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Sample records for cuphea glutinosa lythraceae

  1. Estudio anatómico y distribución de las reservas proteicas y lipídicas en semillas de diferentes tamaños de Cuphea glutinosa (Lythraceae

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    María Elena di Santo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea glutinosa Cham et Schltdl., especie autóctona de las Sierras Pampeanas de la República Argentina, produce un alto número de semillas con abundante cantidad de reservas que almacena en cuerpos proteicos (CP y lipídicos (CL en sus cotiledones. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar los detalles anatómicos de las semillas, las características de las cubiertas, los volúmenes celulares y el número y tamaño de los CP y CL presentes en el parénquima en empalizada, esponjoso y epidermis de cotiledones de dos tamaños de semilla. Se trabajó con semillas grandes y chicas con un peso de 1,011 ± 0,0035 g y 0,557 ± 0,0026 g cada 1.000 semillas, respectivamente. El estudio se realizó sobre fotografías del MEB y con el programa ImageJ 1.40 y los resultados fueron analizados estadísticamente. Cuphea glutinosa presenta una notable cubierta seminal de células cúbicas que rodea al embrión. Los cotiledones muestran una anatomía semejante a la de una hoja adulta con importantes variaciones de los volúmenes celulares entre tejidos de ambos tipos de semillas. El tamaño de la semilla no tuvo influencia en el tamaño de los CP ni CL en los diferentes tejidos cotiledonales. Sin embargo, la distribución se vio fuertemente influenciada, ya que las semillas grandes acumulan sus reservas fundamentalmente en CP, en cambio las semillas chicas las acumulan en CL manteniendo con pocas variaciones el contenido energético, no obstante las grandes variaciones en el tamaño de la semilla.Anatomical study and distribution of proteic and lipidic reserves in different seeds' sizes of Cuphea glutinosa (Lythraceae. Cuphea glutinosa Cham et Schltdl., autochthonous species from the Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina, it produces a high number of seeds with abundant reserves in protein (PB and oil bodies (OB of its cotyledonal tissues. The objective of the present work was to determine anatomical details of seeds, characteristics of the covers, cellular

  2. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae): a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

    OpenAIRE

    Melazzo, Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio

    2012-01-01

    Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beij...

  3. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

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    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Melazzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beija-flores. A floração foi longa, com início em Janeiro, em plena estação chuvosa, e término em Julho, no início da seca. O tubo floral formado pelo hipanto é calcarado na base, onde se acumula o néctar produzido por nectário localizado na base do ovário. As flores são marcadamente protândricas, mas flores em diferentes fases podem ser encontradas nos racemos. Os dados mostraram que a espécie é autocompatível e não apomítica, mas devido à dicogamia marcada, necessita polinização ativa para formar frutos. Phaethornis pretrei, Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania furcata, Eupetomena macroura e Chlorostilbon lucidus (fêmea foram as espécies de beija-flores observadas visitando e polinizando as flores de C. melvilla. Amazilia fimbriata e C. lucidus apresentaram ocasionalmente comportamento territorial, P. pretrei apresentou forrageamento em linhas de captura, e T. furcata e E. macroura apresentaram forrageamento do tipo oportunístico, visitando as populações estudadas esporadicamente. Amazilia fimbriata, C. lucidus e P. pretrei foram considerados os polinizadores mais importantes, dada a sua constância. As características morfológicas das flores de Cuphea melvilla relacionadas a adaptações aos beija-flores parecem ser derivadas no gênero, sendo que a polinização por beija-flores nas distintas seções indica adaptação convergente a este modo de polinização.Cuphea melvilla is a peculiar species of a mostly

  4. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae): uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores

    OpenAIRE

    Melazzo,Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Oliveira,Paulo Eugênio

    2012-01-01

    Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beij...

  5. A phytochemical study of the Cuphea glutinosa from Southern Brazil: Na+,K+-ATPase activity inhibition and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Adriana M; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié Martins; Bohnert, Crystiani; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Morandini, Liziane M; Coelho, Helena S; Fogaça, Aline O; Andrade, Cinthia M; Mostardeiro, Marco A; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2018-05-21

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of Cuphea glutinosa (CG) and its effect on Na + , K + -ATPase from cardiac muscle. The ethanolic extract showed higher antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous and ethyl acetate fraction. Ethyl acetate fraction showed β-sitosterol-3-O-β-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, isoquercetin, gallic acid methyl ester, and gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also reduced the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity. CG presented a promising antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on the Na + , K + -ATPase activity, supporting biochemical evidences the popular use of this plant in the treatment of heart failure.

  6. Caracterização morfoanatômica e histoquímica de Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.f. Macbr. (Lythraceae Morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. (Lythraceae

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    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. é uma planta herbácea, que ocorre preferivelmente em locais úmidos. Dentre outras espécies do gênero, esta se destaca pelo grande potencial químico e emprego frequente na medicina popular. Neste estudo, descrevem-se aspectos morfológicos, a anatomia e as características histoquímicas dos órgãos vegetativos, na fase de desenvolvimento em que a espécie é comercializada. A partir de plantas adultas, foram coletadas amostras de raiz, caule e folhas. Esse material foi processado para análise anatômica e histoquímica em microscopia de luz e para análise morfológica, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Considerações morfoanatômicas importantes foram acrescentadas para C. carthagenensis, tais como: a ocorrência de felema aerenquimatoso com camadas suberificadas; a identificação dos tipos de tricomas ocorrentes nos órgãos vegetativos; e a caracterização do tricoma secretor, bem como do material secretado. Os grupos de metabólitos secundários presentes nos tecidos da raiz, do caule e da folha de C. carthagenensis que apresentaram reação histoquímica mais intensa foram: proantocianidinas, compostos fenólicos, polissacarídeos ácidos (especialmente mucilagem e lipídios totais.Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. is an herb, which occurs preferably in wet places. Amongst other species of the genus, C. carthagenensis is distinguished for its great chemical potential and frequent use in popular medicine. In this study the morphological and anatomical structures were identified, as well as the histochemical characterization was done. Samples of root, stem and leaves were collected from adult plants. This material was processed for anatomical and histochemical analysis in light microscopy and for morphological analysis, in scanning electron microscopy. Important morphological and anatomical considerations were added for C. carthagenensis, such as: the occurrence of

  7. Relacionamentos entre as espécies autógamas de Cuphea P. Browne seção Brachyandra koehne (Lythraceae Relationships among autogamous species of Cuphea P. Browne section Brachyandra (Lythraceae

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    Shirley A Graham

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A seção Brachyandra, uma das 13 seções de Cuphea, é excepcional por compreender a maioria das espécies autógamas do gênero. A maior parte das outras espécies de Cuphea, embora autocompatíveis, são alógamas protândricas. A seção Brachyandra é definida pela presença de estames com filetes curtos e profundamente inseridos no tubo floral, caracteres diretamente relacionados à autogamia. Entre as espécies da seção, existem poucas diferenças na morfologia floral e os caracteres vegetativos são variáveis e sobrepostos. As similaridades poderiam ser atribuídas à recente especiação dentro de um grupo monofilético, definido pela aquisição do modo autógamo de reprodução, ou a seção poderia ser polifilética, com similaridades resultantes de convergência, dirigidas pela mudança de alógamas para autógamas. A morfologia do pólen e da semente, descrita agora para este grupo, sugere que a seção Brachyandra não seja monofilética, mas sim que compreenda um mínimo de três diferentes linhas evolutivas, representadas por: 1 quatro espécies com sementes aladas e pólen oblato, sincolporado e estriado, com poros proeminentes; 2 duas espécies com sementes grandes e não aladas e pólen psilado, sem poros proeminentes e leves espessamentos interaperturados; 3 oito espécies com sementes pequenas, não aladas e quase esferoidais, pólen não sincolpado, psilado a rugulado. A variação neste último grupo sugere que o mesmo seja derivado de mais do que um ancestral. Na análise cladística, as espécies da seção Brachyandra ocorrem dentro de ciados de espécies das seções Euandra, Pseudochvaea, Trispernuun e Amazoniana. Os resultados indicam que não existe base filogenética sólida para o reconhecimento da seção Brachyandra como presentemente definida.Section Brachyandra, one of 13 sections of Cuphea, is exceptional in comprising the majority of self-fertilizing species in the genus; most other Cuphea, although

  8. Ammannia (Lythraceae) in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Enumeration and taxonomic treatment of the seven species of Ammannia (Lythraceae) occurring in the Malesian area are presented among which one new species A. herbacea. A key to the species is given. Two species are illustrated. Ammannia debilis is a distinct species endemic to S India.

  9. Composição química quantitativa e avaliação da potencial atividade vasodilatadora de Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) MacBride

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Baier Krepsky

    2011-01-01

    Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) MacBride Lythraceae, denominada popularmente sete-sangrias, tem uso medicinal tradicional no tratamento de doenças cardiovasculares, entre outras. Como não foram encontrados estudos sobre a relação entre composição química quantitativa e atividade biológica, ou sobre identificação de metabólitos secundários polares, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de metabólitos secundários da espécie e sua potencial atividad...

  10. Mutation induction for domestication of Cuphea: Effects of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Oils of the so called lauric acid group plants are very interesting for industries commercially because of their relatively high content of saturated medium chain triglycerides (MCT), in particular lauric acid (C 12:0 ). Steep melting point curves and low melting points make these oils particularly suitable as fats for synthetic creams, hard butters and similar products; sodium soaps of MCT's are hard, stable to oxidation, and free lathering. Palm kernel oil from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and coconut oil from Cocos nucifera L. are the two most important commercial source of MCT's for the chemical industry. However, because of large variation in production and price, industries became interested in a continuous supply of MCT's from other species. The genus Cuphea (Lythraceae) contains a large number of herbaceous annuals adapted to temperate climate whose seed oil contains high levels of MCT's. Unfortunately, a common characteristic of the wild species is seed shattering during ripening. Seed shattering could be due to floral zygomorphy which causes the placenta to rupture the ovary wall during development, exposing the seeds; exposed seeds dry and are quickly shed. Seed dormancy is another major deterrent to the agronomic use of Cuphea. It appears to result from hard seed coats as well as from physiological factors and can be effectively broken only by prolonged after-ripening (up to a year). Natural genetic variation in Cuphea does not appear to be suitable for the development of non-shattering types. Therefore, the potential of broadening genetic variation through mutagenesis (using EMS) was investigated, first in the autogamous species C. aperta and in the allogamous species C. lanceolata, and C. procumbens. Mutants having somewhat improved seed retention were selected from all three species, however, expressivity was complete only in C. aperta. According to HIRSINGER and ROEBBELEN, the autogamous species C. tolucana Peyr. (n=12) and C. wrightii A. Gray

  11. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

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    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  12. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  13. Rehmannia glutinosa: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru-Xue; Li, Mao-Xing; Jia, Zheng-Ping

    2008-05-08

    Rehmannia glutinosa, a widely used traditional Chinese herb, belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae, and is taken to nourish Yin and invigorate the kidney in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has a very high medicinal value. In recent decades, a great number of chemical and pharmacological studies have been done on Rehmannia glutinosa. More than 70 compounds including iridoids, saccharides, amino acid, inorganic ions, as well as other trace elements have been found in the herb. Studies show that Rehmannia glutinosa and its active principles possess wide pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. Currently, the effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for the pharmacological activity of Rehmannia glutinosa and the highest quality scientific data is delivered to support the further application and exploitation for new drug development.

  14. Feasibility of cuphea as a new oilseed crop to climate and soil environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea, a new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0), may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objective of this stu...

  15. Selective Somatic Elimination of NICOTIANA GLUTINOSA Chromosomes in the F(1) Hybrids of N. SUAVEOLENS and N. GLUTINOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S B; Gupta, P

    1973-04-01

    The F(1) hybrids of Nicotiana suaveolens (subgenus Petunioides, 2n = 32) and N. glutinosa (subgenus Tabacum, 2n = 24), were examined during their development, from seedlings to mature plants. It was observed that in the hybrids, there was a progressive change of dominant N. glutinosa morphological characteristics towards those of N. suaveolens, in leaf shape, stem, flower color and branching pattern. A study of mitotic chromosomes in the root-tips and in very young anthers of the mature plants indicated a significantly high average frequency of aberrant mitotic anaphases (bridges and fragments, 12% and 11% respectively). As a consequence of this phenomenon, variability in the number and size of chromosomes was observed in the PMC's and in mitotic metaphases (29-24 chromosomes). In order to establish whether the N. glutinosa chromosomes were preferentially lost, a karyological study of the parents and their F(1) hybrids was carried out and it was established that the F(1) hybrids were losing N. glutinosa chromosomes preferentially. A mechanism was suggested for the loss of these chromosomes by means of a chromatid type of breakage-fusion-bridge cycle (b-f-b cycle) and initiation of the b-f-b cycle in the hybrid due to an interaction of the regulatory mechanism of DNA replication in the haploid genomes of the parental species. However, loss of these chromosomes owing to interaction of certain genes from the two parental species cannot be ruled out.

  16. Ventilation and oxygen consumption in the hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; SINDBERG, CD

    1984-01-01

    Ventilation was measured directly in the hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L., by means of an electro-magnetic blood flowmeter. Ventilatory flow and frequency increased from 0.86 ± 0.27 mlmin-, and 18.2 ± 5.1min-, respectively, at 7°C to 1.70 ± 0.20 mlmin-, and 70.1 ± 9.5min- at 15 C. Standard oxygen...

  17. Cuphea growth, yield, and oil characteristics as influenced by climate and soil environments across the Upper Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea is a potential new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0) that may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objec...

  18. Effects of growth conditions and processing on Rehmannia glutinosa using fingerprint strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, W.T.; Thissen, U.; Ehlert, K.A.; Koek, M.M.; Jellema, R.H.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Metabolite profiling in combination with multivariate statistics is a sophisticated method for quality assessment of natural products. For the development of a quality control strategy in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), we have measured the metabolite fingerprints of Rehmannia glutinosa by

  19. A new megastigmane from fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new megastigmane, rehmamegastigmane (1, together with eighteen known compounds lariciresinol (2, lariciresinol-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, hierochin D (4, yemuoside YM1 (5, darendoside B (6, decaffeoylacteoside (7, jionoside B1 (8, catalpol (9, ajugol (10, 6-O-vanilloylajugol (11, 6-O-E-feruloylajugol (12, rehmapicroside (13, rehmapicrogenin (14, 3-methoxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1-enecarboxylic acid (15, vanillic acid (16, hydroferulic acid (17, threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,2,3-propanetriol (18, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol (19 was isolated from the fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Compounds 2–6 and 16–18 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  20. Novas espécies de Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae do Planalto Central e Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil New species of Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae from Central Brazil and Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Barbosa Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Novas espécies de Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae do Planalto Central e Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Quatro novas espécies são descritas e ilustradas para o gênero Diplusodon, que se somam ao alto número de espécies registradas para este gênero no Cerrado brasileiro, mais especificamente para as montanhas que formam a Serra Geral do Paraná, ou Serra Geral de Goiás, reafirmando a região como centro de diversidade genética do gênero. As seguintes espécies são descritas: Diplusodon capitalensis, do Distrito Federal e Goiás, D. chapadensis e D. grahamae, de Goiás, e D. rupestris, de Minas Gerais.(New species of Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae from Central Brazil and Minas Gerais State. Four new species are described and illustrated for the genus Diplusodon. These are added to the already high number of species registered for the Brazilian Cerrado, more precisely in the chain of mountains that form the Serra Geral do Parana or Serra Geral de Goiás, confirming this region as the primary center of genetic diversity of the genus. The following species are described: Diplusodon capitalensis, from the Distrito Federal and Goiás, D. chapadensis and D. grahamae from Goiás, and D. rupestris, from Minas Gerais.

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Rehmannia glutinosa (Scrophulariaceae), a medicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhenbin; Cheng, Yueqin; Wang, Hongwei; Lei, Caiyan; Wang, G Geoff; Han, Linjiang

    2015-10-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa (Scrophulariaceae) is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Microsatellite primers were developed and characterized for this species to evaluate its genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Sixteen microsatellite loci were isolated from R. glutinosa using an enriched genomic library, and these markers were characterized in two wild populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 20. A high genetic diversity was observed in two populations, with average observed heterozygosity of 0.812 and 0.794, and average expected heterozygosity of 0.802 and 0.814, respectively. Rehmannia glutinosa is an important medicinal resource. The genetic markers described in our study will be useful for future population genetic studies and molecular breeding programs on this species.

  2. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Rehmannia glutinosa (Scrophulariaceae), a medicinal herb1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhenbin; Cheng, Yueqin; Wang, Hongwei; Lei, Caiyan; Wang, G. Geoff; Han, Linjiang

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Rehmannia glutinosa (Scrophulariaceae) is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Microsatellite primers were developed and characterized for this species to evaluate its genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Methods and Results: Sixteen microsatellite loci were isolated from R. glutinosa using an enriched genomic library, and these markers were characterized in two wild populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 20. A high genetic diversity was observed in two populations, with average observed heterozygosity of 0.812 and 0.794, and average expected heterozygosity of 0.802 and 0.814, respectively. Conclusions: Rehmannia glutinosa is an important medicinal resource. The genetic markers described in our study will be useful for future population genetic studies and molecular breeding programs on this species. PMID:26504679

  3. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Tanaman Ketan Hitam (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa) sebagai Indikator Asam Basa

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Muhammad Arief; Amran, Elva Yasmi; ', Susilawati

    2016-01-01

    Research was conducted with the aims to determine pH range, percentage acid base indicator titration error, and stability of Oryza sativa Glutinosa extract as acid base indicator. Oryza sativa Glutinosa grains respectively extracted with maseration using ethanol (HCl 1%). pH range determined by added the extract into buffer solutions pH 1-9. Percentage acid base indicator titration error determined by applied the extract in strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base...

  4. Antiparasitic activities of acridone alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Vieira, Paulo C; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rattray, Lauren; Croft, Simon L [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

    2009-07-01

    Eleven acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. were examined for in vitro activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 and Leishmania donovani L82. An assay with KB cells was developed in order to compare in vitro toxicity of alkaloids with the selective action on the parasites. Nine of the compounds had IC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.3 to 11.6 {mu}M against P. falciparum. In contrast, a small number of compounds showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and none had activity against L. donovani. Among the alkaloids three had IC{sub 50} < 1.0 {mu}M against P. falciparum, whereas against T. b. rhodesiense five had IC{sub 50} < 10 {mu}M. The characterization of the acridone alkaloids, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-10-methyl-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)acridin-9 (10H)-one (1), 2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro [3,2-b] acridin-5(10H)-one (2) and 3,4-dihydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-2Hpyrano[ 2,3-a]acridin-12(7H)-one (3), is discussed, as well as the structure-activity relationship of all compounds assayed. Isolation and spectral data of alkaloids 1-3 are described for the first time although their cytotoxicities to cancer cells have been described before. (author)

  5. Construction and Quality Analysis of Transgenic Rehmannia glutinosa Containing TMV and CMV Coat Protein

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    Zhongqiu Teng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses, especially tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV are serious threats to Rehmannia glutinosa which is a “top grade” herb in China. In the present study, TMV- and CMV-resistant Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. plants were constructed by transforming the protein (CP genes of TMV and CMV into Rehmannia glutinosa via a modified procedure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of TMV CP and CMV CP transgenes in 2 lines, LBA-1 and LBA-2, were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR. Both LBA-1 and LBA-2 were resistant to infection of homologous TMV and CMV strains. The quality of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix was evaluated based on fingerprint analysis and components quantitative analysis comparing with control root tubes. These results showed that chemical composition of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were similar to non-transgenic ones, which demonstrated that the medical quality and biosafety of transgenic Rehmanniae Radix were equivalent to non-transgenic material when consumed as traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM.

  6. [Effect of substrate of edible mushroom on continuously cropping obstacle of Rehmannia glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Rui-Hong; Li, Xuan-Zhen; Hunag, Xiao-Shu; Gao, Feng; Wang, Jian-Ming; Li, Ben-Yin; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2014-08-01

    The continuous cultivation of Rehmannia glutinosa causes the accumulation of phenolic acids in soil. It is supposed to be the reason of the so called "continuously cropping obstacle". In this study, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, eugenol, vanillin and ferulic acid) were degraded by the extracta of all the tested spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and the maximal degradation rate was 75.3%, contributed by extraction of SMS of Pleurotus eryngii. Pot experiment indicated that hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillin in soil were also degraded effectively by SMS of P. eryngii. The employment of SMS enhanced ecophysiology index to near the normal levels, such as crown width, leaves number, leaf length, leaf width and height. At the same time, the fresh and dry weight and total catalpol concentration of tuberous root weight of R. glutinosa was increased to 2.70, 3.66, 2.25 times by employment of SMS, respectively. The increase of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes numbers in rhizosphere soil were observed after the employment of SMS by microbial counts. The employment of SMS also enhanced the enzyme activity in soils, such as sucrase, cellulase, phosphalase, urease and catelase. These results indicated that the employment of SMS alleviated the continuously cropping obstacle of R. glutinosa in some extent.

  7. Effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae (pacari, in pain and inflammation models

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    Heloisa Alves Guimarães

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, popularly known as pacari, is a Cerrado's native specimen; the stem bark extract is used in folk for pain and inflammation, also showing sedating activity. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti inflammatory activities of ethanol extract from pacari leaves (EEPL. These activities were verified in mice. The previous treatment with EEPL 1.0 g/kg showed antinociceptive activity both in the acetic acid-induced writing test and in the formalin-induced model of pain, and in neurogenic and inflammatory phases as well. In the croton oil-induced ear edema, the pre-treatments with EEPL reduced the edema in a dose-dependent manner. Also in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis, the two major doses tested (2.0 and 1.5 g/kg p.o. were able to reduce the leukocyte migration in a dose-dependent manner. The Central Nervous System tests showed that the extract does not elicit uncoordinated motricity, hypnosis or sedating effects. The results showed that EEPL maintains the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the stem bark of pacari, being the collect of leaves more favorable to the preservation of this Cerrado's native specimen.

  8. [Comparison of chemical quality characteristics between radial striations and non-radial striations in tuberous root of Rehmannia glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Miao; Li, Ya-Jing; Geng, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Feng-Qing; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2017-11-01

    An HPLC method was established to determine the contents of catalpol, acteoside, rehmaionoside A, rehmaionoside D, leonuride in three part of Rehmanni glutinosa in Beijing No.1 variety R. glutinosa during the growth period, This method, in combination with its HPLC fingerprint was used to evaluate its overall quality characteristics.The results showed that:① the content of main components of R. glutinosa varied in different growth stages ;② there was a great difference of the content of main components between theradial striations and the non-radial striations; ③ the two sections almost have the same content distribution of catalpol, acteoside and rehmaionoside D; ④the content of rehmaionoside A in non-radial striations was higher than that in radial striations,while the content of leonuride in radial striations was higher than that in non-radial striations.; ⑤the HPLC fingerprint of radial striations, non-radial striations and whole root tuber were basically identical, except for the big difference in the content of chemical components. The result of clustering displayed that the radial striations, non-radial striations, and whole root were divided into two groups. In conclusion, there was a significant difference in the quality characteristics of radial striations and non-radial striations of R. glutinosa. This research provides a reference for quality evaluation and geoherbalism of R. glutinosa. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. A new flavonol glucoside from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Niranjan; Achari, Basudev; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Dinda, Biswanath

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the dried aerial parts of Sida glutinosa has led to the isolation of a new flavonol glucoside, glutinoside (1), along with seven known compounds, 24(28)-dehydromakisterone A (2), 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]-quinazolin-3-amine (3), docosanoic acid, 1-triacontanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS analysis (for sterols) and comparison with the literature data. All these seven known compounds are reported from this plant for the first time.

  10. Litsea glutinosa (Lauraceae: Evaluation of its Foliar Phytochemical Constituents for Antimicrobial Activity

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    Mutyala Naidu LAGUDU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Litsea glutinosa revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile compounds, amino acids and carbohiydrates. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibition concentration values were determined for these phytochemical constituents as crude extracts using the agar well diffusion and two-fold serial dilution methods. The results indicated that Bacillus subtilis was the most susceptible bacterium with high inhibition zones for the methanol and chloroform extracts of 31 mm and 26 mm, respectively. The MIC values indicated that extracts possess good antimicrobial activity with significant MIC value against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pneumoniae at 31.2 µg/ml concentrations. The extracts showed marked antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Among the bacterial strains, gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than the gram-negative. All the 13 microorganisms tested showed dose dependent susceptibility towards the phytochemicals present in the foliar extracts. The study suggests that Litsea glutinosa leaves possess potent antimicrobial activity and can be a good source for the development of new antibiotics.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH BASED ON ISSR MARKERS

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    YANQING ZHOU, WUJUN GAO, HONGYING DUAN, FENGPING GU

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the genetic diversity of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch cultivars ( lines in Huai zone, Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR was performed. Ten appropriate ISSR primers were selected from a total of 44 ISSR ones for ISSR PCR amplification. The ten primers could amplify one hundred and ten bands. Based on them, A Jaccard’s genetic similarity matrix and a dendrogram for these ten cultivars were established using SPSS 10.0 software. In this dendrogram, they could be divided into two groups : Group1 contained six individuals such as Zupei 85.5, Datian 85.5, Zupei 9302, Jinbai, Jinzhuangyuan and Datian9302; Group2 consisted of four ones such as Beijing No.1, Dahongpao, Dihuang9104 and wild dihuang. Furthermore, Principal coordinate analysis (PCA supported the above cluster analysis; Shannon\\'s Information index (I is 0.3577, effective number of alleles (Ne is 1.4037, the percentage of polymorphic loci is 71.82 % by means of POPGENE32 software; A DNA fingerprint was developed with a single primer, ISSR6, in which each of ten individuals tested had its unique fingerprint pattern and was distinguished from each other. The results revealed that ISSR method is suitable for DNA fingerprinting, identification and genetic diversity analysis of Rehmannia glutinosa in Huai zone.

  12. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  13. Susceptibility of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) seeds and seedlings to Phytophthora alni and other Phytophthora species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M. M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Phytophthora alni is a highly destructive host specific pathogen to alders (Alnus spp.) spreading all over Europe. Recently this pathogen has been reported to cause diseases in common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Spain. Seeds and seedlings of A. glutinosa were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to alder Phytophthora and other Phytophthora species. Isolates of P. alni ssp. alni, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae and P. palmivora were used in the experiments. Seeds and seedlings were inoculated with a zoospore suspension and uniform mycelial blocks of agar of the Phytophthora species. Susceptibility was calculated in terms of pathogen virulence on seed germination and seedling mortality 42 and 67 days after inoculation respectively. Seed germination and seedling mortality rates varied differently among the isolates used. Results implied that common alder and its seeds and seedlings are at risk to be infected by P. alni. In addition, other Phytophthora species are able to infect this kind of material showing their relative host non-specificity. This is one important finding concerning alder regeneration in infected areas, and the possibility of disease spread on this plant material. (Author) 42 refs.

  14. Dynamic transcriptional profiling provides insights into tuberous root development in Rehmannia glutinosa

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    Peng eSun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia glutinosa, a herb of the Scrophulariaceae family, is widely cultivated in the Northern part of China. The tuberous root has well known medicinal properties; however, yield and quality are threatened by abiotic and biotic stresses. Understanding the molecular process of tuberous root development may help identify novel targets for its control. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly strategies to obtain a reference transcriptome that is relevant to tuberous root development. We then conducted RNA-seq quantification analysis to determine gene expression profiles of the adventitious root (AR, thickening adventitious root (TAR, and the developing tuberous root (DTR. Expression profiling identified a total of 6,974 differentially expressed unigenes during root developmental. Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression profiling revealed changes in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone biosynthesis during root development. Moreover, we identified and allocated putative functions to the genes involved in tuberous root development, including genes related to major carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transcription regulation. The present study provides the initial description of gene expression profiles of AR, TAR, and DTR, which facilitates identification of genes of interest. Moreover, our work provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root development and may assist in the design and development of improved breeding schemes for different R. glutinosa varieties through genetic manipulation.

  15. Degradation of phenolic acids and relief of consecutive monoculture obstacle of rehmannia glutinosa by the combination of bacillus sp. and pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.; Miao, Y.; Kang, C.

    2017-01-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa (R. glutinosa) is a high demand traditional Chinese medicine, but it suffers serious consecutive monoculture obstacle (CMO). The disability of root swelling is one of the negative impacts caused by the R. glutinosa CMO and is related to allelopathy exudates, such as phenolic acids. It is thought that a microbe agent could improve plant health by eliminating the unfavorable effect of allelopathy exudates. In previous research, we isolated two phenolic acid-degrading microbes from rhizosphere soil surrounding R. glutinosa. These were Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris. This study found that Bacillus sp. combined with Pichia pastoris could degrade 97.19% ferulic acid and 98.73% hydroxybenzoic acid over 15 days. R. glutinosa takes a long growth time (7-8 months) under field conditions. We set up a modified tissue culture model to rapidly detect whether Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris combination could relieve the CMO. The results showed that our tissue culture model effectively simulated the R. glutinosa growing process in unplanted or second-year monoculture field. Furthermore, the combination of Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris can significantly relieve the CMO-induced suppression of root swelling. All these results suggested that: 1) The combination of Bacillus sp. and Pichia pastoris has considerable potential to degrade allelopathy exudates and alleviate the CMO of R. glutinosa; 2) Our tissue culture model could be used to quickly screen effective microbes that could alleviate CMO in plants. (author)

  16. De invloed van auxine, tryptofaan en enige anorganische zouten op de infectie van Nicotiana glutinosa met tabaksmozaiekvirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, A.S.N.

    1963-01-01

    The number of necrotic spots arising on leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa after inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus was less than in controls without additives, if the water in which the leaves floated hadβ-indoleacetic acid (IAA),α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

  17. How Does Salinity Shape Bacterial and Fungal Microbiomes of Alnus glutinosa Roots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Dominika; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Hulisz, Piotr; Piernik, Agnieszka; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) belongs to dual mycorrhizal trees, forming ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular (AM) root structures, as well as represents actinorrhizal plants that associate with nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. We hypothesized that the unique ternary structure of symbionts can influence community structure of other plant-associated microorganisms (bacterial and fungal endophytes), particularly under seasonally changing salinity in A. glutinosa roots. In our study we analyzed black alder root bacterial and fungal microbiome present at two forest test sites (saline and non-saline) in two different seasons (spring and fall). The dominant type of root microsymbionts of alder were ectomycorrhizal fungi, whose distribution depended on site (salinity): Tomentella, Lactarius, and Phialocephala were more abundant at the saline site. Mortierella and Naucoria (representatives of saprotrophs or endophytes) displayed the opposite tendency. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonged to Glomeromycota (orders Paraglomales and Glomales), however, they represented less than 1% of all identified fungi. Bacterial community structure depended on test site but not on season. Sequences affiliated with Rhodanobacter, Granulicella, and Sphingomonas dominated at the saline site, while Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium were more abundant at the non-saline site. Moreover, genus Frankia was observed only at the saline site. In conclusion, bacterial and fungal community structure of alder root microsymbionts and endophytes depends on five soil chemical parameters: salinity, phosphorus, pH, saturation percentage (SP) as well as total organic carbon (TOC), and seasonality does not appear to be an important factor shaping microbial communities. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant symbionts of mature alders growing in saline soils. However, specific distribution of nitrogen-fixing Frankia (forming root nodules) and association of arbuscular fungi at early stages of

  18. Diallel analysis for seed yield and its component traits in Cuphea procumbens

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    Singh S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuphea procumbens Orteg. is an important annual plant source of medium chain fatty acids. The present study was conducted to estimate different gene systems involved in the inheritance of important quantitative traits viz. plant height, branches/plant, fruits/plant, seeds/fruit and seed yield/plant in F1 and F2 generations following 6 parents half diallel. Diallel assumptions were fulfilled for all the characters. Wr - Vr graph and component analysis revealed the major influence of over dominance for all the traits except branches/plant in F1. The arrays scattered all along the regression line below limiting parabola in two groups, Dominance and recessive and was confirmed by standardized deviation graph. The ranking on the basis of breeding value (Yr of the parents and per se performance was closely associated (r=0.83**. On the basis of ranking, parents 'NBC-01', 'NBC-25' and 'NBC-30' were found most promising and possessed more dominant alleles for most of the characters. Considering the gene action involved, the breeding plan was discussed.

  19. Lagerstroemia (Lythraceae) in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2014-01-01

    An enumeration of the 11 indigenous species of Lagerstroemia accepted for the Malesian area is presented with additionally three cultivated species. It includes descriptions of 6 species, notes, synonyms, and keys for flowering and fruiting specimens. All names are typified. Studied herbarium

  20. Catálogo sistemático dos pólens das plantas arbóreas do Brasil Meridional: IV - Thymelaeaceae, Lythraceae, Lecythidaceae, Rhizophoraceae e Combretaceae

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    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Es wurden pollenmorphologisch diejenigen Arten der vorliegenden Familien untersucht, welche als Baeume in den suedbrasilianischen Waeldern auftreten, mit Ausnahme der krautigen Heimia myrtifolia. Gekennzeichnet durch drei einfache Colpori laesst sich die Gruppe von Buchenavia kleinii, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Heimia myrtifolia (Lythraceae und Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae bilden. Wegen ihrer Pseudocolpi oder aehnlichen Laengsstreifen einer duenneren Sexine stellen die Pollenkoerner von Combretum futicosum, Terminalia autralis (Combretaceae und Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae eine andere Gruppe dar. Daphnopsis (Thymelaeaceae besitzt 10 - 14 gleichmaessing verteilte Poren und eine Oerflaechenstruktur die der des Croton-Types der Euphorbiaceen sehr nahe kommt. Cariniana estrellensis (Lecythidaceae, mit nur drei Colpi, nimmt auch eine gesonderte Position ein. Es bestehen Beziehungen zwischen der Morphologie der Pollenkoerner der oben bearbeiteten Familien und jenen der Guttiferales und Rosales.

  1. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

    2010-06-01

    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  2. Elicitation of hypersensitive responses in Nicotiana glutinosa by the suppressor of RNA silencing protein P0 from poleroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken-Der; Empleo, Roman; Nguyen, Tan Tri V; Moffett, Peter; Sacco, Melanie Ann

    2015-06-01

    Plant disease resistance (R) proteins that confer resistance to viruses recognize viral gene products with diverse functions, including viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). The P0 protein from poleroviruses is a VSR that targets the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein for degradation, thereby disrupting RNA silencing and antiviral defences. Here, we report resistance against poleroviruses in Nicotiana glutinosa directed against Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV). The P0 proteins from TuYV (P0(T) (u) ), PLRV (P0(PL) ) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (P0(CA) ) were found to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in N. glutinosa accession TW59, whereas other accessions recognized P0(PL) only. Genetic analysis showed that recognition of P0(T) (u) by a resistance gene designated RPO1 (Resistance to POleroviruses 1) is inherited as a dominant allele. Expression of P0 from a Potato virus X (PVX) expression vector transferred recognition to the recombinant virus on plants expressing RPO1, supporting P0 as the unique Polerovirus factor eliciting resistance. The induction of HR required a functional P0 protein, as P0(T) (u) mutants with substitutions in the F-box motif that abolished VSR activity were unable to elicit HR. We surmised that the broad P0 recognition seen in TW59 and the requirement for the F-box protein motif could indicate detection of P0-induced AGO1 degradation and disruption of RNA silencing; however, other viral silencing suppressors, including the PVX P25 that also causes AGO1 degradation, failed to elicit HR in N. glutinosa. Investigation of P0 elicitation of RPO1 could provide insight into P0 activities within the cell that trigger resistance. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. Identification of extant vertebrate Myxine glutinosa VWF: evolutionary conservation of primary hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marianne A; Beeler, David L; Spokes, Katherine C; Chen, Junmei; Dharaneeswaran, Harita; Sciuto, Tracey E; Dvorak, Ann M; Interlandi, Gianluca; Lopez, José A; Aird, William C

    2017-12-07

    Hemostasis in vertebrates involves both a cellular and a protein component. Previous studies in jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes) suggest that the protein response, which involves thrombin-catalyzed conversion of a soluble plasma protein, fibrinogen, into a polymeric fibrin clot, is conserved in all vertebrates. However, similar data are lacking for the cellular response, which in gnathostomes is regulated by von Willebrand factor (VWF), a glycoprotein that mediates the adhesion of platelets to the subendothelial matrix of injured blood vessels. To gain evolutionary insights into the cellular phase of coagulation, we asked whether a functional vwf gene is present in the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa We found a single vwf transcript that encodes a simpler protein compared with higher vertebrates, the most striking difference being the absence of an A3 domain, which otherwise binds collagen under high-flow conditions. Immunohistochemical analyses of hagfish tissues and blood revealed Vwf expression in endothelial cells and thrombocytes. Electron microscopic studies of hagfish tissues demonstrated the presence of Weibel-Palade bodies in the endothelium. Hagfish Vwf formed high-molecular-weight multimers in hagfish plasma and in stably transfected CHO cells. In functional assays, botrocetin promoted VWF-dependent thrombocyte aggregation. A search for vwf sequences in the genome of sea squirts, the closest invertebrate relatives of hagfish, failed to reveal evidence of an intact vwf gene. Together, our findings suggest that VWF evolved in the ancestral vertebrate following the divergence of the urochordates some 500 million years ago and that it acquired increasing complexity though sequential insertion of functional modules. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Evaluation of the antifungal activity and mode of action of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, stem-bark extracts, fractions and ellagic acid

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    Iberê F. Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Stem-bark extracts, fractions and the isolated constituent, ellagic acid of Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (Lythraceae were in vitro assayed for antifungal activity against a panel of yeasts, hialohyphomycetes as well as dermatophytes with the microbroth dilution method. The EtOH extract and its fractions and ellagic acid exhibited activity against Candida spp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with MIC values between 250-1000 µg/mL, but they showed no action against filamentous fungi and dermatophytes (MIC>1000 µg/mL. Active extracts were evaluated in Neurospora crassa hyphal growth inhibition and sorbitol assays and then the effect of ergosterol on the MIC of ellagic acid was studied. The active extracts and its fractions and ellagic acid showed a blotchy zone around the paper disk and induced malformations of the hypha. Besides, MIC of the ellagic acid against the Saccharomyces cerevisiae was raised from 62 to 250 µg/mL in the presence of sorbitol 0.8 M, suggesting that the ellagic acid would probably exert its action on fungal cell wall. These results indicate that ellagic acid might be the main active antifungal compound of Lafoensia pacari and further suggest that the mode of antifungal action of these extracts and ellagic acid could be associated with the inhibition of fungal cell wall.

  5. Extraction of flavonoids from garden (Salvia officinalis L. and glutinous (Salvia glutinosa L. sage by ultrasonic and classical maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN T. VELICKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids were analysed in the extracts of garden (Salvia officinalis L. and glutinous (Salvia glutinosa L. sage. Ultrasonic extraction (20 minutes at 40 °C and classical maceration (6 h at room temperature of the extractable substances from dried herbs and dried residual plant materials from which the essential oil had previously been removed by hydrodistillation were performed with petroleum ether, 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol and water. It was found that the extracts from both plants contained flavonoids, but their compositions were dependent of the plant species, the polarity of the extracting solvent and the extraction technique applied. Apigenin and its derivatives (e.g., apigenin 4'-methyl ether, scutellarein 6-methyl ether, isoscutellarein 8-methyl ether, luteolin and 6-OH-luteolin-6-methyl ether where distinctive for S. officinalis. Apigenin, luteolin, 6-OH-luteolin-6-methyl ether, kaempherol 3-methyl ether, kaempherol 3,7-dimethyl ether, quercetin 3,7,3'-trimethyl ether and quercetin 3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether were distinctive for S. glutinosa. The flavonoids were also detected in considerable quantities in the plant material from which the essential oils had been already removed. Hence, this industrial waste plant material might be further used as a source of the flavonoids.

  6. Molecular cloning of a catalase cDNA from Nicotiana glutinosa L. and its repression by tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S Y; Yu, S H; Choi, D

    1999-06-30

    Recent reports revealed that catalase has a role in the plant defense mechanism against a broad range of pathogens through being inhibited by salicylic acid (SA). During an effort to clone disease resistance-responsive genes, a cDNA encoding catalase (Ngcat1; Nicotiana glutinosa cat1) was isolated from a tobacco cDNA library. In N. glutinosa, catalase is encoded by a small gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Ngcat1 cDNA has 98% homology with the cat1 gene of N. plumbaginifolia. The Ngcat1 expression is controlled by the circadian clock, and its mRNA level is the most abundant in leaves. Both the expression of Ngcat1 mRNA and its enzyme activity in the tobacco plant undergoing a hypersensitive response (HR) to TMV infection were repressed. The repression of the mRNA level was also observed following treatment with SA. These results imply that SA may act as an inhibitor of catalase transcription during the HR of tobacco. Cloning and expression of the Ngcat1 in tobacco following pathogen infection and SA treatment are presented.

  7. Nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activities in young Alnus glutinosa, relationship and effect of light-dark treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, S.; Thiery, G.; Pizelle, G.

    1995-01-01

    Relations between in vivo nitrogenase (N-2-ase; EC 1.18.6.1) and nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities were studied in young nodulated Alnus glutinosa (L. ) Gaertn. Positive correlations linked N-2-ase activity, constitutive (non-inducible by nitrate) leaf NR activity and plant growth. Light/dark treatments applied to the whole shoot or, separately, to the upper and lower part of shoot led to the finding that(a) the constitutive leaf NR activity depended on direct illumination of the leaf and did not appear subordinate to the N-2-ase activity; (b) the N-2-ase activity was much more efficiently supported by the illumination of the upper (young) leaves than by that of the lower (mature) leaves; (c) the maintenance of nitrate-inducible root NR activity required leaf illumination. The variations of both N-2-ase and root NR activities in response to light/dark treatments emphasize the importance of the photosynthesis for the reduction of dinitrogen and nitrate in nodulated roots of Alnus glutinosa

  8. Two new polyploid species closely related to Alnus glutinosa in Europe and North Africa - An analysis based on morphometry, karyology, flow cytometry and microsatellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Petr; Douda, Jan; Krak, Karol; Havrdová, Alena; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 567-583 ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Alnus glutinosa * flow cytometry * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  9. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N tot , ammonium and generating higher BOD 7 . Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H + -ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. - Highlights: ► We examined Acer negundo and Alnus glutinosa leaf extract effects on hydrophytes. ► Nitellopsis obtusa and Lemna minor responded differently to leaf litter leachates. ► 90-day biodegraded A. negundo leaves lost twofold more biomass than that of A. glutinosa. ► A. negundo leachates evoked higher mortality and cell depolarization of N. obtusa. ► Leachates affected H + -ATPase activity in algae membrane preparations. - Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter waterbody can be environmental factor affecting differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems, thus influencing ecological scenarios.

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, frente a bactérias multirresistentes de origem hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaldo Porfírio

    Full Text Available Os microrganismos patogênicos multirresistentes apresentam-se como grandes responsáveis por milhões de mortes em todo o mundo, principalmente Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, responsáveis por grande parte das infecções hospitalares. A preocupação com estas espécies faz com que novas pesquisas busquem alternativas para controlar estes microrganismos de uma forma mais eficiente e também mais econômica. Os extratos fitoterápicos são alternativas promissoras para este fim, visto que são uma imensa fonte de compostos de ação biológica. O objetivo do trabalho foi a elucidação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, frente a linhagens de bactérias multirresistentes (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus isoladas de pacientes com múltiplas infecções internados na Unidade de Emergência de Maceió. Os testes de atividade antibacteriana foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em meio sólido (Kirby-Bauer modificado. De acordo com os ensaios in vitro, foi constatado que 96,4% das linhagens de bactérias utilizadas na pesquisa apresentaram-se sensíveis ao extrato da folha da planta, demonstrando atividade antibacteriana. Halos de inibição de crescimento de até 26 mm foram encontrados. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o extrato de Lafoensia pacari apresenta possibilidades de se encontrar substâncias úteis no combate a bactérias multirresistentes.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Salicylic Acid Treatment in Rehmannia glutinosa Hairy Roots Using RNA-seq Technique for Identification of Genes Involved in Acteoside Biosynthesis

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    Fengqing Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia glutinosa is a common bulk medicinal material that has been widely used in China due to its active ingredients. Acteoside, one of the ingredients, has antioxidant, antinephritic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects, is usually selected as a quality-control component for R. glutinosa herb in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The acteoside biosynthesis pathway in R. glutinosa has not yet been clearly established. Herein, we describe the establishment of a genetic transformation system for R. glutinosa mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We screened the optimal elicitors that markedly increased acteoside accumulation in R. glutinosa hairy roots. We found that acteoside accumulation dramatically increased with the addition of salicylic acid (SA; the optimal SA dose was 25 μmol/L for hairy roots. RNA-seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes in hairy roots treated with SA for 24 h in comparison with an untreated control. A total of 3,716, 4,018, and 2,715 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were identified in 0 h-vs.-12 h, 0 h-vs.-24 h, and 12 h-vs.-24 h libraries, respectively. KEGG pathway-based analysis revealed that 127 DETs were enriched in “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.” Of 219 putative unigenes involved in acteoside biosynthesis, 54 were found to be up-regulated at at least one of the time points after SA treatment. Selected candidate genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in hairy roots with SA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA, AgNO3 (Ag+, and putrescine (Put treatment. All genes investigated were up-regulated by SA treatment, and most candidate genes were weakly increased by MeJA to some degree. Furthermore, transcription abundance of eight candidate genes in tuberous roots of the high-acteoside-content (HA cultivar QH were higher than those of the low-acteoside-content (LA cultivar Wen 85-5. These results will pave the way for understanding the molecular

  12. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High Genetic Diversity and Distinctiveness of Rear-Edge Climate Relicts Maintained by Ancient Tetraploidisation for Alnus glutinosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepais, Olivier; Muller, Serge D.; Ben Saad-Limam, Samia; Benslama, Mohamed; Rhazi, Laila; Belouahem-Abed, Djamila; Daoud-Bouattour, Amina; Gammar, Amor Mokhtar; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Bacles, Cécile Fanny Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Populations located at the rear-edge of a species’ distribution may have disproportionate ecological and evolutionary importance for biodiversity conservation in a changing global environment. Yet genetic studies of such populations remain rare. This study investigates the evolutionary history of North-African low latitude marginal populations of Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., a European tree species that plays a significant ecological role as a keystone of riparian ecosystems. We genotyped 551 adults from 19 populations located across North Africa at 12 microsatellite loci and applied a coalescent-based simulation approach to reconstruct the demographic and evolutionary history of these populations. Surprisingly, Moroccan trees were tetraploids demonstrating a strong distinctiveness of these populations within a species otherwise known as diploid. Best-fitting models of demographic reconstruction revealed the relict nature of Moroccan populations that were found to have withstood past climate change events and to be much older than Algerian and Tunisian populations. This study highlights the complex demographic history that can be encountered in rear-edge distribution margins that here consist of both old stable climate relict and more recent populations, distinctively diverse genetically both quantitatively and qualitatively. We emphasize the high evolutionary and conservation value of marginal rear-edge populations of a keystone riparian species in the context of on-going climate change in the Mediterranean region. PMID:24098677

  14. Effect of probiotic bacteria-fermented medicinal plants (Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, Scutellaria baicalensis) as performance enhancers in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of mixed fermented medicinal plants (FMP) obtained from exudates of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa and Scutellaria baicalensis fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively, on growth performance in growing pigs in order to assess the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), such as tiamulin. A total of 150 growing pigs (body wieght 25.50 ± 2.50 kg) were used in a 6 weeks experiment and randomly divided into five groups with six replicates of five growing pigs each. The treatments were NC (basal diet), basal diet with 33 ppm tiamulin (PC), basal diet with FMP 0.05% (FMP 0.05), basal diet with FMP 0.1% (FMP 0.1) and basal diet with FMP 0.2% (FMP 0.2). Overall, body weight gain, feed conversion rate, the digestibility of dry matter and gross energy, noxious gas emission all improved with FMP supplementation as compared to NC. Taken together, these results suggest the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to AGP for enhancing the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and excreta noxious gas emission of growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Study of the effect of essential oil of Salvia glutinosa L. on microbial biofilm formation by clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutar, Uǧur

    2016-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is becoming a serious concern in the treatment of infections that can develop resistance to many antibiotics. This persistence may be explained by its capacity to form biofilms. In our study, the essential oil (EO) of the Salvia glutinosa plant, was obtained through the hydrodistillation method. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the EO on the 20 multi-drug resistant (MDR) A.baumannii isolates were researched. Broth microdilution methods were applied for the determination of the antimicrobial activity. For the determined antibiofilm activity, the Minimal Biofilm Inhibition Concentration (MBIC) test was implemented with the microtiter plate method. Photometric assay was applied for the identification of the antioxidant capacity and colorimetric assay was used to specify the cytotoxicity of the EO of S. glutinosa on L929 cells. In our study, Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values between 1.25-2.5 µl/mL and 5-10 µl/mL respectively. MBIC value of the EO was found as 0.3-2.5 µl/mL. IC50= = 24.4±0.66 µl/mL was found as the antioxidant capacity of the EO. At 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% EO concentrations, no cytotoxicity appeared for the fibroblast cells in terms of the cytotoxic activities (p>0.05). According to the findings obtained in our study, antibiofilm, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the S. glutinosa EO seem remarkable. These findings seem promising for the development of potential phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of the multi-drug resistance (MDR) A.baumannii infections.

  16. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and phosphorus forms in ancient and post-agricultural black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn.] woodlands

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    Anna Orczewska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black alder, an N-fixing tree is considered to accelerate the availability of phosphorus in soils due to the increased production of phosphatase enzymes, which are responsible for the P release from the litter. Acid phosphatase activity plays a pivotal role in organic P mineralization in forest soils and in making P available to plants. In order to check whether Alnus glutinosa stimulates acid phosphomonoesterase (PHACID activity, we compared enzyme activities, total P concentration (PTOT, plant-available P (PAVAIL, organic P (PORG and inorganic P (PINORG, and organic matter content in 27 ancient and 27 post-agricultural alder woods (the latter ones representing different age classes: 11-20, 21-40 and 41-60 years of soil samples taken from the litter and the mineral layers. Phosphomonoesterase activity, organic matter, PTOT, PINORG and PORG concentrations were significantly higher in ancient alder woods than in the soils of post-agricultural forests. Significant differences in the acid phosphatase activity, organic matter and PAVAIL concentration were noted between the litter and mineral layers within the same forest type. In recent stands the amount of organic matter and phosphatase activity increased significantly with the age of alder stands, although only in the mineral layer of their soils. Phosphomonoesterase activity, organic matter and PAVAIL content were higher in a litter layer and decreased significantly at a mineral depth of the soil. The acid phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with organic matter content in both ancient and recent stands. There was no significant relationship between PHACID activity and any P forms.

  18. In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Varela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam., (family Asteraceae. These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  19. Hot water-extracted Lycium barbarum and Rehmannia glutinosa inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jane C-J; Chiang, Shih-Wen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Wu, Ming-Shun

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of hot water-extracted Lycium barbarum (LBE) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RGE) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat and/or human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: Rat (H-4-II-E) and human HCC (HA22T/VGH) cell lines were incubated with various concentrations (0-10 g/L) of hot water-extracted LBE and RGE. After 6-24 h incubation, cell proliferation (n = 6) was measured by a colorimetric method. The apoptotic cells (n = 6) were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of p53 protein (n = 3) was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. RESULTS: Crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (2-10 g/L) dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of H-4-II-E cells by 11% (P < 0.05) to 85% (P < 0.01) after 6-24 h treatment. Crude LBE at a dose of 5 g/L suppressed cell proliferation of H-4-II-E cells more effectively than crude RGE after 6-24 h incubation (P < 0.01). Crude LBE (2-10 g/L) and RGE (2-5 g/L) also dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of HA22T/VGH cells by 14%-43% (P < 0.01) after 24 h. Crude LBE at a dose of 10 g/L inhibited the proliferation of HA22T/VGH cells more effectively than crude RGE (56.8% ± 1.6% vs 70.3% ± 3.1% of control, P = 0.0003 < 0.01). The apoptotic cells significantly increased in H-4-II-E cells after 24 h treatment with higher doses of crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (5-10 g/L) (P < 0.01). The expression of p53 protein in H-4-II-E cells was 119% and 143% of the control group compared with the LBE-treated (2, 5 g/L) groups, and 110% and 132% of the control group compared with the RGE -treated (5, 10 g/L) groups after 24 h. CONCLUSION: Hot water-extracted crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (5-10 g/L) inhibit proliferation and stimulate p53-mediated apoptosis in HCC cells. PMID:16874858

  20. Comparison of 226Ra nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vankova, Radomira; Vanek, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The uptake of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The 226 Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers + seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest 226 Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of 226 Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period

  1. Evaluation of Four Different Analytical Tools to Determine the Regional Origin of Gastrodia elata and Rehmannia glutinosa on the Basis of Metabolomics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical profiles of medicinal plants could be dissimilar depending on the cultivation environments, which may influence their therapeutic efficacy. Accordingly, the regional origin of the medicinal plants should be authenticated for correct evaluation of their medicinal and market values. Metabolomics has been found very useful for discriminating the origin of many plants. Choosing the adequate analytical tool can be an essential procedure because different chemical profiles with different detection ranges will be produced according to the choice. In this study, four analytical tools, Fourier transform near‑infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H‑NMR, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were applied in parallel to the same samples of two popular medicinal plants (Gastrodia elata and Rehmannia glutinosa cultivated either in Korea or China. The classification abilities of four discriminant models for each plant were evaluated based on the misclassification rate and Q2 obtained from principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS‑DA, respectively. 1H-NMR and LC-MS, which were the best techniques for G. elata and R. glutinosa, respectively, were generally preferable for origin discrimination over the others. Reasoned by integrating all the results, 1H-NMR is the most prominent technique for discriminating the origins of two plants. Nonetheless, this study suggests that preliminary screening is essential to determine the most suitable analytical tool and statistical method, which will ensure the dependability of metabolomics-based discrimination.

  2. Ethanol extract of Rehmannia glutinosa exerts antidepressant-like effects on a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress model by involving monoamines and BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ming; Pei, Li-Xin; Zhang, Yue-Yue; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Niu, Chun-Ling; Cui, Ying; Feng, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Fang

    2018-06-01

    The dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (Scrophulariaceae) are of both medicinal and nutritional importance. Our previous study has found that the 80% ethanol extract of R. glutinosa (RGEE) produced antidepressant-like activities in mouse behavioral despair depression models. However, its mechanisms are still unclear. The present study aimed to observe the antidepressant-like mechanisms of RGEE on a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model by involving monoaminergic neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). CUMS-stressed rats were orally given RGEE daily (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) or fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) for 3 weeks after starting the CUMS procedure. Sucrose preference test was carried out to observe depression-like behavior, and serum and brain tissues were used for neurochemical and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. Results demonstrated that CUMS induced depression-like behavior, whereas RGEE and FH administration inhibited this symptom. Furthermore, CUMS caused excessively elevated levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, in a manner attenuated by RGEE and FH administration. RGEE administration also further elevated monoamine neurotransmitters and BDNF levels, up-regulated the mRNA expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in hippocampus of rats suffering CUMS. Together, our findings suggest that RGEE can improve CUMS-evoked depression-like behavior, and indicate its mechanisms may partially be associated with restoring HPA axis dysfunctions, enhancing monoamineergic nervous systems, and up-regulating BDNF and TrkB expression.

  3. Analysis of integrated multiple 'omics' datasets reveals the mechanisms of initiation and determination in the formation of tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Li; Wang, Fengji; Feng, Fajie; Tian, Yunhe; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Xiaoran; Lin, Wenxiong; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2015-09-01

    All tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa originate from the expansion of fibrous roots (FRs), but not all FRs can successfully transform into tuberous roots. This study identified differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with the expansion of FRs, by comparing the tuberous root at expansion stages (initiated tuberous root, ITRs) and FRs at the seedling stage (initiated FRs, IFRs). The role of miRNAs in the expansion of FRs was also explored using the sRNA transcriptome and degradome to identify miRNAs and their target genes that were differentially expressed between ITRs and FRs at the mature stage (unexpanded FRs, UFRs, which are unable to expand into ITRs). A total of 6032 genes and 450 proteins were differentially expressed between ITRs and IFRs. Integrated analyses of these data revealed several genes and proteins involved in light signalling, hormone response, and signal transduction that might participate in the induction of tuberous root formation. Several genes related to cell division and cell wall metabolism were involved in initiating the expansion of IFRs. Of 135 miRNAs differentially expressed between ITRs and UFRs, there were 27 miRNAs whose targets were specifically identified in the degradome. Analysis of target genes showed that several miRNAs specifically expressed in UFRs were involved in the degradation of key genes required for the formation of tuberous roots. As far as could be ascertained, this is the first time that the miRNAs that control the transition of FRs to tuberous roots in R. glutinosa have been identified. This comprehensive analysis of 'omics' data sheds new light on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of tuberous roots formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Extraction of total polyphenols from hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and waxweed / ‘sete-sangrias’ (Cuphea carthagenensis and evaluation of their antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Begmeier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research investigates the extraction process of total polyphenols from hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and waxweed (Brazilian name: ‘sete-sangrias’ (Cuphea carthagenensis and evaluates the antioxidant potential of their extracts. The extraction stage comprised investigation on the following parameters: i solvents (acetone and ethanol pure and fractioned with water; ii variables (temperature, stirring, solvent ratio, time and pH. Total polyphenols were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS•+ (2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Results showed that, depending on experimental conditions, total phenolic contents for hibiscus and waxweed ranged between 460.86 mg GAE 100 g-1 and 5012.54 mg GAE 100 g-1 and between 462.86 mg GAE 100 g-1 and 4215.99 mg GAE 100 g-1, respectively. Waxweed had a higher antioxidant activity when compared to that of hibiscus by both ABTS•+ and DPPH. Data showed that hibiscus and waxweed have a significant amount of polyphenols which may be extracted in mild processing conditions and then employed as natural antioxidant sources in industrial processes.

  5. Evaluación de la actividad antioxidante bioautográfica de cinco variedades de aceites esenciales andinos (Aristeguietia glutinosa; Myrcianthes rhopaloides; Ambrosia arborescens; Lantana camara; Minthostachys mollis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Toapanta, Priscila Pamela; Pozo Morales, Karla Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This experimental work had the goal of assessing the antioxidant capabilities of five essential oils: Minthostachys mollis, Aristeguietia glutinosa, Ambrosia arborescens, Myrcianthes rhopaloides and Lantana camara; all of which were obtained from the Ecuadorian Andes. This work used the DPPH and ABTS methods to assess free radical-capturing capacity, and it used the β-carotene Test to determine the antioxidant activity of each essential oil. The natural referent used herein...

  6. Ecotoxicity effects triggered in aquatic organisms by invasive Acer negundo and native Alnus glutinosa leaf leachates obtained in the process of aerobic decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manusadžianas, Levonas; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Krevš, Alina; Kučinskienė, Alė; Mačkinaitė, Rimutė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Sendžikaitė, Jūratė; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2014-10-15

    The replacement of autochthonous tree species by invasive ones in coastal zones of freshwater bodies induces additional alteration of hydrochemical and microbiological characteristics due to decomposition of fallen leaves of non-indigenous species, which can lead to ecotoxic response of the littoral biota. Leaves of invasive to Lithuania boxelder maple (Acer negundo) and autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa) lost more than half of biomass and released stable amount of DOC (60-70 mg/L) throughout 90-day mesocosm experiment under aerobic conditions. This, along with the relatively small BOD7 values detected after some variation within the first month confirms effective biodegradation by fungi and bacteria. The ambient water was more enriched with different forms of N and P by decomposing boxelder maple than by alder leaves. During the first month, both leachates were more toxic to charophyte (Nitellopsis obtusa) at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while later to two crustacean species. Biomarker response, H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from N. obtusa, was stronger for A. negundo. Generally, boxelder maple leaf leachates were more toxic to tested hydrobionts and this coincides with previous study on leaves of the same pair of tree species conducted under microaerobic conditions (Krevš et al., 2013). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alder and the Golden Fleece: high diversity of Frankia and ectomycorrhizal fungi revealed from Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata roots close to a Tertiary and glacial refugium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Roy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent climatic history has strongly impacted plant populations, but little is known about its effect on microbes. Alders, which host few and specific symbionts, have high genetic diversity in glacial refugia. Here, we tested the prediction that communities of root symbionts survived in refugia with their host populations. We expected to detect endemic symbionts and a higher species richness in refugia as compared to recolonized areas. Methods We sampled ectomycorrhizal (EM root tips and the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia communities in eight sites colonized by Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata close to the Caucasus in Georgia. Three sites were located in the Colchis, one major Eurasian climatic refugia for Arcto-Tertiary flora and alders, and five sites were located in the recolonized zone. Endemic symbionts and plant ITS variants were detected by comparing sequences to published data from Europe and another Tertiary refugium, the Hyrcanian forest. Species richness and community structure were compared between sites from refugia and recolonized areas for each symbionts. Results For both symbionts, most MOTUs present in Georgia had been found previously elsewhere in Europe. Three endemic Frankia strains were detected in the Colchis vs two in the recolonized zone, and the five endemic EM fungi were detected only in the recolonized zone. Frankia species richness was higher in the Colchis while the contrary was observed for EM fungi. Moreover, the genetic diversity of one alder specialist Alnicola xanthophylla was particularly high in the recolonized zone. The EM communities occurring in the Colchis and the Hyrcanian forests shared closely related endemic species. Discussion The Colchis did not have the highest alpha diversity and more endemic species, suggesting that our hypothesis based on alder biogeography may not apply to alder’s symbionts. Our study in the Caucasus brings new clues to understand symbioses biogeography and

  8. In Vitro micropropagation of Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae

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    G.R. Rout

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A successful protocol was developed for mass propagation of Lawsonia inermis Linn., an important medicinal plant. Multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from mature explants of L. inermis on Murashige and Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 0.25 mg/l Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg/l ascorbic acid and 3% (w/v sucrose. The rate of multiplication was higher when the cultures were incubated under continuous light rather than the 14h photoperiod. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the microshoots onto MS basal semi-solid medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA after ten days of culture. Micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully grown in soilSe desarrolo un protocolo exitoso para la propagación en masa de Lawsonia inermis Linn., una planta medicinal importante. Se indujeron múltiples tallos en meristamos apicales y auxiliares derivados de explantes maduros de L. inermis en medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 suplementado con 0.25 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurina (BA, 0.25 mg/l quinetina (Kn, 0.5 mg/l ácido ascórbico y 3 % (w/v sucrosa. La tasa de multiplicación fue más alta cuando los cultivos fueron incubados bajo luz continua que bajo el fotoperíodo de 14hr. El enraizamiento se logró al tranferir los microtallos al medio basal, semi-sólido MS suplementado con 0.25 mg/l de ácido indol-3-butiríco (IBA luego de 10 días de cultivo. Las plántulas micropropagadas fueron aclimatizadas y cultivadas con éxito en el suelo

  9. Algicide Constituents from Swinglea glutinosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscillatoria perornata, a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) common in catfish production ponds in the southeastern United States, produces the monoterpene 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) which is absorbed into catfish flesh and imparts a “musty” taste rendering them unpalatable and unmarketable. Algicides t...

  10. Visitantes florais de Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae Floral visitors in Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae

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    Maria de Jesus Vitali-Veiga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out with Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. on floral reproductive systems, diversity and constancy of visiting insects at different hours of day, the behaviour of these insects at the flowers and the influence of these environmental factors in relation to their visits. The fenology, anthesis and others particularity of this vegetal species was studied. A great diversity of insects was verified visiting the flowers with the predominance of bees. The most frequent and constant species encountered were: Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836 (40,2%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (16,9%, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (11,8%, Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900 (9,1 % e Exomalopsis fulvofasciata (Smith, 1879 (8,5%. The blossoms possessis features of melittophily syndrome and diurnal anthesis. The environmental factors influence the insects foraging activity, mainly temperature, light, time of day, humidity and wind speed. The effective pollinators were the large insects like Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787, Bombus atratus (Franklin, 1913, Centris tarsata (Smith, 1874, Centris flavifrons Fabricius, 1775, Xylocopa suspecta Camargo & Moure, 1988, Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789 and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841.

  11. Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae), nueva cita para la flora de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Cristian Daniel; Puntieri, Javier Guido

    2016-01-01

    Lythrum es un género cosmopolita que incluye unas 36 especies de hierbas anuales y perennes. Lythrum salicaria, una de las especies de más amplia distribución geográfica del género, crece en ambientes riparios en varios países y resulta altamente invasiva fuera de su área de distribución natural. En este trabajo se informa por primera vez la presencia de una población espontánea de L. salicaria en Argentina. Se recolectaron especímenes en la localidad de Las Golondrinas, provincia de Chubut, ...

  12. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae); Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Malaquias, Karla da Silva; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{l_brace}2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)

  13. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  14. Plantas com possível atividade hipolipidêmica: uma revisão bibliográfica de livros editados no Brasil entre 1998 e 2008 Plants with possible hypolipidemic activity: a review of books published in Brazil between 1998 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R Pizziolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar levantamento sobre as plantas medicinais indicadas para o tratamento da hiperlipidemia, hipercolesterolemia e/ou aterosclerose. Este estudo foi feito a partir da pesquisa bibliográfica em 32 livros publicados no Brasil entre 1998 e 2008, resultando em lista de 85 espécies distribuídas em 53 famílias, principalmente Asteraceae e Fabaceae, com 54 espécies exóticas e 31 nativas. As espécies mais citadas foram Allium sativum (Alliaceae, Cynara scolymus (Asteraceae, Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae, Allium cepa (Alliaceae, Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae, Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae, Vernonia condensata (Asteraceae, Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae e Curcuma zedoaria (Zingiberaceae. As espécies nativas, citadas em pelo menos 2 livros, foram investigadas para alguma evidencia científica relacionada a possíveis efeitos hipolipidêmico, hipocolesterolêmico e/ou contra aterosclerose. Somente foram encontrados estudos científicos, relacionados a estes efeitos, para as espécies nativas Cuphea carthagenensis e Echinodorus grandiflorum, indicando a necessidade de pesquisas que possam garantir a segurança e a eficácia do uso destas espécies.The aim of this study was to survey medicinal plants indicated for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and/or atherosclerosis. This study was performed from a review of 32 books published in Brazil between 1998 and 2008, resulting in a list of 85 species belonging to 53 families, especially Asteraceae and Fabaceae, with 54 exotic and 31 native species. The species most often cited were Allium sativum (Alliaceae, Cynara scolymus (Asteraceae, Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae, Allium cepa (Alliaceae, Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae, Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae, Vernonia condensata (Asteraceae, Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae and Curcuma zedoaria (Zingiberaceae. Native species cited in at least 2 books were investigated for some

  15. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

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    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  16. Fenologia de Lafoensia pacari A.St.-Hil. (Lythraceae em Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brasil Phenology of Lafoensia pacari A.St.-Hil. (Lythraceae in Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.W. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A.St.-Hil. é uma espécie da flora do cerrado usada na medicina popular como anti-úlcera, antifúngica, antibactericida, anti-inflamatória, febrífuga, para emagrecimento e no tratamento de pneumonia, dores de estômago e coceiras. Estudou-se a fenologia de L. pacari no cerrado do Parque Estadual da "Serra Azul", região de Barra do Garças-MT (15º 51' 58" S e 52º 15' 37" W, à 645 m de altitude, durante o período de 24 meses. Verificou-se que as fenofases são sazonais, com floração nos meses de abril a agosto, frutificação de junho a setembro, brotação no início da estação chuvosa de outubro a dezembro e queda de folhas de julho a setembro, no final da estação seca.Lafoensia pacari is a species from the Brazilian cerrado used in folk medicine to control ulcers, fungal and bacterial diseases, inflammations, fevers, pneumonia, stomachaches, and itching, as well as to lose weight. L. pacari phenology was studied for 24 months in the cerrado at "Serra Azul" State Park, in the region of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (15º 51' 58" S and 52º 15' 37" W, at 645 m altitude. Phenophases are seasonal, with flowering from April to August, fruiting from June to September, sprouting from October to December, during the beginning of the rainy season, and leaf fall from July to September, at the end of the dry season.

  17. A new megastigmane diglycoside from Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun-Song; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Hong-Bing; Yang, Jing-Hua, E-mail: yangjh@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Liao, Zhen [Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science (China); Li, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2011-09-15

    Phytochemical study on the leaves and twigs of afforded the new megastigmane diglycoside (6S, 7E, 9R)-6, 9-dihydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O-[{alpha}-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 ->6)]- {beta}-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with glycosides (6S, 7E, 9R)-roseoside (2), (7'R, 8'R)- 3, 5'-dimethoxy-9, 9'-dihydroxy-4, 7'-epoxylignan 4'-b-D-glucopyranoside (3), (7'R, 8'S)- dihydrodehydrodiconifenyl alcohol 9'-O-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside (4) and pinoresinol 3-O-{beta}-Dglucopyranoside (5). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 2-5 were reported for the first time in this species. Compound 1 was evaluated for cytotoxic activities against human tumor cell lines (myeloid leukemia HL-60, hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721, lung cancer A-549, breast cancer MCF-7 and colon cancer SW480 cells), for which it was proved to be inactive (IC{sub 50} > 40 {mu}M). (author)

  18. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice ( L. Var. Glutinosa on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

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    Sanchai Jaturasitha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted.

  19. Formulasi Sediaan Lipstik Menggunakan Ekstrak Beras Ketan Hitam (Oryza sativa L var forma glutinosa) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Black sticky rice (Oryza sativa L.) belongs to Poaceae family which is used by people as food stuffs such as tape and porridge. Black sticky rice is red/purple and its dye stuff is strong enough. In cosmetic, dye stuff is one of the causes of irritation and allergy on skin so that the researcher has made the formulation of lipstick component using natural dye stuff made of black sticky rice. The formulation of lipstick component consisted of some components such as cera alba, lanolin,...

  20. Extraction And Stability Of Natural Colorant From Red Glutinous Rice Bran (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa

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    Tirza Hanum

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Three extraction methods were studied to isolate natural colorant from red glutinous rice bran. Stability of extracts in relation to processing conditions and in the model beverages was determined at room temperature. Identifications of anthocyanidins was performed using reversed phase HPLC. Extraction method using acidified methanol solvent showed the highest yield (260,24+28,64 mg/100g. HPLC patern indicated the presence of six major anthocyanidins, two of them were identified as apigenidin and apigenin. Stability of anthocyanin colorant was higher in a lower acid condition and was reduced to the lowest value of 49,4, 65,4, 40,8 and 36,6% by high temperature, UV light, sunlight, and the presence of oxidator agent. respectively. Retention of antocyanin in tanin and ascorbic acid added into the model beverages was lower than in protein containing beverage or control.

  1. Cross-amplification and multiplexing of SSR markers for Alnus glutinosa and A. incana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drašnarová, Alena; Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Doudová, Jana; Douda, Jan; Hadincová, Věroslava; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2014), s. 865-873 ISSN 1614-2942 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alder * Betulaceae * microcatelites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2014

  2. Anti-TNF-α Activity of Brazilian Medicinal Plants and Compounds from Ouratea semiserrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Priscilla R V; Mansur, Daniel S; Gusman, Grasielle S; Ferreira, Daneel; Teixeira, Mauro M; Braga, Fernão C

    2015-10-01

    Several plant species are used in Brazil to treat inflammatory diseases and associated conditions. TNF-α plays a pivotal role on inflammation, and several plant extracts have been assayed against this target, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 11 Brazilian medicinal plants on TNF-α release by LPS-activated THP-1 cells was evaluated. The plant materials were percolated with different solvents to afford 15 crude extracts, whose effect on TNF-α release was determined by ELISA. Among the evaluated extracts, only Jacaranda caroba (Bignoniaceae) presented strong toxicity to THP-1 cells. Considering the 14 non-toxic extracts, TNF-α release was significantly reduced by seven of them (inhibition > 80%), originating from six plants, namely Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae), Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae), Ouratea semiserrata (Ochnaceae), Ouratea spectabilis and Remijia ferruginea (Rubiaceae). The ethanol extract from O. semiserrata leaves was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC to give three compounds previously reported for the species, along with agathisflavone and epicatechin, here described for the first time in the plant. Epicatechin and lanceoloside A elicited significant inhibition of TNF-α release, indicating that they may account for the effect produced by O. semiserrata crude extract. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted. PMID:26949957

  4. A review of the characteristics of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and their implications for silvicultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, H.; Oosterbaan, A.; Savill, P.; Rondeux, J.

    2010-01-01

    Black alder is a scattered, widespread and short-lived species that thrives in low-lying damp and riparian places. It has a use in flood control, stabilization of riverbanks and in functioning of the river ecosystems. To thrive, precipitation must exceed 1500 mm if access to groundwater is not

  5. Flow cytometry, microsatellites and niche models reveal the origins and geographical structure of Alnus glutinosa populations in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Vít, Petr; Krak, Karol; Trávníček, Pavel; Havrdová, Alena; Hadincová, Věroslava; Zákravský, Petr; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Bacles, C. F. E.; Douda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2016), s. 107-120 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : flow cytometry * microsatellites * glacial refugia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  6. Carposeminal biometrics and germination of Lafoensia pacari A. St. Hil. (Lythraceae exposed to different concentrations of GA3Morfobiometria carpo-seminal e germinação de Lafoensia pacari A. St. Hil. (Lythraceae exposta a diferentes concentrações de GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ragonha Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth regulators improve seedling performance, accelerating the emergence rate and expanding the physiologic potential of the seeds even under adverse conditions. The aims of this study was carposeminal biometrics and evaluate the influence of GA3 at different concentrations, in overcoming seed dormancy Lafoensia pacari A. St. Hil., a tree species of savanna and medicinal interest. Biometrics has been used for 100 fruits and 100 seeds, measuring the length, fruit diameter and the operculum. The seeds were characterized by the average number per fruit, weight of 1000 seeds, besides the length, width and thickness, also made to the embryo. The treatments were: distilled water and GA3 at 5, 10 and 20 mg.L-1, added to four sets of 100 seeds each. The dry seeds on paper towels were placed in groups of 25 units in four Petri dishes with filter paper and 10 mL of distilled water, kept in an incubator B.O.D. at 25 ° C and white fluorescent light ?mol.m-2.s-1. The data were used to calculate the Germination Percentage (G%, Germination Speed Index (GSI and Mean Germination Time (TM, and the results submitted to linear regression analysis. The carposeminal biometrics obtained shows the relation of the fruit and seeds with the dispersion autochory/anemocoric and can serve as a tool for specific differentiation. The increasing concentrations of GA3 positively influenced the Percentage and Germination Speed Index and negatively Mean Time Germination.Reguladores de crescimento melhoram o desempenho das plântulas, acelerando a velocidade de emergência e ampliando o potencial fisiológico das sementes mesmo em condições adversas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a biometria carposeminal e avaliar a influência do GA3, em diferentes concentrações, na superação de dormência de sementes de Lafoensia pacari A. St. Hil., uma planta arbórea do cerrado e de interesse medicinal. Para a biometria foram utilizados 100 frutos e 100 sementes, nos quais foram medidos o comprimento, diâmetro do fruto e do opérculo. As sementes foram caracterizadas pelo número médio por fruto, peso de 1000 sementes, além do comprimento, largura e espessura, também realizadas para o embrião. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: água destilada e GA3 a 5, 10 e 20 mg.L-1, adicionados a quatro lotes de 100 sementes cada. As sementes secas em papel absorvente foram distribuídas em grupos de 25 unidades, em quatro placas com papel de filtro e 10 mL de água destilada, mantidas em incubadora B.O.D. à 25ºC e luz branca fluorescente a 116 ?mol.m- 2.s-1. Os dados obtidos foram utilizados no cálculo da porcentagem de Germinação (G%, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG e Tempo Médio de Germinação (TM, e os resultados submetidos à análise de regressão. A morfobiometria carpo-seminal obtida mostra a relação dos frutos e sementes com a dispersão autocórica/anemocórica e pode servir como ferramenta para diferenciação específica. O aumento das concentrações de GA3 influenciou positivamente a Porcentagem e Índice de Velocidade de Germinação e negativamente o Tempo Médio de Germinação.

  7. Synergistic effect of Glomus intraradices and Frankia spp. on the growth and stress recovery of Alnus glutinosa in an alkaline anthropogenic sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliveira, R. S.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2005), s. 1462-1470 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycorrhiza * actonorhiza * alkaline sediment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.297, year: 2005

  8. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G. [Edinburgh Univ., Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Grayston, S. J. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Plant-Soil Interaction Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G.; Grayston, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, and copper) from smelter in forest ecosystems and their uptakes by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing. ) and Nameko mushroom (Pholiota glutinosa Kawamura) through polluted bed logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, T.; Fujita, K.; Furukawa, H.; Yoshimoto, M.

    1977-12-01

    Mushrooms cultivated on sawdust medium which had been innoculated with heavy metals accumulated the metals increasingly in stems, pileus, gill and spores, in that order. There were strain differences, in accumulation, and highest concentration was found in the first-born fruit body. At 2 ppm, cadmium did not affect yield of the fruiting body. At 20 ppm, however, yield was seriously reduced. Species differences in absorption capacity for heavy metals were noted. Seasonal variations in cadmium and copper accumulation were noted, along with zinc. Cadmium concentration in fruiting bodies increased with increase of cadmium concentration in the growth substrate. 23 figures, 16 tables.

  12. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    ), Cyperaceae (21-23, 52-56, 137), Ericaceae (90), Fabaceae (1, 10, 11, 37, 38, 66, 67, 91-93, 139), Gentianaceae (12, 13), Geraniaceae (94, 95, 120), Hydrophyllaceae (96), Hypericaceae (121), Iridaceae (106-108, 130), Juncaceae (24, 25), Lamiaceae (47, 81, 97, 98), Liliaceae (26, 27, 72, 109, 131), Lythraceae...

  13. Lawsonia inermis L. Syn. L. alba LamK. (Mehndi or Henna Hindi) of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawsonia inermis L. Syn. L. alba. LamK. (Mehndi or Henna Hindi) of. Lythraceae is a small-sized and much branched tree which is largely cultivated and groomed in the form of hedges. Flowers are white or rose-coloured, fragrant and borne on pyramidal bunches. Fruits bear numerous seeds. Hair dye is prepared from the ...

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Fertility Property of Lawsonia Inermis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Anti-Fertility Property of Lawsonia Inermis L. (Lythraceae) Roots in Rats. ... relationship significantly (p£0.05) among the doses of extract and to standard drug (ethinyl estradiol). ... The plant extract exhibit anti-fertility effects.

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... pp 183-193. Pterospermumocarpon, a new malvalean fruit from the Sindhudurg Formation (Miocene) of Maharashtra, India, and its phytogeographical significance ... Lagerstroemia L. from the middle Miocene Siwalik deposits, northern India: Implication for Cenozoic range shifts of the genus and the family Lythraceae.

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present leaf fossil, along with the previous fossil records of Lagerstroemia, indicates that the genus followed the same pattern of expansion and retraction as the entire family Lythraceae suggesting that both the genus and the family adapted in similar ways. The fossil plant assemblage from the Lower Siwalik deposits ...

  17. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides,

  18. Lista de hospedeiras do virus de vira-cabeça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1942-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five plants including an hybrid of N. tabacum L. x N. glutinosa L., were tested as to the susceptibility to "vira-cabeça". Of all the plants tested Nicotiana paniculata L. proved to be the best for the study of local lesions, these being very clear-cut 4 days post-inoculation. Petunia sp., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Nicotiana glutinosa L., come next as good indicator plants also.

  19. Can differences in root responses to soil drying and compaction explain differences in performance of trees growing on landfill sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Chan, Gilbert Y. S.; Wong, M. H.

    1999-07-01

    Two tropical woody species, Acacia confusa Merrill and Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Robinson, were grown under controlled conditions in PVC pipes filled with John Innes No. 2 soil. To investigate root distribution, physiological characteristics and hydraulic conductivity, four soil treatments were imposed-well-watered and noncompacted (control), well-watered and compacted; unwatered and noncompacted, and unwatered and compacted. In L. glutinosa, rooting depth and root elongation were severely restricted when soil bulk density increased from around 1.12 to 1.62 g cm(-3), whereas soil compaction had little effect on these parameters in A. confusa. As soil drying progressed, root water potential and osmotic potential declined more slowly in L. glutinosa than in A. confusa. Both the soil drying and compaction treatments significantly stimulated the accumulation of root abscisic acid (ABA) in both species. Soil drying damaged the root cell membrane of A. confusa, but had little influence on the root cell membrane of L. glutinosa. Soil drying had a greater effect on root hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) in L. glutinosa than in A. confusa, whereas the effect of soil compaction on L(p) was less in L. glutinosa than in A. confusa. Soil drying enhanced the effects of soil compaction on root L(p). We conclude that soil drying and compaction have large species-specific effects on the distribution, growth and physiology of roots. The relationships of these root properties to the species' ability to tolerate unfavorable soil conditions were examined.

  20. Trends in literature on new oilseed crops and related species: Seeking evidence of increasing or waning interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibliographic records on eight new crop species Camelina, Crambe, Cuphea, Physaria, Limnanthes, Stokesia, Thlaspi, and Vernonia from Agricola, CAB Abstracts, Scopus, and Web of Science were analyzed for historical and recent trends in the areas of research, author distribution, and quantity and impa...

  1. Final Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment: East Coast Testing of the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Liberty Washington Walton Croomia pauciflora Croomia E Liberty Gadsden Cuphea aspera Tropical waxweed c E Calhoun Oesmodium ochroleucum Creamflower...tick-trefoil E Jackson Echinacea purpurea eastern purple coneflower E Gadsden Jackson Eriocaulon nigrobracteatum Dark-headed hatpins E Calhoun Bay

  2. 77 FR 66832 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... subgroup 4B; peppermint and spearmint (tops and oil); berry subgroups 13-07 A, B, and G; taro (corm and...: Herbicide. Proposed Uses: Oilseed crop, group 20 (borage, calendula, camelina, Chinese tallowtree, cuphea..., milkweed, mustard seed, Niger seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rose hip, sesame, Stokes aster, sweet rocket...

  3. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Earthworms, clams, insect larvae, and other invertebrates are also found in the diet. Predators include striped bass and other piscivores. Sacramento...ajugoides var. rigida ridge hedge nettle Linaceae - Flax family *Linum bienne narrow-leaved flax Lythraceae - Loosestrife family Lythrum hyssopi...464-360 Ficam W 45639-1 PT-565 Plus Pyrethrum 499-285 Talon G 10182-41 Tempo WP 3125-380 Vaponite 2 201-235 W.C. Insect Finish 499-1822A-16101

  4. Potential of marker-assisted selection for Tobacco mosaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) is one of the most destructive virus threatening worldwide tobacco production. Use of host resistance is the best method of control. The N-gene was introgressed into tobacco from Nicotiana glutinosa to confer hypersensitive resistance to TMV. Phenotypic selection of TMV resistant ...

  5. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  6. Metal uptake by young trees from dredged brackish sediment : Limitations and possibilities for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Vervaeke, Pieter; de Schrijver, A.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2004-01-01

    Five tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Fraxinus excelsior L., Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were planted on a mound constructed of dredged sediment. The sediment originated from a brackish river mouth and was slightly polluted with heavy metals. This

  7. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ríos

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%.

  8. Effects of a traditional chinese medicine based desensitizing gel on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Bamboo salt, Calcined oyster, Drynaria fortunei, Indigo naturalis and Rehmannia glutinosa have been the main ingredients of many formulations in Chinese medicine for the treatment of toothache. This study evaluated the effect of a new desensitizing gel on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials ...

  9. 16S rRNA as molecular marker in ecology of Frankia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focusses on the role of biotic factors encountered with the establishment of the symbiosis between black alder plants ( Alnus glutinosa ) and introduced Frankia strains. A selection of

  10. Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor Vodde; Kalev Jogiste; Jeroen Engelhart; Lee E. Frelich; W. Keith Moser; Alan Sims; Marek Metslaid

    2015-01-01

    In two hemiboreal mixed spruce-hardwood forests in north-east Estonia, we studied (1) which factors affect tree regeneration survival and development during the first post-storm decade and (2) how these effects change in time. Regeneration height and mortality of the tree species black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) J. Gaertn.), birch (Betula pendula Roth., Betula...

  11. Study of the system of tuberous root induction in vitro from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study investigated the induction system of tuberous root in vitro from Rehmannia glutinosa. The roles of plant growth substance, carbohydrates, and minerals were evaluated for induction and development of tuberous root in vitro. The results show that Murashige and Skoog (MS) contributed greatly to induction ...

  12. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-alnus symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules

  13. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  14. The forest melliferous flora in the vicinity of Blace, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perišić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Melliferous plant species in the forests near Blace (South Serbia were investigated in order to estimate the significance, contribution, quality and ecological characteristics of representatives of the apiflora as potential nectar and pollen sources, the elements of bee pasturage. The significance of melliferous plants was determined on the basis of nectar and pollen production intensity, as well as by following blooming periods. According to adaptations to moisture, light, and temperature, melliferous species can be relegated to eight groups and six subgroups. Out of the total number of melliferous species in the investigated area (223, the forest apiflora accounted for 82 species (36,77%. The species with highest nectar and/or pollen production are: Alnus glutinosa, Corylus avellana, Paulownia tomentosa, Picea abies, Prunus tenella, Robinia pseudoacacia, species of the genera Salix, Tilia, and Campanula, Atropa bella-donna, Calamintha officinalis, Glechoma hederacea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa and Valeriana officinalis.

  15. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  16. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  17. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%. Keywords: Essential oil, Larvicidal activity, Mosquito control

  18. Physical Characterisation and Quantification of Total Above Ground Biomass Derived from First Thinnings for Wood Fuel Consumption in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mockler, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of wood fuel properties assists in the optimisation of operations concerned with the harvesting, seasoning, processing and conversion of wood to energy. This study investigated the physical properties of wood fuel. These properties included moisture content and basic density. The field work also allowed for the quantification of above ground biomass partitions. The species investigated were alder (Alnus glutinosa), ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), birch (Betula spp.), lodg...

  19. Introgression of a Tombusvirus Resistance Locus from Nicotiana edwardsonii var. Columbia to N. clevelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelz, James E; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Wintermantel, William M; Ross, Kathleen

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT A new variety of Nicotiana, N. edwardsonii var. Columbia, was evaluated for its capacity to serve as a new source for virus resistance genes. Columbia was developed from a hybridization between N. glutinosa and N. clevelandii, the same parents used for the formation of the original N. edwardsonii. However, in contrast to the original N. edwardsonii, crosses between Columbia and either of its parents are fertile. Thus, the inheritance of virus resistance genes present in N. glutinosa could be characterized by using Columbia as a bridge plant in crosses with the susceptible parent, N. clevelandii. To determine how virus resistance genes would segregate in interspecific crosses between Columbia and N. clevelandii, we followed the fate of the N gene, a single dominant gene that specifies resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Our genetic evidence indicated that the entire chromosome containing the N gene was introgressed into N. clevelandii to create an addition line, designated N. clevelandii line 19. Although line 19 was homozygous for resistance to TMV, it remained susceptible to Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) strain W260, indicating that resistance to these viruses must reside on other N. glutinosa chromosomes. We also developed a second addition line, N. clevelandii line 36, which was homozygous for resistance to TBSV. Line 36 was susceptible to TMV and CaMV strain W260, but was resistant to other tombusviruses, including Cucumber necrosis virus, Cymbidium ringspot virus, Lettuce necrotic stunt virus, and Carnation Italian ringspot virus.

  20. Allelochemical regulation of reproduction and seed germination of two BrazilianBaccharis species by phytotoxic trichothecenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, J O; Jarvis, B B; Mokhtari-Rejali, N; Bean, G A

    1990-12-01

    The potent phytotoxic trichothecene roridins and baccharinoids occur naturally in the Brazilian plants,Baccharis coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Biosynthesis of roridins inB. coridifolia appears to be linked to pollination, and the phytotoxins then accumulate in the seed. The roles of the phytotoxins in pollination, seed maturation, and germination of theBaccharis species were investigated. The high production of roridins occurred only in seeds resulting from intraspecific pollination, and the concentration of the toxins in the seeds generally increased with seed maturity. Removal of seed coats from trichothecene-producing BrazilianBaccharis species (B. coridifolia andB. megapotamica) and non-trichothecene-producing AmericanBaccharis species (B. halimifolia andB. glutinosa) resulted in improved seed germination ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa but complete inhibition of seed germination ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Addition of seed coat extracts of the BrazilianBaccharis species of dilute solutions (10(-6)μg/ml) of roridins or baccharinoids to the decoated seeds ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica resulted in germination, while seeds ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa were killed by the phytotoxins. Roridins interacted with gibberellic acid, a germination promoter, but not with abscisic acid, a germination inhibitor. The results from this study suggest that macrocyclic trichothecenes have a regulatory role(s) on reproduction and germination of BrazilianBaccharis species in their natural habitat.

  1. Elevated CO2 and Tree Species Affect Microbial  Activity and Associated Aggregate Stability in Soil  Amended with Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwan M. J. Al‐Maliki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 may affect organic inputs to woodland soils with potential consequences for C dynamics and associated aggregation; (2 The Bangor Free Air Concentration Enrichment experiment compared ambient (330 ppmv and elevated (550 ppmv CO2 regimes over four growing seasons (2005–2008 under Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. Litter from the experiment (autumn 2008 and Lumbricus terrestris were added to mesocosm soils. Microbial properties and aggregate stability were investigated in soil and earthworm casts. Soils taken from the field experiment in spring 2009 were also investigated; (3 eCO2 litter had lower N and higher C:N ratios. F. sylvatica and B. pendula litter had lower N and P than A. glutinosa; F. sylvatica had higher cellulose. In mesocosms, eCO2 litter decreased respiration, mineralization constant (respired C:total organic C and soluble carbon in soil but not earthworm casts; microbial‐C and fungal hyphal length differed by species (A. glutinosa = B. pendula > F. sylvatica not CO2 regime. eCO2 increased respiration in field aggregates but increased stability only under F. sylvatica; (4 Lower litter quality under eCO2 may restrict its initial decomposition, affecting C stabilization in aggregates. Later resistant materials may support microbial activity and increase aggregate stability. In woodland, C and soil aggregation dynamics may alter under eCO2, but outcomes may be influenced by tree species and earthworm activity.

  2. The pace of Holocene vegetation change - testing for synchronous developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesecke, Thomas; Bennett, K. D.; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Bozilova, Elisaveta; Feurdean, Angelica; Finsinger, Walter; Froyd, Cynthia; Pokorný, Petr; Rösch, Manfred; Seppä, Heikki; Tonkov, Spasimir; Valsecchi, Verushka; Wolters, Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Mid to high latitude forest ecosystems have undergone several major compositional changes during the Holocene. The temporal and spatial patterns of these vegetation changes hold potential information to their causes and triggers. Here we test the hypothesis that the timing of vegetation change was synchronous on a sub-continental scale, which implies a common trigger or a step-like change in climate parameters. Pollen diagrams from selected European regions were statistically divided into assemblage zones and the temporal pattern of the zone boundaries analysed. The results show that the temporal pattern of vegetation change was significantly different from random. Times of change cluster around 8.2, 4.8, 3.7, and 1.2 ka, while times of higher than average stability were found around 2.1 and 5.1 ka. Compositional changes linked to the expansion of Corylus avellana and Alnus glutinosa centre around 10.6 and 9.5 ka, respectively. A climatic trigger initiating these changes may have occurred 0.5 to 1 ka earlier, respectively. The synchronous expansion of C. avellana and A. glutinosa exemplify that dispersal is not necessarily followed by population expansion. The partly synchronous, partly random expansion of A. glutinosa in adjacent European regions exemplifies that sudden synchronous population expansions are not species specific traits but vary regionally.

  3. Foliar methyl salicylate emissions indicate prolonged aphid infestation on silver birch and black alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blande, James D; Korjus, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-03-01

    It is well documented that when plants are damaged by insects they respond by emitting a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While there have been numerous reports concerning VOCs induced by chewing herbivores, there are relatively few studies detailing the VOCs induced by aphid feeding. The effects of aphid feeding on VOCs emitted by boreal forest trees have been particularly neglected. Herbivore-induced VOCs have relevance to direct and indirect plant defence and atmospheric chemistry. In this study, we analysed the VOCs emitted by Betula pendula (Roth) and Alnus glutinosa (L.) (Gaertn.) infested by specialist aphid species under laboratory conditions. We also complemented this by collecting VOCs from leaf beetle-damaged saplings under field conditions. In addition to induction of some inducible terpenes, we detected substantial aphid-induced emissions of methyl salicylate (MeSA) in both B. pendula and A. glutinosa. MeSA emission intensity depended on the length of aphid infestation. Feeding by beetles induced emission of (E)-DMNT in both tree species and (E)-beta-ocimene in A. glutinosa but had no effect on MeSA emissions. MeSA has been shown to have aphid-repellent qualities and has been shown recently to have impact on formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. We discuss our results in relation to these two phenomena.

  4. Estudios etnobotánicos en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata, Argentina: Productos de plantas medicinales introducidos por inmigrantes paraguayos

    OpenAIRE

    Julio A. Hurrell; Jeremías P. Puentes; Patricia M. Arenas

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo incluye resultados parciales de una línea de investigación en Etnobotánica urbana, que estudia los conocimientos locales sobre las plantas, sus partes y productos derivados en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata. Se incluyen productos de plantas medicinales de reciente ingreso en el área de estudio a través de inmigrantes oriundos de Paraguay. Los productos corresponden a 10 especies: Achyrocline alata(“jateí-ka’á”), Baccharis gaudichaudiana (“jaguareté-ka’á”), Cuphea lysimachio...

  5. Mangrove diversity in the Serewe Gulf of Lombok Island West Nusa Tenggara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwansah, Sugiyarto, Mahajoeno, Edwi

    2017-08-01

    Mangrove forests are a valuable economic resource as important breeding grounds and nursery sites for various animal species, stabilizing coastal lands and offering protection against storms, tsunamis, and sea level rise. Mangrove forest growing along the coastline of Serewe Gulf. The Serewe Gulf has great potential in tourism and sea cultivation sector. The research was conducted in the Serewe Gulf of Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara for 2 months (November up to December 2016). The objective of this research is to determine the diversity of mangrove in the Serewe Gulf, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara using belt transect method. The identification result shows that there are 9 families with 9 types such as Rhizophoraceae (Rhizophora mucronata), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia officinalis), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba), Casuarinaceae (Casuarina equisetifolia), Bignoniaceae (Dilochnadrone sthaceae), Malvaceae (Hibiscus tiliaceus), Lythraceae (Pemphis adicula), Aizoaceae (Sesivium portulacastrum), and Euphorbiaceae (Ricinus communis). The diversity of mangrove types in the research area is in medium rate with H' index of 1.668.

  6. A new flavone glucoside together with known ellagitannins and flavones with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activities from the flowers of pomegranate (Punica granatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Tian, Li

    2018-03-03

    A new flavone glucoside tricetin 4'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1) and four known ellagitannins and flavones tricetin (2), luteolin (3), ellagic acid (4), and granatin B (5) were isolated from the flowers of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae). Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR as well as mass spectrometry analyses. Among all tested compounds, tricetin (2) exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity that was comparable to the anti-diabetic drug acarbose. Comparative structure-function analysis of tri-, tetra-, and pentahydroxy flavones [apigenin, luteolin (3), and tricetin (2), respectively] suggested that a greater number of hydroxyl groups on the flavone molecule enhanced its suppression of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and lipase activities.

  7. Manutenção da infectividade de Tymovírus em extratos de plantas Maintenance of infectivity of Tymovirus in plant extracts

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    Maria Mércia Barradas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro isolados do vírus do mosaico da berinjela (EMV - "eggplant mosaic virus" - grupo tymovírus foram armazenados a partir de extratos foliares de hospedeiras com sintomas sistêmicos. Os virus EMV-Al (isolado de Abelia, EMV-Sc (isolado da Escócia, -ts (estirpe-padrão e VNBT (vírus da necrose branca do tomateiro, que induzem sintomas em Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa (Família Chenopodiaceae Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum e Nicotiana glutinosa (Solanaceae, foram conservados em extratos destas plantas, à temperatura ambiente, em geladeira e em congelador. A infectividade dos vírus, em diferentes períodos de armazenamento, foi testada em plantas de datura e glutinosa, para se determinar a longevidade in vitro. Constatou-se que, quando guardados em baixas temperaturas,os extratos preservam por mais tempo a infectividade dos vírus. No caso de datura e glutinosa, por exemplo, resultados positivos foram obtidos até 413 e 282 dias de armazenamento, respectivamente, em congelador. Entretanto, com relação às espécies de Chenopodium testadas, mesmo alguns extratos recém-preparados conduziram a resultados negativos, confirmando a presença de inibidores de infecção viral nestas plantas. Das três espécies, é sugerida a utilização apenas de C.quinoa para o preparo de extratos visando preservar estes vírus e, assim mesmo, por um período relativamente curto (entre 53 e 80 dias. A avaliação geral dos resultados mostra que, para os tymovírus estudados neste trabalho, é possível conservar a infectividade através da técnica de armazenamento de extratos foliares de plantas sistemicamente infectadas.Four isolates of EMV (eggplant mosaic virus - tymovirus group were preserved in crude extracts from systemically-infected plants. EMV-Al (Abelia strain, EMV-Sc (Scottish strain, EMV-ts (type-strain and TWNV (tomato white necrosis virus which induce symptoms in Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa

  8. Physical properties and fiber dimension in Stem, Branch and root of Alder Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Moya-Roque, Roger; Kiaei, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical properties and fiber dimensions in stem, branch and root wood for alder (Alnus glutinosa L) species. For this purpose, three normal alder trees were selected from Khanican forest in north of Iran. Disks were taken from three parts such as stem, branch and root of trees. Testing samples were randomly taken at disk surfaces to examine the physical properties (according to the ISO standard for oven-dry density and volumetric shrinkage) and fiber di...

  9. Methodology to evaluate the insecticide potential of forest tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocidal effects to control pests and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts and test with Artemia salina Leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm) Determination of active compounds. The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: guarea guidonia (L) Sleumer and trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), Machaerium Moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill (rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hym: Formicidae) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  10. Methodology for the insecticide potential evaluation of forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocides effects to pest control and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts, and test with Artemia Salina, leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm). The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer and Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  11. Diversity and evolutionary history of lettuce necrotic yellows virus in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Colleen M; Chang, Wee-Leong; Khan, Subuhi; Tang, Joe; Elliott, Carol; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) is the type member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae, and causes a severe disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). This virus has been described as endemic to Australia and New Zealand, with sporadic reports of a similar virus in Europe. Genetic variability studies of plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are scarce. We have extended a previous study on the variability of the LNYV nucleocapsid gene, comparing sequences from isolates sampled from both Australia and New Zealand, as well as analysing symptom expression on Nicotiana glutinosa. Phylogenetic and BEAST analyses confirm separation of LNYV isolates into two subgroups (I and II) and suggest that subgroup I is slightly older than subgroup II. No correlation was observed between isolate subgroup and disease symptoms on N. glutinosa. The origin of LNYV remains unclear; LNYV may have moved between native and weed hosts within Australia or New Zealand before infecting lettuce or may have appeared as a result of at least two incursions, with the first coinciding with the beginning of European agriculture in the region. The apparent extinction of subgroup I in Australia may have been due to less-efficient dispersal than that which has occurred for subgroup II - possibly a consequence of suboptimal interactions with plant and/or insect hosts. Introduction of subgroup II to New Zealand appears to be more recent. More-detailed epidemiological studies using molecular tools are needed to fully understand how LNYV interacts with its hosts and to determine where the virus originated.

  12. Spicing Up the N Gene: F. O. Holmes and Tobacco mosaic virus Resistance in Capsicum and Nicotiana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2017-02-01

    One of the seminal events in plant pathology was the discovery by Francis O. Holmes that necrotic local lesions induced on certain species of Nicotiana following rub-inoculation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was due to a specific interaction involving a dominant host gene (N). From this, Holmes had an idea that if the N gene from N. glutinosa was introgressed into susceptible tobacco, the greatly reduced titer of TMV would, by extension, prevent subsequent infection of tomato and pepper plants by field workers whose hands were contaminated with TMV from their use of chewing and smoking tobacco. The ultimate outcome has many surprising twists and turns, including Holmes' failure to obtain fertile crosses of N. glutinosa × N. tabacum after 3 years of intensive work. Progress was made with N. digluta, a rare amphidiploid that was readily crossed with N. tabacum. And, importantly, the first demonstration by Holmes of the utility of interspecies hybridization for virus resistance was made with Capsicum (pepper) species with the identification of the L gene in Tabasco pepper, that he introgressed into commercial bell pepper varieties. Holmes' findings are important as they predate Flor's gene-for-gene hypothesis, show the use of interspecies hybridization for control of plant pathogens, and the use of the local lesion as a bioassay to monitor resistance events in crop plants.

  13. Kisaran Inang dan Keragaman Gejala Infeksi Turnip Mosaic Virus

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    Eliza Suryati Rusli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of mosaic disease on vegetable crops in Indonesia has been reported recently. The disease is caused by TuMV which is considered as a new and important virus on caisin and turnip in Indonesia. Field survey has been conducted to determine disease incidence in vegetable growing areas. Symptom variability and host range of TuMV was further studied through mechanical inoculation to cruciferae and solanaceae plants. Observation during field survey has proved that TuMV has infected caisin and turnip in Java and Bali. The highest intensity of mosaic disease i.e. 63,3% occurs in Tumpangan-Malang, followed by Denpasar Selatan and Bandungan-Semarang with the intensity of 30,5% and 19,0% respectively. TuMV infection causes different types of symptoms, such as: wrinkled leaf, blistered leaf, vein banding, vein clearing, leaf distortion and proliferation. The host range of TuMV involves those plants belong to cruciferae (cabbage, broccoli, caisin, turnip, cauliflower, chinese cabbage, pak coy; solanaceae (N. tabacum, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa; and chenopodiaceae (C. amaranticolor. Furthermore, N. glutinosa can be used as differential host for TuMV isolates.

  14. Influence of invasive Acer negundo leaf litter on benthic microbial abundance and activity in the littoral zone of a temperate river in Lithuania

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    Krevš Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests are known as important source of allochthonous organic matter entering to water ecosystems via fallen leaves. However, leaf litter, depending on their quality, may create different conditions for benthic microorganisms functioning in littoral zone of water bodies. In order to evaluate the impact of riparian invasive Acer negundo on littoral water zone of the River Neris (Lithuania, we performed physicochemical and microbiological investigations in bottom sediments of three different sites of the river. One sampling site was close by riparian A. negundo, another close by native Alnus glutinosa location and a third zone was near the shore without riparian vegetation. Content of nutrients in the littoral sediments differed between invasive and native trees leaf litter accumulation sites, while not always significantly. The highest microbial densities as well as benthic community respiratory activity (expressed as the rate of organic carbon mineralization occurred in A. negundo leaves accumulation site. In sediments of this site, the most intensive anaerobic terminal organic carbon mineralization process − sulfate reduction and the highest concentration of hydrogen sulfide were also observed. Differences in the intensity of mineralization processes between sites suggest that the replacement of the riparian native species such as dominant A. glutinosa by invasive A. negundo with higher biodegradability leaves may induce local changes in organic matter processing in the littoral zone of the river. The increase of littoral bioproductivity in the accumulation zone of A. negundo leaf litter can occur due to the inflow of available organic matter and its intensive mineralization.

  15. Anti-lipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 μg mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  16. Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemesio Villa-Ruano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1 revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1, whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹. In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(50=50-80 μg mL¹. The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  17. Development of a meridic diet for Hylobius transversovittatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the role of carbohydrates in feeding, growth, and survival of larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic-Carruthers, Nada

    2007-08-01

    The root-feeding weevil Hylobius transversovittatus Goeze (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is used for biological control of the invasive plant purple loosestrife, Luthrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). A simple rearing system for this weevil was developed with the goals of improving production techniques and increasing the availability of insects for field introduction. Additionally, the dietary effects of digestible and indigestible carbohydrates were explored. A meridic diet for rearing H. transversovittatus was formulated through nutritional alterations of a boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diet. Diet attractiveness was evaluated on two levels: first, by recording the incidence of initial tunneling, and second, by estimating the larval establishment rate. The performance of test diet formulations was further assessed by measuring developmental and survival rates of H. transversovittatus. Sucrose, starch, and three types of indigestible carbohydrates were tested as components to improve diet performance. Physical properties of the diet, modified by fillers in test formulations, produced major effects on the initial tunneling of hatchlings. The establishment of hatchlings was affected by chemical properties of the diet. Increases in sucrose concentration decreased larval establishment, decreased the rate of larval development, and decreased larval survival. However, omitting sucrose from the diet, or replacing it with starch, increased mortality of first instars. In advanced stages of larval development, omitting sucrose from the diet did not significantly affect larval survival. The developmental rate of larvae was increased when the amount of digestible carbohydrate was reduced. To date, seven generations of the univoltine H. transversovittatus have been successfully produced on this new meridic diet.

  18. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  19. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  20. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Ammannia baccifera and Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extracts on rats

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    Aiyalu Rajasekaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts of Ammannia baccifera L., Lythraceae, and Blepharis maderaspatensis (L. B.Heyne ex Roth., Acanthaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major constituents of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of ethanolic leaf extracts. The excision and incision models were used to assess the effect of the plant extracts on wound healing in rats. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a standard drug Framycetin cream. Significant wound healing activity was observed for the creams prepared with 5% ethanol fraction of B. maderaspatensis and 5% chloroform fraction of A. baccifera ethanolic leaf extracts. The results of histopathological evaluation supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. Ethanolic fraction of B. maderaspatensis and chloroform fraction of A. baccifera exhibited marked wound healing activity. B. maderaspatensis extract displayed a remarkable wound healing activity compared to A. baccifera.

  1. Isolation, characterization, antioxidant activity, and protein-precipitating capacity of the hydrolyzable tannin punicalagin from pomegranate yellow peel (Punica granatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudane, Boualem; Boudemagh, Djalila; Bounekhel, Mahmoud; Sobhi, Widad; Vidal, Michel; Broussy, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    This work describes the isolation and characterization of the hydrolysable tannin punicalagin, obtained from the yellow peel of pomegranate (Punica granatum, belonging to the family Lythraceae). The natural product was present as a mixture of α and β anomers, rapidly interconverting under acidic pH conditions. A fast and efficient purification method was established using semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chemical structure of the molecule was confirmed as punicalagin based on IR spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry studies. The lowest energy conformations of the α and β anomers were calculated by quantum chemical methods, and their ratio compared to the experimental value (experimental: α/β = 2.2 to 2.5; calculated α/β = 2.4, in aqueous solution at acidic pH). The antioxidant activity of pure punicalagin was determined with a DPPH radical scavenging assay (IC50 = 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL) and was comparable to that of tannic acid (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL). Finally, we demonstrated that punicalagin, when used above a threshold concentration, was able to precipitate bovine serum albumin (BSA), although less efficiently than tannic acid.

  2. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale: A New Threat for Crapemyrtles, a Popular Landscape Plant in the U.S.

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    Zinan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae, is a newly introduced insect pest on crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. (Myrtales: Lythraceae, one of the most popular flowering shrubs in the U.S. Since first detected in Texas in 2004, this pest has spread to twelve states causing losses to stakeholders. To develop a management plan, we reviewed current knowledge about the pest’s biology and ecology, and suggested research approaches including studying its thermal tolerance, host range, plant resistance and biological control. Parasitoids and predators have been reared from A. lagerstroemiae in the U.S. and China. However, new surveys of natural enemies should be conducted in China, and studies on the host range and impacts of natural enemies on A. lagerstroemiae may help determine the potential for classical biological control. The life history, preying efficiency and rearing methods are important for coccinellid predators found in the U.S. including Chilocorus cacti L. and Hyperaspis spp. To enhance natural enemy performance, it is important to evaluate a sustainable insecticide program that considers efficacy, timing, rate and impact on pollinator health. Finally, an integrated management program of A. lagerstroemiae is discussed including planting resistant cultivars, using host specific natural enemies, and prudent use of insecticides.

  3. Effect of Woodfordia fruticosa on dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in mice

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    Santosh S. Bhujbal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a group of syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, resulting in an increased risk of complications from vascular disease. The flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L. Kurz, Lythraceae, have been used traditionally in the treatment of diabetes, dysentery, diarrhea, other bowel complaints, internal haemorrhages, in leucorrhoea and menorrhagia. Externally powdered flower is sprinkled over foul ulcers and wounds for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations. In Konkan leaves are used in bilious sickness. W. fruticosa is also reported to have DNA topoisomerase inhibitor, antibacterial, antifertility, antipeptic ulcer, free radical scavenging, and hepatoprotective activity. W. fruticosa is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorder including diabetes. The present work investigates the effects of the WF in dexamethsone induced insulin resistance in mice. The results of animal study revealed that the extract at dose 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg was found to be significant (p<0.01 after 22 days of treatment. Further isolation studies afforded an anthraquinone glycoside, chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Moreover further experiments will be required to identify their exact mechanism of action.

  4. Determination of natural colorants in plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography

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    RENETA GEVRENOVA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the colouring compounds apigenin (1, lawsone (2, juglone (3 and indigotin (4 in plant extracts using HPLC–UV/Vis methods is reported. The methods were applied to the analysis of 1–4 in ethanolic and propylene glycolic extracts originating, respectively, from chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L] Rauschert, Asteraceae, henna (Lawsonia inermis L., Lythraceae, walnut (Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae and natural indigo (Indigofera sp., Fabaceae. In the case of the indigo extracts, an optimized acid hydrolysis was applied. HPLC separations were performed on a Hypersil ODS RP18 column using linear gradient elution programs. The detection limits for 1–4 were 0.11, 0.6, 0.10, 0.089 μg mL-1, respectively. The procedure did not involve any sample “clean-up” methods. The amounts of the colouring compounds ranged from 0.006 (3 to 0.13 mg mL-1 (4 in the ethanolic extracts and from 0.22 (2 to 1.44 mg mL-1 (4 in propylene glycolic extracts. The proposed HPLC methods are advantageous in terms of sample preparation and the selective separation of the compounds. The plant dye extracts are commonly used in hair colouring formulations. The results indicate that the methods developed may serve for the quantitative control of dying plants and cosmetic products.

  5. Hypersensitivity reactions due to black henna tattoos and their components: are the clinical pictures related to the immune pathomechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Gianfranco; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Butani, Lavjay; Pizzimenti, Stefano; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Macchia, Luigi; Nettis, Eustachio

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and related compounds induced by temporary black henna tattoos has become a serious health problem worldwide. Different patterns of sensitization with various clinical aspects are described in literature due to PPD associated to henna tattoo and these manifestations are likely correlated with the immunological and dermatological pathomechanisms involved. Henna is the Persian name of the plant Lawsonia inermis, Fam. Lythraceae . It is a woody shrub that grow in regions of North Africa, South Asia, India and Sri Lanka. Nowadays it is rather frequent to see temporary "tattoos" performed with henna. To make tattoos darker and long-lasting PPD has been associated to henna in tattoo drawings mixtures, so obtaining " black henna ". In these years there has been a rise of contact sensitization to PPD and in medical literature an increased number of cases have been reported on temporary henna tattoo application. Here we review the various clinical patterns related to PPD and henna tattoo, to investigate the possible link between clinic-morphological pictures and the immunological response to PPD and henna. The literature underlines that different clinical manifestations are related to black henna containing PPD, and its derivative products may cause delayed-type as well as immediate-type reactions. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between clinical and morphological aspects of PPD contact dermatitis and the T cell subsets predominance.

  6. STRUKTUR DAN KOMPOSISI JENIS HUTAN MANGROVE DI GOLO SEPANG – KECAMATAN BOLENG KABUPATEN MANGGARAI BARAT

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    M. Hidayatullah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine mangrove forest structure and composition in Golo Sepang Village, Manggarai Barat District. Important value index and diversity index value obtained from mangrove vegetation analysis were used as indicators for determining mangrove forest structure and diversity. Transect method with square frame along the line was applied in vegetation analysis. Totally 10 lines and 30 plots were applied for getting types of mangrove, growth parametersvalue (height and diameter and others related information. This study found that the stucture of mangrove consist of 5 familyes with 10 species, namely: Rhizophoraceae (Ceriops tagal (Perr, Rhizophora apiculata (Bi, R. mucronata Lmk., Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb., B. sexangula (Lour dan B. gymnorrizha (L. Lamk., Fabaceae (Derris trifoliata Lour, Meliaceae (Xylocarpus granatum Koen, Pteridaceae (Acrosthicum aereum Linn and Lythraceae (Phempis acidula Forst. R. apiculata (Bi is the most dominant species founded in 7 of 10 total sites. Two sites, Sotri and Muara Kiri, have the highest important value index (300% for R. Apiculata species. The highest individual density is found at Sotri site, with value 1.300 tree/hectare, while the lowest density, 100 trees/hectare is found at Muara Kanan site. In diversity of mangrove, all sites were categorized as low with highest diversity index value 1,06.Keywords: Mangrove forest, structure and composition, Golo Sepang

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Lawsonia inermis Extracts Inhibits Chromium(VI-Induced Cellular and DNA Toxicity

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    Gunjan Guha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI is a very strong oxidant which consequently causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress. Prevention of Cr(VI-induced cellular damage has been sought in this study in aqueous and methanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Lythraceae, commonly known as Henna. The extracts showed significant (P < .05 potential in scavenging free radicals (DPPH• and ABTS•+ and Fe3+, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. DNA damage caused by exposure of pBR322 to Cr(VI-UV is markedly inhibited by both extracts in varying degrees. A distinct decline in Cr(VI-induced cytotoxicity was noticed in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells with an increase in dosage of both extracts individually. Furthermore, both extracts proved to contain a high content of phenolic compounds which were found to have a strong and significant (P < .05 positive correlation to the radical scavenging potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and cyto-protective efficiency against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cellular damage. HPLC analysis identified some of the major phenolic compounds in both extracts, which might be responsible for the antioxidant potential and the properties of DNA and cyto-protection. This study contributes to the search for natural resources that might yield potent therapeutic drugs against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cell damage.

  8. Evaluation of the effect of Punica granatum juice and punicalagin on NFκB modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tanmay A; Parikh, Mihir; Patel, Kirti V; Patel, Kalpana G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Gandhi, Tejal R

    2016-08-01

    Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the modulation of cellular transcription factors and signaling proteins. No pharmacological work is reported on the effects of P. granatum juice on the cellular signaling pathways involved in initiation and progression of inflammation. The present investigation evaluates the effect of P. granatum juice (PJ) and purified punicalagin (PW) on nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the signaling pathways leading to its expression in colon inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: positive and negative control, vehicle (50 % ethanol), standard (5-ASA 100 mg/kg, p.o.), PJ (400 mg/kg, p.o.), PW (4 mg/kg, p.o.). Colitis was induced with 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and animals were euthanized on 18th day. Colon samples collected were subjected to various histological assessment (CMDI, DAI), and biochemical parameters (MPO, MDA, SOD, NO). Gene expression study was carried out using RT-PCR for cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and NF-κβ). Pretreatment with PJ and PW significantly (p granatum juice is more biologically active over punicalagin alone and can be potentially used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genome provides insights into fruit quality and ovule developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Fang, Yanming; Zhang, Taikui; Fei, Zhangjun; Han, Fengming; Liu, Cuiyu; Liu, Min; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Mengwei; Ju, Youhui; Xu, Huili; Dai, He; Liu, Yujun; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianqing; Guan, Dian; Yan, Ming; Xia, Yanhua; Huang, Xianbin; Liu, Dongyuan; Wei, Hongmin; Zheng, Hongkun

    2017-12-22

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has an ancient cultivation history and has become an emerging profitable fruit crop due to its attractive features such as the bright red appearance and the high abundance of medicinally valuable ellagitannin-based compounds in its peel and aril. However, the limited genomic resources have restricted further elucidation of genetics and evolution of these interesting traits. Here, we report a 274-Mb high-quality draft pomegranate genome sequence, which covers approximately 81.5% of the estimated 336-Mb genome, consists of 2177 scaffolds with an N50 size of 1.7 Mb and contains 30 903 genes. Phylogenomic analysis supported that pomegranate belongs to the Lythraceae family rather than the monogeneric Punicaceae family, and comparative analyses showed that pomegranate and Eucalyptus grandis share the paleotetraploidy event. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analyses provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of ellagitannin-based compounds, the colour formation in both peels and arils during pomegranate fruit development, and the unique ovule development processes that are characteristic of pomegranate. This genome sequence provides an important resource to expand our understanding of some unique biological processes and to facilitate both comparative biology studies and crop breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Chemical and Biological Significance of Oenothein B and Related Ellagitannin Oligomers with Macrocyclic Structure

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    Takashi Yoshida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Okuda et al. reported the first isolation and characterization of oenothein B, a unique ellagitannin dimer with a macrocyclic structure, from the Oenothera erythrosepala leaves. Since then, a variety of macrocyclic analogs, including trimeric–heptameric oligomers have been isolated from various medicinal plants belonging to Onagraceae, Lythraceae, and Myrtaceae. Among notable in vitro and in vivo biological activities reported for oenothein B are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. Oenothein B and related oligomers, and/or plant extracts containing them have thus attracted increasing interest as promising targets for the development of chemopreventive agents of life-related diseases associated with oxygen stress in human health. In order to better understand the significance of this type of ellagitannin in medicinal plants, this review summarizes (1 the structural characteristics of oenothein B and related dimers; (2 the oxidative metabolites of oenothein B up to heptameric oligomers; (3 the distribution of oenotheins and other macrocyclic analogs in the plant kingdom; and (4 the pharmacological activities hitherto documented for oenothein B, including those recently found by our laboratory.

  11. Land regeneration: soil development through forestation on former opencast coal-lands in upland Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, M.J. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The degradation of lands that have been 'reclaimed' after surface coal mining is an international concern. Research near the UNESCO World Heritage site for industrial land at Blaenavon, Wales, seeks more effective ways of creating self-sustaining soils on coal-lands, where the auto-compaction of minespoils causes land degradation. Remedies are sought through the use of close-planted trees as bio-accumulators. Preliminary findings suggest that: 1. forestation quickly mitigates soil compaction, 2. soil fertilisation with NPK improves the survival rate of Alnus glutinosa but may not enhance average growth, 3. soil remineralisation with basic igneous rock flour may be more effective than conventional NPK application alone for enhancing both survival rates and growth and that 4. soil disturbance causes long term depletion of the soil microbial ecosystem. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Introduction Pages

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    Radu E. SESTRAS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro, Issue 1, Volume 10, 2018: The papers published in this issue (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro/index.php/nsb/issue/current represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches, we invite you to find news about enhancing the resistance of watermelon; biodiversity within Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary; bioactive compounds investigated in several species (Litsea glutinosa, Senna alata, etc.; new approaches for technical aspects for improving crops of interest (mass production of Spirulina, gamma radiation treatments on potato and sesame, testing banana peel as substrate; cytogenetic, forestry and carbon sequestration; reproductive behavior with significant embryological data. Notulae Scientia Biologicae journal has moved to online-only publication at the start of 2017. At the same time, we maintain our standard publication, as printed form, with 'classic' style - volume, issue, pagination.

  13. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  14. The Role of Phytodiversity in Riparian Alder Forests in Supporting the Provision of Ecosystem Services

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    Mariničová Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature, ecosystems and biodiversity provide human society with many benefits known as ecosystem services. Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity. In this paper, we applied inductive approach to the identification, mapping and evaluation of ecosystem services of the Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae community in Tribeč Mts. The results from 2015 show that the alder floodplain forest represents one of the most productive forest ecosystems with seasonal maximum production of 59.03 g m−2, species diversity of N0 = 40 and functional diversity of FD = 10. The forage potential of this community is medium, the melliferous potential is high and the therapeutic potential was estimated as extremely rich in medicinal plants. From the functional groups for providing ecosystem services, woody plants and hemicryptophytes play the most significant role.

  15. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  16. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

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    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  17. Synthesis of the PHYTENER project. Development of phyto-remediation on soils contaminated by metals for energy purposes: ecologic viability, social interest and economic assessment. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidar, Geraldine; Detriche, Sebastien; Douay, Francis; Fourrier, Herve; Louvel, Brice; Pelfrene, Aurelie; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Pruvot, Christelle; Waterlot, Christophe; Muchembled, Jerome; Comont, Eric; Statnik, Corinne; Demuynck, Sylvain; Grumiaux, Fabien; Lemiere, Sebastien; Lepretre, Alain; Pernin, Celine; Pauwels, Jean-Francois; Therssen, Eric; Deram, Annabelle; Hayet, Audrey; Billet, Sylvain; Firmin, Stephane; Fontaine, Joel; Labidi, Sonia; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Shirali, Pirouz; Tisserand, Benoit; Verdin, Anthony; Cazier, Fabrice; Dorothee, Dewaele; Genevray, Paul; Scheifler, Renaud; Proix, Nicolas; Retailleau, Julien; Richard, Antoine; Blarel, Jacques; Lefevre, Benoit; Billaut, Geoffrey; Cadiere, Frederique; Collet, Bastien; Faure, Olivier; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of results obtained within a multi-disciplinary research programme, Phytener, performed between 2009 and 2013. This programme notably considered the case of ancient mining sites and of the associated soil contaminations (by cadmium, lead or zinc), and the study of the use of phyto-technologies for a better management of highly contaminated agricultural spaces. These studies addressed management modes based on phyto-remediation (assisted or not) of cadmium, lead and zinc, with the implication of two biomass production sectors: wood (with the following species: Robinia pseudoacacia, Alnus glutinosa, Quercus ilex and Acer pseudoplatanus) and an herbaceous vegetation (Miscanthus x giganteus). The objective was then to assess the ecologic viability of the proposed management modes, to contribute to a sustainable redevelopment of agriculture, and to give back an economic interest to disqualified agricultural soils while meeting environmental, economic and social demands. Thus, the authors present the experimental approach and discuss the obtained results

  18. ALCALOIDES ACRIDÔNICOS INIBEM CATEPSINA L E V

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    Emerson F. Marques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsins represent a class of enzymes that has the primary function of randomly degrading proteins in the lysosomes, although are also involved in different pathologies. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae to inhibit cathepsin L in vitro . The IC50 values found were in the 0.8-57 µM range and the most promising compounds were alkaloids 1 and 2, with IC50 of 0.9 and 0.8 µM, respectively. Enzyme kinetics revealed that they are reversible competitive inhibitors with respect to the substrate Z-FR-MCA. This small series of acridone alkaloids showed low selectivity for both cathepsins, but represent promising lead candidates for the further development of competitive cathepsin L and V inhibitors.

  19. [Analysis of hot spots and trend of molecular pharmacognosy research based on project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of 1995-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Wen; Liu, Yang; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Ce; Li, Hai-Yan

    2016-05-01

    This study collected 1995-2014 molecular pharmacognosy study, a total of 595 items, funded by Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). TDA and Excel software were used to analyze the data of the projects about general situation, hot spots of research with rank analytic and correlation analytic methods. Supported by NSFC molecular pharmacognosy projects and funding a gradual increase in the number of, the proportion of funds for pharmaceutical research funding tends to be stable; mainly supported by molecular biology methods of genuine medicinal materials, secondary metabolism and Germplasm Resources Research; hot drugs including Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae, Cordyceps sinensis, hot contents including tanshinone biosynthesis, Rehmannia glutinosa continuous cropping obstacle. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Dietary Preference of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus during a Laboratory Breeding Programme for Ecotoxicological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Bloor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to establish if Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus preferred a diet of unconditioned, artificially or naturally conditioned alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa. Standardised, 24 hour ex situ feeding assays were undertaken with both species to determine their food preference. The results showed that A. aquaticus ate more leaf material compared to G. pulex (Z 23.909, P 0.001 when exposed to all three test variables. Also, both G. pulex and A. aquaticus demonstrated a preference for naturally conditioned leaves compared to the other two variables, with unconditioned leaves proving the least popular food option for both macroinvertebrates (Z 18.803, <0.001. However, both species ate varying amounts of all the leaf treatments (Z 136.399, <0.001. Subsequently, the author outlined a feeding methodology for natural alder leaf conditioning that could be used during a laboratory breeding programme.

  1. 'Hertwig effect' in plants: Induced parthenogenesis through the use of irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, K.K.; Phung, M.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of four combinations of Nicotiana involving four species, N. langsdorffii (N.l.), N. alata (N.a.), N. glutinosa (N.g.) and N. tubacum (N.t.), have shown that parthenogenetic haploid and diploid maternal individuals may arise with the use of male gametes (pollen) treated with high doses of ionising radiation in plants, similar to that found in animals ('Hertwig Effect'). At lower doses (10-20 Kr) rapidly diminishing numbers of seedlings were produced and many of these died soon after germination or before reaching maturity. In the intraspecific combination N.l.xN.l., viable seeds were produced only at the lower doses of 10 and 15 Kr. In the interspecific combination N.l.xN.a., at lower doses, all plants that came to bloom showed variable hybrid morphology. There were no plants resembling the female parent. (orig./AJ)

  2. Proteogenomics data for deciphering Frankia coriariae interactions with root exudates from three host plants

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    Guylaine Miotello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Frankia coriariae BMG5.1 cells were incubated with root exudates derived from compatible (Coriaria myrtifolia, incompatible (Alnus glutinosa and non-actinorhizal (Cucumis melo host plants. Bacteria cells and their exoproteomes were analyzed by high-throughput proteomics using a Q-Exactive HF high resolution tandem mass spectrometer incorporating an ultra-high-field orbitrap analyzer. MS/MS spectra were assigned with two protein sequence databases derived from the closely-related genomes from strains BMG5.1 andDg1, the Frankia symbiont of Datisca glomerata. The tandem mass spectrometry data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis (Ktari et al., 2017, doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00720 [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD005979 (whole cell proteomes and PXD005980 (exoproteome data.

  3. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in wood and bark of various types of oak and black alder plantings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevolotskij, A.N.; Bulavik, I.M.; Perevolotskaya, T.V.; Paskrobko, L.A.; Andrush, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Results of the evaluation of the influence of types of habitat edaphic conditions on 137Cs and 90Sr transition coefficients and their accumulation by wood and bark of English oak (Quercus robur L.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn) were presented. There was observed the particular influence of edaphic conditions on 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation by wood and bark of English oak. Lowering of 137Cs transition coefficients for the studied elements of phytomass was noted in the conditions of soil fertility increasing. Influence of soil moistening on 137Cs transition into wood and bark of oak trees was stated only in wood-sorrel and glague types of forests. Differences in accumulation of 90Sr by wood and bark of English oak in the studied range of edaphotopes were not proved. There was not found any differences in accumulation of both radionuclides by black alder trees in the typical for them edaphic conditions

  4. Fate and distribution of nitrogen in soil and plants irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C Y; Chu, L M

    2011-06-01

    Landfill leachate contains a high concentration of ammoniacal substances which can be a potential supply of N for plants. A bioassay was conducted using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne to evaluate the phytotoxicity of the leachate sample. A soil column experiment was then carried out in a greenhouse to study the effect of leachate on plant growth. Two grasses (Paspalum notatum and Vetiver zizanioides) and two trees (Hibiscus tiliaceus and Litsea glutinosa) were irrigated with leachate at the EC50 levels for 12 weeks. Their growth performance and the distribution of N were examined and compared with columns applied with chemical fertilizer. With the exception of P. notatum, plants receiving leachate and fertilizer grew better than those receiving water alone. The growth of L. glutinosa and V. zizanioides with leachate irrigation did not differ significantly from plants treated with fertilizer. Leachate irrigation significantly increased the levels of NH(x)-N in soil. Although NO(x)-N was below 1 mg NL(-1) in the leachate sample, the soil NO(x)-N content increased by 9-fold after leachate irrigation, possibly as a result of nitrification. Leachate irrigation at EC50 provided an N input of 1920 kg N ha(-1) over the experimental period, during which up to 1050 kg N ha(-1) was retained in the soil and biomass, depending on the type of vegetation. The amount of nutrient added seems to exceed beyond the assimilative capability. Practitioners should be aware of the possible consequence of N saturation when deciding the application rate if leachate irrigation is aimed for water reuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  6. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  7. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Pruvot, Christelle; Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine; Shirali, Pirouz

    2011-01-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl 2 -extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  8. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrut, Bertrand [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); and others

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  9. High autumn temperature delays spring bud burst in boreal trees, counterbalancing the effect of climatic warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, O M

    2003-09-01

    The effect of temperature during short-day (SD) dormancy induction was examined in three boreal tree species in a controlled environment. Saplings of Betula pendula Roth, B. pubescens Ehrh. and Alnus glutinosa (L.) Moench. were exposed to 5 weeks of 10-h SD induction at 9, 15 and 21 degrees C followed by chilling at 5 degrees C for 40, 70, 100 and 130 days and subsequent forcing at 15 degrees C in a 24-h photoperiod for 60 days. In all species and with all chilling periods, high temperature during SD dormancy induction significantly delayed bud burst during subsequent flushing at 15 degrees C. In A. glutinosa, high temperature during SD dormancy induction also significantly increased the chilling requirement for dormancy release. Field experiments at 60 degrees N with a range of latitudinal birch populations revealed a highly significant correlation between autumn temperature and days to bud burst in the subsequent spring. September temperature alone explained 20% of the variation between years in time of bud burst. In birch populations from 69 and 71 degrees N, which ceased growing and shed their leaves in August when the mean temperature was 15 degrees C, bud burst occurred later than expected compared with lower latitude populations (56 degrees N) in which dormancy induction took place more than 2 months later at a mean temperature of about 6 degrees C. It is concluded that this autumn temperature response may be important for counterbalancing the potentially adverse effects of higher winter temperatures on dormancy stability of boreal trees during climate warming.

  10. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L Callender

    Full Text Available Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI, and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas, metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude and mineralization (five-fold. Genomic techniques proved useful in

  11. Cargas polínicas de abelhas polinizadoras de Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelidade e fontes alternativas de recursos florais Pollen loads of pollinator bees of Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelity and alternative sources of flower resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éville Karina Maciel Delgado Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Byrsonima chrysophylla, conhecida popularmente como murici pitanga, é uma espécie arbustiva que ocorre em restinga. Dentre seus visitantes, além de abelhas da tribo Centridini, também se encontram com freqüência abelhas Xylocopini. Para verificação das espécies vegetais utilizadas pelas abelhas visitantes mais freqüentes, cargas polínicas de suas pernas posteriores (n = 5, bem como de ninhos naturais de Centris caxiensis (n = 7 foram analisados através de acetólise. Durante toda a floração, Byrsonima chrysophylla foi a principal fonte de pólen utilizada por suas abelhas visitantes. Comolia lythrarioides e Myrcia obtusa foram fontes secundárias de pólen, Mouriri guianensis foi fonte secundária de óleo e pólen, enquanto Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor e Phthirusa pyrifolia mostraram-se importantes fontes de néctar durante esse período, sendo o pólen detectado nas amostras, provavelmente aderido ao corpo das abelhas durante a coleta de néctar. Os resultados demonstram que as abelhas visitantes não misturaram os recursos polínicos durante o vôo para a coleta de pólen, apresentando fidelidade às flores de Byrsonima chrysophylla.Byrsonima chrysophylla, known as "murici pitanga", is a shrubby species occurring in 'restinga'. Among its visitors, bees of the Centridini tribe as well as Xylocopini bees are frequently found. To detect which plant species have been used by the most frequent visitors, pollen loads from the back legs (n = 5 and also from natural nests of Centris caxiensis (n = 7 were treated by acetolysis. During flowering of Byrsonima chrysophylla, this plant species was the main pollen source used by bees. Comolia lythrarioides and Myrcia sylvatica were secondary pollen sources, Mouriri guianensis was a secondary oil and pollen source, while Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor and Phthirusa pyrifolia were important nectar sources at this time. The pollen detected in

  12. Improvement of new and traditional industrial crops by induced mutations and related biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    Industrial crops are an important source of income for many small landholders in developing countries and contribute directly or indirectly to food security in rural areas. Crop diversification, finding alternative crops, development of new uses for existing crops and introduction of new crops are important components in the efforts to meet the demand for food, pharmaceuticals, chemical raw materials, fibres and fuel in developing and developed countries. Plant breeding efforts combining genetic resources and induced mutations using classical, in vitro and innovative molecular approaches have been responsible for much of the development of industrial crops. This co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated in 1994. It focused on developing mutagenesis approaches for previously unstudied species, screening procedures for agricultural and industrial requirements and suitable genotypes of traditional industrial crops adapted to new areas and for new needs. The industrial crops selected for improvement under this CRP were oilseeds and fibre plants. The potential of induced mutations to affect critical steps in various biosynthetic pathways leading to oil quality and other metabolic modifications was investigated. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the application of mutation techniques, in combination with in vitro and molecular techniques in genetic improvement of oilseed crops such as soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, linseed, cuphea, meadowfoam and fibre plants such as cotton and jute. As a result, improved breeding lines are available in all the industrial crops that the CRP focused on. Novel oil types were developed in cuphea with potential use as a renewable, economical and safe energy source and in linseed with increased levels of saturated fatty acids. Genes of fatty acid synthesis were isolated from one species and used for modification of quality of other oilseeds. Disease and pest resistance was improved in oilseeds and fibre crops through transgenesis

  13. Improvement of new and traditional industrial crops by induced mutations and related biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    Industrial crops are an important source of income for many small landholders in developing countries and contribute directly or indirectly to food security in rural areas. Crop diversification, finding alternative crops, development of new uses for existing crops and introduction of new crops are important components in the efforts to meet the demand for food, pharmaceuticals, chemical raw materials, fibres and fuel in developing and developed countries. Plant breeding efforts combining genetic resources and induced mutations using classical, in vitro and innovative molecular approaches have been responsible for much of the development of industrial crops. This co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated in 1994. It focused on developing mutagenesis approaches for previously unstudied species, screening procedures for agricultural and industrial requirements and suitable genotypes of traditional industrial crops adapted to new areas and for new needs. The industrial crops selected for improvement under this CRP were oilseeds and fibre plants. The potential of induced mutations to affect critical steps in various biosynthetic pathways leading to oil quality and other metabolic modifications was investigated. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the application of mutation techniques, in combination with in vitro and molecular techniques in genetic improvement of oilseed crops such as soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, linseed, cuphea, meadowfoam and fibre plants such as cotton and jute. As a result, improved breeding lines are available in all the industrial crops that the CRP focused on. Novel oil types were developed in cuphea with potential use as a renewable, economical and safe energy source and in linseed with increased levels of saturated fatty acids. Genes of fatty acid synthesis were isolated from one species and used for modification of quality of other oilseeds. Disease and pest resistance was improved in oilseeds and fibre crops through transgenesis

  14. The role of ß-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III in the condensation steps of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Mellado, Damián; von Wettstein, Penny; Garcés, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The ß-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III; EC 2.3.1.180) is a condensing enzyme catalyzing the initial step of fatty acid biosynthesis using acetyl-CoA as primer. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) developing...... seeds, a cDNA coding for HaKAS III (EF514400) was isolated, cloned and sequenced. Its protein sequence is as much as 72% identical to other KAS III-like ones such as those from Perilla frutescens, Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or Cuphea hookeriana. Phylogenetic study of the HaKAS III homologous...... proteins infers its origin from cyanobacterial ancestors. A genomic DNA gel blot analysis revealed that HaKAS III is a single copy gene. Expression levels of this gene, examined by Q-PCR, revealed higher levels in developing seeds storing oil than in leaves, stems, roots or seedling cotyledons...

  15. Estudios etnobotánicos en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata, Argentina: Productos de plantas medicinales introducidos por inmigrantes paraguayos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye resultados parciales de una línea de investigación en Etnobotánica urbana, que estudia los conocimientos locales sobre las plantas, sus partes y productos derivados en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata. Se incluyen productos de plantas medicinales de reciente ingreso en el área de estudio a través de inmigrantes oriundos de Paraguay. Los productos corresponden a 10 especies: Achyrocline alata(“jateí-ka’á”, Baccharis gaudichaudiana (“jaguareté-ka’á”, Cuphea lysimachioides(“ysypó-peré”, Euphorbia serpens(“tupasý-kambý”, Genipa americana(“ñandypá”, Helietta apiculata(“yvyra ovy”, Lycopodiella cernnua(“itápotý”, Rhynchosia balansae(“urusú-he’ě”, Stevia rebaudiana(“ka’á-he’ě” y Victoria cruziana(“jacaré-yrupé”. Para cada caso se indican sus productos, muestras de referencia, usos asignados, actividad biológica y efectos estudiados. La presencia de los productos de estas especies en el área metropolitana indica un aumento de la diversidad biocultural local, tanto de plantas y productos como de sus conocimientos asociados.

  16. Behavior of piles and indolbutyric or homeopathic prepared acid Arnica montana spread of false-erica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcieli Aparecida Cassol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The market for flowers and ornamental plants is growing. Since the false-érica (Cuphea gracilis is a plant with many uses in the landscape, adapting to partial shade or full sun can be used for ground covers or chromatic combinations with other plants. Usually, the false-erica is propagated by seeds or by cuttings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the size of stakes and the concentration of IBA (indole butyric acid and prepared homeopathic base of Arnica montana in rooting false-erica stakes. The collection of cuttings was carried out in arrays plants grown in gardens in standard sizes 6 and 12 cm in length, and were treated with IBA at concentrations of 0; 1.000 and 2.000 mg L-1 in addition to the homeopathic preparation A. montana 12 CH. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 2x4 factorial [length x stake stimulant treatment], with 4 replications of 10 cuttings per plot. After 45 days, they were evaluated percentage of rooted and dead cuttings, root length (cm, number of shoots and number of leaves. The concentrations of AIB, and the application of homeopathy stimulated the adventitious rooting processes of this kind.

  17. Domestication of Limnanthes (meadowfoam) as a new oil crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.

    1989-01-01

    Limnanthes (family Limnanthaceae) species are herbaceous winter annuals with seed oil consisting of a high proportion of long chain fatty acids (C 20 , C 22 ) with many potential industrial uses. Domestication efforts have largely involved biosystematic studies on genetic resources, agronomic evaluation of yield and cultural practices, and population improvement using mass and family selection methods. Significant gains which have been made in seed yield and its various components clearly make it a promising new crop. However, a wide variety of intra- and interspecific hybrid materials have only now become available for basic genetic research and accelerated breeding work. A search for both naturally occurring and induced mutations for modifying plant architecture, seed retention and increased self-fertility is highly recommended in order to facilitate commercial production as well as further gains in yield and adaptability, utilizing a combination of Mendelian and biometrical approaches. In parallel with Cuphea and other industrial crop breeding experience, Limnanthes research clearly illustrates the need for sustained and larger investments, a broadbased scientific approach, and some serendipitous (e.g. marketing) developments. (author). 25 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Industrial requirements for new crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsinger, F.; Zoebelein, H.

    1989-01-01

    Natural raw materials should be understood as highly refined chemicals ready for derivatization rather than degradation through fermentation. Chemistry and agriculture have had a long connection in the manufacturing of fibres, paints, glues, and soaps when natural raw materials were supplied by agricultural production. With the detection of crude oil as a chemical raw material, this connection seemed to fall apart. After the energy crises of 1973 and 1979, the 'oil shocks', a revival of interest in renewable raw materials was triggered. Only 10% of all the raw materials used by the organic chemical industry represents renewable resources. The chemical industry is developing new markets for such resources. In most cases these raw materials come from developing countries. Agriculture in industrialized nations is asked to match these developments through intensive research in the areas of agronomy and plant breeding. Examples of such new raw materials which are discussed include high oleic sunflower oil, Euphorbia lathyris (spurge) oil, Cuphea oil, high erucic rapeseed oil, Crambe and mustard oil, meadowfoam and coriander oil. The agricultural production of such custom tailored industrial raw materials could become a new outlet for industrialized countries' agriculture, which today is characterized by a surplus production of food. (author). 2 tabs

  19. Lythrum salicaria L.-Underestimated medicinal plant from European traditional medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2015-07-21

    Purple loosestrife-Lythrum salicaria L. is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Lythraceae family. It has been used for centuries in European traditional medicine. Despite Lythri herba being a pharmacopoeial plant material (Ph. Eur.), L. salicaria popularity as a medicinal plant has recently declined. The aim of the paper is to recall a traditional and historical use of L. salicaria and juxtapose it with comprehensive view on the current knowledge about its chemical composition and documented biological activities in order to bring back the interest into this valuable plant and indicate reasonable directions of future research and possible applications. Systematic survey of historical and ethnopharmacological literature was carried out using sources of European and American libraries. Pharmacological and phytochemical literature research was performed using Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Reaxys databases. The review of historical sources from ancient times till 20th century revealed an outstanding position of L. salicaria in traditional medicine. The main applications indicated were gastrointestinal tract ailments (mainly dysentery and diarrhea) as well as different skin and mucosa affections. The current phytochemical studies have shown that polyphenols (C-glucosidic ellagitannins and C-glucosidic flavonoids) as well as heteropolysaccharides are dominating constituents, which probably determine the observed pharmacological effects. The extracts and some isolated compounds were shown to possess antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. The intrinsic literature overview conclusively demonstrates that L. salicaria L. used to be considered as an exceptionally effective remedy in European traditional medicine. Despite its unquestionable important position from unknown reasons its popularity has been weakened during the past few decades. Unfortunately the contemporary pharmacological research is still

  20. Metabolic profiling and correlation analysis for the determination of killer compounds of proliferating and clonogenic HRT-18 colon cancer cells from Lafoensia pacari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Cristiane Loiva; da Silva, Denise Brentan; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane Maria; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbiré

    2018-06-18

    Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., belonging to the family Lythraceae and popularly known as 'dedaleira' and 'mangava-brava,' is a native tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, and its barks have been traditionally used as a tonic to treat inflammatory conditions, particularly related to gastric ulcers, wounds or fevers and various types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated the apoptogenic effects of the methanolic extract of L. pacari using various cancer cell lines. In the present study, this extract has been partitioned into fractions to identify the components that might be responsible for the apoptogenic effects using HRT-18 cells, which have been previously demonstrated to be sensitive to this extract. A standard methanolic extract was prepared and fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography. The fractions were submitted to cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays to monitor the effects in parallel with LC-DAD-MS and statistical analyses to suggest the potential bioactive compounds. Besides ellagic acid, the primary constituent of the plant and also the biomarker of the species, one punicalin isomer, three pedunculagin I isomers, two castalagin isomers, three punicalagin HHDP-gallagyl-hexoside isomers, one ellagic acid deoxyhexose conjugate and one methyl ellagic acid deoxyhexose conjugate were putatively identified. The barks of L. pacari are rich in ellagic acid and various hydrolysable tannins, some of which were reported for the first time in this species, such as punicalagin and ellagitannins. This mixture of substances had the ability to kill proliferating cells and abrogate the growth of clonogenic cells in a similar manner shown by the methanolic extract of our previous study. The collective data reported herein suggest that the biological activities of the L. pacari barks used by the Cerrado's population to treat cancer conditions are due to the apoptogenic effects promoted by a mixed content of ellagitannins. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Nesting biology of an Oriental carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838, in Thailand (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of wild non-Apis bees can provide useful information that may help with the pollination of food crops and native plants in areas where the keeping of honey bee colonies is restricted or affected by CCD. Here, we describe the nesting biology of the Oriental large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838. An aggregation of more than 80+ bamboo nests of X. nasalis was discovered in Suan Pheung district, Ratch Buri province, Thailand on the 25th of May 2012. We collected 27 nests from the site to dissect, measure the external and internal nest architecture, and analyze the pollen composition of the pollen masses. X. nasalis constructs linear unbranched nests with nest entrance mostly located at the open-end of the bamboo culms. The nest length and the branch diameter of the nest entrance (excluding nesting edge are 25.40 ± 6.95 cm and 17.94 ± 6.00 mm, and the maximum number of provisioned cells is 8. A biased sex ratio of 8♀: 1♂ is reported, with up to 7 adults inhabiting in a single nest. 29 pollen types were identified from 14 pollen masses using an acetolysis method and visualization under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. 13 pollen types were considered as major pollen sources (contribute ≥ 1% in total pollen volume; however, only 10 can be identified to family and generic levels. The dominant pollen sources are of the families Elaeagnaceae (Elaeagnus cf. latifolia, Euphorbiaceae (Croton, Fabaceae (Senna siamea and Cassia, Fagaceae (Lithocarpus and Castanopsis, and Lythraceae (Trapa which are mostly native to the region of Southeast Asia. The nesting architectural details should prove to be beneficial to beekeepers and researchers who are interested in trapping and studying X. nasalis, and the polylectic behavior of X. nasalis can be highly valuable for future crop pollination strategies, particularly for plants that require sonication of their poricidal anthers.

  2. Screening of in vitro antimicrobial activity of plants used in traditional Indonesian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romulo, Andreas; Zuhud, Ervizal A M; Rondevaldova, Johana; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2018-12-01

    In many regions of Indonesia, there are numerous traditional herbal preparations for treatment of infectious diseases. However, their antimicrobial potential has been poorly studied by modern laboratory methods. This study investigates in vitro antimicrobial activity of 49 ethanol extracts from 37 plant species used in Indonesian traditional medicine for treatment against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The plants were collected from the Biopharmaca collection garden, Bogor, Indonesia. The plant material was dried, finely grounded, extracted using ethanol, concentrated, and the dried residue was dissolved in 100% DMSO. Antimicrobial activity was determined in terms of a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The extract of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. (Lamiaceae) leaf produced the strongest antimicrobial effect, inhibiting the growth of C. albicans (MIC 128 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/mL), E. faecalis (MIC 256 μg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (MIC 256 μg/mL). The leaf extract of Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. (Lythraceae) also exhibited significant effect against C. albicans (MIC 128 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/mL) and E. faecalis (MIC 256 μg/mL). Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus (MIC 256 µg/mL) and C. albicans (MIC 256 µg/mL). The leaf extract of O. aristatus and W. floribunda exhibited a significant anti-candidal effect. Therefore, both of these plants can serve as prospective source materials for the development of new anti-candidal agents.

  3. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  4. The Cerrado (Brazil) plant cytogenetics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Fernando; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos

    2017-01-01

    Cerrado is a biodiversity hotspot that has lost ca. 50% of its original vegetation cover and hosts ca. 11,000 species belonging to 1,423 genera of phanerogams. For a fraction of those species some cytogenetic characteristics like chromosome numbers and C-value were available in databases, while other valuable information such as karyotype formula and banding patterns are missing. In order to integrate and share all cytogenetic information published for Cerrado species, including frequency of cytogenetic attributes and scientometrics aspects, Cerrado plant species were searched in bibliographic sources, including the 50 richest genera (with more than 45 taxa) and 273 genera with only one species in Cerrado. Determination of frequencies and the database website (http://cyto.shinyapps.io/cerrado) were developed in R. Studies were pooled by employed technique and decade, showing a rise in non-conventional cytogenetics since 2000. However, C-value estimation, heterochromatin staining and molecular cytogenetics are still not common for any family. For the richest and best sampled families, the following modal 2n counts were observed: Oxalidaceae 2n = 12, Lythraceae 2n = 30, Sapindaceae 2n = 24, Solanaceae 2n = 24, Cyperaceae 2n = 10, Poaceae 2n = 20, Asteraceae 2n = 18 and Fabaceae 2n = 26. Chromosome number information is available for only 16.1% of species, while there are genome size data for only 1.25%, being lower than the global percentages. In general, genome sizes were small, ranging from 2C = ca. 1.5 to ca. 3.5 pg. Intra-specific 2n number variation and higher 2n counts were mainly related to polyploidy, which relates to the prevalence of even haploid numbers above the mode of 2n in most major plant clades. Several orphan genera with almost no cytogenetic studies for Cerrado were identified. This effort represents a complete diagnosis for cytogenetic attributes of plants of Cerrado.

  5. The Cerrado (Brazil plant cytogenetics database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Roa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado is a biodiversity hotspot that has lost ca. 50% of its original vegetation cover and hosts ca. 11,000 species belonging to 1,423 genera of phanerogams. For a fraction of those species some cytogenetic characteristics like chromosome numbers and C-value were available in databases, while other valuable information such as karyotype formula and banding patterns are missing. In order to integrate and share all cytogenetic information published for Cerrado species, including frequency of cytogenetic attributes and scientometrics aspects, Cerrado plant species were searched in bibliographic sources, including the 50 richest genera (with more than 45 taxa and 273 genera with only one species in Cerrado. Determination of frequencies and the database website (http://cyto.shinyapps.io/cerrado were developed in R. Studies were pooled by employed technique and decade, showing a rise in non-conventional cytogenetics since 2000. However, C-value estimation, heterochromatin staining and molecular cytogenetics are still not common for any family. For the richest and best sampled families, the following modal 2n counts were observed: Oxalidaceae 2n = 12, Lythraceae 2n = 30, Sapindaceae 2n = 24, Solanaceae 2n = 24, Cyperaceae 2n = 10, Poaceae 2n = 20, Asteraceae 2n = 18 and Fabaceae 2n = 26. Chromosome number information is available for only 16.1% of species, while there are genome size data for only 1.25%, being lower than the global percentages. In general, genome sizes were small, ranging from 2C = ca. 1.5 to ca. 3.5 pg. Intra-specific 2n number variation and higher 2n counts were mainly related to polyploidy, which relates to the prevalence of even haploid numbers above the mode of 2n in most major plant clades. Several orphan genera with almost no cytogenetic studies for Cerrado were identified. This effort represents a complete diagnosis for cytogenetic attributes of plants of Cerrado.

  6. Floristic similarity and dispersal syndromes in a rocky outcrop in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elainne Cristina Silva; Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; Melo, José Iranildo Miranda de

    2015-09-01

    Floristic studies provide valuable information on species richness in a region, and are particularly important if these areas belong to less studied environments, such as rocky outcrops, that may increase our knowledge. An important aspect for species colonization includes the mechanisms of diaspores dispersal in each community; these are essential to understand its structure, dynamics, and the regeneration process, and constitute an important tool for conservation. We developed a floristic survey on a granite-gneiss outcrop with the objective to increase the knowledge on plant diversity, through a floristic similarity analysis and detection of dispersal syndromes of sampled species, in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The fieldwork included collection and observation of the botanical material in loco during a period of 12 months. A total of 161 species belonging to 127 genera and 50 families of angiosperms were recorded. Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae were the most representative families in number of species. Allophylus quercifolius (Mart.) Radlk. (Capparaceae) and Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (Lythraceae) represented new records for the State of Paraiba. The autochoric syndrome was the most representative, with 51.5 % of the recorded species; the anemochory was the second most representative syndrome with 26.7 % of the species; and finally the zoochory, representing 22.3 % of the species. The floristic similarity dendrogram showed the formation of three well-defined groups, whose area with the highest value (J = 33.2) is located in a Caatinga region called Cariri Paraibano, while the lowest value observed (J = 5.2), occurred in a settled area in two geomorphological units, a crystalline complex and a plateau region. These results may be due to the varying topographic conditions and edaphic heterogeneity arising from the specific geological formation of the region. These results yet demonstrate that, in rocky outcrops, abiotic syndromes represent an

  7. In vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Isolated Compounds and Various Extracts of Peel of Punica granatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Janani; Lakshmanapermalsamy, P; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bhosle, Damaji; Sangli, Gopala Krishna; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    Punica granatum L. ( Lythraceae ) peel has been proven to exhibit widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases due to the presence of bioactive principles. The objective is to isolate the bioactive compounds from the pericarp of P. granatum and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various extracts. Dried peel of P. granatum was extracted with aqueous acetone and chromatographed on Diaion HP-20. Enriched fractions were rechromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 and purified on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography to identify individual compounds. The dried peel was extracted with different solvents to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. On the chemical investigation, three compounds were isolated and characterized as punicalagin, 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose, and punicalin, using various spectroscopic techniques. Results indicate that the isolated compounds have possessed antioxidant activity, and aqueous, methanol, and aqueous acetone extract showed significant scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. In vitro antioxidant activity of Punica granatum extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assayDried peel of P. granatum was extracted with different solvents to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extractsAqueous acetone extract was found to be most active and chromatographed further to afford punicalagin, 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose, and punicalinThe presence of antioxidant properties of three compounds in the peel of P. granatum has been demonstrated. Abbreviations Used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; HHDP: Hexahydroxydiphenoyl; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); UV: Ultraviolet; PDA: Photodiode array; LC: Liquid chromatography; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; MHz

  8. Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf mg.animal-1.day-1 (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae

  9. Plant antiherbivore defenses in Fabaceae species of the Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T E; Sartori, A L B; Rodrigues, M L M

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species), leaves (67%), and reproductive organs (56%). The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.

  10. Inhibitory activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against α-glucosidase enzyme in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsir, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Laga, A.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Alpha-glucosidase is a key enzyme in the final process of breaking carbohydrates into glucose. Inhibition of α-glucosidase affected more absorption of glucose, so it can reduce hyperglycemia condition. The aims of this study is to determine the effectiveness of inhibition wet and dried Moringa oleifera leaf extract through α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effectiveness study of inhibition on the activity of α-glucosidase enzyme obtained from white glutinous rice (Oryza sativa glutinosa) was carried out using wet and dried kelor leaf extract of 13% (w/v) with 10 mM α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) substrate. A positive control used 1% acarbose and substrate without addition of extract was a negative control. Inhibitory activity was measured using spectrophotometers at a wavelength of 400 nm. The result showed that the inhibition activity against α-glucosidase enzyme of dried leaf extract, wet leaf extract and acarbose was 81,39%, 83,94%, and 95,4%, respectively on pH 7,0. The effectiveness inhibition of the wet Moringa leaf extract was greater than the dried leaf extract. The findings suggest that M. oleifera leaf has the potential to be developed as an alternative food therapy for diabetics.

  11. Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included α-pinene (Ocotea sp.), β-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), α-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and α-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250 µg mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators.

  12. Determination of isotopic identity of nitrogen fixed by Frankia associated with the genus Alnus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Domenach, A.M.; Daniere, C.; Bardin, R.

    1988-01-01

    To use the 15 N natural abundance method to evaluate the symbiotic nitrogen fixation by actinorhizal trees, it is necessary to determine the isotopic identity of assimilated nitrogen from two sources: the soil and the air. This study reports an isotopic value of fixed nitrogen by two alder species (Alnus Incana(L.) Moench and Alnus glutinosa(L.) Gaertn.) growing on nitrogen-free medium in greenhouse experiments. The δ 15 N value of the aerial parts was -2. This value was stable with time and did not depend on the Frankia strains used. This value could be used to estimate the nitrogen fixation in the natural ecosystem. Other parameters such as the mobilization of nitrogen reserves and the choice of the reference plant must be investigated to apply this method. The nodules of these two alder species were enriched in 15 N relative to the rest of the plant but there was no relationship between symbiotic effectiveness of Frankia strains and 15 N enrichment of nodules. On the other hand, for naturally growing trees, an enrichment in 15 N was found primarily in the vesicles of nodules that are the sites of nitrogen fixation. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  13. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  14. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  15. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  16. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  17. Phytochemical composition of fractions isolated from ten Salvia species by supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2017-06-01

    Ten Salvia species, S. amplexicaulis, S. austriaca, S. forsskaolii S. glutinosa, S. nemorosa, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea, S. stepposa and S. verticillata were fractionated using supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid (ethanol and water) extractions. Fifteen phytochemicals were identified using commercial standards (some other compounds were identified tentatively), 11 of them were quantified by ultra high pressure chromatography (UPLC) with quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF, TQ-S). Lipophilic CO 2 extracts were rich in tocopherols (2.36-10.07mg/g), while rosmarinic acid was dominating compound (up to 30mg/g) in ethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide, caffeic and carnosic acids were quantitatively important phytochemicals in the majority other Salvia spp. Antioxidatively active constituents were determined by using on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (HPLC-DPPH). Development of high pressure isolation process and comprehensive characterisation of phytochemicals in Salvia spp. may serve for their wider applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Citrus leprosis transmission by Brevipalpus yothersi mites through non citrus hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo León M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis virus (C i LV was detected in Colombia at the eastern plains in 2004; it is a threat the disease spreads to other regions of the country. The main vector is Brevipalpus yothersi Baker (formerly identified as Brevipalpus phoenicis. This research determined the viability of B. yothersi to transmit C i LV to citrus plants, after been hosted in non-citrus plants. To virus acquisition, mites spent three days on symptomatic orange (Citrus x sinensis leaves positives to C i LV-C2; then mites were placed on six non-citrus plants (Dieffenbachia sp., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis,Codiaeum variegatum, Swinglea glutinosa, Sida acutaand Stachytarpheta cayennensis. A randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replicates was carried out. After scheduled time in non-citrus plants, mites were three days relocated on C. x sinensis healthy plants. Leaves of receptor plants, were evaluated to the occurrence or absence of symptoms and collected for RT-PCR tests. B. yothersi mites were able to transmit the C i LV virus over 85 % of Valencia orange plants (Citrus x sinensis L., after feeding from 2-20 days on non-citrus host plants. The first leprosis symptoms on C. x sinensis leaves was confirmed from 14 to 51 days after transmission. The present research work further established that C i LV-C2 is a persistently transmitted virus. The implement quarantine diagnostic measures to prevent spread of CiLV to disease-free zones is suggested.

  19. Phytotoxicity data safeguard the performance of the recipient plants in leachate irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk

    2007-01-15

    Leachates from an operating and a closed landfill were examined for their phytotoxicity by seed germination/root elongation tests using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne. Their EC50s ranged from 3% to 46% v/v, which varied remarkably with the operating status of the landfills. Seedlings of twelve tree species were grown in pots, which were irrigated with landfill leachate at the EC50 levels, with tap water as control. No tree mortality or growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of leachate application. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement also showed that plants receiving leachate did not suffer from a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Litsea glutinosa and Hibiscus tiliaceus had remarkable growth, and other non-N-fixers were not inferior to the N-fixing Acacia auriculiformis. Leachate irrigation improved soil N content, though P deficiency is still a problem. The seed bioassay provided a conservative estimate of the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate. Plants irrigated can be protected from growth inhibition when the leachate irrigation plan is designed with reference to phytotoxicity data. - Irrigated plants could be benefited by leachate when the application rate was determined according to phytotoxicity data.

  20. Phytotoxicity data safeguard the performance of the recipient plants in leachate irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chu, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Leachates from an operating and a closed landfill were examined for their phytotoxicity by seed germination/root elongation tests using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne. Their EC50s ranged from 3% to 46% v/v, which varied remarkably with the operating status of the landfills. Seedlings of twelve tree species were grown in pots, which were irrigated with landfill leachate at the EC50 levels, with tap water as control. No tree mortality or growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of leachate application. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement also showed that plants receiving leachate did not suffer from a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Litsea glutinosa and Hibiscus tiliaceus had remarkable growth, and other non-N-fixers were not inferior to the N-fixing Acacia auriculiformis. Leachate irrigation improved soil N content, though P deficiency is still a problem. The seed bioassay provided a conservative estimate of the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate. Plants irrigated can be protected from growth inhibition when the leachate irrigation plan is designed with reference to phytotoxicity data. - Irrigated plants could be benefited by leachate when the application rate was determined according to phytotoxicity data

  1. Effects of rooting and tree growth of selected woodland species on cap integrity in a mineral capped landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, T R; Moffat, A J; Kemp, R A

    2001-06-01

    The above and below ground growth of three tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Pinus nigra var. maritima and Acer pseudoplatanus) was studied on a containment landfill site at Waterford, Hertfordshire, UK. Tree root architecture was studied using soil inspection pits excavated next to 12 trees of each species and mapped in detail. Tree height was related to soil thickness over the compacted mineral cap. No roots entered the cap where soil thickness was 1.3 m, but a few roots, especially of alder, were observed within it when the soil cover was 1.0 m or less. Micromorphological analysis of undisturbed samples of the mineral cap suggested that roots exploited weaknesses in the cap rather than actively causing penetration into it. Alder roots were more tolerant of anaerobic conditions within the cap than the other species examined. The results confirm that mineral caps should be covered by 1.5 m of soil or soil-forming material if tree establishment is intended over a restored landfill site, unless protected by other parts of a composite capping system.

  2. An updated checklist of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) of the Crimea, Sub-Mediterranean SE Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickaitė, Asta; Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2014-08-07

    This updated checklist is intended to be a collaborative effort by a team of taxonomists to present a hitherto little known diversity of the Nepticulidae of the Crimea. A total of 64 species of Nepticulidae are listed. The following 26 species are recorded for the first time from the Crimea: Stigmella confusella (Wood & Walsingham, 1894), S. tiliae (Frey, 1856), S. microtheriella (Stainton, 1854), S. alnetella (Stainton, 1854), S. glutinosae (Stainton, 1858), S. desperatella (Frey, 1856), S. torminalis (Wood, 1890), S. crataegella (Klimesch, 1936), S. hahniella (Wörz, 1937), S. catharticella (Stainton, 1853), S. malella (Stainton, 1854), S. rhamnella (Herrich-Schäffter, 1860), S. ulmivora (Fologne, 1860), S. trimaculella (Haworth, 1828), S. obliquella (Heinemann, 1862), S. tityrella (Stainton, 1854), S. carpinella (Heinemann, 1862), S. lemniscella (Zeller, 1839), S. plagicolella (Stainton, 1854), S. samiatella (Zeller, 1939), Bohemannia pulverosella (Stainton, 1849), Ectoedemia mahalebella (Klimesch, 1936), Fomoria septembrella (Stainton, 1849), Trifurcula silviae van Nieukerken, 1990, T. macedonica Z. Laštůvka & A. Laštůvka, 1998, T. eurema (Tutt, 1899). One species, Ectoedemia spinosella (Joannis, 1908), is excluded here from the list of the Nepticulidae of the Crimea. Thirty-nine selected species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, and forty-five species with photographs of genitalia. 

  3. Evaluación a nivel de laboratorio del efecto de 7 extractos vegetales para el control de Colletotrichum sp agente causal de la antracnosis en el cultivo de tomate de árbol - Evaluación a nivel de laboratorio del efecto de 7 extractos vegetales para el control de Colletotrichum sp agente causal de la antracnosis en el cultivo de tomate de árbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andrei Chacin Zambrano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated in the laboratory the effect of seven plant extracts of Neem leaves and fruit (Azadirachta indica leaves of lemon grass (Swinglea glutinosa, leaves of papaya (Carica papaya, Pringamosa leaves (Urtica dioica, eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn fruits of garlic (Allium sativum L. and fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum in the control of the fungus Colletotrichum sp causal agent of anthracnose in tomato crop tree (Cyphomandra betacea. The pathogen was isolated on PDA medium from tomato fruit tree, the extracts were obtained taking into account the process by (Marin, et. Al 2007, which consists of chopping and blending plant material deposited in plastic bucket, add water ratio 2.5:1 (water: sample processed, vol.: w, subjecting to fermentation for 24 hours. The produto was filtered using sterile gauze and package them for further evaluation. The concentrations of the treatments that worked were 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the infectious agent, determining the degree of inhibition of the pathogen in Petri dishes. The best results were obtained with the application of eucalyptus leaves, since its effect was 100% at all concentrations, without neglecting the fruits of the Neem and garlic with inhibition percentages of 75 and 60% respectively, had a behavior directly proportional to the concentrations used, since the greater the amount of extract the inhibitory effect was better in this case 75% and 100%.

  4. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  5. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50–59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. “Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan” and “Xuan-Shen” (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. “Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)” were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  7. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  8. PMC-12, a Prescription of Traditional Korean Medicine, Improves Amyloid β-Induced Cognitive Deficits through Modulation of Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PMC-12 is a prescription used in traditional Korean medicine that consists of a mixture of four herbal medicines, Polygonum multiflorum, Rehmannia glutinosa, Polygala tenuifolia, and Acorus gramineus, which have been reported to have various pharmacological effects on age-related neurological diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether PMC-12 improves cognitive deficits associated with decreased neuroinflammation in an amyloid-β-(Aβ- induced mouse model and exerts the antineuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS- stimulated murine BV2 microglia. Intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35 in mice resulted in impairment in learning and spatial memory, whereas this was reversed by oral administration of PMC-12 (100 and 500 mg/kg/day in dose-dependent manners. Moreover, PMC-12 reduced the increase of Aβ expression and activation of microglia and astrocytes in the Aβ25-35-injected brain. Furthermore, quantitative PCR data showed that inflammatory mediators were significantly decreased by administration of PMC-12 in Aβ-injected brains. Consistent with the in vivo data, PMC-12 significantly reduced the inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells without cell toxicity. Moreover, PMC-12 exhibited anti-inflammatory properties via downregulation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings suggest that the protective effects of PMC-12 may be mediated by its antineuroinflammatory activities, resulting in the attenuation of memory impairment; accordingly, PMC-12 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD.

  9. SPECIFICITY OF THE PRECIPITIN REACTION IN TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, H P

    1931-09-30

    1. Leaf extracts of Sudan grass, Hippeastrum equestre Herb., lily, and Abutilon striatum Dicks. (A. Thompsoni hort.), each affected with its respective mosaic disease, and peach affected with yellows disease, were tested for their ability to precipitate antiserum for virus extract of tobacco mosaic disease. No precipitate occurred. 2. Nicotiana glutinosa L., N. rustica L., and Martynia louisiana Mill. were added to the list of hosts of tobacco mosaic virus which have been tested with antiserum for the same virus in N. tabacum L. var. Turkish. The object was to determine the presence or absence of material reacting with the specific precipitins such as that already demonstrated in extracts of tomato, pepper, and petunia affected with the same virus. The presence of specific substances was demonstrated in every case. 3. The viruses of ringspot and cucumber mosaic diseases were multiplied in Turkish tobacco and leaf extracts of the affected plants were used in turn as antigens in precipitin tests with antiserum for tobacco mosaic virus extract of Turkish tobacco. A slight precipitation resulted in the tubes containing undiluted antiserum and virus extract such as occurs when juice from normal tobacco is used with undiluted antiserum. No precipitate was demonstrable that was specific for virus extracts of tobacco affected with either ringspot or cucumber mosaic disease. 4. The results favor the interpretation that the specific antigenic substance in virus extract of tobacco mosaic disease is foreign antigenic material, possibly virus itself, not altered host protein.

  10. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  11. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard G.; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O.; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A.; Graça, Manuel A. S.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Albariño, Ricardo J.; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A.; Boulton, Andrew J.; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G.; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C.; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S.; Gonçalves, José F.; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons. PMID:27122551

  12. Technological and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites Filled with Heat-treated Alder Wood

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    Mürşit Tufan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of heat-treated wood content on the water absorption, mechanical, and thermal properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs. The WPCs were produced from various loadings (30, 40, and 50 wt% of heat-treated and untreated alder wood flours (Alnus glutinosa L. using high-density polyethylene (HDPE with 3 wt% maleated polyethylene (MAPE coupling agent. All WPC formulations were compression molded into a hot press for 3 min at 170 ºC. The WPCs were evaluated using mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The mechanical property values of the WPC specimens decreased with increasing amounts of the heat-treated wood flour, except for the tensile modulus values. The heat treatment of alder wood slightly increased the thermal stability of the WPCs compared with the reference WPCs. The crystallization degree (Xc and the enthalpy of crystallization of the WPCs slightly decreased with increasing content of the heat-treated wood flour. However, all WPCs containing the heat-treated alder wood flour showed a higher crystallinity degree than that of the virgin HDPE.

  13. Floral Morphology and Some Other Characteristics of Iso-genomic Alloplasmics of Nicotianatabacum L.

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    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasms of several Nicotiana species - N. amplexicaulis, N. bigelovii, N. debneyi, N. eastii, N. exigua, N. glauca, N. glutinosa, N. goodspeedii, N. knightiana, N. occidentalis, N. plumbaginifolia, N. raimondii, N. suaveolens, N. undulata - were bred into the N. tabacum genomic background of flue cured tobacco cv. Zamojska 4. The collection includes also a cytoplasmic male sterile (cms analogue of cv. Zamojska 4 with mutated cytoplasm of N. tabacum. Some of the alloplasmics were originally obtained in this laboratory (N. amplexicaulis, N. eastii, N. exigua, N. glauca, N. knightiana, N. raimondii. The remaining ones were acquired from other laboratories and backcrossed into Zamojska 4. All alien cytoplasms except that of N. knightiana produced full male sterility in Zamojska 4. The extent of male organ modifications varied from complete absence of stamens (N. suaveolens, N. tabacum to petaloid and stigmatoid structures (most common effect to malformed stamens (N. amplexicaulis, N. glauca to apparently normal stamens (N. raimondii, N. knightiana. The majority of the alloplasmics showed response to tentoxin that was compatible with the cytoplasm donor. The exceptions were those involving N. exigua, N. raimondii, (N. raimondii I, and the cytoplasmic mutant of N. tabacum. There was some variation in growth and morphology among the alloplasmic variants of Zamojska 4. Under field infestation alloplasmics with the cytoplasm of N. plumbaginifoliaand N. eastiishowed symptoms of blue mold whereas the remaining alloplasmics and cv. Zamojska 4 were highly tolerant of that disease.

  14. Metabolic activity of tree saps of different origin towards cultured human cells in the light of grade correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling

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    Artur Wnorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.

  15. Possible preparation of wood-plastic materials based on unsaturated polyester resins and methyl metacrylate, by radiation and chemical methods in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of wood-plastic combinations (WPC) using combined methods for curing intermediate products and final products is described. In the first step, impregnated wood was irradiated using doses of 1 to 10 kGy in the presence of chemical initiators of polymerization. Thereafter, curing of this partly cured impregnating mixture was accomplished in the wood at elevated temperatures with the aid of chemical initiators of polymerization. Impregnation mixtures based on unsaturated polyester resins and methyl methacrylate, and the wood species European Beech (Fagus silvatica) and Black Alder (Alnus glutinosa) were used. The results indicate that this method of preparing WPC allows substantially lower radiation doses to be used, i.e., doses in the range of 1 to 2.5 kGy. These doses gelatinate the impregnation mixture in the wood so that the subsequent curing by chemical polymerization initiators proceeds without the impregnation mixture flowing out of the wood, and without forming bosses and incrustations. Intermediate products and wood products needing no further finish may thus be prepared: in some cases regrinding or repolish is sufficient. The possibility of using impregnation mixtures based on various unsaturated polyester resins was investigated, and the influence on the curing process of temperature, polymerization initiator concentration, methyl methacrylate concentration, inhibitor concentration, and other factors affecting curing was evaluated. (author)

  16. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

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    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  17. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  18. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  19. Reclamation of a lignite combustion waste disposal site with alders (Alnus sp.): assessment of tree growth and nutrient status within 10 years of the experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Pająk, Marek; Wanic, Tomasz; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Chodak, Marcin

    2018-06-01

    Combustion wastes are characterised by extremely low N contents. Therefore, introduction of nitrogen-fixing species at the first stage of their biological reclamation is required. This paper presents an assessment of the growth parameters of alders (Alnus sp.) 10 years after their introduction to a disposal site of lignite combustion waste in Central Poland. Black (Alnus glutinosa) and grey alders (Alnus incana) were planted directly in the combustion waste. The soil amendment included three variants: control with pure combustion waste, admixture of lignite culm and addition of acid sand. Both alder species displayed good growth parameters comparable to those of alders in natural habitats. However, black alder had better growth parameters, such as stand density index (SDI), diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) than grey alder. The lignite amendment exerted a positive effect on tree growth, reflected in a higher SDI and H, whereas the acid sand amendment did not affect any of the growth parameters of the studied alder species. Despite the good growth parameters, the measured N:P and N:K ratios in the alder leaves largely differed from the optimal values indicating insufficient P and K supply at the combustion waste disposal site. This may pose a threat to further development of the introduced tree plantings. The introduction of alders along with the lignite addition into the planting holes seems to be a successful method of combustion waste revegetation.

  20. Introduced pathogens found on ornamentals, strawberry and trees in Finland over the past 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LILJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative ease and speed of international trade and travel have enabled or enhanced the spread of pests around the globe. For example, trade in ornamental plants has bolstered the spread of alien Oomycetes such as pathogenic species of Phytophthora. To date, four Phytophthora species have been identified in Finland: P. cactorum on Fragaria x ananassa, Betula pendula and Rhododendron spp., P. plurivora on Rhododendron spp. and Syringa vulgaris, and P. pini and P. ramorum on Rhododendron spp. The ascomycete Colletotrichum acutatum, which was listed as a quarantine pathogen by the European Union until 2009, was introduced in 2000 and can survive in plant debris over two winters in Finland. Positive PCR results have also been obtained from bait plants grown in soil collected from locations where diseased Fragaria x ananassa plants had earlier been destroyed. In the mid-1990s, there was an epidemic of foliar rust caused by the Asian basidiomycete Melampsoridium hiratsukanum on Alnus glutinosa and A. incana. Recently, two ascomycetes that have been introduced are Dothistroma septosporum (responsible for red band needle blight on Pinus sylvestris and Chalara fraxinea (causing ash decline on Fraxinus excelsior.;

  1. The presence of cucumber mosaic virus in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. in Serbia

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    Milošević Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2014 a total of 67 pot marigold samples from five different localities in the Province in Vojvodina were collected and analysed for the presence of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. CMV was detected serologically in all inspected localities in 67.16% collected samples. None of the analysed samples was positive for INSV. The virus was successfully mechanically transmitted to test plants including Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana tabacum 'Samsun' and N. glutinosa, as well as pot marigold seedlings, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. The presence of CMV in pot marigold plants was further verified by RT-PCR and sequencing, using the specific primers CMV CPfwd/CMVCPrev that amplify coat protein (CP gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene sequences showed clustering of the selected isolates into three subgroups, IA, IB and II, and Serbian CMV isolates from pot marigold belong to subgroup II.

  2. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Middle Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in the Middle Navarra (Iberian Peninsula). Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in this area with 3622.2 km(2) and 404,634 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 276 informants (mean age 72; 46% women, 54% men) in 111 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 198 medicinal plants belonging to 60 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1401 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Santolina chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa, Jasonia glutinosa and Chamaemelum nobile with a long tradition of use in Navarra. All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. The most common mode of administration is oral, while the second most common is topical. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 80 new or scarcely cited uses for 14 medicinal plants. For 36% of the species (5) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 64% (9) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF‑7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-06-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin‑induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)‑7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF‑5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin‑like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF‑7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth.

  5. Strawberry crinkle virus, a Cytorhabdovirus needing more attention from virologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, K I; Adams, A N; Hong, Y

    2000-11-01

    Summary Taxonomic relationship: A member of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the genus Cytorhabdovirus (type member: Lettuce necrotic yellows virus), family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Members of the family Rhabdoviridae can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Physical properties: Virions are bacilliform, 74-88 nm in diameter and 163-383 nm in length with surface projections probably composed of trimers of the glycoprotein G, occurring in the cytoplasm in either the coated or the uncoated form (Fig. 1). The nucleocapsid is enclosed in a host-derived envelope. Within the virion, the SCV genome consists of a single negative-sense single-stranded RNA molecule of approximately 13 kb. Viral proteins: The SCV genome encodes at least five proteins: the nucleocapsid (N) protein (45 kDa), the matrix (M) protein (77 kDa), the nonstructural protein [Ns, 55 kDa, also known as phosphoprotein (P)], the glycoprotein (G, 23 kDa) and the large (L) protein. Hosts: The natural host range of SCV is limited to species of the genus Fragaria L. Experimental hosts include Physalis pubescens L., P. floridana Rydb., Nicotiana occidentalis, N. glutinosa L. and N. clevelandi Gray. SCV also replicates in its insect vectors Chaetosiphon fragaefolii Cockerell and C. jacobi Hille Ris Lamberts. When injected as purified virus, SCV replicates in aphids Hyperomyzus lactucae (L.), Macrosiphon euphorbiae Thomas, Myzus ornatus Laing, Megoura viciae Buckton, and Acyrthosiphoa pisum (Harris).

  6. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  7. Citotoxicidade de plantas com indicativo etnográfico para a desinfecção de água Cytotoxicity of plants as an ethnographic indicator for water disinfection

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    A.R. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A água para o consumo humano e animal é um patrimônio cada vez mais escasso que é necessário preservar. O processo de desinfecção utilizado atualmente tem como base desinfetantes clorados, que em combinação com resíduos orgânicos, resultam em trihalometanos (potencialmente oncogênicos. A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de cinco extratos de plantas, capazes de promover desinfecção da água, frente a seis linhagens celulares, a saber: Vero (ATCC CCl81 African green monkey cells; MDBK (ATCC CCL 24 Martin Darby Bonne Kidney cells; MDCK (ATCC CCL 34 Canis familiaris kidney cells; CRFK (ATCC CCL 94 Felix catus kidney cells; PK 15 (ATCC CCL 33 Sus scrofa kidney cells; RK13 (ATCC CCL 37 Orytolagus cuniculus Kidney cells, e avaliar cultivos celulares mais sensíveis para o teste de toxicidade de extratos de plantas. Destes extratos, o mais tóxico foi o de Erva de Formigueiro (Chenopodium álbum diante de todas as células testadas. O extrato de chapéu de couro (Sagittaria montevidensis foi medianamente tóxico e os demais baleeira (Cordia curassavica, folha da fortuna (Bryophyllum pinnatum [Kurz] e sete sangrias (Cuphea carthagenensis [Jacq.] J.F. Macbride foram os menos tóxicos. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significativo (p=0,99, quando se comparou o extrato das plantas frente às concentrações e às células estudadas. Entre as células utilizadas, as mais sensíveis foram a VERO (rim de macaco e a CRFK (rim de gato quando comparadas com as demais foram (MDBK, MDCK, PK 15, RK 13, com diferença significativa (p=0,99. Conclui-se que há necessidade de serem avaliados os extratos vegetais quanto a toxicidade, antes do emprego como recursos de saúde, e que algumas células são mais eficazes que outras na detecção de efeito citopatogênico.Freshwater for human and animal consumption is an increasingly rare patrimony that needs to be preserved. The currently adopted disinfection process uses chloride

  8. Flora asociada a la actividad melífera en apiarios al sur del departamento del Huila, macizo colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Silva Arias

    2006-07-01

    Se determinaron 135 de las especies como melíferas, la mayoría pertenecientes a las familias Asteraceae, Fabaceae s l y Lamiaceae. Se hallaron 87 especies melíferas en La Argentina, 57 en Palestina y 43 en Pitalito. Seis de las especies melíferas encontradas se establecieron como las más importantes por presentar los mayores índices de importancia ecológica (Saurauia aromatica, Cuphea micrantha, Bidens pilosa, Baccharis nitida, Coffea arabica y Cedrela sp.. Adicionalmente se consideran como especies importantes de la flora melífera a Toxicodendron striatum, Viburnum cornifolium, Vismia baccifera, Hyptis pseudosinuata, Austroeupatorium inulaefolium e Inga cocleensis, que a diferencia de las anteriores presentan índices de importancia más bajos pero están presentes en las tres localidades muestreadas y poseen un amplio espectro de hábitats. Se presenta un catálogo digital con fotos de alta resolución de 109 especies, correspondientes a 44 familias, de los cuales 61 especies hacen parte de la flora melífera reconocida. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán escoger especies melíferas de mayor importancia para iniciar trabajos de calendarios florales y ofertas de néctar, además de proponer el manejo de especies poco comunes que además de poseer importancia melífera pueden generar otros beneficios ecológicos y financieros. Este trabajo junto con la caracterización de la vegetación de las mismas zonas, permitirán establecer la capacidad de carga apícola de acuerdo a la oferta ambiental de la zona.

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    Present study was commenced with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This is the first contribution to the quantitative ethnobotany of this region, as no reported data focusing on shrubs and trees from the area have been published. Study reported the ethnobotanical significance of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. Study was conducted during 2012-2014 following standard ethnobotanical methods. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through informed consent semi- structured interviews of 160 key informants. Documented data was analyzed by using quantitative indices of informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC). A total of 73 shrub and tree species belonging to 56 genera and 37 families were reported to be used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various ailments. Medicinal plant diversity showed that Rosaceae was dominating family with (9 spp.) followed by Moraceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae (4 spp. each), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Lythraceae, Papilionaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae (2 spp. each) while remaining 22 families were represented by one species each. Leaves (23%) were highly utilized plant parts, followed by fruits (22%), bark (18%), seeds (10%), roots (9%), flowers (8%), whole plant and aerial parts (4% each) and stem (2%). Modes of preparation fall into 14 categories including powder (33 reports) followed by decoction (29 reports), paste (22 reports), juice (18 reports), infusion (12 reports), raw (8 reports), extract and latex (5 reports each), gum and oil (4 reports each), fresh part and pulp (2 reports each), chewed and cooked (1 report each). The highest FIC was recorded for Gastro-intestinal disorders (0.58) followed by nail, skin and hair disorders (0.44). Maximum fidelity level (FL

  10. The isolation, characterization and evaluation of Frankia strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, P.; Lalonde, M.; Fortin, J.A.; Chatarpaul, L.

    1984-01-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO/sub 4/) was used as the sterilizing agent to isolate the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Frankia from nodules of host plants. This treatment resulted in a pure culture collection of 250 Frankia isolates from several species of Alnus (crispa, rugosa, viridis, glutinosa, and serrulata) and from other actinorhizal species from Quebec. Frankia isolates from A. viridis and S. canadensis are reported in this document for the first time. Sugars from whole-cell hydrolysates of the organisms were analysed by gas liquid chromatography to identify strains previously screened on the basis of morphology and infectivity. This technique proved especially useful for those isolates whose morphology was atypical (ACN8, ArgN22, SCN9, and SCN10). It was demonstrated that sugar analysis (2-O-methy-D-mannose, in particular) can be important in resolving the taxonomy of Frankia. The nitrogen-fixing efficiency of some Frankia strains was evaluated by inoculating A. crispa. It was found that the efficiency of organisms was not influenced by the host from which they were first isolated. However, significant differences between some isolates of the same provenance occurred. It was also found that those strains of Frankia which do not sporulate were more effective in fixing nitrogen than those which do. It is proposed that the terms type P and type N be used to designate spore positive (Sp/sup +/) and spore negative (Sp/sup -/) Frankia strains, respectively. Further, it is recommended that sporulation type be used as a valid basis for species definition in the genus Frankia. 118 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Abscisic acid-dependent changes in transpiration rate with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and the effects of sulfite and pH on stomatal aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Maruta, I.; Sugahara, K.

    1980-01-01

    Transpiration rate of rice plants which contained extremely large amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased rapidly with 2.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ fumigation, reached 20% of the initial level after 5 min exposure, then recovered slightly and thereafter remained constant. SO/sub 2/ fumigation of alday and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Samsun) which have a lower ABA content showed a 50% decrease in transpiration rate. Similarly, rates for wheat and tobacco (N. tabacum L. Samsun NN) which contained even smaller amounts of ABA than alday and tobacco (Samsun) decreased by 35 and 45%, respectively, 30 min after the beginning of the fumigation. In the cases of broad bean and tobacco (N. glutinosa L.) with low ABA contents, the rates slightly increased immediately after the start of the fumigation and began to decrease gradually 20 and 40 min later, respectively. The transpiration rates of corn and sorghum, in spite of their extremely low ABA contents, decreased significantly with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 65 and 50% of the initial levels after 20 and 40 min exposure, respectively. Foliar application of 0.04 N HCl to peanut leaves remarkably depressed the transpiration rate, while the application of 0.04 M Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ decreased the rate only to the same level as water treatment. Foliar application of either HCl or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ to radish leaves exerted no change in the transpiration rate. When 3 X 10/sup -4/ M ABA was applied to radish leaves prior to HCl and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ treatment, the transpiration rate of radish was decreased by HCl application, but not by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.

  12. Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun, E-mail: hustzhj@hust.edu.cn; Xu, Gang; Ma, Shuai; Li, Fen; Yuan, Miao; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2015-11-27

    Catalpol, a bioactive component from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, has been shown to possess hypoglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic animal models, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of catalpol on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation in mice. Oral administration of catalpol at 100 mg/kg for 4 weeks had no effect on body weight of HFD-induced obese mice, but it significantly improved fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was markedly reduced by catalpol. Intriguingly, catalpol also significantly reduced mRNA expressions of M1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, but increased M2 anti-inflammatory gene expressions in adipose tissue. Concurrently, catalpol significantly suppressed the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that catalpol may ameliorate HFD-induced insulin resistance in mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways, and thus provide important new insights into the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic effect of catalpol. - Highlights: • Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice. • Catalpol reduces adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in HFD-fed mice. • Catalpol regulates M1 and M2 inflammatory gene expression in obese adipose tissue. • Catalpol suppresses the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways in obese adipose tissue.

  13. Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Gang; Ma, Shuai; Li, Fen; Yuan, Miao; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2015-01-01

    Catalpol, a bioactive component from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, has been shown to possess hypoglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic animal models, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of catalpol on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation in mice. Oral administration of catalpol at 100 mg/kg for 4 weeks had no effect on body weight of HFD-induced obese mice, but it significantly improved fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was markedly reduced by catalpol. Intriguingly, catalpol also significantly reduced mRNA expressions of M1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, but increased M2 anti-inflammatory gene expressions in adipose tissue. Concurrently, catalpol significantly suppressed the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that catalpol may ameliorate HFD-induced insulin resistance in mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways, and thus provide important new insights into the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic effect of catalpol. - Highlights: • Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice. • Catalpol reduces adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in HFD-fed mice. • Catalpol regulates M1 and M2 inflammatory gene expression in obese adipose tissue. • Catalpol suppresses the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways in obese adipose tissue.

  14. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  15. Changes in Species Composition in Alder Swamp Forest Following Forest Dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Pielech

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally hypothesized that forest dieback is a characteristic of alder swamp forests (alder carrs, Alnion glutinosae alliance. Different internal and external factors may trigger this process, including human disturbance, changes in river discharge, unusually severe and prolonged flooding, terminal age of an even-aged alder forest (ca. 100–150 years and others. Although forest dieback in this type of forest may cause major changes in environmental conditions, the influence of this change on the floristic composition has not been well recognized. The study aimed to detect any possible changes in floristic variation in alder swamp forest following forest dieback. Vegetation plots in alder swamp forests affected by forest dieback were resurveyed 20 years after a previous study. PERMANOVA was used to test the significance of the compositional change and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS with passively fitted means of the Ellenberg’s Indicator Values were used to interpret its ecological meaning. In addition, different structural and diversity indices were compared, including species richness, percentage cover of vegetation layers, Shannon and Simpson diversity and evenness. Finally, we analyzed changes in the frequency of vascular plant species using Chi square tests. We recorded clear and significant compositional changes following alder swamp forest dieback. This change was most related to the gradient of moisture, followed by the gradients of light and temperature. The analysis of the individual species showed that the species of hummocks declined, while the species of hollows increased. Moreover, the current communities are dominated by some hydrophytes that were not recorded 20 years ago. Forest dieback resulted in profound changes in the hydrological regime. The observed changes are consistent with a model of cyclic succession as proposed for alder swamps. In addition, we conclude that the natural forest dynamics have to be

  16. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Merajuddin Khan,1 Mujeeb Khan,1 Abdulhadi H Al-Marri,1 Abdulrahman Al-Warthan,1 Hamad Z Alkhathlan,1 Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui,1 Vadithe Lakshma Nayak,2 Ahmed Kamal,2 Syed F Adil1 1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano­composites (PGE-HRG-Ag were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Keywords: plant extract, graphene/silver nanocomposites, anticancer, apoptosis

  17. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  18. In situ detection of tree root distribution and biomass by multi-electrode resistivity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Mariana; Basso, Bruno; Celano, Giuseppe; Bitella, Giovanni; Morelli, Gianfranco; Rossi, Roberta

    2008-10-01

    Traditional methods for studying tree roots are destructive and labor intensive, but available nondestructive techniques are applicable only to small scale studies or are strongly limited by soil conditions and root size. Soil electrical resistivity measured by geoelectrical methods has the potential to detect belowground plant structures, but quantitative relationships of these measurements with root traits have not been assessed. We tested the ability of two-dimensional (2-D) DC resistivity tomography to detect the spatial variability of roots and to quantify their biomass in a tree stand. A high-resolution resistivity tomogram was generated along a 11.75 m transect under an Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. stand based on an alpha-Wenner configuration with 48 electrodes spaced 0.25 m apart. Data were processed by a 2-D finite-element inversion algorithm, and corrected for soil temperature. Data acquisition, inversion and imaging were completed in the field within 60 min. Root dry mass per unit soil volume (root mass density, RMD) was measured destructively on soil samples collected to a depth of 1.05 m. Soil sand, silt, clay and organic matter contents, electrical conductivity, water content and pH were measured on a subset of samples. The spatial pattern of soil resistivity closely matched the spatial distribution of RMD. Multiple linear regression showed that only RMD and soil water content were related to soil resistivity along the transect. Regression analysis of RMD against soil resistivity revealed a highly significant logistic relationship (n = 97), which was confirmed on a separate dataset (n = 67), showing that soil resistivity was quantitatively related to belowground tree root biomass. This relationship provides a basis for developing quick nondestructive methods for detecting root distribution and quantifying root biomass, as well as for optimizing sampling strategies for studying root-driven phenomena.

  19. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  20. Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Kost, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

  1. Associations between prescribed Chinese herbal medicine and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-01-25

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are reported to exhibit higher risk of subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unclear if Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), an important category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), may lower HCC risk in this population. So this study aimed to investigate the effects of CHM on HCC risk among patients with CHB. This cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 21 020 newly diagnosed patients with CHB from 1998 to 2007. Among them, 8640 received CHM products after CHB onset (CHM users), and the remaining 12 380 patients were designated as a control group (non-CHM users). All enrolees were followed until the end of 2012 to measure the incidence rate and HR of HCC. During 15 years of follow-up, 371 CHM users and 958 non-CHM users developed HCC, representing an incidence rate of 5.28% and 10.18% per 1000 person-years, respectively. CHM users had significantly lower HCC risk compared with non-CHM users (adjusted HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.72). The predominant effect was observed in those receiving CHM products for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52). Some CHM products, such as Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Isatis tinctoria, Yi Guan Jian, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Wu Ling San and Gan Lu Yin, were significantly associated with lower risk of HCC. The use of CHM was associated with a significantly reduced HCC risk in patients with CHB, which supports the integration of TCM with CHM into clinical practice to influence a favourable prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. BDNF and COX-2 participate in anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ming; Yang, Lian-He; Zhang, Yue-Yue; Niu, Chun-Ling; Cui, Ying; Feng, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Fang

    2015-11-01

    Catalpol, a major compound in Rehmannia glutinosa with both medicinal and nutritional values, has been previously confirmed to shorten the duration of immobility in mice exposed to tail suspension and forced swimming tests. This study attempted to examine the anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) by involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). CUMS-exposed rats were given catalpol daily (5, 10, and 20mg/kg, ig) or a reference drug, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH, 10mg/kg, ig), at 5 weeks after starting the CUMS procedure. Sucrose preference test was performed to observe depression-like behavior, and serum and brain tissues were used for neurochemical and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. CUMS induced depression-like behavior, whereas catalpol and FH administration attenuated this symptom. Moreover, CUMS caused excessively elevated levels of serum corticosterone, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivation, in a manner attenuated by catalpol and FH administration. Catalpol administration also further decreased BDNF activities, downregulated the mRNA expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), and reversed the excessive elevation in the activities and mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats undergoing CUMS. Results indicate that catalpol can ameliorate CUMS-induced depression-like behavior, and suggest its mechanisms may partially be ascribed to restoring HPA axis dysfunctions, upregulating BDNF expression and its cognate receptor TrkB, and downregulating COX-2 expression, thereby reducing PGE2 levels in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. UV-irradiation and leaching in water reduce the toxicity of imidacloprid-contaminated leaves to the aquatic leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Dominic; Zubrod, Jochen P; Neubauer, Christoph; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2018-05-01

    Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid are increasingly applied against insect pest infestations on forest trees. However, leaves falling from treated trees may reach nearby surface waters and potentially represent a neonicotinoid exposure source for aquatic invertebrates. Given imidacloprid's susceptibility towards photolysis and high water solubility, it was hypothesized that the leaves' toxicity might be modulated by UV-irradiation during decay on the forest floor, or by leaching and re-mobilization of the insecticide from leaves within the aquatic ecosystem. To test these hypotheses, the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum was fed (over 7 d; n = 30) with imidacloprid-contaminated black alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves that had either been pre-treated (i.e., leached) in water for up to 7 d or UV-irradiated for 1 d (at intensities relevant during autumn in Central Europe) followed by a leaching duration of 1 d. Gammarids' feeding rate, serving as sublethal response variable, was reduced by up to 80% when consuming non-pretreated imidacloprid-contaminated leaves compared to imidacloprid-free leaves. Moreover, both leaching of imidacloprid from leaves (for 7 d) as well as UV-irradiation reduced the leaves' imidacloprid load (by 46 and 90%) thereby mitigating the effects on gammarids' feeding rate to levels comparable to the respective imidacloprid-free controls. Therefore, natural processes, such as UV-irradiation and re-mobilization of foliar insecticide residues in water, might be considered when evaluating the risks systemic insecticide applications in forests might pose for aquatic organisms in nearby streams. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on medicinal herbs for cognitive enhancement based on the text mining of Dongeuibogam and preliminary evaluation of its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Malk Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Ahn, Sung Min; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-02-17

    In literature on Korean medicine, Dongeuibogam (Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine), published in 1613, represents the overall results of the traditional medicines of North-East Asia based on prior medicinal literature of this region. We utilized this medicinal literature by text mining to establish a list of candidate herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly and then performed an evaluation of their effects. Text mining was performed for selection of candidate herbs. Cell viability was determined in HT22 hippocampal cells and immunohistochemistry and behavioral analysis was performed in a kainic acid (KA) mice model in order to observe alterations of hippocampal cells and cognition. Twenty four herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly were selected by text mining of Dongeuibogam. In HT22 cells, pretreatment with 3 candidate herbs resulted in significantly reduced glutamate-induced cell death. Panax ginseng was the most neuroprotective herb against glutamate-induced cell death. In the hippocampus of a KA mice model, pretreatment with 11 candidate herbs resulted in suppression of caspase-3 expression. Treatment with 7 candidate herbs resulted in significantly enhanced expression levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein. Number of proliferated cells indicated by BrdU labeling was increased by treatment with 10 candidate herbs. Schisandra chinensis was the most effective herb against cell death and proliferation of progenitor cells and Rehmannia glutinosa in neuroprotection in the hippocampus of a KA mice model. In a KA mice model, we confirmed improved spatial and short memory by treatment with the 3 most effective candidate herbs and these recovered functions were involved in a higher number of newly formed neurons from progenitor cells in the hippocampus. These established herbs and their combinations identified by text-mining technique and evaluation for effectiveness may have value in further experimental and clinical

  5. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L; Gamarra, R; Sainz, H; Millan, R

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  6. Seasonal N changes in alnus orientalis and populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted.The first was to study nodulation and N 2 fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of N changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results showed that frankia in soil from underneath Alnus orientalis nodulated and fixed nitrogen on roots of local alder as well as on roots of introduced alder species from distant and ecologically diverse localities. However, differences were found among species in the number of nodules formed and amount of nitrogen fixed. Percentages of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) ranged from 5% in A.viridis to 66% in A. orientalis. Microscopic study of Alnus orientalis nodules showed the presence of vesicles, and frankia belonging to Sp-type. Foliar N concentration was higher in alder than in poplar. Total N concentration in alder leaves remained relatively constant at about 3% during summer, whereas N concentration in poplar decreased sharply in leaves and increased in bark. No substantial increase in N concentration was found in alder bark, and the fallen leaves were rich in nitrogen. During autumn, leaf N concentration in poplar decreased by 43% and 51% for the first and the second year, respectively, whereas N concentrations in bark increased by 71% and 100%. Total N concentrations in alder leaves decreased only by 8-16% while, values in the adjacent bark remained stable. In contrast to poplar, it seems that Alnus orientalis does not exhibit net leaf retranslocation to bark tissues.(author)

  7. Catalpol ameliorates beta amyloid-induced degeneration of cholinergic neurons by elevating brain-derived neurotrophic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Liu, Q; Zhang, R; Liu, S; Xia, Z; Hu, Y

    2009-11-10

    The purpose of this work is to study the effect of catalpol, an iridoid from Rehmannia glutinosa on neurodegenerative changes induced by beta-amyloid peptide Abeta(25-35) or Abeta(25-35)+ibotenic acid and the underlying mechanism. Results showed that catalpol significantly improved the memory deficits in the neurodegenerative mouse model produced by injection of Abeta(25-35)+ibotenic acid to the nucleus magnocellularis basalis, yet it is neither a cholinesterase inhibitor nor a muscarinic (M) receptor agonist. Instead, the choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity and the M receptor density in brain were significantly decreased in the model mice and catalpol could significantly elevate their levels. Furthermore, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in brain was significantly decreased in the model mice and catalpol elevated it to normal level (83%+/-3% and 102%+/-2% of normal respectively). There is a significant positive correlation between BDNF content and memory. Primary culture of forebrain neurons revealed that aggregated Abeta(25-35) induced significant decrease of ChAT positive neuron number, neurite outgrowth length, and M receptor density, while catalpol added to the culture medium 2 h prior to Abeta addition showed significant dose dependent protective effect. Notably, 24 h and 48 h after the addition of Abeta to the cultured cells, the BDNF mRNA level in the neurons decreased to 76%+/-7% and 66%+/-3% of control without catalpol treatment, but became 128%+/-17% and 131%+/-23% of control with catalpol treatment. When the action of BDNF was inhibited by k252a in the cultured neurons, the protective effect of catalpol was completely (neurite outgrowth length) or partially (ChAT positive neuron number and the M receptor density) abolished. Taken together, catalpol improves memory and protects the forebrain neurons from neurodegeneration through increasing BDNF expression. Whether catalpol could reverse the neurodegenerative changes already

  8. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Janos

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks-previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect-probably help to maintain the rain forest-savanna boundary.

  9. Identification of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expressed in the pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Benoit; Arango, Miguel; Oufattole, Mohammed; Crouzet, Jérôme; Purnelle, Bénédicte; Boutry, Marc

    2005-08-01

    In Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases (PMAs) are encoded by a gene family of nine members. Here, we report on the characterization of a new isogene, NpPMA5 (belonging to subfamily IV), and the determination of its expression pattern using the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene. pNpPMA5-gusA was expressed in cotyledons, in vascular tissues of the stem (mainly in nodal zones), and in the flower and fruit. In the flower, high expression was found in the pollen tube after in vitro or in vivo germination. Northern blotting analysis confirmed that NpPMA5 was expressed in the pollen tube contrary to NpPMA2 (subfamily I) or NpPMA4 (subfamily II), two genes highly expressed in other tissues. The subcellular localization of PM H(+)-ATPase in the pollen tube was analyzed by immunocytodecoration. As expected, this enzyme was localized to the plasma membrane. However, neither the tip nor the base of the pollen tube was labeled, showing an asymmetrical distribution of this enzyme. This observation supports the hypothesis that the PM H(+)-ATPase is involved in creating the pH gradient that is observed along the pollen tube and is implicated in cell elongation. Compared to other plant PM H(+)-ATPases, the C-terminal region of NpPMA5 is shorter by 26 amino acid residues and is modified in the last 6 residues, due to a sequence rearrangement, which was also found in the orthologous gene of Nicotiana glutinosa, a Nicotiana species distant from N. plumbaginifolia and Petunia hybrida and Lycopersicon esculentum, other Solanacae species. This modification alters part of the PM H(+)-ATPase regulatory domain and raises the question whether this isoform is still regulated.

  10. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 on litter chemistry and subsequent invertebrate detritivore feeding responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Dray

    Full Text Available Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder or Betula pendula (silver birch trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm or elevated (ambient +200 ppm CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment ('choice', or (ii one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone ('no-choice'. Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species' responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing-a key ecosystem function-under atmospheric change.

  12. Evaluating the antidiabetic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: Xiao-Ke-An in 3T3-L1 cells and KKAy mice using both conventional and holistic omics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Linli; Zhang, Feng; Li, Zheng

    2015-08-13

    Xiao-Ke-An (XKA) is a Chinese medicine widely used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is composed of eight herbal medicines traditionally used for T2D, including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Coptis chinensis Franch, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of XKA with both conventional and holistic omics approaches. The antidiabetic effect of XKA was first investigated in 3T3-L1 cells to study the effect of XKA on adipogenesis in vitro. Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation. The intracellular total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents in XKA treated 3T3-L1 cells were also evaluated. The therapeutic effects of XKA was further evaluated in KKAy mice with both conventional and holistic omics approaches. Body weight, fasting and non-fasting blood glucose, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, serum was collected for the measurement of TG, TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). The liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, heart and adipose tissues were harvested and weighted. The liver was used for further microarray experiment. Omics approaches were adopted to evaluate the holistic rebalancing effect of XKA at molecular network level. XKA significantly inhibited adipogenic differentiation, lowered the intracellular TC and TG contents in 3T3-L1 cells. XKA improved the glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, ameliorated insulin resistance in KKAy mice. Furthermore, XKA also exhibited effective therapeutic effects by reversing the molecular T2D disease network from an unbalanced state. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of XKA with both conventional and holistic omics approaches, providing both phenotypic evidence and underlying action mechanisms for the clinical use of XKA treating T2D.

  13. Oriental medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko prevents and alleviates dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Jang

    Full Text Available Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK, a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey, has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine as a vitalizing medicine or as the prescription for patients with age-associated disorders such as amnesia and stroke. However, the potential protective value of KOK for the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is largely unknown. We investigated whether pre-administration (daily from 2 hours before PCOS induction and post-administration (daily after induction of PCOS of KOK (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. could have a protective effect in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, s.c.-induced PCOS rat model. Pre-administration of KOK significantly decreased the elevated body weight and ovary weight, elevated size and number of follicular cysts, elevated level of serum glucose, and estradiol after DHEA injection. KOK reduced the elevated percentage of CD8 (+ T lymphocytes in lymph nodes, the elevated mRNA expression of CD11b and CD3 in ovaries, and infiltration of macrophages in ovarian tissue with PCOS. KOK diminished the increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, and iNOS in the ovaries, and increased the reduced mRNA expression of growth factors (EGF, TGF-β by DHEA injection. Post-administration of KOK also improved the DHEA-induced PCOS-like symptoms, generally similar to those evident from pre-administration of KOK. KOK may effectively prevent and improve DHEA-induced PCOS via anti-inflammatory action, indicating its preventive and therapeutic potential for suppressing PCOS.

  14. A contribution to the knowledge of biology and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, development and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L.. The majority of field studies was carried out at Training Forest Enterprise (TFE Masaryk Forest in Křtiny (District Brno-venkov in 2010 and 2011. In addition to this, the species was studied in detail also in a laboratory. It occurred mostly on Betula pendula and Carpinus betulus. Rarely, the species was found on Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana and only sporadically on Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. In the studied area, larvae and pupae hibernate. Beetles occur on trees from the end of April to the beginning of July, sporadically later. Females lay on average 2.5 (in the laboratory 4.4 eggs into rolls on B. pendula, on C. betulus 2.2 eggs. During two months, they damage on average 5.3 cm2 leaves creating 14 rolls and laying 35 eggs into the rolls. Larvae consume only 1.7 cm2 leaf blade. The development of the species takes three to four months from egg laying to the departure of larvae into soil. On leaves of B. pendula of an average area of 14.2 cm2, females roll up the same area (about 11.2 cm2 as on leaves of C. betulus of an area of 21.7 cm2. Into the rolls, they lay on average the same number of eggs. The average number of eggs in rolls increases with the increased area of B. pendula leaf blade. Trees partly compensate for the reduction of assimilatory area also by the growth of the area of neighbouring undamaged leaves (on average by 12.7 %.

  15. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  16. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-05-15

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m{sup 2}), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m{sup 2}), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  17. Host-Pathogen Interactions : XXXII. A Fungal Glucan Preparation Protects Nicotianae against Infection by Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, M; Rouster, J; Fritig, B; Darvill, A; Albersheim, P

    1989-05-01

    A glucan preparation obtained from the mycelial walls of the fungus Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea and known as an elicitor of phytoalexins in soybean was shown to be a very efficient inducer of resistance against viruses in tobacco. The glucan preparation protected against mechanically transmitted viral infections on the upper and lower leaf surfaces. Whether the glucan preparation was applied by injection, inoculation, or spraying, it protected the plants if applied before, at the same time as, or not later than 8 hours after virus inoculation. At concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 micrograms per milliliter, the glucan preparation induced protection ranging from 50 to 100% against both symptom production (necrotic local lesions, necrotic rings, or systemic mosaic) and virus accumulation in all Nicotiana-virus combinations examined. However, no significant protection against some of the same viruses was observed in bean or turnip. The host plants successfully protected included N. tabacum (9 different cultivars), N. sylvestris, N. glutinosa, and N. clevelandii. The viruses belonged to several taxonomic groups including tobacco mosaic virus, alfalfa mosaic virus, and tomato black ring virus. The glucan preparation did not act directly on the virus and did not interfere with virus disassembly; rather, it appeared to induce changes in the host plant that prevented infections from being initiated or recently established infections from enlarging. The induced resistance does not depend on induction of pathogenesis-related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, lignin-like substances, or callose-like materials. We believe the induced resistance results from a mechanism that has yet to be described.

  18. Plant utilization against digestive system disorder in Southern Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Prakash Roy; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Mitra, Abhijit; Nath, Deepa; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2015-12-04

    Being one of the most common types of life threatening diseases in Southern Assam, India, the digestive system disorders (DSD) have gained much attention in recent decades. Traditional beliefs and inadequate income of mass population result in the use of alternative phytotherapies to treat the diseases. The present paper documents the medicinal knowledge and utilization of plants for treatment of digestive system disorders in Southern Assam, India by Disease Consensus Index (DCI). It also determines the most suitable plant species used to treat digestive system disorders in the study area. The study was based on ethnomedicinal field survey covering a period of 1 year from 2014-2015. The ethnomedicinal information was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires from different traditional Bengali people having knowledge on medicinal plants. Collected data were analyzed by calculating DCI. During the survey, 29 informants were interviewed and a total of 49 plants under 46 genera belonging to 33 families were listed. Data analysis revealed that Litsea glutinosa, Momordica charantia, Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis, Cleome viscosa, Psidium guajava, Ageratum conyzoides, Cuscuta reflexa, Cynodon dactylon and Carica papaya are the most prominent plants among the people of Southern Assam for treating DSD. This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L.

    2006-05-01

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m 2 ), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m 2 ), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  20. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  1. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  2. The effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Wu, Qinxuan; Zeng, Chengxi; Zhang, Jiani; Cao, Luting; Xiao, Zizeng; Yang, Menglin

    2016-11-04

    Liuwei Dihaung decoction (LWDHT) is a well-known classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.(family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb.(family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb.(family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale(G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys in China clinically. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Liuwei dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of T2DM rats with insulin resistance. T2DM model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by high sugar and high fat diets combined with small dose of streptozocin (STZ) injection. The successful T2DM rats were randomly allocated three group--vehicle group, positive control group and Liuwei Dihuang decoction group. After 12-weeks treatment with distilled water, rosiglitazone and LWDHT by intragastric administration respectively, the rats were put to death in batches. The variance of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in serum were determined, the pathological changes of each rats' liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2(IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinas B (Akt) involving the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression level of IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein were evaluated by Western Blot. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Four weeks of treatment with LWDHT could significantly decrease the level of FBG and FINS in serum, improve the cellular morphology of liver, kidney, pancreas tissue, and the expression of IRS2, PI3K, Akt mRNA and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt

  3. The effects of a novel botanical agent on lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ah; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Yong-Wook; Chang, Sun-Hwa; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su; Kim, Young-Joon

    2013-08-01

    The development of host-modulatory agents with low risk of adverse effects has been needed to treat periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease. A botanical mixture of extracts from two natural substances, Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, was developed as a novel botanical agent synthesized with anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the botanical mixture on the release of inflammatory cytokines and its inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss (ABL) in a rat model. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and hGF cells were cultured to assay tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, respectively. Microcomputed tomography analysis and immunofluoresence analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the botanical mixture to inhibit the destruction of alveolar bone and connective tissue in a rat model. The botanical mixture is cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 2.5 mg/mL (P botanical mixture to be used in all subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The botanical mixture reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from human monocytic cells and hGF cells in a dose-dependent manner (P botanical mixture significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in a rat model (P botanical mixture, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was detected along the alveolar bone crest (ABC), but not around the gingival connective tissue, while in the group with LPS-induced ABL, pronounced expression of MMP-9 around the ABC, periodontal ligament, and gingival connective tissue was found. The botanical mixture showed a potential adjunctive effect in the treatment of periodontitis. However, the present findings are obtained in vitro and in a rat model, so further clinical study is needed

  4. Effects of sulfite and pH an abscisic acid (ABA) dependent transpiration and on stomatal opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Maruta, I.; Sugahara, K.

    1980-01-01

    In rice, alday, wheat and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum l. samsun and samsun nn) plants which contained large amounts of ABA, the transpiration rate decreased rapidly with 2 ppM SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 20 to 65% of the initial level after 5- to 30-min exposure depending on their ABAj contents. In the cases of broad bean and tobacco (n. Gutinosa l.) with low ABA contents, the rate slightly increased for 20 and 40 min, respectively, after the start of the fumigation and then decreased gradually. The transpiration rates of corn and sorghum, in spite of their extremely low ABA contents, pronouncedly decreased with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 65 and 50%, respectively, of the initial levels after 40-min exposure. Foliar application of 0.04 N HCL to N. tacum l. samsun nn leaves remarkably depressed the transpiration rate, while the application of 0.04 m NA/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ decreased the rate only to the same level as water treatment. Foliar application of either HCL of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ to N. glutinosa l. leaves exerted little change in the transpiration rate. When 10-4 m ABA was applied to broad bean leaves prior to HCl and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ treatment, their transpiration rate was decreased by HCl, but not by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ application. In sonicated epidermal strips peeled from broad bean leaves, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ produced a slight increase in the stomatal aperture size in the absence of ABA, but showed no effect in the presence of ABA. The aperture size was identical in the pH range of 3.0 to 7.0 in the incubation medium. In the presence of ABA in the medium, the aperture size was small in the acidic region of pH with a minimal value at pH 4.0. ABA decreased the aperture size at concentrations above 10-9 m at pH 4.0 and 10-6 m at pH 7.0 in the medium. ABA uptake by epidermal strips was large in the acidic region, especially at pH 4.0.

  5. Anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effect of a traditional herbal medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Kyoung Mee; Hong, Nam Doo; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-02-03

    Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, contains six main ingredients; Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey. KOK has been widely taken as a traditional oriental medicine for improving blood circulation or age-related symptoms, such as dementia and stroke. However, the effect of KOK on platelet activity has not been clarified. To evaluate the effect of KOK on platelet function, we evaluated its effect on functional markers of platelet activation such as aggregation and shape change. As a mechanism study for the effect of KOK, we examined its effect on granule secretion, intracellular Ca(2+) increase, and PLCγ and Akt activation. To investigate the effect of orally administered KOK (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg), we examined its ex vivo effect on platelet aggregation in rat, and its in vivo anti-thrombotic effect in mice thromboembolism model. Furthermore, the effect of KOK on bleeding time was examined to estimate its potential side effect. KOK (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/ml) inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shape change in rat platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism for the anti-platelet effect of KOK seems to involve the inhibition of ATP release, intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, and the phosphorylation of PLCγ and Akt. In rat ex vivo study, KOK (2 g/kg, p.o. for 1 day, and 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg, p.o. for 7 days) also had significant inhibitory effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, KOK showed a significant protective effect against thrombosis attack in mice. The prolongation of bleeding time by KOK was much less than that by ASA, suggesting a beneficial potential of KOK than ASA in view of side effect. These findings suggest that KOK elicits remarkable anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects with less side effect of bleeding, and therefore, it may have a therapeutic potential for the prevention of platelet-associated cardiovascular diseases

  6. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  7. The climate warming effect of a fen peat meadow with fluctuating water table is reduced by young alder trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Huth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. occurs naturally in temperate marshes and in minerotrophic peatlands and is also suitable for paludiculture - the cultivation of biomass on wet or rewetted peatland. We investigated the effect of a newly established black alder plantation on the greenhouse gas (GHG balance of a degraded fen in north-eastern Germany over a two-year period (August 2010–August 2012. We compared the alder plantation (Awet with an extensively used meadow (Mwet and a drier reference meadow (Mmoist. GHG fluxes were measured monthly to bi-monthly using the closed chamber method. Our results show that Awet was a slight net GHG (in CO2-eq sink of 3.4 ± 1.7 t ha-1 yr-1, Mwet was a moderate net GHG source of 9.6 ± 1.2 t ha 1 yr-1, and Mmoist was a strong net GHG source of 24.5 ± 1.6 t ha-1 yr-1. This was mainly driven by CO2 uptake at the two very moist (wet sites and by high CO2 release at the drier reference site. Awet was a larger CO2 sink than Mwet, probably due to additional CO2 uptake by the alder stand at Awet and carbon export in plant material harvested from Mwet. All sites were significant CH4 sources. Substantial CH4 emission peaks were observed at all sites following extraordinarily heavy precipitation during the summer of 2011, which accounted for up to 70 % of the accumulated two-year CH4 emissions. However, the Awet site generally emitted less CH4, possibly due to the effective oxygen transport mechanism in black alders. N2O emissions were negligible at all three sites. Our results indicate that the GHG balances of formerly drained fens benefit in the short term from planting of black alders, mostly due to reduced CH4 emissions. This study highlights the importance of acknowledging extreme precipitation events and groundwater fluctuations for the derivation of reliable GHG emission factors.

  8. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  9. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis

    2013-04-01

    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  10. Metodología para la evaluación del potencial insecticida de especies forestales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Soto León

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad florística de Colombia plantea enormes retos de investigación, con miras a una utilización racional e integral de sus recursos forestales. Las plantas con efectos biocidas utilizables en el control de plagas o enfermedades revisten una singular importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es plantear una metodología de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y rápidos resultados, que permita acopiar la información necesaria sobre el mayor número de especies con potencial en este sentido. La metodología plantea la siguiente secuencia: selección de las especies vegetales de interés, apoyada en los reportes bibliográficos, conocimiento ancestral y observaciones personales; recolección del material en el campo; preparación del extracto total a partir del material seco; pruebas iniciales con Artemia salina Lech. para detectar actividad biológica, a través de la determinación de la LC50 (las especies con LC50 menores de 1000 ppm se consideran promisorias y ameritan procesos posteriores de fraccionamiento químico, bioensayos con las sustancias más promisorias sobre algún organismo de interés particular y determinación final de los compuestos activos en la planta. La metodología descrita fue empleada en la evaluación del potencial de acción biocida de 5 especies arbóreas o arbustivas, Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer y Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae, Machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae, Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae y Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae. Se utilizó para los bioensayos iniciales el microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach como indicador del potencial biocida con el fin de seleccionar las dos especies más promisorias a partir de las LC50 obtenidas. Con las dos se realizaron los bioensayos para evaluar la acción fagoinhibidora en la hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (L., y el posible control de Alconeura sp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, insecto chupador que afecta la ceiba verde Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq. Dugand

  11. Plant Extract Mediated Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Pd@Graphene Nanocatalyst: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction catalyzed by the palladium (Pd-based nanomaterials is one of the most versatile methods for the preparation of biaryls. However, use of organic solvents as reaction medium causes a big threat to environment due to the generation of toxic byproducts as waste during the work up of these reactions. Therefore, the use of water as reaction media has attracted tremendous attention due to its environmental, economic, and safety benefits. In this study, we report on the synthesis of green Pd@graphene nanocatalyst based on an in situ functionalization approach which exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of phenyl halides with phenyl boronic acids under facile conditions in water. The green and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd@graphene nanocatalyst (PG-HRG-Pd is carried out by simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide (GRO and PdCl2 using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE as reducing and stabilizing agent. The phytomolecules present in the plant extract (PE not only facilitated the reduction of PdCl2, but also helped to stabilize the surface of PG-HRG-Pd nanocatalyst, which significantly enhanced the dispersibility of nanocatalyst in water. The identification of PG-HRG-Pd was established by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, including, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared PG-HRG-Pd nanocatalyst demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions under aqueous, ligand free, and aerobic conditions. Apart from this the reusability of the catalyst was also evaluated and the catalyst yielded excellent results upon reuse for several times with marginal loss of its catalytic performance. Therefore, the method developed for the green

  12. Evaluation of some varieties and breeding lines of tomato (Lycopersison sp) against tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusi-Adjei, R.

    2011-01-01

    . Comparison of natural whitefly inoculation in the field to controlled whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages showed there was a higher disease incidence in the field than in the cage. Wild Tomato and the hybrids did not show any symptoms of TYLCVD after controlled whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages. Mechanically (sap) inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa and Phaseolus vulgaris showed characteristic TTLCVD symptoms such as yellowing and leaf distortion. TAS-ELISA and PCR confirmed the presence of TYLCV in Wild Tomato, Roma x Wild Tomato and Wosowoso x Wild Tomato plants evaluated in the field indicating that they were symptomless carriers of TYLCV and in Roma, Wosowoso and Navrongo indicating that TYLCV-like symptoms observed on the plants were due to transmission of TYLCV by whiteflies in the field and in the cage. PCR detected TYLCV in mechanically inoculated Nicotiana nethamiana test plants showing the TYLCV is sap transmissible to Nicotiana benthamiana. This study has shown that the hybrids Cherry Red x Wild Tomato and Wosowoso x Wild Tomato are resistant to TYLCV while Roma x Wild Tomato was only mildly susceptible in the dry season. These three hybrids could therefore be selected for improvement in future breeding programmes, aimed at breeding high-yielding and TYLCVD resistant varieties. (au)

  13. BIODIVERSIDADE FLORESTAL E PAISAGÍSTICA DO TERRITÓRIO MUNICIPAL DE SELLANO - ÚMBRIA - ITÁLIA

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    Ettore Orsomando

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Sellano, situado na Úmbria (Itália, ocupando uma superfície de cerca 86 km² no setor regional central mais oriental junto à fronteira com as Marcas, do ponto de vista florestal se destaca pelo elevado índice de cobertura florestal superior a 60% em relação aos 40% da Úmbria. A biodiversidade florestal é constituída por 7 formações de caducifólias naturais (florestas: de Quercus pubescens, de Ostrya carpinifolia, de Quercus cerris com a associação endêmica denominada Carici sylvaticae-Quercetum cerridis rica em Orquídeas, de Quercus cerris com Quercus pubescens, de Castanea sativa, de Fagus sylvatica, de Salix alba e por um artificialismo (reflorestamentos de Pinusnigra e Pinus halepensis. Tais florestas, voltadas para a exploração econômica, em bom estado de conservação, contornadas por áreas de pastagem, por áreas antrópicas com ocupações humanas, áreas cultivadas e zonas de artesanato caracterizam 11 unidades ambientais paisagísticas do conjunto das 42 tipologias de paisagens da Região Úmbria como um todo: vertentes alto-colinares com florestas de Quercus pubescens ou de Ostrya carpinifolia, às vezes interrompidas por pequenas clareiras de pastagens, de origem secundária, de Bromus erectus; vertentes montanas com florestas de Fagus sylvatica e pequenas pastagens, de origem secundária, de Bromus erectus; áreas rupestres com agrupamentos casmofiticos; vertentes alto-colinares e submontanas, com fraca declividade e recobertas por paleossolos fersialíticos, com florestas mesófilas de Quercus cerris (Carpinion betuli e florestas de Castanea sativa de origem antrópica; relevos alto-colinares com florestas de Ostryacarpinifolia ou Quercus pubescens, às vezes interrompidas por pequenas clareiras de pastagem, de origem secundária, de Brachypodium rupestre; leitos fluviais com florestas meso-higrófilas de Salixalba ou Alnus glutinosa; cimos e vertentes com pastagens de origem secundária de

  14. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

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    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  15. population in Slovakia

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    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  16. Inventorization of some ayurvedic plants and their ethnomedicinal use in Kakrajhore forest area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajit; Shaw, Rupa; Bala, Sanjay; Mazumdar, Asis

    2017-02-02

    & Young shoots (24%), Leaves (18%), Fruits (13%), and Seeds (10%). The most frequent happening ailments are asthma and bronchitis, constipation and dyspepsia, diarrhea, dysentery, ulcer, rheumatism, arthritis, fistula and piles troubles. Most of the Plants (88%) had more than a single therapeutic use. The most important plant species on the basis of use value were Smilex ovalifolia, Emblica officinalis, Curculigo orchioides, Croton roxburghii, Asparagus racemosus, Ziziphus nummularia, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Cisssus adnata, Buettneria herbacea, Litsea glutinosa, Vernonia anthelmintica and Chlorophytum borivilianum. There was a strong agreement among the informants related to the usage of the plants (ICF 0.65-0.93). As per the standard literature in Ayurveda, maximum numbers of documented species (33) are found to be used for 'digestive system disorder' which is analogous to ethnomedicinal use (30), followed by 'skin related problem' i.e. 13 and 20 respectively. Results show that people living around Kakrajhore forest area hold valuable knowledge of the uses of plant resources and some of the ayurvedic plants represent an important component in local livelihood. Though the Kakrajhore Forest area is rich in medicinal plant resources but the species are susceptible to be endangered by intense exploitation by human communities. More in-depth investigations are required for plants with high UV values on their possible phytochemical and pharmacological activity. Apart from this, sustainable management approach and proper conservation strategy for the area is recommended by involvement of local communities and forest department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, ppost-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998

  18. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake [Dept. of Forest Soi ls, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Hyvoenen, Riitta [Dept. of Eco logy, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m{sup 2}. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m{sup 2}), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m{sup 2}), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m{sup 2}). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr). At the

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

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    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  20. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    .) influenced by flash flood events were sampled using an increment borer. For each tree sampled, additional information were recorded including the geographical position (GPS measure), the geomorphological situation based on a detailed geomorphological map, the social position within neighbouring trees, a description of the external disturbances and information on tree diameter, tree height and the position of the cores extracted. 265 cores were collected. In the laboratory, the 265 samples were analyzed using the standard methods: surface preparation, counting of tree rings as well as measuring of ring widths using a digital LINTAB positioning table and TSAP 4.6 software. Increment curves of the disturbed trees were then crossdated with a reference chronology in order to correct faulty tree-ring series derived from disturbed samples and to determine initiation of abrupt growth suppression or release. The age of the trees in this field site is between 50 and 100 years old. In the field most of the trees were tilted (93 %) and showed exposed roots (64 %). In the laboratory, growth suppressions were detected in 165 samples. Based on the number of trees showing disturbances, the intensity of the disturbance and the spatial distribution of the trees in the field, seven well represented events were dated for the last 50 years: 2005, 2000, 1996, 1976, 1973, 1966 and 1963. The second field site was a reach of 2 km length along the Arenal River, where the stream is channelized. Here stumps from previously felled trees could be analyzed directly in the field. 100 Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Fraxinus angustifolia (Vahl.) cross sections were investigated in order to date internal wounds. Different carpenter tools, sanding paper and magnifying glasses were used to count tree rings and to date the wounds in the field. In addition to the dating in the field, 22 cross sections were sampled and analyzed in the laboratory using the standard methods. The age of the trees ranges between 30

  1. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake; Hyvoenen, Riitta

    2007-04-01

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m 2 respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m 2 . There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m 2 ), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m 2 ), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m 2 ). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m 2 /yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m 2 /yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m 2 /yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m 2 /yr). At the Forsmark sites, the N return in

  2. بررسی صفات کیفی و تحلیل عملکرد گل همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L. طی دوره رشد این گیاه در شرایط تنش خشکی

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مهدی ابراهیمی

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available مقدمه علیرغم اینکه مطالعات زیادی در زمینه تاثیرات تنش های محیطی بر رشد و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی انجام شده است، اما اطلاعات بسیار کمی در ارتباط با پاسخ گیاهان دارویی به این تنش ها وجود دارد (Amiri Deh Ahmadi et al., 2014. در حالیکه تنش خشکی ممکن است رشد برخی از گیاهان دارویی از جمله گل راعی (Hypericum brasiliense (Nacif de Abreu and Mazzafera, 2005 و چتر گندمی (Bupleurum chinense (Zhu et al., 2009 را کاهش دهد، اما نتایج بسیاری از مطالعات نشان میدهد که خشکی میزان متابولیت های ثانویه در بسیاری از گونه های گیاهی از جمله رهمانیا (Rehmannia glutinosa (Chung et al., 2006 را افزایش میدهد. هر چند گزارشات متناقضی نیز در این زمینه وجود دارد که از آن جمله میتوان به کاهش معنی دار تمامی پارامترهای رشدی و روغن های فرار در نعناء (Mentha piperita L. اشاره کرد (Khorasaninejad et al., 2011. لذا با توجه به اهمیت همیشه بهار بعنوان یک گیاه دارویی مهم در برخی صنایع از جمله داروسازی (Bousselsela et al., 2012، اثرات تنش خشکی بر عملکرد گل و برخی صفات مرتبط با کیفیت گل در دو نوع همیشه بهار در این مطالعه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. مواد و روش ها اثر تنش خشکی بر کیفیت و کمیت گل همیشه بهار با استفاده از طرح اسپلیت پلات در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند و در سال 1394 مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. ت