont cover. However, we suggest that altogether they may act as a metacommunity, with high temporal and spatial fluidity in their composition and structure related to multiple factors including not only a component of stochasticity but also life history events, biotic interactions and response to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular cloning of major allergen from Cupressus arizonica pollen: Cup a 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, E; Del Pozo, V; Mínguez, A; Arrieta, I; Cortegano, I; Cárdaba, B; Gallardo, S; Rojo, M; Palomino, P; Lahoz, C

    2000-12-01

    The family Cupressaceae is a relevant source of allergens that causes winter respiratory allergies. Cloning and sequencing the major antigen of Cupressus arizonica is important for a better diagnosis and treatment of sensitized patients. To obtain a full-length complementary DNA for Cup a 1, the major allergen of Cupressus arizonica pollen. It was cloned and sequenced and the recombinant protein was expressed. Messenger RNA from Cupressus arizonica pollen was obtained and the Cup a 1 sequence was established using a 3'-RACE system and primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Recombinant Cup a 1 was cloned in pBluescript and expressed in a glycosylated form in rabbit reticulocytes. The cDNA was subcloned in pGEX-5X-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with GST. Recombinant Cup a 1 is highly homologous with the major allergens of mountain cedar (Jun a 1), Japanese cypress (Cha o 1) and Japanese cedar (Cry j 1). Cup a 1 contains three potential N-glycosylation sites that are different from those found in Jun a 1 and Cry j 1. The cloned protein contains a pectate lyase active site identical to those of Cry j 1 and Jun a 1. The IgE from patients' sera recognizes recombinant Cup a 1, and this reactivity is higher with the glycosylated protein. Cup a 1 has been cloned and sequenced. As expected, the high degree of homology with Cha o 1, Jun a 1 and Cry j 1 explains the cross-reactivity of conifer pollens. Different IgE reactivity with the glycosylated and non-glycosylated protein suggests the importance of carbohydrate moieties in the IgE binding site.

  3. Flavonoid-induced acute nephropathy by Cupressus funebris Endl (Mourning Cypress).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Jung; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2006-11-01

    Worldwide use of herbal therapy has increased dramatically in recent years. Most herbal therapies were not regulated as medicines, and their adverse effects often were underreported. We report a patient who developed acute renal failure, acute hepatic failure, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia after oral intake of hot-water extract of Cupressus funebris Endl (Mourning Cypress), which is rich in flavonoids. Her renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, and hemoglobin casts. The clinical course and pathological findings were consistent with flavonoid-induced acute nephropathy. We emphasize that flavonoids are not harmless and may induce acute life-threatening renal damage.

  4. Is Cupressus sempervirens native in Italy? An answer from genetic and palaeobotanical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, F; Vendramin, G G; Buonamici, A; Doulis, A G; González-Martínez, S C; La Porta, N; Magri, D; Raddi, P; Sebastiani, F; Fineschi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study represents the first large-scale analysis using nuclear molecular markers to assess genetic diversity and structure of Cupressus sempervirens L.. Genetic and fossil data were combined to infer the possible role of human activity and evolutionary history in shaping the diversity of cypress populations. We analysed 30 populations with six polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers. Dramatic reductions in heterozygosity and allelic richness were observed from east to west across the species range. Structure analysis assigned individuals to two main groups separating central Mediterranean and eastern populations. The two main groups could be further divided into five subgroups which showed the following geographical distributions: Turkey with the Greek islands Rhodes and Samos, Greece (Crete), Southern Italy, Northern Italy, Tunisia with Central Italy. This pattern of genetic structure is also supported by SAMOVA and Barrier analyses. Palaeobotanical data indicated that Cupressus was present in Italy in the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene. Furthermore, our molecular survey showed that Italian cypress populations experienced bottlenecks that resulted in reduced genetic diversity and allelic richness and greater genetic differentiation. Recent colonization or introduction may also have influenced levels of diversity detected in the Italian populations, as most individuals found in this range today have multilocus genotypes that are also present in the eastern range of the species. The data reveal a new interpretation of the history of cypress distribution characterized by ancient eastern populations (Turkey and Greek islands) and a mosaic of recently introduced trees and remnants of ancient, depauperate populations in the central Mediterranean range.

  5. Plant size and abiotic factors determine the intra-specific variation in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica in the Northeast limit of its global distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present work provides novel insights on factors (either intrinsic or extrinsic that trigger sprouting in woody species living at range margins. We aim to explain the inter-individual variability in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica L., an Iberian evergreen relict tree related to the Tertiary flora.Area of study: Northeastern Mediterranean mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, the Northeast limit of the global distribution of the species.Material and Methods: We gathered data on two modes of vegetative reproduction, basal and layering sprouts, in 288 clumps of Prunus lusitanica from four populations. We modeled and analyzed the effect of environmental factors (topography, canopy cover, soil moisture and disturbances and plant size (diameter at breast height on sprouting by means of Generalized Linear Model and other statistical approaches.Main results: Plant size arises as the principal factor to explain the variability of the numbers of both types of sprouts yet it is not a trigger factor. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote basal and layering shoots, while tree canopy is mainly relevant for basal shoots, and slope and soil moisture are significant factors for layering shoots.Research highlights: The multi-stemmed architecture of P. lusitanica at the Northeastern limit of its worldwide distribution is triggered by local environmental factors and disturbances. Each external factor shows different levels of influence on the variability and type of vegetative reproduction yet the intensity of the response is driven by the size of the largest trunk of each clump.Key words: vegetative reproduction; sprouting; disturbances; woody plants; relict tree; subtropical; Iberian Peninsula.

  6. 柏木优树子代苗期测定%Nursery Testing of Superior Tree Progeny of Cupressus funebris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭小梅; 周益权; 周小舟

    2014-01-01

    [目的]充分利用柏木种源、家系间广泛的遗传变异进行良种选育和遗传改良。[方法]以来自重庆市和浙江省千岛湖的4个种源34个柏木优树家系2年生苗为材料,研究家系和种源间苗期生长性状的差异性。[结果]苗高与地径在家系和种源间均存在极显著差异,家系间变异系数分别为11.37%和18.89%,种源间变异系数分别为7.25%和12.58%。[结论]柏木的苗高与地径在家系和种源间存在较为丰富的变异,具有选育潜力。%Breeding and genetic improvement for Cupressus funebris was performed based on the extensive genetic variation among provenances and fami-lies. [Method] The two-year-old Cupressus funebris, from 4 provenances and 34 superior Cupressus funebris families introduced from Chongqing and Qiandao Lake of Zhejiang Province, was used as test material, and the differences in growth traits among provenances and families at the seedling stage of Cupressus funebris were investigated. [Result] The height and ground diameter of seedlings differed signifi-cantly among provenances and families. Their variation coefficients among families were 11.37% and 18.89%, and among provenances were 7.25% and 12.58% re-spectively. [Conclusion] There was relatively rich genetic variation in height and ground diameter among provenances and families of Cupressus funebris. lt has a certain breeding potential.

  7. Study on Population Structure and Characteristics of Cupressus chengiana%岷江柏种群结构及其特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志忠

    2009-01-01

    The results from studying population structure and characteristics of Cupressus chengiana grown in Li, Ma'erkang, Jinchuan, Xiaojin and Danba counties in Sichuan Province, showed that the sapling percentage is above 57% in 36 quadrates of Cupressus chengiana population, which indicates the population density of Cupressus chengiana presents an increment trend, the population structure is stable and develops well. The paper points out that the natural Cupressus chengiana population is basically the community with single dominant population based on analyzing quantitative characteristics of Cupressus chengiana populations from 5 counties and puts forward some suggestions for-protecting Cupressus chengiana population at the same time.%对川西北的理县、马尔康、金川、小金、丹巴5个县的岷江柏种群结构及特征进行研究,结果表明:该种群的36个样方中,幼苗所占的百分数均超过57%,岷江柏种群密度呈增长趋势,种群结构稳定,正向良性发展.对5个县的岷江柏种群数量特征进行比较发现,岷江柏天然林群落基本上为单优势种群群落.为此,提出了对岷江柏种群的几点保护建议.

  8. [Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus: distribution, decline and regeneration on the Tassili n'Ajjer, central Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Fatiha; Beddiaf, Mohamed

    2002-05-01

    As soon as it was first discovered in 1924, on the heights of the Tassili n'Ajjer, Cupressus dupreziana (A. Camus) was declared an endangered species. The few ancient trees to be seen in the beds of wadis gave reason to suppose that they were isolated individuals left behind from a forest that had flourished in a damper climate. Attempts at a census of the trees were made on a number of occasions, the fullest, in 1972, reporting a total of 230 living specimens. The revision of this inventory between 1997 and 2001 has now enabled us to draw the boundaries of the present range of this species, to assess its rate of decline over the last three decades and, for the first time, to record some regeneration, with the presence of new, young trees.

  9. Genetic diversity and conservation implications of four Cupressus species in China as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xu; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Zhonghu; Shang, Huiying; Adams, Robert P; Mao, Kangshan

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the extent and distribution of genetic diversity is crucial for the conservation and management of endangered species. Cupressus chengiana, C. duclouxiana, C. gigantea, and C. funebris are four ecologically and economically important species in China. We investigated their genetic diversity, population structure, and extant effective population size (35 populations, 484 individuals) employing six pairs of nuclear microsatellite markers (selected from 53). Their genetic diversity is moderate among conifers, and genetic differentiation among populations is much lower in C. gigantea than in the other three species; the estimated effective population size was largest for C. chengiana, at 1.70, 2.91, and 3.91 times the estimates for C. duclouxiana, C. funebris, and C. gigantea, respectively. According to Bayesian clustering analysis, the most plausible population subdivision scheme within species is two groups in C. chengiana, three groups in C. duclouxiana, and a single group for both C. funebris and C. gigantea. We propose a conservation strategy for these cypress species.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Cupressus atlantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjouni, My Youssef; Bahri, Fouad; Romane, Abderrahmane; El Fels, M Ahmed El Alaoui

    2011-10-01

    Cupressus atlantica Gaussen, an endemic species from Morocco, is used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves was investigated by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and also evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity. Sixty-one components, representing 98.1% of the total, were detected of which fifty-seven were identified. Germacrene D (34.8%), alpha-pinene (13.6%), delta-cadinene (6.1%), alpha-phellandrene (5.5%), gamma-cadinene (5.0%), beta-caryophyllene (4.8%) and alpha-humulene (4.4%) were the predominant compounds. The oil was characterized by a relatively high amount of oxygenated monoterpenes (66.5%). The oil, screened for antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, showed pronounced activity against all the microbes tested, except Pseudomonas, which showed resistance.

  11. α-Pinene Rich Volatile Constituents of Cupressus torulosa D. Don from Uttarakhand Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Hema; Gwari, Garima; Andola, H C; Bhandari, U; Chauhan, N

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The major compound identified was α-pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that α-pinene, δ- 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  12. The complete chloroplast genome of Cupressus gigantea, an endemic conifer species to Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huie; Guo, Qiqiang; Zheng, Weilie

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of the wild Cupressus gigantea (Cupressaceae) is determined in this study. The circular genome is 128 244 bp in length with 115 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU and trnQ-UUG). This genome contains 82 protein-coding genes, four ribosomal RNA genes and 31 transfer RNA genes. In these genes, eight genes (atpF, rpoC1, ndhA, ndhB, petB, petD, rpl16 and rpl2) harbor a single intron and two genes (rps12 and ycf3) harbor two introns. This genome does not contain canonical IRs, and the overall GC content is 34.7%. A maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. gigantea and C. sempervirens are more closely related.

  13. Phytochemical investigation and hepatoprotective activity of Cupressus sempervirens L. leaves growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabaweya Ali; El-Seedi, Hesham Rushdey; Mohammed, Magdy Mostafa Desoky

    2007-08-01

    Three phenolic compounds cosmosiin, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L., together with cupressuflavone, amentoflavone, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin. The isolated compounds were identified using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. The hepatoprotective activity of the MeOH extract was carried out in liver homogenate of normal and CCl(4)-treated rats; a significant decrease in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol level, and triglycerides, while a significant increase in the total protein level, was observed after the oral administration of MeOH extract. The free radical scavenging activity against stable 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) was measured for MeOH extract and some of the isolated phenolic compounds in comparison with alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy toluene as standard antioxidants using ESR technique, showed high antioxidant activity for quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Potential, and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil Cones of Tunisian Cupressus sempervirens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Ben Nouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield of the essential oil (EO extracted by hydrodistillation from the cones of Tunisian Cupressus sempervirens L. was of 0.518%. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Results showed that this essential oil was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (65% with α-pinene as the major constituent (47.51%. Its antioxidant activity was ascertained by evaluating the total antioxidant capacity and also by evaluating its inhibitory effect against DPPH and ABTS radicals. In addition, it showed a strong antioxidant power against the DPPH (IC50 = 151 µg/mL and ABTS (IC50 = 176.454 µg/mL radicals scavenging. Moreover, its antibacterial activity was tested against different species of pathogenic bacteria (three Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial strains susceptible to the evaluated oil were Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Morganella morganii, Shigella, and Vibrio cholerae.

  15. Chemical variability of essential oils in natural populations of Cupressus dupreziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Messaoud; Lograda, Takia; Chalard, Pierre; Chalchat, Jean Claude; Figueredo, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from dried leaves of Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus, an endemic species in the Tassili n'Ajjer (Central Sahara of Algeria), were analyzed by gas chomatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analyses were carried out on 164 trees of 26 natural populations in order to determine the intra-specific variability. Thirty-two terpenoids were identified, the major ones being alpha-pinene (11.5-44.2), delta3-carene (5.7-31.7) and germacrene-D (15.7-54.1). The terpenoid markers used made it possible to determine the individual patterns of chemotypic variability. This variability confirmed that genetic factors were not responsible for the decrease in the number of this species, the main reason probably being the Tassili n'Ajjer desertification.

  16. α-pinene rich volatile constituents of Cupressus torulosa D. don from Uttarakhand Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Lohani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the various chemical components present in the volatile oil of the leaf of Cupressus torulosa and to find variation of essential oil components among the populations. Twenty-two, 17 and 20 compounds were identified with 95.45, 95.45 and 91.45% in Kalsi, Joshimath and Jeharikhal, respectively were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantify by gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The major compound identified was α-pinene in all the populations and it varied between 30.30 and 34.26%. Results of the study stated that α-pinene, δ- 3-carene, limonene and sabinene components were detected in high concentration, thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  17. Linkage mapping of the Mediterranean cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, based on molecular and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manescu, C; Hamamouch, N; Maios, C; Harfouche, A; Doulis, A G; Aravanopoulos, F A

    2011-08-30

    Gene mapping for a Cupressus species is presented for the first time. Two linkage maps for the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) varieties, C. sempervirens var. horizontalis and C. sempervirens var. pyramidalis, were constructed following the pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and employing RAPD, SCAR and morphological markers. A total of 427 loci (425 RAPDs, two SCARs) representing parents and F(1) progeny were screened for polymorphism with 32 random decamer and two SCAR primers. A morphological marker defined as "crown form" was also included. Of 274 polymorphic loci, the 188 that presented Mendelian inheritance formed the mapping dataset. Of these loci, 30% were mapped into seven linkage groups for the horizontalis (maternal) and four linkage groups for the pyramidalis (paternal) map. The putative "crown form" locus was included in a linkage group of both maps. The horizontalis and the pyramidalis maps covered 160.1 and 144.5 cM, respectively, while genome length was estimated to be 1696 cM for the former variety and 1373 cM for the latter. The four RAPD markers most tightly linked to crown form were cloned and converted to SCARs. Each of the cloned RAPD markers yielded two to three different sequences behaving as co-migrating fragments. Two SCAR markers, SC-D05(432) and SC-D09(667), produced amplified bands of the expected sizes and maintained linkage with the appropriate phenotype, but to a lesser extent compared to their original RAPD counterparts. These linkage maps represent a first step towards the localization of QTLs and genes controlling crown form and other polygenic traits in cypress.

  18. A Therapeutic Approach for Wound Healing by Using Essential Oils of Cupressus and Juniperus Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Tumen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.

  19. A therapeutic approach for wound healing by using essential oils of cupressus and juniperus species growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumen, Ibrahim; Süntar, Ipek; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.

  20. Comparative Study of the Pollen Protein Contents in Two Major Varieties of Cupressus arizonica Planted in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Shahali; Ahmad Majd; Zahra Pourpak; Golnaz Tajadod; Maryam Haftlang; Mostafa Moin

    2007-01-01

    During past few years, the Cupressus arizonica has been abundantly planted in Tehran, causing a significant increase of allergic diseases from the middle of winter to the beginning of spring. The aim of this study was the comparison of pollen protein content in two major varieties of C. arizonica planted in Tehran, including C. arizonica var. arizonica and C. arizonica var. glabra, in order to determine pollen's specificity of each variety and also to find out whether environmental conditions...

  1. Double-blind placebo controlled specific immunotherapy with mixed Cupressaceae taxodiaceae pollens in respiratory allergy to Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, R; Panzani, R C; Augeri, G

    1997-01-01

    Twenty adult patients presenting a respiratory allergy to the pollen of Cupressus sempervirens were randomly divided into two groups; one received a placebo the other one an equal mixture of Cupresssus sempervirens and Cryptomeria japonica pollen during a period of 3 years (1993-1996). According to the following criteria: symptoms score, drug consumption, skin test and RAST, nasal provocation test, the results for the treated group were statistically better than those for the placebo group. No side effects were observed.

  2. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  3. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale – Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.

  4. Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve the drought tolerance of Cupressus atlantica G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarik, Lamia; Meddich, Abdelilah; Hijri, Mohamed; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Ouahmane, Lahcen; Duponnois, Robin; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could improve the tolerance of Cupressus atlantica against water deficit. We tested a gradient of watering regime spanning from 90% to 25% of soil retention capacity of water on mycorhized and non-mycorhized seedlings in pot cultures with sterilized and non-sterilized soils. Our result showed a positive impact of AM fungi on shoot height, stem diameter and biomass as well as on the growth rate. We also observed that inoculation with AM fungi significantly improved uptake of minerals by C. atlantica in both sterilized and non-sterilized soils independently of water regimes. We found that mycorhized plants maintained higher relative water content (RWC) and water potential compared with non-mycorhized plants that were subjected to drought-stress regimes (50% and 25% of soil retention capacity). The contents of proline and of soluble sugars showed that their concentrations decreased in non-mycorhized plants subjected to DS. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities also decreased in non-mycorhized plants submitted to DS compared to mycorhized plants. The same pattern was observed by measuring peroxidase (POD) enzyme activity. The results demonstrated that AM fungal inoculation promoted the growth and tolerance of C. atlantica against DS in pot cultures. Therefore, mycorrhizal inoculation could be a potential solution for the conservation and reestablishment of C. atlantica in its natural ecosystem.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of Cup a 4, a new allergen from Cupressus arizonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico de Coaña, Yago; Parody, Nuria; Fuertes, Miguel Ángel; Carnés, Jerónimo; Roncarolo, Daniela; Ariano, Renato; Sastre, Joaquín; Mistrello, Gianni; Alonso, Carlos

    2010-10-22

    Sensitization to Cupressaceae pollen has become one of the most important causes of pollinosis in Western countries during winter and early spring. However, the characterization of the extracts, the allergens involved and the cross-reactivity with other pollen sources still remain poorly studied; in the case of Cupressus arizonica only two allergens have been described so far. A new allergen from C. arizonica pollen, Cup a 4, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally His-tag recombinant protein that was characterized biochemically, immunologically and by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The new allergen has high sequence identity with Prickly Juniper allergen Jun o 4 and contains four EF-hand domains. The recombinant protein has structural similarities with other calcium binding allergens such as Ole e 3, Ole e 8 and Phl p 7. Cup a 4 is expressed in mature pollen grains and shares antigenic properties with the recombinant form. Sera from 9.6% C. arizonica allergic patients contain specific IgE antibodies against recombinant Cup a 4.

  6. Fungal endophyte diversity and bioactivity in the Mediterranean cypress Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2015-04-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from the Mediterranean cypress Cupressus sempervirens. Eleven taxa of fungi, all within the Ascomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. The endophytic fungi included Alternaria multiformis, Didymella sp., Phoma sp., Phoma herbarum, Pyrenochaeta sp. (Dothideomycetes), Penicillium brevicompactum, Talaromyces sp. (Eurotiomycetes), Ascorhizoctonia sp. (Pezizomycetes), Thielavia microspora, and Thielavia spp. (Sordariomycetes). Considering the former findings in US, this indicates that similar ascomycetous classes of fungi, all from Pezizomycotina, associate with the healthy Cupressaceous trees in Iran. The recovered endophytes produced antifungal and antiproliferative metabolites which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected C. sempervirens may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on the ecology and biotic stress tolerance of the host plant. Moreover, a novel niche for the identified fungal species is being introduced.

  7. Protective effect of Cupressus sempervirens extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koriem Khaled M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens belongs to the family Cupressaceae. It is widspread in Northern Africa, Greece, Turkey, North America, Cyprus and Syria. Cupressuflavone is the major ingredient of the plant leave extract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract of C. sempervirens leaves in gastric ulcer tissues induced by indomethacin. The results of the present study revealed that indomethacin significantly decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione reductase (GR and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels, while it increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and protein carbonyl (PC levels in gastric tissue. Furthermore, indomethacin decreased p53 expression, while it increased bcl-2 expression in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with 5%, 10% & 20% of the LD50 of C. sempervirens and cupressuflavone of indomethacin-treated rats restored all the above parameters to approach normal values. C. sempervirens at the highest dose was more effective than the two lower doses. C. sempervirens proved more potent than cupressuflavone. In conclusion, C. sempervirens exerted antiulcerogenic activity and the effect was dose-dependent and related to the cupressuflavone ingredient of the plant leave extract.

  8. Genotype-specific regulation of cold-responsive genes in cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedron, Luca; Baldi, Paolo; Hietala, Ari M; La Porta, Nicola

    2009-05-15

    Cold acclimation in plants involves a very complex molecular response, with the regulation of many different genes and metabolic pathways. In this work fifteen cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) genes putatively regulated during cold exposure were isolated and their expression was studied in five cypress genotypes, along 15 days of treatment at 3 degrees C. Treated samples of shoots were collected from four year old cypress seedlings and a subtractive hybridization approach (PCR-Select) was performed after mRNA extraction. Fifteen genes were selected according to sequence similarities after a GenBank search and their expression was studied using Real-time PCR. Among these genes, five (ELIP, aquaporin, dehydrin and two cold-induced proteins) and four (oleosin, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, oxidoreductase and rubisco activase) resulted respectively up- and down-regulated by the treatment in all tested genotypes. Finally, three genes (metal-binding protein, nodulin-like protein and beta-amylase) showed remarkable different pattern among genotypes. A consistent relationship was found between the cold regulation of the genes studied and their putative function, suggesting the existence of different cold response pathways in cypress. The possible roles of the low temperature-regulated sequences and of the individual expression differences during cypress cold acclimation are proposed and discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Soil Fertility Under Different Cupressus chengiana Forests Using Multivariate Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xue-Yong; BAO Wei-Kai; ZHANG Yong-Mei

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and growing conditions of Cupressus chengiana forests along with the physical and chemical properties of soils in Northwest Sichuan were studied in 2002 to investigate the conditions and characteristics of soil fertility of C.chengiana and to compare and investigate differences of soil fertility for six C. chengiana populations and their relationships with vegetation, climate and disturbance. The results of the study at 0-20 cm soil depth showed that 1) significant differences (P<0.05) existed among populations for soil bulk density, soil total porosity, capillary porosity, maximum water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity and topsoil natural water content; 2) chemical characteristics of soil organic matter, total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable N, available P, available K and cation exchange capacity were significantly different among the populations; and 3) based on the significant effect of soil fertility factors on forest growth,soil physical and chemical characteristics could be selected as an integrated fertility index (IFI) for evaluation of different C. chengiana populations. Principal component and cluster analyses showed significant differences probably due to the difference of vegetation conditions, management measurements, human-induced disturbances and environmental factors.In order to protect the soil ecological functions in fragile ecological regions, C. chengiana could be used in programs enclosing the hill for natural afforestation, natural forest protection programs, and programs replacing agriculture with afforestation measures.

  10. Growth and survival response of potted Cupressus sempervirens seedlings to different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Masoud; Saeidi, Hamid Reza; Alavi-Panah, Kazem; Basiri, Reza; Poormadjidian, Mohammad Reza

    2007-04-15

    In February 2001, one-year bareroot cypress (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis) seedlings were replanted in plastic pot in a lowland nursery located in southern coast of the Caspian Sea (north of Iran). Soils of pots consisted of 1:1 sand:clay (A), pure sand (B), 2:1 sand:clay (C), 1:1:1 sand:clay:organic matter (D), 1:1:2 sand:clay:organic matter (E). In each soil treatment a high value of survival and growth was appeared in July and progressively decreased till November. In each month the seedlings grown on rich soils (D and E) had mostly greater growth and survival than on infertile soils. At the end of the first growing season seedling vitality differed significantly among the soils but did not differed notably in soil A with those in other soils. Survival rate was highest in the rich soils (D and E). Stem length as well as collar diameter performed the least growth on the poor soils (B and C). Like other characteristics measured, survival responded better to soils containing organic matter (D and E). It is concluded that generally characteristics of cypress seedling are suited by adding organic matter to sandy soils. This is while that poor nutrient available soil such as soil A produces a proper growth for cypress seedling, too.

  11. A study of conservation genetics in Cupressus chengiana, an endangered endemic of China, using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bingqing; Li, Wang; Linchun, Mu; Li, Yao; Rui, Zhang; Mingxia, Tang; Weikai, Bao

    2006-02-01

    ISSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of eight natural populations of Cupressus chengiana in China. ISSR analysis using 10 primers was carried out on 92 different samples. At the species level, 136 polymorphic loci were detected. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 99%. Genetic diversity (He) was 0.3120, effective number of alleles (Ae) was 1.5236, and Shannon's information index (I) was 0.4740. At the population level, PPB = 48%, Ae = 1.2774, He = 0.1631, and I = 0.2452. Genetic differentiation (Gst) detected by Nei's genetic diversity analysis suggested 48% occurred among populations. The partitioning of molecular variance by AMOVA analysis indicated significant genetic differentiation within populations (54%) and among populations (46%; P < 0.0003). The average number of individuals exchanged between populations per generation (Nm) was 0.5436. Samples from the same population clustered in the same population-specific cluster, and two groups of Sichuan and Gansu populations were distinguishable. A significantly positive correlation between genetic and geographic distance was detected (r = 0.6701). Human impacts were considered one of the main factors to cause the rarity of C. chengiana, and conservation strategies are suggested based on the genetic characters and field investigation, e.g., protection of wild populations, reestablishment of germplasm bank, and reintroduction of more genetic diversity.

  12. Chemical composition and biological activities of Tunisian Cupressus arizonica Greene essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amri; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Hamrouni, Lamia; Hanana, Mohsen; Jamoussi, Bassem; Gargouri, Samia; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, and female cones of Cupressus arizonica Greene, grown in Tunisia, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 62 compounds were identified, 62 in the leaf oil, 19 in the cone oil, and 24 in the stem oil. The cone and stem oils were mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (96.6 and 85.2%, resp.). In the leaf oil, the total sesquiterpene fraction constituted 36.1% and that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 33.8% of the total oil composition. The three oils were evaluated for their in vitro herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of the four weed species Sinapis arvensis L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Trifolium campestre Schreb., and Phalaris canariensis L. At the highest doses tested (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml), the leaf essential oil inhibited either totally or almost completely the seed germination and the shoot and root growth of S. arvensis and T. campestre. The oils were also tested for their antifungal activity; however, their effects on the fungal growth were statistically not significant.

  13. Essential-oil composition of the Tunisian endemic cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. numidica TRAB.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamrouni-Aschi, Kaouther; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boussaid, Mohamed; Akrimi, Noureddine; Toumi, Lamjed

    2013-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from leaves, wood, and cones of the Tunisian endemic cypress Cupressus sempervirens L. var. numidica Trab. collected from three natural populations were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the wood, leaf, and cone oils, 38, 35, and 26 constituents, representing 94.4, 97.8, and 98.5% of the total oil composition, respectively, were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the major fraction of the oils from all organs and for all populations. The oils were found to be of an α-pinene (64.2%)/δ-car-3-ene (11.1%) chemotype with considerable contents of α-humulene (3.4%) in the leaf oil, cedrol (2.8%) in the wood oil, and sabinene (3.2%) in the cone oil, respectively. α-Pinene, δ-car-3-ene, limonene, carvacrol methyl ether, α-humulene, and α-amorphene were the main components that differentiated the oils of the three organs in the cypress of Makthar.

  14. Protective effect of Cupressus sempervirens extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Gad, Islam B; Nasiry, Zayenab K

    2015-03-01

    Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) belongs to the family Cupressaceae. It is widspread in Northern Africa, Greece, Turkey, North America, Cyprus and Syria. Cupressuflavone is the major ingredient of the plant leave extract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract of C. sempervirens leaves in gastric ulcer tissues induced by indomethacin. The results of the present study revealed that indomethacin significantly decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, while it increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in gastric tissue. Furthermore, indomethacin decreased p53 expression, while it increased bcl-2 expression in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with 5%, 10% & 20% of the LD50 of C. sempervirens and cupressuflavone of indomethacin-treated rats restored all the above parameters to approach normal values. C. sempervirens at the highest dose was more effective than the two lower doses. C. sempervirens proved more potent than cupressuflavone. In conclusion, C. sempervirens exerted antiulcerogenic activity and the effect was dose-dependent and related to the cupressuflavone ingredient of the plant leave extract.

  15. 22 Protein-Protein Interactions Determine IgE Reactivity to Polygalacturonase From Cupressus sempervirens Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Shahali, Youcef; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Mari, Adriano; Charpin, Denis; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background In a recent proteomic study, we identified in Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, Cups) pollen grains, 2 proteins at 43 and 60 kDa, homologous to already known Cupressaceae polygalacturonase (PG) proteins. The 60-kDa PG is suspected to be a multi-protein complex including the 43-kDa PG and one or more proteins with lectin-like properties Objective In the present study, cypress pollen PGs were further characterized and the molecular basis of their allergenicity including the pr...

  16. Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanaa; Ahmed; Ali; Maha; Zaki; Rizk; Nabawia; Ali; Ibrahim; Mohga; Shafik; Abdallah; Hayat; Mohamed; Sharara; Magda; Mohamed; Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoe-nicea) extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl4 with biochemical, histopathological evaluations. METHODS: A single intraperitoneal dose of 10% CCl4 in olive oil (1 mL/kg body weight) was administered to a group of female Wister rats, sacrificed after 24 h (as the injury group). The other groups were given CCl4 as de-scribed above and divided as follows: two groups of ten rats each were orally administered either J. phoenicea extract or C. sempervirens extract three times per week for six weeks and a further group administered CCl4 was left for six weeks to allow self-recovery. At the end of experiment, the rats from all groups were sacrificed for sampling and for biochemical and histological analysis. RESULTS: Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters. On the other hand,rats injected with the toxic agent and left for one and a half month to self recover showed moderate improve-ments in the studied parameters while, treatment with both medicinal herbal extracts ameliorated the levels of the disturbed biochemical parameters. The group treated with J. phoenicea extract showed a remarkable improvement in comparison to the CCl4 treated group. The C. sempervirens group revealing an even more re-markable effect showing histopathological liver& kidney profiles close to those of the control group.CONCLUSION: C. sempervirens and J. phoenicea leaf extracts show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions and may thus be of therapeutic potential in treatment hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  17. Breaking seed dormancy in Cupressus atlantica Gaussen, an endemic and threatened coniferous tree in Morocco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sfairi Youssef; Ouahmane Lahcen; Abbad Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Cupressus atlantica Gaussen (Cupressaceae) is an endemic and endangered coniferous tree geographically restricted to the N'Fis valley in South-Western Morocco.Like many forest species,C atlantica exhibits dormancy which delays and reduces germination.To improve seed germination,different pre-treatments were conducted on C atlantica seeds after storage for different periods (one,two and five years)including:scarification with sandy paper; soaking seeds in hot distilled water at 60℃ and 80℃ for 15 min and soaking seeds for 48 h in a gibberellic acid (GA3) at 1,000 and 2,000 mg·L-1.Results showed that scarification with sandy paper increased the germination rate of Atlas cypress by up to 67%,indicating that the species possess essentially an exogenous dormancy (physical dormancy) due to the hard seed coat (hardseededness).Exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 1,000 mg·L-1 was also effective in breaking seed dormancy and germination induction.These two treatments induced faster speed germination expressed by low number of days to first germination (8-10 days) and low values of mean germination times (MGT).However,germination rate,under any treatment,is greatly dependent on the year of seed collection.Seeds collected in year 2004 gave the highest value,suggesting that even after five years of storage,the germination capacity of C.atlantica seeds could remain high.This observation is very interesting in the ex-situ conservation of such endemic and endangered species where the production of seeds is irregular over the years.

  18. Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sanaa Ahmed; Rizk, Maha Zaki; Ibrahim, Nabawia Ali; Abdallah, Mohga Shafik; Sharara, Hayat Mohamed; Moustafa, Magda Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea) extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl4 with biochemical, histopathological evaluations. METHODS: A single intraperitoneal dose of 10% CCl4 in olive oil (1 mL/kg body weight) was administered to a group of female Wister rats, sacrificed after 24 h (as the injury group). The other groups were given CCl4 as described above and divided as follows: two groups of ten rats each were orally administered either J. phoenicea extract or C. sempervirens extract three times per week for six weeks and a further group administered CCl4 was left for six weeks to allow self-recovery. At the end of experiment, the rats from all groups were sacrificed for sampling and for biochemical and histological analysis. RESULTS: Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters. On the other hand, rats injected with the toxic agent and left for one and a half month to self recover showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with both medicinal herbal extracts ameliorated the levels of the disturbed biochemical parameters. The group treated with J. phoenicea extract showed a remarkable improvement in comparison to the CCl4 treated group. The C. sempervirens group revealing an even more remarkable effect showing histopathological liver& kidney profiles close to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: C. sempervirens and J. phoenicea leaf extracts show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions and may thus be of therapeutic potential in treatment hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. PMID:21577307

  19. Prevalence and real clinical impact of Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus communis sensitisations in Tuscan "Maremma", Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Bruno; Scalese, Macro

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the impact of Cupressus sempervirens (Cs) and Juniperus communis (Jc) sensitisations in "Maremma" in southern Tuscany. 811 consecutive outpatients (357 F - 57.86%; age: 36.9 ± 16.6) with suspected allergic respiratory symptoms underwent skin prick tests (SPT) for common allergens and for Cs and Jc. SPT resulted negative in 295 (36.37%) subjects. A Cs/Jc sensitisation was found in 294 (36.25%): 289 (98.3%) were sensitised to Cs whereas 198 (67.34%) to Jc. There was a co-sensitisation between Cs and Jc in 193 (65.6%) subjects. Cs/Jc mono-sensitisation was found in 39 (13.6%) subjects. A higher number (p<0.0001) of Cs/Jc sensitised subjects reported winter (131-44.55%) and spring (124-42.2%) symptoms compared to Cs/Jc non-sensitised and non-allergic subjects. Most Cs/Jc sensitised subjects reported rhinitis and conjunctivitis (p<0.0001), whereas only few reported coughing and asthma (p<0.01). The most frequent co-sensitisation was with grass, olive and other trees in Cs/Jc subjects (p<0.001). Those who reported winter symptoms, likely influenced by Cupressaceae, rhinitis was the main symptom whereas asthma was less frequent. Cs/Jc sensitisation resulted to be a risk factor (OR: 1.73 [CI95% 1.18-2.55]) for rhinitis whereas the probability of being asthmatic was reduced (OR: 0.62 [CI95% 0.44-0.85]). The prevalence of Cs/Jc sensitisation is about 36% in "Maremma". However, only in 44% of the patients, Cs/Jc seem to cause typical winter symptoms. Rhinitis is the predominant symptom, whereas asthma is less frequent. Testing Cupressaceae sensitisation using Jc pollen extract, rather than Cs, may result to be less sensitive. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. VARIATION OF WITHIN-STEM BIOMETRICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTY INDICES OF WOOD FROM CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Khalil Hosseini Hashemi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Variations in average tracheid dimensions (such as length, diameter, lumen diameter, and wall thickness and its biometrical ratios including slenderness ratio, flexibility ratio, and Runkell ratio, oven-dry and basic density, longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volume shrinkage, maximum moisture content, and porosity of cypress trees wood (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis, which was cultivated in the north of Iran, were studied from the pith to bark (radial position, and along the stem from the base upwards. To measure the mentioned traits, the test specimens were prepared from three stands and 9 discs at different height levels (5, 25, and 50% of the total tree height based on ASTM-D143 standard. Results indicated that the tracheid length, tracheid cross-sectional dimensions, and its biometrical ratios irregularly varied at each height level, along the stem from the bottom to top, but within the discs, at the same height level biometrical traits in the radial position regularly increased from the pith to bark. Within the tree, wood oven-dry and basic density, longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volume shrinkage varied at each height level, decreasing along the stem from the base upwards. Within the discs, at the same height level, wood density and shrinkage, except for longitudinal shrinkage in the radial position, increased from the pith to bark. The maximum moisture content and porosity varied at each height level, increasing along the stem from the bottom to the top of the tree. Moreover, within the discs, at the same height level in the radial direction porosity decreased and maximum moisture content increased except for at 5% of height level from the pith to bark.

  1. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in needles of two cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Porta, Nicola; Bertamini, Massimo; Nedunchezhian, Namachevayam; Raddi, Paolo; Muthuchelian, Krishnasamy

    2005-08-01

    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis and photosynthetic recovery were studied in detached needles of cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) Clones 52 and 30 under controlled conditions of high irradiation (about 1900 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for 60 min; HL treatment), followed by 60 min in darkness. The degree of photoinhibition was determined based on the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), which is a measure of the potential efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), and on electron transport measurements. The Fv/Fm ratio declined in needles of both clones in response to the HL treatment. Minimal fluorescence (Fo) increased in HL-treated needles of both clones. The HL treatment decreased rates of whole-chain and PSII activity of isolated thylakoids more in Clone 52 than in Clone 30. In needles of both clones, PSI activity was less sensitive to photoinhibition than PSII activity. In the subsequent 60-min dark incubation, fast recovery was observed in needles of both clones, with PSII efficiencies reaching similar values to those in non-photoinhibited needles. The artificial exogenous electron donors diphenyl carbazide (DPC), hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and manganese chloride (MnCl2) failed to restore the HL-induced loss of PSII activity in needles of Clone 30, whereas DPC and NH2OH significantly restored PSII activity in photoinhibited needles of Clone 52. Quantification of the PSII reaction center protein D1 and the 33-kDa protein of the water-splitting complex following HL treatment of needles revealed pronounced differences between Clone 52 and Clone 30. The large decrease in PSII activity in HL-treated needles was caused by the marked loss of D1 protein and 33-kDa protein in Clone 30 and Clone 52, respectively.

  2. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needles-twigs (NT) and wood barks (WB) of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC...

  3. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, juniperus communis, and j. chinensis (cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (diptera; Culicidae) and as toxiants against mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components of J. communis were a-pinen...

  4. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  5. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marchetti-Krantz (MMK) procedure; Laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension ... bladder. There are two ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Either way, surgery ...

  6. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Science and Technology Assessment Printer Friendly Version Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin ... information about the hazards of orthostatic intolerance and suspension trauma when using fall arrest systems. This bulletin: ...

  7. Collapsing granular suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kadau, D.; Andrade Jr, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for...

  8. Cypress tree (Cupressus semervirens L.) bark as an indicator for heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Amman City, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hasan, Tayel; Al-Omari, Hamzeh; Jiries, Anwar; Al-Nasir, Farh

    2002-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of air quality in Amman City was investigated by analyzing 36 cypress tree (Cupressus semervirens L.) bark samples from three sites of different anthropogenic activities at the end of summer season 2001. Cypress barks were found to be a good bio-indicator for air pollution in arid regions. Variation in Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Cu contents between sites was observed due to different types of activities. Traffic emissions were found to be the main source of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Amman. Lead content was found to be the highest in highly traffic density areas. The industrial part of the city was characterized by high Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Co contents. No significance variations were found in pH values of the bark between the sites. This was attributed to buffering effect of carbonate in the atmosphere originated from soil of the area.

  9. Microsporogenesis in the endangered species Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus: evidence for meiotic defects yielding unreduced and abortive pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maâtaoui, M; Pichot, C

    2001-08-01

    To understand the reproductive biology of Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus (Cupressaceae), a highly endangered Mediterranean conifer, the processes of microsporogenesis and pollen differentiation were investigated cytologically. Pre-meiotic development proved to be similar to the coniferous pattern: the microsporangia differentiated sporogenous tissue in which microsporocytes separated and underwent meiosis. As the meiotic steps proceeded, unexpected irregularities were observed concerning chromosomal and nuclear behaviour. This mainly included: abnormal chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, and nuclear fusion of the meiotic products. The result was the formation, in the same microsporangium, of heterogeneous microspore populations arranged in monads, dyads, triads, tetrads, and polyads, and cytoplasts giving rise to pollen grains of different sizes. This indicates that in C. dupreziana both abortive and unreduced pollen grains are generated. The significance of the finding is discussed in relation to reproductive biology and vulnerability to extinction.

  10. Intraspecific chemical variability of essential oil from leaves of Cupressus atlantica Gaussen, an endemic and endangered coniferous species in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbad, Abdelaziz; Sfairi, Youssef; Lahcen, Hassani; Bekkouche, Khalid; Markouk, Mohammed; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David

    2013-01-01

    The composition of essential oils isolated from leaves of 11 natural populations of Cupressus atlantica, an endemic and endangered coniferous species from Morocco, was investigated by GC-MS. In total, 42 essential oil components were identified, accounting for 73.1-97.7% of the total oil. Monoterpene (25.2-84.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (12.2-46.8%) were the principal subclasses of compounds, with α-pinene (15-65.4%), germacrene D (5.9-30.5%), δ-3-carene (2-16.6%) and γ-cadinene (1.3-9.8%) as the main constituents. The results of the oil composition were analysed by hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis that established three main groups of essential oils. These oils were differentiated by the content of the major constituents (α-pinene, germacrene D, δ-3-carene and γ-cadinene), geographical location and climatic characteristics.

  11. Comparative study of the pollen protein contents in two major varieties of Cupressus arizonica planted in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Youcef; Majd, Ahmad; Pourpak, Zahra; Tajadod, Golnaz; Haftlang, Maryam; Moin, Mostafa

    2007-09-01

    During past few years, the Cupressus arizonica has been abundantly planted in Tehran, causing a significant increase of allergic diseases from the middle of winter to the beginning of spring. The aim of this study was the comparison of pollen protein content in two major varieties of C. arizonica planted in Tehran, including C. arizonica var. arizonica and C. arizonica var. glabra, in order to determine pollen's specificity of each variety and also to find out whether environmental conditions can influence pollen protein contents and its allergenic components. Pollen grains were directly collected from mature male cones of trees planted in different areas of the city. Pollen's proteins were extracted, and were analyzed by SDS PAGE. Total protein content of pollen extracts was measured by Bradford assay. Our investigations revealed noticeable differences in protein content of each variety. Bradford protein assay showed a higher total protein content in C. arizonica var. arizonica pollen extracts. A new major protein, with an approximate molecular weight of about 35 kDa was detected in both varieties. Immunoblotting using the serum of a cypress allergic subject showed that the protein with 35 kDa was also the major allergen of both varieties in pollen extracts. These results showed that there are some intraspecie specificities in Arizona cypress pollens. The major allergen of Cupresuss arizonica pollen, Cup a 1 (45 kDa), has been reported as the most representative protein in pollen extracts of Mediterranean countries, but in our autochthon extracts of both varieties, a protein band at 35 kDa was more representative. These observations seem to indicate that C. arizonica pollen protein content may be influenced by environmental conditions. Moreover, Immunoblot results provided a reliable indication on the allergenic activity of this new major protein band at 35 kDa. The confirmation of these aspects would facilitate the preparation of an effective extract, improving

  12. Phylogeography and allopatric divergence of cypress species (Cupressus L. in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciren Zhaxi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although allopatric speciation is viewed as the most common way in which species originate, allopatric divergence among a group of closely related species has rarely been examined at the population level through phylogeographic analysis. Here we report such a case study on eight putative cypress (Cupressus species, which each have a mainly allopatric distribution in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and adjacent regions. The analysis involved sequencing three plastid DNA fragments (trnD-trnT, trnS-trnG and trnL-trnF in 371 individuals sampled from populations at 66 localities. Results Both phylogenetic and network analyses showed that most DNA haplotypes recovered or haplotype-clustered lineages resolved were largely species-specific. Across all species, significant phylogeographic structure (NST >GST, P C. duclouxiana and C. chengiana, which are distributed in the eastern QTP region, contained more haplotypes and higher diversity than five species with restricted distributions in the western highlands of the QTP. The remaining species, C. funebris, is widely cultivated and contained very little cpDNA diversity. Conclusions It is concluded that the formation of high mountain barriers separating deep valleys in the QTP and adjacent regions caused by various uplifts of the plateau since the early Miocene most likely promoted allopatric divergence in Cupressus by restricting gene flow and fixing local, species-specific haplotypes in geographically isolated populations. The low levels of intraspecific diversity present in most species might stem from population bottlenecks brought about by recurrent periods of unfavorable climate and more recently by the negative impacts of human activities on species' distributions. Our findings shed new light on the importance of geographical isolation caused by the uplift of the QTP on the development of high plant species diversity in the QTP biodiversity hotspot.

  13. Collapsing granular suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadau, D; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2009-11-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for both the unperturbed and the perturbed phases of the material.

  14. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  15. Research on School Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Schools across the nation report increases in the use of punitive disciplinary methods (e.g., suspension). The need for these disciplinary practices to address serious student misconduct is undisputed. What research has questioned is why some students seem to be suspended more often than others, what effects suspension has on students, and whether…

  16. 应用模糊相似优先比法对大理州墨西哥柏引种适应性分析%Adaptability Analysis of Introducing Area of Cupressus lusitanica of Dali Prefecture by Vague Comparative Method of Similarity Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵盛军; 杨立新

    2005-01-01

    选取年均温、最热月均温、最冷月均温、年日照时数、年降雨量5个因素作为墨西哥柏的引种条件,以昆明墨西哥柏为固定样本,州内大理市、祥云县等12个县市的墨西哥柏为备选样本,用模糊相似优先比法进行分析,将大理州划分成4个引种区:适宜区、较适宜区、基本适宜区、不适宜区.

  17. Strong Induction of Minor Terpenes in Italian Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, in Response to Infection by the Fungus Seiridium cardinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Danti, Roberto; Llusià, Joan; Della Rocca, Gianni; Barberini, Sara; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Seiridium cardinale, the main fungal pathogen responsible for cypress bark canker, is the largest threat to cypresses worldwide. The terpene response of canker-resistant clones of Italian cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, to two differently aggressive isolates of S. cardinale was studied. Phloem terpene concentrations, foliar terpene concentrations, as well as foliar terpene emission rates were analyzed 1, 10, 30, and 90 days after artificial inoculation with fungal isolates. The phloem surrounding the inoculation point exhibited de novo production of four oxygenated monoterpenes and two unidentified terpenes. The concentrations of several constitutive mono- and diterpenes increased strongly (especially α-thujene, sabinene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, oxygenated monoterpenes, manool, and two unidentified diterpenes) as the infection progressed. The proportion of minor terpenes in the infected cypresses increased markedly from the first day after inoculation (from 10% in the control to 30-50% in the infected treatments). Foliar concentrations showed no clear trend, but emission rates peaked at day 10 in infected trees, with higher δ-3-carene (15-fold) and total monoterpene (10-fold) emissions than the control. No substantial differences were found among cypresses infected by the two fungal isolates. These results suggest that cypresses activate several direct and indirect chemical defense mechanisms after infection by S. cardinale.

  18. α-Pinene- and β-myrcene-rich volatile fruit oil of Cupressus arizonica Greene from northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-03-01

    Cupressus arizonica Greene is an aromatic evergreen coniferous plant with great importance in urban horticulture and in the pharmaceutical and fragrance industries. The hydrodistilled volatile fruit oil of cultivated C. arizonica from northwest Iran was analysed by GC/MS. Forty-three components were identified, accounting for 96.4% of the total oil. Monoterpenoids (91.9%) dominated the identified components of the essential oil, followed by a lesser portion of sesquiterpenoids (4.2%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons (87.9%) were the principal subclass of components, with α-pinene (54.3%), β-myrcene (11.1%), δ-3-carene (6.5%) and limonene (6%) as main constituents. β-Pinene (4%), terpinolene (2.8%) and camphene (1.1%) were the other monoterpenoids present in notable amounts. α-Terpineol (1.4%) was the only representative of the oxygen-containing monoterpenoids. Sesquiterpenoids had a minor share in the volatile oil's composition. Hydrocarbonic compounds (91.1%) had a higher share compared to the oxygenated components (5%). Comparison of the essential oil profile of C. arizonica Greene plants cultivated in Iran showed remarkable quantitative but slight qualitative differences with previous reports from other parts of the world. In summary, the chemical and percentage composition of the studied oil from cultivated C. arizonica Greene from northwest Iran was characterised by a high occurrence of α-pinene and β-myrcene, and is thus competent for use in related industries and as a favourite ornamental aromatic tree.

  19. 巨柏茎叶的萜类成分%Terpenoids from Stems and Leaves of Cupressus gigantea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳春梅; 周慧斌; 张卫东

    2010-01-01

    目的:对巨柏(Cupressus gigantea)茎叶的化学成分进行研究.方法:采用硅胶和Sephadex LH-20柱色谱的方法分离和纯化化合物,通过NMR,MS及理化性质鉴定化合物结构.结果:从巨柏茎叶分离得到15个labdane-type二萜,其中一个为新化合物,分别为:15-methoxy-18-hydroxylabda-8(17),13-diene(1),13-epitoruolsol(2),labd-8(17),14-dien-13-ol(3),13-epi-cupressic acid(4),cis-communic acid(5),trans-communic acid(6),labd-15-aceoxy-8(17),13E-dien(7),labd-8(17),13E-dien-15-ol(8),isocupressic acid(9),acetylisocupressic acid(10),isoabienol(11),13-oxo-14,15-dinor-labd-8(17)-en-19-oic acid(12),pimarenic acid(13),sandaracopimaric acid(14),and pimarol(15)此外还有两个已知倍半萜ent-oplopanone(16)和(+)-T-Cadinol(17).结论:化合物(1)为新的倍半萜,所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分得.

  20. "Microscopic evidences of heavy metals distribution and anatomic alterations in breaching-leaves of Cupressus lindleyi growing around mining wastes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Miguel, Gómez-Bernal; Ofelia, Morton-Bermea; Esther Aurora, Ruiz-Huerta; Maria Aurora, Armienta-Hernández; Dávila Osiel, González

    2014-09-01

    In this article a study of the distribution of heavy metals in Cupressus lindleyi breaching-leaves was done in Taxco, Guerrero. At the same, heavy metals micro-localization was conducted in the breaching-leaves to understand the structural changes provoked by mining waste on plants. The most abundant contaminants in soils, tailings and different plant organs (roots, stems, and leaves) were Zn, Mn, and Pb. Nevertheless, As was more accumulated in the stem and breaching-leaves. The translocation factor and the bio-concentration factor were less than 1. The structural changes observed were the great accumulation of starch grains and phenolic compounds in the palisade parenchyma, changes in the hypodermis cell wall and necrotic zones in the palisade parenchyma. The distribution of heavy metals in breaching-leaves tissues was homogeneous in most of the elements. These results showed that C. lindleyi is a species that can be employed in phytostabilization of contaminated zones with mining waste because it is a native plant that does not require a lot of conditions for its development.

  1. 镇宁县石漠化地区藏柏引种造林生长调查初报%An Investigation Report on the Growth Performance of Introduced Cupressus torulosa in Rocky Desertification Area of Zhenning County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁恩贤

    2014-01-01

    在镇宁县通过对引种十年的藏柏(Cupressus torulosa)在石漠化地区的造林效果进行分析,结果表明,藏柏与同期营造的香椿(Toona sinensis)、楸(Catalpa bungei)和干香柏(滇柏)(Cupressus duclouxiana)对比,在退耕地上比香椿长势差,比楸和滇柏好;在荒山荒地和白云质砂石山地上比其余三个树种树长势好.

  2. Microfluidic Bead Suspension Hopper

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Alexander K.; MacConnell, Andrew B.; Paegel, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Many high-throughput analytical platforms, from next-generation DNA sequencing to drug discovery, rely on beads as carriers of molecular diversity. Microfluidic systems are ideally suited to handle and analyze such bead libraries with high precision and at minute volume scales; however, the challenge of introducing bead suspensions into devices before they sediment usually confounds microfluidic handling and analysis. We developed a bead suspension hopper that exploits sedimentation to load b...

  3. The Mystical Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Santiesteban Oliva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mistical suspension, silence, time, absolute, ontology, ineffability, aletheiaIn the mystical ecstasy there is a sensorial and intellectual suspension when contemplating the absolute, the ontological Being. Silence is not only significant: it is revealing. The greatest expression of experience inner silence . The word is insufficient when the ontological reality is revealed. Revelation or truth , the Greek concept of aletheia, takes on greater significance in that transcendental experience. It is also suspended phenomenological time and remains eternity open.

  4. 藏柏林营造试验初报%A Preliminary Report on the Experiment of Reservoir Construction of Cupressus torl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中兵; 陈光海; 张犀; 刘自兵; 祝开明; 邓廷彬

    2013-01-01

    1989年,在开县国有毛垭林场海拔1000 m处,进行藏柏采种林营造试验。经23年观测,藏柏在该处能正常生长发育。第4年有极少数单株挂果,种子无发芽力;第5年结的种子,发芽率为2%;第6年结的种子发芽率为33%。藏柏平均年生长高为88 cm,胸径为1.1 cm,超过当地乡土树种马尾松和杉木的生长量。%In 1989, Cupressus torl afforestation test was carried out by state owned Forest Management Institute at Kai county at an altitude of 1 000 meters. After 23 years of observation and measurement, Cupressus torl can normal grow and develop in the area. In fourth year there had been very few fruit, and the seeds had no germination ability. In fifth year, the seed germination rate was 2%. In sixth year the seed germination rate was 33%. The annual growth of Cupressus torl is as high as 88 cm, and the diameter at breast height is 1.1 cm. The above increments are more than the growth of native tree species such as Chinese fir and Masson pine.

  5. Pulvinulin A, graminin C, and cis-gregatin B--new natural furanones from Pulvinula sp. 11120, a fungal endophyte of Cupressus arizonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Xu, Yaming; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Three new natural furanones, pulvinulin A (1), graminin C (2), and cis-gregatin B (3), together with the known fungal metabolites, graminin B (4) and 10-norparvulenone (5), were isolated from Pulvinula sp. 11120, an endophytic fungal strain occurring in healthy foliage of Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data and chemical interconversions, and that of 3 was determined by comparison with data for synthetic cis-gregatin B. Comparison of spectroscopic data of 4 and 5 with those reported identified them as graminin B and 10-norparvulenone, respectively. Metabolites 1-4 exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli.

  6. Fomitiporia cupressicola sp. nov., a parasite on Cupressus arizonica, and additional unnamed clades in the southern USA and northern Mexico, determined by multilocus phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalfi, Mario; Raymundo, Tania; Valenzuela, Ricardo; Decock, Cony

    2012-01-01

    Fomitiporia cupressicola sp. nov., found in living Cupressus arizonica, is described on the basis of several collections originating from a high altitude forest in the northern Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. The species forms a monophyletic clade, basal to a larger lineage comprising species originating mainly from temperate to Mediterranean areas of the northern hemisphere. The phylogenetic approach in Fomitiporia also revealed multiple unnamed clades within the F. robusta complex in the southern USA and northern Mexico, representing potential species. The status of the F. robusta complex in North America is discussed briefly.

  7. Etude phytochimique et pouvoir antîmicrobien de Juniperusphoenicea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L. et Cupressus sempervirens L. de la région de Tlemcen.

    OpenAIRE

    MAZARI, Khadidja

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail est consacré à l'étude pliytochimique et biologique de trois plantes: Juniperusphoenicea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L. et Cupressus J sempervirens L., poussant à l'état spontané dans la région de Tlemcen. P Des tests phytochimiques réalisés lors de cette étude ont permis de détecter les différentes familles de composés chimiques existantes dans les feuilles de ces plantes. L'extraction des huiles essentielles nous a révélé que le rendement en huile essentielle de J. phoeni...

  8. Molecular detection assay of the bud mite Trisetacus juniperinus on Cupressus sempervirens in nurseries of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; de Lillo, Enrico; Roversi, Pio Federico; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-02-01

    Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa) sensu Keifer (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) causes irregular development of buds, shoot deformations and stunted growth of trees, resulting in a serious threat to nurseries and young stands of Cupressus sempervirens L. (Mediterranean cypress). Recently, some cypress clones selected for their resistance to the fungal canker agent Seiridium cardinale (Wag.) have shown high susceptibility to the mite. Considering its tiny body, its hidden lifestyle inside the buds and the probable occurrence of other species (the vagrant Epitrimerus cupressi (Keifer) is common on the Mediterranean cypress in Italy), detection and monitoring of T. juniperinus require taxonomic expertise and are often time-consuming and challenging before serious damage is discernible. In the present study, a rapid, cost-effective PCR-based method was developed and validated to detect T. juniperinus on cypresses. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was amplified with degenerate and specific primers, but the latter were the only ones able to discriminate between T. juniperinus and E. cupressi. PCR products distinguished the two species both in a pool of individuals in a mixed population of both species and in single individuals, indicating the sensitivity of the detection method. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) by means of XmnI and XbaI endonucleases separated the two species. Furthermore, a washing-sieving protocol was used to make mite collection from the tree sample faster and simpler; this procedure did not interfere with the molecular detection of the species. The possibility of the routine use of this assay to monitor quarantine eriophyoids infesting plant material is discussed.

  9. [Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen storage of Cupressus chengiana plantations in the arid valley of Minjiang River, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Da; Feng, Qiu-hong; Shi, Zuo-min; Li, Dong-sheng; Yang, Chang-xu; Liu, Qian-li; He, Jian-she

    2015-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen storage and distribution patterns of Cupressus chengiana plantation ecosystems with different stand ages in the arid valley of Minjiang River were studied. The results showed that carbon contents in different organs of C. chengiana were relatively stable, while nitrogen contents were closely related to different organs, and soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents increased with the stand age. Carbon and nitrogen storage in vegetation layer, soil layer, and the whole ecosystem of the plantation increased with the stand age. The values of total carbon storage in the 13-, 11-, 8-, 6- and 4-year-old C. chengiana plantation ecosystems were 190.90, 165.91, 144.57, 119.44, and 113.49 t x hm(-2), and the values of total nitrogen storage were 19.09, 17.97, 13.82, 13.42, and 12.26 t x hm(-2), respectively. Most of carbon and nitrogen were stored in the 0-60 cm soil layer in the plantation ecosystems and occupied 92.8% and 98.8%, respectively, and the amounts of carbon and nitrogen stored in the top 0-20 cm soil layer, accounted for 54.4% and 48.9% of those in the 0-60 cm soil layer, respectively. Difference in distribution of carbon and nitrogen storage was observed in the vegetation layer. The percentage of carbon storage in tree layer (3.7%) were higher than that in understory vegetation (3.5%), while the percentage of nitrogen storage in tree layer (0.5%) was lower than that in understory (0.7%). The carbon and nitrogen storage and distribution patterns in the plantations varied obviously with the stand age, and the plantation ecosystems at these age stages could accumulate organic carbon and nitrogen continuously.

  10. Assessing the Genetic Diversity and Genealogical Reconstruction of Cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl. Breeding Parents Using SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbo Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic diversity, genetic structure and the relationship among accessions, and further establish a core collection for the long-term breeding of cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl., the genealogy of breeding parents was reconstructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR molecular markers. Seventeen SSR markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 290 cypress accessions from five provinces and 53 accessions with unknown origin in China. A total of 92 alleles (Na were detected with 5.412 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.593. The haplotype diversity (H ranged from 0.021 to 0.832, with an average of 0.406. The number of alleles (Na and the effective number of alleles (Ne ranged from 4.294 to 5.176 and from 2.488 to 2.817 among five populations, respectively. The pairwise population matrix of Nei’s genetic distance ranged from 0.008 to 0.023. Based on the results of unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA cluster and population structure analyses, 343 breeding parents were divided into two major groups. Lower genetic differentiation coefficients and closer genetic relationships were observed among cypress breeding parents, suggesting that the genetic basis was narrow, and the genetic relationship was confused by frequent introduction and wide cultivation. Moreover, we reconstructed the genealogy between breeding parents and 30 accessions of breeding parents from an identified core collection. According to the present study, not only geographic origin but also the relationship of the individuals should be considered in future crossbreeding work.

  11. Protective role of Cupressuflavone from Cupressus macrocarpa against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Eman; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2014-12-01

    The hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of cupressuflavone isolated from Cupressus macrocarpa was investigated against CCl4-induced toxicity in mice. Cupressuflavone was administered (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day) for five days. CCl4 was administered (0.5 mL/kg intraperitoneally) at the end of the experiment. A substantial increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, urea, and malondialdehyde was observed in the CCl4-treated group compared to the normal control group. In contrast, a significant reduction (p < 0.001) in glutathione and superoxide dismutase contents as well as the total protein level was evident in the CCl4-intoxicated mice. Cupressuflavone pretreatment markedly inhibited the CCl4-induced increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, urea, and malondialdehyde levels in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001 at all the tested doses). In addition, a significant (p < 0.001) and dose-dependent decrease in the total bilirubin levels was evident by cupressuflavone pretreatment (80 and 160 mg/kg/day) when compared to the CCl4-intoxicated group. Furthermore, cupressuflavone administration significantly increased the activity of antioxidant parameters glutathione and superoxide dismutase as well as the serum protein levels (p < 0.001 at all the tested doses) in a dose-dependent manner. Histological observations confirmed the strong hepato- and nephroprotective activity. These findings suggest that cupressuflavone could exert a beneficial effect against oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant defense status, reducing lipid peroxidation, and protecting against the pathological changes induced by CCl4 in the liver and kidney tissues. The structure of cupressuflavone was identified by

  12. Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica) pollen allergens. Identification of cross-reactive periodate-resistant and -sensitive epitopes with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B; Tinghino, R; Corinti, S; Afferni, C; Iacovacci, P; Mari, A; Pini, C; Di Felice, G

    1998-06-01

    Species of the Cupressaceae family are a worldwide cause of respiratory allergies. We used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to investigate the presence and the nature of cross-reacting epitopes shared by various components within Cupressus arizonica pollen extract (CaE) or by CaE and pollen extract from C. sempervirens (CsE). mAbs were produced in mice immunized with whole CaE (4A6 and 5E6) or with the major allergen components (2D5). Their reactivity was investigated by ELISA and immunoblotting before and after CaE periodate treatment. Cross-reactivity was evaluated by ELISA inhibition and immunoblotting. mAbs 2D5 and 4A6 recognized periodate-resistant epitopes, whereas the mAb 5E6 reacted with a periodate-sensitive determinant. The former mAbs recognized epitopes present on CaE major allergen and also shared by other components. mAb 5E6 showed a spread reactivity on CaE, with exclusion of the major allergen. When the three mAbs were tested with CsE, a restricted pattern of reactivity to mAbs 2D5 and 4A6 was obtained, whereas mAb 5E6 maintained a spread reactivity. The CaE major allergen is represented by two components recognized by human IgE and sharing common epitopes, as proven by mAbs reactivity. The use of these mAbs demonstrates that cross-reactivity within CaE components and between CaE and CsE is due to the presence of periodate-sensitive as well as -resistant epitopes.

  13. Seasonal changes in copper and cobalt concentrations of Pinus nigra L., Cedrus libani and Cupressus arizonica leaves to monitor the effects of pollution in Elazig (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Nagihan M; Yaman, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine seasonal changes in Cu and Co concentrations of three plant species for monitoring the effects of pollution in Elazig, Turkey. For this purpose, the leaves of the Pinus nigra L., Cedrus libani and Cupressus arizonica together with soil samples were collected from different points depending on traffic intensity, nearness the city center and cement factory as well as control location during different months of the year. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used for measurement of the metals in clear digests after the dry ashing method. Copper and Co concentrations were in the ranges from 1.3 to 2.6 mg x kg(-1) and < LOD to 0.26 mg x kg(-1) for Pinus nigra L., 1.2 to 4.7 mg x kg(-1) and < LOD to 0.41 mg x kg(-1) for Cedrus libani and 1.5 to 4.8 mg x kg(-1) and < LOD to 0.42 mg x kg(-1) for Cupressus arizonica, respectively. The levels observed for Cu and Co in the soil ranged from 12 to 38 mg x kg(-1) and 6.0 to 17 mg x kg(-1), respectively.

  14. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using botanical insecticides as an alternative biocontrol technique for vector control is considered by some scientists. Materials and Methods: Chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil of Cupressus arizonica was investigated against fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared An. stephensi according to the method of the World Health Organization. Results: Of 46 constituents in the oil, limonene (14.44%, umbellulone (13.25% and α-pinene (11% were determined as the main constituents. Cupressus arizonica volatile oil showed significant larvicidal activity against An. stephensi with LC 50 and LC 90 values 79.30 ppm and 238.89 ppm respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160 ppm essential oil with almost 100% mortality. Discussion: The results from this study revealed that C. arizonica essential oil could be considered as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. However, the field evaluation of the formulation is necessary.

  15. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    OpenAIRE

    António J. A. Santos; Ofélia Anjos; Maria Cristina Morais; Graça Diogo; Rogério Simões; Helena Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal) and P. sylvestris (Finland) were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05) tracheid diameter and wall thick...

  16. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Colloid & Polymer Science Volume 289, Number 10, 1119-1125, DOI: 10.1007/s00396-011-2438-4 Rheology of organoclay suspension Mpitloane Joseph Hato, Ke Zhang, Suprakas Sinha Ray and Hyoung Jin Choi Abstract We have studied the rheological...

  17. Alternatives to Student Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, David

    2012-01-01

    Seven years ago, James A. Garfield High School in East Los Angeles set a school record with 613 student suspensions, out of a total enrollment of 5,000 students. The school, made famous by the 1988 film "Stand and Deliver", was no stranger to the high rates of student discipline all too common within the Los Angeles Unified School…

  18. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  19. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  20. 大渡河水电开发对岷江柏(Cupressus chenggiana)空间分布格局的影响%The influence upon cupressus chengiand space Distribution by Hydroelectric Development of dod River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭成; 李绪佳; 王欢; 谢云; 曹浒

    2011-01-01

    四川大渡河流域水能资源丰富,大规模的水电开发会对流域原生植被产生影响,文章从流域角度出发,应用景观生态学的方法研究大渡河水电开发对国家Ⅱ级珍稀植物岷江柏(Cupressus chenggiana)空间分布格局的影响.结果表明:(1)大渡河干流双江口、金川、巴底、丹巴、猴子岩、长河坝6个水电站施工区或库区会淹没使用成片分布的天然岷江柏林,对天然岷江柏面积和数量产生较大影响,而双江口以上的4个电站及长河坝电站以下的12个规划建设电站区域内仅淹没使用沿岸林地内零星分布的散生岷江柏;(2)大渡河干流水电站建设将会使天然岷江柏斑块面积减少,斑块数量增加,区域岷江柏斑块破碎化程度增加;(3)规划水电站建设后将会导致四川大渡河流域天然岷江柏林斑块连接度由原来0.1118降至0.0967,下降0.0151,变幅达13.5%;(4)规划水电站建设前、后天然岷江柏斑块的分布质心将向东南方向偏移4.06km,导致区域空间分布质心从原始集中分布地区向天然次生地区范围内偏移.

  1. Leaf plasticity to light intensity in Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.): adaptability of a Mediterranean conifer cultivated in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Paolo; Muthuchelian, Krishnasamy; La Porta, Nicola

    2012-12-05

    Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) is native to the eastern Mediterranean, an area characterised by hot, dry summers and mild winters. Over the centuries, however, the species has been introduced into more northerly regions, a long way from its native range. The current, generally warmer climatic conditions brought about by global warming have favoured its cultivation in even more northerly areas in the Alps and other European alpine regions. Given that not only temperature, but also light availability are limiting factors for the spread of cypress in these environments, it is important to ascertain how this species copes with low light conditions. The photosynthetic characteristics of cypress leaves collected from different portions of the crown with contrasting light availability were evaluated by several methods. Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car) content was found to be higher in shade leaves than in sun leaves when measured on a fresh mass basis, although enzymatic activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) and nitrate reductase were lower in shade leaves. When the efficiency of PSII was measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, a marked reduction in F(m) was found in shade leaves, while F(o) remained unchanged. The use of exogenous electron donors diphenyl carbazide (DPC) and NH(2)OH actually improved the photosynthetic efficiency of shade leaves, and the same effect was found when PSII electron transport activity was measured as O(2) evolution. Altogether, these results seem to indicate lesser photosynthetic efficiency in shade leaves, probably an impairment on the donor side of the PSII. At the same time, analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed differences in the polypeptide composition of the thylakoid membranes of sun and shade leaves: the bands corresponding to 23 kDa, 28-25 kDa and 33 kDa polypeptides were less intense in the thylakoid membranes extracted from shade leaves. These results were

  2. Dense Suspension Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  3. Extraction of essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens: comparison of global yields, chemical composition and antioxidant activity obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejia, Herzi; Séverine, Camy; Jalloul, Bouajila; Mehrez, Romdhane; Stéphane, Condoret Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 and hydrodistillation (HD) were compared as methods to isolate the essential oil from Cupressus sempervirens. The odour of the oil obtained by SFE at 90 bar and 40°C was very close to the odour of the leaves of C. sempervirens before the extraction. Compounds extracted by both SFE and HD were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. Moreover, the difference in the chemical composition obtained by SFE and HD was quite noticeable qualitatively and quantitatively. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were also determined. Compared to HD, the SFE method presents some advantages: the extraction was completed after 1 h in SFE, although 4 h is necessary for HD, and the yield was improved by 34%. Finally, it has also been shown that SFE is very selective towards some specific components such as manoyl oxide, trans-totarol and α-acoradiene.

  4. 滇柏容器育苗配套技术研究%Preliminary study on a set of technique to grow container seedling of Cupressus duclouxiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓阳; 杨安敏; 金天喜; 朱忠荣; 胡刚

    2005-01-01

    通过6项育苗试验,探索滇柏Cupressus duclouxiana容器育苗的配套技术.结果表明,滇柏容器育苗可根据当地资源状况及成本高低,因地制宜地配制育苗基质;育苗容器可选用350mL的塑料杯;播种期以3月份为宜;苗木生长初期、速生期和后期,宜按一定配比施用N、P、K肥料;可采用CuCO3处理容器内壁进行化学修根,或在容器壁上开缝进行空气修根;育苗宜在全光照下进行.

  5. Effectiveness of Cupressus sempervirens cones as biosorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M E; Nunell, G V; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2010-12-01

    The feasibility of using cypress cone chips from Cupressus sempervirens as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of two representative basic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch and continuous modes. Dyes biosorption was strongly dependent on the solution's pH. Sorption kinetics was determined and properly described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Experimental equilibrium isotherms fitted the Langmuir model, showing maximum biosorption capacities of 0.62 mmol/g for MB and 0.24 mmol/g for RhB. Competitive experiments from a binary solution of the dyes demonstrated the preference of the cone chips for biosorbing MB. Very low desorption efficiencies were obtained for both dyes. Dynamic experiments showed that the breakthrough time was three times higher for MB biosorption than for RhB for the same conditions. Breakthrough curves were properly represented by a mathematical model.

  6. Studies on the chemical constituents of Cupressus chengJana S.Y.Hu%岷江柏的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文兰; 杨梅; 朱刚; 王晓玲

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究岷江柏Cupressus chengJana S.Y.Hu的化学成分. 方法 利用正、反相硅胶柱层析及Sephadex LH-20等方法分离纯化, 结合MS、IR、1H-NMR、13C-NMR等现代波谱数据及理化性质鉴定化合物的结构. 结果 从岷江柏中分离得到两个化合物, 分别鉴定为4-epi-Sandaracopimaric acid(1)、β-谷甾醇(2). 结论 两个化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  7. 中国柏木属(Cupressus L.)植物的petG-trnP序列分析及其系统学意义%The Application of petG-trnP Sequence to the Systematic Study of Chinese Cupressus Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟林春; 王丽; 姚丽; 郝冰清; 罗勤

    2005-01-01

    对中国柏科(Cupressaceae)柏木属(Cupressus L.)5个种及扁柏属4个种的cpDNA非编码区petG-trnP序列进行了分析,其片段的长度范围在417bp~479bp之间.以侧柏(Platycla-dus orientalis)作为功能性外类群,运用PAUP*和MEGA软件分别对其进行聚类分析,应用最大似然法得到一棵最优系统树,其-Ln=2232.47.结果表明:用petG-trnP序列来分析柏木属和扁柏属的系统发育关系是可行的;中国柏木属植物是一个单系类群;Chamaecyparis noot-katensis与扁柏属其它植物关系较远.因此,柏木(Cupressus funebris)和Ch.nootkatensis均应并入柏木属.

  8. Comparative Analysis on Growth Volumes between Alnus sp. and Cupressus torulosa Plantation Stand%川滇桤木与藏柏人工林分生长量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵总; 张兆国; 唐兴联; 段学耘

    2009-01-01

    The growth volumes of Alnus sp. and Cupressus torulosa plantation stand have been surveyed in Dashan and Daliyuan of Yuxi city, and single factor variance and LSD test have been applied to compare the result. The final result reveals that there are striking differences between them, and the growth volume of Alnus sp is apparently higher than that of Cupressus torulosa in detail. This illustrates that Alnus sp. which has the characters of fast growth and strong adaptation can grow better than Cupressus torulosa under the condition of dry & barren soil and poor site situation.%对玉溪市大山和大栗园川滇桤木和藏柏人工林分进行生长量调查.应用单因素方差分析和LSD检验法进行比较,结果表明两者差异显著,川滇桤木生长量明显高于藏柏.说明川滇桤木在干旱瘠薄、土壤地力较差的立地条件下比藏柏生长好,具有生长迅速、适应性强的特点.

  9. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension....

  10. 75 FR 27923 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... 3150-AI76 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final... nonprocurement debarment and suspension. These regulations cover grants, cooperative agreements and other...) guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension found in OMB's regulations. DATES: Effective June...

  11. Vehicle with tilting suspension system

    OpenAIRE

    Festini, Andrea; Tonoli, Andrea; Cavalli, Fabio; Carabelli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The patent is relative to the application of a tilting suspension on a snowmobile to improve its drive feeling and safety. At high speed the introduction of the tilting suspension reduce the rollover risk during cornering. The vehicle can tilt as a motorcycle and its lateral dimensions can be reduced not compromising the vehicle stability

  12. Unifying suspension and granular rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2011-10-28

    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.

  13. Seedling Cultivation Techniques for Clones of Cupressus funebris by Cutting%柏木无性系扦插育苗技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼君; 金国庆; 丰忠平; 陈爱明; 储德裕; 张一; 刘伟宏

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on seedling cultivation of Cupressus funebris by cuttings with different clones, mother tree age, cutting types, substrate and treatment of cuttings. The results showed that survival rate of different clones ranged from 15%to 100%. Favoring survival rate could be obtained in cuttings from mother tree less than 6-year, negative correlation between cutting age and survival rate was observed. Survival rate was not significantly improved by ABT treatment, whereas seedling height was largely increased by ABT. It was suggested that cuttage of cypress should be performed in the early June, with softwood cuttings on 3-6-year plus clones or trees. With the cuttage techniques above-described, the survival rate could be reached above 75%in large-scale cutting propagation, whereas seedling height and diameter could reach 30 cm and 0.3 cm respectively.%对柏木(Cupressus funebris)不同无性系、母树年龄、插穗类型、扦插基质和插穗处理等5个因素扦插育苗试验的研究结果表明,不同无性系的扦插成苗率差异极其显著,变幅15%~100%;利用6年生以下母树上的穗条扦插都可获得较高成苗率,但随着采穗母树年龄的递增其扦插成苗率和苗木质量会有明显降低;ABT1促根处理对柏木嫩枝扦插成苗率和生根数等性状无显著影响,但对扦插苗的高生长有明显促进作用;柏木嫩枝扦插一般在6月上旬进行,选用3~6年生优良无性系或优良单株上生长旺盛的当年生嫩梢采穗,并按要求扦插,大规模扦插成苗率可达75%以上,一年生移栽苗苗高、地径和一级分枝数可分别达30.00 cm、3.00 mm和15.0支左右。

  14. Árboles de navidad: un cultivo forestal a muy corto plazo (Primera parte)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se discute la importancia de la producción de árboles de navidad en Costa Rica con Cupressus lusitanica Mill. (ciprés). En esta primera parte, se describen los requerimientos silvoecológicos y los pasos para el establecimiento de plantaciones para este uso.

  15. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an...

  16. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension...

  17. 78 FR 2622 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  18. 77 FR 2646 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  19. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  20. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  1. 75 FR 5890 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  2. 7 CFR 3017.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3017.1015 Section 3017.1015 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of this part that...

  3. 19 CFR 146.82 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 146.82 Section 146.82 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Penalties; Suspension; Revocation § 146.82 Suspension. (a) For cause. The... for a period not to exceed 90 days. Upon order of the Board the suspension may be continued....

  4. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the...

  5. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  6. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been...

  7. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under...

  8. 77 FR 9856 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  9. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015 Section 105-68.1015 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  10. 29 CFR 98.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 98.1015 Section 98.1015 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of this part that...

  11. 2 CFR 182.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 182.670 Section 182.670 Grants... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension (2 CFR part 180, which implements Executive...

  12. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  13. 77 FR 7537 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  14. 78 FR 2624 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  15. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  16. 75 FR 4000 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and ]...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1508.1015 Section 1508.1015 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  18. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing...

  19. 45 CFR 1173.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1173.670 Section 1173.670 Public... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  20. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  1. 43 CFR 43.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 43.670 Section 43.670 Public... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and 2 CFR part 180. Suspension of a recipient is a distinct and separate action...

  2. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut... bushings shall not be cracked, extruded out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall...

  3. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  4. 78 FR 5734 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  5. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  6. 2 CFR 180.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 180.1015 Section 180.1015 Grants... Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of...

  7. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  8. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  9. 76 FR 2596 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  10. 22 CFR 208.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 208.1015 Section 208.1015 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  11. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  12. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  13. 77 FR 2650 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  14. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  15. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  16. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  17. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  18. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  19. 10 CFR 607.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 607.670 Section 607.670 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  20. 75 FR 9111 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  1. 20 CFR 439.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 439.670 Section 439.670 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1404.1015 Section 1404.1015 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  3. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  4. 76 FR 9666 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  5. 22 CFR 1006.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1006.1015 Section 1006.1015 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of...

  6. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  7. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  8. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  9. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  10. 75 FR 60 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Part 64 [Docket ID FEMA-2008-0020; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-8111] Suspension of Community... Insurance Program (NFIP), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule... floodplain management measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension...

  11. Paradoxical ratcheting in cornstarch suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Siu, Theo; Rutala, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Cornstarch suspensions are well known to exhibit strong shear thickening, and we show as a result that they must - and do - climb vertically vibrating rods and plates. This occurs because when the rod moves upward, it shears the suspension against gravity, and so the fluid stiffens, but when the rod moves downward, the suspension moves with gravity, and so the fluid is more compliant. This causes the fluid to be dragged up by the upstroke more than it is dragged down by the downstroke, effectively ratcheting the fluid up the rod every cycle. We show experimentally and computationally that this effect is paradoxically caused by gravity - and so goes away when gravity is removed - and we show that the suspension can be made to balance on the uphill side of an inclined rod in an analog of the inverted ``Kapitza pendulum,'' closely related to the recent report by Ramachandran & Nosonovsky, Soft Matter 10, 4633 (2014).

  12. Hydrodynamic shocks in microroller suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Driscoll, Michelle; Chaikin, Paul; Donev, Aleksandar

    2017-09-01

    We combine experiments, large-scale simulations, and continuum models to study the emergence of coherent structures in a suspension of magnetically driven microrollers sedimented near a floor. Collective hydrodynamic effects are predominant in this system, leading to strong density-velocity coupling. We characterize a uniform suspension and show that density waves propagate freely in all directions in a dispersive fashion. When sharp density gradients are introduced in the suspension, we observe the formation of a shock. Unlike Burgers' shocklike structures observed in other active and driven confined hydrodynamic systems, the shock front in our system has a well-defined finite width and moves rapidly compared to the mean suspension velocity. We introduce a continuum model demonstrating that the finite width of the front is due to far-field nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions and governed by a geometric parameter, the average particle height above the floor.

  13. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  14. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  15. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  16. The loss of essential oil components induced by the Purge Time in the Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) procedure of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2012-05-30

    The influence of different Purge Times on the effectiveness of Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) of volatile oil components from cypress plant matrix (Cupressus sempervirens) was investigated, applying solvents of diverse extraction efficiencies. The obtained results show the decrease of the mass yields of essential oil components as a result of increased Purge Time. The loss of extracted components depends on the extrahent type - the greatest mass yield loss occurred in the case of non-polar solvents, whereas the smallest was found in polar extracts. Comparisons of the PLE method with Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method (MSPD) and Steam Distillation (SD) were performed to assess the method's accuracy. Independent of the solvent and Purge Time applied in the PLE process, the total mass yield was lower than the one obtained for simple, short and relatively cheap low-temperature matrix disruption procedures - MSPD and SSDM. Thus, in the case of volatile oils analysis, the application of these methods is advisable.

  17. A modified protocol for RNA isolation from high polysaccharide containing Cupressus arizonica pollen. Applications for RT-PCR and phage display library construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico de Coaña, Yago; Parody, Nuria; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Alonso, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    RNA isolation is the first step in the study of gene expression and recombinant protein production. However, the isolation of high quantity and high-quality RNA from tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides has proven to be a difficult process. Cupressus arizonica pollen, in addition to containing high polysaccharide levels, is a challenging starting material for RNA isolation due to the roughness of the pollen grain's walls. Here, we describe an improved technique for RNA isolation from C. arizonica pollen grains. The protocol includes a special disruption and homogenization process as well as a two-step modified RNA isolation technique which consists of an acid phenol extraction followed by a final cleanup using a commercial kit. Resulting RNA proved to be free of contaminants as determined by UV spectrophotometry. The quality of the RNA was analyzed on a bioanalyzer and showed visible 25S and 18S bands. This RNA was successfully used in downstream applications such as RT-PCR and phage display library construction.

  18. Studies on the Chemical Constituents from the Branches and Leaves of Cupressus duolouxiana%干香柏的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许剑锋; 谭宁华

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究我国特有柏科植物干香柏(Cupressus duolouxiana Hickel)的化学成分,为阐明其有效成分提供依据.方法:利用各种色谱技术进行分离,根据化合物的光谱数据和理化常数鉴定其结构.结果:从干香柏枝叶的乙醇提取物中分离得到6个化合物,分别是(7S,8S)-3-甲氧基-3',7-环氧-8,4'-氧化新木脂素-4,9,9'-三醇((7S,8S)-3-methoxy-3',7-epoxy-8,4'-oxyneoligna-4,9,9'-triol,Ⅰ),山柰素(kaempferol,Ⅱ),槲皮素(quercetin,Ⅲ),胡桃宁(juglanin,Ⅳ),槲皮素-3'-甲氧基-3-O-α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷(quercetin-3'-methoxy-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside,Ⅴ)和槲皮素-3-O-α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷(avicularin,Ⅵ).结论:所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  19. Studies on fire resistance of middling size of Cupressus torulosa%中等径级藏柏树干的耐火性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世友; 胡小龙; 马爱丽; 舒清态; 舒立福; 朱丽; 张桥蓉

    2009-01-01

    在森林防火紧要期,用自行设计的装置对藏柏(Cupressus torulosa)进行了不同温度、时间作用下的树干耐火性试验,用含4%红四氮唑的溶液对高温作用后的树干韧皮部进行了染色,经勾绘、扫描后用Photoshop软件将死亡的韧皮部处理成易于计算机识别的纯色,用Visual Basic 6.0编写的程序计算了树干韧皮部的死亡率,建立了藏柏树干韧皮部死亡率与树干直径、受热温度、受热时间的关系模型.分析表明,影响藏柏树干耐火性的因子依次为受热时间、受热温度、树干直径.根据藏柏树干的耐火性提出了相应的森林消防措施.

  20. Determination of epigenetic inheritance, genetic inheritance, and estimation of genome DNA methylation in a full-sib family of Cupressus sempervirens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidou, Evangelia V; Doulis, Andreas G; Aravanopoulos, Filippos A

    2015-05-15

    Genetic inheritance and epigenetic inheritance are significant determinants of plant evolution, adaptation and plasticity. We studied inheritance of restriction site polymorphisms by the f-AFLP method and epigenetic DNA cytosine methylation inheritance by the f-MSAP technique. The study involved parents and 190 progeny of a Cupressus sempervirens L. full-sib family. Results from AFLP genetic data revealed that 71.8% of the fragments studied are under Mendelian genetic control, whereas faithful Mendelian inheritance for the MSAP fragments was low (4.29%). Further, MSAP fragment analysis showed that total methylation presented a mean of 28.2%, which was higher than the midparent value, while maternal inheritance was higher (5.65%) than paternal (3.01%). Interestingly de novo methylation in the progeny was high (19.65%) compared to parental methylation. Genetic and epigenetic distances for parents and offspring were not correlated (R(2)=0.0005). Furthermore, we studied correlation of total relative methylation and CG methylation with growth (height, diameter). We found CG/CNG methylation (N: A, C, T) to be positively correlated with height and diameter, while total relative methylation and CG methylation were positively correlated with height. Results are discussed in light of further research needed and of their potential application in breeding.

  1. Determination of total flavones in Cupressus chengJana S.Y.Hu%岷江柏总黄酮的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文兰; 金彦; 王晓玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立岷江柏Cupressus chengJana S.Y.Hu总黄酮含量测定的方法.方法 利用紫外分光光度法,以槲皮苷为对照品,采用NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH方法显色,于500 nm波长下测定吸光度.结果 该方法在稳定性试验中RSD=1.08%,重复性试验中RSD= 1.07%,精密度试验中RSD= 0.85%,加标回收率平均值为101.2%,五批岷江柏药材中总黄酮的含量平均为4.47%.结论 紫外分光光度法测岷江柏总黄酮的含量,该方法简便、准确,有利于其深度开发利用.

  2. The effect of long-term wastewater irrigation on accumulation and transfer of heavy metals in Cupressus sempervirens leaves and adjacent soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Emad; Linderholm, Hans W

    2015-04-15

    Wastewater reuse for agriculture is an important management strategy in areas with limited freshwater resources, yielding potential economic and environmental benefits. Here the effects of long-term irrigation with wastewater on the nutrient contents of green and senesced leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L. were assessed for three planted forests in Egypt. Stoichiometric ratios, transfer factors for nutrients from soil to plant and enrichment factors in contaminated soils were estimated and compared to a ground water irrigated control site. Under wastewater irrigation, C. sempervirens transferred most of the estimated nutrients, particularly heavy metals, from green to senesced leaves. This could be a self-protecting mechanism under continuous wastewater irrigation. The accumulation of four metals (Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd) with transfer factors>1 for wastewater-irrigated trees, indicated the ability for metal accumulation of C. sempervirens. Stoichiometric ratios decreased under wastewater irrigation compared to the control site and global trends, which suggests nutrient disorders in these plants. The values of enrichment factors in the wastewater-irrigated soils showed remarkable availability and distribution of metals. Decreased resorption of metals by senesced leaves of C. sempervirens will add considerable amount of these metals to the soils, which will likely have adverse affects on the desert ecosystem components.

  3. [Effects of drought stress and re-watering on the active oxygen scavenging system of Cupressus funebris seedlings in Karst area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Chun; Zhong, Zhang-Cheng; He, Yue-Jun

    2011-11-01

    This paper studied the active oxygen scavenging system of Cupressus funebris seedlings under drought condition and the recovery capability of the system after re-watering, aimed to understand the adaptation mechanisms of C. funebris to the 'drought and re-watering' environment in Karst area. With the increasing time of drought stress, the seedling's relative water content (RWC) decreased, soluble protein concentration increased first and decreased then, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased consistently. The MDA content recovered to the level of the control (CK) when re-watering was implemented within 2 weeks of drought, but could not when the re-watering was made after 4 and 6 weeks of drought. Under drought stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) increased consistently. After rewatering, the SOD activity had somewhat decrease but still remained at a higher level than the CK, and the POD and CAT activities decreased to the CK level when suffered mild stress but had less decrement when suffered severe stress. It was concluded that C. funebris seedlings could resist mild drought stress via increasing their soluble protein concentration and inhibiting membrane lipid peroxidation, but could not resist severe drought stress because of the irreversible damage of their membrane structure.

  4. Composition, in vitro Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils from Leaf and Twig Parts of Cupressus cashmeriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Chang; Hsu, Kuan-Ping; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition and in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaf and twig of Cupressus cashmeriana have been investigated. The essential oils were isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The leaf oil mainly consisted of alpha-pinene (21.8%), epizonarene (8.0%), sabinene (7.9%), limonene (7.6%), gamma-terpinene (7.0%), and allo-aromadendrene (7.0%); the twig oil was mostly carvacrol methyl ether (35.4%), manool (16.1%), carvacrol (14.2%), and (2Z,6E)-farnesol (6.9%). Twig oil, but not leaf oil, was able to reduce nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages RAW 264.7 without reducing the cell viability. In addition, twig oil showed better antioxidant and antimicrobial activities than leaf oil. The major ingredient of the twig oil that was responsible for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was carvacrol.

  5. Effet des poudres d'Eucalyptus citriodora, de Cupressus lucitanica et de Tagetas minitiflora dans la conservation du maïs (Zea mays et du haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris dans les conditions de Rethy, République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloma, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora Powders in the Conservation of Maize (Zea mays and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in Conditions of Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo. A study on the effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora powders, was made at Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo in order to determine efficacy in the conservation of maize and bean. After 10 months, T. minitiflora was more efficacious with 0.19% of infestation for bean, and 2.59% for maize in comparison to the control sample which gave 0.9% for bean and 4.45% for maize.

  6. Effect of Different Irrigation and Fertilizer Treatments on the Seedlings Growth of Cupressus torulosa in Containers%不同水肥处理对藏柏容器苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丁猛; 臧真荣; 王翠香; 王开芳; 任飞; 吴德军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨藏柏轻基质容器苗生长与水肥处理的关系.[方法]对藏柏一年生轻基质容器苗进行不同的水肥处理,在生长季结束后调查地径和苗高.[结果]藏柏容器苗地径和苗高生长量分别随施肥量和浇水次数增多而增大;A1B1组合(1d1次,施肥0.1 g),地径平均生长量最大;A1B2组合(1d1次,施肥0.2g),苗高平均生长量最大.[结论]水分为藏柏轻基质容器苗生长的限制因子.%[Objective] The aim was to discuss the relationship between -the seedlings growth of Cupressus torulosa in containers with light medium and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments. [ Method ] One-year-old seedlings of Cupressus torulosa in containers with light medium were treated by different irrigation and fertilizer treatments, the height and basal diameter of seedlings were measured after the growing season. [ Result] The value of seedlings height and basal diameter rose with the increase of the weight of fertilizer and watering frequency respectively; value of seedling height reached the maximum when watering once each day and fertilized 0. 1 g, namely A1B2 combination, and so did the value of basal diameter as watering once ten days and fertilized 0.2 g, namely A1 B2 combination. [ Conclusion] Water is the limiting factor for seedlings growth of Cupressus torulosa in containers with light medium.

  7. Control of quadriaxial cardan suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, I. V.

    1984-04-01

    A quadriaxial Cardan suspension is to be servomechanically controlled so as to stabilize a definite orientation of the platform during arbitrary motion of the frame. The problem is solved with the use of five orthogonal systems of coordinates tied one to the platform, one to each of the three gimbals, and one to the frame respectively. The suspension is assumed to be structurally perfectly rigid and to be part of a gyroscopic indicator-stabilization system. The corresponding dynamic equations are written as equations for angular momenta and several variants of control, for the various rotations, are constructed. One such variant, a more intricate one, is course-vertical control. Dynamic control of the suspension in a stationary frame, to ensure any arbitrarily prescribed angular evolutions of the platform, is also considered and the procedure for constructing such a control is outlined.

  8. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  9. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  10. 柏木无性系种子园营建技术%A technique on establishment and management of clonal seed orchard for Cupressus funebris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国庆; 陈爱明; 储德裕; 刘伟宏; 丰忠平; 胡卫江

    2013-01-01

    浙江省淳安县姥山林场柏木种子园是国内首个柏木无性系种子园,1982年营建,面积3.8 hm2,1988年开始投产,至今已累积生产种子约2000 kg,年平均产量在11.25~63 kg/hm2之间.研究表明,5-6月份利用1~2年生当地柏木优质容器苗做砧木,选用尚未木质化的优树嫩梢做接穗,用髓心形成层对接法,其嫁接成活率高达90%以上,嫁接当年嫁接苗新梢生长高达40 cm以上;根据15年生子代遗传测定结果、母树生长结实表现和空间分布情况进行留优去劣疏伐后,株结实量及种子遗传品质均有明显提高,材积遗传增益达25%以上.新建柏木种子园,实行“果园式”经营,对母树实施整形修剪来矮化或控制树体、改善光照与营养空间,可明显促进其开花结实,达到高产稳产.%Cupressus funebris seed orchard located in the Laoshan forest farm of Chunan county, which was build in 1982 and have the area of 3. 8 hm2, was the first and only clonal seed orchard of Cupressus funebris in China, and had produced approximately 2 000 kg seed by now with the average annual seed yield of 11. 25 -63 kg/hm2. Researches revealed that survival rate of 90% and new shoot length of 40 cm could be reached when 1 -2 year old container seedling were used as root-stock in May and June, young shoot of not lignified from plus tree were used as scion, and medullary cambium grafting was adopted. After thinning, based on 15 year progeny-test and growth as well as seed performance of parents, the seed productivity and genetic character of clones was largely improved, and genetic gain of progeny volume reached 25%. The "orchard" business philosophy should be applied on seed orchard, pruning dwarf tree should be conducted to improve nutrition space and promote flowering and fruiting, then the seed yield could be increased and the cost could be decreased.

  11. Producing a highly concentrated coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokudzu, K.; Atsudzima, T.; Kiyedzuka, Y.

    1983-06-03

    Coal from wet and dry grinding is loaded into a mixer with a mixer arm with the acquisition of a highly concentrated suspension. Foamers (for instance, alkylbenzolsulfonate) and foam stabilizers (for instance diethanolamide of lauric acid) are added in a ratio of 10 to (2 to 5). The high fluidity of the suspension is maintained by injecting air into the suspension and an 80 percent concentration of the suspension is achieved.

  12. Rheology and structural arrest of casein suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Dahbi, Louisa; Alexander, M.; Trappe, Véronique; Dhont, J. K. G.; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The rheology of milk powder suspensions is investigated up to very high concentrations, where structural arrest occurs. The main component of the milk powder investigated is casein, so that the suspensions can be regarded as casein suspensions. Four concentration regimes are identified. For effective casein volume fractions less than 0.54 the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity is similar to that of hard-sphere suspensions. However, due to the elastic deformation of the casei...

  13. Modeling of curvilinear suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.; Boulay, Fabienne

    1996-11-01

    The curvilinear parallel-plate and cone-and-plate rheometric flows of monodisperse noncolloidal suspensions have been modeled. Although nonuniform in shear rate, dotγ, the parallel-plate flow has been shown experimentally(A. W. Chow, S. W. Sinton, J. H. Iwayima & T. S. Stephens 1994 Phys. Fluids) 6, 2561. not to exhibit particle migration, contrary to predictions of prior suspension-flow modeling. Predictions of nonuniform particle volume fraction, φ, by the suspension-balance model(P. R. Nott & J. F. Brady 1994 J. Fluid Mech.) 275, 157. for parallel-plate and cone-and-plate flow without normal stress differences are presented. The ``nonmigration'' in parallel-plate flow may be attributed to bulk suspension normal stress differences: assuming the bulk stress has the form Σ ~ η dotγ Q(φ) with η the fluid viscosity, nonmigration is predicted for parallel-plate flow provided that Q_33 = (1/2) Q_11 at the bulk φ of interest, with 1 the flow direction and 3 the vorticity direction. Extending the model to include normal stress differences satisfying this requirement, a range of migration behavior is predicted for the cone-and-plate flow depending upon the ratio Q_11/Q_22.

  14. Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I.; Ellero, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Shear thinning—a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates—is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates.

  15. Dynamics of the colloidal suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yan; MA Hong-ru

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a survey on our current knowledge of the dynamics of the colloidal suspension,where each particle experiences the friction force with solvent,hydrodynamic interaction,and potential force from surrounding particles and thermodynamic force.It further contains a summary of the basic concepts about microstructures and equilibrium properties,and of analytical and numerical methods,which are relevant for the theoretical description of the suspensions.The description of the dynamics of colloidal particles,based on the generalized Smoluchowski equation,is justified for the time scale accessible in DLS experiments.The combined influence of hard sphere or electrostatic potential and solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interaction on the short-time dynamics of monodisperse suspensions is investigated in detail.A thorough study of tracer-diffusion in hard sphere and charge-stabilized suspensions is presented.Mean-square displacements and long-time tracer-diffusion coefficients are calculated with two alternative approximations,i.e.,a mode-coupling scheme and a single relaxation time ansatz.

  16. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  17. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Grant and Subgrant Closeout, Suspension and Termination § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the...

  18. 36 CFR 1212.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1212.670 Section... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  19. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension....

  20. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension....

  1. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of...

  2. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the public interest, suspend a purchaser on the basis...

  3. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  4. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxibendazole suspension. 520.1640 Section 520.1640... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1640 Oxibendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 10 percent oxibendazole. (b) Sponsor. See 000069 in §...

  6. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1210.3-3 Section 1210.3-3 Public... § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  7. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 26.16 Section 26.16 Food and Drugs... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right... after such notification, the contested authority will be suspended. (d) Upon the suspension of...

  8. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  9. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or...

  10. 75 FR 24494 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...; ] ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION 2 CFR Chapter 58 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY: U.S... proposed debarment and suspension regulations. These proposed regulations will apply to nonprocurement... Management and Budget (OMB) in a document on nonprocurement debarment and suspension published in the...

  11. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension....

  12. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension....

  13. 21 CFR 522.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 522.1289 Section 522.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Lufenuron suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains...

  14. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  15. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension....

  16. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  17. 40 CFR 36.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 36.670 Section 36.670... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.670 Suspension. Suspension means... contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and...

  18. 38 CFR 48.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 48.670...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  19. 32 CFR 26.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 26.670 Section 26.670 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  20. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and...

  1. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension....

  2. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Collection Adjustments § 34.20 Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth...

  3. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension....

  4. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension....

  5. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension....

  6. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent...

  7. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension....

  8. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension....

  9. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension....

  10. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705....705 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope. (1) A suspension by the Secretary removes a lender's... limitation or a termination proceeding. (2) If the Secretary begins a limitation or a termination...

  11. 34 CFR 668.85 - Suspension proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 668.85 Section 668.85 Education... Proceedings § 668.85 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope and consequences. (1) The Secretary may suspend an... a suspension proceeding against a third-party servicer, the Secretary also may begin a...

  12. Effects of Some Ecological Factors on Seed and Germination Characteristics of Cupressus Sempervirens L. Var. Horizontalis: A Case Study in Tange Soulak Forest Reserve, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Darikvand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis is one of the native conifers in Iran. It is found in Tange Soulak Forest Reserve of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. An experiment in a completely randomized design with factorial 4×2×2 was performed to assess the factors affecting Cupressus sempervirens seed germination. Dieback, slope, and altitude were analyzed at four, two, and two levels, respectively. Results showed slope to have the greatest effects on seed characteristics and germination. In fact, all studied parameters including 1000 kernel weight, humidity of the seeds, speed and rate of germination, and the mean number of seeds in a cone decreased with increasing slope. Moreover, tree diameter had a low positive relationship with seed weight. On the other hand, although the seeds collected from trees with high rate of dieback had the lowest mean speed and rate of germination dieback had significant effects only on the mean germination time. There were significant positive correlations between 1000 kernel weight and all seed and germination parameters. Therefore, it is suggested that for conservation and regeneration of this species in the region, seeds should be collected from mother trees with a larger diameter and heavier seeds located on low-slope lands.

  13. Characteristics of Students Who Reenroll after Serving a Disciplinary Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Matthew T.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if students who reenroll following a disciplinary suspension had significant common characteristics. Gender, GPA at time of suspension, class status at time of suspension, type of violation(s) that resulted in suspension, number of disciplinary incidents prior to suspension, and length of suspension were…

  14. Seasonal Changes in Copper and Cobalt Concentrations of Pinus nigra L.,Cedrus libani and Cupressus arizonica Leaves to Monitor the Effects of Pollution in Elazig(Turkey)%Seasonal Changes in Copper and Cobalt Concentrations of Pinus nigra L., Cedrus libani and Cupressus arizonica Leaves to Monitor the Effects of Pollution in Elazig(Turkey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagihan M Karaaslan; Mehmet Yaman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine seasonal changes in Cu and Co concentrations of three plant species for monitoring the effects of pollution in Elazig,Turkey.For this purpose,the leaves of the Pinus nigra L.,Cedrus libani and Cupressus arizonica together with soil samples were collected from different points depending on traffic intensity,nearness the city center and cement factory as well as control location during different months of the year.Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer(FAAS) was used for measurement of the metals in clear digests after the dry ashing method.Copper and Co concentrations were in the ranges from 1.3 to 2.6 mg · kg-1 and <LOD to 0.26 mg · kg-1 for Pinusnigra L.,1.2 to 4.7 mg · kg-1 and <LOD to 0.41 mg · kg-1 for Cedrus libani and 1.5 to 4.8 mg · kg-1 and <LOD to 0.42 mg · kg-1 for Cupressusarizonica,respectively.The levels observed for Cu and Co in the soil ranged from 12 to 38 mg · kg-1 and 6.0 to 17 mg· kg-1,respectively.

  15. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  16. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  17. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, Juniperus communis, and J. chinensis (Cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and as toxicants against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John F; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kramer, Matthew; Elejalde, Natasha M; Wedge, David E; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique; Becnel, James J; Demirci, Betul; Başer, Kemal Husnu Can; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Sui

    2011-12-01

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil, and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds, representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components were: α-pinene (27.0%), α-terpinene (14.0%), and linalool (10.9%) for J. communis; cuparene (11.3%) and δ-cadinene (7.8%) for J. chinensis; and α-cedrene (16.9%), cedrol (7.6%), and β-cedrene (5.7%) for C. funebris. The essential oils of C. funebris, J. chinensis, and J. communis were evaluated for repellency against adult yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.), host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), and the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and for toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults, all in laboratory bioassays. All the oils were repellent to both species of ticks. The EC(95) values of C. funebris, J. communis, and J. chinensis against A. americanum were 0.426, 0.508, and 0.917 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, respectively, compared to 0.683 mg deet/cm(2) filter paper. All I. scapularis nymphs were repelled by 0.103 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper of C. funebris oil. At 4 h after application, 0.827 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, C. funebris and J. chinensis oils repelled ≥80% of A. americanum nymphs. The oils of C. funebris and J. chinensis did not prevent female Ae. aegypti from biting at the highest dosage tested (1.500 mg/cm(2) ). However, the oil of J. communis had a Minimum Effective Dosage (estimate of ED(99) ) for repellency of 0.029 ± 0.018 mg/cm(2) ; this oil was nearly as potent as deet. The oil of J. chinensis showed a mild ability to kill Ae. aegypti larvae, at 80 and 100% at 125 and 250 ppm, respectively.

  18. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra ('Carolina Sapphire').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Ellis, Jane; Gray, Sandra; Lackey, Brett R; Murphy, Christine; Khan, Ikhlas A; Wedge, David E

    2013-02-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needle-twigs (NT) and wood-bark (WB) of 'Carolina Sapphire' [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the investigated essential oils were as follows: FC: alpha-pinene 68.5% and myrcene 11.9%; MC: alpha-pinene 22.5%, epi-zonarene 9.9%, zonarene 6.9%, limonene 6.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 6.1%; NT: alpha-pinene 20.7%, epi-zonarene 10.4%, zonarene 7.6%, limonene 5.9% umbellulone 5.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 5.8%; WB: alpha-pinene 40.7%, limonene 3.2% and umbellulone 2.9%. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Only WB essential oil showed moderate activity when compared with the commercial antifungal standards. Carolina Sapphire essential oils exhibited biting deterrent activity at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrence Index (BDI) values of 0.64, 0.59, 0.65 and 0.72, for FC, MC, NT and WB, respectively, and were significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the synthetic insect repellent, DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), at 25 nmol/cm2 against Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of NT and WB oils at 100 microg/cm2 with BDI values of 1.04 and 1.01, respectively, were similar, whereas the activity of MC (BDI = 0.88) and FC (BDI = 0.62) essential oils was lower than DEET at 25 nmol/cm2. Essential oil from FC with LD50 of 33.7 ppm was most toxic against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Female cone essential oil was significantly more toxic than MC (LD50 = 53.6 ppm), NT (LD50 = 55.5 ppm) and WB (LD50 = 44.6 ppm) essential oils.

  19. Contact angle hysteresis of microbead suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2010-11-16

    Microbead suspensions are often used in microfluidic devices for transporting biomolecules. An experimental investigation on the wettability of microbead suspension is presented in this study. The variation in the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle with the change in the volume fraction of the microbead is presented here. The surface tension of the microbead suspension is measured with the pendant drop technique, whereas the dynamic contact angle measurements, i.e., advancing and receding contact angles, are measured with the sessile drop technique. An equilibrium contact angle of a suspension with particular volume fraction is determined by computing an average over the measured advancing and receding contact angles. It is observed that the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle determined from advancing and receding contact angles vary with the magnitude of the microbeads volume fraction in the suspension. A decrease in the surface tension with an increase in the volume fraction of the microbead suspension is observed. The advancement and the recession in contact line for dynamic contact angle measurements are achieved with the motorized dosing mechanism. For microbead suspensions, the advancement of the contact line is faster as compared to the recession of the contact line for the same flow rate. The presence of microbeads assists in the advancement and the recession of the contact line of the suspension. A decrease in the equilibrium contact angles with an increase in the microbead suspension volume fraction is observed. Inclusion of microbeads in the suspension increases the wetting capability for the considered combination of the microbead suspension and substrate. Finally, empirical correlations for the surface tension and the contact angle of the suspension as a function of microbead volume fraction are proposed. Such correlations can readily be used to develop mechanistic models for the capillary transport of microbead

  20. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechanical shear.

  1. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  2. 39 CFR 955.28 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 955.28 Section 955.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.28 Suspension. (a) Whenever at any time it appears that the parties are in agreement as to...

  3. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2008-01-01

    . This paper investigates the changes in compliance the driving signal can cause, this includes low level short duration measurements of the resonance frequency as well as high power long duration measurements of the non-linearity of the suspension. It is found that at low levels the suspension softens...

  4. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  5. 34 CFR 85.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 85.1015 Section 85.1015 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT..., pending completion of an agency investigation and any judicial or administrative proceedings that may...

  6. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The...

  7. Ultrasonic characterization of shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Benjamin Lenihan

    This dissertation describes the characterization of an inherently inhomogeneous medium capable of shear thickening. An aqueous suspension of cornstarch represents an important exemplar of such physical systems. The physics underlying the behavior of such shear thickening suspensions is incompletely understood. Characterization of these suspensions may provide valuable clues into the underlying mechanisms that result in shear thickening behavior. The goal of this thesis is to characterize the acoustic properties of suspensions of cornstarch in density-matched cesium chloride aqueous solutions. A review of the literature indicated that almost no information concerning the ultrasonic characteristics of suspensions of starches had been reported other than studies monitoring the gelatinization of starches not relevant to the shear stiffening of ungelatinized suspensions. Each chapter began with a discussion and validation of the specific experimental techniques and methods of analysis necessary for each type of measurement. Ultrasonic measurement of the group velocity, the frequency-dependent attenuation properties, the frequency-dependent phase velocity, and the frequency-dependent backscatter properties of the suspensions of cornstarch are reported. Initially counterintuitive results including negative (phase velocity) dispersion and a decrease in the measured backscatter coefficient with increasing particle concentration are understood in terms of widely accepted physical models. In sum, these studies represent an advancement of the understanding of the physics underlying the interaction between ultrasound and suspensions and lay the groundwork for future studies probing the physics of the shear thickening.

  8. Alternatives to Suspension: A Government Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Zoldy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Student discipline and the ineffectiveness of out-of-school suspension is examined in light of the Ontario (Canada) legislative reform that supported a greater emphasis on progressive discipline alternatives to out-of-school suspension. Alternative discipline herein is explored via the behavior education plan, the school survival group, and…

  9. 25 CFR 242.7 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 242.7 Section 242.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.7 Suspension. All commercial fishing operations may be suspended by order of the Secretary at...

  10. 32 CFR 552.77 - Suspension approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension approval. 552.77 Section 552.77 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....77 Suspension approval. The installation commander will personally approve all cases in...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 520.1289 Section 520.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1289 Lufenuron suspension....

  12. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment...

  13. 32 CFR 1609.5 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1609.5 Section 1609.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.5 Suspension. The Director of Selective Service may suspend from duty any uncompensated...

  14. 柏木生长性状变异研究%Study on the Variation in Growth Traits of Cupressus funebris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭小梅; 周益权

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation in growth traits of Cupressus funebris in Chongqing Municipality, thus laying the foundation for further breeding and improvement of fine varieties. [Method] Growth traits of three fine stands of C. funebris in Qijiang, Pengshui and Youyang of Chongqing Municipality were in-vestigated. [Result] The results showed that C. funebris stand in Pengshui exhibited the best growth performance, fol owed by C. funebris stand in Qijiang; C. funebris stand in Youyang exhibited the poorest growth performance. The average volume growth of C. funebris in Pengshui, Qijiang and Youyang was 0.14, 0.11 and 0.06 m3, respectively. Among different stands, variation coefficients of major growth traits were above 11.31%, and the maximum variation coefficient of the volume was 39.11%; within the stands, variation coefficients of plant height were basical y the same (about 20%). The variation coefficient of diameter at breast height in Qijiang reached the maximum of 42.42%, fol owed by that in Youyang. The variation coeffi-cients of volume and diameter at breast height were consistent; seed bearing coeffi-cient (SBC) of C. funebris stand in Pengshui exhibited the maximum variation, which indicated that C. funebris stand in Pengshui was conducive to establishing seed stands and constructing seed orchard by using the selected stands. [Conclu-sion] lt is necessary to conduct provenance selection.%[目的]探索重庆市柏木生长性状变异情况,以期为后期开展良种选育及改良奠定基础。[方法]对重庆市綦江、彭水和酉阳3个优良柏木林分的生长性状等进行调查。[结果]彭水林分生长表现最好,綦江林分次之,酉阳林分最差,材积生长平均值分别为0.14 m3、0.11 m3和0.06 m3。林分间,主要生长指标的变异系数均在11.31%以上,材积变异系数最大为39.11%,林分内,树高的变异基本相当,均在20%左右。胸径的

  15. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  16. Next Generation Suspension Dynamics Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higdon, Jonathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research project has the objective to extend the range of application, improve the efficiency and conduct simulations with the Fast Lubrication Dynamics (FLD) algorithm for concentrated particle suspensions in a Newtonian fluid solvent. The research involves a combination of mathematical development, new computational algorithms, and application to processing flows of relevance in materials processing. The mathematical developments clarify the underlying theory, facilitate verification against classic monographs in the field and provide the framework for a novel parallel implementation optimized for an OpenMP shared memory environment. The project considered application to consolidation flows of major interest in high throughput materials processing and identified hitherto unforeseen challenges in the use of FLD in these applications. Extensions to the algorithm have been developed to improve its accuracy in these applications.

  17. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    , followed the same trends. Ash transformation was investigated by bulk ash analysis of the fuel, fly, and bottom ash during straw and/or wood suspension firing. Bulk ash analysis of fly ashes showed that the contents of volatile elements (K, Cl, S) were slightly greater than in the fuel ash, while Ca and Si...... in the analysis of the data. The first is the integral deposit formation rate (IDF-rate) found by dividing the integral mass change over integral time intervals (of order several hours) by the time interval. The IDF-rate is similar to deposit formation rates based on total deposit mass uptake divided by probe...... smoothing the derivatives to remove excessive noise. The DDF-rate was influenced by flue gas temperature and straw share, while changes in probe surface temperature had no significant influence. The IDF-rate, qualitatively related to the ratio between the time-integrated DDF-rate and the integration time...

  18. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  19. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Shtayah, Rania; Qadumi, Ayman; Ghanem, Mashour; Qedan, Rawan; Daibes, Marah; Awwad, Somud Abu; Jaradat, Nidal; Kittana, Naim

    2017-10-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin suspension stored over 30 days under various storage conditions was evaluated. Rosuvastatin suspension was extemporaneously prepared using commercial rosuvastatin tablets as the source of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The organoleptic properties, dissolution profile, and stability of the formulation were investigated. For the stability studies, samples of the suspension were stored under 2 storage conditions, room temperature (25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and accelerated stability chambers (40 °C and 75% relative humidity). Viscosity, pH, organoleptic properties, and microbial contamination were evaluated according to the approved specifications. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis and quantification of rosuvastatin in selected samples. Microbiological investigations were also conducted. The prepared suspension showed acceptable organoleptic properties. It showed complete release of rosuvastatin within 15 minutes. The pH of the suspension was 9.8, which remained unchanged during the stability studies. The microbiological investigations demonstrated that the preparation was free of any microbial contamination. In addition, the suspension showed stability within at least the period of use of a 100-mL rosuvastatin bottle. Extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin 20-mg/mL suspension was stable for 30 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of cell suspensions from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallavicini, M.

    1985-07-10

    The desirable features of cells in suspension will necessarily be dependent upon the use for which the cells were prepared. Adequate cell yield or recovery is defined by the measurement to be performed. Retention of cellular morphology is important for microscopic identification of cell types in a heterogenous cell suspension, and may be used to determine whether the cells in suspension are representative of those in the tumor in situ. Different dispersal protocols may yield cells with different degrees of clonogenicity, as well as altered biochemical features, such as loss of cellular proteins, surface antigens, nucleotide pools, etc. The quality of the cell suspension can be judged by the degree of cell clumping and level of cellular debris, both of which impact on flow cytometric measurements and studies in which the number of cells be known accurately. Finally, if the data measured on the cells in suspension are to be extrapolated to phenomena occurring in the tumor in situ, it is desirable that the cells in suspension are representative of those in the solid tumor in vivo. This report compares characteristics of tumor cell suspensions obtained by different types of selected disaggregation methods. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  2. Rheology of nanocrystalline cellulose aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei-Sabet, Sadaf; Hamad, Wadood Y; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2012-12-11

    The rheological properties and microstructure of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) aqueous suspensions have been investigated at different concentrations. The suspension is isotropic up to 3 wt %, and phase separates to liquid crystalline and isotropic domains at higher concentrations where the samples exhibit a fingerprint texture and the viscosity profile shows a three-region behavior, typical of liquid crystals. The suspension behaves as a rheological gel at even higher concentrations where the viscosity profile shows a single shear thinning behavior over the whole range of shear rates investigated. The effects of ultrasound energy and temperature on the rheological properties and structure of these suspensions were studied using polarized optical microscopy and rheometry. Our results indicate that the amount of applied ultrasound energy affects the microstructure of the suspensions and the pitch of the chiral nematic domains. The viscosity profile is changed significantly at low shear rates, whereas the viscosity of biphasic suspensions at intermediate and high shear rates decreased with increasing temperature. This suggests that, between 30 and 40 °C, structural rearrangement takes place. At higher concentrations of about 10 wt %, the temperature has no significant effect on viscosity; however, a marked increase in viscosity has been observed at around 50 °C. Finally, the Cox-Merz rule was found to fail after a critical concentration, thereby implying significant structural formation. This critical concentration is much higher for sonicated compared to unsonicated suspensions.

  3. The Advanced Virgo monolithic fused silica suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisa, D.; Aisa, S.; Campeggi, C.; Colombini, M. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Conte, A. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Farnesini, L. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Majorana, E.; Mezzani, F. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Montani, M. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Naticchioni, L.; Perciballi, M. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Piergiovanni, F. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Piluso, A. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Puppo, P., E-mail: paola.puppo@roma1.infn.it [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Rapagnani, P. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Travasso, F. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Vicerè, A. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Vocca, H. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The detection of gravitational waves is one of the most challenging prospects faced by experimental physicists. Suspension thermal noise is an important noise source at operating frequencies between approximately 10 and 30 Hz, and represents a limit to the sensitivity of the ground based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Its effects can be reduced by minimizing the losses and by optimizing the geometry of the suspension fiber as well as its attachment system. In this proceeding we will describe the mirrors double stage monolithic suspension system to be used in the Advanced Virgo (AdV) detector. We also present the results of the thermal noise study, performed with the help of a finite elements model, taking into account the precise geometry of the fibers attachment systems on the suspension elements. We shall demonstrate the suitability of this suspension for installation in AdV. - Highlights: • Suspension system design for the test masses of the gravitational wave detectors. • Finite element model studies. • Suspension thermal noise studies.

  4. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  5. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  6. Cell Suspension Culture of Neem Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of suspension culture system for neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cells and the suspension culture condition was studied. It shows that the neem cell suspension culture system was best in B5 liquid medium, 2.0~4.0mg/L NAA with direct spill method. Based on the integrated analysis of cell biomass, Azadirachtin content and productivity, the optimum culture conditions were B5 liquid medium, 2.0-4.0 mg/L NAA, 3% sucrose at 25 ℃. The optimum rotating speed of the shaker and broth content d...

  7. 岷江上游干旱河谷区岷江柏对不同海拔的响应%Effects of Different Altitudes on Growth Condition of Cupressus chengiana in the Arid River Valleys in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施广

    2011-01-01

    在岷江上游干旱河谷区通过设置不同海拔梯度,对土壤水分、岷江柏生理生化及生长指标进行了分析,旨在探索干旱河谷区主要造林树种对逆境的响应,为这一地区岷江柏人工林的营造提供理论和技术支撑。研究结果表明:随海拔的升高,岷江柏的光合速率、水分利用率、SOD活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量、可溶性糖含量、脯氨酸含量、苗高和地径年生长量的蒸腾速率、可溶性蛋白含量表现为先升高再下降的趋势;而POD活性和叶绿素含量则是随着海拔的升高呈不断下降的变化趋势。从其生长指标和生理指标来看,岷江柏在海拔2 200 m~2 300 m之间生长最好。因此,在该区营造人工岷江柏林的时候,应该优先选择这一地段。%Cupressus chengiana had been cultivated at different altitudes in arid valleys of the Minjiang River for 2 years.The soil moisture,plant physiology,biochemistry and growth were analyzed to explore the response of the main afforestation tree species to adversity in arid valleys and provide theory and technical guidance for the cultivation of Cupressus chengiana plantations in this area.The reseach results were as follows:with the increase of elevation,the photosynthetic rate,water use efficiency,the ativity of SOD,the content of MDA,soluble sugar and proline and the growth increment of Cupressus chengiana decreased firstly and then increased.While the transpiration rate and soluble protein increased firstly and then decreased.And the activity of POD and chlorophyll's content decreased with the increase of elevation.The results showd that the most suitable growth area of Cupressus chengiana in arid valleys of the Minjiang River was between 2 200 meter and 2 300 meter.Therefore Cupressus chengiana could widely planted in this area.

  8. 21 CFR 1404.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 1404.740 Section 1404.740 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.740 Are suspension proceedings formal? (a)...

  9. 13 CFR 120.660 - Suspension or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation. 120.660... Market Suspension Or Revocation of Participant in Secondary Market § 120.660 Suspension or revocation. (a) Suspension or revocation of Lender, broker, dealer, or Registered Holder for violation of Secondary...

  10. 39 CFR 954.6 - Revocation or suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation or suspension. 954.6 Section 954.6... DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.6 Revocation or suspension. When... privileges, he or she shall issue a ruling of suspension or revocation to the publisher at the last...

  11. 45 CFR 1641.13 - Causes for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Causes for suspension. 1641.13 Section 1641.13..., SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.13 Causes for suspension. The debarring... that: (a) A cause for debarment under § 1641.7 may exist; (b) The IPA has been indicted for...

  12. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... down on one end of vehicle and release. Note number of cycles of free rocking motion. Repeat procedure at other end of vehicle. ...) Inspection procedure. Examine front and rear end suspension parts for conditions indicated. (b) Shock...

  13. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  15. A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)

  16. A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)

  17. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for particles as they travel towards the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate are investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power are studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle are examined. The model used in current study takes high temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, s...

  18. Impact of mycorrhizal fungus on the growth and nutrient absorption of Cupressus duclouxiana Hichel seedlings under water stress%水分胁迫下菌根真菌对滇柏(Cupressus duclouxiana Hichel)幼苗生长和养分吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如岩; 于水强; 张金池; 丛日亮; 王群; 陈丽莎; 司登宇

    2011-01-01

    The potted seedlings of Cupressus duclouxiana Hichel were tested to study their response characteristics under three different moisture content conditions, normal moisture(25~30%) , moderate drought (15~20%) and severe drought(5~ 10%). Accordingly, the test include four inoculated groups, control group(A), VAM groupCB, inoculated VAM), ectomycorrhizaKC, inoculated Ectomycorrhiza) and mixture groupCD, VAM + Ectomycorrhiza). The biomass,root morphology and nitrogen content, phosphorus content of Cupressus duclouxiana Hichel seedlings were measured after 150 days. The results show that when the seedlings were inoculated with mycorrhizal fungus under normal moisture, the plant biomass was increased, including above-ground biomass and under-ground biomass. The effect to the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus was mainly on the root. The nitrogen content of roots was respectively increased significantly, by 65.4%, 118. 2% and 117. 7% in B, C and D group under normal moisture, respectively. The root phosphorus content of C and D group was obivious increased 40. 4% and 49. 4% compare to contral group. The effect to root morphology was also significant, the D inoculated treatment were higher than that in controlled treatment on root length and surface area. Under mediate drought, there was significant difference a-mong B,D and A in N content in roots,but signifecant difference among C,D and A in leaves. And there was significant difference among C,D and A in P content in roots and leaves. The trend of positive effect to root morphology was D>OB>A. Under severe drought condition, the mycorrhizal fungi did not affected the plant biomass and nutrient content as well as root morphology. In brief, except for under severe drought condition, the mycorrhizal fungi would improve nutrient absorption and increase the biomass and benefit for enhancing survival rate of C. Duclouxiana Hichel.%在正常水分、中度干旱、重度干旱3个水分条件下,设对照(A)、接种内生菌

  19. Impact of Ohio Administrative License Suspension*

    OpenAIRE

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Taylor, Eileen P.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers an analysis of the driving records of Ohio’s 45,788 drivers who were convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) between July 1, 1990, and August 30, 1995, to determine the specific deterrent impact of the Ohio administrative license suspension (ALS**) law on DUI recidivism. Our data support the conclusion that, under the ALS law, license suspensions were earlier and more certain. Consequently, the number of drunk-driving convictions, moving offenses, and crashes of firs...

  20. The suspension of disbelief in videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Douglas; William

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University This thesis explores the ways in which suspension of disbelief works in digital games. Primarily concerned with how players relate imaginatively to the often major dissonance between gameplay and narrative in digital games, this thesis questions how the literate players of games reconcile these complex texts imaginatively. Proposing that Samuel Taylor Coleridge's concept of suspension of d...

  1. Damping of roll vibrations of vehicle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, K. C.; Pieper, A.

    2014-04-01

    Small forced vibrations of an axle model of independent suspensions having four degrees of freedom are studied. The exact analytical solution of the generalised Lagrange equation enables one to produce 3D plots of the normalised amplitudes of forced vibrations versus frequency and excitation ratio or phase difference of the road inputs. The analysis of these plots exhibits some deficiency in damping of roll vibrations of conventional vehicle suspensions. The possibilities of improvement are discussed.

  2. Splashing onset in dense suspension droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Ivo; Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of droplets of dense suspensions onto a solid substrate. We show that a global hydrodynamic balance is unable to predict the splash onset and propose to replace it by an energy balance at the level of the particles in the suspension. We experimentally verify that the resulting, particle-based Weber number gives a reliable, particle size and density dependent splash onset criterion. We further show that the same argument also explains why, in bimodal systems, smaller ...

  3. X-ray Mapping of Dynamic Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Lenoir, Nicolas; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Dense non-colloidal suspensions are materials with broad application both in industrial processes and natural phenomena. In most of these applications, the suspensions are either far from equilibrium or strongly non-Newtonian (i.e., non-colloidal particles are suspended in non-Newtonian fluid) meaning that the flow kinetics are not only strain-dependent but also strain-rate dependent. Therefore, experimental techniques must be developed to analyze the flows of these complex suspensions over a wide range of steady and transient shear rates. Techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance/Imaging (NMR/I) are inapplicable due to low sampling frequency and low image resolution (typically 10 minutes per averaged NMR image of 1x1cm). We introduce a new technique using an X-ray/CT-scan system to study dynamic suspensions. We show our recent results on the application of this technique for the study of shear induced migration of particles in a yield stress matrix fluid in a wide-gap cylindrical Couette cell. This work opens new avenues to study dynamic non-colloidal suspensions and the suspensions with other types of nonlinear suspending fluids such as viscoelastic and shear thickening fluids. NFS(CBET-1554044-CAREER).

  4. Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation of colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao

    2014-03-01

    DPD as a mesoscale method was firstly proposed to study dynamics of suspensions under flow condition. However the proposed method failed to capture shear properties of suspensions because it lacked: first a potential to reproduce lubrication forces and second a clear definition for the colloid surface. Recently we reported a modified DPD method which defines colloidal particles as particles with hard core and a dissipative coat. An additional lubrication force was introduced to include the short-range hydrodynamics that are not captured in original DPD. The model was found to be able to reproduce shear properties of suspensions for a wide range of different systems, from monodisperse to bimodal with different volume fractions, compositions and size ratios. In present work our modified DPD method is employed to study both equilibrium and flow properties of colloidal suspension. Zero shear viscosity of suspension is measured using Green-Kubo expressions and the results are compared to theoretical predictions. Furthermore, structure formation in suspensions is studied in respect to energy landscape of the fluid both at rest and under flow.

  5. Robust Sliding Mode Fuzzy Control of a Car Suspension System

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman A. Aly

    2013-01-01

    Different characteristics can be considered in a suspension system design like: ride comfort, body travel, road handling and suspension travel. No suspension system can optimize all these parameters together but a better tradeoff among these parameters can be achieved in active suspension system.Objective of this paper is to establish a robust control technique of the active suspension system for a quarter-car model. The paper describes also the model and controller used in the study and dis...

  6. Effet des extractibles sur la durabilité naturelle du duramen de cyprès

    OpenAIRE

    Mohareb, Ahmed; Sirmah, Peter; Desharnais, Lyne; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Pétrissans,Mathieu; Gérardin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Identification of extractives present in Cupressus lusitanica heartwood has been conducted using GC-MS analyses. The chromatogram of toluene/ethanol extracts indicated the presence of large amounts of benzaldehyde and numerous terpenic compounds such as cedrol, agathadiol, epimanool, bornyl acetate, α-cedrene and β-cedrene.* The effect of these extractives on the natural durability of cypress wood was investigated on heart wood blocks exposed to pure culture of Poria p...

  7. Rheological behavior of oxide nanopowder suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Simge

    Ceramic nanopowders offer great potential in advanced ceramic materials and many other technologically important applications. Because a material's rheological properties are crucial for most processing routes, control of the rheological behavior has drawn significant attention in the recent past. The control of rheological behavior relies on an understanding of how different parameters affect the suspension viscosities. Even though the suspension stabilization mechanisms are relatively well understood for sub-micron and micron size particle systems, this knowledge cannot be directly transferred to nanopowder suspensions. Nanopowder suspensions exhibit unexpectedly high viscosities that cannot be explained with conventional mechanisms and are still a topic of investigation. This dissertation aims to establish the critical parameters governing the rheological behavior of concentrated oxide nanopowder suspensions, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which these parameters control the rheology of these suspensions. Aqueous alumina nanopowders were chosen as a model system, and the findings were extrapolated to other oxide nanopowder systems such as zirconia, yttria stabilized zirconia, and titania. Processing additives such as fructose, NaCl, HCl, NaOH, and ascorbic acid were used in this study. The effect of solids content and addition of fructose on the viscosity of alumina nanopowder suspensions was investigated by low temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC), rheological, and zeta potential measurements. The analysis of bound water events observed in LT-DSC revealed useful information regarding the rheological behavior of nanopowder suspensions. Because of the significance of interparticle interactions in nanopowder suspensions, the electrostatic stabilization was investigated using indifferent and potential determining ions. Different mechanisms, e.g., the effect of the change in effective volume fraction caused by fructose addition and electrostatic

  8. 地中海柏挥发油抗氧化、抑肿瘤及其化学表征%The Antioxidation Antitumour Activity and Chemical Characterization of Essential Oil from Cupressus sempervirens L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淳凯; 瞿伟菁; 孙伟; 李玉菊

    2008-01-01

    为研究地中海柏(Cupressus sempervirens L.)挥发油(CEO)的化学表征,寻找抗氧化、抑肿瘤的物质基础.利用分光光度法研究了CEO总抗氧化能力,及对活性氧自由基、DPPH·的清除作用和对肝组织脂质过氧化产物(MDA)形成的抑制作用;用GC-MS法结合人工解析鉴定化学成分,并用归一化法测定组分相对含量;用MTY与SRB法检测CEO对人鼻咽癌细胞(CNE)的抑制作用,采用形态学观察以及流式细胞术(FCM)检测了CEO体外抑肿瘤的效应.结果发现CEO能很好地清除自由基,显著抑制肝组织MDA的产生;在体外能抑制CNE细胞的增殖;初步推断CEO中占总量82.91%的烯类可能与抗氧化、抗肿瘤的活性有关.

  9. 柏木无性系种子园遗传增益及优良家系评选%Genetic gain and superior families selection from clonal seed orchards of Cupressus funebris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆文坚; 金国庆; 徐高福; 丰炳财; 冯建民; 罗小华

    2006-01-01

    对15年生柏木Cupressus funebris种子园自由授粉家系子代测定林的研究表明,种子园子代树高、胸径和材积平均生长量分别比对照大13.12%,13.69%和30.85%,平均遗传增益分别为7.82%,7.69%和17.03%.采用LSR法、性状表现水平分析法、一般配合力相对效应值分析法和育种值评定法等4种方法进行优良家系评选,以材积性状作为选优指标,评选出11个优良家系,其现实增益达46.35%~108.65%,平均为64.21%,遗传增益达25.58%~59.96%,平均为35.44%.表3参22

  10. 巨柏细胞色素氧化酶同工酶变异分析%The isoenzymic variation analysis of the cytochrome oxidase of the Cupressus gigantea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰小中; 王景升; 郑维列; 张明生

    2006-01-01

    为阐明巨柏Cupressus gigantea的濒危机理,根据聚丙烯酰胺琼脂电泳对巨柏3个大居群的36个个体功能叶片的细胞色素氧化酶的同工酶谱带测定结果进行编码,对各酶谱带进行聚类分析;同时结合细胞色素氧化酶的3个遗传指标进行分析.结果表明,来自同一居群的个体,同工酶谱带相似性高,遗传杂合度小(He A=0.726,He B=0.691,He C=0.704),相似性系数大,遗传距离小,这说明居群内个体遗传分化小;而不同居群间的个体则恰好相反(I AB=0.240,I AC=0.259,I BC=0.401;D AB=1.427,D AC=1.351,D BC=0.914),这主要是由青藏高原特殊的气候条件和巨柏的地理分布格局所造成的.

  11. 不同间伐强度对柏木低效人工林土壤有机碳的影响%Effect of Thinning Intensity on Soil Organic Carbon of Low-efficiency Cupressus funebris Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾念念; 何传龙; 黄从德; 季荣飞; 张健; 李贤伟

    2015-01-01

    以德阳市旌阳区33a生柏木(Cupressus funebris)低效人工林为对象,研究了对照(CK,0%)、弱度间伐(T1,15%)、中度间伐(T2,25%)、强度间伐(T3,35%)和极强度间伐(T4,50%)5种强度下,柏木低效人工林土壤有机碳和活性碳的变化及其相关性.结果表明,在间伐1a后,土壤总有机碳、微生物量碳、易氧化碳和水溶性碳含量都随间伐强度的增加而增加,T4和T3增加明显(p<0.05).土壤有机碳与土壤微生物量碳、易氧化碳和水溶性碳之间均呈现极显著正相关(p<0.01).研究结果说明,间伐有助于提高柏木低效人工林土壤的固碳能力.

  12. Effect of temperature on the germination of Cupressus chenggiana seeds from Xiaojin County, Sichuan Province%温度对四川小金县岷江柏种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮; 包维楷; 庞学勇

    2005-01-01

    通过对采自四川小金县的岷江柏(Cupressus chenggiana S. Y. Hu)种子发芽特征的研究,分析不同温度对种子发芽的影响.结果表明,采自四川小金县的岷江柏种子发芽周期为20 d,其中0 ~5 d为萌动期,5 ~15 d为高峰期;发芽温度为5℃~30℃,适宜发芽温度为10℃~25℃,种子最适发芽温度在2003年1、4、7和10月分别为25℃、15℃、20℃和20℃.岷江柏种子的最适发芽温度和贮藏过程中的发芽特征与环境温度有着密切的关系.

  13. Labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid contained in fruits of Cupressus sempervirens suppresses benign prostatic hyperplasia in rat and in vitro human models through inhibition of androgen and STAT-3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Rajeev; Khan, Mohammad F; Singh, Anil K; Sharma, Rolee; Arya, Kamal R; Maikhuri, J P; Dalela, Diwakar; Maurya, Rakesh; Gupta, Gopal

    2014-08-01

    Fruit extract of Cupressus sempervirens (CS), which is used traditionally to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)-like urinary symptoms in patients, was scientifically validated for anti-BPH activity. The ethanolic fruit extract of CS inhibited proliferation of human BPH-stromal cells and the activity was localized to its chloroform-soluble, diterpene-rich fraction. Eight major diterpenes isolated from this fraction exhibited moderate to potent activity and the most active diterpene (labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid) exhibited an IC50 of 37.5 μM (antiproliferative activity against human BPH-stromal cells). It significantly inhibited activation (phosphorylation) of Stat-3 in BPH-stromal cells and prevented transactivation of androgen sensitive KLK3/PSA and TMPRSS2 genes in LNCaP cells. Labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid-rich CS fraction prevented prostatic hyperplasia in rat model and caused TUNEL labeling of stromal cells with lower expressions of IGF-I, TGF-ß and PCNA, and bcl-2/bax ratio. Human BPH tissues exhibited precise lowering of stromal component after incubation in labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid, ex vivo. We conclude that labda-8(17),12,14-trien-19-oic acid contained in CS exhibits anti-BPH activity through inhibition of stromal proliferation and suppression of androgen action in the prostate, presenting a unique lead structure for further optimization of anti-BPH activity.

  14. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  15. Robust Sliding Mode Fuzzy Control of a Car Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Aly

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different characteristics can be considered in a suspension system design like: ride comfort, body travel, road handling and suspension travel. No suspension system can optimize all these parameters together but a better tradeoff among these parameters can be achieved in active suspension system.Objective of this paper is to establish a robust control technique of the active suspension system for a quarter-car model. The paper describes also the model and controller used in the study and discusses the vehicle response results obtained from a range of road input simulations. A comparison of robust suspension sliding fuzzy control and passive control is shown using MATLAB simulations.

  16. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  17. Flux-Feedback Magnetic-Suspension Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1990-01-01

    Flux-feedback magnetic-suspension actuator provides magnetic suspension and control forces having linear transfer characteristics between force command and force output over large range of gaps. Hall-effect devices used as sensors for electronic feedback circuit controlling currents flowing in electromagnetic windings to maintain flux linking suspended element at substantially constant value independent of changes in length of gap. Technique provides effective method for maintenance of constant flux density in gap and simpler than previous methods. Applications include magnetic actuators for control of shapes and figures of antennas and of precise segmented reflectors, magnetic suspensions in devices for storage of angular momentum and/or kinetic energy, and systems for control, pointing, and isolation of instruments.

  18. A New Damper for Tracked Vehicle Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Fu-sheng; LI Meng; XING Zhi; L(U) Jian-gang

    2005-01-01

    The passive suspension system of tracked vehicle is designed to get its suspension parameters based on a certain common velocity and a certain road surface roughness. Its performance optimization only exists in a certain operating mode without far-ranging adaptability. Holding the damper basic frame form and applying semi-active suspension system based on MR (magnetorheological) damper, the vehicle can keep its optimum efficiency between energy dissipation and vibration reduction in all kinds of operating modes. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the damping performances provided by this MRF(magnetorheological fluids) vane damper are same as those provided by traditional damper, and the new damper has the better controllability and adaptability.

  19. Stability of dynamic response of suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Antonio; Ardito, Raffaele; Guerrieri, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The potential occurrence of internal parametric resonance phenomena has been recently indicated as a potential contributory cause of the appearance of critical dynamic states in long-span suspension bridges. At the same time, suspension bridges, in view of their flexibility, are prone to aeroelastic response, such as vortex shedding, torsional divergence and flutter. In this paper, a non-linear dynamic model of a suspension bridge is devised, with the purpose of providing a first attempt toward a unified framework for the study of aeroelastic and internal resonance instabilities. Inspired by the pioneering work of Herrmann and Hauger, the analyses have been based on a linearized formulation that is able to represent the main structural non-linear effects and the coupling given by aerodynamic forces. The results confirm that the interaction between aeroelastic effects and non-linear internal resonance leads to unstable conditions for wind speeds which can be lower than the critical threshold for standard aeroelastic predictions.

  20. Vibration-induced liquefaction of granular suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotin, C; Kiesgen de Richter, S; Marchal, P; Michot, L J; Baravian, C

    2012-05-11

    We investigate the mechanical behavior of granular suspensions subjected to coupled vibrations and shear. At high shear stress, whatever the mechanical vibration energy and bead size, the system behaves like a homogeneous suspension of hard spheres. At low shear stress, in addition to a dependence on bead size, vibration energy drastically influences the viscosity of the material that can decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. All experiments can be rationalized by introducing a hydrodynamical Peclet number defined as the ratio between the lubrication stress induced by vibrations and granular pressure. The behavior of vibrated wet and dry granular materials can then be unified by assimilating the hookean stress in dry media to the lubrication stress in suspensions.

  1. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  2. Concentration uniformity of extemporaneously prepared ranitidine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, H T; Harris, S R; Garnett, W R; March, C

    1989-02-01

    The concentration uniformity of an extemporaneously prepared ranitidine suspension was studied. To prepare the ranitidine suspension, 36 150-mg tablets were pulverized and suspended in 180 mL of distilled water. This mixture was diluted with simple syrup to a total volume of 360 mL, resulting in a final ranitidine concentration of 150 mg/10 mL. Samples from each of three bottles that had been filled with 60 mL of the suspension were assayed for ranitidine content by high-performance liquid chromatography. The sedimentation of suspended ranitidine tablet particles was studied by visual observation of the setting process in 10-mL samples from the same batch. The overall mean concentrations (in milligrams per milliliter) of ranitidine were 14.53, 15.25, 13.92, 12.67, and 12.72 at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. Compared with baseline, the difference in the ranitidine concentration was not significant over days 0-7. The ranitidine concentration was significantly reduced during the following time intervals: days 0-14, days 0-21, and days 7-21. In the settling experiments, the mean time (+/- S.D.) for sediment to first appear on the test tube bottom was 14.67 +/- 5.35 seconds. Approximately 40-50% (mean level = 3.2 mm) of the total sedimentation level (mean level = 7.3 mm) was observed one minute after shaking. The uniformity of ranitidine suspensions compounded according to procedures described in this report possibly could be improved with sonication. The ranitidine suspension should be well shaken, the dosage should be measured immediately after shaking, and the suspension should be used within seven days of compounding.

  3. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  4. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  5. Time varying behaviour of the loudspeaker suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e., the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the loudspeaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal...

  6. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  7. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  8. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  9. A comparison between two pneumatic suspension architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, G.; Scopesi, M.; Franco, W.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess and compare the mathematical models of two pneumatic suspension architectures and show how they can converge, after appropriate simplifications, to a general linear form. After making this model dimensionless, it will be used to study, with a transmissibility analysis, the behaviour of a mono-suspension (quarter-car model). Finally, an example of a design process will be shown to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both architectures and to provide the reader with a practical design tool.

  10. Turning bacteria suspensions into a "superfluid"

    CERN Document Server

    López, Héctor Matías; Douarche, Carine; Auradou, Harold; Clément, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The rheological response under simple shear of an active suspension of Escherichia coli is determined in a large range of shear rates and concentrations. The effective viscosity and the time scales characterizing the bacterial organization under shear are obtained. In the dilute regime, we bring evidences for a low shear Newtonian plateau characterized by a shear viscosity decreasing with concentration. In the semi-dilute regime, for particularly active bacteria, the suspension display a "super-fluid" like transition where the viscous resistance to shear vanishes, thus showing that macroscopically, the activity of pusher swimmers organized by shear, is able to fully overcome the dissipative effects due to viscous loss.

  11. Solid freeform fabrication using chemically reactive suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisette, Sherry L.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Dimos, Duane B.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of processing parameters and suspension chemorheology on the deposition behavior of SFF components derived from polymeric-based gelcasting suspensions combines the advantages associated with SFF fabrication, including the ability to spatially tailor composition and structure as well as reduced tooling costs, with the improved handling strength afforded by the use of gel based formulations. As-cast free-formed Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 components exhibited uniform particle packing and had minimal macro-defects (e.g., slumping or stair casing) and no discernable micro-defects (e.g., bubbles or cracking).

  12. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  13. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly

  14. 44 CFR 17.615 - Grounds for suspension of payments, suspension or termination of grants, or suspension or debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to make a good faith effort to provide a drug-free workplace. (c) With respect to a grantee who is an... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.615 Grounds for suspension of payments... writing, that— (a) The grantee has made a false certification under § 17.630; (b) With respect to a...

  15. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  16. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanping Li

    2004-12-19

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the {sup 17}O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  17. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  18. On the Benefits of Semi-Active Suspensions with Inerters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years especially in vehicle, train, building suspension systems, etc. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter-car model in this paper. Dimensionless root mean square (RMS responses of the sprung mass vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived which were used to evaluate the performance of the quarter-car model. The behaviour of semi-active suspensions with inerters using Groundhook, Skyhook, and Hybrid control has been evaluated and compared to the performance of passive suspensions with inerters. Sensitivity analysis was applied to the development of a high performance semi-active suspension with an inerter. Numerical simulations indicate that a semi-active suspension with an inerter has much better performance than the passive suspension with an inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method, which has the best compromise between comfort and road holding quality.

  19. MODAL ANALYSIS OF QUARTER CAR MODEL SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath. K. Allamraju *

    2016-01-01

    Suspension system is very important for comfort driving and travelling of the passengers. Therefore, this study provides a numerical tool for modeling and analyzing of a two degree of freedom quarter car model suspension system. Modal analysis places a vital role in designing the suspension system. In this paper presented the modal analysis of quarter car model suspension system by considering the undamped and damped factors.  The modal and vertical equations of motions describing the su...

  20. Fluorinated graphene suspension for inkjet printed technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebogatikova, N. A.; Antonova, I. V.; Kurkina, I. I.; Soots, R. A.; Vdovin, V. I.; Timofeev, V. B.; Smagulova, S. A.; Prinz, V. Ya

    2016-05-01

    The possibility to control the size of the flakes of graphene suspension in the course of their fluorination in an aqueous hydrofluoric acid solution was demonstrated. The effect of the suspension composition, the fluorination time, temperature and thermal stress on the fragmentation process was investigated. The corrugation of suspension flakes, which occurs at fluorination due to a difference in the constants of graphene and fluorographene lattices, leads to the appearance of nonuniform mechanical stresses. The fact that the flake size after fragmentation is determined by the size of corrugation allows the assumption that the driving force of fragmentation is this mechanical stress. This assumption is confirmed by the break of the corrugated layers from flakes under thermal stress. Moreover, fluorination treatment at elevated temperatures (˜70 °C) significantly accelerates the fragmentation process. Suspensions of fluorinated graphene with nanometer size flakes are of interest for the development of 2D ink-jet printing technologies and production of thermally and chemically stable dielectric films for nanoelectronics. The printed fluorinated graphene films on silicon and flexible substrates have been demonstrated and the charges in metal-insulator-semiconductor structures have been estimated as the ultra low values of (0.5-2) × 1010 cm-2.

  1. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Coyle, Thomas W.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for droplets and particles as they travel toward the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate is investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power is studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle is examined. The model used in the current study takes high-temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, several test cases have been considered to better evaluate the effect of different parameters on the quality of particles during flight and upon impact on the substrate.

  2. Viscoelasticity of suspensions of long, rigid rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, Jan K.G.; Briels, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    A microscopic theory for the viscoelastic behaviour of suspensions of rigid rods with excluded volume interactions is presented, which is valid in the asymptotic limit of very long and thin rods. Stresses arising from translational and rotational Brownian motion and direct interactions are calculate

  3. Local transient rheological behavior of concentrated suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Frédéric; Lemaire, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports experiments on the shear transient response of concentrated non-Brownian suspensions. The shear viscosity of the suspensions is measured using a wide-gap Couette rheometer equipped with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) device that allows measuring the velocity field. The suspensions made of PMMA particles (31$\\mu$m in diameter) suspended in a Newtonian index- and density-matched liquid are transparent enough to allow an accurate measurement of the local velocity for particle concentrations as high as 50%. In the wide-gap Couette cell, the shear induced particle migration is evidenced by the measurement of the time evolution of the flow profile. A peculiar radial zone in the gap is identified where the viscosity remains constant. At this special location, the local particle volume fraction is taken to be the mean particle concentration. The local shear transient response of the suspensions when the shear flow is reversed is measured at this point where the particle volume fraction is well ...

  4. 78 FR 69001 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... of each community's scheduled suspension is the third date (``Susp.'') listed in the third column of..., 44 CFR Part 59. Accordingly, the communities will be suspended on the effective date in the third... unless remedial action takes place. Regulatory Classification. This final rule is not a...

  5. 78 FR 68999 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... of each community's scheduled suspension is the third date (``Susp.'') listed in the third column of..., 44 CFR Part 59. Accordingly, the communities will be suspended on the effective date in the third... unless remedial action takes place. Regulatory Classification. This final rule is not a...

  6. 78 FR 45462 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... David Stearrett, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency... County. Emerg; February 4, 1981, Reg; August 5, 2013, Susp. Region III Maryland: Easton, Town of, Talbot....--Emergency; Reg.--Regular; Susp--Suspension. ] Dated: July 8, 2013. David L. Miller, Associate...

  7. Aeroelastic Stability of Suspension Bridges using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Sørensen, Niels; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years large span suspension bridges with very thin and slender profiles have been built without proportional increasing torsional and bending stiffness. As a consequence large deformations at the mid-span can occur with risk of aeroelastic instability and structural failure. Analysis...

  8. 76 FR 25656 - Responsibility; Suspension and Debarment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1809 RIN 2700-AD54 Responsibility; Suspension and Debarment AGENCY... by addressing the non-responsibility issues. This proposed rule is consistent with FAR 9.104-6... FAPIIS to obtain pre-award information, and to enter determinations of non- responsibility for public...

  9. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  10. Electrorheology of suspensions containing interfacially active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Carl; Yang, Hengxi; Green, Peter F

    2013-09-25

    We recently showed that a suspension of micrometer-sized polystyrene (PS) particles in a PDMS liquid, mixed with small (1 wt %) amounts of a nanocage, sulfonated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (s-POSS), exhibited significant electrorheological (ER) behavior. This behavior was associated with the formation of a thin adsorbed layer of s-POSS onto the surfaces of PS and the subsequent formation of polarization-induced aggregates, or structures, responsible for the ER effect in an applied electric, E, field. Current theory suggests that the ER effect would largely be determined by the dielectric and conductive properties of the conductive layer of core/shell particles in ER suspensions. We show here that sulfonated-PS (s-PS)/PDMS suspensions exhibit further increases in the yield stress of over 200%, with the addition of s-POSS. The yield stress of this system, moreover, scales as τy [proportionality] E(2). The dielectric relaxation studies reveal the existence of a new relaxation peak in the s-POSS/s-PS/PDMS system that is absent in the s-POSS/PS/PDMS suspension. The relative sizes of these peaks are sensitive to the concentration of s-POSS and are associated with changes in the ER behavior. The properties of this class of ER fluids are not appropriately rationalized in terms of current theories.

  11. 76 FR 78164 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... County. Emerg; January 16, 1981, Reg; December 16, 2011, Susp. Holland, City of, Ottawa 260006 June 21, 1973, ......do Do. County. Emerg; November 15, 1978, Reg; December 16, 2011, Susp. Holland, Charter...- = Ditto. Code for reading third column: Emerg.--Emergency; Reg.--Regular; Susp.--Suspension. ] Dated...

  12. Numerical homogenization on approach for stokesian suspensions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, B. M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Karpeev, D. A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State Univ.)

    2012-01-20

    In this technical report we investigate efficient methods for numerical simulation of active suspensions. The prototypical system is a suspension of swimming bacteria in a Newtonian fluid. Rheological and other macroscopic properties of such suspensions can differ dramatically from the same properties of the suspending fluid alone or of suspensions of similar but inactive particles. Elongated bacteria, such as E. coli or B. subtilis, swim along their principal axis, propelling themselves with the help of flagella, attached at the anterior of the organism and pushing it forward in the manner of a propeller. They interact hydrodynamically with the surrounding fluid and, because of their asymmetrical shape, have the propensity to align with the local flow. This, along with the dipolar nature of bacteria (the two forces a bacterium exerts on a fluid - one due to self-propulsion and the other opposing drag - have equal magnitude and point in opposite directions), causes nearby bacteria to tend to align, resulting in a intermittent local ordering on the mesoscopic scale, which is between the microscopic scale of an individual bacterium and the macroscopic scale of the suspension (e.g., its container). The local ordering is sometimes called a collective mode or collective swimming. Thanks to self-propulsion, collective modes inject momentum into the fluid in a coherent way. This enhances the local strain rate without changing the macroscopic stress applied at the boundary of the container. The macroscopic effective viscosity of the suspension is defined roughly as the ratio of the applied stress to the bulk strain rate. If local alignment and therefore local strain-rate enhancement, are significant, the effective viscosity can be appreciably lower than that of the corresponding passive suspension or even of the surrounding fluid alone. Indeed, a sevenfold decrease in the effective viscosity was observed in experiments with B. subtilis. More generally, local collective

  13. 28 CFR 33.80 - Suspension of funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension of funding. 33.80 Section 33.80 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Suspension of Funding § 33.80 Suspension of funding. The Bureau of Justice...

  14. Professor Jesse W. Beams and the first practical magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, P. E.; Humphris, R. R.; Lewis, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Jesse W. Beams developed the first practical magnetic suspension for high speed rotating devices. The devices included high speed rotating mirrors, ultracentrifuges, and high speed centrifugal field rotors. A brief biography of Dr. Beams is presented, and the following topics are discussed: (1) early axial magnetic suspension for ultracentrifuges; and (2) magnetic suspension for high centrifugal fields.

  15. 48 CFR 9.407-2 - Causes for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Causes for suspension. 9... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407-2 Causes for...) Indictment for any of the causes in paragraph (a) above constitutes adequate evidence for suspension. (c)...

  16. 12 CFR 367.8 - Causes for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the minimal ethical standards required by 12 CFR part 366. (b) Indictment for any offense described in... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Causes for suspension. 367.8 Section 367.8... SUSPENSION AND EXCLUSION OF CONTRACTOR AND TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS § 367.8 Causes for suspension....

  17. 12 CFR 1291.11 - Temporary suspension of AHP contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary suspension of AHP contributions. 1291... HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.11 Temporary suspension of AHP contributions. (a... outstanding. (2) Limitations on grounds for suspension. The Director shall not suspend a Bank's annual...

  18. 27 CFR 71.79 - Suspension, revocation, or annulment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension, revocation, or... PROCEEDINGS Hearing Procedure Hearing § 71.79 Suspension, revocation, or annulment. (a) The administrative law judge who presides at the hearing in proceedings for the suspension, revocation and annulment of...

  19. 9 CFR 105.1 - Suspension or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation. 105.1... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS SUSPENSION, REVOCATION, OR TERMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL LICENSES OR PERMITS § 105.1 Suspension or revocation. (a) An establishment...

  20. 40 CFR 82.169 - Suspension and revocation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension and revocation procedures... Suspension and revocation procedures. (a) Failure to abide by any of the provisions of this subpart may result in the revocation or suspension of the approval to certify technicians (under § 82.161),...

  1. 46 CFR 185.910 - Suspension and revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension and revocation. 185.910 Section 185.910... TONS) OPERATIONS Penalties § 185.910 Suspension and revocation. An individual holding a merchant... of 46 U.S.C. 7703 and part 5 of this chapter with respect to suspension or revocation of a...

  2. 46 CFR 122.910 - Suspension and revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension and revocation. 122.910 Section 122.910... § 122.910 Suspension and revocation. An individual holding a merchant mariner credential license... in subchapter A of this chapter with respect to suspension or revocation of a credential....

  3. 27 CFR 1.50 - Revocation or suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation or suspension... Revocation, Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.50 Revocation or suspension. Whenever the... period of more than two years, the appropriate TTB officer shall institute proceedings for the...

  4. 27 CFR 71.81 - Suspension, revocation, or annulment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension, revocation, or... PROCEEDINGS Hearing Procedure Burden of Proof § 71.81 Suspension, revocation, or annulment. In hearings on the suspension, revocation, or annulment of a permit, the burden of proof is on the Government. General...

  5. 42 CFR 1001.501 - License revocation or suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License revocation or suspension. 1001.501 Section....501 License revocation or suspension. (a) Circumstance for exclusion. The OIG may exclude an... resulted in the revocation, suspension or loss of the individual's or entity's license to provide...

  6. 7 CFR 46.35 - Suspension or revocation order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation order. 46.35 Section 46.35... and Revocation of Licenses § 46.35 Suspension or revocation order. (a) Whenever the Secretary shall order the suspension or revocation of a license, the person against whom such order is directed shall...

  7. 27 CFR 19.163 - Suspension or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension or revocation....163 Suspension or revocation. Whenever the appropriate TTB officer has reason to believe that any... appropriate TTB officer may institute proceedings for the revocation or suspension of the permit in...

  8. 30 CFR 955.17 - Suspension and revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension and revocation. 955.17 Section 955... FEDERAL PROGRAM STATES AND ON INDIAN LANDS § 955.17 Suspension and revocation. (a) Cause, nature and... as soon as is practicable. (3) OSM shall make the nature and duration of a suspension, revocation...

  9. 9 CFR 354.21 - Suspension of license; revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of license; revocation. 354... Services § 354.21 Suspension of license; revocation. Pending final action by the Secretary, any person... suspension or revocation. When no appeal is filed within the prescribed 7 days, the license to...

  10. 7 CFR 56.12 - Suspension of license; revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of license; revocation. 56.12 Section 56.12... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Licensed and Authorized Graders § 56.12 Suspension of license; revocation... such suspension or revocation to the respective licensee, accompanied by a statement of the...

  11. 7 CFR 735.6 - Suspension, revocation and liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension, revocation and liquidation. 735.6 Section... Provisions § 735.6 Suspension, revocation and liquidation. (a) DACO may, after an opportunity for a hearing... licensing or provider agreement. (b) The reasons for a suspension, revocation or liquidation under this...

  12. 27 CFR 19.950 - Suspension or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension or revocation... Revocation of Permits § 19.950 Suspension or revocation. Whenever the appropriate TTB officer has reason to... revocation or suspension of the permit in accordance with the procedures set forth in 27 CFR part 71....

  13. 7 CFR 70.21 - Suspension of license; revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of license; revocation. 70.21 Section 70.21... Graders § 70.21 Suspension of license; revocation. Pending final action by the Secretary, any person... suspension or revocation. When no appeal is filed within the prescribed 7 days, the license to...

  14. Variable stiffness and damping suspension system for train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuaishuai; Deng, Huaxia; Li, Weihua

    2014-03-01

    As the vibration of high speed train becomes fierce when the train runs at high speed, it is crucial to develop a novel suspension system to negotiate train's vibration. This paper presents a novel suspension based on Magnetorheological fluid (MRF) damper and MRF based smart air spring. The MRF damper is used to generate variable damping while the smart air spring is used to generate field-dependent stiffness. In this paper, the two kind smart devices, MRF dampers and smart air spring, are developed firstly. Then the dynamic performances of these two devices are tested by MTS. Based on the testing results, the two devices are equipped to a high speed train which is built in ADAMS. The skyhook control algorithm is employed to control the novel suspension. In order to compare the vibration suppression capability of the novel suspension with other kind suspensions, three other different suspension systems are also considered and simulated in this paper. The other three kind suspensions are variable damping with fixed stiffness suspension, variable stiffness with fixed damping suspension and passive suspension. The simulation results indicate that the variable damping and stiffness suspension suppresses the vibration of high speed train better than the other three suspension systems.

  15. 7 CFR 61.36 - Cause for suspension or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cause for suspension or revocation. 61.36 Section 61...) Regulations Licensed Cottonseed Samplers § 61.36 Cause for suspension or revocation. The failure or refusal of... purpose, in accordance with these regulations, shall be cause for the suspension or revocation of...

  16. 22 CFR 513.405 - Causes for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Causes for suspension. 513.405 Section 513.405... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Suspension § 513.405 Causes for suspension. (a... evidence: (1) To suspect the commission of an offense listed in § 513.305(a); or (2) That a cause...

  17. 21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Febantel suspension. 520.903b Section 520.903b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903b Febantel suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 9.3 percent (2.75 grams per ounce) febantel. (b) Sponsor. See 000859...

  18. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albendazole suspension. 520.45a Section 520.45a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.45a Albendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 45.5 milligrams (mg) (4.55 percent) or...

  19. 21 CFR 520.905a - Fenbendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole suspension. 520.905a Section 520.905a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole....

  20. Electrostratic stabilization of suspensions in non-aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated suspensions of detergent powder solids in a liquid nonionic surfactant are considered for practical application as liquid detergent products. If no precautions are taken, upon storage the viscosity of such suspensions increases and the pourability drops because the suspensions are

  1. Electrostatic stabilization of suspensions in non-aqueous media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der Ph.C.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated suspensions of detergent powder solids in a liquid nonionic surfactant are considered for practical application as liquid detergent products. If no precautions are taken, upon storage the viscosity of such suspensions increases and the pourability drops because the suspensions are collo

  2. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...

  3. The Relationship of School Poverty and Suspension Rates: Finding Ways to Reduce Suspension through Prevention Programming and School Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Erica

    2012-01-01

    What is the relationship between school poverty and school suspension rates and to what extent do prevention programming and school bonding lower the suspension risk for students in high poverty schools? The present study examined the association between school level poverty and suspension rates in addition to investigating whether prevention…

  4. 岷江柏4个地理种群年龄结构动态比较分析%Dynamic analysis on age structure of Cupressus chengiana populations in four geographical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志忠; 包维楷; 何丙辉

    2004-01-01

    对川西地区岷江柏(Cupressus chengiana S. Y. Hu)4个地理种群进行了调查,编制种群静态生命表并进行生存分析.结果表明,岷江柏4个地理种群的存活曲线都属于Deevey-Ⅲ型,死亡率与所对应的消失率变化趋势一致,并存在2个高峰.种群生存率均单调下降,累计死亡率单调上升,下降或上升的速度以理县种群最快,马尔康种群最慢;死亡率密度在幼苗期重合,并达到最大(0.05),但从幼苗级向幼树级过渡时迅速下降到0.01以下;种群的危险率曲线与其死亡率变化趋势一致,其中马尔康种群波动最小,小金种群波动最大.综合分析表明,岷江柏4个种群均有较强的自然更新能力,属增长型种群,但人为砍伐是其最重要的干扰因素.

  5. Researches on Natural Regeneration and Community Characteristics of Cupressus gigantea (Cupressaceae) Population%西藏巨柏种群天然更新与群落特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 彭培好; 毛岭峰; 王娟

    2010-01-01

    巨柏(Cupressus gigantea)为雅鲁藏布江地区分布的特有种,属国家一级保护植物.本文通过在米林-朗县雅鲁藏布江河谷13个面积为1 000 m2的巨柏林样地调查资料,按照近河谷和远河谷山坡的地理分布差异,统计分析了巨柏的种群天然更新特征;通过对群落的组成与结构的分析,初步阐述了巨柏群落的物种组成和结构特征.结果表明,雅鲁藏布江巨柏的更新情况比较差,种群年龄结构不稳定,整体上呈现了明显的种群衰退现象.通过种群的年龄结构分析,反映出了巨柏种群的失衡事件主要发生在最近几十年内,即0.6 m高度10 cm树径范围.巨柏林内物种组成结构单一,乔木层为单一巨柏种,灌木层和草本层的优势种数较少.鉴于巨柏种群环境沙化影响加剧、天然更新能力下降等因素,种群的延续面临较大威胁,需进一步加强该种群的保护和研究.

  6. Seed Germination and Seedling Recruitment of Cupressus funebris in the Three Gorges Area, China%三峡地区柏木种子萌发和幼苗更新的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳清; 梅光舟; 曾旭; 许文年; 柯学莎

    2008-01-01

    对三峡地区柏木(Cupressus funebris)林柏木种子的萌发、幼苗存活、幼苗生长进行了研究.结果表明,(1)柏木种子的萌动期约为10 d,播种35-45 d后进入萌发高峰期,柏木种子的平均萌发率为47.7%.土壤基质对种子萌发的影响是极显著的,光照对萌发则没有显著的影响.(2)幼苗平均死亡率为52.6%.土壤类型和光照强度对幼苗的存活都有显著影响,在林下土和80%光照条件下幼苗的存活率最高.(3)柏木幼苗生长初期茎的生长动态呈"S"型,而叶片数量的增长动态近于直线型.幼苗生长初期生物量形成主要受光照条件的影响,土壤类型的影响不显著.土壤和光照条件对柏木林柏木幼苗的更新都有显著影响,但是土壤条件主要影响种子萌发和幼苗的存活,而光照条件则主要对幼苗的生长和存活产生影响.

  7. Design of Magnetic Flux Feedback Controller in Hybrid Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid suspension system with permanent magnet and electromagnet consumes little power consumption and can realize larger suspension gap. But realizing stable suspension of hybrid magnet is a tricky problem in the suspension control sphere. Considering from this point, we take magnetic flux signal as a state variable and put this signal back to suspension control system. So we can get the hybrid suspension mathematical model based on magnetic flux signal feedback. By application of MIMO feedback linearization theory, we can further realize linearization of the hybrid suspension system. And then proportion, integral, differentiation, magnetic flux density B (PIDB controller is designed. Some hybrid suspension experiments have been done on CMS04 magnetic suspension bogie of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in China. The experiments denote that the new hybrid suspension control algorithm based on magnetic flux signal feedback designed in this paper has more advantages than traditional position-current double cascade control algorithm. Obviously, the robustness and stability of hybrid suspension system have been enhanced.

  8. Preparation of an Ultrafine Rebamipide Ophthalmic Suspension with High Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takakuni; Hiraoka, Shogo; Urashima, Hiroki; Ogura, Ako; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    A 2% commercially available, milky-white, rebamipide micro-particle suspension is used to treat dry eyes, and it causes short-term blurring of the patient's vision. In the current study, to improve the transparency of a rebamipide suspension, we attempted to obtain a clear rebamipide suspension by transforming the rebamipide particles to an ultrafine state. In the initial few efforts, various rebamipide suspensions were prepared using a neutralizing crystallization method with additives, but the suspensions retained their opaque quality. However, as a consequence of several critical improvements in the neutralizing crystallization methods such as selection of additives for crystallization, process parameters during crystallization, the dispersion method, and dialysis, we obtained an ultrafine rebamipide suspension (2%) that was highly transparent (transmittance at 640 nm: 59%). The particle size and transparency demonstrated the fewest level of changes at 25°C after 3 years, compared to initial levels. During that period, no obvious particle sedimentation was observed. The administration of this ultrafine rebamipide suspension (2%) increased the conjunctival mucin, which was comparable to the commercially available micro-particle suspension (2%). The corneal and conjunctival concentration of rebamipide following ocular administration of the ultrafine suspension was slightly higher than that of the micro-particle suspension. The ultrafine rebamipide suspension (eye-drop formulation) with a highly transparent ophthalmic clearness should improve a patient's QOL by preventing even a shortened period of blurred vision.

  9. Linear Quadratic Integral Control for the Active Suspension of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The quarter model of an active suspension is established in the form of controllable autoregressive moving average (CARMA) model. An accelerometer can be mounted on the wheel hub for measuring road disturbance; this signal is used to identify the CARMA model parameters by recursive forgetting factors least square method. The linear quadratic integral (LQI) control method for the active suspension is presented. The LQI control algorithm is fit for vehicle suspension control, for the control performance index can comprise multi controlled variables. The simulation results show that the vertical acceleration and suspension travel both are decreased with the LQI control in the low frequency band, and the suspension travel is increased with the LQI control in the middle or high frequency band. The suspension travel is very small in the middle or high frequency band, the suspension bottoming stop will not happen, so the vehicle ride quality can be improved apparently by the LQI control.

  10. Survey of Controllable Suspension System for Off-road Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhi-cheng; ZHU Quan-min; CHEN Si-zhong; Alan Winfield; YANG Lin; ZHANG Bin

    2007-01-01

    The controllable suspension system can improve the performances of off-road vehicles both on road and cross-country. So far, four controllable suspensions, that is, body height control, active, semi-active and slow-active suspensions, have been developed. For off-road vehicles, the slow-active suspension and the semi-active suspension which have controllable stiffness, damping and body height are more appropriate to use. For many years, some control methodologies for controllable suspension systems have been developed along with the development of modern control theory, and two or more original control methods are integrated as a new control method. Today, for military or civilian off-road vehicles, the R&D of controllable suspension systems is ongoing.

  11. 紫茎泽兰的水浸提液对干香柏和藏柏种子萌发的影响%Effect of Water-extracted Solution of Eupatorium Adenophorum Spreng on Seeds Germination of Cupressus torulosa and Cupre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟书华; 樊传章; 张光飞

    2011-01-01

    将在常温下浸泡48 h紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adenophorumSpreng)的根、茎、叶、花各部位的水浸提液原液,以自来水作为对照,利用培养皿滤纸法研究紫茎泽兰各部位提取液对干香柏和藏柏种子萌发的影响,实验结果表明,紫茎泽兰各部位水浸提液对干香柏和藏柏种子萌发都具有化感克异作用,高浓度水浸提液的抑制作用强于低浓度的抑制作用.%48-hour-water-extracted solution at a natural temperature respectively from the root,stem,leaf and flower of Eupatorium Adenophorum Spreng was sprayed on the seeds of Cupressus torulosa and Cupressus duclouxiana Hichel making contrast of tap water to see

  12. Stability in channel flow with fiber suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The constitutive equation of fiber suspensions is established on the basis of fiber orientation tensors. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld stability equation is obtained further and numerically solved by aid of spectral method and finite difference method. The computational results of channel flow without fibers agree well with the experimental data with a higher degree of accuracy than previous numerical results. The results of the channel flow with fiber suspensions indicate that the presence of fibers attenuates the instability of flow, increases the critical Reynolds number, reduces the growth rate of perturbations and narrows the range of unstable waves. The extent of the effect of fibers on the flow stability is in direct proportion to the volume fraction and aspect-ratio of the fibers.

  13. Semi-active suspension for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhovens, Paul J. T.; Devlugt, Alex R.

    The theoretical considerations for semi-active damping system evaluation, with respect to semi-active suspension and Kalman filtering, are discussed in terms of the software. Some prototype hardware developments are proposed. A significant improvement in ride comfort performance can be obtained, indicated by root mean square body acceleration values and frequency responses, using a switchable damper system with two settings. Nevertheless the improvement is accompanied by an increase in dynamic tire load variations. The main benefit of semi-active suspensions is the potential of changing the low frequency section of the transfer function. In practice this will support the impression of extra driving stability. It is advisable to apply an adaptive control strategy like the (extended) skyhook version switching more to the 'comfort' setting for straight (and smooth/moderate roughness) road running and switching to 'road holding' for handling maneuvers and possibly rough roads and discrete, severe events like potholes.

  14. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  15. Dispersion of Suspensions in Unsteady Microchannel Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Martin; Howard, Amanda; Winklerprins, Lukas; Tripathi, Anubhuv; Yeo, Kyongmin

    2013-11-01

    We explore the dispersion of non-Brownian (Pe >> 1) suspensions in unsteady, low Reynolds number shear flows in a microchannel. Prior experimental work on oscillating Couette flows and Poiseuille flows has shown the importance of strain amplitude in determining the long term distribution of particles across the channel. We will present results from numerical simulations for the early development of these flows and the motion of finite length suspension plugs. The distortion of a plug by the shear flow results in inhomogeneous particle fluxes across the channel. This is largely reversible over the course of a full cycle, giving reversibility in the bulk. Self-diffusion gives irreversibility though at the microscale. As the strain amplitude increases or the initial volume fraction increases irreversibility in the bulk is seen. The dynamics behind these processes and the role of particle pressure will be noted, together with related experimental observations.

  16. Orbital dystopia managed with unilateral brow suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Peter J; Koch, R Michael

    2006-11-01

    Patients with orbital dystopia present with symptoms of diplopia and/or facial asymmetry. Repositioning of the orbit requires multiple osteotomies around the orbit, which presents significant complications. The authors present an alternative method to restore facial symmetry in the case of a 14-year-old patient with congenital orbital dystopia due to fibrosis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The patient had no ocular symptoms but did have asymmetric descent of the ipsilateral brow. He refused box osteotomy and repositioning of the orbit. Unilateral brow suspension was performed using an endoscopic technique and suspension sutures fixed to resorbable screws. Adequate brow elevation was noted in the immediate postoperative period and at 6 months; it successfully restored facial symmetry.

  17. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  18. Effective Rheological Properties in Semidilute Bacterial Suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Potomkin, Mykhailo; Berlyand, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between swimming bacteria have led to remarkable experimentally observable macroscopic properties such as the reduction of the effective viscosity, enhanced mixing, and diffusion. In this work, we study an individual based model for a suspension of interacting point dipoles representing bacteria in order to gain greater insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the drastic reduction in the effective viscosity. In particular, asymptotic analysis is carried out on the corresponding kinetic equation governing the distribution of bacteria orientations. This allows one to derive an explicit asymptotic formula for the effective viscosity of the bacterial suspension in the limit of bacterium non-sphericity. The results show good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and previous experimental observations. Finally, we justify our approach by proving existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties for this kinetic PDE model.

  19. Gravity filtration of suspensions: permeability effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Tejaswi; Wang, Mengyu; Ward, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the filtration rates of mono-modal suspensions as a function of time and a cake layer builds up through theory and experimentation. Darcy's Law, which describes fluid flow through porous media, was applied along with the Kynch theory of sedimentation, which provides the basis for analyzing low concentration (ϕ filter media. A CCD camera was used to capture images of the cake formation and fluid drainage processes, and subsequent image and theoretical analysis found the fluid flow experienced a constant pressure loss due to the permeability of the filter media, whereas the experienced pressure loss due to the cake formation varies as a function of time, ϕ and d. The rate of cake formation was also found to be independent of ϕ but dependent on d which can be attributed to a change in porosity affecting permeability. Studies on similar systems with multi-modal suspensions are in-progress.

  20. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SUSPENSION OF THE ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae-Horia ŢIŢ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enforcement procedure is conducted from the time the enforcement body is seized by the enforcement officer, in order to comply with the provisions of the enforcement order, until the completion of the claim, with its accessoriesthereto, and the recovery of the costs of enforcement. The procedure involves a succession of acts, carried mostly by the enforcement officer. The continuity of the procedure may be affected by certain incidents leading to his timing. Among them, the situations ofenforcement suspension are generally determined by reference to their causes, respectively to the provisions of the law (in relation to specific acts or legal facts that occurred during the enforcement, the will of the creditor or the disposal of the court, at the request of the interested party. The analysis of the causes of suspension is important, in order to establish how they operate in concrete, as well for determining the effects that they produce.

  2. Scattering series in mobility problem for suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Makuch, Karol

    2012-01-01

    The mobility problem for suspension of spherical particles immersed in an arbitrary flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid is considered in the regime of low Reynolds numbers. The scattering series which appears in the mobility problem is simplified. The simplification relies on the reduction of the number of types of single-particle scattering operators appearing in the scattering series. In our formulation there is only one type of single-particle scattering operator.

  3. Physicochemical effects in aging aqueous Laponite suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A; Joshi, Yogesh M

    2012-11-06

    We study aging behavior of an aqueous suspension of Laponite as a function of concentration of Laponite, concentration of salt, time elapsed since preparation of suspension (idle time), and temperature by carrying extensive rheological and conductivity experiments. We observe that temporal evolution of elastic moduli, which describes structural build-up and aging, shifts to low times for experiments carried out for higher concentration of Laponite, higher concentration of salt, greater temperature, and longer idle time while preserving the curvature of evolution in the solid regime (elastic modulus greater than viscous modulus). Consequently appropriate shifting of evolution of elastic modulus in the solid regime leads to aging time-idle time-salt concentration-Laponite concentration-temperature superposition. The existence of such a superposition suggests the generic nature of microstructure buildup irrespective of mentioned variables in the explored range. The behavior of shift factors needed to obtain the superposition indicate that the energy barrier associated with structural buildup decreases with an increase in idle time and temperature and decreases linearly with an increase in concentration of Laponite and that of salt. The conductivity experiments show that ionic conductivity of the suspension increases with increasing Laponite concentration, salt concentration, temperature, and very importantly the idle time. We also analyze the interparticle interactions using DLVO theory that suggests an increase in idle time, temperature, and salt concentration increases the height of the repulsive energy barrier while it decreases the width of the same when particles approach each other in a parallel fashion. However when particles approach each other in a perpendicular fashion, owing to dissimilar charges on edge and face, the energy barrier for the attractive interaction is expected to decrease with an increase in idle time, temperature, and salt concentration

  4. Flow dynamics of pulp fiber suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Carla; Garcia, Fernando; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasteiro, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The transport between different equipment and unit operations plays an important role in pulp and paper mills because fiber suspensions differ from all other solid-liquid systems, due to the complex interactions between the different pulp and paper components. Poor understanding of the suspensions’ flow dynamics means the industrial equipment design is usually conservative and frequently oversized, thus contributing to excessive energy consumption in the plants. Our study aim was ...

  5. Transfemoral socket design and suspension options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, S L

    2000-08-01

    The transfemoral socket is the interface between the patient's residual limb and the remaining prosthesis. Whether the patient uses a technologically advanced knee mechanism and foot or a single axis, constant friction knee and solid ankle cushioned heel, no other prosthetic component is as crucial in assuring a comfortable and well-functioning prosthesis as the socket. This article discusses the rationale of quadrilateral and ischial containment socket designs and reviews suspension options.

  6. Magnetic suspension - Today's marvel, tomorrow's tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Langley facility has through constant advocacy of magnetic suspension systems (MSSs) for wind-tunnel model positioning obtained a technology-development status for the requisite large magnets, computers, automatic control techniques, and apparatus configurations, to contemplate the construction of MSSs for large wind tunnels. Attention is presently given to the prospects for MSSs in wind tunnels employing superfluid helium atmospheres to obtain very high Reynolds numbers, where the MSS can yield substantial enhancements of wind tunnel productivity.

  7. Somatic embryogenesis in Lolium multiflorum suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pavlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryogenic cell suspension was obtained from immature embryos of Lolium multiflorum through a callus culture. Somatic embryogenesis was induced by addition of 2,4-D, dicamba and picloram in 0,5 mg/l concentrations in MS liquid nutrient medium. It was shown that somatic embryos arised from single cells. In globular embryoids, the meristematic cells are characterized by the presence of phytoferritin inclusions in the leucoplasts.

  8. Effects of mycorrhizal fungus inoculation on the root of Cupressus duclouxiana and Catalpa bungei seedlings under drought stress%干旱胁迫下接种菌根真菌对滇柏和楸树幼苗根系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如岩; 于水强; 张金池; 周垂帆; 陈莉莎

    2012-01-01

    在正常水分(25%~30%)、中度干旱(15%~20%)、重度干旱(5%~10%)3种水分条件下,设对照(A)、接种内生菌根真菌(B)、接种外生菌根真菌(C)、混合接种(D)4个处理,利用盆栽实验研究了菌根真菌对滇柏、楸树地下生物量和根系N、P含量以及根系形态的影响.结果表明:接种菌根真菌后,根系生物量都有所增加,但滇柏以外生菌和混合菌接种的效果更显著,而楸树以内生菌的效果最为显著.除重度干旱以外,滇柏接种处理的氮和磷含量都要高于对照处理,楸树B和D处理的氮磷含量要高于对照.其中滇柏根系的平均直径、总长度以及表面积都有所增加,接种效果表现为D>C>B>A.接种内生菌根对楸树影响明显,根系形态和对照组相比呈显著性差异,外生菌根无明显作用.重度干旱条件下,接种处理对两种树种各指标的影响都较小.可见,接种菌根真菌能够提高滇柏、楸树的抗旱性.%The potted seedlings of Cupressus duclouxiana and Catalpa bungei were used to examine their response under different moisture content conditions, including normal moisture (25 % -30 % ) , moderate drought (15 % -20 % ) and severe drought (5 % -10 %). The inoculated groups were the control group (A) , VAM group (B) , ectomyeor-rhizal(C) and mixture group (D, VAM + Ectomycorrhiza). After 150 days of treatment, the root biomass, root morphology and contents of nitrogen and phosphorus were measured. The results showed that after the seedlings were inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, root biomass increased. The root biomass of Cupressus duclouxiana seedlings increased significantly under C and D treatments, however, B and D treatment significantly increased the root biomass of Catalpa bungei. Except severe drought, N and P contents in roots of Cupressus duclouxiana with mycorrhizal fungus inoculated were higher than those of control, whereas only with B and D treatment, the N and P contents

  9. Physical gelation of a microfiber suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Antonio; Nunes, Janine K.; Guido, Stefano; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are among the most exploited materials in tissue engineering and there is growing interest in injectable hydrogels, especially as applied to surgical adhesives and bioprinting materials. Here we report a method to produce a hydrogel in a desired location by simply extruding a suspension of high aspect ratio and flexible microfibers from a syringe. The mechanism of gel formation is purely physical and based on irreversible entanglements formed by the microfibers under the action of flow. The single microfibers have been produced and finely tailored by microfluidic methods. Shear rheology has been performed in order to get insights on the entanglements, and results show that the formation of entanglements is related to a shear thickening behavior of the suspension, which in turn depends on shear rate and concentration of fibers. When shearing the suspension, highly non-linear viscoelastic behavior is observed and probed by a highly positive first normal stress difference. We also report the hydrogel swelling behavior and its linear viscoelastic properties as obtained by imposing small oscillatory stress to the material.

  10. Theory of margination in confined multicomponent suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez Rivera, Rafael; Sinha, Kushal; Graham, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In blood flow, leukocytes and platelets tend to segregate near the vessel walls; this is known as margination. Margination of leukocytes and platelets is important in physiological processes, medical diagnostics and drug delivery. A mechanistic theory is developed to describe flow-induced segregation in confined multicomponent suspensions of deformable particles such as blood. The theory captures the essential features of margination by describing it in terms of two key competing processes in these systems at low Reynolds number: wall-induced migration and hydrodynamic pair collisions. The theory also includes the effect of physical properties of the deformable particles and molecular diffusion. Several regimes of segregation are identified, depending on the value of a ``margination parameter'' M. Moreover, there is a critical value of M below which a sharp ``drainage transition'' occurs: one component is completely depleted from the bulk flow to the vicinity of the walls. Direct hydrodynamic simulations also display this transition in suspensions where the components differ in size or flexibility. The developed mechanistic theory leads to substantial insight into the origins of margination and will help in guiding development of new technologies involving multicomponent suspensions. This work was supported by NSF grant CBET-1436082.

  11. Plasmodesmata in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, E; Thomas, C L; Maule, A J

    2004-06-01

    A current challenge in plant biology is to identify the structural and functional components of plasmodesmata (PDs). The use of plant tissue as a source material for plasmodesmal characterisation has had limited success, so we have explored the frequency and features of PDs occurring in suspension cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana. This material has the advantages of homogeneity, quantity, and ease of disruption. Using light and electron microscopy and immunostaining for callose and calreticulin, we showed that suspension cells laid down abundant PDs in division walls, and that vestiges of these structures were retained as half PDs even when the cell-to-cell contacts were disrupted during culture growth. Although callose was a reliable marker for PD distribution, which was deposited in an organised collar around the neck of PDs, it was not abundant in unstressed cells. Calreticulin and the chemical stain 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide also provided useful markers when monitoring PDs in cell wall preparations by light microscopy. Purified cell walls were shown to be virtually free of contamination from cytoplasmic components, except for the presence of small amounts of cortical endoplasmic reticulum attached to PDs. Hence, clean cell walls from A. thaliana suspension cells provide a valuable resource for a proteomic approach to the analysis of plasmodesmal components.

  12. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  13. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  14. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  15. Highly conductive, printable pastes from capillary suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Koos, Erin; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    We have used the capillary suspension phenomenon to design conductive pastes for printed electronic applications, such as front side metallization of solar cells, without non-volatile, organic additives that often deteriorate electrical properties. Adding a small amount of a second, immiscible fluid to a suspension creates a network of liquid bridges between the particles. This capillary force-controlled microstructure allows for tuning the flow behavior in a wide range. Yield stress and low-shear viscosity can be adjusted such that long-term stability is provided by inhibiting sedimentation, and, even more importantly, narrow line widths and high aspect ratios are accessible. These ternary mixtures, called capillary suspensions, exhibit a strong degree of shear thinning that allows for conventional coating or printing equipment to be used. Finally, the secondary fluid, beneficial for stability and processing of the wet paste, completely evaporates during drying and sintering. Thus, we obtained high purity silver and nickel layers with a conductivity two times greater than could be obtained with state-of-the-art, commercial materials. This revolutionary concept can be easily applied to other systems using inorganic or even organic conductive particles and represents a fundamental paradigm change to the formulation of pastes for printed electronics.

  16. Rheological properties of Cubic colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao

    2016-11-01

    Colloidal and non-colloidal suspensions are ubiquitous in many industrial application. There are numerous studies on these systems to understand and relate their complex rheological properties to their microstructural evolution under deformation. Although most of the experimental and simulation studies are centered on spherical particles, in most of the industrial applications the geometry of the colloidal particles deviate from the simple hard sphere and more complex geometries exist. Recent advances in microfabrication paved the way to fabricate colloidal particles with complex geometries for applications in different areas such as drug delivery where the fundamental understanding of their dynamics has remained unexplored. In this study, using dissipative particle dynamics, we investigate the rheological properties of cubic (superball) particles which are modeled as the cluster of core-modified DPD particles. Explicit representation of solvent particles in the DPD scheme will conserve the full hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles. Rheological properties of these cubic suspensions are investigated in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes. The Einstein and Huggins coefficients for these particles with different superball exponent will be calculate which represent the effect of single particle's geometry and multibody interactions on viscosity, respectively. The response of these suspensions is investigated under simple shear and oscillatory shear where it is shown that under oscillation these particles tend to form crystalline structure giving rise to stronger shear-thinning behavior recently measured experimentally.

  17. Dynamics of Discontinuous Shear Thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Concentrated suspensions of hard particles such as cornstarch in water exhibit Discontinuous Shear Thickening, in which an increasing shear rate drives a transition from liquid- to solid-like mechanical behavior. In steady-state shear this phenomena is a result of a dynamic version of jamming in which forces are transmitted along particle contact networks that span to system boundaries and repeatedly form and break up. Several dynamic phenomena observed in such suspensions have long been assumed to be a consequence of this shear thickening, but cannot be explained as a direct result of shear thickening; for example a uniquely strong impact response which allows a person to run on the fluid surface. We perform experiments in which a concentrated suspension is subjected to transient impact. We find that the strong impact response is due a short-lived jammed contact network spanning to the boundaries and a delay time required for this dynamically jammed region to propagate to the boundary. The resulting ability of this system-spanning solid-like region to support loads can explain the ability of a person to run on the surface of these fluids. This delay before a solid-like response may also explain several other dynamic phenomena observed in these fluids.

  18. Numerical homogenization on approach for stokesian suspensions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, B. M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Karpeev, D. A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State Univ.)

    2012-01-20

    In this technical report we investigate efficient methods for numerical simulation of active suspensions. The prototypical system is a suspension of swimming bacteria in a Newtonian fluid. Rheological and other macroscopic properties of such suspensions can differ dramatically from the same properties of the suspending fluid alone or of suspensions of similar but inactive particles. Elongated bacteria, such as E. coli or B. subtilis, swim along their principal axis, propelling themselves with the help of flagella, attached at the anterior of the organism and pushing it forward in the manner of a propeller. They interact hydrodynamically with the surrounding fluid and, because of their asymmetrical shape, have the propensity to align with the local flow. This, along with the dipolar nature of bacteria (the two forces a bacterium exerts on a fluid - one due to self-propulsion and the other opposing drag - have equal magnitude and point in opposite directions), causes nearby bacteria to tend to align, resulting in a intermittent local ordering on the mesoscopic scale, which is between the microscopic scale of an individual bacterium and the macroscopic scale of the suspension (e.g., its container). The local ordering is sometimes called a collective mode or collective swimming. Thanks to self-propulsion, collective modes inject momentum into the fluid in a coherent way. This enhances the local strain rate without changing the macroscopic stress applied at the boundary of the container. The macroscopic effective viscosity of the suspension is defined roughly as the ratio of the applied stress to the bulk strain rate. If local alignment and therefore local strain-rate enhancement, are significant, the effective viscosity can be appreciably lower than that of the corresponding passive suspension or even of the surrounding fluid alone. Indeed, a sevenfold decrease in the effective viscosity was observed in experiments with B. subtilis. More generally, local collective

  19. HYBRID FUZZY CONTROL FOR ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC ACTIVE DAMPING SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new control scheme, the hybrid fuzzy control method, for active damping suspension system is presented. The scheme is the result of effective combination of the statistical optimal control method based on the statistical property of suspension system, with the bang-bang control method based on the real-time characteristics of suspension system. Computer simulations are performed to compare the effectiveness of hybrid fuzzy control scheme with that of optimal damping control, bang-bang control, and passive suspension. It takes the effects of time-variant factors into full account. The superiority of the proposed hybrid fuzzy control scheme for active damping suspension to the passive suspension is verified in the experiment study.

  20. Influence of TAC on Dispersion of Aqueous Nano Alumina Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; YANG De-an; SONG Jian-jing; YANG Zi; LIANG Chong; XU Ming-xia; XU Ting-xian

    2004-01-01

    The stability of aqueous nano alumina powder suspensions with and without dispersant tri-ammonium citrate (TAC) was investigated by measuring zeta potential at different pH values. The isoelectric point (IEP) of alumina powder shifts towards more acidic pH range by adding TAC dispersant. The results illustrate that adsorption of TAC on alumina powder surface existed in the aqueous suspension, which leads to a high stability of the suspension.

  1. International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review related recent developments in sensors and controls approaches, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, a symposium was held. The proceedings are presented. The sessions covered the areas of bearings, sensors and controls, microgravity and vibration isolation, superconductivity, manufacturing applications, wind tunnel magnetic suspension systems, magnetically levitated trains (MAGLEV), space applications, and large gap magnetic suspension systems.

  2. 130 Modeling of the automobile suspension by the functional model

    OpenAIRE

    桐山, 啓; 角田, 鎭男; 長松, 昭男; 御法川, 学; 岩原, 光男; Kiriyama, Akira; Sumida, Shizuo; Nagamatsu, Akio; Minorikawa, Gaku; Iwahara, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Modeling for an action simulation is performed focusing on the suspension system of a car using the modeling technique called the functional model that had been developed by one of the authors. Simulation analysis of the suspension system of a car was performed in the three dimensional field. It was shown that the method based on the modeling concept of functional model can express the general dynamic characteristic of the automobile suspension.

  3. Rheology and flocculation of polymer-modified microfibrillated cellulose suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Karppinen, Anni

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the rheology and flocculation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) suspensionswas modified using different cationic and anionic polymers and surface modification. For this purpose, MFC suspensions were studied simultaneously with a dynamic rotational rheometer and two imaging methods. The flocculation tendency of the suspensions was mainly evaluated using photographing through a transparent rheometer cup, and for some suspensions, optical coherence tomography (OCT), which gives...

  4. Electrostatic stabilization of suspensions in non-aqueous media.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeven, van der, R.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated suspensions of detergent powder solids in a liquid nonionic surfactant are considered for practical application as liquid detergent products. If no precautions are taken, upon storage the viscosity of such suspensions increases and the pourability drops because the suspensions are colloidally unstable. It has been found that after the addition of a small amount of dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DoBS-acid or HDoBS) good pourability is maintained on storage. All the phenomena obser...

  5. Seed Germination of Cupressus chenggiana in Jinchuan County of Sichuan Province at Different Temperatures%不同温度下四川金川县岷江柏种子的发芽特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮; 包维楷; 庞学勇

    2005-01-01

    岷江柏(Cupressus chenggiana S. Y. Hu)是我国川甘地区特有的濒危乔木.通过对不同温度下岷江柏种子的发芽特征研究,分析了种子的发芽周期和最适发芽温度,以及温度对种子发芽的影响,并讨论了岷江柏的发芽特征与环境温度的关系,从而为岷江柏的人工繁育和物种保护提供了理论依据.结果表明:种子发芽周期为20 d,其中0~5 d为萌动期,5~15 d为高峰期.种子发芽温度为5 ℃~30 ℃,适宜发芽温度为10 ℃~25 ℃,5 ℃和30 ℃不利于种子发芽.在贮藏过程中,贮藏开始阶段10 ℃不利于种子发芽,贮藏4~10个月后10 ℃~25 ℃种子发芽的差别不明显.种子最适发芽温度在2003年1月、4月、7月和10月分别为:20 ℃、15 ℃、20 ℃、25 ℃.在贮藏过程,不同温度下种子的发芽率、发芽势和T50都有显著影响.岷江柏种子的发芽周期和最适发芽温度,以及贮藏过程中的发芽特征与环境温度有着密切的关系,这是植物对自然环境的一种适应.

  6. Female Cone Development in Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus ( Cupressaceae)%柏科4个属(Fokienia、Cupressus、Chamaeyparis 和Juniperus)植物雌球果的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泉; 苏都莫日根; 胡玉熹; 林金星

    2004-01-01

    通过扫描电镜和常规石蜡切片技术,观察了柏科4个属(Fokienia、Cupressus、Chamaeyparis 和Juniperus)植物雌球果中胚珠的发育及苞片的结构变化.在所有研究的种类中,可育苞片腋部最先观察到的结构是一扁平的突起,并在其上分化出发育为胚珠的胚珠原基.在雌球果的发育过程中,未观察到独立的珠鳞发育.不同的种中,胚珠怕数量和发育顺序有所不同,但苞片的发育是相似的.传粉前,苞片的结构与叶相似.传粉后,由于剧烈的居间维管束发育.我们还对柏科植物雌球果的形态学特性及其可能的演化趋势进行了讨论.%The ontogeny and vascular systems of female cones of the Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus were investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy. In the species examined, in the axils of the bracts, the first recognizable structure was a broad meristematic swelling, from which ovules developed. No ovuliferous scales developed during the ontogeny of the female cones. The number of ovules and ovule developing sequence displayed considerable variation in different species. However, development of the bracts was similar in all of the investigated species.Following pollination, the foliage-like bracts became peltate bract scales due to intercalary expansion, and global cones formed. In addition, the vascular system in the bract scales became intricate, and inverted vascular bundles emerged in the adaxial of the mature bracts. Based on these observations, a morphological interpretation and possible evolutionary trend of the Cupressaceae female reproductive structures was discussed.

  7. SEED GERMINATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CUPRESSUS CHENGIANA AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES IN MAERKANG, SICHUAN%不同温度下四川马尔康岷江柏种子的发芽特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮; 包维楷; 庞学勇

    2005-01-01

    通过对不同温度下岷江柏(Cupressus chengiana S.Y.Hu)种子的发芽特征研究,分析了种子的发芽周期和最适发芽温度,以及温度对种子发芽的影响,并讨论了岷江柏的发芽特征与环境温度的关系.结果表明,种子发芽周期为20 d,其中0~5 d为准备期,5~15 d为对数期.种子发芽温度为5~30℃,适宜发芽温度为10~25℃,5℃和30℃均不利于种子发芽.在贮藏过程中,贮藏开始阶段10℃不利于种子发芽,10~25℃贮藏4~10 mo后的发芽率没有差异.种子最适发芽温度在2003年1月、4月、7月和10月分别为25℃、10℃、15℃和25℃.在不同温度下,种子发芽率没有差异,而种子发芽势和达到50%发芽的天数有显著差异.岷江柏种子的发芽周期和最适发芽温度,以及贮藏过程中的发芽特征与环境温度有着密切的关系,这是它对自然环境的一种适应表现.图3表2参30

  8. 不同林龄段桤柏混交林生态系统的水源涵养功能%Water conversation function of the mixed Alnus cremastogyne and Cupressus funebris stand ecosystem at different stand age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏飞; 朱波

    2008-01-01

    2005年对川中丘陵区的10、15、20和25 a的桤(Alnus cremastogyne)柏(Cupressus funebris)混交林和30 a纯柏林的水源涵养功能及其变化趋势进行研究.结果表明:1)凋落物的蓄积量、饱和持水量与最大持水量均以20 a的最大,30 a纯柏林的最低,凋落物的持水量与蓄积量、含水率有显著正相关关系;2)表层土壤密度在10~20 a间显著下降,20 a的最低(1.20 g/cm3),在20~30 a间显著增加;非毛管孔隙度和总孔隙度在10~20 a间显著增加,25和30 a时显著下降;毛管孔隙度在各林龄段间呈波动性变化;土壤最小持水量和毛管持水量在10~15 a间显著增加,20~30 a间相对稳定,最大持水量在10~20 a间显著增加,25和30 a的显著降低;3)桤柏混交林的综合水源涵养功能,15 a时达到最大值1 446.06 t/hm2,30 a时显著下降到1 331.60 t/hm2,各林龄段桤柏混交林根系土壤层的水源涵养能力占98%以上.认为应对25 a后的桤柏混交林及纯柏林进行结构调整,以提高桤柏混交林的水源涵养功能.

  9. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  10. Photoluminescent Patterned Papers Resulting from Printings of Polymeric Nanoparticles Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sarrazin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The printability of a copolyfluorene-fluorenone (PFFO photoluminescent nanoparticle aqueous suspension on commercial tracing paper was here investigated. The nanoparticles suspension was obtained by miniemulsification of a suitable preformed photoluminescent organic polymer. The structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of the nanoparticles suspension were first studied before considering its printability by inkjet and flexography techniques. The native properties of the nanoparticles suspension revealed to be more suitable for inkjet printing which was successfully used to print photoluminescent patterns using a very low amount of PFFO.

  11. Subcooled boiling of nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunhui; WANG Buxuan; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to explore the subcooled boiling characteristics of nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires. Some phenomena are observed for the boiling of water-SiO2 nano-particle suspensions on Pt wires. The experiments show that there exist not any evident differences for boiling of pure water and of nano-particle suspensions at high heat fluxes. However, bubble overlap phenomenon can be easily found for nano-particle suspensions at low heat fluxes, which probably results from the increase of the attracter force between bubbles and of the bubble mass.

  12. Autologous epidermal cell suspension: A promising treatment for chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds have become an increasing medical and economic problem of aging societies because they are difficult to manage. Skin grafting is an important treatment method for chronic wounds, which are refractory to conservative therapy. The technique involving epidermal cell suspensions was invented to enable the possibility of treating larger wounds with only a small piece of donor skin. Both uncultured and cultured autologous epidermal cell suspensions can be prepared and survive permanently on the wound bed. A systematic search was conducted of EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed and web of science by using Boolean search terms, from the establishment of the database until May 31, 2014. The bibliographies of all retrieved articles in English were searched. The search terms were: (epithelial cell suspension OR keratinocyte suspension) and chronic and wound. From the included, 6 studies are descriptive interventions and discussed the use of autologous keratinocyte suspension to treat 61 patients' chronic wound. The various methods of preparation of epidermal cell suspension are described. The advantages and shortcomings of different carriers for epidermal cell suspensions are also summarised. Both uncultured and cultured autologous epidermal cell suspensions have been used to treat chronic wounds. Although the limitations of these studies include the small number of patient populations with chronic wounds and many important problems that remain to be solved, autologous epidermal cell suspension is a promising treatment for chronic wounds. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suspension of Water Droplets on Individual Pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tóth, T.; Ferraro, D.; Chiarello, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of extensive experimental and numerical studies on the suspension of water drops deposited on cylindrical pillars having circular and square cross sections and different wettabilities. In the case of circular pillars, the drop contact line is pinned to the whole edge contour until...... the drop collapses due to the action of gravity. In contrast, on square pillars, the drops are suspended on the four corners and spilling along the vertical walls is observed. We have also studied the ability of the two geometries to sustain drops and found that if we compare pillars with the same...

  14. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rufinamide oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, David J; Liou, Yayin; Best, Robert; Zhao, Fang

    2010-03-01

    Rufinamide is an oral antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive therapy in treating generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Currently, rufinamide is available as 200-mg and 400-mg tablets. A liquid dosage form does not exist at the present time. Lack of a suspension formulation may present an administration problem for many children and adults who are unable to swallow tablets. The availability of a liquid dosage form will provide an easy and accurate way to measure and administer the medication. To determine the stability of both sugar-containing and sugar-free rufinamide suspensions over a 90-day period. A suspension of rufinamide 40 mg/mL was prepared by grinding twelve 400-mg tablets of rufinamide tablets in a glass mortar. Sixty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 60 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF (sugar free) were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 120 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 60-mL amber plastic bottles and were stored at room temperature. A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the 6 bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, the samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 90% of the initial rufinamide concentration remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH and no visible microbial growth. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of rufinamide 40 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in 59-mL amber polypropylene plastic bottles at room temperature.

  15. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  16. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  17. Shear banding phenomena in a Laponite suspension

    CERN Document Server

    Ianni, F; Gentilini, S; Ruocco, G

    2007-01-01

    Shear localization in an aqueous clay suspension of Laponite is investigated through dynamic light scattering, which provides access both to the dynamics of the system (homodyne mode) and to the local velocity profile (heterodyne mode). When the shear bands form, a relaxation of the dynamics typical of a gel phase is observed in the unsheared band soon after flow stop, suggesting that an arrested dynamics is present during the shear localization regime. Periodic oscillations of the flow behavior, typical of a stick-slip phenomenon, are also observed when shear localization occurs. Both results are discussed in the light of various theoretical models for soft glassy materials.

  18. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. 21 CFR 1404.710 - When does a suspension take effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does a suspension take effect? 1404.710 Section 1404.710 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.710 When does a suspension take effect? A suspension...

  20. Drug release from non-aqueous suspensions. II. The release of methylxanthines from paraffin suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The release of 3 methylxanthines, i.e. caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, from suspensions in liquid paraffin to an aqueous phase was determined in an in vitro apparatus. The release rates were determined as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase. It was proved that the release process was n

  1. "...becouse Suspension Dosent Teatch You Anything" [sic]: What Students with Challenging Behaviours Say about School Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Samia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on school suspension contains negligible discussion from the perspective of the student. This paper begins to contribute that missing point of view. It presents the findings of an ethnographic study with students in middle childhood who have been suspended from school. For the overwhelming majority of study participants, being…

  2. SEMI-ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR QUARTER CAR MODEL AND ITS ANALYSIS WITH PASSIVE SUSPENSION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak S. Dixit*, Sachin C. Borse

    2017-01-01

    The three main objectives that a suspension system of an automobile must satisfy are ride comfort, vehicle handling and suspension working space. Ride comfort is directly related to the vehicle acceleration experienced by the driver and the passengers. Lesser vertical acceleration, higher is the level of comfort. The aim of the Project was to design and analyze the semi active suspension system models using skyhook, ground hook and hybrid control for quarter car. The project work includes mod...

  3. Roll- and pitch-plane coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part 1: Feasibility analysis and suspension properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Passive fluidically coupled suspensions have been considered to offer a promising alternative solution to the challenging design of a vehicle suspension system. A theoretical foundation, however, has not been established for fluidically coupled suspension to facilitate its broad applications to various vehicles. The first part of this study investigates the fundamental issues related to feasibility and properties of the passive, full-vehicle interconnected, hydro-pneumatic suspension configurations using both analytical and simulation techniques. Layouts of various interconnected suspension configurations are illustrated based on two novel hydro-pneumatic suspension strut designs, both of which provide a compact design with a considerably large effective working area. A simplified measure, vehicle property index, is proposed to permit a preliminary evaluation of different interconnected suspension configurations using qualitative scaling of the bounce-, roll-, pitch- and warp-mode stiffness properties. Analytical formulations for the properties of unconnected and three selected X-coupled suspension configurations are derived, and simulation results are obtained to illustrate their relative stiffness and damping properties in the bounce, roll, pitch and warp modes. The superior design flexibility feature of the interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension is also discussed through sensitivity analysis of a design parameter, namely the annular piston area of the strut. The results demonstrate that a full-vehicle interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension could provide enhanced roll- and pitch-mode stiffness and damping, while retaining the soft bounce- and warp-mode properties. Such an interconnected suspension thus offers considerable potential in realising enhanced decoupling among the different suspension modes.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of a new prosthetic suspension system with two existing suspension systems for lower limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Gholizadeh, Hossien; Ali, Sadeeq; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a newly designed magnetic suspension system with that of two existing suspension methods on pistoning inside the prosthetic socket and to compare satisfaction and perceived problems among transtibial amputees. In this prospective study, three lower limb prostheses with three different suspension systems were fabricated for ten transtibial amputees. The participants used each of the three prostheses for 1 mo in random order. Pistoning inside the prosthetic socket was measured by motion analysis system. The Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire was used to evaluate satisfaction and perceived problems with each suspension system. The lowest pistoning motion was found with the suction system compared with the other two suspension systems (P < 0.05). The new suspension system showed peak pistoning values similar to that of the pin lock system (P = 0.086). The results of the questionnaire survey revealed significantly higher satisfaction rates with the new system than with the other two systems in donning and doffing, walking, uneven walking, stair negotiation, and overall satisfaction (P < 0.05). The new suspension system has the potential to be used as an alternative to the available suspension systems. The pistoning motion was comparable to that of the other two systems. The new system showed compatible prosthetic suspension with the other two systems (suction and pin lock). The satisfaction with donning and doffing was high with the magnetic system. Moreover, the subjects reported fewer problems with the new system.

  5. Translation of Personification and Suspension of Disbelief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shahabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study calls the translators´ attention to animal personification in texts where in some cases the image of the animal is not only different from or contradictory to those in the target language but also different from or contradictory to those in the source text. The proposed translation strategies in this study are based on the specificity of the situations. The translator must reflect on three factors: a the features of the animal in the source text, b the image of that animal in the source language, and also c its image in the target language. However, in this study, we conclude that the burden is put on the readers, rather than on the author or translators. They make use of the reader´s willing suspension of disbelief which helps them in encountering breakdown in established conventions and norms, to “suspend” their disbelief about odd or eccentric entities and concepts. Keywords: Shared Assumption, Translation Cognitive Approach, Cognitive Equivalence, Disbelief Suspension

  6. Nanoparticle assisted coagulation of aqueous alumina suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fatih Çetinel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal processing of ceramics offers a high potential to achieve homogeneous microstructures with improved material properties. In this study, a novel forming method is investigated, which was already applied successfully for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites (CMC, but is also considered to be a suitable direct casting technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties. The so-called nanoparticle assisted coagulation method (NPAC represents a modification of the hydrolysis-assisted solidification (HAS technique. It promises green components with high green strength, uniform density as well as homogeneous and tailored microstructure. Electrostatically stabilized colloidal suspensions with high solid loadings were produced by dispersing various fractions of submicron alumina powder and aluminium hydroxide nano-powder in water without use of any organic binder. Rheology and coagulation kinetics of suspensions and green part properties were studied regarding to modifications of pH value, setting temperature, amount of setting agent, amount of nano-powder, solids loading and process parameters like ultrasound treatment. It could be revealed that the homogeneous core-shell arrangement of submicron and nanoparticles in the colloidal state can be transmitted to the green state, which improves the microstructure and green density of the green parts. For this, the NPAC method is seen as a promising technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties.

  7. Regeneration of soybean via embryogenic suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste Annette

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to establish an alternative plant regeneration system for soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars used in Brazilian breeding programs, ten genotypes were tested for their embryogenic potential. Cotyledons were removed as explants from immature seeds harvested from field-grown plants. After 45 days on induction medium, the number of responding cotyledons and the number of somatic embryos per immature cotyledon were evaluated. The percentage of explants that produced somatic embryos varied from 1 to 70% among cultivars. The average number of somatic embryos produced per cotyledon pair ranged from 0.01 to 10.3 with a mean of 3.4. Suspension cultures were initiated with three Agrobacterium tumefaciens susceptible cultivars. Suspensions were successfully developed from Bragg and IAS5 cultivars. The packed cell volume, in one-month growth, increased 8.1 fold for Bragg and 3.5 fold for IAS5 and the fresh weight increased 6.6 and 2.8 fold, respectively. The cultivars differed for the analysed parameters. All tissue from each cultivar was transferred to the maturation medium and subsequently to the germination medium. The germination frequency was 45.7 and 54.9% for Bragg and IAS5, respectively. Plants were gradually exposed to ambient humidity over one week and then planted in soil. All plants yielded seeds in the greenhouse.

  8. Criteria and suspension levels in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J; Baldelli, P; Balter, S; Bischof, N; Bosmans, H; Dowling, A; Edyvean, S; Gallagher, A; Faulkner, K; Horner, K; Malone, L; Mclean, I D; O'Connor, U; Schreiner, A; Vassileva, J; Vano, E; Zoetelief, J

    2013-02-01

    The EC (European Council) Directive on radiation protection of patients requires that criteria for acceptability of equipment in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy be established throughout the member states. This study reviews the background to this requirement and to its implementation in practice. It notes and considers parallel requirements in the EC medical devices directive and International Electrotechnical Commission standards that it is also important to consider and that both sets of requirements should ideally be harmonised due to the global nature of the equipment industry. The study further reviews the types of criteria that can be well applied for the above purposes, and defines qualitative criteria and suspension levels suitable for application. Both are defined and relationships with other acceptance processes are considered (including acceptance testing at the time of purchase, commissioning and the issue of second-hand equipment). Suspension levels are divided into four types, A, B, C and D, depending on the quality of evidence and consensus they are based on. Exceptional situations involving, for example, new or rapidly evolving technology are also considered. The publication and paper focuses on the role of the holder of the equipment and related staff, particularly the medical physics expert and the practitioner. Advice on how the criteria should be created and implemented is provided for these groups and how this might be coordinated with the supplier. Additional advice on the role of the regulator is provided.

  9. Polydisperse suspensions: Erosion, deposition, and flow capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Hogg, A. J.; Pritchard, D.

    2013-09-01

    Deposition from particle-laden flows is often described in terms of the capacity and competence of the flow, but robust definitions of these terms have proved elusive. In this paper we provide a mathematical modeling framework within which erosion and deposition of polydisperse sediment, and thus flow capacity and competence, can be rigorously defined. This framework explicitly captures the coupling between the suspension and an active layer of sediment at the top of the bed, and is capable of describing both depositional and erosional flows over both erodible and nonerodible beds. Crucially, the capacity of a flow is shown to depend on the erosional and depositional history because these processes determine the composition of the active layer. This dependence is explored within models of bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions. It is further demonstrated that monodisperse representations of suspended sediment transport may severely underpredict actual flow capacity. The polydisperse model is validated against recent experimental studies of the evolution of suspended material in waning turbulent flows, and is used to demonstrate that loss of capacity is the principal driver of sediment deposition.

  10. Quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, N A; Cagnoli, G; Crooks, D R M; Elliffe, E; Grant, A; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Plissi, M V; Rowan, S; Sneddon, P H; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Faller, J E [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fritschel, P [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany St, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gossler, S [Universitat Hannover, Institut fuer Atom und Molekuelphysik, Abteilung Spektroskopie, D30167, Hannover (Germany); Lueck, H [Universitat Hannover, Institut fuer Atom und Molekuelphysik, Abteilung Spektroskopie, D30167, Hannover (Germany); Mittleman, R [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany St, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Shoemaker, D H [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany St, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Willems, P [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2002-08-07

    In this paper, we describe the conceptual design for the suspension system for the test masses for Advanced LIGO, the planned upgrade to LIGO, the US laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory. The design is based on the triple pendulum design developed for GEO 600 - the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector. The GEO design incorporates fused silica fibres of circular cross-section attached to the fused silica mirror (test mass) in the lowest pendulum stage, in order to minimize the thermal noise from the pendulum modes. The damping of the low-frequency modes of the triple pendulum is achieved by using co-located sensors and actuators at the highest mass of the triple pendulum. Another feature of the design is that global control forces acting on the mirrors, used to maintain the output of the interferometer on a dark fringe, are applied via a triple reaction pendulum, so that these forces can be implemented via a seismically isolated platform. These techniques have been extended to meet the more stringent noise levels planned for in Advanced LIGO. In particular, the Advanced LIGO baseline design requires a quadruple pendulum with a final stage consisting of a 40 kg sapphire mirror, suspended on fused silica ribbons or fibres. The design is chosen to aim to reach a target noise contribution from the suspension corresponding to a displacement sensitivity of 10{sup -19} m Hz{sup -1/2} at 10 Hz at each of the test masses.

  11. Studies on suspension culture of virginia mallow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kasprzyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita (L. Rusby belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is a very important industrial and energetic crop (Kasprzyk et al. 2013. In our studies, we used plant cell suspension cultures due to the fact that it is a useful tool to investigate biochemical, molecular and physiological aspects of many cellular functions (Dong et al. 2010. Virginia mallow seeds, obtained from Prof. Borkowska (University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland, were used in this investigation to obtain plants which were grown in sterile conditions in the Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland. The seeds were surface sterilized and washed three times in sterile, distilled water. After 3 weeks of in vitro culture, young seedlings were used as a source of explants (to callus induction. Two types of explants were used to form callus culture: leaf and petiole. Callus tissues were then aseptically transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask with liquid medium and placed on an orbital shaker moving at 120 rpm. The observations of this suspense culture were conducted under light and confocal LSM microscopes. The authors observed that depending on the type of explants and composition of medium, callus tissue has varied in color and character of growth.

  12. Heat transfer in suspensions of rigid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi; Abouali, Omid

    2016-11-01

    We study the heat transfer in laminar Couette flow of suspensions of rigid neutrally buoyant particles by means of numerical simulations. An Immersed Boundary Method is coupled with a VOF approach to simulate the heat transfer in the fluid and solid phase, enabling us to fully resolve the heat diffusion. First, we consider spherical particles and show that the proposed algorithm is able to reproduce the correlations between heat flux across the channel, the particle volume fraction and the heat diffusivity obtained in laboratory experiments and recently proposed in the literature, results valid in the limit of vanishing inertia. We then investigate the role of inertia on the heat transfer and show an increase of the suspension diffusivity at finite particle Reynolds numbers. Finally, we vary the relativity diffusivity of the fluid and solid phase and investigate its effect on the effective heat flux across the channel. The data are analyzed by considering the ensemble averaged energy equation and decomposing the heat flux in 4 different contributions, related to diffusion in the solid and fluid phase, and the correlations between wall-normal velocity and temperature fluctuations. Results for non-spherical particles will be examined before the meeting. Supported by the European Research Council Grant No. ERC-2013- CoG-616186, TRITOS. The authors acknowledge computer time provided by SNIC (Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  13. Standardisation of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James; Kazakova, Olga; Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe; Petronis, Sarunas; Bogart, Lara K.; Southern, Paul; Pankhurst, Quentin; Johansson, Christer

    2017-09-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles offer diverse opportunities for technology innovation, spanning a large number of industry sectors from imaging and actuation based applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, through large-scale environmental remediation uses such as water purification, to engineering-based applications such as position-controlled lubricants and soaps. Continuous advances in their manufacture have produced an ever-growing range of products, each with their own unique properties. At the same time, the characterisation of magnetic nanoparticles is often complex, and expert knowledge is needed to correctly interpret the measurement data. In many cases, the stringent requirements of the end-user technologies dictate that magnetic nanoparticle products should be clearly defined, well characterised, consistent and safe; or to put it another way—standardised. The aims of this document are to outline the concepts and terminology necessary for discussion of magnetic nanoparticles, to examine the current state-of-the-art in characterisation methods necessary for the most prominent applications of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, to suggest a possible structure for the future development of standardisation within the field, and to identify areas and topics which deserve to be the focus of future work items. We discuss potential roadmaps for the future standardisation of this developing industry, and the likely challenges to be encountered along the way.

  14. On the mechanism of agglomeration in suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Agglomeration in suspension is a size enlargement method that facilitates operation of solid processing and preserves the solubilization properties of fine particles. A small quantity of binder liquid is added into a suspension of microparticles, directly in the stirred vessel where the precipitation or crystallization took place. This study deals with the evaluation of the effect of agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid on agglomerates properties in order to give some insights into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Methods: Carbamazepine is used as a model drug and isopropyl acetate is used as binder liquid. The agglomerates characterization includes the particle size, morphology and density. Results: The results showed that, by increasing the agitation time before addition of binder liquid, smaller agglomerates with less density and irregular forms composed of larger crystals were obtained. However, with increasing agitation time after addition of binder liquid the agglomerates size and density increases and morphology improves. Indeed, by continuing agitation along the course of agglomeration the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Conclusion: With optimized agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid, spherical and dense agglomerates can be obtained.

  15. Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications.

  16. Thermally Insulating, Kinematic Tensioned-Fiber Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.

    2004-01-01

    A salt pill and some parts of a thermally insulating, kinematic suspension system that holds the salt pill rigidly in an adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is presented. "Salt pill" in this context denotes a unit comprising a cylindrical container, a matrix of gold wires in the container, and a cylinder of ferric ammonium alum (a paramagnetic salt) that has been deposited on the wires. The structural members used in this system for both thermal insulation and positioning are aromatic polyamide fibers (Kevlar(R) or equivalent) under tension. This suspension system is designed to satisfy several special requirements to ensure the proper operation of the ADR. These requirements are to (1) maintain the salt pill at a specified position within the cylindrical bore of an electromagnet; (2) prevent vibrations, which would cause dissipation of heat in the salt pill; and (3) minimize the conduction of heat from the electromagnet bore and other neighboring objects to the salt pill; all while (4) protecting the salt pill (which is fragile) against all tensile and bending loads other than those attributable to its own weight. In addition, the system is required to consist of two subsystems -- one for the top end and one for the bottom end of the salt pill -- that can be assembled and tensioned separately from each other and from the salt pill, then later attached to the salt pill.

  17. 12 CFR 19.243 - Removal, suspension, or debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal, suspension, or debarment. 19.243 Section 19.243 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services §...

  18. 12 CFR 19.244 - Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. 19.244 Section 19.244 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing...

  19. Shear-induced self-diffusion in concentrated suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, Laurens Victor Adriaan

    2000-01-01

    Suspensions consist of solid particles dispersed in a liquid. In practice they are for example used for large-scale transport of particulate materials like sand. During oil and gas drilling suspensions are utilized for the transport of rock cuttings. Furthermore they can be found in industry in the

  20. Network synthesis and parameter optimization for vehicle suspension with inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a comfortable-oriented vehicle suspension structure, the network synthesis method was utilized to transfer the problem into solving a timing robust control problem and determine the structure of “inerter–spring–damper” suspension. Bilinear Matrix Inequality was utilized to obtain the timing transfer function. Then, the transfer function of suspension system can be physically implemented by passive elements such as spring, damper, and inerter. By analyzing the sensitivity and quantum genetic algorithm, the optimized parameters of inerter–spring–damper suspension were determined. A quarter-car model was established. The performance of the inerter–spring–damper suspension was verified under random input. The simulation results manifested that the dynamic performance of the proposed suspension was enhanced in contrast with traditional suspension. The root mean square of vehicle body acceleration decreases by 18.9%. The inerter–spring–damper suspension can inhibit the vertical vibration within the frequency of 1–3 Hz effectively and enhance the performance of ride comfort significantly.