WorldWideScience

Sample records for cuo reaction products

  1. Dependence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on tritium recovery for tritium safety operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Cui, E-mail: cdxohc10000@163.com [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Uemura, Yuki; Yuyama, Kenta; Fujita, Hiroe; Sakurada, Shodai; Azuma, Keisuke [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Taguchi, Akira; Hara, Masanori; Hatano, Yuji [University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 939-8555 (Japan); Chikada, Takumi; Oya, Yasuhisa [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Influence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on the tritium recovery was evaluated. • Reaction rate constant of tritium with CuO particle has been calculated by the combination of experimental results and a simulation code. • Dependence of reaction tubing length on tritium conversion ratio has been explored. - Abstract: Usage of CuO and water bubbler is one of the conventional and convenient methods for tritium recovery. In present work, influence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on the tritium recovery was evaluated. Reaction rate constant of tritium with CuO particle has been calculated by the combination of experimental results and a simulation code. Then, these results were applied for exploring the dependence of reaction tubing length on tritium conversion ratio. The results showed that the surface area of CuO has a great influence on the oxidation rate constant. The frequency factor of the reaction would be approximately doubled by reducing the CuO particle size from 1.0 mm to 0.2 mm. Cross section of reaction tubing mainly affected on the duration of tritium at the temperature below 600 K. Reaction tubing with length of 1 m at temperature of 600 K would be suitable for keeping the tritium conversion ratio above 99.9%. The length of reaction tubing can be reduced by using the smaller CuO particle or increasing the CuO temperature.

  2. Effect of calcinations temperature of CuO nanoparticle on the kinetics of decontamination and decontamination products of sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, T H; Singh, Beer; Srivastava, A K; Prasad, G K; Srivastava, A R; Ganesan, K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2011-09-15

    Present study investigates the potential of CuO nanoparticles calcined at different temperature for the decontamination of persistent chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 ± 2 °C). Nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method and characterized by using SEM, EDAX, XRD, and Raman Spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were tested as destructive adsorbents for the degradation of HD. Reactions were monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products characterized by GC-MS. It was observed that the rate of degradation of HD decreases with the increase in calcination temperature and there is a change in the percentage of product of HD degradation. GC-MS data indicated that the elimination product increases with increase in calcination temperature whereas the hydrolysis product decreases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Heterostructured SnO2-CuO Composite Hollow Microspheres as Efficient Cu-Based Catalysts for the Rochow Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezhi Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the design and synthesis of a series of heterostructured SnO2-CuO hollow microspherical catalysts (H-SnO2(x-CuO, x is the weight ratio of Sn/Cu for the Rochow reaction. The microspherical catalysts with nanosheets and nanoparticles as building blocks were prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method coupled with calcination. When tested for the Rochow reaction, the prepared H-SnO2(0.2-CuO composite exhibited higher dimethyldichlorosilane selectivity (88.2% and Si conversion (36.7% than the solid CuO, hollow CuO and other H-SnO2(x-CuO microspherical samples, because in the former there is a stronger synergistic interaction between CuO and SnO2.

  4. Structural analysis of CuO / CeO2-based catalytic materials intended for PROX reaction: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiva, L.S.; Simoes, A.N.; Bispo, A.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work relates the synthesis process of CuO/CeO 2 catalytic materials by a combustion reaction method as well as it introduces a structural analysis of the developed material, this structural analysis had as main focus to evaluate the influence of the doping substance (CuO) when being incorporated in the hostess matrix structure that is CeO 2 . The CuO/CeO catalytic materials developed in this work are destined to preferential oxidation of CO reaction (PROX). The developed materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and textural complete analysis by the BET method. According to the results, the CuO incorporation changed crystallinity of the structure of the catalytic materials. On the other hand, the morphologic and textural characteristics did not showed significant differences regarding the presence of the doping substance (CuO) in the structure of the developed materials. The porosity of the structures of the developed catalytic materials belongs to the type macroporous. (author)

  5. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  6. One-pot hydrothermal growth of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} on CuO microsphere as copper-based catalyst for Rochow reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Laishun, E-mail: lshunsh@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ji, Yongjun, E-mail: yjji@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhong, Ziyi [School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Su, Fabing, E-mail: fbsu@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ce–CuO composites were prepared via a one-pot and template-free hydrothermal method. • Ce–CuO consisted of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} particles dispersed on porous CuO microspheres. • CuO microspheres were formed by self-assembly of nanorods. • Ce–CuO exhibited superior catalytic activity for dimethyldichlorosilane synthesis. - Abstract: In this work, we prepared a novel structure comprising of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} deposited on CuO microspheres (Ce–CuO) for Rochow reaction. The synthesis was carried out via a facile one-pot hydrothermal reaction without using any template, in which, the basic copper carbonate microspheres were first formed via self-assembly of basic copper carbonate nanorods, followed with deposition of cerium hydroxide. After calcination, they were transformed into Ce–CuO but still maintained the hierarchical structure, and meanwhile, mesoporous structure was formed (for simplicity, we will only state them as metal oxide in the following context). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. When used as a Cu-based catalyst, Ce–CuO exhibited superior catalytic property to the single CuO, CeO{sub 2} and their physically mixture in the Rochow reaction with dimethyldichlorosilane (M2) selectivity increased from ca. 65 to 83.7%. The higher M2 selectivity of Ce–CuO is mainly due to its larger surface area and the synergistic effect between CuO and CeO{sub 2}. This work demonstrates that catalytic performance of the Cu-based can be improved by adding Ce rare-earth element and by carefully controlling their structures.

  7. Theoretical study of stability and reaction mechanism of CuO supported on ZrO{sub 2} during chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minjun; Liu, Jing, E-mail: liujing27@mail.hust.edu.cn; Shen, Fenghua; Cheng, Hao; Dai, Jinxin; Long, Yan

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The stability and reaction mechanism of CuO supported on ZrO{sub 2} were studied by DFT. • ZrO{sub 2} provides a high resistance to CuO sintering. • ZrO{sub 2} promotes the activity of CuO for CO oxidation in fuel reactor. • The energy barriers are low enough for CuO/ZrO{sub 2} oxidation reaction in air reactor. - Abstract: The addition of inert support is important for the Cu-based oxygen carrier used in chemical looping combustion (CLC). The effects of the ZrO{sub 2} support on the stability and reactivity of Cu-based oxygen carrier were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). First, the sintering inhibition mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} that support active CuO was investigated. The optimized Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4}/ZrO{sub 2} structure showed a strong interaction occurred between the Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4} cluster and ZrO{sub 2}(1 0 1) surface. The interaction prevented the migration and agglomeration of CuO. Next, the adsorption of CO on Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4}/ZrO{sub 2} and the mechanism of the CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO were studied. CO mainly chemisorbed on the Cu site and ZrO{sub 2} acted as an electron donor in the adsorption system. The energy barrier of CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO (0.79 eV) was much lower than that of the pure CuO cluster (1.44 eV), indicating that ZrO{sub 2} had a positive effect on CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO. After CO was oxidized in the fuel reactor, the CuO was reduced into Cu. The adsorption of O{sub 2} on Cu{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and the most likely pathway of Cu{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2} were investigated. The adsorption of O{sub 2} was found a strong chemisorption behavior. The energy barriers were low enough for the Cu-based oxygen carrier oxidation reaction.

  8. In Situ Imaging the Oxygen Reduction Reactions of Solid State Na-O2 Batteries with CuO Nanowires as the Air Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiunan; Yang, Tingting; Du, Congcong; Tang, Yongfu; Sun, Yong; Jia, Peng; Chen, Jingzhao; Ye, Hongjun; Shen, Tongde; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Liqiang; Huang, Jianyu

    2018-05-14

    We report real time imaging of the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) in all solid state sodium oxygen batteries (SOBs) with CuO nanowires (NWs) as the air cathode in an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope under an oxygen environment. The ORR occurred in a distinct two-step reaction, namely, a first conversion reaction followed by a second multiple ORR. In the former, CuO was first converted to Cu 2 O and then to Cu; in the latter, NaO 2 formed first, followed by its disproportionation to Na 2 O 2 and O 2 . Concurrent with the two distinct electrochemical reactions, the CuO NWs experienced multiple consecutive large volume expansions. It is evident that the freshly formed ultrafine-grained Cu in the conversion reaction catalyzed the latter one-electron-transfer ORR, leading to the formation of NaO 2 . Remarkably, no carbonate formation was detected in the oxygen cathode after cycling due to the absence of carbon source in the whole battery setup. These results provide fundamental understanding into the oxygen chemistry in the carbonless air cathode in all solid state Na-O 2 batteries.

  9. Facile synthesis of Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion full batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Bojun [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Department of Applied Physics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065 (China); Qing, Chen; Wang, Hai; Sun, Daming; Wang, Bixiao [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Tang, Yiwen, E-mail: ywtang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2015-11-15

    CuO nanoarrays (CNAs) and Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays (FCNAs) were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Addition of Fe salt to the reaction mixture allowed the introduction of iron oxide onto the CNAs surface, which was characterized by XPS and HRTEM. Introducing Fe ion into reaction precursor significantly affected not only the morphologies of as-prepared products but also their electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion full battery. The FCNAs electrodes showed higher specific capacity and better capacity retention at different current densities than that of CNAs. - Highlights: • Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • Fe salt in reaction mixture leads to iron oxides forming on the surface of CuO. • Fe-incorporating improves the lithium ion battery performance of CuO anodes.

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of thermite reaction at Al and CuO nano-interfaces at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cui-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Zhang, Chao-Yang; Lu, Zhi-Peng

    2018-05-01

    The thermite reaction at Al/CuO nano-interfaces is investigated with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations in canonical ensemble at 500 K, 800 K, 1200 K and 1500 K, respectively. The reaction process and reaction products are analyzed in terms of chemical bonds, average charge, time constants and total potential energy. The activity of the reactants enhances with increasing temperature, which induces a faster thermite reaction. The alloy reaction obviously expands outward at Cu-rich interface of Al/CuO system, and the reaction between Al and O atoms obviously expands outward at O-rich interface as temperature increases. Different reaction products are found at the outermost layer of different interfaces in the Al/CuO system. In generally, the average charge of the outer layer aluminum atoms (i.e., Al1, Al2, Al5 and Al6) increases with temperature. The potential energy of Al/CuO system decreases significantly, which indicates that drastic exothermic reaction occurs at the Al/CuO system. This research enhances fundamental understanding in temperature effect on the thermite reaction at atomic level, which can potentially open new possibilities for its industrial application.

  11. Effects of fungal degradation on the CuO oxidation products of lignin: A controlled laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Weliky, Karen; Devol, Allan H.

    1988-11-01

    Duplicate samples of birch wood were degraded for 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks by the white-rot fungus, Phlebia tremellosus, and for 12 weeks by 6 other white-rot and brown-rot fungi. P. tremellosus caused progressive weight losses and increased the H/C and O/C of the remnant wood by preferentially degrading the lignin component of the middle lamellae. This fungus increased the absolute (weight loss-corrected) yield of the vanillic acid CuO reaction product above its initial level and exponentially decreased the absolute yields of all other lignin-derived phenols. Total yields of syringyl phenols were decreased 1.5 times as fast as total vanillyl phenol yields. Within both phenol families, aldehyde precursors were degraded faster than precursors of the corresponding ketones, which were obtained in constant proportion to the total phenol yield. Although two other white-rot fungi caused similar lignin compositional trends, a fourth white-rot species, Coriolus versicolor, simultaneously eroded all cell wall components and did not concentrate polysaccharides in the remnant wood. Wood degraded by the three brown-rot fungi exhibited porous cell walls with greatly reduced integrity. The brown-rot fungi also preferentially attacked syringyl structural units, but degraded all phenol precursors at a much slower rate than the white-rotters and did not produce excess vanillic acid. Degradation by P. tremellosus linearly increased the vanillic acid/vanillin ratio, (Ad/Al)v, of the remnant birch wood throughout the 12 week degradation study and exponentially decreased the absolute yields of total vanillyl phenols, total syringyl phenols and the syringyl/vanillyl phenol ratio, S/V. At the highest (Ad/Al)v of 0.50 (12 week samples), total yields of syringyl and vanillyl phenols were decreased by 65% and 80%, respectively, with a resulting reduction of 40% in the original S/V. Many of the diagenetically related compositional trends that have been previously reported for lignins in natural

  12. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus, E-mail: yakaltun@erzincan.edu.tr

    2015-11-02

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m{sub e}{sup ⁎}/m{sub o}) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  13. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaltun, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m_e"⁎/m_o) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε_o, ε_∞) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  14. Reaction product imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic property of CuO and Ag/CuO nanoparticles for the epoxidation of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashanizadegan, Maryam; Erfaninia, Nasrin [Alzahra University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    CuO nanorodes, CuO nanoplates and Ag/CuO nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of polyethylene glycol by depositional in alkaline environment. Oxide nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FT-IR). CuO and Ag/CuO nanoparticles show high catalytic activity for the selective epoxidation of styrene to styrene oxide by TBHP. Under the optimized reaction condition, the oxidation of styrene catalyzed by CuO nanorods gave 100% conversion with 60 and 35% styrene oxide and benzaldehyde, respectively. Ag/CuO gave 99% conversion and styrene oxide (71%) and benzaldehyde (12%) being the major product.

  16. CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 doped biomass ash as silica source for glass production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srisittipokakun

    Full Text Available In this research, glass productions from rice husk ash (RHA and the effect of BaO, CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 on physical and optical properties were investigated. All properties were compared with glass made from SiO2 using same preparations. The results show that a higher density and refractive index of BaO, CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 doped in RHA glasses were obtained, compared with SiO2 glasses. The optical spectra show no significant difference between both glasses. The color of CuO glasses show blue from the absorption band near 800 nm (2B1g → 2B2g due to Cu2+ ion in octahedral coordination with a strong tetragonal distortion. The color of MnO2 glasses shows brown from broad band absorption at around 500 nm. This absorption band is assigned to a single allowed 5Eg → 5T2g transition which arises from the Mn3+ ions (3d4 configuration in octahedral symmetry. The yellow color derives from F2O3 glass due to the homogeneous distribution of Fe3+ (460 nm and Fe2+ (1050 nm ions in the glass matrices. Glass production from RHA is possible and is a new option for recycling waste from biomass power plant systems and air pollution reduction. Keywords: Rice husk ash, Glass, Optical, Physical

  17. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu 2 O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu + species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  18. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Düzenli, Derya [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Mineral Analysis and Technology, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Onal, Isik, E-mail: ional@metu.edu.tr [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu{sub 2}O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu{sup +} species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  19. Synthesis of a new compound - Sr2CuO2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, D.V.; Khardanov, A.L.; Antipov, E.V.; Kovba, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    A new compound of Sr 2 CuO 2 CO 3 composition, being an intermediate product of solid phase synthesis in air in SrCo 3 -CuO system at T 2 CuO 2 CO 3 have low resistance at room temperature and semiconductor type conductivity

  20. Facile Large-scale synthesis of stable CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, P.; Abdollahi-Nejand, B.; Eskandari, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a novel approach in synthesizing the CuO nanoparticles was introduced. A sequential corrosion and detaching was proposed in the growth and dispersion of CuO nanoparticles in the optimum pH value of eight. The produced CuO nanoparticles showed six nm (±2 nm) in diameter and spherical feather with a high crystallinity and uniformity in size. In this method, a large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles (120 grams in an experimental batch) from Cu micro-particles was achieved which may met the market criteria for large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles.

  1. Reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide thick films and alumina substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Ilushechkin, A.; Yamashita, T.; Bhargava, A.; Barry, J.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The structure and composition of reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide (BSCCO) thick films and alumina substrates have been characterized using a combination of electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sr and Ca are found to be the most reactive cations with alumina. Sr 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 is formed between the alumina substrates and BSCCO thick films prepared from paste with composition close to Bi-2212 (and Bi-2212+10 wt.% Ag). For paste with composition close to Bi(Pb)-2223 +20 wt.% Ag, a new phase with f.c.c. structure, lattice parameter about a=24.5 A and approximate composition Al 3 Sr 2 CaBi 2 CuO x has been identified in the interface region. Understanding and control of these reactions is essential for growth of high quality BSCCO thick films on alumina. (orig.)

  2. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-11-01

    This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu2O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu2O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu+ species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  3. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  4. η production in proton-nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassing, W.; Batko, G.; Vetter, T.; Wolf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of η-mesons in proton-nucleus reactions is analysed with respect to primary nucleon-nucleon (NN→NN η ) and secondary pion-nucleon (πN→ηN) production processes on the basis of Hartree-Fock groundstate momentum distributions and free on-shell production processes. The folding model adopted compares well for meson production with more involved simulations based on VUU transport equations. Similar to K + production in proton-nucleus reactions the η-mesons are primarily produced by the πN→ηN channel. However, η-mesons are absorbed in nuclei via excitation of the N * (1535) resonance which leads to strong distortions of the primordial spectra. On the other hand, the experimental mass dependence of the differential cross sections might yield information about the in-medium properties of this resonance. (orig.)

  5. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    product molecules, which result in the excellent sensitivity and selectivity of sandwich-structured CuO for glucose under non-enzymatic milieu.In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore

  6. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  7. CuO reduction induced formation of CuO/Cu2O hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Yin, Qiyue; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Reduction of CuO nanowires results in the formation of a unique hierarchical hybrid nanostructure, in which the parent oxide phase (CuO) works as the skeleton while the lower oxide (Cu2O) resulting from the reduction reaction forms as partially embedded nanoparticles that decorate the skeleton of the parent oxide. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of the reduction process of CuO nanowires, we demonstrate that the formation of such a hierarchical hybrid oxide structure is induced by topotactic nucleation and growth of Cu2O islands on the parent CuO nanowires.

  8. Fusion reaction product diagnostics in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    A diagnostic method was developed to look for the charged fusion products from the D(D,p)T-reactions in the divertor tokamak ASDEX. With a semi-conductor detector it was possible to evaluate the ion temperature in thermal plasmas from the proton energy spectra as well as from the triton spectra. In lower-hybrid wave heated plasmas non-thermal (fast) ions were observed. These ions create fusion products with a characteristically different energy spectrum. (orig.)

  9. Reactions of uranium hexafluoride photolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, John L.; Laguna, Glenn; Greiner, N. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper confirms that the ultraviolet photolysis reactions of UF6 in the B band spectral region is simple bond cleavage to UF5 and F. The photolysis products may either recombine to UF6 or the UF5 may dimerize, and ultimately polymerize, to solid UF5 particles. We use four methods to set an upper limit for the rate constant for recombination of krUF6 and UF5 after laser photolysis of the UF6 gas sample.

  10. Toxicity and transfer of CuO Nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Dai, Yanhui; Xu, Lina

    2018-02-01

    CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are widely used in commercial applications. With increasing CuO ENPs production, CuO ENPs are likely to present in the environment and cause a potential threaten to ecosystem. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana (Bay-0) was chosen to take the toxic experiment after exposed to CuO ENPs (0, 20, and 50 mg/L) and Cu2+ (0.15 mg/L). And the copper content of shoots at 50 mg/L CuO ENPs was about 20 times of control, indicating that CuO ENPs could be absorbed into Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and transfered from root to shoot in a certain way.

  11. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanostructures on copper substrate as selective solar absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick Kumar, S.; Murugesan, S.; Suresh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Selective solar absorber coatings of copper oxide (CuO) on copper substrates are prepared by room temperature oxidation of copper at different alkaline conditions. The surface morphology and structural analyses of the CuO coatings are carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD and Raman studies indicated the single phase nature and high crystallinity of the prepared CuO nanostructures. Different CuO nanostructures, viz., nanoneedles, nanofibers and nanoparticles are formed at different alkaline conditions. The influence of reaction time on morphology of the CuO nanostructures is also studied. The thermal emittance values of these nanostructured CuO samples are found to be in the range of 6–7% and their solar absorptances are ranged between 84 and 90%. The observed high solar selectivity values (>12.7) suggest that these coatings can be used as selective absorbers in solar thermal gadgets. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CuO thin films on Cu substrate have been prepared by a facile method. • Morphology of the CuO nanostructures varies with reaction pH. • The thin films show high absorptance in the visible region and low thermal emittance. • Multiple absorption in the porous structure leads to high solar absorptance. • Nanostructures posses solar selectivity values >12

  12. Structural analysis of CuO / CeO{sub 2}-based catalytic materials intended for PROX reaction: Part I; Analise estrutural de materiais cataliticos a base de CuO/CeO{sub 2} destinados a reacao de PROX: parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiva, L.S.; Simoes, A.N.; Bispo, A.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L., E-mail: lsoutoneiva@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Aademica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This work relates the synthesis process of CuO/CeO{sub 2} catalytic materials by a combustion reaction method as well as it introduces a structural analysis of the developed material, this structural analysis had as main focus to evaluate the influence of the doping substance (CuO) when being incorporated in the hostess matrix structure that is CeO{sub 2}. The CuO/CeO catalytic materials developed in this work are destined to preferential oxidation of CO reaction (PROX). The developed materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and textural complete analysis by the BET method. According to the results, the CuO incorporation changed crystallinity of the structure of the catalytic materials. On the other hand, the morphologic and textural characteristics did not showed significant differences regarding the presence of the doping substance (CuO) in the structure of the developed materials. The porosity of the structures of the developed catalytic materials belongs to the type macroporous. (author)

  13. CO gas sensing of CuO nanostructures, synthesized by an assisted solvothermal wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Oroojpour, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    CuO nanostructures with different morphologies and sizes were grown in a controlled manner using a simple low-temperature hydrothermal technique. By controlling the pH of reaction mixture, spherical nanoparticles and cloudlike CuO structures were synthesized at 100-150 o C with excellent efficiency. These CuO nanostructures have been tested for CO gas monitoring by depositing them as thick films on an interdigitated alumina substrate and evaluated the surface resistance of the deposited layer as a function of operating temperature and CO concentrations. The gas sensitivity tests have demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures, especially cloudlike morphology, exhibit high sensitivity to CO proving their applicability in gas sensors. The role of the nanostructure on the sensing properties of CuO is also discussed.

  14. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirataki, K; Wada, H

    1978-11-18

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system.

  15. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirataki, Koji; Wada, Hozumi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Plant Mediated Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles: Comparison of Toxicity of Engineered and Plant Mediated CuO Nanoparticles towards Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Plant-mediated CuO nanoparticles were found to be oval shaped and well dispersed in suspension. XPS confirmed the elemental composition of P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles as comprised purely of copper and oxygen. DLS measurements and ion release profile showed that P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles were more stable than the engineered CuO NPs. Copper oxide nanoparticles are used in many applications; therefore, their potential toxicity cannot be ignored. A comparative study was performed to investigate the bio-toxic impacts of plant-synthesized and engineered CuO nanoparticles on water flea Daphnia. Experiments were conducted to investigate the 48-h acute toxicity of engineered CuO NPs and plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Lower EC50 value 0.102 ± 0.019 mg/L was observed for engineered CuO NPs, while 0.69 ± 0.226 mg/L was observed for plant-synthesized CuO NPs. Additionally, ion release from CuO nanoparticles and 48-h accumulation of these nano CuOs in daphnids were also calculated. Our findings thus suggest that the contribution of released ions from nanoparticles and particles/ions accumulation in Daphnia needs to be interpreted with care.

  17. CuO and Ag2O/CuO Catalyzed Oxidation of Aldehydes to the Corresponding Carboxylic Acids by Molecular Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Furfural was oxidized to furoic acid by molecular oxygen under catalysis by 150nm-sized Ag2O/CuO (92% or simply CuO (86.6%. When 30 nm-size catalyst was used,the main product was a furfural Diels-Alder adduct. Detailed reaction conditions andregeneration of catalysts were investigated. Under optimal conditions, a series of aromaticand aliphatic aldehydes were oxidized to the corresponding acids in good yields.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by adopting aqueous precipitation method using copper sulphate 5-hydrate as a precursor and NaOH as a stabilizing agent. This gives a large scale production of CuO-NPs which are utilized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye. The CuO ...

  19. The influence of fluorine on the structures and properties of Pr sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 sub - sub y (x = 0.0, 0.4, 1.0)

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Jin Ling; Tang Wei Hua; Rao Guang Hui; Liang Jing Kui; Jin Duo

    1997-01-01

    Introducing F into the lattices of the copper oxides Pr sub 2 CuO sub 4 , Pr sub 1 sub . sub 6 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 4 CuO sub 4 and PrSrCuO sub 4 sub - sub y is accomplished via a low-temperature fluorination reaction using CuF sub 2 as the fluorinating reagent. The oxyfluorides retain the structures of their precursors, but striking lattice expansions are observed. No trace of SrF sub 2 was detected in the fluorinated products. F doping was successfully used to induce superconductivity in the oxyfluoride PrSrCu(O, F) sub 4 sub - subdelta (T sub c = 15 K) with a reduced CuO sub 2 plane and in the presence of apical anions, but failed to optimize the carrier density and induce superconductivity in Pr sub 2 CuO sub 4 sub - sub x F sub x and Pr sub 1 sub . sub 6 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 4 CuO sub 4 sub - sub x F sub x. (author)

  20. Structure of fungal oxyluciferin, the product of the bioluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, K V; Osipova, Z M; Petushkov, V N; Rodionova, N S; Tsarkova, A S; Kotlobay, A A; Chepurnykh, T V; Gorokhovatsky, A Yu; Yampolsky, I V; Gitelson, J I

    2017-11-01

    The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was determined, the enzymatic bioluminescence reaction under substrate saturation conditions with discrete monitoring of formed products was conducted, and the structures of the end products of the reaction were established. On the basis of these studies, the scheme of oxyluciferin degradation to the end products was developed. The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was confirmed by counter synthesis.

  1. Multiparticle production in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelte, D.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture is concerned with the question how many particles and what kind of them are produced in heavy-ion collisions at energies about 10 MeV/n. We tend to assume that heavy-ion reactions at this energy are binary reactions. The experimental set consisting of two large ionization chambers serving to detection, in coincidence, the reaction fragments is described. With this set-up a number of reactions induced on 27 Al, 28 Si and 40 Ca by the 32 S beam of 135 and 190 MeV energy has been studied. Two-fragments inclusive and exclusive reactions were investigated. The assumption of a sequential statistical decay gives the best agreement with the data for all analyzed cases. (H.M.)

  2. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

  3. The Heck reaction in the production of fine chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Johannes G. de

    2001-01-01

    An overview is given of the use of the Heck reaction for the production of fine chemicals. Five commercial products have been identified that are produced on a scale in excess of 1 ton/year. The herbicide Prosulfuron™ is produced via a Matsuda reaction of 2-sulfonatobenzenediazonium on

  4. Zeolite Encapsulated Nanocrystalline CuO: A Redox Catalyst for the Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vijaikumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite encapsulated nanocrystalline CuO is synthesized and characterized by powder XRD and HRTEM analyses which clearly show that the particles are less than 15 nm and the nanoparticles are highly dispersed. This nano CuO encapsulated CuY zeolite is used as catalyst in the oxidation of aromatic secondary alcohols. CuY zeolite acts as an efficient support for nano CuO, by stabilizing it and preventing its aggregation. Plausible mechanisms for the formation of the various products are also given.

  5. Azide-Alkyne Huisgen [3+2] Cycloaddition Using CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoon Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NPs and their application to the [3+2] cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes are reviewed. With respect to the importance of click chemistry, CuO hollow NPs, CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black, water-soluble double-hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC nanoreactors and ZnO–CuO hybrid NPs were synthesized. Non-conventional energy sources such as microwaves and ultrasound were also applied to these click reactions, and good catalytic activity with high regioselectivity was observed. CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black can be recycled nine times without any loss of activity, and water-soluble DHBC nanoreactors have been developed for an environmentally friendly process.

  6. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which

  7. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  8. Photochemical reaction products in air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, E R; Darley, E F; Taylor, O C; Scott, W E

    1961-01-01

    Isolation and purification of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from artificial photochemical reaction of olefins and NO/sub x/ in air are analyzed. Olefin splits at the double bond, one end forming carbonyl compound and the other yielding PAN, among others. At concentrations below 1 ppM, PAN causes plant damage. At a concentration of about 1 ppM, PAN is a strong eye irritant.

  9. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W.; Young, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented

  10. Magnetic excitations in CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, M.; Reichardt, W.; Hennion, B.; Pepy, G.; Wanklyn, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic excitations of CuO both in the ordered and the paramagnetic phase. Their results demonstrate the dominance of the magnetic interaction along the 10-1 Cu-O zigzag chains. In this direction the slope of the acoustic branch is 550 neV Angstrom

  11. Exclusive hadron production in two photon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, M.

    1986-02-01

    This paper summarises experimental results on exclusive hadron production in two photon collisions at electron positron storage rings and attempts some interpretation. Experimental know how is described and new suggestions are made for future analyses. New model calculations on resonance form factors and pair production amplitudes are presented. The two photon vertex is decomposed such that experiments can be parameterised with the minimal number of free parameters. Selection rules for off shell photon collisions are given in addition to Yang's theorems. (orig.)

  12. Reaction kinetics, reaction products and compressive strength of ternary activators activated slag designed by Taguchi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.; Yu, Q.L.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the reaction kinetics, the reaction products and the compressive strength of slag activated by ternary activators, namely waterglass, sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Nine mixtures are designed by the Taguchi method considering the factors of sodium carbonate content

  13. Facile dicyandiamide-mediated fabrication of well-defined CuO hollow microspheres and their catalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shengyang; Wang Caifeng; Chen Li; Chen Su

    2010-01-01

    Nearly monodisperse CuO hollow microspheres were successfully synthesized by a straightforward one-pot hydrothermal approach using dicyandiamide (DDA) as structure-guiding agent. The composition, structure and morphology of the products were investigated in detail, via a set of characterizations including X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results demonstrated that different copper sources and experimental procedures would significantly affect the shape or size of CuO products. A possible formation mechanism of CuO microspheres in this process was thoroughly discussed. Also, some other novel CuO microstructures were fabricated based on DDA-mediated synthetic route. DSC/TGA analysis revealed that as-prepared CuO microspheres can be explored as a promising additive to accelerate the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, a key oxidizer in composite solid propellants.

  14. Tritium production in neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasa, A.; Andreotti, E.; Hult, M.; Marissens, G.; Plompen, A.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of the present knowledge of (n,t) reaction excitation functions in the 14-21 MeV energy range for Cd, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Ru, Sn, Ti, Zr. Experimental data are compared with evaluated data libraries, cross-section systematics, and TALYS calculations. The new values for the "5"0Cr(n,t)"4"8V cross-section measured using γ-spectrometry at 15, 16, 17.3 MeV are presented. The trend of the results confirms that while early experimental data at 14.6 MeV are strongly overestimated, the calculations performed with the default version of TALYS strongly underestimate the excitation curve in the measured energy region

  15. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine

  16. Coherent π0 production in neutrino reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, D.; Sehgal, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    We have calculated the cross section and angular distribution of the neutral current process ν+K -> ν+K+π 0 involving the coherent interaction of a neutrino with a complex nucleus. A contrast is made to incoherent production ν+n -> ν+n+π 0 on a single nucleon. The results are compared with observations from some recent experiments. (orig.)

  17. EPR and NMR detection of transient radicals and reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic resonance methods in radiation chemistry are illustrated. The most recent developments in pulsed EPR and NMR studies in pulse radiolysis are outlined with emphasis on the study of transient radicals and their reaction products. 12 figures

  18. Room temperature synthesis of 2D CuO nanoleaves in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Li Yunling; Wang Zichen; Zhao Jingzhe; Ma Dechong; Hou Shengnan; Li Linzhi; Hao Xinli

    2011-01-01

    A simple room temperature method was reported for the synthesis of CuO nanocrystals in aqueous solution through the sequence of Cu 2+ → Cu(OA) 2 → Cu(OH) 2 → Cu(OH) 4 2- → CuO. Sodium oleate (SOA) was used as the surfactant and shape controller. The as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It can be seen that 1D Cu(OH) 2 nanowires were first obtained from Cu(OA) 2 and, at room temperature, converted into 2D CuO nanoleaves (CuO NLs) in a short time under a weakly basic environment. On prolonging the reaction time, the top part of these 2D nanoleaves branched and separated along the long axis to form 1D rod-like nano-CuO because of the assistance of SOA. A possible transformation mechanism of Cu(OH) 2 to CuO nanostructures at room temperature in aqueous solution is discussed. The transformation velocity can be controlled by changing the pH value of the system. The prepared CuO NLs were used to construct an enzyme-free glucose sensor. The detecting results showed that the designed sensor exhibited good amperometric responses towards glucose with good anti-interferent ability.

  19. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Formation of periodate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao; Salhi, Elisabeth; Croue, Jean-Philippe; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3 -) in the CuO-HOCl-I- system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L-1) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I-(-Br-) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3 - or CuO-HOBr-IO3 - system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  20. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Formation of periodate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2014-11-18

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3 -) in the CuO-HOCl-I- system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L-1) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I-(-Br-) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3 - or CuO-HOBr-IO3 - system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  1. Influence of irradiation on reaction products of nitrite in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirna, A.; Rau, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nitro alkanes and nitrolic acids are formed in foods by nitrosation reactions with nitrite. Among TEA-responsive compounds nitrolic acid behave to irradiation similar to N-nitrosamines. Some substances, extracted from spices, especially garlic, are also detectable by GC/TEA-chromatogramms of meat products and of reaction products from spices with nitrite show retention times not always clearly differentiated from those of NDMA, NDEA, NPIP and NPYR, respectively. Additional confirmation of such TEA positive compounds, therefore, is necessary. (orig.) [de

  2. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlations between reaction product yields as a tool for probing heavy-ion reaction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlikowicz, W.; Agnihotri, D. K.; Baldwin, S. A.; Schroeder, W. U.; Toke, J.; Charity, R. J.; Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.; Souza, R. T. de; Barczyk, T.; Grotowski, K.; Micek, S.; Planeta, R.; Sosin, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental multidimensional joint distributions of neutrons and charged reaction products were analyzed for 136 Xe + 209 Bi reactions at E/A=28, 40, and 62 MeV and were found to exhibit several different types of prominent correlation patterns. Some of these correlations have a simple explanation in terms of the system excitation energy and pose little challenge to most statistical decay theories. However, several other types of correlation patterns are difficult to reconcile with some, but not other, possible reaction scenarios. In this respect, correlations between the average atomic numbers of intermediate-mass fragments, on the one hand, and light particle multiplicities, on the other, are notable. This kind of multiparticle correlation provides a useful tool for probing reaction scenarios, which is different from the traditional approach of interpreting inclusive yields of individual reaction products.

  4. Enhanced reactive oxygen species overexpression by CuO nanoparticles in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mei-Lang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Tian-Huei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hsieh, Shuchen

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ~0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased γ-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity.Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively

  5. Nanostructured CuO thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis: a simple method for enhancing the electrochemical performance of CuO in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis; Martin, Francisco; Ramos-Barrado, Jose R.; Sanchez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by using a spray pyrolysis method, copper acetate as precursor and stainless steel as substrate. The textural and structural properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed thorough coating of the substrate and thickness of 450-1250 nm; the average particle size as determined from the AFM images ranged from 30 to 160 nm. The XRD patterns revealed the formation of CuO alone and the XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cu 2+ as the main oxidation state on the surface. The films were tested as electrodes in lithium cells and their electrochemical properties evaluated from galvanostatic and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPES) measurements. The discharge STEP curves exhibited various peaks consistent with the processes CuO Cu 2 O Cu and with decomposition of the electrolyte, a reversible process in the light of the AFM images. The best electrode exhibited capacity values of 625 Ah kg -1 over more than 100 cycles. This value, which involves a CuO Cu reversible global reaction, is ca. 50% higher than that reported for bulk CuO. The nanosize of the particles and the good adherence of the active material to the substrate are thought to be the key factors accounting for the enhanced electrochemical activity found

  6. Preparation of Uniform Hexapod Cu{sub 2}O and Hollow Hexapod CuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youngsik; Huh, Youngduk [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The filled hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors were also prepared under microwave irradiation for only 120 s using a commercial microwave oven. The optimal experimental conditions for the perfect and uniform hexapod-like Cu{sub 2}O precursors were examined. The control of the cooling rate by adding cold water was also examined for the elimination of further crystal growth at the end of the arm of the hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors due to the thermal diffusion in reaction medium. The uniform hollow structure and hexapod CuO products were also prepared from the direct thermal oxidation of the filled hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors. The morphology-dependent properties of inorganic materials, such as magnetic, photocatalytic, and antibacterial activities, is one of the most important experimental issues in inorganic technology. Many researchers have prepared uniform and specific shaped inorganic oxides to understand the morphology-dependent properties of inorganic oxides.

  7. Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres: Controlled synthesis for enhanced lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiangfeng; Li Liping; Li Guangshe; Fu Zhengwei; Zheng Jing; Yan Tingjiang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and these microspheres showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method. → The CuO hollow microspheres were assembled from radically oriented nanorods. → The growth mechanism was proposed to proceed via self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. → The microspheres showed good cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. → Hierarchical microstructures with hollow interiors promote electrochemical property. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were hydrothermally prepared without use of any surfactants or templates. By controlling the formation reaction conditions and monitoring the relevant reaction processes using time-dependent experiments, it is demonstrated that hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and that hierarchical spheres could be tuned to show different morphologies and microstructures. As a consequence, the formation mechanism was proposed to proceed via a combined process of self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. Further, these hollow microspheres were initiated as the anode material in lithium ion batteries, which showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity, most likely because of the synergetic effect of small diffusion lengths in building blocks of nanorods and proper void space that buffers the volume expansion. The strategy reported in this work is reproducible, which may help to significantly improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials via designing the hollow structures necessary for developing lithium ion batteries and the relevant

  8. Duff reaction on phenols: Characterization of non steam volatile products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Bhattacharya, J.

    New products having structures 1 and 2 have been characterized in the Duff reaction thymol arid carvacrol. These products have been identified as 2.6'-dithymylmethane 1 and 5.5' -dicarvacryl methane 2 respectively on the basis of spectral data...

  9. Mass formula dependence of calculated spallation reaction product distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Takahiko; Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1990-01-01

    A new version of the spallation reaction simulation code NUCLEUS was developed by incorporating Uno and Yamada's mass formula. This version was used to calculate the distribution of products from the spallation of uranium nuclei by high-energy protons. The dependence of the distributions on the mass formula was examined by comparing the results with those from the original version, which is based on Cameron's mass formula and the mass table compiled by Wapstra et al. As regards the fission component of spallation products, the new version reproduces the reaction product data obtained from thin foil experiments much better, especially on the neutron excess side. (orig.) [de

  10. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  11. Catalytic activation of molecular hydrogen in alkyne hydrogenation reactions by lanthanide metal vapor reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, W.J.; Bloom, I.; Engerer, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary metal vapor was used in the synthesis of Lu, Er, Nd, Sm, Yb, and La alkyne, diene, and phosphine complexes. A typical catalytic hydrogenation experiment is described. The lanthanide metal vapor product is dissolved in tetrahydrofuran or toluene and placed in a pressure reaction vessel 3-hexyne (or another substrate) is added, the chamber attached to a high vacuum line, cooled to -196 0 C, evacuated, warmed to ambient temperature and hydrogen is added. The solution is stirred magnetically while the pressure in monitored. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. Rates and products of various systems are listed. This preliminary survey indicates that catalytic reaction chemistry is available to these metals in a wide range of coordination environments. Attempts to characterize these compounds are hampered by their paramagnetic nature and their tendency to polymerize

  12. Outcome of temperature variation on sol-gel prepared CuO nanostructure properties (optical and dielectric)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibi, Maryam [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Javed, Qurat-ul-Ain, E-mail: quratulain@sns.nust.edu.pk [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Hussain [Institute of Avionics & Aeronautics (IAA), Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Baqi, Sabah [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-05-01

    The optical and dielectric properties of Copper Oxide (CuO) have made it a fascinating material to be used in solar energy harvesting, gas sensing, optoelectronics and catalytical applications. Focusing on the cost-effectiveness of Sol-gel method, it is employed for nanostructured CuO production. Effect of changing temperature is observed on the formation mechanism of CuO and its properties. The temperature range of 300 °C–500 °C was used in annealing of samples to produce defect free CuO nanomaterial. Prepared material was investigated using phase characterization (X-ray diffraction ‘XRD’) technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy and LCR meter. A structural change in prepared CuO was observed from cluster formation to Nano-fibrils by increase in annealing temperature. 11.99 nm–29.17 nm crystallites of CuO were attained by using Debye Scherer formula. A large band gap of 3.15 eV was achieved by increasing the annealing temperature upto 400 °C. For better solar energy harvest, wide band gapped CuO structures are proved to be functional and practical materials. The fabricated CuO nanostructures were found suitable to be used in devices for stabilizing circuit designs for sensitive appliances as well as micro electromechanical systems (mems). - Highlights: • CuO was synthesized by using sol gel method post growth annealing process. • XRD and SEM characterizations confirm the successful synthesis of CuO. • Change in morphology was observed with varying annealing temperature. • Improved optical and dielectric properties were observed.

  13. Effect of reaction products on cathodic reduction of iodic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtejnberg, G.V.; Urisson, N.A.; Revina, A.A.; Volod'ko, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of reaction products on kinetics of iodic acid reduction is investigated; reaction products are identified by the optical method. It is shown that although being similar from the qualitative viewpoint the effect on HIO 3 reduction of dissolved crystal and ''reduced'' iodine, certain quantitative differences take place, which are explained by the difference in their surface concentration. Explanation of certain sections of complex lgI, E-curve of HIO 3 reduction is given, in particular, advanced wave is related to the reduction from solution of unstable electroactive complex HIO 3 ) x (I 1 ) y or (HIO 3 ) x (I 2 ) y

  14. Synthesis of chrysalis-like CuO nanocrystals and their catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. JUN WANG a,b,. *, SHANSHAN HE ... analyzer at a heating rate of 10°C min. –1 from 35 to 500°C. ... ent reaction temperature, CuO nanocrystals were pre- pared to show different ...

  15. Stochastic aspects of multiparticle production in relativistic nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachung, M.

    1988-01-01

    Midrapidity multiparticle production process in ordinary hadron and heavy-ion induced reactions at sufficiently high incident energies are analyzed. It is shown that stochastic aspects of multiparticle production process in relativistic range plays a dominating role in understanding the observable phenomena. The basic idea and the main results of the multisource model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown. The concept of the NES (number of effective sources) scaling is discussed. 16 refs.; 7 figs

  16. The production of high energy neutrons by secondary reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieschmidt, E.B.; Roney, T.J.; Staples, D.R.; Harmon, J.F.; Burkhart, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of using binary reactions in targets containing Be is discussed. Data are presented from the use of Be and BeF 2 targets bombarded with 1.5, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 MeV protons. Neutron production is enhanced by the presence of the F by factors of ∼4

  17. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A deeper understanding of the situation is anticipated from a detailed experimental study of meson photoproduction from nuclei in exclusive reactions. In the energy regime above the (1232) resonance, the dominant double pion production channels are of particular interest. Double pion photoproduction from nuclei is ...

  18. BIG-10 fission product generation and reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Fission product generation rates for high quality fission foils and reaction rates of nonfission foils have been measured by gamma ray activation analyses. These foils were irradiated in the BIG-10 facility and the activities were measured by NaI counting techniques

  19. Reaction products of densified silica fume agglomerates in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Sahu, Sadananda; Thaulow, Niels

    2004-01-01

    Most silica fume currently used in concrete is in the dry densified form and consists of agglomerates of sizes between 10 μm and several millimeters. Many of these agglomerates may break down only partially in normal concrete mixing. Examination of various mature silica-fume-bearing concretes using backscatter mode scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis shows that such agglomerates have reacted in situ and given rise to recognizable types of reaction products filling the space within the original outline of the agglomerate. One type is 'quiescent', and usually shows no evidence of volume instability. EDX spectra indicate that the product formed within such grains is C-S-H of very low Ca/Si ratio, with modest alkali contents. Other silica fume agglomerates may undergo a distinct alkali-silica-type reaction (ASR), with the reaction product found within the original outline of the agglomerate having significantly less calcium and usually much higher alkali contents than the quiescent type. Such reacted agglomerates show evidence of local expansion, shrinkage cracking (on drying), and other features common to ASR. Both types may be found within the same concrete, sometimes in close proximity. It further appears that exposure to seawater may convert previously formed reaction products of silica fume agglomerates to magnesium silicate hydrates

  20. Fission-product SiC reaction in HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, F.

    1981-01-01

    The primary barrier to release of fission product from any of the fuel types into the primary circuit of the HTGR are the coatings on the fuel particles. Both pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings are very effective in retaining fission gases under normal operating conditions. One of the possible performance limitations which has been observed in irradiation tests of TRISO fuel is chemical interaction of the SiC layer with fission products. This reaction reduces the thickness of the SiC layer in TRISO particles and can lead to release of fission products from the particles if the SiC layer is completely penetrated. The experimental section of this report describes the results of work at General Atomic concerning the reaction of fission products with silicon carbide. The discussion section describes data obtained by various laboratories and includes (1) a description of the fission products which have been found to react with SiC; (2) a description of the kinetics of silicon carbide thinning caused by fission product reaction during out-of-pile thermal gradient heating and the application of these kinetics to in-pile irradiation; and (3) a comparison of silicon carbide thinning in LEU and HEU fuels

  1. Controlled synthesis of uniform ultrafine CuO nanowires as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Tao Weizhe; Zhao Mingshu; Xu Minwei; Yang Shengchun; Sun Zhanbo; Wang Liqun; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ultrafine CuO nanowires were controlled synthesized by a simple solution route. → CuO nanowires exhibit high capacity, superior cyclability and improved rate capability. → Voltage-capacity curves show larger extra reversible reactions at low potentials in CuO nanowires. → CV curves show lower over-potential in CuO nanowires. - Abstract: A simple solution route is used to synthesize ultrafine Cu(OH) 2 nanowires by restraining the morphology transformation of early formed 1D nanostructure. The obtained ultrafine nanowires can be well preserved at a low temperature structure transformation in solid state. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the ultrafine CuO nanowires exhibit high reversible capacity, superior cycling performance and improved rate capability. The improved electrochemical properties of CuO nanowires are ascribed to their ultrafine size which lead to the reduced over-potential, extra reversible reactions at low potentials and improved interface performance between the electrode and electrolyte.

  2. Stochastic thermodynamics and entropy production of chemical reaction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium stationary states of systems consisting of chemical reactions among molecules of several chemical species. To this end, we introduce and develop a stochastic formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reaction systems based on a master equation defined on the space of microscopic chemical states and on appropriate definitions of entropy and entropy production. The system is in contact with a heat reservoir and is placed out of equilibrium by the contact with particle reservoirs. In our approach, the fluxes of various types, such as the heat and particle fluxes, play a fundamental role in characterizing the nonequilibrium chemical state. We show that the rate of entropy production in the stationary nonequilibrium state is a bilinear form in the affinities and the fluxes of reaction, which are expressed in terms of rate constants and transition rates, respectively. We also show how the description in terms of microscopic states can be reduced to a description in terms of the numbers of particles of each species, from which follows the chemical master equation. As an example, we calculate the rate of entropy production of the first and second Schlögl reaction models.

  3. 1-4 Strangeness Production in Antiproton Induced Nuclear Reactions.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng; Zhaoqing[1

    2014-01-01

    More localized energy deposition is able to be produced in antiproton-nucleus collisions in comparison withheavy-ion collisions due to annihilation reactions. Searching for the cold quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with antiprotonbeamshas been considered as a hot topic both in experiments and in theretical calculations over the past severaldecades. Strangeness production and hypernucleus formation in antiproton-induced nuclear reactions are importancein exploring the hyperon (antihyperon)-nucleon (HN) potential and the antinucleon-nucleon interaction, whichhave been hot topics in the forthcoming experiments at PANDA in Germany.

  4. Studying reaction products in a lithium thionyl chloride cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'fkovich, Yu.M.; Sosenkin, V.E.; Nikol'skaya, N.F.; Blinov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Change in the mass, volume and chemical composition of reaction insoluble products (RIP) formed in the course of discharge of thionyl chloride lithium cells under different conditions has been studied by the methods of gravimetry, volumetry and element analysis. It has been ascertained that the measured volume and mass of RIP essentially (by a factor of 1.1-1.8) exceed the calculated values, proceeding from the reaction stoichiometry. Besides lithium chloride and sulfur during discharge additional RIP is formed as LiAlCl 4 · SOCl 2 solvate, its share increasing with temperature decrease, increase in current density and electrolyte concentration [ru

  5. Identification of reaction products from reactions of free chlorine with the lipid-regulator gemfibrozil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkošek, Wendy H; Koziar, Stephen A; White, Robert L; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    High global consumption rates have led to the occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater. The use of chlorine to disinfect wastewater prior to release into the environment may convert PhACs into uncharacterized chlorinated by-products. In this investigation, chlorination of a common pharmaceutical, the antihyperlipidemic agent gemfibrozil, was documented. Gemfibrozil (2,2-dimethyl-5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)pentanoic acid) was reacted with sodium hypochlorite and product formation was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The incorporation of one, two or three chlorine atoms into the aromatic region of gemfibrozil was demonstrated using negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Further analysis using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy identified the reaction products as 4'-ClGem (5-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid) 4',6'-diClGem (5-(4,6-dichloro-2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid), and 3',4',6'-triClGem (5-(3,4,6-trichloro-2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid), products consistent with electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. The rapid reaction of gemfibrozil with free chlorine at pH conditions relevant to water treatment indicates that a mixture of chlorinated gemfibrozils is likely to be found in wastewater disinfected with chlorine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maillard reaction products from chitosan-xylan ionic liquid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuqiong; Ling, Yunzhi; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Yang; Zeng, Xianjie; Sun, Runcang

    2013-10-15

    A facile method is reported to prepare Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from chitosan and xylan in co-solvent ionic liquid. UV absorbance and fluorescence changes were regarded as indicators of the occurrence of Maillard reaction. FT-IR, NMR, XRD and TG were used to investigate the structure of chitosan-xylan conjugate. The results revealed that when chitosan reacted with xylan in ionic liquid, the hydrogen bonds in chitosan were destroyed, the facts resulted in the formation of chitosan-xylan MRPs. Moreover, when the mass ratio of chitosan to xylan was 1:1, the Maillard reaction proceeded easily. In addition, relatively high antioxidant property was also noted for the chitosan-xylan conjugate with mass ratio 1:1. So the obtained chitosan-xylan MRP is a promising antioxidant agent for food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions]. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    In keeping with the statement of work, I have examined the fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions. In co-authorship with the UTR (University Technical Representative) Talmadge R. England ''Evaluation and Compilation of Fission Product Yields 1993,'' LA-UR-94-3106(ENDF-349) October, (1994) was published. This is an evaluated set of fission product Yields for use in calculation of decay heat curves with improved accuracy has been prepared. These evaluated yields are based on all known experimental data through 1992. Unmeasured fission product yields are calculated from charge distribution, pairing effects, and isomeric state models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The current evaluation has been distributed as the ENDF/B-VI fission product yield data set

  8. Electrochemical properties of CuO hollow nanopowders prepared from formless Cu–C composite via nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hwa [Daegu Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 80 Daehakro Bukgu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun Ju [Suncheon Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Suncheon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan, E-mail: yckang@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process that relied on nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion; these nanopowders have potential applications in lithium-ion batteries. Citric acid is used as both the carbon source material and chelating agent and plays a key role in the preparation of the hollow nanopowders. The formless Cu–C composite that formed as an intermediate product transforms into slightly aggregated CuO hollow nanopowders after post-treatment at 300 and 400 °C under an air atmosphere. The CuO hollow nanopowders exhibit higher initial discharge capacities and better cycling performances than those of the filled-structured CuO nanopowders, which are prepared at a post-treatment temperature of 500 °C under an air atmosphere. The discharge capacities of the CuO nanopowders post-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C for the 150{sup th} cycle at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} are 793, 632, and 464 mA h g{sup −1}, respectively, and their capacity retentions calculated from the maximum discharge capacities are 88, 80, and 73%, respectively. The CuO nanopowders with hollow structures exhibit better structural stability for repeated lithium insertion and desertion processes than those with filled structures. - Highlights: • Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process. • Cu–C composite transforms into CuO hollow nanopowders by Kirkendall diffusion. • Hollow CuO nanopowders show good electrochemical properties for lithium-ion storage.

  9. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristos Ioannou

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb and Myoglobin (Mb at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  10. Modifications of hemoglobin and myoglobin by Maillard reaction products (MRPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Aristos; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector was employed to isolate Maillard reaction products (MRPs) formed in model systems comprising of asparagine and monosaccharides in the 60-180°C range. The primary MRP which is detected at 60°C is important for Acrylamide content and color/aroma development in foods and also in the field of food biotechnology for controlling the extent of the Maillard reaction with temperature. The discrete fractions of the reaction products were reacted with Hemoglobin (Hb) and Myoglobin (Mb) at physiological conditions and the reaction adducts were monitored by UV-vis and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The UV-vis kinetic profiles revealed the formation of a Soret transition characteristic of a low-spin six-coordinated species and the ATR-FTIR spectrum of the Hb-MRP and Mb-MRP fractions showed modifications in the protein Amide I and II vibrations. The UV-vis and the FTIR spectra of the Hb-MRPs indicate that the six-coordinated species is a hemichrome in which the distal E7 Histidine is coordinated to the heme Fe and blocks irreversibly the ligand binding site. Although the Mb-MRPs complex is a six-coordinated species, the 1608 cm-1 FTIR band characteristic of a hemichrome was not observed.

  11. Products of the reaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigauri, R.D.; Arabuli, L.G.; Machaidze, Z.I.; Rusiya, M.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    Iodides of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium were synthesized with high yields as a result of interaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines. Exchange reactions of the iodides prepared with lead(II) nitrate in water-alcohol solutions gave rise to formation of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium nitrates. All the products prepared were characterized by data of elementary analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductometry and melting points measurements [ru

  12. Reactions of newly formed fission products in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    A dynamic gas-flow system was constructed which stopped fission products in the gas phase and rapidly separated (in less than 2 sec) volatile compounds from non-volatile ones. The filter assembly designed and used was shown to stop essentially all non-volatile fission products. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of tellurium fission-product isotopes reacted with several hydrocarbon gases to form volatile compounds, which passed through the filter. With carbon monoxide gas, volatile tellurium compound(s) (probably TeCO) were also formed with similar efficiencies. The upper limits for the yields of volatile compounds formed between CO and tin and antimony fission products were shown to be less than 0.3 percent, so tellurium nuclides, not their precursors, reacted with CO. It was found that CO reacted preferentially with independently produced tellurium atoms; the reaction efficiency of beta-produced atoms was only 27 +- 3 percent of that of the independently formed atoms. The selectivity, which was independent of the over-all reaction efficiency, was shown to be due to reaction of independently formed atoms in the gas phase. The gas phase reactions are believed to occur mainly at thermal energies because of the independence of the yield upon argon moderator mole-fraction (up to 80 percent). It was shown in some experiments that about one-half of the TeCO decomposed in passing through a filter and that an appreciable fraction (approximately 20 percent) of the tellurium atoms deposited on the filter reacted agin with CO. Other tellurium atoms on the filter surface (those formed by beta decay and those formed independently but not reacting in the gas phase) also reacted with CO, but probably somewhat less efficiently than atoms formed by TeCO decomposition. No evidence was found for formation of TeCO as a direct result of beta-decay

  13. Formation kinetics of gemfibrozil chlorination reaction products: analysis and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Wendy H; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-07-01

    Aqueous chlorination kinetics of the lipid regulator gemfibrozil and the formation of reaction products were investigated in deionized water over the pH range 3 to 9, and in two wastewater matrices. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil was found to be highly dependent on pH. No statistically significant degradation of gemfibrozil was observed at pH values greater than 7. Gemfibrozil oxidation between pH 4 and 7 was best represented by first order kinetics. At pH 3, formation of three reaction products was observed. 4'-C1Gem was the only reaction product formed from pH 4-7 and was modeled with zero order kinetics. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil in two wastewater matrices followed second order kinetics. 4'-C1Gem was only formed in wastewater with pH below 7. Deionized water rate kinetic models were applied to two wastewater effluents with gemfibrozil concentrations reported in literature in order to calculate potential mass loading rates of 4'C1Gem to the receiving water.

  14. Influence of transesterification reaction temperature on biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz; Park, Kil Jin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@agr.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian government policy has authorized the introduction of biodiesel into the national energy matrix, law no.11.097 of January 13th, 2005. It is necessary, like any new product, to invest in research which is able to cover its entire production chain (planting of oilseeds, vegetable oils extraction and chemical reactions), providing data and relevant information in order to optimize the process and solve critical issues. The objective of this work was to study the effects of temperature on crude sunflower transesterification reaction with ethanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels (25 deg, 32 deg, 47.5 deg, 64 deg and 70 deg C) was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the production suffered the influence of temperature (linear and quadratic effects) and reaction time (linear and quadratic). The generated models did not show significant regression. The model generated was not well suited to the experimental data and the value of the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}=0.52) was low. Consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. (author)

  15. Influence of CuO nanoparticle on palm oil based alkyd resin preparation and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruey Ong, Huei; Maksudur Rahman Khan, Md.; Ramli, Ridzuan; Shein Hong, Chi; Yunus, Rosli Mohd

    2018-03-01

    An alkyd resin has been synthesized from palm oil that reacted with glycerol and phthalic anhydride by alcoholysis-polyesterification process and co-catalyzed by CuO nanoparticle. The CuO nanoparticle was pre-prepared in the glycerol via sol gel method, which creates a new reaction condition for resin preparation. The resins were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where a new ester linkage bond (C-O-C) was noticed for resin sample. The antimicrobial activity and the curing behaviour of the resin were determined by Kirby-Bauer and differential scanning calorimeter technique. It was found that, the addition of CuO speeded up the reaction rate and played antimicrobial role. Moreover, it shortens the reaction time of alcoholysis and polyesterification process.

  16. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guanling; Hou, Wenhua; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Niu, Qiang; Ma, Rulin; Mu, Lati; Wang, Haixia

    2016-12-01

    Copper dioxide nanoparticles (NPs), which is a kind of important and widely used metal oxide NP, eventually reaches a water body through wastewater and urban runoff. Ecotoxicological studies of this kind of NPs effects on hydrophyte are very limited at present. Lemna minor was exposed to media with different concentrations of CuO NPs, bulk CuO, and two times concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media. The changes in plant growth, chlorophyll content, antioxidant defense enzyme activities [i.e., peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities], and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured in the present study. The particle size of CuO NPs and the zeta potential of CuO NPs and bulk CuO in the culture media were also analyzed to complementally evaluate their toxicity on duckweed. Results showed that CuO NPs inhibited the plant growth at lower concentration than bulk CuO. L. minor roots were easily broken in CuO NPs media under the experimental condition, and the inhibition occurred only partly because CuO NPs released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The POD, SOD, and CAT activities of L. minor increased when the plants were exposed to CuO NPs, bulk CuO NPs and two times the concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media, but the increase of these enzymes were the highest in CuO NPs media among the three kinds of materials. The MDA content was significantly increased compared with that of the control from 50 mg L -1 CuO NP concentration in culture media. CuO NPs has more toxicity on L. minor compared with that of bulk CuO, and the inhibition occurred only partly because released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The plant accumulated more reactive oxygen species in the CuO NP media than in the same concentration of bulk CuO. The plant cell encountered serious damage when the CuO NP concentration reached 50 mg L -1 in culture media. The toxicology of CuO NP on hydrophytes must be considered because that hydrophytes

  17. Green Synthesis and Characterizations of Flower Shaped CuO Nanoparticles for Biodiesel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintu Varghese

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are primary candidates to play a key role in energy future. In this work, plant-mediated green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles was studied. The CuO nanoparticles were used as the catalysts for the production of biodiesel from coconut oil. An aqueous extract of Centella Asiatica leaves was used as a bio-reducing agent for the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles. This biocatalyst was characterized by using different techniques (FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FESEM with EDX which were confirmed the formation of CuO nanoparticles. Further, the presences of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester groups at the produced biodiesel were confirmed using both the GC-MS and FTIR analysis. From this work, it has been concluded that the plant extract mediated synthesis of CuO nanoparticles is quite simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. The produced biodiesel from coconut oil is considered to be a potential source for alternative conventional fuel.

  18. Peroxymonosulfate activation and pollutants degradation over highly dispersed CuO in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Peng; Fang, Jia; Wang, Manye; Wu, Deming; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-11-01

    Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) supported CuO catalysts were synthesized, characterized and used in the removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution by an oxidation process involving peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that the CuO species were highly dispersed in OMS-2 with a high ratio of easily reduced surface oxygen species. The synergetic effect between CuO and OMS-2 significantly improved the dye degradation rate and catalytic stability, compared with CuO, OMS-2 and supported CuO on other materials. About 97% of the dye was removed within 15 min at neutral solution pH by using 0.2 g/L of CuO/OMS-2 and PMS. The effect of initial solution pH, PMS concentration, reaction temperature and CuO content in the composites on AO7 degradation was also investigated. Mechanism study indicated that SO4-rad radicals generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn and Cu species with different oxidation states, mainly accounted for the degradation.

  19. Production and decay of baryonic resonances in pion induced reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przygoda Witold

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pion induced reactions give unique opportunities for an unambiguous description of baryonic resonances and their coupling channels. A systematic energy scan and high precision data, in conjunction with a partial wave analysis, allow for the study of the excitation function of the various contributions. A review of available world data unravels strong need for modern facilities delivering measurements with a pion beam. Recently, HADES collaboration collected data in pion-induced reactions on light (12C and heavy (74W nuclei at a beam momentum of 1.7 GeV/c dedicated to strangeness production. It was followed by a systematic scan at four different pion beam momenta (0.656, 0.69, 0.748 and 0.8 GeV/c in π− − p reaction in order to tackle the role of N(1520 resonance in conjunction with the intermediate ρ production. First results on exclusive channels with one pion (π− p and two pions (nπ+π−, pπ−π0 in the final state are discussed.

  20. Plasma fluctuations and confinement of fusion reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Pegoraro, F.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between the fluctuations that can be excited in a magnetically confined plasma and the high-energy-particle population produced by fusion reactions is analyzed in view of its relevance to the process of thermonuclear ignition. The spectrum of the perturbations that, in the absence of fusion reaction products, would be described by the incompressible ideal magnetohydrodynamic approximation is studied considering finite value of the plasma pressure relative ot the magnetic pressure. The combined effects of the magnetic field curvature and shear are taken into account and the relevant spectrum is shown to consist of a continuous portion, that could be identified as a mixture of shear-Alfven and interchange oscillations, and a discrete unstable part corresponding to the so-called ballooning modes. The rate of diffusion of the fusion reaction products induced by oscillations in the continuous part of the spectrum, as estimated from the appropriate quasi-linear theory, is found to be significantly smaller than could be expected if normal modes (i.e., nonconvective solutions) were excited. However, a relatively wide intermediate region is identified where opalescent fluctuations, capable of achieving significant amplitudes and corresponding to a quasi-discrete spectrum, can be excited

  1. Safe-by-Design CuO Nanoparticles via Fe-Doping, Cu-O Bond Length Variation, and Biological Assessment in Cells and Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naatz, Hendrik; Lin, Sijie; Li, Ruibin; Jiang, Wen; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Köser, Jan; Thöming, Jorg; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E; Mädler, Lutz; Pokhrel, Suman

    2017-01-24

    The safe implementation of nanotechnology requires nanomaterial hazard assessment in accordance with the material physicochemical properties that trigger the injury response at the nano/bio interface. Since CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used industrially and their dissolution properties play a major role in hazard potential, we hypothesized that tighter bonding of Cu to Fe by particle doping could constitute a safer-by-design approach through decreased dissolution. Accordingly, we designed a combinatorial library in which CuO was doped with 1-10% Fe in a flame spray pyrolysis reactor. The morphology and structural properties were determined by XRD, BET, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM, EFTEM, and EELS, which demonstrated a significant reduction in the apical Cu-O bond length while simultaneously increasing the planar bond length (Jahn-Teller distortion). Hazard screening was performed in tissue culture cell lines and zebrafish embryos to discern the change in the hazardous effects of doped vs nondoped particles. This demonstrated that with increased levels of doping there was a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells, as well as an incremental decrease in the rate of hatching interference in zebrafish embryos. The dissolution profiles were determined and the surface reactions taking place in Holtfreter's solution were validated using cyclic voltammetry measurements to demonstrate that the Cu + /Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ redox species play a major role in the dissolution process of pure and Fe-doped CuO. Altogether, a safe-by-design strategy was implemented for the toxic CuO particles via Fe doping and has been demonstrated for their safe use in the environment.

  2. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ► Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ► Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ► CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ► CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m 2 g −1 with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg −1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  3. Chemical synthesis of flower-like hybrid Cu(OH)2/CuO electrode: Application of polyvinyl alcohol and triton X-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S K; Fulari, V J; Kim, D-Y; Maile, N C; Koli, R R; Dhaygude, H D; Ghodake, G S

    2017-08-01

    In this research article, we report hybrid nanomaterials of copper hydroxide/copper oxide (Cu(OH) 2 /CuO). A thin films were prepared by using a facile and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As-synthesized and hybrid Cu(OH) 2 /CuO with two different surfactants polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triton-X 100 (TRX-100) was prepared having distinct morphological, structural, and supercapacitor properties. The surface of the thin film samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A nanoflower-like morphology of the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures arranged vertically was evidenced on the stainless steel substrate. The surface was well covered by nanoflake-like morphology and formed a uniform Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures after treating with surfactants. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the hybrid phase of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO materials. The electrochemical properties of the pristine Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, PVA:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, TRX-100:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO films were observed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The electrochemical examination reveals that the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode has excellent specific capacitance, 292, 533, and 443Fg -1 with pristine, PVA, and TRX-100, respectively in 1M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte solution. The cyclic voltammograms (CV) of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode shows positive role of the PVA and TRX-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashnik Stepan G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Different reaction mechanisms contribute to the production of light fragments (LF from nuclear reactions. Available models cannot accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the emission of LF is important formany applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets, radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The cascade-exciton model (CEM and the Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM, as implemented in the CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators used in the Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6, describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to 4He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies. However, they do not predict high-energy tails for LF heavier than 4He. The standard versions of CEM and LAQGSM do not account for preequilibrium emission of LF larger than 4He. The aim of our work is to extend the preequilibrium model to include such processes. We do this by including the emission of fragments heavier than 4He at the preequilibrium stage, and using an improved version of the Fermi Break-up model, providing improved agreement with various experimental data.

  5. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE THE GELLED PRODUCT OF CANNIZZARO REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Fernández-Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR of proton 1H, carbon 13C and two dimensional spectrums, product of a green organic synthesis of redox on the Cannizzaro reaction. The product was reported as a tribochemical gel (heterogeneous mixture and confirmed by Infrared Spectroscopy IR, X-ray and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results in this paper confirm its structure through various techniques of NMR and evaluate the content of sodium benzoate and benzyl alcohol in the spectroscopy sample, examining the values of the integrals on 1H NMR signals. The result of analysis indicates that benzyl alcohol (dispersed phase is in 33.44% mol in comparison with sodium benzoate content (continuous phase. These results confirm that the gel structure over time loses the dispersed phase of the benzyl alcohol producing a xerogel.

  6. Studies of evaporation residue products from krypton and argon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasil, F.; Ferguson, R.L.; Britt, H.C.; Erkkila, B.H.; Blann, M.; Gutbrod, H.H.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1978-01-01

    Mass distributions of evaporation residue (ER) products from 86 Kr-bombardments of 70 Ge and 74 Ge have been obtained by a time-of-flight method at energies ranging from the interaction barrier to 706 MeV. ER excitation functions have also been obtained for a variety of target and projectile combinations. Results are compared with statistical model calculations and with results obtained from γ-measurements. It is deduced that at the lowest impact parameters, the reaction products belong to the ER group, in contrast with the angular momentum hypothesis of Lefort. Cross sections were found to be consistent with an angular momentum limit arising from the onset of fission. (orig.) [de

  7. Preparation of octahedral CuO micro/nanocrystals and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Hongbo; Li, Li; Chen, Yashun; Yang, Xianqin; Su, Changwei; Guo, Junming; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Octahedral cupric oxides with hollow structure were prepared. • No hard template was used in the preparation of hollow cupric oxides. • The cupric oxides show good reversible capacity. - Abstract: Herein we report that three octahedral CuO samples with hollow or solid structure are successfully prepared by firstly preparation of Cu 2 O products using a chemical reduction method, then by calcination in a muffle furnace at 300 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. The obtained CuO samples serve as a good model system for the study as anodes for lithium ion batteries. All the three CuO samples have high discharge specific capacity and good cycling stability from the 2nd cycling to the 50th cycling. Octahedral CuO hollow crystals with 400 nm in size have the highest reversible capacity and the smallest resistance. So their electrochemical performances are partly related to their morphologies. The results suggest that the as-prepared CuO samples, especially the 400 nm hollow octahedral CuO crystals could be a promising material for the anode of lithium-ion battery

  8. Flavin-catalyzed redox tailoring reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Robin

    2017-10-15

    Natural products are distinct and often highly complex organic molecules that constitute not only an important drug source, but have also pushed the field of organic chemistry by providing intricate targets for total synthesis. How the astonishing structural diversity of natural products is enzymatically generated in biosynthetic pathways remains a challenging research area, which requires detailed and sophisticated approaches to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Commonly, the diversification of precursor molecules into distinct natural products relies on the action of pathway-specific tailoring enzymes that catalyze, e.g., acylations, glycosylations, or redox reactions. This review highlights a selection of tailoring enzymes that employ riboflavin (vitamin B2)-derived cofactors (FAD and FMN) to facilitate unusual redox catalysis and steer the formation of complex natural product pharmacophores. Remarkably, several such recently reported flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes expand the classical paradigms of flavin biochemistry leading, e.g., to the discovery of the flavin-N5-oxide - a novel flavin redox state and oxygenating species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Density functional theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on CuO(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shujuan, E-mail: sunshujuan@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Chunyu [Science and Technology Innovation Center, Datang Technologies Industry Group Company Limited, Beijing (China); Zhang, Dongsheng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Yanji, E-mail: yjwang@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The dissociation mechanisms of O{sub 2} on the CuO(1 1 1) surface have been obtained. • The energy barriers and reaction energies are calculated. • The presence of oxygen vacancy can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces. The calculated results indicate that the bridge site of two Cu{sub sub} atoms is the most favorable site for O adsorption on the perfect CuO(1 1 1) surface. But on the oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surface, the O atom adsorbed on O{sub vacancy} site after optimization. On the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces, the O{sub 2} are all paralleling to the surface after optimization. Possible dissociation pathways of molecularly adsorbed O{sub 2} on the two surfaces are identified. The calculated results suggest that the presence of oxygen vacancy exhibits a strong chemical reactivity towards the dissociation of O{sub 2} and can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO.

  10. Evaluation of Neutron Induced Reactions for 32 Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Il

    2007-02-15

    Neutron cross sections for 32 fission products were evaluated in the neutron-incident energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV. The list of fission products consists of the priority materials for several applications, extended to cover complete isotopic chains for three elements. The full list includes 8 individual isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, and 24 isotopes in complete isotopic chains for Nd (8), Sm (9) and Dy (7). Our evaluation methodology covers both the low energy region and the fast neutron region.In the low energy region, our evaluations are based on the latest data published in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. This resource was used to infer both the thermal values and the resolved resonance parameters that were validated against the capture resonance integrals. In the unresolved resonance region we performed the additional evaluation by using the averages of the resolved resonances and adjusting them to the experimental data.In the fast neutron region our evaluations are based on the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE-2.19 validated against the experimental data. EMPIRE is the modular system of codes consisting of many nuclear reaction models, including the spherical and deformed Optical Model, Hauser-Feshbach theory with the width fluctuation correction and complete gamma-ray emission cascade, DWBA, Multi-step Direct and Multi-step Compound models, and several versions of the phenomenological preequilibrium models. The code is equipped with a power full GUI, allowing an easy access to support libraries such as RIPL and CSISRS, the graphical package, as well the utility codes for formatting and checking. In general, in our calculations we used the Reference Input Parameter Library, RIPL, for the initial set model parameters. These parameters were properly adjusted to reproduce the available experimental data taken from the CSISRS library. Our evaluations cover cross

  11. Evaluation of Neutron Induced Reactions for 32 Fission Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Il

    2007-02-01

    Neutron cross sections for 32 fission products were evaluated in the neutron-incident energy range from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. The list of fission products consists of the priority materials for several applications, extended to cover complete isotopic chains for three elements. The full list includes 8 individual isotopes, 95 Mo, 101 Ru, 103 Rh, 105 Pd, 109 Ag, 131 Xe, 133 Cs, 141 Pr, and 24 isotopes in complete isotopic chains for Nd (8), Sm (9) and Dy (7). Our evaluation methodology covers both the low energy region and the fast neutron region.In the low energy region, our evaluations are based on the latest data published in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. This resource was used to infer both the thermal values and the resolved resonance parameters that were validated against the capture resonance integrals. In the unresolved resonance region we performed the additional evaluation by using the averages of the resolved resonances and adjusting them to the experimental data.In the fast neutron region our evaluations are based on the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE-2.19 validated against the experimental data. EMPIRE is the modular system of codes consisting of many nuclear reaction models, including the spherical and deformed Optical Model, Hauser-Feshbach theory with the width fluctuation correction and complete gamma-ray emission cascade, DWBA, Multi-step Direct and Multi-step Compound models, and several versions of the phenomenological preequilibrium models. The code is equipped with a power full GUI, allowing an easy access to support libraries such as RIPL and CSISRS, the graphical package, as well the utility codes for formatting and checking. In general, in our calculations we used the Reference Input Parameter Library, RIPL, for the initial set model parameters. These parameters were properly adjusted to reproduce the available experimental data taken from the CSISRS library. Our evaluations cover cross sections for almost all reaction channels

  12. Flavor production in bar pp reactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Associated production processes have been known since the 1050's. The solution to the puzzle they presented was to introduce the 'strangeness' quantum number, along with the notion of its conservation in strong interactions. For example, the reaction π + n → K + Λ is described both as the t-channel exchange of a K 0 meson, ans as an s-channel process involving the annihilation of a d bar d quark pair and the subsequent production of an s bar s pair. This basic 'flavor-production' process and ones like it are the focus of widespread interest and the subject of this talk. The physics to be addressed is the nature of the quark annihilation and the creation process, which is expected to proceed according to the rules of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). According to these ideas, it will be dominated by perturbative QCD (essentially single-gluon exchange) at high momentum; at low momentum the process is expected to involve a very complicated multiple gluon exchange since it is in the nonperturbative regime

  13. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, S.K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe 3 O 4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe 3 O 4 -CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu 2+ ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe 3 O 4 . • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  14. CuO mesostructures as ammonia sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-04-01

    The emission threshold of NH3 in air is 1000 kg/yr which is now about 20 Tg/yr according to environmental protection agencies. Hence, there is a rapid increase in need of NH3 sensors to timely detect and control NH3 emissions. Metal oxide nanostructures such as CuO with special features are potential candidates for NH3 sensing. In the present study, morphology controlled 3-dimensional CuO mesostructures were synthesized by surfactant-free hydrothermal method. A modified approach using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (EG) was used as solvent to control the growth process. Hierarchical mesostructures namely, hollow-sphere-like and urchin-like feature with particle dimensions ranging from 0.3-1 µm were obtained by varying water/EG ratio. The room temperature ammonia sensing behavior of all samples was studied using an indigenous gas sensing set-up. It was found that hollow-sphere like CuO nanostructures showed a maximum response of 2 towards 300 ppm ammonia with a response and recovery time of 5 and 15 min. The hydrothermal synthesis strategy reported here has the advantage of producing shape controlled hierarchical materials are highly suitable for various technological applications.

  15. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production cross sections of proton-induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The production cross sections of residual radionuclides such as {sup 86,88,89g}Zr, {sup 86g,87m,87g,88}Y, {sup 83g,85g}Sr, and {sup 83,84g}Rb in the {sup 89}Y(p,x) reaction were measured using a stacked-foil activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric technique with proton energies of 57 MeV and 69 MeV at the 100 MeV proton linac in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), Gyeongju, Korea. The induced activities of the activated samples were measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the proton flux was determined using the {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62}Zn reaction. The measured data was compared with other experimental data and the data from the TENLD-2015 library based on the TALYS code. The present results are generally lower than those in literature, but are found to be in agreement with the shape of the excitation functions. The integral yields for the thick target using the measured cross sections are given.

  17. Magnetoelectric Coupling in CuO Nanoparticles for Spintronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr; Lotey, Gurmeet Singh

    2018-05-01

    Multiferroic copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles have been synthesized by colloidal synthesis method. The morphological, structural, magnetic, dielectric and magnetodielectric property has been investigated. The structural study reveals the monoclinic structure of CuO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images disclose that the size of the CuO nanoparticles is 18 nm and the synthesized nanoparticles are uniform in size and dispersion. Magnetic study tells the weak ferromagnetic character of CuO nanoparticles with coercivity and retentivity value 206 Oe and 0.060 emu/g respectively. Dielectric study confirms that the dielectric constant of CuO nanoparticles is around 1091 at low frequency. The magnetoelectric coupling in the synthesized CuO nanoparticles has been calculated by measuring magnetodielectric coupling coefficient.

  18. Near threshold two meson production in hardonic fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, R.

    1991-01-01

    An approved and funded exclusive COSY experiment is presented, which focuses on near threshold two meson production via the reactions p+d→ 3 He + π + π - and p+d→ 3 He+K + K-. It takes advantage of the high quality of the cooled external COSY beam and the existing spectrometer BIG KARL. The setup consists of a vertex wall and a scintillator cylinder and endcap covering a 4π solid angle. The large efficiency and high resolution of this detection method will yield precision data on the low energy (T 0 (975). Existing inclusive data as well as first results of a very recent 'semi-exclusive' experiment performed at SATURNE will be also be presented

  19. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Enzymatic treatment of triclosan in water by soybean and horseradish peroxidases. • pH, H_2O_2 concentration and enzyme dosage affected the removal efficiency of TCS. • The removal of TCS by SBP was more efficient than that of HRP. • K_C_A_T and K_C_A_T/K_M values for SBP toward TCS were much higher than those for HRP. • Polymers formed via radical coupling mechanism were nontoxic to the growth of alga. - Abstract: This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H_2O_2 concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H_2O_2 concentration, while the optimal pH and H_2O_2 concentration were 7.0 and 8 μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1 U mL"−"1 SBP in 30 min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3 U mL"−"1 was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (K_C_A_T) and catalytic efficiency (K_C_A_T/K_M) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via C−C and C−O coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water/wastewater treatment.

  20. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, Ya [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing 210042 (China); Ji, Yuefei [College of Resources and Environmental Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gao, Shixiang, E-mail: ecsxg@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Enzymatic treatment of triclosan in water by soybean and horseradish peroxidases. • pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and enzyme dosage affected the removal efficiency of TCS. • The removal of TCS by SBP was more efficient than that of HRP. • K{sub CAT} and K{sub CAT}/K{sub M} values for SBP toward TCS were much higher than those for HRP. • Polymers formed via radical coupling mechanism were nontoxic to the growth of alga. - Abstract: This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, while the optimal pH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration were 7.0 and 8 μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1 U mL{sup −1} SBP in 30 min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3 U mL{sup −1} was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (K{sub CAT}) and catalytic efficiency (K{sub CAT}/K{sub M}) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via C−C and C−O coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water

  1. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  2. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  4. Transfusion reactions in pediatric compared with adult patients: a look at rate, reaction type, and associated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Fredrick D; Woods, Marcella; Arnold, Shanna; Young, Pampee P

    2015-03-01

    The majority of reports on transfusion reactions address adult patients. Less is known about the types, incidence, and other clinical details of transfusion reactions in pediatric populations. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there have been no previous reports directly comparing these aspects between adults and pediatric patient populations to assess if there are differences. Between the period of January 1, 2011, and February 1, 2013, all reported adult and pediatric transfusion reactions at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) were evaluated by transfusion medicine clinical service. The information was subsequently shared with the hemovigilance database. Data provided to hemovigilance included age, sex, blood product associated with the reaction, severity of the reaction, and the type of transfusion reactions. These were collated with hospital and blood bank information system-acquired data on overall admission and product transfusion. A total of 133,671 transfusions were performed at VUMC during the study period including 20,179 platelet (PLT) transfusions, 31,605 plasma transfusions, 79,933 red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, and 2154 cryoprecipitate transfusions. Over the same period, 108 pediatric and 277 adult transfusion reactions were recorded. This corresponds to an incidence of 6.2 reactions per 1000 transfusions within the pediatric (age reactions per 1000 transfusions within the adult population. In both adult and pediatric populations, transfusion reactions were most commonly associated with PLT, followed by RBC, and then plasma transfusions. Within the pediatric population, subset analysis identified multiple differences when compared to the adult population, including an increased incidence of allergic transfusion reactions (2.7/1000 vs. 1.1/1000, p reactions (1.9/1000 vs. 0.47/1000, p reactions (0.29/1000 vs. 0.078/1000, p reaction incidence was the same between sexes in adults, in pediatric patients, reactions were more common in male

  5. Synthesis of Thermally Spherical CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittaya Tamaekong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a thermal method. The CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, respectively. The specific surface area (SSABET of CuO nanoparticles was determined by nitrogen adsorption. The SSABET was found to be 99.67 m2/g (dBET of 9.5 nm. The average diameter of the spherical CuO nanoparticles was approximately 6–9 nm.

  6. Calculations of long-lived isomer production in neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for the production of the long-lived isomers 93m Nb (1/2-, 16 yr), 121m Sn (11/2-, 55 yr), 166m Ho (7-, 1200 yr), 184m Re (8+, 165 d), 186m Re (8+, 2x10 5 yr), 178 Hf (16+, 31 yr), 179m Hf (25/2-, 25 d), and 192m Ir (9+, 241 yr), all of which pose potential radiation activation problems in nuclear fusion reactors if produced in 14-MeV neutron-induced reactions. We consider (n,2n), (n,n'), and (n,γ) production modes and compare our results both with experimental data (where available) and systematics. We also investigate the dependence of the isomeric cross section ratio on incident neutron energy for the isomers under consideration. The statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium code GNASH was used for the calculations. Where discrete state experimental information was lacking, rotational band members above the isomeric state, which can be justified theoretically but have not been experimentally resolved, were reconstructed. (author). 16 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production via Terbium Oxide Based Redox Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhosale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational thermodynamic modeling of the terbium oxide based two-step solar thermochemical water splitting (Tb-WS cycle is reported. The 1st step of the Tb-WS cycle involves thermal reduction of TbO2 into Tb and O2, whereas the 2nd step corresponds to the production of H2 through Tb oxidation by water splitting reaction. Equilibrium compositions associated with the thermal reduction and water splitting steps were determined via HSC simulations. Influence of oxygen partial pressure in the inert gas on thermal reduction of TbO2 and effect of water splitting temperature (TL on Gibbs free energy related to the H2 production step were examined in detail. The cycle (ηcycle and solar-to-fuel energy conversion (ηsolar-to-fuel efficiency of the Tb-WS cycle were determined by performing the second-law thermodynamic analysis. Results obtained indicate that ηcycle and ηsolar-to-fuel increase with the decrease in oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas and thermal reduction temperature (TH. It was also realized that the recuperation of the heat released by the water splitting reactor and quench unit further enhances the solar reactor efficiency. At TH=2280 K, by applying 60% heat recuperation, maximum ηcycle of 39.0% and ηsolar-to-fuel of 47.1% for the Tb-WS cycle can be attained.

  8. A Review of Microwave-Assisted Reactions for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Nomanbhay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research area as trends move to replace fossil fuels with renewable resources due to society’s increased concern towards sustainability. In this context, microwave processing has emerged as a tool in organic synthesis and plays an important role in developing a more sustainable world. Integration of processing methods with microwave irradiation has resulted in a great reduction in the time required for many processes, while the reaction efficiencies have been increased markedly. Microwave processing produces a higher yield with a cleaner profile in comparison to other methods. The microwave processing is reported to be a better heating method than the conventional methods due to its unique thermal and non-thermal effects. This paper provides an insight into the theoretical aspects of microwave irradiation practices and highlights the importance of microwave processing. The potential of the microwave technology to accomplish superior outcomes over the conventional methods in biodiesel production is presented. A green process for biodiesel production using a non-catalytic method is still new and very costly because of the supercritical condition requirement. Hence, non-catalytic biodiesel conversion under ambient pressure using microwave technology must be developed, as the energy utilization for microwave-based biodiesel synthesis is reported to be lower and cost-effective.

  9. Measurement of charmed particle production in hadronic reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the production cross-section for charmed particles in hadronic reactions, study their production mechanism, and search for excited charmed hadrons.\\\\ \\\\ Charmed Mesons and Baryons will be measured in $\\pi$ and $p$ interactions on Beryllium between 100 and 200 GeV/c. The trigger will be on an electron from the leptonic decay of one charmed particle by signals from the Cerenkov counter (Ce), the electron trigger calorimeter (eCal), scintillation counters, and proportional wire chambers. The accompanying charmed particle will be measured via its hadronic decay in a two-stage magnetic spectrometer with drift chambers (arms 2, 3a, 3b, 3c), two large-area multicell Cerenkov counters (C2, C3) and a large-area shower counter ($\\gamma$-CAL). The particles which can be measured and identified include $\\gamma, e, \\pi^{\\pm}, \\pi^{0}, K^{\\pm}, p, \\bar{p}$ so that a large number of hadronic decay modes of charmed particles can be studied. \\\\ \\\\ A silicon counter telescope with 5 $\\m...

  10. Enhanced catalytic activity without the use of an external light source using microwave-synthesized CuO nanopetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Lakhotiya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report enhanced catalytic activity of CuO nanopetals synthesized by microwave-assisted wet chemical synthesis. The catalytic reaction of CuO nanopetals and H2O2 was studied with the application of external light source and also under dark conditions for the degradation of the hazardous dye methylene blue. The CuO nanopetals showed significant catalytic activity for the fast degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B (RhB under dark conditions, without the application of an external light source. This increased catalytic activity was attributed to the co-operative role of H2O2 and the large specific surface area (≈40 m2·g−1 of the nanopetals. We propose a detail mechanism for this fast degradation. A separate study of the effect of different H2O2 concentrations for the degradation of methylene blue under dark conditions is also illustrated.

  11. Building energetic material from novel salix leaf-like CuO and nano-Al through electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yan Jun; Li, Xueming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an energetic material was prepared by depositing nano-Al on CuO arrays via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), which offers a feasible route for nano-Al integration. The morphology and structure of the CuO arrays and Al/CuO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The CuO arrays were homogenously salix leaf-like structure with a width of ⁓150 to 200 nm. The energy density of Al/CuO composites was approximate to 1454.5 J/g by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) plot and the combustion performance was recorded by a high-speed camera. Moreover, the combustion flames were violent and the whole reaction process only lasted 72.2 ms, indicating that the energy of the Al/CuO nanothermite can be released effectively.

  12. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  13. The effect of sintering time on synthesis of in situ submicron {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles by the exothermic reactions of CuO particles in molten pure Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikici, Burak, E-mail: burakdikici@yyu.edu.tr [Yuzuncu Yil University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 65080 Van (Turkey); Gavgali, Mehmet [Ataturk University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were prepared successfully by means of hot pressing method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering time of the Al-CuO system effect the reaction rate and formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in sintering time accelerates formation of submicron in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness of the sintered composite for 30 min at 1000 Degree-Sign C increased from 60 to 174 HV. - Abstract: In this study, in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reinforcing particles have been successfully synthesised in an Al-Cu matrix alloy by means of the conventional Hot Pressing (HP) method. The effect of sintering time on the forming of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C was investigated using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The sintered composites contained thermodynamically stable {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and {theta}-Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic phases, which were embedded in the Al-Cu matrix. The in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were generally spherical and their mean size was observed to be less than 0.5 {mu}m. The results showed that sintering time influences not only the reaction rate of copper and the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Also, an increase in the sintering time accelerates the formation of submicron in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and decreases the quantity of {theta}-Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic phase in the liquid aluminium. Additionally, sintering of composite for 30 min at 1000 Degree-Sign C increased the hardness from 60 to 174 HV.

  14. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubal, Deepak P., E-mail: deepak.dubal@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004 (M.S) (India); Holze, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.holze@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ► Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ► Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ► CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ► CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg{sup −1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  15. Analysis of reaction products formed in the gas phase reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with atmospheric oxidants: Reaction mechanisms and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenar, I.; Martin, P.; Cabañas, B.; Salgado, S.; Martinez, E.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of reaction products for the reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with chlorine atoms (Cl) and OH and NO3 radicals has been carried out at the first time with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the tropospheric reactivity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight detector (GC-TOFMS) were used to carry out the qualitative and/or quantitative analyses. Reaction products in gas and particulate phase were observed from the reactions of E,E-2,4- hexadienal with all oxidants. E/Z-Butenedial and maleic anhydride were the main products identified in gas phase. E-butenedial calculated molar yield ranging from 4 to 10%. A significant amount of multifunctional compounds (chloro and hydroxy carbonyls) was identified. These compounds could be formed in particulate phase explaining the ∼90% of unaccounted carbon in gas phase. The reaction with Cl atoms in the presence of NOx with a long reaction time gave Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an additional product, which is known for being an important specie in the generation of the photochemical smog. Nitrated compounds were the major organic products from the reaction with the NO3 radical. Based on the identified products, the reaction mechanisms have been proposed. In these mechanisms a double bond addition of the atmospheric oxidant at C4/C5 of E,E-2,4-hexadienal is the first step for tropospheric degradation.

  16. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC); Hullette, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC)

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  17. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, J.F. Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C.; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  18. Determination of 68Ga production parameters by different reactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    function of 68Zn(p, n)68Ga reaction was compared with the reported ... 2.1.1 Brief description of nuclear models applied for cross-section calculations ... tion of isotope impurities is not possible by chemical methods, so this reaction is.

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic analysis and electrochemical performance of modified β-nickel hydroxide electrode with CuO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shruthi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a modified β-nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH2 electrode material with CuO has been prepared using a co-precipitation method. The structure and property of the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR, Raman and thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA techniques. The results of the FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA indicate that the modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode materials contain intercalated water molecules and anions. A pasted–type electrode was prepared using nickel hydroxide powder as the main active material on a nickel sheet as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS studies were undertaken to assess the electrochemical behavior of pure β-Ni(OH2 and modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode with CuO in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. The addition of CuO into β-nickel hydroxide was found to enhance the reversibility of the electrode reaction and also increase the separation of the oxidation current peak of the active material from the oxygen evolution current. The modified nickel hydroxide with CuO was also found to exhibit a higher proton diffusion coefficient and a lower charge transfer resistance. These findings suggest that the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO possesses an enhanced electrochemical response and thus can be recognized as a promising candidate for battery electrode applications.

  20. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon–i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  1. A comparative investigation of SO2 oxidative transfer over CuO with a CeO2 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifeng; Shen, Benxian; Pi, Zhipeng; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Jigang

    2017-04-01

    To further improve the catalytic desulfurization function of the Mg-Al spinel sulfur transfer agent in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, the reaction paths of SO2 oxidation by O2 over the metal oxide surface of CuO (111) and CeO2 (111) were investigated. In reference to the fact that SO2 reacting with O2 over CuO was a Mars-van Krevelen cycle, a similar reaction law for SO2 oxidation over CeO2 was also verified by characterization methods (e.g., IR, XPS). Meanwhile, the molecular simulation results indicated that the rate-control step of SO2 oxidation over CeO2 (111) and CuO (111) was a SO3 desorption step. The lower energy barrier in the rate-control step corresponded to better catalytic performance; hence, it could explain the reason that CeO2 had a better sulfur oxidization transfer performance than CuO.

  2. Solid-State Synthesis and Effect of Temp erature on Optical Prop erties of CuO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. C. Vidyasagar; Y. Arthoba Naik∗; T. G. Venkatesha; R. Viswanatha

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of band energies through size control offers new ways to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The P-type semiconductor of copper oxide is an important functional material used for photovoltaic cells. CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbance and a low thermal emittance. The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconducting CuO nanoparticles via one-step, solid-state reaction in the presence of Polyethylene glycol 400 as size controlling agent for the preparation of CuO nanoparticles at different temperatures. Solid-state mechanochemical processing, which is not only a physical size reduction process in conventional milling but also a chemical reaction, is mechanically activated at the nanoscale during grinding. The present method is a simple and efficient method of preparing nanoparticles with high yield at low cost. The structural and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. Optical properties and band gap of CuO nanoparticles were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results showed that the band gap energy decreased with increase of annealing temperature, which can be attributed to the improvement in grain size of the samples.

  3. Solution-processed all-oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells based on CuO nanaorod array and TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Qiao, Qiquan; Bahrami, Behzad; Chen, Ke; Pathak, Rajesh; Tong, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tiansheng; Jian, Ronghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO2 nanocrystals bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO2 precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating BHJ after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM results demonstrate that the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction can realize the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the CuO nanorod array to TiO2. In this work, a solar cell with the structure FTO/CuO nanoarray/TiO2/Al is successfully fabricated, which exhibits an open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.20 V and short-circuit current density (J sc) of 0.026 mA cm‑2 under AM 1.5 illumination. KPFM studies indicate that the very low performance is caused by an undesirable interface charge transfer. The interfacial surface potential (SP) shows that the electron concentration in the CuO nanorod array changes considerably after illumination due to increased photo-generated electrons, but the change in the electron concentration in TiO2 is much less than in CuO, which indicates that the injection efficiency of the photo-generated electrons from CuO to TiO2 is not satisfactory, resulting in an undesirable J sc in the solar cell. The interface photovoltage from the KPFM measurement shows that the low V oc results from the small interfacial SP difference between CuO and TiO2 because the low injected electron concentration cannot raise the Fermi level significantly in TiO2. This conclusion agrees with the measured work function results under illumination. Hence, improvement of the interfacial electron injection is primary for the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells.

  4. Building Selectivity for NO Sensing in a NOx Mixture with Sonochemically Prepared CuO Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max R. Mullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies are available for decreasing nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from combustion sources, including selective catalytic reduction methods. In this process, ammonia reacts with nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. As the stoichiometry of the two reactions is different, electrochemical sensor systems that can distinguish between NO and NO2 in a mixture of these two gases are of interest. Since NO and NO2 can be brought to equilibrium, depending on the temperature and the surfaces that they are in contact with, the detection of NO and NO2 independently is a difficult problem and has not been solved to date. In this study, we explore a high surface area sonochemically prepared CuO as the resistive sensing medium. CuO is a poor catalyst for NOx equilibration, and requires temperatures of 500 C to bring about equilibration. Thus, at 300 C, NO and NO2 retain their levels after interaction with CuO surface. In addition, NO adsorbs more strongly on the CuO over NO2. Using these two concepts, we can detect NO with minimal interference from NO2, if the latter gas concentration does not exceed 20% in a NOx mixture over a range of 100–800 ppm. Since this range constitutes most of the range of total NOx concentrations in diesel and other lean burn engines, this sensor should find application in selective detection of NO in this combustion application. A limitation of this sensor is the interference with CO, but with combustion in excess air, this problem should be alleviated.

  5. Process and device for energy production from thermonuclear fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, Bruno.

    1977-01-01

    An energy generating system is described using a fusion reaction. It includes several contrivances for confining a plasma in an area, a protective device around a significant part of each of these confinement contrivances, an appliance for introducing a fusion reaction fuel in each of the confinements so that the plasma may be formed. Each confinement can be separated from the protective device so that it may be replaced by another. The system is connected to the confinements, to the protective devices or to both. It enables the thermal energy to be extracted and transformed into another form, electric, mechanical or both [fr

  6. Production of nanocrystalline metal powders via combustion reaction synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, John G.; Weil, Kenneth Scott; Lavender, Curt A.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2017-10-31

    Nanocrystalline metal powders comprising tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium and/or niobium can be synthesized using a combustion reaction. Methods for synthesizing the nanocrystalline metal powders are characterized by forming a combustion synthesis solution by dissolving in water an oxidizer, a fuel, and a base-soluble, ammonium precursor of tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, or niobium in amounts that yield a stoichiometric burn when combusted. The combustion synthesis solution is then heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove water and to initiate a self-sustaining combustion reaction. The resulting powder can be subsequently reduced to metal form by heating in a reducing gas environment.

  7. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    photoproduction from nuclei is also used to investigate the in-medium modification of meson–meson interactions. ... the observation of an in-medium modification of the vector meson masses can pro- vide a unique .... similar behavior is found in (γ,π+π0) reactions, shown in the right panel of figure 3. Additionally, the peak in ...

  8. Determination of 68Ga production parameters by different reactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gallium-68 (1/2 = 68 min, + = 89%) is an important positron-emitting radionuclide for positron emission tomography and used in nuclear medicine for diagnosing tumours. This study gives a suitable reaction to produce 68Ga. Gallium-68 excitation function via 68Zn(, ) 68Ga, 68Zn(, 2) 68Ga, 70Zn(, 3) 68Ga and ...

  9. Protonation Reaction of Benzonitrile Radical Anion and Absorption of Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holcman, Jerzy; Sehested, Knud

    1975-01-01

    The rate constant for the protonation of benzonitrile radical anions formed in pulse radiolysis of aqueous benzonitrile solutions is (3.5 ± 0.5)× 1010 dm3 mol–1 s–1. A new 270 nm absorption band is attributed to the protonated benzonitrile anion. The pK of the protonation reaction is determined t...

  10. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates

  11. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-04-22

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates.

  12. Use of low-temperature nanostructured CuO thin films deposited by spray-pyrolysis in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.; Martin, F.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis of aqueous copper acetate solutions at temperatures over 200-300 deg C range. The textural and structural properties of the films were determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although the sole crystalline phase detected in the film was CuO, XPS spectra revealed a more complex surface structure due to the presence of undecomposed copper acetate that can be easily removed by Ar + ion sputtering. The heating temperature was found to have little limited effect on the particle size and thickness of the films, which, however, increased significantly increasing deposition time. The film with the smallest grain size exhibited an excellent electrochemical response in Li battery electrodes and was capable of supplying sustained specific capacity as high as 625 A h kg -1 (50% greater than that delivered by bulk CuO and close to the theoretical capacity for the CuO Cu reaction) upon extensive cycling

  13. Synthesis of a highly dispersed CuO catalyst on CoAl-HT for the epoxidation of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Yang, Pengfei; Pan, Yongning; Li, Yunpeng; He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Li, Dianqing

    2017-10-10

    A highly dispersed CuO catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and evaluated for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under solvent acetonitrile conditions. Compared with MgAl hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT)-, MgO-, TiO 2 -, C-, and MCM-22-supported catalysts, CuO/CoAl-HT exhibited preferable activity and selectivity towards styrene oxide (72% selectivity at 99.5% styrene conversion) due to its high dispersion of CuO and surface area of Cu. The improved dispersion of CuO/CoAl-HT could be ascribed to the nature of HT support, especially the synergistic effect of acidic and basic sites on the surface, which facilitated the formation of highly dispersed CuO species. A structure-performance relationship study indicated that copper(ii) in CuO was the active site for the epoxidation and oxidation of styrene, and that Cu II of rich electronic density favored the improvement of selectivity of styrene oxide. Based on these results, a reaction mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the preferred catalytic performance of CuO/CoAl-HT could be maintained in five reused cycles.

  14. Hydrogen production via thermochemical water-splitting by lithium redox reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naoya; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Hydrogen production via water-splitting by lithium redox reactions possibly proceeds below 800 °C. •Entropy control by using nonequilibrium technique successfully reduces the reaction temperature. •The operating temperature should be further reduced by optimizing the nonequilibrium condition to control the cycle. -- Abstracts: Hydrogen production via thermochemical water-splitting by lithium redox reactions was investigated as energy conversion technique. The reaction system consists of three reactions, which are hydrogen generation by the reaction of lithium and lithium hydroxide, metal separation by thermolysis of lithium oxide, and oxygen generation by hydrolysis of lithium peroxide. The hydrogen generation reaction completed at 500 °C. The metal separation reaction is thermodynamically difficult because it requires about 3400 °C in equilibrium condition. However, it was indicated from experimental results that the reaction temperature was drastically reduced to 800 °C by using nonequilibrium technique. The hydrolysis reaction was exothermic reaction, and completed by heating up to 300 °C. Therefore, it was expected that the water-splitting by lithium redox reactions was possibly operated below 800 °C under nonequilibrium condition

  15. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dongliang; Ge Chuannan; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    CuO nanowire arrays were prepared by oxidation of copper nanowires embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The AAO was fabricated in an oxalic acid at a constant voltage. Copper nanowires were formed in the nanopores of the AAO membranes in an electrochemical deposition process. The oxidized copper nanowires at different temperatures were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a CuO phase after calcining at 500 0 C in air for 30 h. A transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the nanowire morphologies. Raman spectra were performed to study the CuO nanowire arrays. After measuring, we found that the current-voltage curve of the CuO nanowires is nonlinear.

  16. Utility of spectral measurements of secondary reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.E.

    1986-02-01

    The spectra of 15 MeV protons and 14 MeV neutrons produced in the burnup of 0.8 MeV 3 He ions and 1 MeV tritons through the d( 3 He,p)α and d(t,n)α fusion reactions contain information on the velocity distributions of the energetic 3 He ions and tritons. 11 refs., 2 figs

  17. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton’s second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field.

  18. Analysis of a Buchwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  19. Analysis of a Buckwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  20. Volatilization and reaction of fission products in flowing steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.; Steidl, D.V.; Johnson, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The principal risk to the public from nuclear power plants derives from the highly radioactive atoms (fission products) generated as energy is produced in the nuclear fuel. The revolatilization of fission products from reactor system surfaces due to self-heating by radioactive decay has become a complicating factor in the source-term redefinition effort. It has had a major impact on calculations of fission product distributions in accident safety analyses. The focus of this research effort was to investigate the volatilization and transport of fission products and control rod materials in a flowing gaseous steam-hydrogen mixture. Fission product and control rod materials in various combinations were studied including CsI, CsOH, TeO 2 , SrO, Ag, In, Cd and Mn. The vaporization behavior of the deposits were characterized with respect to vaporization rates, chemical species and downstream transport behavior

  1. Application of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Min-Hui; Green, Nicholas J; Xu, Sheng-Zhen

    2017-04-11

    The Diels-Alder reaction that involves a nitrogen atom in the diene or dienophile is termed the aza-Diels-Alder reaction. As well as the powerful all-carbon Diels-Alder reaction, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction has also played an important role in the total synthesis of natural products. Herein, we review various natural products using an aza-Diels-Alder reaction as a key step to their total synthesis, and divide the syntheses into inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions and a retro-aza-Diels-Alder reaction. Inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions involve an imine as an electron deficient dienophile and an imine as an electron deficient azadiene. The significance of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction for the construction of a six-membered ring containing nitrogen is tremendous, but the development of asymmetric, in particular catalytic enantioselective intramolecular aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the total synthesis of natural products remains highly challenging, and will no doubt see enormous advances in the future.

  2. Synthesis of Cu3N from CuO and NaNH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Miura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the low-temperature synthesis of submicron-sized Cu3N powder produced from CuO and NaNH2 powder mixture by heating at 150–190 °C in a Teflon-sealed autoclave. The structure was the anti-RuO3 type with a lattice parameter of 0.3814(1 nm, and strong optical absorption was observed below ∼1.9 eV. This synthesis method has the potential of facile control of the reaction with less use of ammonia sources.

  3. A Robust, Enzyme-Free Glucose Sensor Based on Lysine-Assisted CuO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain Baloach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of a nanomaterial with enhanced and desirable electrocatalytic properties is of prime importance, and the commercialization of devices containing these materials is a challenging task. In this study, unique cupric oxide (CuO nanostructures were synthesized using lysine as a soft template for the evolution of morphology via a rapid and boiled hydrothermal method. The morphology and structure of the synthesized CuO nanomaterial were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The prepared CuO nanostructures showed high potential for use in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in an alkaline medium. The proposed enzyme-free glucose sensor demonstrated a robust response to glucose with a wide linear range and high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. To explore its practical feasibility, the glucose content of serum samples was successfully determined using the enzyme-free sensor. An analytical recovery method was used to measure the actual glucose from the serum samples, and the results were satisfactory. Moreover, the presented glucose sensor has high chemical stability and can be reused for repetitive measurements. This study introduces an enzyme-free glucose sensor as an alternative tool for clinical glucose quantification.

  4. Fabrication of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, S.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guilan, University Campus 2, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabnezhad, Sh., E-mail: sohrabnezhad@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafourian, S. [Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and a CuO shell. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu{sup 2+} ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  5. Carbonyl atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Genevieve; Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    To convert gaseous carbonyls to oximes during sampling, an XAD-4 resin denuder system pre-coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and followed by analysis with methane positive chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure carbonyls in ambient air samples in Riverside, CA. In conjunction with similar analyses of environmental chamber OH radical-initiated reactions of o- and p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 1,4-butanediol, we identified benzaldehyde, o-, m- and p-tolualdehyde and acetophenone and the dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal, biacetyl, ethylglyoxal, 1,4-butenedial, 3-hexene-2,5-dione, 3-oxo-butanal, 1,4-butanedial and malonaldehyde in the ambient air samples. As discussed, these carbonyls and dicarbonyls can be formed from the OH radical-initiated reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere, and we conclude that in situ atmospheric formation is a major source of these carbonyls in our Riverside, CA, ambient air samples.

  6. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  7. Propulsion of a Molecular Machine by Asymmetric Distribution of Reaction Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanian, Ramin; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.; Ajdari, Armand

    2005-06-01

    A simple model for the reaction-driven propulsion of a small device is proposed as a model for (part of) a molecular machine in aqueous media. The motion of the device is driven by an asymmetric distribution of reaction products. The propulsive velocity of the device is calculated as well as the scale of the velocity fluctuations. The effects of hydrodynamic flow as well as a number of different scenarios for the kinetics of the reaction are addressed.

  8. A nanojet: propulsion of a molecular machine by an asymmetric distribution of reaction--products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool, Tanniemola; Golestanian, Ramin; Ajdari, Armand

    2006-03-01

    A simple model for the reaction-driven propulsion of a small device is proposed as a model for (part of) a molecular machine in aqueous media. Motion of the device is driven by an asymmetric distribution of reaction products. We calculate the propulsive velocity of the device as well as the scale of the velocity fluctuations. We also consider the effects of hydrodynamic flow as well as a number of different scenarios for the kinetics of the reaction.

  9. Reactions of 3-Formylchromone with Active Methylene and Methyl Compounds and Some Subsequent Reactions of the Resulting Condensation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lácova

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a survey of the condensations of 3-formylchromone with various active methylene and methyl compounds, e.g. malonic or barbituric acid derivatives, five-membered heterocycles, etc. The utilisation of the condensation products for the synthesis of different heterocyclic systems, which is based on the ability of the γ-pyrone ring to be opened by the nucleophilic attack is also reviewed. Finally, the applications of microwave irradiation as an unconventional method of reaction activation in the synthesis of condensation products is described and the biological activity of some chromone derivatives is noted.

  10. The effects of reactants ratios, reaction temperatures and times on Maillard reaction products of the L-ascorbic acid/L-glutamic acid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transformation law of the Maillard reaction products with three different reactants ratios - equimolar reactants, excess L-glutamic acid and excess L-ascorbic acid reaction respectively, five different temperatures, and different time conditions for the L-ascorbic acid / L-glutamic acid system were investigated. Results showed that, the increase of the reaction time and temperature led to the increase of the browning products, uncoloured intermediate products, as well as aroma compounds. Compared with the equimolar reaction system, the excess L-ascorbic acid reaction system produced more browning products and uncoloured intermediate products, while the aroma compounds production remained the same. In the excess L-glutamic acid system, the uncoloured intermediate products increased slightly, the browning products remained the same, while the aroma compounds increased.

  11. Advances of zeolite based membrane for hydrogen production via water gas shift reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen is considered as a promising energy vector which can be obtained from various renewable sources. However, an efficient hydrogen production technology is still challenging. One technology to produce hydrogen with very high capacity with low cost is through water gas shift (WGS) reaction. Water gas shift reaction is an equilibrium reaction that produces hydrogen from syngas mixture by the introduction of steam. Conventional WGS reaction employs two or more reactors in series with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given volume of catalyst. Membrane reactor as new technology can cope several drawbacks of conventional reactor by removing reaction product and the reaction will favour towards product formation. Zeolite has properties namely high temperature, chemical resistant, and low price makes it suitable for membrane reactor applications. Moreover, it has been employed for years as hydrogen selective layer. This review paper is focusing on the development of membrane reactor for efficient water gas shift reaction to produce high purity hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Development of membrane reactor is discussed further related to its modification towards efficient reaction and separation from WGS reaction mixture. Moreover, zeolite framework suitable for WGS membrane reactor will be discussed more deeply.

  12. Recent applications of intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions to natural product synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, M.; Tanner, David Ackland

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review presents some recent examples of intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reactions as key complexity-generating steps in the total synthesis of structurally intricate natural products. The opportunities afforded by transannular (TADA) versions of the IMDA reaction in complex molecu...... comprehensive, reviews....

  13. Mapping Students' Conceptual Modes When Thinking about Chemical Reactions Used to Make a Desired Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, M. L.; Talanquer, V.

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this qualitative research study was to uncover major implicit assumptions that students with different levels of training in the discipline apply when thinking and making decisions about chemical reactions used to make a desired product. In particular, we elicited different ways of conceptualizing why chemical reactions happen…

  14. Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2018-01-23

    Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.

  15. Displacement waves in La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Onozuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Makoto; Syono, Yasuhiko

    1987-11-01

    Structural investigation of orthorhombic La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta) was carried out by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction on the basis of the space group Cmmm. The periodic expansion/contraction type distortion of CuO6 octahedra was found in both orthorhombic compounds. The distortion is nearly one-dimensional in La2CuO(4-delta) but is two-dimensional in La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta). The existence of a charge-density wave is highly possible in the structures.

  16. Radioactive nuclide production and isomeric state branching ratios in P + W reactions to 200 mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations of nuclide yields from spallation reactions usually assume that the products are formed in their ground states. We are performing calculations of product yields from proton reactions on tungsten isotopes that explicitly account for formation of the residual nuclei in excited states. The Hauser-Feshbach statistical/preequilibrium code GNASH, with full accounting for angular momentum conservation and electromagnetic transitions, is utilized in the calculations. We present preliminary results for isomer branching ratios for proton reactions to 200 MeV for several products including the 31-y, 16+ state in l78 Hf and the 25-d, 25/2- state in 179 Hf. Knowledge of such branching ratios, might be important for concepts such as accelerator production of tritium that utilize intermediate-energy proton reactions on tungsten

  17. A new branch of advertising: reviewing factors that influence reactions to product placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.; Neijens, P.; Smit, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    This iiterature review presents a quantitative synthesis of 57 studies on product placement and shows which factors are most effective, it shows that placement characteristics, such as placement commerciality, modality, and prominence, have a strong impact on audience reactions. Audience

  18. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  19. Large fragment production calculations in relativistic heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas de Oliveira, L.F.

    1978-12-01

    The abrasion-ablation model is briefly described and then used to calculate cross sections for production of large fragments resulting from target or projectile fragmentation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The number of nucleons removed from the colliding nuclei in the abrasion stage and the excitation energy of the remaining fragments (primary products) are calculated with the geometrical picture of two different models: the fireball and the firestreak models. The charge-to-mass dispersion of the primary products is calculated using either a model which assumes no correlations between proton and neutron positions inside the nucleus (hypergeometric distribution) or a model based upon the zero-point oscillations of the giant dipole resonance (NUC-GDR). Standard Weisskopf--Ewing statistical evaporation calculations are used to calculate final product distributions. Results of the pure abrasion-ablation model are compared with a variety of experimental data. The comparisons show the insufficiency of the extra-surface energy term used in the abrasion calculations. A frictional spectator interaction (FSI) is introduced which increases the average excitation energy of the primary products, and improves the results considerably in most cases. Agreements and discrepancies of the results calculated with the different theoretical assumptions and the experimental data are studied. Of particular relevance is the possibility of observing nuclear ground-state correlations.Results of the recently completed experiment of fragmentation of 213 Mev/A 40 Ar projectiles are studied and shown not to be capable of answering that question unambiguously. But predictions for the upcoming 48 Ca fragmentation experiment clearly show the possibility of observing correlation effects. 78 references

  20. The unexpected product of Diels-Alder reaction between "indanocyclon" and maleimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Michał A.; Roszkowski, Piotr; Struga, Marta; Szulczyk, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    A heterocyclic compound commonly known as "indanocyclon" undergoes an unexpected Diels-Alder addition with maleimide. The resulting product has been isolated and characterized in order to get an information about its structure and possible mechanism of the reaction. Extensive comparison of single crystal properties of 3-(2,8-dioxo-1,3-diphenyl-2,8-dihydrocyclopenta[a]inden-8a(1H)-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and favorable product of the reaction has been also performed.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Nanosheet-like CuO Film and its Potential Application as a High-Performance Pseudocapacitor Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwanya, Assumpta C.; Obi, Daniel; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.; Osuji, Rose U.; Awada, Chawki; Ruediger, Andreas; Maaza, Malik

    2016-01-01

    We describe the chemical synthesis of binderless and surfactant free CuO films for pseudocapacitive applications. Nanosheet-like and nanorod-like CuO films are deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) approach. The nanostructured CuO shows uniform surface morphology and uniform pore distribution with average grain sizes in the range 30 − 50 nm and average pore size of 12.0 and 12.5 nm for 10 and for 40-cycles respectively, as estimated from AFM imaging. The electrochemical properties are characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The highest specific capacitance of 566.33 Fg"−"1 is obtained for as low as 10-cycle film at a scan rate of 5mVs"−"1. The long term stability tests by continuous GCD, indicates that there is no degradation after 1000 cycles with the film yielding 100% coulombic efficiency. This indicates a high stability of the synthesized CuO films. Hence, the developed nanostructured CuO film electrodes exhibit excellent properties for use as supercapacitors.

  2. Lambda-HYPERNUCLEAR PRODUCTION IN (K(stop)(-), pi) REACTIONS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, Vojtěch; Cieplý, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, 3-4 (2011), s. 663-664 ISSN 0217-751X. [11th International Workshop on Meson Production, Properties and Interaction. Krakow, 10.06.2010-15.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Hypernuclei * DWIA * chiral model Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011

  3. CuO nanostructures grown by the SILAR method: Influence of Pb-doping on the morphological, structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayansal, F., E-mail: fbayansal@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Gülen, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, İstanbul (Turkey); Şahin, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Çetinkara, H.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures with Pb-doping by the SILAR method is reported for the first time. • CuO nanostructures of different morphologies were grown by different Pb ratios. • E{sub g} values of the films can be altered by changing Pb doping concentrations. - Abstract: CuO nanostructures with and without Pb were synthesized by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction method. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the morphology of the film surface was changed from plate-like to coral-like nanostructures with increasing Pb concentration. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the monoclinic crystal structure with preferential planes of (1{sup ¯}11) and (1 1 1). Furthermore, ultraviolet–visible spectra showed that the band gap of the films was tailored by Pb doping.

  4. CuO nanostructures grown by the SILAR method: Influence of Pb-doping on the morphological, structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayansal, F.; Gülen, Y.; Şahin, B.; Kahraman, S.; Çetinkara, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures with Pb-doping by the SILAR method is reported for the first time. • CuO nanostructures of different morphologies were grown by different Pb ratios. • E g values of the films can be altered by changing Pb doping concentrations. - Abstract: CuO nanostructures with and without Pb were synthesized by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction method. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the morphology of the film surface was changed from plate-like to coral-like nanostructures with increasing Pb concentration. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the monoclinic crystal structure with preferential planes of (1 ¯ 11) and (1 1 1). Furthermore, ultraviolet–visible spectra showed that the band gap of the films was tailored by Pb doping

  5. Laser application for nuclear reaction product detecting system alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantsev, V.I.; Dryapachenko, I.P.; Kornilov, V.A.; Nemets, O.F.; Rudenko, B.A.; Sokolov, M.V.; Struzhko, B.G.; Gnatovskij, A.V.; Bojchuk, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    A method for optical alignment of nuclear particle detector system using a laser beam and hologram is described. The method permits to arrange detectors very precisely in accordance with any chosen space coordinate values. The results of modelling the geometry of an experiment based on using the suggested method on cyclotron beams are described. A gas helium-neon laser with wavelength of 0.63 μm radiation power of an order of 2 MW and angular beam divergence less than 10 angular minutes is used for modelling. It is concluded that the laser and hologram application provides large possibilities for the modelling the geometry of experiments on nuclear reaction investigation. When necessary it is possible to obtain small nonius scale of reference beams by means of multiplicating properties of the wave front modulator-hologram system. It is also possible to record holograms shaping the reference beams in two or several planes crossing along the central beam direction. Such holograms can be used for modelling the noncoplanar geometry of correlation experiments [ru

  6. Aromatic products from reaction of lignin model compounds with UV-alkaline peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.P.; Wallis, A.F.A.; Nguyen, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    A series of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin model compounds and their methylated analogues were reacted with alkaline hydrogen peroxide while irradiating with UV light at 254 nm. The aromatic products obtained were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Guaiacol, syringol and veratrol gave no detectable aromatic products. However, syringol methyl ether gave small amounts of aromatic products, resulting from ring substitution and methoxyl displacement by hydroxyl radicals. Reaction of vanillin and syringaldehyde gave the Dakin reaction products, methoxy-1,4-hydroquinones, while reaction of their methyl ethers yielded benzoic acids. Acetoguaiacone, acetosyringone and their methyl ethers afforded several hydroxylated aromatic products, but no aromatic products were identified in the reaction mixtures from guaiacylpropane and syringylpropane. In contrast, veratrylpropane gave a mixture from which 17 aromatic hydroxylated compounds were identified. It is concluded that for phenolic lignin model compounds, particularly those possessing electrondonating aromatic ring substituents, ring-cleavage reactions involving superoxide radical anions are dominant, whereas for non-phenolic lignin models, hydroxylation reactions through attack of hydroxyl radicals prevail

  7. Application of radioanalytical techniques in the study of the products of heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since then it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The large variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products, which have been studied by many chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low-yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy-ion reactions have been essential for the production of the transmendelevium elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. The variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy-ion reactions and their products has been examined. The determination of the chemical properties of the transmendelevium elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom at a time'' via heavy-ion reactions, is discussed. (author)

  8. Dilepton and vector meson production in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Gy.

    1997-01-01

    A nonperturbative dynamical study of dilepton an vector meson production in heavy-ion collisions from 1 to 2 GeV/A bombarding energies is presented incorporating all known sources relevant in this energy range. The dynamical evolution of the nucleus-nucleus collision is described by a transport equation of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck type evolving phase-space distribution functions for nucleons, baryon resonances, pions, η's, ρ's and σ's with their isospin degrees of freedom. In particular, the sensitivity of the calculated yields to predicted changes of the ρ and ω mesons in dense matter is investigated. (author)

  9. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    transitions from two phases to a single phase, or pseudo-single phase. The transition to a single phase or pseudo-single phase is a function of the methanol content. Regardless, the maximum observed reaction rate occurs at the point of the phase transition, when the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase is largest. The phase transition occurs due to the accumulation of the primary product, biodiesel methyl esters. Through various experiments, it was determined that the rate of the triglyceride mass transfer into the methanol phase, as well as the solubility of triglycerides in methanol, increases with increasing methyl ester concentration. Thus, there exists some critical methyl ester concentration which favors the formation of a single or pseudo-single phase system. The effect of the by-product glycerol on the reaction kinetics was also investigated. It was determined that at low methanol to triglyceride molar ratios, glycerol acts to inhibit the reaction rate and limit the overall triglyceride conversion. This occurs because glycerol accumulates in the methanol phase, i.e. the primary reaction volume. When glycerol is at relatively high concentrations within the methanol phase, triglycerides become excluded from the reaction volume. This greatly reduces the reaction rate and limits the overall conversion. As the concentration of methanol is increased, glycerol becomes diluted and the inhibitory effects become dampened. Assuming pseudo-homogeneous phase behavior, a simple kinetic model incorporating the inhibitory effects of glycerol was proposed based on batch reactor data. The kinetic model was primarily used to theoretically compare the performance of different types of continuous flow reactors for continuous biodiesel production. It was determined that the inhibitory effects of glycerol result in the requirement of very large reactor volumes when using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The reactor volume can be greatly reduced using tubular style

  10. Determination of gamma production from (n, gamma) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostal, M.

    2007-06-01

    Calculation of gamma production by interaction of neutrons with materials requires a reasonable accuracy of the nuclear libraries, i. e. effective cross sections, nuclear levels and probabilities of transitions between them. Accurate data enable accurate calculations to be performed, e.g. for PGNAA. First, gamma production in a thick 56 Fe target was examined. Appreciable discrepancies were found among the nuclear libraries available. Additional calculations were performed and compared with the observed data. The fluence of photons observed behind a thick iron target was investigated, the target being irradiated with neutrons from the front side. The results were evaluated for the various nuclear libraries. It is concluded that the libraries ENDF/B VI.2., i.e. data embedded in the MCNPX code, are sufficient for a number of applications. However, their accuracy is insufficient for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. This is also true of data from the libraries JEFF 3.1. a JENDL 3.3, so that other libraries will have to be used for PGNAA. Specifically for 56 Fe, the data from the libraries ENDF/B VII.0 seem to be usable. (P.A.)

  11. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

  12. Projectile like fragment production in Ar induced reactions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.; Gatty, B.; Jacquet, D.; Galin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The production of projectile like fragments (PLF) has been studied in Ar induced reactions on various targets. It shows very clearly, that besides the predominance of fragmentation for most of the products, the transfer process is still a very strong component for products nearby the projectile. The influence of the target neutron excess on the PLF production is investigated as well as the evolution with incident energy of the characteristics of the different competing processes

  13. Functional CuO Microstructures for Glucose Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gulzar; Tahira, Aneela; Mallah, Arfana Begum; Mallah, Sarfraz Ahmed; Ibupoto, Akila; Khand, Aftab Ahmed; Baradi, Waryani; Willander, Magnus; Yu, Cong; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain

    2018-02-01

    CuO microstructures are produced in the presence of water-soluble amino acids by hydrothermal method. The used amino acids include isoleucine, alpha alanine, and arginine as a soft template and are used for tuning the morphology of CuO nanostructures. The crystalline and morphological investigations were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The XRD study has shown that CuO material obtained in the presence of different amino acids is of high purity and all have the same crystal phase. The CuO microstructures prepared in the presence of arginine were used for the development of sensitive and selective glucose biosensor. The linear range for the glucose detection are from 0.001 mM to 30 mM and limit of detection was found to be 0.0005 mM. The sensitivity was estimated around 77 mV/decade. The developed biosensor is highly selective, sensitive, stable and reproducible. The glucose biosensor was used for the determination of real human blood samples and the obtained results are satisfactory. The CuO material is functional therefore can be capitalized in wide range of applications such as lithium ion batteries, all oxide solar cells and supercapacitors.

  14. GC of catalytic reactions products involved in the promising fuel synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheivot, V.; Sazonova, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Boreskov Inst. of Catalysis

    2012-09-15

    Catalytic reactions involved in the synthesis of the promising kinds of novel fuel and products formed in these reactions were systematized according to the resulting fuel type. Generalization of the retention of the substances comprising these products is presented. Chromatograms exhibiting their separation on chromatographic materials with the surface of different chemical properties are summarized. We propose procedures for gas-chromatographic analysis of the catalytic reactions products formed in the synthesis of hydrogen, methanol, dimethyl ether and hydrocarbons as a new generation of fuel alternative to petroleum and coal. For partial oxidation of methane into synthesis gas, on-line determination of the components obtained in the reaction was carried out by gas chromatography and gas analyzer based on different physicochemical methods (IR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods). Similarity of the results obtained using these methods is demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. Hydrogen peroxide-assisted synthesis of novel three-dimensional octagonal-like CuO nanostructures with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Chu, Deqing; Wang, Limin; Hu, Wenhui; Yang, Huifang; Sun, Jingjing; Zhu, Shaopeng; Wang, Guowei; Tao, Jian; Zhang, Songsong

    2018-04-01

    Novel three-dimensional octagonal-like CuO micro-/nanostructures with diameters ranging from 10 to 15 μm have been successfully prepared by hydrogen peroxide-assisted hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination. The product morphology can be changed by simply ordering the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). When the amounts of H2O2 is increased, the length of the corner portion is increased and the width is narrower. The obtained octagonal CuO nanostructures were evaluated for their ability for the degradation of hazardous organic contaminants in water under visible-light irradiation. Comparing with commercial CuO and other CuO products, the CuO octagonal nanostructures exhibit excellent performance for photocatalytic decomposition of RhB (Rhodamine B). It is well established that effective photocatalytic performance results from its unique 3D octagonal nanostructures. We believe that the present work will provide some ideas for further fabrication of other novel nanostructures and exploration of their applications.

  16. Synthesis of CuO nanoflower and its application as a H2O2 sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CuO; nanoflowers; electrochemical; H2O2. 1. Introduction. Cupric oxide (CuO) is an important transition metal oxide ... several high temperature superconductors and giant mag- ... precipitate was washed with ethanol and distilled water.

  17. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using Cassia auriculata leaf extract ... Several methods are available for CuO NP preparation ... reader. Characterization .... would be important targets in current.

  18. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OHrad generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OHrad was removed. This suggests that OHrad radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures.

  19. Animal DNA identification in food products and animal feed by real time polymerase chain reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Мар’янівна Іщенко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Approbation of diagnostic tests for species identification of beef, pork and chicken by real time polymerase chain reaction method was done. Meat food, including heat treated and animal feed, was used for research. The fact of inconsistencies was revealed for product composition of some meat products that is marked by manufacturer 

  20. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  1. The effects of CuO nanoparticles on properties of self compacting concrete with GGBFS as binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of high performance self compacting concrete containing different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and CuO nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early age of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (% at later ages. CuO nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. CuO nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased the CuO nanoparticles' content more than 3.0 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. More rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that CuO nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  2. Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

      My concern is to understand augmentation as an emergent modality - among many others in ‘the expanding digital field' (Søndergaard M. , Transformative Creativity in the Expanded Digital Field, 2009)' - attributed to the production of contemporary art and the ‘archive of knowledge' in the (art) ...

  3. On the angular distributions of the heavy products of (HI, xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagajdak, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of neutron evaporation and scattering in the target on the angular distribution of the heavy products of (HI, xn) reactions is considered. Based on the analysis of the experimental angular distributions and their calculated parameters a simple phenomenological approach to the description of these distributions is proposed. The calculated distributions are compared with the experimental ones cited in the literature. The possibilities of using the proposed approach to calculate the integrated angular distributions of heavy products and to determine the efficiency of collecting (HI, xn) reaction products under the conditions of the kinematic separation of recoil nuclei are outlined. 28 refs.; 9 figs

  4. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Prakash, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Gaur, Anurag, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Kumar, Ashavani, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  5. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively

  6. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  7. Tailored 3D CuO Nanogrid Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Gouma, P.I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the controlled synthesis of 3D CuO nano grids by the combined use of electro spinning and thermal oxidation of a composite metal mesh/polymer mat architecture. The obtained nano grids result from three steps encompassing: (i) Cu atom clusters diffusing into the nano fibers producing polymer-metal core-shell-type fibers (ii) decomposition of the polymeric shell; (iii) oxidation of the metallic core of the nano fibers to form self-supported, open nano grids consisting of continuous nano fibers of CuO nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20 nm. The calculated band gap energy of the cupric oxide nano grids was determined from the UV-Vis spectrum to be 1.32 eV. The unique 3D CuO nano grids may be used as key components of 3D nano batteries, photo catalysts, and p-type chemo sensors.

  8. Activation pathways taking place at molecular copper precatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, C.J.M.; Işık, F.; Verhoeven, T.W.G.M.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Hetterscheid, D.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    The activation processes of [CuII(bdmpza)2] in the water oxidation reaction were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Two different paths wherein CuO is formed were distinguished. [CuII(bdmpza)2] can be oxidized at high potentials to form CuO, which was observed by a slight

  9. Analysis of reaction cross-section production in neutron induced fission reactions on uranium isotope using computer code COMPLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Yihunie Hibstie; Mathuthu, Manny; Birhane, Marelgn Derso

    2018-04-22

    This study provides current evidence about cross-section production processes in the theoretical and experimental results of neutron induced reaction of uranium isotope on projectile energy range of 1-100 MeV in order to improve the reliability of nuclear stimulation. In such fission reactions of 235 U within nuclear reactors, much amount of energy would be released as a product that able to satisfy the needs of energy to the world wide without polluting processes as compared to other sources. The main objective of this work is to transform a related knowledge in the neutron-induced fission reactions on 235 U through describing, analyzing and interpreting the theoretical results of the cross sections obtained from computer code COMPLET by comparing with the experimental data obtained from EXFOR. The cross section value of 235 U(n,2n) 234 U, 235 U(n,3n) 233 U, 235 U(n,γ) 236 U, 235 U(n,f) are obtained using computer code COMPLET and the corresponding experimental values were browsed by EXFOR, IAEA. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR Data Bank. Computer code COMPLET has been used for the analysis with the same set of input parameters and the graphs were plotted by the help of spreadsheet & Origin-8 software. The quantification of uncertainties stemming from both experimental data and computer code calculation plays a significant role in the final evaluated results. The calculated results for total cross sections were compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR in the literature, and good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data. This comparison of the calculated data was analyzed and interpreted with tabulation and graphical descriptions, and the results were briefly discussed within the text of this research work. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Positron annihilation study in La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The positron annihilation study for La 2 CuO 4 are performed using the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave(FLAPW) calculated electron and positron densities. The electron-positron momentum density(EPMD) is computed, and the well known Lock-Crisp-West(LCW) zone folding of the EPMD is produced. In the LCW analysis, small residual variations of order about 3 % are observed. The calculations show that the relative weights of the Fermi surface discontinuities are substantially altered due to the positron preferentially sampling the Cu-O plane region

  11. Light-Baryon Production in Binary $pd$ Annihilation Reactions at Rest

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu; Balestra, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Calvo, D; Cerello, P G; Costa, S; D'Isep, D; Fava, L; Feliciello, A; Ferrero, L; Filippi, A; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Iazzi, F; Maggiora, A; Marcello, S; Minetti, B; Mirfakhraee, N; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Piragino, G; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Alberico, V; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; D'Antone, I; De Castro, S; Ferretti, A; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Piccinini, M; Poli, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vagnoni, V M; Vigotti, F; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Corradini, M; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Mauro, S; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Temnikov, P P; Usai, G L; Gortchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Nichitiu, F; Petrascu, C; Ableev, V G; Cavion, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Lombardi, M; Maron, G; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Pauli, G; Tessaro, S; Santi, L

    1999-01-01

    We report the study of light baryon production in two-prong annihilation reactions due to antiprotons stopping in gaseous deuterium and detected by the OBELIX spectrometer (LEAR, CERN). A clear signal of the Delta (1232) production in binary reactions was found in both annihilation channels: pd to pi /sup -/ Delta /sup +/( Delta /sup +/ to pi /sup 0/p) and pd to pi /sup 0/ Delta /sup 0/( Delta /sup 0/ to pi /sup -/p). The annihilation probabilities for these reactions turned out to be Y=(1.01+or-0.08)*10/sup -5/ and Y= (1.12+or-0.20)*10/sup -5/, respectively. In addition, the annihilation probability for the prototype Pontecorvo reaction pd to pi /sup -/p was measured with the best world statistics: Y= (1.46+or-0.08)*10/sup -5/. (16 refs).

  12. Reaction Acceleration in Thin Films with Continuous Product Deposition for Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenwei; Wleklinski, Michael; Ferreira, Christina; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-08-01

    Thin film formats are used to study the Claisen-Schmidt base-catalyzed condensation of 6-hydroxy-1-indanone with substituted benzaldehydes and to compare the reaction acceleration relative to the bulk. Relative acceleration factors initially exceeded 10 3 and were on the order of 10 2 at steady state, although the confined volume reaction was not electrostatically driven. Substituent effects were muted compared to those in the corresponding bulk and microdroplet reactions and it is concluded that the rate-limiting step at steady state is reagent transport to the interface. Conditions were found that allowed product deposition from the thin film to occur continuously as the reaction mixture was added and as the solvent evaporated. Yields of 74 % and production rates of 98 mg h -1 were reached in a very simple experimental system that could be multiplexed to greater scales. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bioactive Properties of Maillard Reaction Products Generated From Food Protein-derived Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, K; Zhou, L; Ohata, M

    Food protein-derived peptides are promising food ingredients for developing functional foods, since various bioactive peptides are released from food proteins. The Maillard reaction, which plays an important role in most processed foods, generates various chemical components during processing. Although changes of amino acids or proteins and reduced sugars by the Maillard reaction have been studied extensively, such changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction are still not resolved enough. Since food protein-derived peptides are widely utilized in many processed foods, it deserves concern and research on the changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction in foods during processing or storage. This chapter initially overviewed food protein-derived bioactive peptides. Then, Maillard reaction products generated from peptides are discussed. We focused particularly on their bioactivities. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles by laser ablation in deionized water and their annealing transformation into CuO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gondal, M. A.; Qahtan, Talal F.; Dastageer, Mohamed Abdulkader; Maganda, Yasin W.; Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2013-01-01

    Nano-structured Cupric Oxide (CuO) has been synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of pure copper in water using Q-switched pulsed laser beam of 532 nm wavelength and, 5 nanosecond pulse duration and laser pulse energy of 100 mJ/pulse. In the initial unannealed colloidal suspension, the nanoparticles of Copper (Cu) and Cuprious oxide (Cu2O) were identified. Further the suspension was dried and annealed at different temperatures and we noticed the product (Cu/Cu2O) was converted predominantly into CuO at annealing temperature of 300 'C for 3 hours. As the annealing temperature was raised from 300 to 900 'C, the grain sizes of CuO reduced to the range of 9 to 26 nm. The structure and the morphology of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscope. Photoluminescence and UV absorption spectrometrystudies revealed that the band gap and other optical properties of nano-structured CuO were changed due to post annealing. Fourier transform spectrometry also confirmed the transformation of Cu/Cu2O into CuO. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles by laser ablation in deionized water and their annealing transformation into CuO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gondal, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    Nano-structured Cupric Oxide (CuO) has been synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of pure copper in water using Q-switched pulsed laser beam of 532 nm wavelength and, 5 nanosecond pulse duration and laser pulse energy of 100 mJ/pulse. In the initial unannealed colloidal suspension, the nanoparticles of Copper (Cu) and Cuprious oxide (Cu2O) were identified. Further the suspension was dried and annealed at different temperatures and we noticed the product (Cu/Cu2O) was converted predominantly into CuO at annealing temperature of 300 \\'C for 3 hours. As the annealing temperature was raised from 300 to 900 \\'C, the grain sizes of CuO reduced to the range of 9 to 26 nm. The structure and the morphology of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscope. Photoluminescence and UV absorption spectrometrystudies revealed that the band gap and other optical properties of nano-structured CuO were changed due to post annealing. Fourier transform spectrometry also confirmed the transformation of Cu/Cu2O into CuO. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,S.; Mazzone,L. C. A.; Santos,F. F. P.; Cruz,M. G. A.; Fernandes,F. A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel) from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of so...

  17. SCALP: Scintillating ionization chamber for ALPha particle production in neutron induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhaut, B.; Durand, D.; Lecolley, F. R.; Ledoux, X.; Lehaut, G.; Manduci, L.; Mary, P.

    2017-09-01

    The SCALP collaboration has the ambition to build a scintillating ionization chamber in order to study and measure the cross section of the α-particle production in neutron induced reactions. More specifically on 16O and 19F targets. Using the deposited energy (ionization) and the time of flight measurement (scintillation) with a great accuracy, all the nuclear reaction taking part on this project will be identify.

  18. Reactions of the CN Radical with Benzene and Toluene: Product Detection and Low-Temperature Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevitt, Adam J.; Goulay, Fabien; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-12-23

    Low temperature rate coefficients are measured for the CN + benzene and CN + toluene reactions using the pulsed Laval nozzle expansion technique coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The CN + benzene reaction rate coefficient at 105, 165 and 295 K is found to be relatively constant over this temperature range, 3.9 - 4.9 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. These rapid kinetics, along with the observed negligible temperature dependence, are consistent with a barrierless reaction entrance channel and reaction efficiencies approaching unity. The CN + toluene reaction is measured to have a slower rate coefficient of 1.3 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 105 K. At room temperature, non-exponential decay profiles are observed for this reaction that may suggest significant back-dissociation of intermediate complexes. In separate experiments, the products of these reactions are probed at room temperature using synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry. For CN + benzene, cyanobenzene (C6H5CN) is the only product recorded with no detectable evidence for a C6H5 + HCN product channel. In the case of CN + toluene, cyanotoluene (NCC6H4CH3) constitutes the only detected product. It is not possible to differentiate among the ortho, meta and para isomers of cyanotoluene because of their similar ionization energies and the ~;; 40 meV photon energy resolution of the experiment. There is no significant detection of benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) that would suggest a H-abstraction or a HCN elimination channel is prominent at these conditions. As both reactions are measured to be rapid at 105 K, appearing to have barrierless entrance channels, it follows that they will proceed efficiently at the temperatures of Saturn?s moon Titan (~;;100 K) and are also likely to proceed at the temperature of interstellar clouds (10-20 K).

  19. Study of reactions for the production of uranium titrafluoride and uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, M.F.R.

    1985-01-01

    The main production processes of uranium hexafluoride in pilot plants and industrial facilities are described. The known reactions confirmed in laboratory experiments that lead to Uf 6 or other intermediate fluorides are discussed. For the purpose of determining a thermodinamically feasible reaction involving the sulfur hexafluoride as fluorinating agent, a mock-up facility was designed and constructed as a part of the R and D work planned at the CDTN (Nuclebras Center for Nuclear Technology Development). IN the uranium tatrafluoride synthesis employing U 3 O 8 and SF 6 several experimental parameters are studied. The reaction time, gasflow, temperature and stoechiometic relations among reagents are described in detail. (Author) [pt

  20. Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Kelic, A.; Napolitani, P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Rejmund, F.

    2003-12-01

    Complex structural effects in the nuclide production from the projectile fragmentation of 1 A GeV 238 U nuclei in a titanium target are reported. The structure seems to be insensitive to the excitation energy induced in the reaction. This is in contrast to the prominent structural features found in nuclear fission and in transfer reactions, which gradually disappear with increasing excitation energy. Using the statistical model of nuclear reactions, relations to structural effects in nuclear binding and in the nuclear level density are demonstrated. (orig.)

  1. Comprehensive characterisation of products from cobalt catalysed Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, M.C.; Bertoncini, F.; Hugues, F.; Forestiere, A. [IFP, Vernaison (France)

    2006-07-01

    Fischer-Tropsch reaction synthesis has been studied in presence of supported cobalt catalysts. The experimental work has been performed by using a slurry pilot plant. All the gaseous and liquid products, including by-products recovered in the water phase produced, have been analysed in order to determine the whole products distribution and the catalyst selectivity. Apart from paraffin which are the main products obtained via cobalt-catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, olefins and oxygenates by-products present also their own distribution. These detailed data are available thanks to new dedicated analytical methods developed in IFP laboratories. (orig.)

  2. Toxicological analysis of limonene reaction products using an in vitro exposure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Khurshid, Shahana S.; Meade, B. Jean; Lukomska, Ewa; Wells, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations suggest a link between exposure to indoor air chemicals and adverse health effects. Consumer products contain reactive chemicals which can form secondary pollutants which may contribute to these effects. The reaction of limonene and ozone is a well characterized example of this type of indoor air chemistry. The studies described here characterize an in vitro model using an epithelial cell line (A549) or differentiated epithelial tissue (MucilAir™). The model is used to investigate adverse effects following exposure to combinations of limonene and ozone. In A549 cells, exposure to both the parent compounds and reaction products resulted in alterations in inflammatory cytokine production. A one hour exposure to limonene + ozone resulted in decreased proliferation when compared to cells exposed to limonene alone. Repeated dose exposures of limonene or limonene + ozone were conducted on MucilAir™ tissue. No change in proliferation was observed but increases in cytokine production were observed for both the parent compounds and reaction products. Factors such as exposure duration, chemical concentration, and sampling time point were identified to influence result outcome. These findings suggest that exposure to reaction products may produce more severe effects compared to the parent compound. PMID:23220291

  3. Optimization and kinetic studies of sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil for biodiesel production via supercritical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Gaik Tin; Ooi, San Nee; Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sea mango oil as feedstock for biodiesel via non-catalytic supercritical reaction. • Extracted sea mango oil with high FFA could produce high yield of FAME. • Employment of Response Surface Methodology for optimization of FAME. • Kinetic study for reversible transesterification and esterification reactions. - Abstract: Sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil, which is rich in free fatty acids, was utilized to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via supercritical transesterification reaction. Sea mango oil was extracted from seeds and was subsequently reacted with methanol in a batch-type supercritical reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was used to optimize important parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time and the molar ratio of methanol to oil. The optimum conditions were found as 380 °C, 40 min and 45:1 mol/mol, respectively, to achieve 78% biodiesel content. The first kinetic modelling of FAME production from sea mango oil incorporating reversible transesterification and reversible esterification was verified simultaneously. The kinetic parameters, including reaction rate constants, k, the pre-exponential constant, A, and the activation energy, Ea, for transesterification and esterification were determined using an ordinary differential equation (ODE45) solver. The highest activation energy of 40 kJ/mol and the lowest reaction rate constant of 2.50 × 10 −5 dm 3 /mol s verified that the first stepwise reaction of TG to produce DG was the rate-limiting step

  4. Dietary Maillard reaction products and their fermented products reduce cardiovascular risk in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Park, M R; Lee, K W; Kim, S H; Kim, Y

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) and MRP fermented by lactic acid bacteria on antioxidants and their enhancement of cardiovascular health in ICR mouse and rat models. In previous in vitro studies, the selected lactic acid bacteria were shown to significantly affect the activity of MRP. The expression of genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) related to antioxidant activity was upregulated by Maillard-reacted sodium caseinate (cMRP), and cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) synergistically increased the expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase when compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. Bleeding time, the assay for determination of antithrombotic activity, was significantly prolonged by Maillard-reacted whey protein concentration (wMRP) and wMRP fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri H10 (F-wMRP), similar to the bleeding time of the aspirin group (positive control). In addition, the acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced mice overcame severe body paralysis or death in both the wMRP and the F-wMRP groups. In the serum-level experiment, cMRP and F-cMRP significantly reduced the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglycerides but had only a slight effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase also declined in the cMRP and F-cMRP intake groups compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. In particular, F-cMRP showed the highest reducing effects on triglycerides, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Moreover, the expression of cholesterol-related genes in the F-cMRP group demonstrated greater effects than for the cMRP group in the level of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and low-density lipoprotein receptors compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. The protective role of cMRP and F-cMRP in the high

  5. Production of krypton isotopes by (p,xn) reactions on bromine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiengmai, S.N.; Hans, L.; Petter, M.

    1976-06-01

    Radioactive isotopes of the halogens are of great importance when preparing radiopharmaceuticals. 77 Br has mainly been produced by a direct reaction 75 As(α,2n) 77 Br. Recently an indirect way, producing 77 Kr which then decays to 77 Br, has been suggested. Since this provides a convenient method of separation this work develops this idea further making use of high energy protons on bromine Br(p,xn) 77 Kr→ 77 Br. The production cross-section for this reaction has been studied in the proton-energy interval of 20-80 MeV and the optimal production procedures considered. (Auth.)

  6. Production of lactic acid from C6-polyols by alkaline hydrothermal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huazhen; Jin Fangming; Wu Bing; Cao Jianglin; Duan Xiaokun; Kishita, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Production of lactic acid from C6-polyols (Mannitol) under alkaline hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Experiments were performed to examine the difference in the production of lactic acid between C6-polyols and C3-polyols (glycerine), as well as C6-aldoses (glucose). Results showed that the yield of lactic acid from C6-polyols was lower than that from both glycerine and glucose. It indicated that long chain polyols might follow a different reaction pathway from that of glycerine. Further investigation is needed to clarify the reaction mechanism and improve the relatively low lactic acid acid yield from C6-polyols.

  7. Designing 3D highly ordered nanoporous CuO electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed E; El-Kady, Maher F; Rahmanifar, Mohammad S; Kaner, Richard B; Mousavi, Mir F

    2015-03-04

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research efforts for the development of lightweight and durable energy storage devices. Herein, we report a simple, yet effective, strategy for high-performance supercapacitors by building three-dimensional pseudocapacitive CuO frameworks with highly ordered and interconnected bimodal nanopores, nanosized walls (∼4 nm) and large specific surface area of 149 m(2) g(-1). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing facilitated ion transport, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and more active sites for electrochemical reactions. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 431 F g(-1) (1.51 F cm(-2)) at 3.5 mA cm(-2) and retains over 70% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrafast rate of 70 mA cm(-2). When this highly ordered CuO electrode is assembled in an asymmetric cell with an activated carbon electrode, the as-fabricated device demonstrates remarkable performance with an energy density of 19.7 W h kg(-1), power density of 7 kW kg(-1), and excellent cycle life. This work presents a new platform for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors for the next generation of portable electronics and electric vehicles.

  8. GMI effect in CuO coated Co-based amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taysioglu, Asli Ayten; Peksoz, Ahmet; Kaya, Yunus; Derebasi, Naim; Irez, Gazi; Kaynak, Gokay

    2009-01-01

    A Copper oxide (CuO) film has been grown on a surface of Co-based amorphous ribbon using chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique, at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The influence of coating and width of ribbon on giant magneto impedance have been investigated over a frequency range from 0.1 to 3 MHz and under a static magnetic field between -8 and +8 kA/m. The results showed that Co-based amorphous ribbons, which are coated CuO film, have a significant effect on the magnitude and operation frequency for the giant magneto impedance effect as compared to the samples without coating. The highest giant magneto impedance effect was found to be 14.90 on 5 mm width coated ribbon, which is 60% higher than the sample without coating. A surface observation of these samples has been carried out by an atomic force microscope. The AFM images reveal the difference between surfaces of coated and as-cast sample.

  9. GMI effect in CuO coated Co-based amorphous ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taysioglu, Asli Ayten [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Peksoz, Ahmet, E-mail: peksoz@uludag.edu.t [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Kaya, Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Derebasi, Naim [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Irez, Gazi [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Kaynak, Gokay [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2009-11-13

    A Copper oxide (CuO) film has been grown on a surface of Co-based amorphous ribbon using chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique, at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The influence of coating and width of ribbon on giant magneto impedance have been investigated over a frequency range from 0.1 to 3 MHz and under a static magnetic field between -8 and +8 kA/m. The results showed that Co-based amorphous ribbons, which are coated CuO film, have a significant effect on the magnitude and operation frequency for the giant magneto impedance effect as compared to the samples without coating. The highest giant magneto impedance effect was found to be 14.90 on 5 mm width coated ribbon, which is 60% higher than the sample without coating. A surface observation of these samples has been carried out by an atomic force microscope. The AFM images reveal the difference between surfaces of coated and as-cast sample.

  10. A density functional theory study of CO oxidation on CuO1-x(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Xing; Ye, Li-Ping; Gu, Hui-Jie; Huang, Jin-Hua; Li, Hui-Ying; Luo, Yong

    2015-08-01

    The surface structures, CO adsorption, and oxidation-reaction properties of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree have been investigated by using density functional theory including on-site Coulomb corrections (DFT + U). Results indicate that the reduction of Cu has a great influence on the adsorption of CO. Electron localization caused by the reduction turns Cu(2+) to Cu(+), which interacts much stronger with CO, and the adsorption strength of CO is related to the electronic interaction with the substrate as well as the structural relaxation. In particular, the electronic interaction is proved to be the decisive factor. The surfaces of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree all have good adsorption to CO. With the expansion of the surface reduction degree, the amount of CO that is stably adsorbed on the surface increases, while the number of surface active lattice O decreases. In general, the activity of CO oxidation first rises and then declines.

  11. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured CuO thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wyas 1999). CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it ... of water. A semiconductor, to be used as photoelectrode in PEC cell, must be chemically stable and should have ... into volatile compounds under heat treatment (Armelao et.

  12. Regulatory Notes on Impact of Excipients on Drug Products and the Maillard Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Dipak K; Sarker, Haripada; Schwartz, Paul

    2018-02-01

    In general, it is an important criterion that excipients remain inert throughout the shelf life of the formulated pharmaceutical product. However, depending on the functionality in chemical structure of active drug and excipients, they may undergo interaction. The well-known Maillard reaction occurs between a primary amine with lactose at high temperature to produce brown pigments. The reactivity of Maillard reaction may vary depending on the concentration as well as other conditions. Commercially, there are products where the active pharmaceutical ingredient is a primary amine and contains less than 75% lactose along with inactive excipients. This product does not show Maillard reaction during its shelf life of around 2 years at ambient conditions. However, when the same type of product contains more than 95 % lactose as an excipient, then there is a possibility of interactions though it is not visible in the initial year. Therefore, this regulatory note discusses involvement of different factors of a known drug-excipient interactions with case studies and provides an overview on how the concentration of lactose in the pharmaceutical product is important in addition to temperature and moisture in Maillard reaction.

  13. Worldwide withdrawal of medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically identified medicinal products withdrawn worldwide because of adverse drug reactions, assessed the level of evidence used for making the withdrawal decisions, and explored the patterns of withdrawals over time. We searched PubMed, the WHO database of withdrawn products, and selected texts. We included products that were withdrawn after launch from 1950 onwards, excluding non-human and over-the-counter medicines. We assessed the levels of evidence on which withdrawals were based using the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Of 353 medicinal products withdrawn from any country, only 40 were withdrawn worldwide. Anecdotal reports were cited as evidence for withdrawal in 30 (75%) and deaths occurred in 27 (68%). Hepatic, cardiac, and nervous system toxicity accounted for over 60% of withdrawals. In 28 cases, the first withdrawal was initiated by the manufacturer. The median interval between the first report of an adverse drug reaction that led to withdrawal and the first withdrawal was 1 year (range 0-43 years). Worldwide withdrawals occurred within 1 year after the first withdrawal in any country. In conclusion, the time it takes for drugs to be withdrawn worldwide after reports of adverse drug reactions has shortened over time. However, there are inconsistencies in current withdrawal procedures when adverse drug reactions are suspected. A uniform method for establishing worldwide withdrawal of approved medicinal products when adverse drug reactions are suspected should be developed, to facilitate global withdrawals. Rapid synthesis of the evidence on harms should be a priority when serious adverse reactions are suspected.

  14. Role of (n,2n) reactions in transmutation of long-lived fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apse, V. A.; Kulikov, G. G., E-mail: ggkulikov@mephi.ru; Kulikov, E. G. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The conditions under which (n,γ) and (n,2n) reactions can help or hinder each other in neutron transmutation of long-lived fission products (LLFPs) are considered. Isotopic and elemental transmutation for the main long-lived fission products, {sup 79}Se, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, and {sup 135}Cs, are considered. The effect of (n,2n) reactions on the equilibrium amount of nuclei of the transmuted isotope and the neutron consumption required for the isotope processing is estimated. The aim of the study is to estimate the influence of (n,2n) reactions on efficiency of neutron LLFP transmutation. The code TIME26 and the libraries of evaluated nuclear data ABBN-93, JEF-PC, and JANIS system are applied. The following results are obtained: (1) The effect of (n,2n) reactions on the minimum number of neutrons required for transmutation and the equilibrium amount of LLFP nuclei is estimated. (2) It is demonstrated that, for three LLFP isotopes ({sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, and {sup 135}Cs), (n,γ) and (n,2n) reactions are partners facilitating neutron transmutation. The strongest effect of (n,2n) reaction is found for {sup 126}Sn transmutation (reduction of the neutron consumption by 49% and the equilibrium amount of nuclei by 19%).

  15. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Jae, E-mail: kimsangj@jejunu.ac.kr [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p{sub 3/2}) and Cu(2p{sub 1/2}) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors.

  16. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p 3/2 ) and Cu(2p 1/2 ) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors

  17. Electronic structure of clean and Ag-covered single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CuO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.; Wells, B.O.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-01-01

    Photoemission studies of single-crystalline samples of Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 show clear resemblance to the corresponding data for single crystals of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . In particular, a sharp Fermi-level cutoff, giving evidence of metallic conductivity at room temperature, as well as single-component O 1s emission and Cu 2p satellites with a strength amounting to about 50% of that of the main Cu 2p line, are observed. An analysis of the relative core-level photoemission intensities shows that the preferential cleavage plane of single-crystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 is between adjacent Bi-O layers. Deposition of Ag adatoms causes only weak reaction with the Bi and O ions of the Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO 6 substrate, while the Cu states rapidly react with the Ag adatoms, as monitored by a continuous reduction of the Cu 2p satellite intensity as the Ag overlayer becomes thicker

  18. Adsorption and inhibition of CuO nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lina

    2018-02-01

    CuO NPs, the size ranging from 20 to 80 nm were used to detect the adsorption and inhibition on the Arabidopsis thaliana roots. In this study, CuO NPs were adsorbed and agglomerated on the surface of root top after exposed for 7 days. With the increasing of CuO NPs concentrations, CuO NPs also adsorbed on the meristernatic zone. The growth of Arabidopsis thaliana lateral roots were also inhibited by CuO NPs exposure. The Inhibition were concentration dependent. The number of root top were 246, 188 and 123 per Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The number of root tops after CuO NPs exposure were significantly decreased compared with control groups. This results suggested the phytotoxicity of CuO NPs on Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

  19. The study of biodiesel production using CaO as a heterogeneous catalytic reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Colombo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of developing a process of biodiesel production that is environmentally benign much interest has been focused on the use of solid base catalysts, such as calcium oxide, for the transesterification of vegetable oils with methanol. In the study reported herein a recycling reactor was used in bench scale, with the capacity to produce 3 L of biodiesel. The reactor was designed especially for this research study. A full 23 factorial plan was used to evaluate the process parameters related to this study, in particular, the catalyst concentration, the alcohol to oil molar ratio and the reaction time. Using this equipment for the transesterification reaction resulted in the recovery of the excess alcohol. The reaction products were characterized using gas chromatography and liquid analysis to determine the ester and calcium concentrations, respectively. The main conclusions drawn were that the best conversion percentage (100% of biodiesel was reached when the methanol:oil molar ratio was 6:1, the reaction time was 75 min and the catalyst mass was 3% in relation to the oil mass used in this process. The CaO concentration determined exceeded the limit of concentration defined by legislation and thus a secondary operation was carried out to purify the reaction products obtained. The results of this study showed a high performance, and the proposed experiment could be used as a new and innovative way to produce biodiesel in the future.

  20. Kinetics of the hydrogen production reaction in a copper-chlorine water splitting plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfirescu, C.; Naterer, G.F.; Dincer, I.

    2009-01-01

    The exothermic reaction of HCl with particulate Cu occurs during hydrogen production step in the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) water splitting cycle. In this paper, this chemical reaction is modeled kinetically, and a parametric study is performed to determine the influences of particle size, temperature and molar ratios on the reaction kinetics. It is determined that the residence time of copper particles varies between 10 and 100 s, depending on the operating conditions. The hydrogen conversion at equilibrium varies between 55 and 85%, depending on the reaction temperature. The heat flux at the particle surface, caused by the exothermic enthalpy of reaction, reaches about 3,000 W/m 2 when the particle shrinks to 0.1% from its initial size. A numerical algorithm is developed to solve the moving boundary Stefan problem with a chemical reaction. It predicts the shrinking of copper particles based on the hypothesis that the chemical reaction and heat transfer are decoupled. The model allows for estimation of the temperature of the copper particle, assumed spherical, in the radial direction. The maximum temperature at the interface is higher than the melting point of CuCl by 10-50 o C, depending on the assumed operating conditions. (author)

  1. Effect of γ-ray emission on transuranium element production cross sections in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'inov, A.S.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of competition of the γ ray emission with neutron evaporation and of compound nuclei fission induced by heavy ion reactions on the production cross sections for transuranium elements is considered. It is shown that taking account of γ ray emission leads to the broadening of the excitation functions of the (HI, xny) reactions such as 18 O+ 238 U, 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 207 Pb and 40 Ar+ 208 Pb reactions and to the displacement of their maximum toward the higher energies as well as to an increase of the absolute cross sections which is especially strong close to the fusion barrier. Cross sections for the radiative capture of heavy ions by a heavy target nucleus in 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 208 Pb, 48 Ca+ 204 Pb and 48 Ca+ 208 Pb reactions are estimated

  2. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs. Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  3. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  4. Solidification of highly active fission products by a thermite reaction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, G.; Hild, W.

    1976-07-01

    To solidify high-level fission products a process was developed according to which a high-melting ceramic product is obtained as a solidification matrix in a thermite reaction. With a constant content of fission product oxides reaction mixtures consisting of 35 to 55 wt.% of manganese dioxide, 24 to 32 wt.% of aluminum shot and 17 to 36 wt.% of sand give suitable products. In the thermite reactiom some components contained in the reactic mixture volatilize partly by evaporation (alkali oxides, manganese oxide, and others) and partly by the formation of volatile oxides having lower valencies (silicon and aluminum oxide). The smoke generated can be easily collected in filters made of glass wool fibers. (orig./HR) [de

  5. Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerly, Eric M; Roy, Jahnabi; Burke, Martin D

    2014-06-01

    The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small-molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled both the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks that covered all of this natural-product chemical space and the first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A and neurosporaxanthin b-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach to making small molecules in the laboratory.

  6. Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just twelve building blocks and one coupling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerly, Eric M.; Roy, Jahnabi; Burke, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides, and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized building block-based synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks covering all of this natural product chemical space, and first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A, and neurosporaxanthin β-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach for making small molecules in the laboratory. PMID:24848233

  7. Mass and angular distributions of the reaction products in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirov, A. K.; Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Kayumov, B. M.; Tashkhodjaev, R. B.

    2018-05-01

    The optimal reactions and beam energies leading to synthesize superheavy elements is searched by studying mass and angular distributions of fission-like products in heavy-ion collisions since the evaporation residue cross section consists an ignorable small part of the fusion cross section. The intensity of the yield of fission-like products allows us to estimate the probability of the complete fusion of the interacting nuclei. The overlap of the mass and angular distributions of the fusion-fission and quasifission products causes difficulty at estimation of the correct value of the probability of the compound nucleus formation. A study of the mass and angular distributions of the reaction products is suitable key to understand the interaction mechanism of heavy ion collisions.

  8. Reaction of Aldehydes/Ketones with Electron-Deficient 1,3,5-Triazines Leading to Functionalized Pyrimidines as Diels-Alder/Retro-Diels-Alder Reaction Products: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Dang, Qun; Cai, Pei-Jun; Gao, Yang; Yu, Zhi-Xiang; Bai, Xu

    2017-03-03

    Catalytic inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reactions of heterocyclic aza-dienes are rarely reported since highly reactive and electron-rich dienophiles are often found not compatible with strong acids such as Lewis acids. Herein, we disclose that TFA-catalyzed reactions of electron-deficient 1,3,5-triazines and electron-deficient aldehydes/ketones can take place. These reactions led to highly functionalized pyrimidines as products in fair to good yields. The reaction mechanism was carefully studied by the combination of experimental and computational studies. The reactions involve a cascade of stepwise inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (ihDA) reactions, followed by retro-Diels-Alder (rDA) reactions and elimination of water. An acid was required for both ihDA and rDA reactions. This mechanism was further verified by comparing the relative reactivity of aldehydes/ketones and their corresponding vinyl ethers in the current reaction system.

  9. Characterization of ionic liquid‐based biocatalytic two‐phase reaction system for production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    The property of a variety of ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media was evaluated for the production of biodiesel by enzymatic methanolysis of rapeseed oil. The IL Ammoeng 102, containing tetraaminum cation with C18 acyl and oligoethyleneglycol units, was found to be capable of forming oil....../IL biphasic reaction system by mixing with substrates, which is highly effective for the production of biodiesel with more than 98% biodiesel yield and nearly 100% conversion of oil. Conductor‐like screening model for real solvent (COSMO‐RS) in silico prediction of substrate solubility and simulation...... of partition coefficient change vs. reaction evolution indicated that the amphiphilic property of Ammoeng 102 might be responsible for creating efficient interaction of immiscible substrates; while big difference of partition coefficients of generated biodiesel and glycerol between the two phases suggests...

  10. Parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections at LAMPF energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, R.L.; Smith, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    A parameterization of pion production and reaction cross sections is developed for eventual use in modeling neutrino production by protons in a beam stop. Emphasis is placed upon smooth parameterizations for proton energies up to 800 MeV, for all pion energies and angles, and for a wide range of materials. The resulting representations of the data are well-behaved and can be used for extrapolation to regions where there are no measurements. 22 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Production of carbon nanotubes using mechanical milling in the presence of an exothermic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, E.Z.; Zebarjad, S.M.; Khaki, J. Vahdati; Izadi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promising potential for many applications in field of engineering due to their unusual significant properties. A major challenge for the industrial applications of CNTs is the large-quantity production. In this field, one new method for CNT production is annealing the ball milled graphite powder. The annealing process should be done in high temperature (1200-1400 o C) and needs time more than 6 h. The novel process introduced in this paper is elimination the annealing stage thorough a thermite reaction. The necessity heat for the conversion of milling products to CNTs was generated in the milling chamber by an exothermic reaction. In addition, the reaction products acted as catalysts to the CNT formation process. The adiabatic temperatures of 1809, 2000 and 2325 K were selected according to balancing graphite and thermite mixture (Aluminum + Iron oxide powders) for exothermic reaction. The results of thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) test proved that CNT formation strongly depends on adiabatic temperature. The results of microscopic evaluation done by transition electron microscope (TEM) showed that at higher adiabatic temperature CNTs could be produced.

  12. Possibilities of production of neutron-rich Md isotopes in multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possibilities of production of yet unknown neutron-rich isotopes of Md are explored in several multi-nucleon transfer reactions with actinide targets and stable and radioactive beams. The projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies are suggested to produce new neutron-rich isotopes of Md in future experiments. (orig.)

  13. Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Degroot, J.; Oldehinkel, E.; Bank, R. A.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Bayliss, M. T.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Lafeber, F. P.; TeKoppele, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Non-enzymic modification of tissue proteins by reducing sugars, the so-called Maillard reaction, is a prominent feature of aging. In articular cartilage, relatively high levels of the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine accumulate with age. Higher pentosidine levels have been associated

  14. Enantioselective H-atom transfer reaction: a strategy to synthesize formaldehyde aldol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Patil, Kalyani

    2005-04-14

    [reaction: see text] Enantioselective radical alkylation of Baylis-Hillman adducts furnished aldol products in good yield and selectivity. The results illustrate that the selectivity in the hydrogen atom transfer is dependent on the size of the ester substituent, with smaller substituents providing better enantioselectivity.

  15. Hyperon production in photonuclear reactions on protons and deuterons : The Kappa(0)Sigma(+) channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohner, H; Bacelar, J; Castelijns, R; Messchendorp, J; Shende, S; Maeda, K; Tamura, H; Nakamura, SN; Hashimoto, O

    2004-01-01

    With the combined setup of the Crystal Barrel and TAPS photonspectrometers at ELSA in Bonn we have studied photonuclear reactions on protons and deuterons. From the series of experiments on single and multiple neutral meson emission we concentrate here on the hyperon production off protons and

  16. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies are discussed briefly...

  17. Production of 11Li in the (11B,11Li) reaction on 232Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.K.; Buenerd, M.; Hendrie, D.L.; KeKelis, G.; Mahoney, J.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Olmer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Production of the neutron-rich nucleus 11 Li in the bombardment of 232 Th by 11 B at 114 MeV suggests that multinucleon transfer reactions induced by neutron excess heavy ions on heavy targets present a feasible method of measuring the mass excess of exotic light nuclei in the limit of stability

  18. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibsted, Jorgen; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies are discussed briefly

  19. A study of reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase. Production and evolution of aerosols resulting from these reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, Denis

    1977-01-01

    The reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase with atmospheric pollutants (NO x ; hydrocarbons) were studied. Experiments showed that NO 2 contribution was significant and suggested that SO 2 transformation into sulfuric acid and sulfates might occur through oxidising agents mainly hydroxyl (OH) and hydro-peroxyl (HO 2 ) radicals. The production and evolution of the resulting aerosols was also studied. It was demonstrated that the effect of water vapour on particle production was significant and that primary embryos were formed from the hetero-molecular homogeneous nucleation acting on water vapour and very likely on sulfuric acid. There was a semi-quantitative agreement between our experimental results and some theoretical investigations on nucleation rate of the system (H 2 O - H 2 SO 4 ). The subsequent growth of particles was studied in a simulation chamber. Finally a model of sulfuric acid vapour evolution in presence of atmospheric aerosols made it possible to extend the previous results as far as possible to the case of atmosphere and then to compare the importance of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of the vapours according to atmospheric conditions. (author) [fr

  20. The influence of oscillations on product selectivity during the palladium-catalysed phenylacetylene oxidative carbonylation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Katarina; Grosjean, Christophe; Scott, Stephen K; Whiting, Andrew; Willis, Mark J; Wright, Allen R

    2008-02-07

    This paper reports on the influence of oscillations on product selectivity as well as the dynamics of product formation during the palladium-catalysed phenylacetylene oxidative carbonylation reaction in a catalytic system (PdI2, KI, Air, NaOAc in methanol). The occurrence of the pH oscillations is related to PdI2 granularity and the initial pH drop after phenylacetylene addition. To achieve pH and reaction exotherm oscillations regulation of the amount of PdI2 is required, ensuring that the initial pH does not fall significantly below 1 after phenylacetylene addition. Experiments in both oscillatory and non-oscillatory pH regimes were performed in an HEL SIMULAR reaction calorimeter with the concentration-time profiles measured using a GC-MS. It is demonstrated that when operating in an oscillatory pH regime product formation may be suppressed until oscillations occur after which there is a steep increase in the formation of Z-2-phenyl-but-2-enedioic acid dimethyl ester. When operating in non-oscillatory pH mode the products are formed steadily over time with the main products being Z-2-phenyl-but-2-enedioic acid dimethyl ester, 2-phenyl-acrylic acid methyl ester and E-3-phenyl-acrylic acid methyl ester.

  1. An investigation of oxidation products and SOA yields from OH + pesticide reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murschell, T.; Friedman, B.; Link, M.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides are used globally in agricultural and residential areas. After application and/or volatilization from a surface, these compounds can be transported over long distances in the atmosphere. However, their chemical fate, including oxidation and gas-particle partitioning in the atmosphere, is not well understood. We present gas and particle measurements of oxidation products from pesticide + OH reactions using a dynamic solution injection system coupled to an Oxidative Flow Reactor. Products were detected with a High Resolution Time of Flight Iodide Chemical Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and a Size Mobility Particle Scanner (SMPS). The OFR allows pesticides to react with variable OH radical exposures, ranging from the equivalent of one day to a full week of atmospheric oxidative aging. In this work, we explore pesticide oxidation products from reaction with OH and ozone, and compare those products to photolysis reactions. Pesticides of similar chemical structures were explored, including acetochlor / metolachlor and permethrin / cypermethrin, to explore mechanistic differences. We present chemical parameters including average product oxidation state, average oxygen to carbon ratio, and potential secondary organic aerosol formation for each of these compounds.

  2. Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from reaction of monochloramine: a new disinfection by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junghoon; Valentine, Richard L

    2002-02-01

    Studies have been conducted specifically to investigate the hypothesis that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) can be produced by reactions involving monochloramine. Experiments were conducted using dimethylamine (DMA) as a model precursor. NDMA was formed from the reaction between DMA and monochloramine indicating that it should be considered a potential disinfection by-product. The formation of NDMA increased with increased monochloramine concentration and showed maximum in yield when DMA was varied at fixed monochloramine concentrations. The mass spectra of the NDMA formed from DMA and 15N isotope labeled monochloramine (15NH2Cl) showed that the source of one of the nitrogen atoms in the nitroso group in NDMA was from monochloramine. Addition of 0.05 and 0.5 mM of preformed monochloramine to a secondarily treated wastewater at pH 7.2 also resulted in the formation of 3.6 and 111 ng/L of NDMA, respectively, showing that this is indeed an environmentally relevant NDMA formation pathway. The proposed NDMA formation mechanism consists of (i) the formation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) intermediate from the reaction of DMA with monochloramine followed by, (ii) the oxidation of UDMH by monochloramine to NDMA, and (iii) the reversible chlorine transfer reaction between monochloramine and DMA which is parallel to (i). We conclude that reactions involving monochloramine in addition to classical nitrosation reactions are potentially important pathways for NDMA formation.

  3. Investigation of the use of Maillard reaction inhibitors for the production of patatin-carbohydrate conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2014-12-17

    Selected Maillard reaction inhibitors, including aminoguanidine, cysteine, pyridoxamine, and sodium bisulfite, were evaluated for their effect on the production of carbohydrate conjugated proteins with less cross-linking/browning. Patatin (PTT), a major potato protein, was glycated with galactose, xylose, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, galactan, and xylan under controlled conditions. The effectiveness of the inhibitors to control the glycation reaction was assessed by monitoring the glycation extent, the protein cross-linking, and the formation of dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium bisulfite was the most effective inhibitor for PTT-galactose and PTT-xylan reaction systems (reaction control ratios of 210.0 and 12.8). On the other hand, aminoguanidine and cysteine led to the highest reaction control ratios for the PTT-xylose/xylooligosaccharide (160.0 and 143.0) and PTT-galactooligosaccharides/galactan (663.0 and 71.0) reaction systems, respectively. The use of cysteine and aminoguanidine as inhibitors led to 1.7-99.4% decreases in the particle size distribution of the PTT conjugates and to 0.4-9.3% increases in their relative digestibility, per 5% blocked lysine.

  4. The hydrogen atom-deuterium molecule reaction: Experimental determination of product quantum state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinnen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The H + H 2 atom exchange reaction (and its isotopic analogs) is the simplest neutral bimolecular chemical reaction because of the small number of electrons in the system and the lightness of the nuclei. The H 3 potential energy surface (PES) is the most accurately known reactive surface (LSTH surface); there have been both quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) and quantal calculations performed on it. This is one of the few systems for which theory is ahead of experiment, and many theoretical predictions await experimental comparison. The H + D 2 → HD + D reaction is studied using thermal D 2 (∼298 K) and translationally hot hydrogen atoms. Photolysis of HI at 266 nm generates H atoms with center-of-mass collision energies of 1.3 and 0.55 eV, both of which are above the classical reaction barrier of 0.42 eV. The rovibrational population distribution of the molecular product is measured by (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). A major effort has been directed toward calibrating the (2+1) REMPI detection procedure, to determine quantitatively the relationship between ion signals and relative quantum state populations for HD. An effusive, high-temperature nozzle has been constructed to populate thermally the high rovibrational levels observed in the reaction. The results are compared to theoretical calculations of the E,F 1 Σ g + - X 1 Σ g + two-photon transition moments. For the H + D 2 reaction, the populations of all energetically accessible HD product levels are measured. Specifically, the following levels are observed: HD(v = 0, J = 0-15), HD(v = 1, J = 0-12), and HD(v = 2, J = 0-8). Of the available energy, 73% is partitioned into product translation, 18% into HD rotation, and 9% into HD vibration

  5. Ozone deposition velocities, reaction probabilities and product yields for green building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamble, S. P.; Corsi, R. L.; Morrison, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    Indoor surfaces can passively remove ozone that enters buildings, reducing occupant exposure without an energy penalty. However, reactions between ozone and building surfaces can generate and release aerosols and irritating and carcinogenic gases. To identify desirable indoor surfaces the deposition velocity, reaction probability and carbonyl product yields of building materials considered green (listed, recycled, sustainable, etc.) were quantified. Nineteen separate floor, wall or ceiling materials were tested in a 10 L, flow-through laboratory reaction chamber. Inlet ozone concentrations were maintained between 150 and 200 ppb (generally much lower in chamber air), relative humidity at 50%, temperature at 25 °C and exposure occurred over 24 h. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.25 m h -1 for a linoleum style flooring up to 8.2 m h -1 for a clay based paint; reaction probabilities ranged from 8.8 × 10 -7 to 6.9 × 10 -5 respectively. For all materials, product yields of C 1 thru C 12 saturated n-aldehydes, plus acetone ranged from undetectable to greater than 0.70 The most promising material was a clay wall plaster which exhibited a high deposition velocity (5.0 m h -1) and a low product yield (

  6. Pressure Dependent Product Formation in the Photochemically Initiated Allyl + Allyl Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zeuch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photochemically driven reactions involving unsaturated radicals produce a thick global layer of organic haze on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. The allyl radical self-reaction is an example for this type of chemistry and was examined at room temperature from an experimental and kinetic modelling perspective. The experiments were performed in a static reactor with a volume of 5 L under wall free conditions. The allyl radicals were produced from laser flash photolysis of three different precursors allyl bromide (C3H5Br, allyl chloride (C3H5Cl, and 1,5-hexadiene (CH2CH(CH22CHCH2 at 193 nm. Stable products were identified by their characteristic vibrational modes and quantified using FTIR spectroscopy. In addition to the (re- combination pathway C3H5+C3H5 → C6H10 we found at low pressures around 1 mbar the highest final product yields for allene and propene for the precursor C3H5Br. A kinetic analysis indicates that the end product formation is influenced by specific reaction kinetics of photochemically activated allyl radicals. Above 10 mbar the (re- combination pathway becomes dominant. These findings exemplify the specificities of reaction kinetics involving chemically activated species, which for certain conditions cannot be simply deduced from combustion kinetics or atmospheric chemistry on Earth.

  7. SAM-dependent enzyme-catalysed pericyclic reactions in natural product biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Masao; Liu, Fang; Hai, Yang; Chen, Mengbin; Tang, Man-Cheng; Yang, Zhongyue; Sato, Michio; Watanabe, Kenji; Houk, K. N.; Tang, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Pericyclic reactions—which proceed in a concerted fashion through a cyclic transition state—are among the most powerful synthetic transformations used to make multiple regioselective and stereoselective carbon-carbon bonds. They have been widely applied to the synthesis of biologically active complex natural products containing contiguous stereogenic carbon centres. Despite the prominence of pericyclic reactions in total synthesis, only three naturally existing enzymatic examples (the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and the Cope and the Claisen rearrangements) have been characterized. Here we report a versatile S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent enzyme, LepI, that can catalyse stereoselective dehydration followed by three pericyclic transformations: intramolecular Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder reactions via a single ambimodal transition state, and a retro-Claisen rearrangement. Together, these transformations lead to the formation of the dihydropyran core of the fungal natural product, leporin. Combined in vitro enzymatic characterization and computational studies provide insight into how LepI regulates these bifurcating biosynthetic reaction pathways by using SAM as the cofactor. These pathways converge to the desired biosynthetic end product via the (SAM-dependent) retro-Claisen rearrangement catalysed by LepI. We expect that more pericyclic biosynthetic enzymatic transformations remain to be discovered in naturally occurring enzyme ‘toolboxes’. The new role of the versatile cofactor SAM is likely to be found in other examples of enzyme catalysis.

  8. A triple telescope for the simultaneous identification of light and heavy reaction products

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, M M D; Alonso, E E; Souza, F A; Fujii, R J; Morais, O B D; Szanto, E M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Carlin, N

    2001-01-01

    Sixteen triple telescopes were developed to be used in the study of light heavy-ion nuclear reactions at the University of Sao Paulo Pelletron Laboratory, with the purpose of providing simultaneous identification of light and heavy reaction products. Each telescope consists of one ionization chamber, one Si detector and one CsI detector with photodiode readout. The telescopes are encapsulated in such a way that they can be utilized in different setup geometries depending on the kind of experiment being performed. Results for the ionization chambers energy loss resolution, Si and CsI detectors energy resolution and general performance are presented.

  9. Transfer products from the reactions of heavy ions with heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.E. III.

    1979-11-01

    Production of nuclides heavier than the target from 86 Kr- and 136 Xe-induced reactions with 181 Ta and 238 U was investigated. Attempts were made to produce new neutron-excess Np and Pu isotopes by the deep inelastic mechanism. No evidence was found for 242 Np or 247 Pu. Estimates were made for the production of 242 Np, 247 Pu, and 248 Am from heavy-ion reactions with uranium targets. Comparisons of reactions of 86 Kr and 136 Xe ions with thick 181 Ta targets and 86 Kr, 136 Xe and 238 U ions with thick 238 U targets indicate that the most probable products are not dependent on the projectile. The most probable products can be predicted by the equation Z - Z/sub target/ = 0.43 (A - A/sub target/) + 1.0. The major effect of the projectile is the magnitude of the production cross section of the heavy products. Based on these results, estimates are made of the most probable mass of element 114 produced from heavy-ion reactions with 248 Cm and 254 Es targets. These estimates give the mass number of element 114 as approx. 287 if produced in heavy-ion reactions with these very heavy targets. Excitation functions of gold and bismuth isotopes arising from 86 Kr- and 136 Xe-induced reactions with thin 181 Ta targets were measured. These results indicate that the shape and location (in Z and A above the target) of the isotopic distributions are not strongly dependent on the projectile incident energy. Also, the nuclidic cross sections are found to increase with an increase in projectile energy to a maximum at approximately 1.4 to 1.5 times the Coulomb barrier. Above this maximum, the nuclidic cross sections are found to decrease with an increase in projectile energy. This decrease in cross section is believed to be due to fission of the heavy products caused by high excitation energy and angular momentum. 111 references, 39 figures, 34 tables

  10. An Investigation of the Complexity of Maillard Reaction Product Profiles from the Thermal Reaction of Amino Acids with Sucrose Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of food changes its chemical composition drastically with the formation of “so-called” Maillard reaction products, being responsible for the sensory properties of food, along with detrimental and beneficial health effects. In this contribution, we will describe the reactivity of several amino acids, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine and cysteine, with carbohydrates. The analytical strategy employed involves high and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by chemometric-type data analysis. The different reactivity of amino acids towards carbohydrates has been observed with cysteine and serine, resulting in complex MS spectra with thousands of detectable reaction products. Several compounds have been tentatively identified, including caramelization reaction products, adducts of amino acids with carbohydrates, their dehydration and hydration products, disproportionation products and aromatic compounds based on molecular formula considerations.

  11. S-Nitroglutathione, a product of the reaction between peroxynitrite and glutathione that generates nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazy, M; Kaminski, P M; Mao, K; Tan, J; Wolin, M S

    1998-11-27

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) has been shown in studies on vascular relaxation and guanylate cyclase activation to react with glutathione (GSH), generating an intermediate product that promotes a time-dependent production of nitric oxide (NO). In this study, reactions of ONOO- with GSH produced a new substance, which was characterized by liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric data provided evidence that the product of this reaction was S-nitroglutathione (GSNO2) and that S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was not a detectable product of this reaction. Further evidence was obtained by comparison of the spectral and chromatographic properties with synthetic standards prepared by reaction of GSH with nitrosonium or nitronium borofluorates. Both the synthetic and ONOO-/GSH-derived GSNO2 generated a protonated ion, GSNO2H+, at m/z 353, which was unusually resistant to decomposition under collision activation, and no fragmentation was observed at collision energy of 25 eV. In contrast, an ion at m/z 337 (GSNOH+), generated from the synthetic GSNO, readily fragmented with the abundant loss of NO at 9 eV. Reactions of ONOO- with GSH resulted in the generation of NO, which was detected by the head space/NO-chemiluminescence analyzer method. The generation of NO was inhibited by the presence of glucose and/or CO2 in the buffers employed. Synthetic GSNO2 spontaneously generated NO in a manner that was not significantly altered by glucose or CO2. Thus, ONOO- reacts with GSH to form GSNO2, and GSNO2 decomposes in a manner that generates NO.

  12. Chemical reactions of fission products with ethylene using the gas jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contis, E.T.; Rengan, Krish; Griffin, Henry C.

    1994-01-01

    An understanding of the nature of the chemical reactions taking place between fission products and their carrier gases, and the designing of a fast separation procedure were the purposes of this investigation. Chemical reactions of short-lived (less than one minute half-life) fission products with carrier gases lead to various chemical species which can be separated in the gas phase. The Gas Jet Facility at the Ford Nuclear Reactor was used to study the yields of volatile selenium and bromine fission products of 235 U using a semi-automatic batch solvent extraction technique. Heptane and water were used as organic and inorganic solvents. A carrier gas mixture of ethylene to pre-purified nitrogen (1 : 3) was used to sweep the fission products from the target to the chemistry area for analysis. The results indicated that the volatile selenium products generated by the interaction of selenium fission fragments with ethylene were predominantly organic in nature (84%), possibly organoselenides. The selenium values were used to resolve the fractions of the bromine nuclides, which come from two major sources, viz., directly from fission and from the beta-decay of selenium. The data showed that the fractions of independent bromine fission products in the organic phase were much lower compared to selenium; the bromine values range from 10 to 22% and varied with mass number. Results indicated that the bromine products were inorganic in nature, as possibly hydrogen chloride. ((orig.))

  13. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: declarations of adverse reactions in the year 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Stürer, A; Althaus, F R; Caduff-Janosa, P

    2010-12-01

    During the year 2009, 134 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) were received (106 in the year 2008). The distribution according to species and drug classes remained in line with previous years. Companion animals were involved in most of the reports (46 % dogs, 19 % cats), followed by cattle or calves (22 %). Antiparasitic drugs made the biggest part with 30 % of the reports, followed by antiinfectives (19 %) and hormones (13 %). Some reactions following their use are specifically discussed. 95 additional enquiries about ADRs of VMPs were received by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich. Most of them concerned dogs or cats and antiparasitics or anti-inflammatory drugs. In the vaccinovigilance program, a total of 1020 reports were received, of which 1000 were related to the vaccination against blue tongue disease. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were aborts, mastitis or alterations of milk quality and they are specifically discussed.

  14. Determination of Free Fatty Acid by FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Esterification Reaction for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djéssica Tatiana Raspe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate calibration to determine the percentage of free fatty acids (FFA in samples obtained by the esterification of FFA in vegetable oils. The analytical method used as calibration matrix samples of the reaction medium of esterification of oleic acid in soybean oil in proportions of 0.3 to 40 wt% (by weight of oleic acid obtained under different experimental conditions and utilized the partial least squares (PLS regression. The efficiency of the method was tested to predict the content of FFA in reactions of esterification of oleic acid in soybean oil catalysed by KSF clay and Amberlyst 15 commercial resin, both in a batch mode. Good Correlations were observed between the FT-NIR/PLS method and the reference method (AOCS. The results confirm that FT-NIR spectroscopy, in combination with multivariate calibration, is a promising technique for monitoring esterification reaction for biodiesel production.

  15. FOBOS - a 4π-fragment spectrometer for heavy-ion reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortlepp, H.G.; Schilling, K.D.

    1992-06-01

    The FOBOS detector presently under construction at Dubna is intended for heavy ion reaction studies in the bombarding energy range of 10...100 AMeV. It will consist of a 'gas-ball' of 30 position-sensitive avalanche counters and 30 axial ionization chambers behind them, a shell of 190 scintillation counters surrounding the gas ball and a forward phoswich array. All charged reaction products may be measured in a wide dynamic range and in a geometry covering a substantial part of 4π. Special developments were necessary concerning the mechanical construction, the detector design, the evacuation and gas supply and the electronics. Presently individual detector modules are being tested at the beam of the U-400 heavy ion cyclotron of the Laboratory of nuclear reactions. (orig.)

  16. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of soybean oil into ethyl esters. The process resulted in a maximum yield of 91.8% after 30 minutes of reaction. The process variables alcohol to oil ratio and catalyst to oil ratio were statistically significant regarding the yield of ethyl esters. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 10.2 and a catalyst to oil weight ratio of 0.0035.

  17. A novel reaction catalysed by active carbons production of dichloromethane from phosgene and formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T A; Stacey, M H

    1984-08-01

    A variety of Activated charcoals have been found to catalyse a reaction between phosgene and formaldehyde. In a continuous flow fluidized bed reactor, the reaction rate reaches a broad maximum near 170/sup 0/C where the selectivity is consistent with the stoichiometry. The reaction proceeds via a strongly adsorbed intermediate which has been identified as chloromethyl chloroformate. This ester is an adduct of formaldehyde and phosgen and forms rapidly above 100/sup 0/C in co-adsorption/desorption experiments. It decomposes rapidly 170/sup 0/C without significant desorption of the intact molecule to give the observed products dichloromethane and carbon dioxide. Under steady-state conditions the rate-determining step is the formation of this ester so that it is normally only present on the surface at low coverages; hence it is not observable in the gas phase. The catalysis is probably due to the presence of polar acid or base sites on the surface of the activated charcoals.

  18. Fluorescent Carbon Dots Derived from Maillard Reaction Products: Their Properties, Biodistribution, Cytotoxicity, and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Na, Xiaokang; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Yisha; Cong, Shuang; Song, Yukun; Xu, Xianbing; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-02-14

    Food-borne nanoparticles have received great attention because of their unique physicochemical properties and potential health risk. In this study, carbon dots (CDs) formed during one of the most important chemical reactions in the food processing field, the Maillard reaction from the model system including glucose and lysine, were investigated. The CDs purified from Maillard reaction products emitted a strong blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light with a fluorescent quantum yield of 16.30%. In addition, they were roughly spherical, with sizes of around 4.3 nm, and mainly composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Their surface groups such as hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups were found to possibly enable CDs to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity assessment of CDs showed that they could readily enter HepG2 cells while causing negligible cell death at low concentration. However, high CDs concentrations were highly cytotoxic and led to cell death via interference of the glycolytic pathway.

  19. Displacement waves in La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) and La(1. 85)Sr(0. 15)CuO(4-delta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, T.; Onozuka, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Hirabayashi, M.; Syono, Y.

    1987-11-01

    Structural investigation of orthorhombic La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta) was carried out by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction on the basis of the space group Cmmm. The periodic expansion/contraction type distortion of CuO6 octahedra was found in both orthorhombic compounds. The distortion is nearly one-dimensional in La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) but is two-dimensional in La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta). The existence of a charge-density wave is highly possible in the structures. 20 references.

  20. Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ririe, K M; Rasmussen, R P; Wittwer, C T

    1997-02-15

    A microvolume fluorometer integrated with a thermal cycler was used to acquire DNA melting curves during polymerase chain reaction by fluorescence monitoring of the double-stranded DNA specific dye SYBR Green I. Plotting fluorescence as a function of temperature as the thermal cycler heats through the dissociation temperature of the product gives a DNA melting curve. The shape and position of this DNA melting curve are functions of the GC/AT ratio, length, and sequence and can be used to differentiate amplification products separated by less than 2 degrees C in melting temperature. Desired products can be distinguished from undesirable products, in many cases eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. Analysis of melting curves can extend the dynamic range of initial template quantification when amplification is monitored with double-stranded DNA specific dyes. Complete amplification and analysis of products can be performed in less than 15 min.

  1. Prediction of bakery products nutritive value based on mathematical modeling of biochemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches are devoted to identifying changes in the chemical composition of whole-grain wheat bread during baking and to forecasting of food value of bakery products by mathematical modeling of biochemical transformations. The received model represents the invariant composition, considering speed of biochemical reactions at a batch of bakery products, and allowing conduct virtual experiments to develop new types of bread for various categories of the population, including athletes. The offered way of modeling of biochemical transformations at a stage of heat treatment allows to predict food value of bakery products, without spending funds for raw materials and large volume of experiment that will provide possibility of economy of material resources at a stage of development of new types of bakery products and possibility of production efficiency increase.

  2. Experimental study of the reactions of limonene with OH and OD radicals: kinetics and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braure, Tristan; Bedjanian, Yuri; Romanias, Manolis N; Morin, Julien; Riffault, Véronique; Tomas, Alexandre; Coddeville, Patrice

    2014-10-09

    The kinetics of the reactions of limonene with OH and OD radicals has been studied using a low-pressure flow tube reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer: OH + C10H16 → products (1), OD + C10H16 → products (2). The rate constants of the title reactions were determined using four different approaches: either monitoring the kinetics of OH (OD) radicals or limonene consumption in excess of limonene or of the radicals, respectively (absolute method), and by the relative rate method using either the reaction OH (OD) + Br2 or OH (OD) + DMDS (dimethyl disulfide) as the reference one and following HOBr (DOBr) formation or DMDS and limonene consumption, respectively. As a result of the absolute and relative measurements, the overall rate coefficients, k1 = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 10(-11) exp((515 ± 50)/T) and k2 = (2.5 ± 0.6) × 10(-11) exp((575 ± 60)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), were determined at a pressure of 1 Torr of helium over the temperature ranges 220-360 and 233-353 K, respectively. k1 was found to be pressure independent over the range 0.5-5 Torr. There are two possible pathways for the reaction between OH (OD) and limonene: addition of the radical to one of the limonene double bonds (reactions 1a and 2a ) and abstraction of a hydrogen atom (reactions 1b and 2b ), resulting in the formation of H2O (HOD). Measurements of the HOD yield as a function of temperature led to the following branching ratio of the H atom abstraction channel: k2b/k2 = (0.07 ± 0.03) × exp((460 ± 140)/T) for T = (253-355) K.

  3. Use of Helium Production to Screen Glow Discharges for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Thomas O.

    2011-03-01

    My working hypothesis of the conditions required to observe low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) follows: 1) High fluxes of deuterium atoms through interfaces of grains of metals that readily accommodate movement of hydrogen atoms interstitially is the driving variable that produces the widely observed episodes of excess heat above the total of all input energy. 2) This deuterium atom flux has been most often achieved at high electrochemical current densities on highly deuterium-loaded palladium cathodes but is clearly possible in other experimental arrangements in which the metal is interfacing gaseous deuterium, as in an electrical glow discharge. 3) Since the excess heat episodes must be producing the product(s) of some nuclear fusion reaction(s) screening of options may be easier with measurement of those ``ashes'' than the observance of the excess heat. 4) All but a few of the exothermic fusion reactions known among the first 5 elements produce He-4. Hence helium-4 appearance in an experiment may be the most efficient indicator of some fusion reaction without commitment on which reaction is occurring. This set of hypotheses led me to produce a series of sealed tubes of wire electrodes of metals known to absorb hydrogen and operate them for 100 days at the 1 watt power level using deuterium gas pressures of ~ 100 torr powered by 40 Khz AC power supplies. Observation of helium will be by measurement of helium optical emission lines through the glass envelope surrounding the discharge. The results of the first 18 months of this effort will be described.

  4. Oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Wu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhihe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Using anodic aluminum oxide membranes as the nanoreactors and controller, oriented nanowire arrays of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Mn-doped CuO have been successfully fabricated using Mn(NO_3)_2 · 4H_2O and Cu(NO_3)_2 · 3H_2O as the starting materials. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the as-prepared oriented nanowire arrays are of high purity. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the nanowires are oriented, continuous and uniform with a diameter and length of about 170 nm and several tens of micrometers, respectively, and thus of a high aspect ratio. Low-temperature magnetic measurements showed the ferromagnetic property of the oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays with the critical temperature at around 80 K, which will endow them with great potential applications in spintronics in the future. (paper)

  5. Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products attenuate allergic lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jitka S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Koponen, Ismo K; Sørli, Jorid B; Paidi, Maya D; Hansen, Søren W K; Clausen, Per Axel; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Wolkoff, Peder; Larsen, Søren Thor

    2016-11-01

    Inhalation of indoor air pollutants may cause airway irritation and inflammation and is suspected to worsen allergic reactions. Inflammation may be due to mucosal damage, upper (sensory) and lower (pulmonary) airway irritation due to activation of the trigeminal and vagal nerves, respectively, and to neurogenic inflammation. The terpene, d-limonene, is used as a fragrance in numerous consumer products. When limonene reacts with the pulmonary irritant ozone, a complex mixture of gas and particle phase products is formed, which causes sensory irritation. This study investigated whether limonene, ozone or the reaction mixture can exacerbate allergic lung inflammation and whether airway irritation is enhanced in allergic BALB/cJ mice. Naïve and allergic (ovalbumin sensitized) mice were exposed via inhalation for three consecutive days to clean air, ozone, limonene or an ozone-limonene reaction mixture. Sensory and pulmonary irritation was investigated in addition to ovalbumin-specific antibodies, inflammatory cells, total protein and surfactant protein D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and hemeoxygenase-1 and cytokines in lung tissue. Overall, airway allergy was not exacerbated by any of the exposures. In contrast, it was found that limonene and the ozone-limonene reaction mixture reduced allergic inflammation possibly due to antioxidant properties. Ozone induced sensory irritation in both naïve and allergic mice. However, allergic but not naïve mice were protected from pulmonary irritation induced by ozone. This study showed that irritation responses might be modulated by airway allergy. However, aggravation of allergic symptoms was observed by neither exposure to ozone nor exposure to ozone-initiated limonene reaction products. In contrast, anti-inflammatory properties of the tested limonene-containing pollutants might attenuate airway allergy.

  6. Effect of Solvents on the Product Distribution and Reaction Rate of a Buchwald-Hartwig Amination Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction between p-bromotoluene and piperazine in the presence of the homogeneous catalytic system Pd(dba)(2)/(+/-)-BINAP and the base NaO-t-Bu was investigated in two different classes of solvents: aprotic, nonpolar and aprotic, polar. The reaction was carried out...... solvent for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction under the conditions applied was m-xylene....

  7. Magnetic excitations in La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors compare the experimentally observed magnetic excitations in La 2 CuO 4 with those calculated for a square lattice spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. They find that the short-wavelength spin-pair excitation spectrum deduced from light scattering, and the long wavelength spin- wave dispersion deduced from neutron scattering are both consistent with a nearest neighbor model with the exchange constant J of about 1500 K

  8. Productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Surface Waters from Reactions with Atmospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances; Bell, Thomas; Yang, Mingxi

    2017-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is a key atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and air pollutant. In marine environments, some atmospheric ozone is lost by reactions with aqueous compounds (e.g. dissolved organic material, DOM, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and iodide) near the sea surface. These reactions also lead to formations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Removal of O3 by the ocean remains a large uncertainty in global and regional chemical transport models, hampering coastal air quality forecasts. To better understand the role of the ocean in controlling O3 concentrations in the coastal marine atmosphere, we designed and implemented a series of laboratory experiments whereby ambient surface seawater was bubbled with O3-enriched, VOC-free air in a custom-made glass bubble equilibration system. Gas phase concentrations of a range of VOCs were monitored continuously over the mass range m/z 33 - 137 at the outflow of the bubble equilibrator by a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Gas phase O3 was also measured at the input and output of the equilibrator to monitor the uptake due to reactions with dissolved compounds in seawater. We observed consistent productions of a variety of VOCs upon reaction with O3, notably isoprene, aldehydes, and ketones. Aqueous DMS is rapidly removed from the reactions with O3. To test the importance of dissolved organic matter precursors, we added increasing (milliliter) volumes of Emiliania huxleyi culture to the equilibrator filled with aged seawater, and observed significant linear increases in gas phase concentrations of a number of VOCs. Reactions between DOM and O3 at the sea-air interface represent a potentially significant source of VOCs in marine air and a sink of atmospheric O3.

  9. State of the art and prospective of lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ilham, Zul; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Mazaheri, Hoora; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Enzymatic transesterification process is less energy intensive and robust. • Nano-materials are promising immobilization supports for lipase. • Packed-bed reactors are appropriate for scale-up use. • Potential recombinant, whole cell and recombinant whole cell lipases were enlisted. • Genetic engineering is a promising prospect in biodiesel area. - Abstract: The world demand for fuel as energy sources have arisen the need for generating alternatives such as biofuel. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel used particularly in diesel engines. Currently, biodiesel is mainly produced through transesterification reactions catalyzed by chemical catalysts, which produces higher fatty acid alkyl esters in shorter reaction time. Although extensive investigations on enzymatic transesterification by downstream processing were carried out, enzymatic transesterification has yet to be used in scale-up since commercial lipases are chiefly limited to the cost as well as long reaction time. While numerous lipases were studied and proven to have the high catalytic capacity, still enzymatic reaction requires more investigation. To fill this gap, finding optimal conditions for the reaction such as alcohol and oil choice, water content, reaction time and temperature through proper reaction modelling and simulations as well as the appropriate design and use of reactors for large scale production are crucial issues that need to be accurately addressed. Furthermore, lipase concentration, alternative lipase resources through whole cell technology and genetic engineering, recent immobilizing materials including nanoparticles, and the capacity of enzyme to be reused are important criteria to be neatly investigated. The present work reviews the current biodiesel feedstock, catalysis, general and novel immobilizing materials, bioreactors for enzymatic transesterification, potential lipase resources, intensification technics, and process modelling for enzymatic

  10. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jerry Y.S. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  11. Coherent production of two and three pions in pd reactions at 19 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, V.; Gennow, H.; Lundborg, P.; Maekelae, J.; Moellerud, R.; Pimiae, M.; Sellden, B.; Sundell, E.; Tuominemi, J.K.

    1976-10-01

    The coherent reactions pd→pdπ + π - , pd→pdπ + π - π 0 and pd→ndπ + π + π - are studied. In the two first reactions strong production of Δ ++ (1236) is observed. Production of d* 0 and d* + is observed in the first and second reactions respectively. The forward slope of the t-distribution of the pπ + π - system in the pd→pdπ + π - channel decreases with increasing mass. The 1500 and 1700 MeV enhancements in the pπ + π - mass spectrum of this channel are studied. Assuming that the Gribov-Morrison rule holds, it is found that by analysing the moments of the decay angular distributions that the resonances N(1470), N(1520) and N(1688) are the most likely resonances to be identified with these enhancements. Evidence is found against s-channel helicity conservation and some evidence against t-channel helicity conservation. The decay parameters of the Δ ++ (1236) in the reaction pd→Δ ++ π - d are in good agreement with the predictions of a one-pion exchange model. (Auth.)

  12. Demonstration of physical phenomenas and scavenging activity from d-psicose and methionine maillard reaction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Tiyas Suminar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction has been well understood as a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids to generate the Maillard reaction products (MRPs. This study is aimed to demonstrate the browning intensity, color development, spectra measurements, scavenging activity, and the correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity of the MRPs generated from D-Psicose and Methionine (Psi-Met at 50℃. The browning intensity of MRPs was investigated based on the absorbance using spectrophotometer at 420 nm, the color development was observed using digital colorimeter to gained L*a*b* value then calculated as browning index, the spectra development was analyzed using spectrophotometer at 190 - 750 nm, and the scavenging activity was determined with ABTS method using spectrophotometer at 734 nm. The browning intensity, color development, and scavenging activity were improved along with the increase in heating process. Based on spectra analysis, MRPs from Psi-Met was initially detected at 21 h and Psi at 24 h of heating treatment, which indicating that Psi-Met have faster and better reaction than Psi during heating process. Positive non-linear and significant correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity were assigned. This finding may provide beneficial information of D-psicose and MRPs to the next scientific research and to the food industries which applies MRPs in their products.

  13. Production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48Ca beam on a 208Pb target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, A.V.; Chepigin, V.I.; Itkis, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    The production cross sections of the isotopes 253-255 No were measured for the heavy ion complete fusion reaction 48 Ca + 208 Pb using the electrostatic recoil separator VASSILISSA. The obtained excitation functions for the reaction products formed after the evaporation of 1-3 neutrons from the compound nucleus are discussed and compared with the data obtained earlier and with the results of the statistical model calculations. The background conditions at the extraction of the correlated events of the reaction product decay are also considered from the point of view of future experiments on the superheavy element synthesis in the complete fusion reactions induced by 48 Ca projectiles

  14. Products of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) formed by free radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittl, H. [Section of Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, UZA II, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, R.M. [Section of Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, UZA II, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, N. [Section of Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, UZA II, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2007-10-15

    The radiolysis of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) has been investigated under various experimental conditions. The highest vitamin degradation (G=3.22) was observed in solutions saturated with N{sub 2}O, where 90% OH radicals are operating. As final products, the following were established: aldehydes, carboxylic acids and ammonia. Their yield strongly depends on the presence/absence of air as well as on N{sub 2}O (used to convert e{sub aq} {sup -} into OH) and was determined as a function of absorbed radiation dose. HPLC-analysis showed that in all media, a main product is formed, having the highest yield in aerated solutions. Based on the chemical analysis, it appears that the OH radicals are most involved in the degradation process. A precise sequence of the reaction steps could not be given presently, because of the implication of many simultaneous reactions.

  15. Products of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) formed by free radical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittl, H.; Quint, R.M.; Getoff, N.

    2007-01-01

    The radiolysis of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) has been investigated under various experimental conditions. The highest vitamin degradation (G=3.22) was observed in solutions saturated with N 2 O, where 90% OH radicals are operating. As final products, the following were established: aldehydes, carboxylic acids and ammonia. Their yield strongly depends on the presence/absence of air as well as on N 2 O (used to convert e aq - into OH) and was determined as a function of absorbed radiation dose. HPLC-analysis showed that in all media, a main product is formed, having the highest yield in aerated solutions. Based on the chemical analysis, it appears that the OH radicals are most involved in the degradation process. A precise sequence of the reaction steps could not be given presently, because of the implication of many simultaneous reactions

  16. A Further Study of the Products of Sc and Dioxygen Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Zhou, Mingfei; Andrews, Lester; Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai; Snis, Anders; Roos, Bjoern O.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The products of the reaction of Sc and dioxygen have been reinvestigated. By adding the electron-trapping molecule CC14, additional information about the IR spectra has been obtained, as well as the observation of new bands. New ab initio calculations are also performed on possible products of the Sc plus O2 reaction. The previously observed band at 722.5 per cm is assigned as the b2 mode of ScO2(-). Bands arising from ScO(+), Sc(O2)(+), and(O2)ScO are also assigned. We are still unable to assign any bands to OScO. The problems associated with the computational study of ScO2 are discussed.

  17. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Perspectives of Scalar- and Vector- Meson Production in Hadron-Nucleus Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassing, W.

    2000-01-01

    The production and decay of vector mesons (ρ, ω) in pA reactions at COSY energies is studied with particular emphasis on their in-medium spectral functions. It is explored within transport calculations, if hadronic in-medium decays like π + π - or π 0 γ might provide complementary information to their dilepton (e + e - ) decays. Whereas the π + π - signal from the ρ-meson is found to be strongly distorted by pion rescattering, the ω- meson Dalitz decay to π 0 γ appears promising even for more heavy nuclei. The perspectives of scalar meson ( f 0 , a 0 ) production in pp reactions are investigated within a boson-exchange model indicating that the f 0 -meson might hardly be detected in these collisions in the K(anti)K or ππ decay channels whereas the exclusive channel pp→da 0 + looks very promising. (author)

  19. A quark-antiquark formation model for meson production in low transverse momentum hadron-hadron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebel, W.; Kriegel, U.; Nahnhauer, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing quark transverse momenta and masses it is proposed a 3-dimensional generalization of the quark recombination and the quark fusion model for meson production in low transverse momentum hadron-hadron reactions. A consistent description of vector meson production in proton-proton and proton-antiproton reactions from 12 - 405 GeV/c has been achieved. (author)

  20. Exchange bias effect in composites of cuo nanoparticles and nanosilica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan Saha, Dhriti [MLS Professor' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kumar Nandi, Arun [Polymer Science Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakravorty, Dipankar, E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Professor' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Nanodimensional silica based glass containing iron ions was prepared within the compressed pellet of CuO nanoparicles. The nanocomposite material showed exchange bias effect. This effect arose due to ferromagnetic iron doped CuO phase and antiferromagnetic CuO interface formation within the nanocomposite during the synthesis process. Coercive field as a function of temperature was fitted with Arhenius–Neel equation and extracted blocking temperature was 511 K. The value of effective anisotropy constant for the nanocomposite was found to be 3.64x10{sup 5} erg/cc. - Highlights: • Nanoglass comprising SiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was grown with pores of CuO nanoparticle compacts. • CuO (AFM)-core and Fe doped CuO (FM) shell were formed during synthesis. • The nanocomposite material showed exchange bias effect.

  1. Multiple particles production for hadron-hadron reactions with finite hadronization time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbex, N.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental data on multiple particle production for proton-proton reaction are analysed in the context of a very simple analytical model. The model exhibits the essential features of hydrodynamical calculations as, e.g., the formation of an intermediate object, which undergoes expansion. The simultaneous analysis of different types of data allows for the conclusion that such data reflect the dynamics of this intermediate object and have a very deem connection to the elementary processes. (author)

  2. Experiences on removal of sodium-water reaction products in SWAT-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Hiroi, H.; Sato, M.; Otaka, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes experiences and information concerning the removal of sodium water reaction products (SMRP) obtained through large leak tests of the Steam Generator Safety Test Facility (SWAT-3) at PNC/OEC, which were conducted to validate the safety design of steam generators of a prototype LMFBR Monju. The following three problems are discussed here: (1) drainability of SWRP, (2) removal of SWRP by using a cold trap, and (3) steam cleaning of SWRP. (author)

  3. Measurement of reaction cross sections of fission products induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    With the view of future application of fusion reactor to incineration of fission products, we have measured the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction cross section by DT neutrons with the activation method. The measured cross section was compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2. From the result, it was confirmed that the evaluation overestimated the cross section by about 20-40%. (author)

  4. Velocity map imaging of ion-molecule reaction products: Co+(3F4)+isobutane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Emily L.; Thurau, Gert; Weisshaar, James C.

    2002-07-01

    The velocity map imaging technique is applied to mass-selected CoC3H6++CH4 and CoC4H8++H2 elimination products from the Co+(3F4)+isobutane reaction studied under crossed-beam conditions at 0.21 eV collision energy. For both reactions we obtain the joint scattering probability distribution P(E,Θ), where E and Θ are the product translational energy and scattering angle. The fraction of available energy deposited into product translation is 0.4 for H2, compared with 0.1 for CH4. For the CH4 product, the angular distribution is forward-backwards symmetric and sharply peaked at Θ=0 and 180°. P(E,Θ) is not separable into the product of an energy and an angular function; rather, the angular distribution peaks more sharply at higher translational energy. Evidently, incipient CoC3H6++CH4 products equilibrate in the Co+(C3H6)(CH4) exit-channel well, from which they decay statistically. The product translational energy distribution P(E) is consistent with orbiting-transition state phase-space theory with no exit-channel barrier. In addition, the energy-integrated angular distribution T(Θ) is consistent with the predictions of the early statistical complex decay model of Miller and Herschbach for fragmentation from a transition state that is a prolate top. In sharp contrast, P(E) for the CoC4H8++H2 products exhibits a substantial hot, nonstatistical tail towards high energy. Perhaps the H2 channel has a late potential energy barrier some 0.5 eV above products, but we view this explanation as highly unlikely. Instead, we suggest that the potential energy from an earlier multicenter transition state is funneled efficiently, and highly nonstatistically, into product translation. This surprising conclusion may apply to H2 products for the entire family of reactions of the late-3D series transition metal cations Fe+, Co+, and Ni+ with alkanes.

  5. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    Full Text Available FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686: one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains.

  6. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains.

  7. Effects of extrusion, infrared and microwave processing on Maillard reaction products and phenolic compounds in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilić, Slađana; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Akıllıoğlu, Gül; Serpen, Arda; Delić, Nenad; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-01-15

    The Maillard reaction indicators furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), acrylamide and color were determined to evaluate heat effects induced during extrusion, infrared and microwave heating of soybean. In addition, the present paper aimed to study changes in the phenolic compounds, as well as in the overall antioxidant properties of different soybean products in relation to heating at 45-140 °C during the processes. Soybean proteins were highly sensible to Maillard reaction and furosine was rapidly formed under slight heating conditions during extrusion and infrared heating. Microwave heating at lower temperatures for a longer time yielded lower acrylamide levels in the final soybean products, as a result of its partial degradation. However, during infrared heating, acrylamide formation greatly increased with decreasing moisture content. After a short time of extrusion and infrared heating at 140 °C and microwave heating at 135 °C for 5 min, concentrations of HMF increased to 11.34, 26.21 and 34.97 µg g(-1), respectively. The heating conditions caused formation of acrylamide, HMF and furosine in high concentration. The results indicate that the complex structure of soybeans provides protection of phenolic compounds from thermal degradation, and that Maillard reaction products improved the antioxidant properties of heat-treated soybean. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR for large-scale enzymatic production of antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides targeting microRNAs or their mRNA targets prove to be powerful tools for molecular biology research and may eventually emerge as new therapeutic agents. Synthetic oligonucleotides are often contaminated with highly homologous failure sequences. Synthesis of a certain oligonucleotide is difficult to scale up because it requires expensive equipment, hazardous chemicals and a tedious purification process. Here we report a novel thermocyclic reaction, polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR, for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides. Each round of PEAR achieves over 100-fold amplification. The product can be used in one more round of PEAR directly, and the process can be further repeated. In addition to avoiding dangerous materials and improved product purity, this reaction is easy to scale up and amenable to full automation. PEAR has the potential to be a useful tool for large-scale production of antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  9. Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne + 232Th reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Kumar, Amit; Guin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products was measured in 20 Ne + 232 Th reaction at beam energy of 120 MeV. A preliminary analysis of the angular distribution data of fission products shows higher average anisotropy compared to that calculated using statistical theory. A signature of rise in anisotropy near symmetry, as reported in earlier studies in literature, is also seen. Further study is in progress to get more detailed information about the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission and dependence of angular anisotropy on asymmetry of mass division

  10. The direct oxidative diene cyclization and related reactions in natural product synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct oxidative cyclization of 1,5-dienes is a valuable synthetic method for the (diastereoselective preparation of substituted tetrahydrofurans. Closely related reactions start from 5,6-dihydroxy or 5-hydroxyalkenes to generate similar products in a mechanistically analogous manner. After a brief overview on the history of this group of transformations and a survey on mechanistic and stereochemical aspects, this review article provides a summary on applications in natural product synthesis. Moreover, current limitations and future directions in this area of chemistry are discussed.

  11. Estimate of production of medical isotopes by photo-neutron reaction at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, B.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Daté, S.; Ejiri, H.

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to conventional bremsstrahlung photon beam sources, laser backscatter photon sources at electron synchrotrons provide the capability to selectively tune photons to energies of interest. This feature, coupled with the ubiquitous giant dipole resonance excitations of atomic nuclei, promises a fertile method of nuclear isotope production. In this article, we present the results of simulations of production of the medical/industrial isotopes 196Au, 192Ir and 99Mo by (γ,n) reactions. We employ FLUKA Monte Carlo code along with the simulated photon flux for a beamline at the Canadian Light Source in conjunction with a CO2 laser system.

  12. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Manikandan, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu 2 O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH) 2 . But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO

  13. Simulated solarlight catalytic reduction of Cr(VI) on microwave–ultrasonication synthesized flower-like CuO in the presence of tartaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhihui; Yu, Yaqun; Fang, Di; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flower-like CuO was successfully synthesized by a microwave–ultrasound assisted method and well characterized by X-ray diffractions, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area, UV–vis diffused reflection spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and point of zero charge. The photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared CuO was examined on the Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of tartaric acid under simulated solarlight irradiation. The results show that the developed CuO catalyst exhibited good photocatalytic activity with 100% reduction of Cr(VI) after irradiation of 30 min under the test condition of c(Cr(VI)) = 100 μM, catalyst loading = 400 mg/L, c(tartaric acid) = 4 mM and initial pH = 3. The reaction mechanism was proposed. The effects of test parameters, such as catalyst loading, tartaric acid concentration and initial pH, on Cr(VI) reduction efficiency were also investigated. It is worth mentioning that the developed catalyst can work at a relatively wide range of pH with quite high catalytic performance. - Highlights: • Flower-like CuO microstructure was prepared by MW-US assisted method. • The prepared CuO can catalyze the reduction Cr(VI) by tartaric acid under simulated solarlight. • The formation of ≡Cu(II)-tartaric acid complex play a key role in the reduction of Cr(VI). • The catalyst can operate effectively at a relatively wide range of pH.

  14. Product inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: are we running the reactions all wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    cellobiose and glucose. The reported KI for glucose on the T. reesei cellulases and -glucosidase varies from 0.04 to 5 g/L. The type of inhibition is debated, and probably varies for different -glucosidases, but with a required goal of sufficient glucose concentration to support ethanol concentrations....... This is because the currently used Trichoderma reesei derived cellulases, i.e. exoglucanases (mainly the cellobiohydrolases Cel7A and Cel6A), endo-1,4--glucanases, and now boosted with -glucosidase and other enzymes, now considered the “industry standard” enzymes, are significantly inhibited by the products...... of minimum ∼5–6% v/v, the glucose product concentrations exceed the critical limit for product inhibition. Hence, regardless of the recent progress in enzyme development for cellulose hydrolysis, the glucose product inhibition remains an issue, which is exacerbated as the reaction progresses, especially...

  15. Solvent-resistant nanofiltration for product purification and catalyst recovery in click chemistry reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Odena, Angels; Vandezande, Pieter; Fournier, David; Van Camp, Wim; Du Prez, Filip E; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2010-01-18

    The quickly developing field of "click" chemistry would undoubtedly benefit from the availability of an easy and efficient technology for product purification to reduce the potential health risks associated with the presence of copper in the final product. Therefore, solvent-resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membranes have been developed to selectively separate "clicked" polymers from the copper catalyst and solvent. By using these solvent-stable cross-linked polyimide membranes in diafiltration, up to 98 % of the initially present copper could be removed through the membrane together with the DMF solvent, the polymer product being almost completely retained. This paper also presents the first SRNF application in which the catalyst permeates through the membrane and the reaction product is retained.

  16. Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Near-net shape forming of metallic components from metallic powders produced in situ from reduction of corresponding pure metal oxides has not been explored to a large extent. Such a process can be probably termed in short as the “Reduction-Sintering” process. This methodology can be especially effective in producing components containing refractory metals. Additionally, in situ production of metallic powder from complex oxides containing more than one metallic element may result in in situ alloying during reduction, possibly at lower temperatures. With this motivation, in situ reduction of complex oxides mixtures containing more than one metallic element has been investigated intensively over a period of years in the department of materials science, KTH, Sweden. This review highlights the most important features of that investigation. The investigation includes not only synthesis of intermetallics and refractory metals using the gas solid reaction route but also study the reaction kinetics and mechanism. Environmentally friendly gases like H2, CH4 and N2 were used for simultaneous reduction, carburization and nitridation, respectively. Different techniques have been utilized. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to accurately control the process conditions and obtain reaction kinetics. The fluidized bed technique has been utilized to study the possibility of bulk production of intermetallics compared to milligrams in TGA. Carburization and nitridation of nascent formed intermetallics were successfully carried out. A novel method based on material thermal property was explored to track the reaction progress and estimate the reaction kinetics. This method implies the dynamic measure of thermal diffusivity using laser flash method. These efforts end up with a successful preparation of nanograined intermetallics like Fe-Mo and Ni-W. In addition, it ends up with simultaneous reduction and synthesis of Ni-WN and Ni-WC from their oxide mixtures

  17. Facile Synthesis of Colloidal CuO Nanocrystals for Light-Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Yee-Fun; Choi, Joshua J.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    CuO is an earth-abundant, nontoxic, and low band-gap material; hence it is an attractive candidate for application in solar cells. In this paper, a synthesis of CuO nanocrystals by a facile alcohothermal route is reported. The nanocrystals are dispersible in a solvent mixture of methanol and chloroform, thus enabling the processing of CuO by solution. A bilayer solar cell comprising of CuO nanocrystals and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) achieved a power conversion efficiency of 0.04%, indicating the potential of this material for light-harvesting applications.

  18. Synthesis of CuO nanocrystalline and their application as electrode materials for capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Zhang Milin

    2008-01-01

    Cauliflower-like, nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO nanocrystallines were synthesized by the chemical deposition method. The microstructure and morphology of CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the morphology of CuO was affected by property of alkali added into system. The probable mechanisms of the formation of CuO with different morphologies were discussed. The electrochemical properties of CuO as electrode material were enhanced by the improving of morphology. Cauliflower-like CuO exhibited a higher specific capacitance (116.9 F g -1 ) than nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO, and also showed good reversibility. Specific capacitance of cauliflower-like CuO (115.3 F g -1 ) was 343.5% higher than CuO bought (26 F g -1 ) at 5 mA cm -2

  19. Synthesis of CuO nanocrystalline and their application as electrode materials for capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongxia [Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhanghongxia.412@163.com; Zhang Milin [Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhangmilin@hrbeu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Cauliflower-like, nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO nanocrystallines were synthesized by the chemical deposition method. The microstructure and morphology of CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the morphology of CuO was affected by property of alkali added into system. The probable mechanisms of the formation of CuO with different morphologies were discussed. The electrochemical properties of CuO as electrode material were enhanced by the improving of morphology. Cauliflower-like CuO exhibited a higher specific capacitance (116.9 F g{sup -1}) than nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO, and also showed good reversibility. Specific capacitance of cauliflower-like CuO (115.3 F g{sup -1}) was 343.5% higher than CuO bought (26 F g{sup -1}) at 5 mA cm{sup -2}.

  20. Production of isomers in compound and transfer reactions with 4He ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.; Aksenov, N.V.; Albin, Yu.A.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Vostokin, G.K.; Carroll, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A well-known island of nuclear isomerism appears near A = 175-180 due to the deformation alignment of single-particle orbits at high angular momentum. This sometimes results in the formation of multi-quasiparticle states with record spin that are long-lived because of 'K-hindrance', i.e., symmetry rearrangement. Production methods and spectroscopic studies of these isomers remain a challenge for modern nuclear reaction and nuclear structure physics. Activities were produced by irradiation of 176 Yb(97.6%) enriched and nat Lu targets with 35-MeV 4 He ions from the internal beam of the U200 cyclotron. Induced activities were analyzed applying methods of radiochemistry and gamma spectroscopy. Yields of compound and nucleon-transfer reactions were measured and the isomer-to-ground state ratios were deduced. Calculated results were obtained using standard procedures to reproduce the (α, xn) cross sections, and the systematic behavior of the nucleon-transfer yields was established. The isomer-to-ground state ratios for direct reactions with 4 He ions were examined, resulting in a new characterization of the reaction mechanism

  1. Deuteron-induced reactions generated by intense lasers for PET isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Sachie; Bonasera, Aldo

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using laser accelerated protons/deuterons for positron emission tomography (PET) isotope production by means of the nuclear reactions 11B(p, n) 11C and 10B(d, n) 11C. The second reaction has a positive Q-value and no energy threshold. One can, therefore, make use of the lower energy part of the laser-generated deuterons, which includes the majority of the accelerated deuterons. By assuming that the deuteron spectra are similar to the proton spectra, the 11C produced from the reaction 10B(d, n) 11C is estimated to be 7.4×10 9 per laser-shot at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Meanwhile a high-repetition table-top laser irradiation is estimated to generate 3.5×10 711C per shot from the same reaction. In terms of the 11C activity, it is about 2×10 4 Bq per shot. If this laser delivers kHz, the activity is integrated to 1 GBq after 3 min. The number is sufficient for the practical application in medical imaging for PET.

  2. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO2 from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin. PMID:26020841

  3. Unique Pattern of Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Rückriemen, Jana; Sandner, Daniel; Henle, Thomas

    2017-05-03

    As a unique feature, honey from the New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) contains substantial amounts of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is a reactive intermediate in the Maillard reaction, very little is known about reactions of MGO with honey proteins. We hypothesized that the abundance of MGO should result in a particular pattern of protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in manuka honey. A protein-rich high-molecular-weight fraction was isolated from 12 manuka and 8 non-manuka honeys and hydrolyzed enzymatically. By HPLC-MS/MS, 8 MRPs, namely, N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-maltulosyllysine, carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), were quantitated. Compared to non-manuka honeys, the manuka honeys were characterized by high concentrations of CEL and MG-H1, whereas the formation of N-ε-fructosyllysine was suppressed, indicating concurrence reactions of glucose and MGO at the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine. Up to 31% of the lysine and 8% of the arginine residues, respectively, in the manuka honey protein can be modified to CEL and MG-H1, respectively. CEL and MG-H1 concentrations correlated strongly with the MGO concentration of the honeys. Manuka honey possesses a special pattern of protein-bound MRPs, which might be used to prove the reliability of labeled MGO levels in honeys and possibly enable the detection of fraudulent MGO or DHA addition to honey.

  4. Effect of CuO receptor on the liquid yield and composition of oils derived from liquefaction of coals by microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagmur, Emine; Simsek, Emir H.; Aktas, Zeki; Togrul, Taner

    2008-01-01

    The effects of microwave receptor to coal (receptor/coal) ratio and the period of heating by microwave energy on the solubilization of Turkish coals in tetralin have been investigated. CuO was used as microwave receptor. The amount of receptor and the type of coal significantly affected the yield of liquid product. The addition of the CuO receptor caused to increase in the lignite conversions to oil fractions. The yield of THF soluble fraction increased in the presence of CuO receptor, however, due to catalytic effect of CuO, the yields of preasphaltene (PAS) and asphaltene (AS) decreased. The oil fractions were obtained from the experiments treated by microwave energy in the presence of 3/5 CuO/coal ratio and in the absence of receptor for 20 min liquefaction periods. The compositions of the oil fractions were determined by GC/MS. The composition of the oil fractions of the coals strongly depends on the type of coal. It was observed that the oil fractions contain oxygenated aromatic compounds in addition to condensed aromatic structures. Considerable amounts of 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone (alpha-tetralone) were found in the oil fractions of lignites treated by microwave energy

  5. Reactions of clofibric acid with oxidative and reductive radicals—Products, mechanisms, efficiency and toxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csay, Tamás; Rácz, Gergely; Salik, Ádám; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of clofibric acid induced by hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron and O 2 −∙ /HO 2 ∙ reactive species was studied in aqueous solutions. Clofibric acid was decomposed more effectively by hydroxyl radical than by hydrated electron or O 2 −∙ /HO 2 ∙ . Various hydroxylated, dechlorinated and fragmentation products have been identified and quantified. A new LC–MS method was developed based on 18 O isotope labeling to follow the formation of hydroxylated derivatives of clofibric acid. Possible degradation pathways have been proposed. The overall degradation was monitored by determination of sum parameters like COD, TOC and AOX. It was found that the organic chlorine degrades very effectively prior to complete mineralization. After the treatment no toxic effect was found according to Vibrio fischeri tests. However, at early stages some of the reaction products were more harmful than clofibric acid. - Highlights: • Clofibric acid is effectively degraded by OH radical. • Main primary and secondary products are hydroxylated and dihydroxylated phenyl type derivatives of clofibric acid. • In air saturated aqueous solutions O 2 plays an important role in decomposition of the aromatic structure. • A new LC–MS method with 18 O-labeling was developed. • Early stage reaction products are more toxic to bacteria Vibrio fischeri than clofibric acid

  6. Carbon Dioxide Utilization by the Five-Membered Ring Products of Cyclometalation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Iwao

    2016-01-01

    In carbon dioxide utilization by cyclometalated five-membered ring products, the following compounds are used in four types of applications: 1. 2-Phenylpyrazole iridium compounds, pincer phosphine iridium compounds and 2-phenylimidazoline iridium compounds are used as catalysts for both formic acid production from CO2 and H2, and hydrogen production from the formic acid. This formic acid can be a useful agent for H2 production and storage for fuel cell electric vehicles. 2. Other chemicals, e.g., dimethyl carbonate, methane, methanol and CO, are produced with dimethylaminomethylphenyltin compounds, pincer phosphine iridium compounds, pincer phosphine nickel compound and ruthenium carbene compound or 2-phenylpyridine iridium compounds, and phenylbenzothiazole iridium compounds as the catalysts for the reactions with CO2. 3. The five-membered ring intermediates of cyclometalation reactions with the conventional substrates react with carbon dioxide to afford their many types of carboxylic acid derivatives. 4. Carbon dioxide is easily immobilized at room temperature with immobilizing agents such as pincer phosphine nickel compounds, pincer phosphine palladium compounds, pincer N,N-dimethylaminomethyltin compounds and tris(2-pyridylthio)methane zinc compounds. PMID:28503084

  7. Raman Spectroscopy of Serpentine and Reaction Products at High Pressure Using a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K.; Zinin, P.; Odake, S.; Fryer, P.; Hellebrand, E.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentine is one of the most abundant hydrous phases in the altered subducting plate, and contributes a large portion of the water flux in subduction zones. Measuring and understanding the structural changes in serpentine with pressure aids our understanding of the processes ongoing in oceanic crust and subduction zones. We have conducted high-pressure/high-temperature experiments on serpentine and its dehydration reaction products using a diamond anvil cell. We used the multifunctional in-situ measurement system equipped with a Raman device and laser heating system at the University of Hawaii. Well-characterized natural serpentinite was used in the study. Pressure was determined using the shift of the fluorescence line of a ruby placed next to the sample. Raman spectra of serpentine were obtained at higher pressures than previously published, up to 15 GPa; the peak shift with pressure fits the model determined by Auzende et al. [2004] at lower pressures. Heating was done at several different pressures up to 20 GPa, and reaction products were identified using Raman. Micro-Raman techniques allow us to determine reaction progress and heterogeneity within natural samples containing olivine and serpentine. Auzende, A-L., I. Daniel, B. Reynard, C. Lemaire, F. Guyot (2004). High-pressure behavior of serpentine minerals: a Raman spectroscopic study. Phys. Chem. Minerals 31 269-277.

  8. From the HINDAS Project: Excitation Functions for Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Gloris, M.; Protoschill, J.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Weug, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Kubik, P.-W.; Schumann, D.; Synal, H.-A.; Weinreich, R.; Leya, I.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cugnon, J.

    2005-01-01

    A survey is given about efforts undertaken during the HINDAS project to investigate the energy dependence of residual nuclide production by proton-induced reactions from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. For proton-induced reactions, our experiments aimed to further develop and complete the cross-section database that was established by our collaboration in recent years. It was extended to the heavy-target elements Ta, W, Pb, and Bi for energies up to 2.6 GeV. In addition, new measurements for the target element iron were performed up to 2.6 GeV and for natural uranium for energies from 21 MeV to 69 MeV. For the target element lead, a comprehensive set of excitation functions published recently was completed by AMS-measurements of cross sections for the production of the long-lived radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and I-129 and by mass spectrometric measurements for stable and radioactive rare gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Comprehensive tests of the nuclear-reaction codes TALYS and INCL4+ABLA, which were developed within the HINDAS project, were performed with the new experimental results over the entire energy range

  9. A dataset of 200 structured product labels annotated for adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Aronson, Alan R; Lang, Francois; Rogers, Willie; Roberts, Kirk; Tonning, Joseph

    2018-01-30

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs), unintended and sometimes dangerous effects that a drug may have, are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality during medical care. To date, there is no structured machine-readable authoritative source of known ADRs. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) partnered with the National Library of Medicine to create a pilot dataset containing standardised information about known adverse reactions for 200 FDA-approved drugs. The Structured Product Labels (SPLs), the documents FDA uses to exchange information about drugs and other products, were manually annotated for adverse reactions at the mention level to facilitate development and evaluation of text mining tools for extraction of ADRs from all SPLs. The ADRs were then normalised to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). We present the curation process and the structure of the publicly available database SPL-ADR-200db containing 5,098 distinct ADRs. The database is available at https://bionlp.nlm.nih.gov/tac2017adversereactions/; the code for preparing and validating the data is available at https://github.com/lhncbc/fda-ars.

  10. Multiphasic Reaction Modeling for Polypropylene Production in a Pilot-Scale Catalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel multiphasic model for the calculation of the polypropylene production in a complicated hydrodynamic and the physiochemical environments has been formulated, confirmed and validated. This is a first research attempt that describes the development of the dual-phasic phenomena, the impact of the optimal process conditions on the production rate of polypropylene and the fluidized bed dynamic details which could be concurrently obtained after solving the model coupled with the CFD (computational fluid dynamics model, the basic mathematical model and the moment equations. Furthermore, we have established the quantitative relationship between the operational condition and the dynamic gas–solid behavior in actual reaction environments. Our results state that the proposed model could be applied for generalizing the production rate of the polymer from a chemical procedure to pilot-scale chemical reaction engineering. However, it was assumed that the solids present in the bubble phase and the reactant gas present in the emulsion phase improved the multiphasic model, thus taking into account that the polymerization took place mutually in the emulsion besides the bubble phase. It was observed that with respect to the experimental extent of the superficial gas velocity and the Ziegler-Natta feed rate, the ratio of the polymer produced as compared to the overall rate of production was approximately in the range of 9%–11%. This is a significant amount and it should not be ignored. We also carried out the simulation studies for comparing the data of the CFD-dependent dual-phasic model, the emulsion phase model, the dynamic bubble model and the experimental results. It was noted that the improved dual-phasic model and the CFD model were able to predict more constricted and safer windows at similar conditions as compared to the experimental results. Our work is unique, as the integrated developed model is able to offer clearer ideas

  11. Enhanced chemiluminescence of the luminol–KMnO4 system by CuO nanosheets and its application for determination of meropenem in water and human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khataee, A.R.; Fathinia, M.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Moradkhannejhad, L.

    2014-01-01

    CuO nanosheets were synthesized by an easy and green sonochemical method. It was found that, CuO nanosheets could significantly catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol–KMnO 4 in an alkaline condition. Based on this finding, a new CL system (luminol–KMnO 4 –CuO nanosheets) combined with flow injection analysis has been developed for the determination of meropenem for the first time. Moreover, the CL intensity was enhanced when meropenem was presented in the reaction system. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of meropenem in the ranges of 0.005–6.00 mg L −1 , with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0036 mg L −1 . The precision of the method was calculated by analyzing samples containing 1.0 mg L −1 meropenem (n=11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.7%. Also, a total analysis time per sample was 30 s which confirmed the rapidity of the proposed assay. The practicality of the proposed CL system was evaluated by determining meropenem in spiked environmental water samples and human serum. A discussion on the possible CL reaction mechanism was also presented. - Highlights: • CuO nanosheets (NSs) were successfully prepared by a green sonochemical method. • CuO NSs were found to be an excellent enhancer for luminol−KMnO 4 CL system. • Meropenem was determined using a novel luminol−KMnO 4 −CuO NSs flow injection CL system. • The enhancement mechanism of meropenem on the CL emission was proposed. • Appropriate sensitivity and selectivity were notable features of the proposed method

  12. Studies of short-lived products of spallation fission reactions at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Bischoff, G; D'Auria, J M; Dautet, H; Lee, J K P; Pate, B D; Wiesehahn, W

    1976-01-01

    The gas-jet recoil transport technique has been used to transport products from spallation and fission reactions from a target chamber to a shielded location for nuclear spectroscopic studies. These involve X- beta - gamma coincidence measurements and (shortly) time- of-flight mass spectroscopy. It has been deduced that the proton beam at present intensities has no appreciable effect on the ability of ethylene and other cluster-producing gases to transport radioactivity. Preliminary results will be presented for shortlived fission products from uranium, and for spallation products of iodine and argon. The latter were obtained from the bombardment of gas and aerosol targets mixed with the transporting gas in the target chamber, which appears to be a generally useful technique.

  13. Biocatalytic production of psilocybin and derivatives in tryptophan synthase-enhanced reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, Felix; Baldeweg, Florian; Fricke, Janis; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2018-05-11

    Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the main alkaloid of the fungal genus Psilocybe, the so-called "magic mushrooms". The pharmaceutical interest in this psychotropic natural product as a future medication to treat depression and anxiety is strongly re-emerging. Here, we present an enhanced enzymatic route of psilocybin production by adding TrpB, the tryptophan synthase of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, to the reaction. We capitalized on its substrate flexibility and show psilocybin formation from 4-hydroxyindole and L-serine, which are less cost-intensive substrates, compared to the previous method. Further, we show enzymatic production of 7-phosphoryloxytryptamine (isonorbaeocystin), a non-natural congener of the Psilocybe alkaloid norbaeocystin (4-phosphoryloxytryptamine), and of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) via the same in vitro approach. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of computer code on sodium-water reaction products transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, H.; Yoshioka, N.; Suemori, M.; Nishida, K.

    1988-01-01

    The LMFBR concept eliminating the secondary sodium system has been considered to be one of the most promissing concepts for offering cost reductions. In this reactor concept, the evaluation of effects on reactor core by the sodium-water reaction products (SWRPs) during sodium-water reaction at primary steam generator becomes one of the major safety issues. In this study, the calculation code was developed as the first step of the processes of establishing the evaluation method for SWRP effects. The calculation code, called SPROUT, simulates the SWRPs transport and distribution in primary sodium system using the system geometry, thermal hydraulic data and sodium-water reacting conditions as input. This code principally models SWRPs behavior. The paper contain the modelings for SWRPs behaviors, with solution, precipation, deposition and so on, and the results and discussions of the demonstration calculation for a typical FBR plant eliminating the secondary sodium system

  15. Reaction Mechanism of Tar Evolution in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingo Katayama; Masahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction mechanism of tar evolution in steam gasification of biomass was investigated with a continuous cross-flow moving bed type differential reactor, in which tar and gases can be fractionated according to reaction time. We estimated that time profile of tar and gas evolution in the gasification of cellulose, xylan, and lignin, and compared it with experimental product time profile of real biomass gasification. The experimental tar evolution rate is different from estimated tar evolution rate. The estimated tar evolution rate has a peak at 20 s. On the other hand, the experimental tar evolution rate at 20 s is little, and tar at initial stage includes more water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. It can be concluded that in the real biomass steam gasification the evolution of tar from cellulose and lignin component was found to be precipitated by that from hemi-cellulose component. (authors)

  16. Heterogeneous reaction of particulate chlorpyrifos with NO3 radicals: Products, pathways, and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nana; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Bo; Shu, Jinian; Wang, Youfeng; Sun, Wanqi

    2014-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a typical chlorinated organophosphorus pesticide. The heterogeneous reaction of chlorpyrifos particles with NO3 radicals was investigated using a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS) and a real-time atmospheric gas analysis mass spectrometer. Chlorpyrifos oxon, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, O,O-diethyl O-hydrogen phosphorothioate, O,O-diethyl ester thiophosphoric acid, diethyl hydrogen phosphate and a phosphinyl disulfide compound were identified as the main degradation products. The heterogeneous reaction pathways were proposed and their kinetic processes were investigated via a mixed-phase relative rate method. The observed effective rate constant is 3.4 ± 0.2 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  17. An update on measurements of helium-production reactions with a spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report gives the status, updated since the last Research Coordination Meeting, of alpha-particle production cross sections, emission spectra and angular distributions which we are measuring at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135 degrees are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, 0, 27 Al, Si, 51 V, 56 Fe, 59 CO, 58,60 Ni, 89 Y and 93 Nb. Data for 59 Co have been re-analyzed. The results illustrate the capabilities of the approach, agreement with literature values, and comparisons with nuclear reaction model calculations

  18. Rate coefficients of exchange reactions accounting for vibrational excitation of reagents and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Kunova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models for the vibrational state-resolved Zeldovich reaction are assessed by comparison with the results of quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. An error in the model of Aliat is corrected; the model is generalized taking into account NO vibrational states. The proposed model is fairly simple and can be easily implemented to the software for non-equilibrium flow modeling. It provides a good agreement with the QCT rate coefficients in the whole range of temperatures and reagent/product vibrational states. The developed models are tested in simulations of vibrational and chemical relaxation of air mixture behind a shock wave. The importance of accounting for excitated NO vibrational states and accurate prediction of Zeldovich reactions rates is shown.

  19. Interaction of steel elements with products of lithium-water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, O.V.; Orlov, A.V.; Orlova, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Isobar and isothermal potentials of reactions of products of lithium interaction with water (Li 2 O, LiOH) with components of structural steels (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cr 4 C, Ni, Ti, Si, Al) are calculated at the general pressure of P=1 at in the absence of mutual solubility of components. The chemical resistance of steel components to lithium oxide and hydroxide effect in the temperature range of 300-1500 K is estimated comparatively. Lithium oxide and hydroxide have different corrosion properties relatively to chromium-nickel steels (simple and complex compounds form with LiOH, which do not form with Li 2 O). Titanium, niobium, silicon, aluminium form stable compounds when interacting with LiOH. In reactions with Li 2 O only complex titanium compounds are stable at the temperature >1150 K; aluminium compounds are stable in the whole range of temperatures investigated

  20. Heterogeneous kinetics, products, and mechanisms of ferulic acid particles in the reaction with NO3 radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Zhang, Peng; Wen, Xiaoying; Wu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Methoxyphenols, as an important component of wood burning, are produced by lignin pyrolysis and considered to be the potential tracers for wood smoke emissions. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction between ferulic acid particles and NO3 radicals was investigated. Six products including oxalic acid, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, 5-nitrovanillin, 5-nitroferulic acid, and caffeic acid were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the reaction mechanisms were proposed and the main pathways were NO3 electrophilic addition to olefin and the meta-position to the hydroxyl group. The uptake coefficient of NO3 radicals on ferulic acid particles was 0.17 ± 0.02 and the effective rate constant under experimental conditions was (1.71 ± 0.08) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The results indicate that ferulic acid degradation by NO3 can be an important sink at night.

  1. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Qu

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters.

  2. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghao; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters. PMID:26430733

  3. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity Testing of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product (Test Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, or fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), has been hypothesized as a contributory cause of an anomaly which occurred in the chamber pressure (PC) transducer tube on the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) aft thruster 467 on flight STS-51. A small hole was found in the titanium-alloy PC tube at the first bend below the pressure transducer. It was surmised that the hole may have been caused by heat and pressure resulting from ignition of FORP. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to define the chemical characteristics of FORP, characterize its reactivity, and simulate the events in a controlled environment which may have lead to the Pc-tube failure. Samples of FORP were obtained from the gas-phase reaction of MMH with NTO under laboratory conditions, the pulsed firings of RCS thrusters with modified PC tubes using varied oxidizer or fuel lead times, and the nominal RCS thruster firings at WSTF and Kaiser-Marquardt. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR), and mechanical impact testing were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical, thermal, and ignition properties of FORP. These studies showed that the composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depends on the fuel loxidizer ratio at the time of formation, composition of the post-formation atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing), and reaction or postreaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate (MMHN), ammonium nitrate (AN), methylammonium nitrate (MAN), and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. The thermal decomposition

  4. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhi Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results: During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry.

  6. In vitro antibacterial analysis of phenoloxidase reaction products from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Cong, Cong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-08-01

    Three phenoloxidases (POs) of Apostichopus japonicus, AjPOs (AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3), were partially purified from the coelomocytes with an electrophoretic method, and then employed for the in vitro antibacterial analysis. Using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO2-derived compounds inhibited the growth of Vibrio splendidus and Staphylococcus aureus, while AjPO3-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. When dopamine was used as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO3-derived compounds inhibited the growth of V. splendidus and Vibrio harveyi, while AjPO2-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. Moreover, AjPO1-derived compounds showed stronger inhibition in V. harveyi than AjPO3-derived compounds did. However, all of the three AjPO reaction products showed no inhibitions on the growth of Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Shewanella baltica, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Nocardiopsis sp. with L-DOPA or dopamine as a substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of V. harveyi treated by AjPOs and dopamine showed that AjPO1-derived compounds resulted in massive bacteriolysis, AjPO2-derived compounds caused no obvious alteration on bacterial morphology, and AjPO3-derived compounds increased the ratio of spheroidal bacteria. All these results suggested that AjPO reaction products derived by L-DOPA and dopamine had different but limited antibacterial spectrum, and the different antibacterial effects observed among three AjPOs resulted from the different reaction products generated by AjPOs with the same substrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of CuO addition on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available CuO-doped CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics were synthesized via a traditional solid-state reaction method, and their sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The results showed that appropriate CuO addition could accelerate the sintering process and assist the densification of CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics, which could effectively lower the densification temperature from 1250 °C to 1050 °C. However, the addition of CuO undermined the microwave dielectric properties. The optimal amount of CuO addition was found to be 0.8 wt%, and the derived CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramic sintered at 1100 °C presented good microwave dielectric properties of εr=7.27, Q×f=16,850 GHz and τf=−39.53 ppm/°C, which is much better than those of pure CaSiO3 ceramic sintered at 1340 oC (Q×f=13,109 GHz. The chemical compatibility of the above ceramic with 30 Pd/70 Ag during the cofiring process has also been investigated, and the result showed that there was no chemical reaction between palladium–silver alloys and ceramics.

  8. Synthesis and their enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures under solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guanying; Du, Bin; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Yujie; Shi, Honglong; Wang, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzhwangmuc@163.com

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures were fabricated for the first time. • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures show enhanced PEC activity. • ZnO nanoparticle loading contents have significant effect on PEC water splitting. • Interaction, charge transfer and enhanced mechanism of photocatalyst were proposed. • p-n junction drives the photoexcited charges efficient separation. - Abstract: Here we report an easy and large-scale synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion (denoted as n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion) heterostructures and their photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under simulated solar light illumination. CuO dandelions were fabricated by a facile and cost-effective chemical strategy, in which the ribbon-like CuO nanoplates were first formed and then assembled into dandelion-like architectures. ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures were fabricated by calcining Zn(Ac){sub 2}-loaded CuO dandelions. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies demonstrate that intimate p-n junction is built between p-CuO and n-ZnO interface. The n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion photoelectrodes exhibit significant improvement in PEC water splitting to CuO dandelion photoelectrodes. The correlation between photocurrents and different loading contents of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is studied in which the n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures with loading 4.6 wt% ZnO NPs show higher photocathodic current. The efficient separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes driven by the intimate p-n junction between p-type CuO and n-type ZnO interface is mainly contributed to the enhanced photoanode current. The achieved results in the present study offer a very useful strategy for designing p-n junction photoelectrodes for efficiency and low-cost PEC cells for clean solar hydrogen production.

  9. Modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry: A generalized expression for the ''reaction product vector'' for linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.; Weinberg, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized expression is developed that relates the ''reaction product vector'', epsilon exp(-iphi), to the kinetic parameters of a linear system. The formalism is appropriate for the analysis of modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry data and facilitates the correlation of experimental results to (proposed) linear models. A study of stability criteria appropriate for modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry experiments is also presented. This investigation has led to interesting inherent limitations which have not heretofore been emphasized, as well as a delineation of the conditions under which stable chemical oscillations may occur in the reacting system

  10. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) detection or hot atom reaction product internal energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, C.R. Jr.; Moore, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is being utilized to investigate the rovibrational energy distributions produced by reactive and nonreactive collisions of translationally hot atoms with simple molecules. Translationally hot H atoms are produced by ArF laser photolysis of HBr. Using CARS we have monitored, in a state-specific and time-resolved manner, rotational excitation of HBr (v = 0), vibrational excitation of HBr and H 2 , rovibrational excitation of H 2 produced by the reaction H + HBr → H 2 + Br, and Br atom production by photolysis of HBr

  11. Production of 139Ce by the 139La(p,n)139Ce reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, Noriko S.; Sekine, Toshiaki; Izumo, Mishiroku; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    2002-01-01

    To produce a carrier-free 139 Ce to be used as an efficiency-calibration source for Ge detectors, a target-preparation method and a chemical separation method were studied. It was found that commercially available powders of lanthanum-oxide and lanthanum metal are applicable to a target material in the nuclear reaction 139 La(p,n) 139 Ce. In the separation of 139 Ce from an irradiated lanthanum target, a solvent-extraction method and an ion-exchange method gave final products in good chemical purity. (author)

  12. Polarization effects in the reaction of charm baryon production on colliding electron-positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Korzh, A.P.; Barannik, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    To calculate energy and angular distributions of various decay products of charm baAyons, which are prodUced in reactions on colliding e + e - beams, it is necessary to know the differential cross sections of the e + e - → C+anti C process which correspond to different polarized states of produced C and anti C (C - charm baryon). These differential cross sections are calculated for a single-photon mechanism with respect to the contribution of the anapole and electric dipole form factors of C-baryon. Polarizations of colliding electron-positron beams are taken into account in a full volume

  13. Production of noble gas isotopes by proton-induced reactions on bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leya, I.; David, J.-C.; Leray, S.; Wieler, R.; Michel, R.

    2008-01-01

    We measured integral thin target cross sections for the proton-induced production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr- and Xe-isotopes from bismuth (Bi) from the respective reaction thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. Here we present 275 cross sections for 23 nuclear reactions. The production of noble gas isotopes from Bi is of special importance for design studies of accelerator driven systems (EA/ADS) and nuclear spallation sources. For experiments with proton energies above 200 MeV the mini-stack approach was used instead of the stacked-foil technique in order to minimise the influences of secondary particles on the residual nuclide production. Comparing the cross sections for Bi to the data published recently for Pb indicates that for 4 He the cross sections for Bi below 200 MeV are up to a factor of 2-3 higher than the Pb data, which can be explained by the production of α-decaying Po-isotopes from Bi but not from Pb. Some of the cross sections for the production of 21 Ne from Bi are affected by recoil effects from neighboured Al-foils, which compromises a study of a possible lowering of the effective Coulomb-barrier. The differences in the excitation functions between Pb and Bi for Kr- and Xe-isotopes can be explained by energy-dependent higher fission cross sections for Bi compared to Pb. The experimental data are compared to results from the theoretical nuclear model codes INCL4/ABLA and TALYS. The INCL4/ABLA system describes the cross sections for the production of 4 He-, Kr- and Xe-isotopes reasonably well, i.e. mostly within a factor of a few. In contrast, the model completely fails describing 21 Ne, 22 Ne, 36 Ar and 38 Ar, which are produced via spallation and/or multifragmentation. The TALYS code is only able to accurately predict reaction thresholds. The absolute values are either significantly over- or underestimated. Consequently, the comparison of measured and modelled thin target cross sections clearly indicates that experimental data are still needed because the

  14. Electronic structure studies of La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, A. L.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Jean, Y. C.; Wetzler, K. H.; Howell, R. H.; Fluss, M. J.; Harshman, D. R.; Remeika, J. P.; Cooper, A. S.; Fleming, R. M.

    1988-07-01

    We report results of positron-electron momentum-distribution measurements of single-crystal La2CuO4 using two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-annihilation-radiation techniques. The data contain two components: a large (~85%), isotropic corelike electron contribution and a remaining, anisotropic valence-electron contribution modeled using a linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital method and a localized ion scheme, within the independent-particle model approximation. This work suggests a ligand-field Hamiltonian to be justified for describing the electronic properties of perovskite materials.

  15. Cu-O superconductors: through a lens, but darkly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orenstein, J.; Thomas, G.A.; Rapkine, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of reflectivity R, for single crystal samples of La 2 CuO 4 (c-La) and pressed pellets of ceramic La/sub 2-x/Sr/sub x/CuO 4 (LaSr) for x = 0, 0.04, 0.075, 0.175, 0.225 are reported. A plot of R vs log nu for c-La is shown. The samples were cube-like objects approximately 2 mm on a side, which were polished as previously described

  16. Electronic structure studies of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, A.L.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Jean, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    We report results of positron-electron momentum-distribution measurements of single-crystal La 2 CuO 4 using two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-annihilation-radiation techniques. The data contain two components: a large (∼85%), isotropic corelike electron contribution and a remaining, anisotropic valence-electron contribution modeled using a linear combination of atomic orbitals--molecular orbital method and a localized ion scheme, within the independent-particle model approximation. This work suggests a ligand-field Hamiltonian to be justified for describing the electronic properties of perovskite materials

  17. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimkpa, Christian O., E-mail: cdimkpa@usu.edu [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States); McLean, Joan E. [Utah State University, Utah Water Research Laboratory (United States); Latta, Drew E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division (United States); Manangon, Eliana [University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics (United States); Britt, David W. [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States); Johnson, William P. [University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics (United States); Boyanov, Maxim I. [Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division (United States); Anderson, Anne J. [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are reported to impact plant growth in hydroponic systems. This study describes the impact of commercial CuO (<50 nm) and ZnO (<100 nm) NPs on wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in a solid matrix, sand. The NPs contained both metallic and non-metallic impurities to different extents. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy (AFM) assessments confirmed aggregation of the NPs to submicron sizes. AFM showed transformation of ZnO NPs from initial rhomboid shapes in water to elongated rods in the aqueous phase of the sand matrix. Solubilization of metals occurred in the sand at similar rates from CuO or ZnO NPs as their bulk equivalents. Amendment of the sand with 500 mg Cu and Zn/kg sand from the NPs significantly (p = 0.05) reduced root growth, but only CuO NPs impaired shoot growth; growth reductions were less with the bulk amendments. Dissolved Cu from CuO NPs contributed to their phytotoxicity but Zn release did not account for the changes in plant growth. Bioaccumulation of Cu, mainly as CuO and Cu(I)-sulfur complexes, and Zn as Zn-phosphate was detected in the shoots of NP-challenged plants. Total Cu and Zn levels in shoot were similar whether NP or bulk materials were used. Oxidative stress in the NP-treated plants was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione in roots and decreased chlorophyll content in shoots; higher peroxidase and catalase activities were present in roots. These findings correlate with the NPs causing increased production of reactive oxygen species. The accumulation of Cu and Zn from NPs into edible plants has relevance to the food chain.

  18. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on compressive strength of self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the compressive strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self-compacting concrete with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles have been investigated. CuO nanoparticles with an average particle size of 15 nm were added to self-compacting concrete and various properties of the specimens ...

  19. Tetragonal CuO: End member of the 3d transition metal monoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, W.; Koster, Gertjan; Blank, David H.A.; Hammond, Robert H.; Geballe, Theodore H.; Beasley, Malcolm R.

    2009-01-01

    Monoclinic CuO is anomalous both structurally as well as electronically in the 3d transition metal oxide series. All the others have the cubic rocksalt structure. Here we report the synthesis and electronic property determination of a tetragonal (elongated rocksalt) form of CuO created using an

  20. Molecular extinction coefficients of lead sulfide and polymerized diaminobenzidine as final reaction products of histochemical phosphatase reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Jonges, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    Molar extinction coefficients of precipitated lead sulfide (PbS) and polymerized diaminobenzidine (polyDAB) have been determined at wavelengths of 450 nm and 480 nm, respectively, for quantitative histochemical analysis of phosphatase reactions. These values are essential for the conversion of

  1. Mn(II) oxidation in Fenton and Fenton type systems : Identification of Reaction Efficiency and Reaction Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genuchten, C.M.; Peña, Jasquelin

    2017-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost methods of removing aqueous Mn(II) are required to improve the quality of impacted groundwater supplies. In this work, we show that Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) permits the oxidative removal of Mn(II) from solution by reaction with the reactive oxidant species produced

  2. Oxidation of β-lactam antibiotics by peracetic acid: Reaction kinetics, product and pathway evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejia; Zhou, Xinyan; Du, Penghui; Zhang, Tuqiao; Cai, Meiquan; Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2017-10-15

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a disinfection oxidant used in many industries including wastewater treatment. β-Lactams, a group of widely prescribed antibiotics, are frequently detected in wastewater effluents and surface waters. The reaction kinetics and transformation of seven β-lactams (cefalexin (CFX), cefadroxil (CFR), cefapirin (CFP), cephalothin (CFT), ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX) and penicillin G (PG)) toward PAA were investigated to elucidate the behavior of β-lactams during PAA oxidation processes. The reaction follows second-order kinetics and is much faster at pH 5 and 7 than at pH 9 due to speciation of PAA. Reactivity to PAA follows the order of CFR ∼ CFX > AMP ∼ AMX > CFT ∼ CFP ∼ PG and is related to β-lactam's nucleophilicity. The thioether sulfur of β-lactams is attacked by PAA to generate sulfoxide products. Presence of the phenylglycinyl amino group on β-lactams can significantly influence electron distribution and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) location and energy in ways that enhance the reactivity to PAA. Reaction rate constants obtained in clean water matrix can be used to accurately model the decay of β-lactams by PAA in surface water matrix and only slightly overestimate the decay in wastewater matrix. Results of this study indicate that the oxidative transformation of β-lactams by PAA can be expected under appropriate wastewater treatment conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Application of SSNTDs for measurements of fusion reaction products in high-temperature plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowska, A., E-mail: a.malinowska@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jaskola, M.; Korman, A. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    The paper describes the application of SSNTDs of the PM-355 type to diagnostics of reaction products emitted from high-temperature deuterium plasmas produced in Plasma Focus (PF) facilities. Acceleration processes occurring in plasma lead often to the generation of high-energy ion beams. Such beams induce nuclear reactions and contribute to the emission of fast neutrons, fusion protons and alpha particles from PF discharges with a deuterium gas. Ion measurements are of primary importance for understanding the mechanisms of the physical processes which drive the charged-particle acceleration. The main aim of the present studies was to perform measurements of spatial- and energy-distributions of fusion-reaction protons (about 3 MeV) within a PF facility. Results obtained from energy measurements were compared with the proton-energy spectra computed theoretically. The protons were measured by means of a set of ion pinhole cameras equipped with PM-355 detectors, which were placed at different angles relative to the electrode axis of the PF facility.

  4. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  5. pH-Controlled Oxidation of an Aromatic Ketone: Structural Elucidation of the Products of Two Green Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C. Eric

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory experiment emphasizing the structural elucidation of organic compounds has been developed as a discovery exercise. The "unknown" compounds are the products of the pH-controlled oxidation of 4'-methoxyacetophenone with bleach. The chemoselectivity of this reaction is highly dependent on the pH of the reaction media: under basic…

  6. Diversion of the melanin synthetic pathway by dopamine product scavengers: A quantum chemical modeling of the reaction mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Demissie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the stability and reactivity of the oxidation products as well as L-cysteine and N-acetylcysteine adducts of dopamine studied using quantum chemical calculations. The overall reactions studied were subdivided into four reaction channels. The first reaction channel is the oxidation of dopamine to form dopaminoquinone. The second reaction channel leads to melanin formation through subsequent reactions. The third and fourth reaction channels are reactions leading to the formation of dopaminoquinone adducts which are aimed to divert the synthesis of melanin. The results indicate that L-cysteine and N-acetylcysteine undergo chemical reactions mainly at C5 position of dopaminoquinone. The analyses of the thermodynamic energies indicate that L-cysteine and N-acetylcysteine covalently bind to dopaminoquinone by competing with the internal cyclization reaction of dopaminoquinone which leads to the synthesis of melanin. The analysis of the results, based on the reaction free energies, is also supported by the investigation of the natural bond orbitals of the reactants and products.

  7. Influence of CuO content on the structure of lithium fluoroborate glasses: Spectral and gamma irradiation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, A M; ElBatal, H A; EzzElDin, F M

    2015-10-05

    Glasses of lithium fluoroborate of the composition LiF 15%-B2O3 85% with increasing CuO as added dopant were prepared and characterized by combined optical and FTIR spectroscopy before and after gamma irradiation. The optical spectrum of the undoped glass reveals strong UV absorption with two distinct peaks at about 235 and 310 nm and with no visible bands. This strong UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurity (Fe(3+)) within the materials used for the preparation of this glass. After irradiation, the spectrum of the undoped glass shows a decrease of the intensity of the UV bands together with the resolution of an induced visible broad band centered at about 520 nm. The CuO doped glasses reveal the same UV absorption beside a very broad visible band centered at 780 nm and this band shows extension and splitting to several component peaks with higher CuO contents. Upon gamma irradiation, the spectra of all CuO-doped glasses reveal pronounced decrease of their intensities. The response of irradiation on the studied glasses is correlated with suggested photochemical reactions together with some shielding effect of the copper ions. The observed visible band is related to the presence of copper as distorted octahedral Cu(2+) ions. Infrared absorption spectra of the prepared glasses show repetitive characteristic triangular and tetrahedral borate units similar to that published from alkali or alkaline earth oxides B2O3 glasses. A suggested formation of (BO3/2F) tetrahedral units is advanced through action of LiF on B2O3 and these suggested units showing the same position and number as BO4 tetrahedra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of large α production in reactions involving weakly bound 7Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, S. K.; Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V. V.; Palit, R.; Keeley, N.; Rout, P. C.; Kumar, A.; Ramachandran, K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Nanal, V.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Nag, T. N.; Gupta, Shilpi; Biswas, S.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Singh, P.; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2017-10-01

    The origin of the large α -particle production cross sections in systems involving weakly bound 7Li projectiles has been investigated by measuring the cross sections of all possible fragment-capture as well as complete fusion using the particle-γ coincidence, in-beam, and off-beam γ -ray counting techniques for the 7Li+93Nb system at near Coulomb barrier energies. Almost all of the inclusive α -particle yield has been accounted for. While the t -capture mechanism is found to be dominant (˜70 % ), compound nuclear evaporation and breakup processes contribute ˜15 % each to the inclusive α -particle production in the measured energy range. Systematic behavior of the t capture and inclusive α cross sections for reactions involving 7Li over a wide mass range is also reported.

  9. Adverse reactions to cosmetic products and the Notification System in Health Surveillance: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, Gisele; Rito, Priscila da Nobrega; Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Boas, Maria Helena Simoes Villas

    2013-12-01

    This paper is part of a study that investigates the quality of cosmetic products and evaluates the cosmetic surveillance system. This study presents the results of a research that aimed to describe the point of view of the population in terms of the prevalence of Adverse Reactions (AR) and information about the surveillance system. A structured questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 200 people from the administrative staff of the Municipal Guard of Rio de Janeiro. 38% of the participants declared AR to some cosmetic product used in the past two years. To our knowledge, this is an unpublished study in Brazil, which presents results regarding the estimated prevalence of AR similarly to international studies.

  10. Fuel-sodium reaction product formation in breached mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, S.

    1988-01-01

    The run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) operation of mixed-oxide LMR fuel pins has been studied for six years in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as part of a joint program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The formation of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP), Na 3 MO 4 , where M = U/sub 1-y/Pu/sub y/, in the outer fuel regions is the major phenomenon governing RBCB behavior. It increases fuel volume, decreases fuel stoichiometry, modifies fission-product distributions, and alters thermal performance of a pin. This paper describes the morphology of Na 3 MO 4 observed in 5.84-mm diameter pins covering a variety of conditions and RBCB times up to 150 EFPD's. 8 refs., 1 fig

  11. Reactions of clofibric acid with oxidative and reductive radicals-Products, mechanisms, efficiency and toxic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csay, Tamás; Rácz, Gergely; Salik, Ádám; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of clofibric acid induced by hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron and O2-•/HO2• reactive species was studied in aqueous solutions. Clofibric acid was decomposed more effectively by hydroxyl radical than by hydrated electron or O2-•/HO2•. Various hydroxylated, dechlorinated and fragmentation products have been identified and quantified. A new LC-MS method was developed based on 18O isotope labeling to follow the formation of hydroxylated derivatives of clofibric acid. Possible degradation pathways have been proposed. The overall degradation was monitored by determination of sum parameters like COD, TOC and AOX. It was found that the organic chlorine degrades very effectively prior to complete mineralization. After the treatment no toxic effect was found according to Vibrio fischeri tests. However, at early stages some of the reaction products were more harmful than clofibric acid.

  12. Comparative analyses of laccase-catalyzed amination reactions for production of novel β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Manda, Katrin; Schlüter, Rabea; Lalk, Michael; Witt, Sabine; Seefeldt, Simone; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder; Jülich, Wolf-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Seven novel β-lactam antibiotics with activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains, among them methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, were synthesized by amination of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in usable yields (30-60%). These products protected mice against an infection with S. aureus lethal to the control animals. The results show the usefulness of laccase for the synthesis of potential new antibiotics, in addition to the interdependence of the laccase substrates, the amino coupling partners, and the product formation, yield, and activity. The syntheses of β-lactam antibiotics with 2,5-dihydroxyaromatic acid substructures (para-substituted) are then compared with those of 3,4-dihydroxyaromatic acid substructures (ortho-substituted). Para-substituted laccase substrates were better reaction partners in these syntheses than ortho-substituted compounds. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Formation of bromate and halogenated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of dissolved organic matter and CuO

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that significant bromate (BrO3-) can be formed via the CuO-catalyzed disproportionation of hypobromous acid (HOBr) pathway. In this study, the influence of CuO on the formation of BrO3- and halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes, THMs and haloacetic acids, HAAs) during chlorination of six dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates was investigated. Only in the presence of slow reacting DOM (from treated Colorado River water, i.e., CRW-BF-HPO), significant BrO3- formation is observed, which competes with bromination of DOM (i.e., THM and HAA formation). Reactions between HOBr and 12 model compounds in the presence of CuO indicates that CuO-catalyzed HOBr disproportionation is completely inhibited by fast reacting phenols, while it predominates in the presence of practically unreactive compounds (acetone, butanol, propionic, and butyric acids). In the presence of slow reacting di- and tri-carboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids), BrO3- formation varies, depending on its competition with bromoform and dibromoacetic acid formation (i.e., bromination pathway). The latter pathway can be enhanced by CuO due to the activation of HOBr. Therefore, increasing CuO dose (0-0.2 g L-1) in a reaction system containing chlorine, bromide, and CRW-BF-HPO enhances the formation of BrO3-, total THMs and HAAs. Factors including pH and initial reactant concentrations influence the DBP formation. These novel findings have implications for elevated DBP formation during transportation of chlorinated waters in copper-containing distribution systems.

  14. Formation of bromate and halogenated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of dissolved organic matter and CuO

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2015-12-02

    Previous studies showed that significant bromate (BrO3-) can be formed via the CuO-catalyzed disproportionation of hypobromous acid (HOBr) pathway. In this study, the influence of CuO on the formation of BrO3- and halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes, THMs and haloacetic acids, HAAs) during chlorination of six dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates was investigated. Only in the presence of slow reacting DOM (from treated Colorado River water, i.e., CRW-BF-HPO), significant BrO3- formation is observed, which competes with bromination of DOM (i.e., THM and HAA formation). Reactions between HOBr and 12 model compounds in the presence of CuO indicates that CuO-catalyzed HOBr disproportionation is completely inhibited by fast reacting phenols, while it predominates in the presence of practically unreactive compounds (acetone, butanol, propionic, and butyric acids). In the presence of slow reacting di- and tri-carboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids), BrO3- formation varies, depending on its competition with bromoform and dibromoacetic acid formation (i.e., bromination pathway). The latter pathway can be enhanced by CuO due to the activation of HOBr. Therefore, increasing CuO dose (0-0.2 g L-1) in a reaction system containing chlorine, bromide, and CRW-BF-HPO enhances the formation of BrO3-, total THMs and HAAs. Factors including pH and initial reactant concentrations influence the DBP formation. These novel findings have implications for elevated DBP formation during transportation of chlorinated waters in copper-containing distribution systems.

  15. Study of the C-14-contamination potential of C-impurities in CuO and Fe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeputte, K; Moens, L; Dams, R; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The carbon concentration in CuO and iron was determined by isolating C. The values were in agreement with results reported in other studies. Contaminating carbon from CuO and Fe was transformed to AMS targets and measured for C-14. C-traces in CuO were shown to be the major contribution to the C-14

  16. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  17. Products and mechanism of the reaction of Cl atoms with unsaturated alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana; Soto, Amparo; Bravo, Iván; Diaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Notario, Alberto; Aranda, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    The products of the chlorine atom initiated oxidation of different unsaturated alcohols were determined at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, in a 400 L teflon reaction chamber using GC-FID and GC-MS for the analysis. The major products detected (with molar yields in brackets) are: chloroacetaldehyde (50 ± 8%) and acrolein (27 ± 2%) from allyl alcohol; acetaldehyde (77 ± 11%), chloroacetaldehyde (75 ± 18%), and methyl vinyl ketone (17 ± 2%) from 3-buten-2-ol; acetone (55 ± 4%) and chloroacetaldehyde (59 ± 8%) from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol; chloroacetone (18 ± 1%) and methacrolein (8 ± 1%) from 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol; acetaldehyde (20 ± 1%), crotonaldehyde (6 ± 3%), 3-choloro-4-hydroxy-2-butanone (2 ± 2%) and 2-chloro-propanal (4 ± 5%) from crotyl alcohol; and acetone (24 ± 3%) from 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol. The experimental data suggests that addition of Cl to the double bond of the unsaturated alcohol is the dominant reaction pathway compared to the H-abstraction channel.

  18. Nuclear reactions and application to production rates of krypton in extraterrestrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavielle, B.

    1982-01-01

    Noble gases have been largely outgassed from most solar system materials through several heating processes. Consequently, their cosmogenic component, produced by cosmic-ray-induced nuclear reactions near the surface of atmosphere-free planetary objects, is detectable in meteorites and lunar samples. This work deals with the production of cosmogenic Krypton in the four main targets Zr, Y, Sr and Rb. Excitation functions of Krypton isotopes with A = 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85 and 86 were mass-spectrometrically measured in Y and Zr targets bombarded with 0.059, 0.075, 0.168, 0.200, 1.0, 2.5 and 24 GeV protons. Also the Krypton relative cross sections were measured in Sr at 0.168 GeV. The results, combined with a general survey of nuclear reactions in Ga to Nb targets, permitted the development of new systematics in order to estimate unknown cross-sections in Rb and Sr. Measured and estimated excitation functions allowed to calculate the concentrations and isotopic ratios of cosmogenic Krypton in same well-documented lunar samples. Compared to observed values in 9 rocks, 83 Kr is predicted with a precision better than 33% and the production ratios sup(i)Kr/ 83 Kr are predicted to better than 25%. Also it is concluded that the cosmogenic ratios 86 Kr/ 83 Kr and 81 Kr/ 83 Kr are dependent on the main target elements concentrations [fr

  19. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G., E-mail: erla.hafsteinsdottir@gmail.com [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); White, Duanne A., E-mail: duanne.white@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Gore, Damian B., E-mail: damian.gore@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stark, Scott C., E-mail: scott.stark@aad.gov.au [Environmental Protection and Change, Australian Antarctic Division, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] or sodium phosphate [Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}]) reacts with lead (PbSO{sub 4} or PbCl{sub 2}) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: > Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. > Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. > Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. > Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

  20. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G.; White, Duanne A.; Gore, Damian B.; Stark, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ] or sodium phosphate [Na 3 PO 4 ]) reacts with lead (PbSO 4 or PbCl 2 ) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO 4 and Na 3 PO 4 were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: → Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. → Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. → Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. → Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

  1. Selective synthesis of clinoatacamite Cu2(OH)3Cl and tenorite CuO nanoparticles by pH control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Malcho, Phillip; Andersen, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    , it directed the growth of Cu2(OH)3Cl to provide pure clinoatacamite without the presence of related poly- morphs. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible light spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission X......-ray microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Infrared spectroscopy was essential for characterization of closely related polymorphs of Cu2(OH)3Cl indistinguishable by XRD. A plausible mechanism has been proposed and discussed for the formation of the CuO and Cu2(OH)3Cl nanostructures....

  2. Wetting of molybdenum with molten Cu-O alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yupko, V.L.; Garbuz, V.V.; Kryuchkova, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cu-O alloys were prepared from type MOb copper (GOST 859-78) with an oxygen content of 0.001 wt.% and type ChDA cuprous oxide (MRTU 6-09-1451-64), the powder of which was first pressed into briquettes. The weighted portions of Cu 2 O were weighed on an Elektrobalans scale having an absolute error of ±5 · 10 -7 g. The relative error in weighing an approximately 1 · 10 -4 g weighed portion of Cu 2 O for preparation of the alloy with the minimum oxygen content of 0.002% was, therefore, ± 0.5% and consequently for the alloys with a higher oxygen content the accuracy was higher. The alloys were prepared on a ZrO 2 + 5% Y 2 O 3 ceramic at 1,420 K in a vacuum of 6.7 · 10 -3 Pa,d their weight was 1.0-1.5 g, and the melting time 30 sec. The pure type MOb copper was remelted in the same manner. The time relationships of the angle of wetting of molybdenum by molten Cu-O alloys under conditions of combined heating are given. With an increase in oxygen content from 0.004 to 0.005%, wetting drops sharply

  3. Two dimensional simulation of hydrogen iodide decomposition reaction using fluent code for hydrogen production using nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Jung Sik [The Institute of Machinery and Electronic Technology, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Ki Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Hyuk [Division of Marine Engineering System, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The operating characteristics of hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposition for hydrogen production were investigated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, and various factors, such as hydrogen production, heat of reaction, and temperature distribution, were studied to compare device performance with that expected for device development. Hydrogen production increased with an increase of the surface-to-volume (STV) ratio. With an increase of hydrogen production, the reaction heat increased. The internal pressure and velocity of the HI decomposer were estimated through pressure drop and reducing velocity from the preheating zone. The mass of H2O was independent of the STV ratio, whereas that of HI decreased with increasing STV ratio.

  4. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2002 – February 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2002 to February 2003 is given. In total, 40 reports were received. This had declined from the previous year. Most reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were Stock Remedies. The animal owner predominantly administered these products. Only 1 report was received from a veterinary pharmaceutical company. Increasing numbers of reports are being received from veterinarians.

  5. Actinide production in the reaction of heavy ions with curium-248

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Chemical experiments were performed to examine the usefulness of heavy ion transfer reactions in producing new, neutron-rich actinide nuclides. A general quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic mechanism is proposed, and the utility of this method as opposed to other methods (e.g. complete fusion) is discussed. The relative merits of various techniques of actinide target synthesis are discussed. A description is given of a target system designed to remove the large amounts of heat generated by the passage of a heavy ion beam through matter, thereby maximizing the beam intensity which can be safely used in an experiment. Also described is a general separation scheme for the actinide elements from protactinium (Z=91) to mendelevium (Z=101), and fast specific procedures for plutonium, americium and berkelium. The cross sections for the production of several nuclides from the bombardment of 248 Cm with 18 O, 86 Kr and 136 Xe projectiles at several energies near and below the Coulomb barrier were determined. The results are compared with yields from 48 Ca and 238 U bombardments of 248 Cm. Simple extrapolation of the product yields into unknown regions of charge and mass indicates that the use of heavy ion transfer reactions to produce new, neutron-rich above-target species is limited. The substantial production of neutron-rich below-target species, however, indicates that with very heavy ions like 136 Xe and 238 U the new species 248 Am, 249 Am and 247 Pu should be produced with large cross sections from a 248 Cm target. A preliminary, unsuccessful attempt to isolate 247 Pu is outlined. The failure is probably due to the half life of the decay, which is calculated to be less than 3 minutes. The absolute gamma ray intensities from 251 Bk decay, necessary for calculating the 251 Bk cross section, are also determined

  6. Modeling and simulation of enzymatic gluconic acid production using immobilized enzyme and CSTR-PFTR circulation reaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Lin, Jianqun; Gao, Ling; Lin, Huibin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2018-04-01

    Production of gluconic acid by using immobilized enzyme and continuous stirred tank reactor-plug flow tubular reactor (CSTR-PFTR) circulation reaction system. A production system is constructed for gluconic acid production, which consists of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for pH control and liquid storage and a plug flow tubular reactor (PFTR) filled with immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) for gluconic acid production. Mathematical model is developed for this production system and simulation is made for the enzymatic reaction process. The pH inhibition effect on GOD is modeled by using a bell-type curve. Gluconic acid can be efficiently produced by using the reaction system and the mathematical model developed for this system can simulate and predict the process well.

  7. New functionalities of Maillard reaction products as emulsifiers and encapsulating agents, and the processing parameters: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Non-enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry, ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever-debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to the Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavour, taste and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction products as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifiers as well as superior encapsulating matrices for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform the Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that need to be taken into consideration when conducting the Maillard reaction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Production of neutron-rich nuclides in the vicinity of N = 126 shell closure in multinucleon transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleon transfer in low-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is widely discussed as a method of production of yet-unknown neutron-rich nuclei hardly accessible (or inaccessible by other methods. Modeling of complicated dynamics of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions is done within a multidimensional dynamical model of nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the Langevin equations. The model gives a continuous description of the system evolution starting from the well-separated target and projectile in the entrance channel of the reaction up to the formation of final reaction products. In this paper, rather recent sets of experimental data for the 136Xe+198Pt,208Pb reactions are analyzed together with the production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the N = 126 magic shell.

  9. Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    In order to gain first insight into candidate Maillard reaction products formed upon thermal processing of garlic, mixtures of glucose and S-allyl-l-cysteine, the major sulfur-containing amino acid in garlic, were low-moisture heated, and nine major reaction products were isolated. LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and CD spectroscopy led to their identification as acortatarin A (1), pollenopyrroside A (2), epi-acortatarin A (3), xylapyrroside A (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbalde-hyde (5), 3-(allylthio)-2-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid (6), (4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (7), (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-[(4R)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]propanoic acid (8), and (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl)propanoic acid (9). Among the Maillard reaction products identified, compounds 5-9 have not previously been published. The thermal generation of the literature known spiroalkaloids 1-4 is reported for the first time. Sensory analysis revealed a bitter taste with thresholds between 0.5 and 785 μmol/kg for 1-5 and 7-9. Compound 6 did not show any intrinsic taste (water) but exhibited a strong mouthfullness (kokumi) enhancing activity above 186 μmol/kg. LC-MS/MS analysis showed 1-9 to be generated upon pan-frying of garlic with the highest concentration of 793.7 μmol/kg found for 6, thus exceeding its kokumi threshold by a factor of 4 and giving evidence for its potential taste modulation activity in processed garlic preparations.

  10. Synthesis of frost-like CuO combined graphene-TiO{sub 2} by self-assembly method and its high photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cung Tien [Department of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan, Chungnam, 356-706 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang-Youn [Korea Institutes of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Soho-ro, Jinju-Si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Won-Chun, E-mail: wc_oh@hanseo.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan, Chungnam, 356-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The frost-like CuO nanoparticles (3–5 nm) combined with the small TiO{sub 2} rods (50–100 nm) are expected to have a high charge transfer effect from TiO{sub 2} to CuO. • In this study, ·OH and h{sup +} play a major role in the photocatalytic reaction than O{sub 2}·{sup –} or both hydroxyl and holes are the active species responsible under visible light irradiation. • The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue trihydrate (MB), and reactive black B (RBB) in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation was observed by UV spectrophotometry after measurement of the decrease of their concentrations. CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} is expected to become a new potential material for photodegradation activity with excellent photodegradation. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of CuO-graphene (a and b), and CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} (c and d) composites. - Abstract: A novel material, frost-like CuO combined-graphene-TiO{sub 2} composite, was successfully synthesized using a self-assembly method. During the reaction, the loading of CuO and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene sheets was achieved. The obtained CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The frost-like CuO nanoparticles combined with the small TiO{sub 2} rods were successfully loaded on the transparent graphene sheets. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue trihydrate (MB), and reactive black B (RBB) in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation was observed by UV spectrophotometry after measurement of the decrease of their concentrations. Through the photocatalytic test and TOC results, the CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} is expected to

  11. Light-induced nitrous acid (HONO) production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions on household chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Bassil, Sabina; Bartolomei, Vincent; Coulomb, Bruno; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) can be generated in various indoor environments directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with water adsorbed layers on diverse surfaces. Indoors not only the concentrations of NO2 are higher but the surface to volume (S/V) ratios are larger and therefore the potential of HONO production is significantly elevated compared to outdoors. It has been claimed that the UV solar light is largely attenuated indoors. Here, we show that solar light (λ > 340 nm) penetrates indoors and can influence the heterogeneous reactions of gas-phase NO2 with various household surfaces. The NO2 to HONO conversion mediated by light on surfaces covered with domestic chemicals has been determined at atmospherically relevant conditions i.e. 50 ppb NO2 and 50% RH. The formation rates of HONO were enhanced in presence of light for all the studied surfaces and are determined in the following order: 1.3·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for borosilicate glass, 1.7·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for bathroom cleaner, 1.0·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 on alkaline detergent (floor cleaner), 1.3·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for white wall paint and 2.7·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for lacquer. These results highlight the potential of household chemicals, used for cleaning purposes to generate HONO indoors through light-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions. The results obtained have been applied to predict the timely evolution of HONO in a real indoor environment using a dynamic mass balance model. A steady state mixing ratio of HONO has been estimated at 1.6 ppb assuming a contribution from glass, paint and lacquer and considering the photolysis of HONO as the most important loss process.

  12. Evaluation of the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the analysis of polymerase chain reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduzio, Hélène; Ezan, Eric; Fenaille, François

    2010-12-30

    We have investigated the potential and robustness of the off-line coupling of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), for further applications in the screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This was based on recently reported data demonstrating that anion-exchange solid-phase extraction was the most efficient technique for efficiently desalting PCR products, with a recovery of ∼70%. Results showed that this purification approach efficiently removes almost all the chemicals commonly added to PCR buffers. ESI-MS analysis of a model 114-bp PCR product performed on the LTQ-Orbitrap instrument demonstrated that detection limits in the nM range along with an average mass measurement uncertainty of 9.15 ± 7.11 ppm can be routinely obtained using an external calibration. The PCR/ESI-MS platform was able to detect just a few copies of a targeted oligonucleotide. However, it was shown that if two PCR products are present in a mixture in a ratio higher than 10 to 1, the lower abundance one might not be reproducibly detected. Applications to SNPs demonstrated that an LTQ-Orbitrap with a resolution of 30 000 (at m/z 400) easily identified a single (A ↔ G) switch, i.e. a 16 Da difference, in binary mixtures of ∼ 35 kDa PCR products. Complementary experiments also showed that the combination of endonucleases and ESI-MS could be used to confirm base composition and sequence, and thus to screen for unknown polymorphisms in specific sequences. For example, a single (T ↔ A) switch (9 Da mass difference) was successfully identified in a 114-bp PCR product. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A novel differential electrochemical mass spectrometry method to determine the product distribution from parasitic Methanol oxidation reaction on oxygen reduction reaction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzinsky, Tilman; Kurzhals, Philipp; Cremers, Carsten

    2018-06-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction is in research focus since several decades due to its importance for the overall fuel cell performance. In direct methanol fuel cells, the crossover of methanol and its subsequent parasitic oxidation are main issues when it comes to preventing fuel cell performance losses. In this work, we present a novel differential electrochemical mass spectrometry method to evaluate oxygen reduction reaction catalysts on their tolerance to methanol being present at the cathode. Besides this, the setup allows to measure under more realistic fuel cell conditions than typical rotating disc electrode measurements, because the oxygen reduction reaction is evaluated in gaseous phase and a gas diffusion electrode is used as working electrode. Due to the new method, it was possible to investigate the oxygen reduction reaction on two commonly used catalysts (Pt/C and Pt3Co/C) in absence and presence of methanol. It was found, that Pt3Co/C is less prone to parasitic current losses due to methanol oxidation reaction. By connecting a mass spectrometer to the electrochemical cell, the new method allows to determine the products formed on the catalysts due to parasitic methanol electrooxidation.

  14. Production of hydrogen through the carbonation-calcination reaction applied to CH4/CO2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Corradetti, A.; Desideri, U.

    2007-01-01

    The production of hydrogen combined with carbon capture represents a possible option for reducing CO 2 emissions in atmosphere and anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Nowadays the worldwide hydrogen production is based mainly on natural gas reforming, but the attention of the scientific community is focused also on other gas mixtures with significant methane content. In particular mixtures constituted mainly by methane and carbon dioxide are extensively used in energy conversion applications, as they include land-fill gas, digester gas and natural gas. The present paper addresses the development of an innovative system for hydrogen production and CO 2 capture starting from these mixtures. The plant is based on steam methane reforming, coupled with the carbonation and calcination reactions for CO 2 absorption and desorption, respectively. A thermodynamic approach is proposed to investigate the plant performance in relation to the CH 4 content in the feeding gas. The results suggest that, in order to optimize the hydrogen purity and the efficiency, two different methodologies can be adopted involving both the system layout and operating parameters. In particular such methodologies are suitable for a methane content, respectively, higher and lower than 65%

  15. Products and kinetics of the heterogeneous reaction of suspended vinclozolin particles with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jie; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Xi; Liu, Changgeng; Shu, Jinian

    2010-11-25

    Vinclozolin is a widely used fungicide that can be released into the atmosphere via application and volatilization. This paper reports an experimental investigation on the heterogeneous ozonation of vinclozolin particles. The ozonation of vinclozolin adsorbed on azelaic acid particles under pseudo-first-order conditions is investigated online with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The ozonation products are analyzed with a combination of VUV-ATOFMS and GC/MS. Two main ozonation products are observed. The formation of the ozonation products results from addition of O(3) on the C-C double bond of the vinyl group. The heterogeneous reactive rate constant of vinclozolin particles under room temperature is (2.4 ± 0.4) × 10(-17) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1), with a corresponding lifetime at 100 ppbv O(3) of 4.3 ± 0.7 h, which is almost comparable with the estimated lifetime due to the reaction with atmospheric OH radicals (∼1.7 h). The reactive uptake coefficient for O(3) on vinclozolin particles is (6.1 ± 1.0) × 10(-4).

  16. Spontaneously Reported Adverse Reactions for Herbal Medicinal Products and Natural Remedies in Sweden 2007-15: Report from the Medical Products Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedlund, Erika; Larsson, Maria; Hägerkvist, Robert

    2017-06-01

    In relation to the extensive use of herbal medicinal products in self-care, the safety information is limited and there is a need for improvement. This study describes spontaneously reported adverse reactions related to herbal medicinal products and natural remedies in Sweden. To evaluate the characteristics and frequency of adverse events recorded by the Swedish Medical Products Agency, where herbal medicinal products and natural remedies were suspected as causative agents. Adverse drug reactions reported to the Swedish Medical Product Agency during 2007-15 related to approved herbal medicinal products or natural remedies were included and analysed in the retrospective study. Reports had been assessed for causality when they were lodged and only reports that had been assessed as at least possible were included in the study. In total, 116 reports (concerning 259 adverse reactions) related to herbal medicinal products or natural remedies were found in the Swedish national pharmacovigilance database. The active ingredients most frequently suspected during the study period were black cohosh rhizome (15 reports), purple coneflower herb (14 reports) and a combination of extracts of pollen (13 reports). Adverse reactions related to skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most commonly reported reactions. No previously unknown safety problems have been discovered in the present study. This finding could be explained by a thorough pre-approval assessment of medicinal products and the fact that most herbal preparations in medicinal products have been in clinical use for many years (for traditional herbal medicinal products, the requirements are ≥30 years), i.e. adverse reactions are acknowledged and assessed before approval.

  17. Meteorites, Organics and Fischer-Tropsch Type Reaction: Production and Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Natasha M.; Burton, A. S.; Nurth, J. A., III

    2011-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the relative importance about the various chemical reactions that fonned organics in the early solar system. One proposed method that has long been recognized as a potential source of organics is Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis. This process is commonly used in industry to produce fuels (i.e., complex hydrocarbons) by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Hill and Nuth were the first to publish results of FTT experiments that also included Haber-Bosch (HB) processes (hydrogenation of nitrogen. Their findings included the production of nitrilebearing compounds as well as trace amounts of methyl amine. Previous experience with these reactions revealed that the organic coating deposited on the grains is also an efficient catalyst and that the coating is composed of insoluble organic matter (10M) and could be reminiscent of the organic matrix found in some meteorites. This current set of FTT-styled experiments tracks the evolution of a set of organics, amino acids, in detail.

  18. Vibrational spectra of monouranates and uranium hydroxides as reaction products of alkali with uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komyak, A.I.; Umrejko, D.S.; Posledovich, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Vibrational (IR absorption and Raman scattering) spectra for the reaction products of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate with NaOH and KOH have been studied. As a result of exchange reactions, the uranyl-ion coordinated nitrate groups are completely replaced by hydroxyl ions and various uranium and uranyl oxides or hydrates are formed. An analysis of the vibrations has been performed in terms of the frequencies of a free or coordinated nitrate group; comparison with the vibrations of the well-known uranium oxides and of the uranyl group UO 2 2+ has been carried out. Vibrational spectra of a free nitrate group are characterized by four vibrational frequencies 1050, 724, 850, and 1380 cm -1 , among which the frequencies at 724 and 1380 cm -1 are doubly degenerate and attributed to E’ symmetry of the point group D 3h . When this group is uranium coordinated, its symmetry level is lowered to C 2v , all vibrations of this group being active both in Raman and IR spectra. The doubly degenerate vibrations are exhibited as two bands and a frequency of the out-of-plane vibration is lowered to 815 cm -1 . (authors)

  19. An update on measurements of helium-production reactions with a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This report gives the status, updated since the last Research Coordination Meeting, of alpha-particle production cross sections, emission spectra and angular distributions which we are measuring at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135{degrees} are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, 0, {sup 27}Al, Si, {sup 51}V, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 59}CO, {sup 58,60}Ni, {sup 89}Y and {sup 93}Nb. Data for {sup 59}Co have been re-analyzed. The results illustrate the capabilities of the approach, agreement with literature values, and comparisons with nuclear reaction model calculations.

  20. Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneberg, Robert; Salzwedel, Grit; Glomb, Marcus A

    2012-01-18

    The present study deals with the characterization of the ripening of cheese. A traditional German acid curd cheese was ripened under defined conditions at elevated temperature, and protein and amino acid modifications were investigated. Degree of proteolysis and analysis of early [Amadori compound furosine (6)] and advanced [N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (4), N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (5)] Maillard reaction products confirmed the maturation to proceed from the rind to the core of the cheese. Whereas 6 was decreased, 4 and 5 increased over time. Deeper insight into the Maillard reaction during the ripening of cheese was achieved by the determination of selected α-dicarbonyl compounds. Especially methylglyoxal (2) showed a characteristic behavior during storage of the acid curd cheese. Decrease of this reactive structure was directly correlated to the formation of 5. To extend the results of experimental ripening to commercial cheeses, different aged Gouda types were investigated. Maturation times of the samples ranged from 6 to 8 weeks (young) to more than 1 year (aged). Again, increase of 5 and decrease of 2 were able to describe the ripening of this rennet coagulated cheese. Therefore, both chemical parameters are potent markers to characterize the degree of maturation, independent of coagulation.

  1. Increase of rutin antioxidant activity by generating Maillard reaction products with lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; He, Ting; Yi, Ting; Yang, Ji-Ping; He, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Rutin exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and a number of plant-derived sources. Dietary sources containing rutin are considered beneficial because of their potential protective roles in multiple diseases related to oxidative stresses. In the present study, the change and antioxidation activity of rutin in Maillard reaction with lysine through a heating process were investigated. There is release of glucose and rhamnose that interact with lysine to give Maillard reaction products (MRPs), while rutin is converted to less-polar quercetin and a small quantity of isoquercitrin. Because of their high cell-membrane permeability, the rutin-lysine MRPs increase the free radical-scavenging activity in HepG2 cells, showing cellular antioxidant activity against Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress higher than that of rutin. Furthermore, the MRPs significantly increased the Cu/Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and Cu/Zn SOD gene expression of HepG2 cells, consequently enhancing antioxidation activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAIFUDDIN, N.; SITI FAZLILI, A.; KUMARAN, P.; PEI-JUA, N.; PRIATHASHINI, P.

    2016-03-01

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C8-C12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1:6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.

  3. Production of H2 from aluminium/water reaction and its potential for CO2 methanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Phung, Khor; Sethupathi, Sumathi; Siang Piao, Chai

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural gas that presents in excess in the atmosphere. Owing to its ability to cause global warming, capturing and conversion of CO2 have attracted much attention worldwide. CO2 methanation using hydrogen (H2) is believed to be a promising route for CO2 removal. In the present work, H2 is produced using aluminum-water reaction and tested for its ability to convert CO2 to methane (CH4). Different type of water i.e. tap water, distilled water, deionized water and ultrapure water, concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.2 M to 1.0 M) and particle size of aluminum (45 m to 500 μm) were varied as parameter study. It was found that the highest yield of H2 was obtained using distilled water, 1.0 M of NaOH and 45μm particle size of aluminium. However, the highest yield of methane was achieved using a moderate and progressive H2 production (distilled water, 0.6 M of NaOH and 45 μm particle size of aluminium) which allowed sufficient time for H2 to react with CO2. It was concluded that 1130 ml of H2 can produce about 560 ppm of CH4 within 25 min of batch reaction using nickel catalyst.

  4. Broadband Microwave Study of Reaction Intermediates and Products Through the Pyrolysis of Oxygenated Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Fritz, Sean; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing list of potential plant-derived biofuels creates a challenge for the scientific community to provide a molecular-scale understanding of their combustion. Development of accurate combustion models rests on a foundation of experimental data on the kinetics and product branching ratios of their individual reaction steps. Therefore, new spectroscopic tools are necessary to selectively detect and characterize fuel components and reactive intermediates generated by pyrolysis and combustion. Substituted furans, including furanic ethers, are considered second-generation biofuel candidates. Following the work of the Ellison group, an 8-18 GHz microwave study was carried out on the unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition of the smallest furanic ether, 2-methoxy furan, and it`s pyrolysis intermediate, the 2-furanyloxy radical, formed in a high-temperature pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion. Details of the experimental setup and analysis of the spectrum of the radical will be discussed.

  5. The quantum-chemical investigation of N-cyclization reaction mechanism for epichlorohydrin aminolysis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Tokar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of intramolecular cyclization for products of epichlorohydrin aminolysis by secondary amines has been investigated at ab initio level of theory. By comparative analysis of energetic characteristics, which obtained in vacuo as well as in acetonitrile solution with the trace quantities of water as an «active» solvation partner of reaction, it has been shown a decisive role of solvent, which occurs mainly at the expense of the polarizable effects for nonspecific solvation. Indeed, the addition to the substrate of one water molecule have decreased corresponding EACT values only 24.1 kJ/mol, while the appearance of acetonitrile surroundings have the same influence ~42.0 kJ/mol. The results of calculations are in good agreement with that data, which have been obtained for such type modeling previously.

  6. The Dubna double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer for heavy-ion reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, K.D.; Gippner, P.; Seidel, W.; Stary, F.; Will, E.; Heidel, K.; Lukyanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Salamatin, V.S.; Sodan, H.; Chubarian, G.G.

    1986-05-01

    The double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer DEMAS designed for the detection and identification of heavy-ion reaction products at incident energies below 10 MeV/amu is presented. Based on the kinematic coincidence method, the relevant physical information is obtained from the measurement of the two correlated velocity vectors of the binary fragments. Construction and performance of the different detector systems applied to measure the time-of-flight values, the position coordinates and the kinetic energies of both fragments are presented in detail. The description of the data acquisition and analysing procedures is followed by the discussion of some experimental examples to demonstrate the spectrometer performance. A mass resolution of typically 4 - 5 amu (fwhm) is routinely achieved. (author)

  7. Status of helium-production reaction studies with a spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Alpha--particle production cross sections and spectra are being measured at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135 degree are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, O, 27 Al, Si, 51 V, 56 Fe, 59 Co, 58,60 Ni, 89 Y and 93 Nb. Results for 59 Co illustrate the capabilities of the approach

  8. Selective Production of Renewable para-Xylene by Tungsten Carbide Catalyzed Atom-Economic Cascade Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Li, Changzhi; Li, Lin; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Zhang, Bo; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin

    2018-02-12

    Tungsten carbide was employed as the catalyst in an atom-economic and renewable synthesis of para-xylene with excellent selectivity and yield from 4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carbonylaldehyde (4-MCHCA). This intermediate is the product of the Diels-Alder reaction between the two readily available bio-based building blocks acrolein and isoprene. Our results suggest that 4-MCHCA undergoes a novel dehydroaromatization-hydrodeoxygenation cascade process by intramolecular hydrogen transfer that does not involve an external hydrogen source, and that the hydrodeoxygenation occurs through the direct dissociation of the C=O bond on the W 2 C surface. Notably, this process is readily applicable to the synthesis of various (multi)methylated arenes from bio-based building blocks, thus potentially providing a petroleum-independent solution to valuable aromatic compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The isolation of 139Ce after production by a proton-induced nuclear reaction on praseodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, T.N.; Vermeulen, C.

    2004-01-01

    A method, based on anion exchange chromatography, is presented for the isolation of 139 Ce after production by a proton-induced nuclear reaction on a thick praseodymium target. After bombardment the target is dissolved in nitric acid and 139 Ce oxidised to the Ce(IV) oxidation state with bromic acid. 139 Ce is then separated form the praseodymium by anion exchange chromatography on a Ag MP-1 resin column in a nitric acid - bromic acid mixture. 139 Ce is sorbed onto the resin column and praseodymium eluted with the acid mixture. The bromic acid is washed out of the column with nitric acid and 139 Ce finally eluted with dilute nitric acid containing sulphur dioxide

  10. Controlled release of volatiles under mild reaction conditions: from nature to everyday products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds serve in nature as semiochemicals for communication between species, and are often used as flavors and fragrances in our everyday life. The quite limited longevity of olfactive perception has led to the development of pro-perfumes or pro-fragrances--ideally nonvolatile and odorless fragrance precursors which release the active volatiles by bond cleavage. Only a limited amount of reaction conditions, such as hydrolysis, temperature changes, as well as the action of light, oxygen, enzymes, or microorganisms, can be used to liberate the many different chemical functionalities. This Review describes the controlled chemical release of fragrances and discusses additional challenges such as precursor stability during product storage as well as some aspects concerning toxicity and biodegradability. As the same systems can be applied in different areas of research, the scope of this Review covers fragrance delivery as well as the controlled release of volatiles in general.

  11. Action of the chlorine trifluoride on water vapour. Analysis of reaction products. Technical report - 589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, R.

    1961-06-01

    As the separation of uranium 235 from uranium 238 by gaseous diffusion under the form of uranium hexa-fluoride requires the use of materials which may contain some impurities retained by chemical or physical bounds, this report addresses the use of a reactant which would allow these impurities to be removed. Due to its properties (inert with respect to UF 6 ; transforms most of impurities into volatile compounds, and different UF compounds into UF 6 ; strongly reacts on water; all its degradation products are volatile), chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) has been chosen. It is used for the preprocessing of materials for their passivation with respect to UF 6 , and for a post-processing for the regeneration of porous materials by transformation of UF 4 , UO 2 F 2 and UF x into UF 6 . The authors more particularly studied the reaction between ClF 3 and water

  12. Pion production and absorption in nuclear reactions. I. The vertex function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.; Shakin, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    We have performed a model calculation of the pion-nucleon vertex function for the case in which one nucleon is allowed to go far off its mass shell. We discuss the relevance of this vertex function for the calculation of pion production and absorption in nuclear reactions, such as (π + ,p), (p,π + ), and for the pionic disintegration of the deuteron. The model used is based upon an approximation to an exact equation for the vertex function derived from a field-theoretic model with pseudoscalar coupling. Our calculations indicate a strong dependence of the vertex function on the invariant mass of the off-shell nucleon. The results are dominated by the presence of the 1470 MeV, P 11 resonance

  13. Magnetophoretic potential at the movement of cluster products of electrochemical reactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorobets, O. Yu.; Gorobets, Yu. I.; Rospotniuk, V. P.

    2015-01-01

    An electric field arises from the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field on charged colloid particles with magnetic susceptibility different from that of the surrounding liquid. It arises, for example, under the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field in clusters of electrochemical reaction products created during metal etching, deposition, and corrosion processes without an external electric current passing through an electrolyte near a magnetized electrode surface. The corresponding potential consists of a Nernst potential of inhomogeneous distribution of concentration of colloid particles and a magnetophoretic potential (MPP). This potential has been calculated using a thermodynamic approach based on the equations of thermodynamics of nonequilibrium systems and the Onsager relations for a mass flow of correlated magnetic clusters under a gradient magnetic force in the electrolyte. The conditions under which the MPP contribution to the total electric potential may be significant are discussed with a reference to the example of a corroding spherical ferromagnetic steel electrode

  14. Magnetophoretic potential at the movement of cluster products of electrochemical reactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorobets, O. Yu., E-mail: pitbm@ukr.net; Gorobets, Yu. I., E-mail: Gorobets@imag.kiev.ua [National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Peremogy Avenue 37, Kyiv 03056 (Ukraine); Institute of Magnetism NAS of Ukraine and National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vernadsky Avenue, 36-b, Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Rospotniuk, V. P. [National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Peremogy Avenue 37, Kyiv 03056 (Ukraine)

    2015-08-21

    An electric field arises from the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field on charged colloid particles with magnetic susceptibility different from that of the surrounding liquid. It arises, for example, under the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field in clusters of electrochemical reaction products created during metal etching, deposition, and corrosion processes without an external electric current passing through an electrolyte near a magnetized electrode surface. The corresponding potential consists of a Nernst potential of inhomogeneous distribution of concentration of colloid particles and a magnetophoretic potential (MPP). This potential has been calculated using a thermodynamic approach based on the equations of thermodynamics of nonequilibrium systems and the Onsager relations for a mass flow of correlated magnetic clusters under a gradient magnetic force in the electrolyte. The conditions under which the MPP contribution to the total electric potential may be significant are discussed with a reference to the example of a corroding spherical ferromagnetic steel electrode.

  15. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur; Karthikeyan, B.

    2013-01-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A u and B u modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes

  16. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur [Department of Marine Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 (India); Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: balkarin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India)

    2013-05-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A{sub u} and B{sub u} modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes.

  17. In Situ Study of Reduction Process of CuO Paste and Its Effect on Bondability of Cu-to-Cu Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Takafumi; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano, Tomokazu; Morikawa, Chiaki; Ohbuchi, Atsushi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Hirose, Akio

    2018-04-01

    A bonding method utilizing redox reactions of metallic oxide microparticles achieves metal-to-metal bonding in air, which can be alternative to lead-rich high-melting point solder. However, it is known that the degree of the reduction of metallic oxide microparticles have an influence on the joint strength using this bonding method. In this paper, the reduction behavior of CuO paste and its effect on Cu-to-Cu joints were investigated through simultaneous microstructure-related x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The CuO microparticles in the paste were gradually reduced to submicron Cu2O particles at 210-250°C. Subsequently, Cu nanoparticles were generated instantaneously at 300-315°C. There was a marked difference in the strengths of the joints formed at 300°C and 350°C. Thus, the Cu nanoparticles play a critical role in sintering-based bonding using CuO paste. Furthermore, once the Cu nanoparticles have formed, the joint strength increases with higher bonding temperature (from 350°C to 500°C) and pressure (5-15 MPa), which can exceed the strength of Pb-5Sn solder at higher temperature and pressure.

  18. Mitigation of ASR by the use of LiNO{sub 3}—Characterization of the reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.leemann@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstr. 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lörtscher, Luzia [Institute for Surface Science and Technology (D-MATL), ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr. 6, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bernard, Laetitia; Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstr. 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M. [Institute for Surface Science and Technology (D-MATL), ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr. 6, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-01

    The influence of the LiNO{sub 3} on the ASR product was studied both in a model system and in mortars. In the model system, the addition of LiNO{sub 3} decreases the dissolution rate and the solubility of silica. Lithium changes the 2-dimensional cross-linked (Q{sub 3} dominated) network of the ASR product into a less structured, Q{sub 2} dominated product, likely by adopting the role of calcium. In the mortar samples the addition of LiNO{sub 3} decreases expansion and significantly influences the chemical composition and the morphology of the reaction product. Lithium decreases the calcium, sodium and potassium content and changes the relatively porous plate-like reaction product into a dense one without texture. The findings in the mortars indicate that the ASR-suppressing effect of lithium is caused by the lower potential of the reaction product to swell. Furthermore, it forms a protective barrier after an initial reaction slowing down ASR. - Highlights: • Detection of lithium in ASR product by ToF-SIMS • Relation between composition of pore solution and ASR product • Identification of ASR suppressing mechanisms of LiNO{sub 3}.

  19. Mitigation of ASR by the use of LiNO3—Characterization of the reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, Andreas; Lörtscher, Luzia; Bernard, Laetitia; Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the LiNO 3 on the ASR product was studied both in a model system and in mortars. In the model system, the addition of LiNO 3 decreases the dissolution rate and the solubility of silica. Lithium changes the 2-dimensional cross-linked (Q 3 dominated) network of the ASR product into a less structured, Q 2 dominated product, likely by adopting the role of calcium. In the mortar samples the addition of LiNO 3 decreases expansion and significantly influences the chemical composition and the morphology of the reaction product. Lithium decreases the calcium, sodium and potassium content and changes the relatively porous plate-like reaction product into a dense one without texture. The findings in the mortars indicate that the ASR-suppressing effect of lithium is caused by the lower potential of the reaction product to swell. Furthermore, it forms a protective barrier after an initial reaction slowing down ASR. - Highlights: • Detection of lithium in ASR product by ToF-SIMS • Relation between composition of pore solution and ASR product • Identification of ASR suppressing mechanisms of LiNO 3

  20. Enhancement in light harvesting ability of photoactive layer P3HT: PCBM using CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, D. C.; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Dipak, Pukhrambam; Chandel, Tarun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized CuO nanoparticles via precipitation method and incorporated CuO nanoparticles in the P3HT-poly (3-hexyl) thiophene: PCBM-[6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterogeneous blend. The ratio of P3HT to CuO in the blend was varied, while maintaining the fixed ratio of PCBM. The UV-visible absorption spectra of P3HT: PCBM photoactive layer containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer. The absorption band starts from 310 nm to 750 nm for P3HT: CuO (NPs):PCBM (0.5:0.5:1). This shows that incorporation of CuO nanoparticles leads to larger absorption band. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows improvement in P3HT crystallinity and the better formation of CuO nanostructures.

  1. Theoretical and experimental methods to determine the properties of molten core components and reaction products. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazare, S.; Ondracek, G.; Schulz, B.

    1975-10-01

    In the course of a loss of coolant accident, a sequence of events would be initiated that ultimately could lead to core melting. The course of these events and the consequences of core meltdown would in part be determined by the properties of the core materials and the products of their interaction. On the basis of available theoretical and experimental results, the report attempts an estimation of properties such as: 1) work of adhesion between UO 2 - and (U,Zr) liquid phase, 2) heat of fusion of some melts, 3) heat capacity of liquid reaction products, 4) viscosity of liquid reaction products, 5) thermal conductivity of liquid reaction products. Experimental work is suggested for those cases, where the estimates need to be improved or verified. (orig.) [de

  2. New vision to CuO, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles: their outcome and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibber, Sandesh; Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology have attracted more and more attention due to their wide ranges of applications in various fields. With a high level of surface energy, high magnetism, high surface area, and low melting point, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has been widely used in industry for various applications. Metal nanoparticles, in particular, have been shown to cause significant biological effects. Review discusses cytotoxic to neurotoxic effects of CuO, ZnO, and TiO 2 nanoparticles based on the scenario drawn from various in vitro and in vivo studies. ENPs such as TiO 2 and ZnO NPs have great practical importance in industrial applications. CuO NPs is also widely used in biomedical applications as catalyst supports, drug carriers, and gene delivery. However, study conducted on TiO 2 NPs have forecast that oxidative DNA damage could be attributed due to reduced glutathione levels with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, there are many evidences showing that ZnO NP and CuO NPs generates ROS production and can cause cell death in different types of cultured cell. Nanoparticle toxicity is assessed by set of tests designed to characterize a given risk and also the mechanism for related outcomes. Conclusively, it becomes more and more important for nanotechnologist to understand the potential health effects of ENPs and what new methodology can be applied to reveal problems like gene silencing and inhibition in antioxidant defense mechanism which can be occurred on severe effects to oxidative stress by ENPs.

  3. New vision to CuO, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles: their outcome and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibber, Sandesh; Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana

    2013-04-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology have attracted more and more attention due to their wide ranges of applications in various fields. With a high level of surface energy, high magnetism, high surface area, and low melting point, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has been widely used in industry for various applications. Metal nanoparticles, in particular, have been shown to cause significant biological effects. Review discusses cytotoxic to neurotoxic effects of CuO, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles based on the scenario drawn from various in vitro and in vivo studies. ENPs such as TiO2 and ZnO NPs have great practical importance in industrial applications. CuO NPs is also widely used in biomedical applications as catalyst supports, drug carriers, and gene delivery. However, study conducted on TiO2 NPs have forecast that oxidative DNA damage could be attributed due to reduced glutathione levels with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, there are many evidences showing that ZnO NP and CuO NPs generates ROS production and can cause cell death in different types of cultured cell. Nanoparticle toxicity is assessed by set of tests designed to characterize a given risk and also the mechanism for related outcomes. Conclusively, it becomes more and more important for nanotechnologist to understand the potential health effects of ENPs and what new methodology can be applied to reveal problems like gene silencing and inhibition in antioxidant defense mechanism which can be occurred on severe effects to oxidative stress by ENPs.

  4. Oxidative degradation of triclosan by potassium permanganate: Kinetics, degradation products, reaction mechanism, and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we systematically investigated the potential applicability of potassium permanganate for removal of triclosan (TCS) in water treatment. A series of kinetic experiments were carried out to study the influence of various factors, including the pH, oxidant doses, temperature, and presence of typical anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-)), humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) on triclosan removal. The optimal reaction conditions were: pH = 8.0, [TCS]0:[KMnO4]0 = 1:2.5, and T = 25 °C, where 20 mg/L of TCS could be completely degraded in 120 s. However, the rate of TCS (20 μg/L) oxidation by KMnO4 ([TCS]0:[KMnO4]0 = 1:2.5) was 1.64 × 10(-3) mg L(-1)·h(-1), lower than that at an initial concentration of 20 mg/L (2.24 × 10(3) mg L(-1)·h(-1)). A total of eleven products were detected by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) analysis, including phenol and its derivatives, benzoquinone, an organic acid, and aldehyde. Two main reaction pathways involving CO bond cleavage (-C(8)O(7)-) and benzene ring opening (in the less chlorinated benzene ring) were proposed, and were further confirmed based on frontier electron density calculations and point charges. Furthermore, the changes in the toxicity of the reaction solution during TCS oxidation by KMnO4 were evaluated by using both the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum and the water flea Daphnia magna. The toxicity of 20 mg/L triclosan to D. magna and P. phosphoreum after 60 min was reduced by 95.2% and 43.0%, respectively. Phenol and 1,4-benzoquinone, the two representative degradation products formed during permanganate oxidation, would yield low concentrations of DBPs (STHMFP, 20.99-278.97 μg/mg; SHAAFP, 7.86 × 10(-4)-45.77 μg/mg) after chlorination and chloramination. Overall, KMnO4 can be used as an effective oxidizing agent for TCS removal in water and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subthreshold pion production in the reaction 139La + 139La → π+- + X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1988-01-01

    We have measured charged pion production in the reaction 139 La + 139 La → π +- + X at three beam energies (246, 183 and 138 MeVnucleon) below the nucleon-nucleon threshold. Associated multiplicity for charged participants was obtained using a 110-element scintillator multiplicity array. Data were taken over the angular range of 21/degree/ to 67/degree/ in the laboratory (equivalent to 30/degree/ to 90/degree/ in the center of mass). Dependence of the spectra upon pion charge, energy and angle, beam energy, system mass and associated multiplicity was investigated. Based on the isotropic angular distibutions and the associated multiplicities for pion production, it appears that subthreshold pions in the range of our experiment are produced predominantly from a source at rest in the center of mass and involving a large number of nucleons. The general character of the subthreshold pion spectra is comparable to previous results above threshold. However, the scaling of the subthreshold pion yield with system mass deviates from the dependence observed in light systems, to an extent which cannot be explained by a simple nucleon-nucleon model. We also found charge dependent structure in the pion spectra, which we analysed in the framework of both Coulomb distortion and clustering models. We conclude that while we did not find clear evidence of collective effects in subthreshold pion production, it would be very worthwhile to conduct a systematic investigation of pion production for all charge states and over a range of angles, system masses and beam energies, below threshold. 170 refs., 78 figs., 10 tabs

  6. The quantification of free Amadori compounds and amino acids allows to model the bound Maillard reaction products formation in soybean products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wiltafsky, Markus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The quantification of protein bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) is still a challenge in food chemistry. Protein hydrolysis is the bottleneck step: it is time consuming and the protein degradation is not always complete. In this study, the quantitation of free amino acids and Amadori products

  7. Transforming from paramagnetism to room temperature ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiang Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to induce ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling without any ferromagnetic dopant. The magnetic measurements indicate that paramagnetic CuO is driven to the ferromagnetic state at room temperature by ball milling gradually. The saturation magnetization of the milled powders is found to increase with expanding the milling time and then decrease by annealing under atmosphere. The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that the observed induction and weaken of the ferromagnetism shows close relationship with the valence charged oxygen vacancies (Cu1+-VO in CuO.

  8. Annealing effect on superconductivity of La2CuO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, I.; Takahashi, H.; Kojima, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that La 2 CuO 4 single crystals grown at an oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa by TSFZ method are superconducting below 32 K, and show a semiconducting behavior in nonsuperconducting state. The single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 are changed from superconductors to semiconductors by annealing in argon, and are returned to superconductors by annealing at ambient pressure of oxygen. Therefore, superconductivity of the La 2 CuO 4 single crystals is due to excess oxygen

  9. Annealing effect on superconductivity of La2CuO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, L.; Takahashi, H.; Kojima, H.

    1992-01-01

    La 2 CuO 4 single crystals grown at an oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa by TSFZ method are superconducting below 32 K, and show a semiconducting behavior in nonsuperconducting state. The single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 are changed from superconductors to semiconductors by annealing in argon, and are returned to superconductors by annealing at ambient pressure of oxygen. Therefore, superconductivity of the La 2 CuO 4 single crystals is due to excess oxygen. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volanti, D.P.; Keyson, D.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Joya, M.R.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Pizani, P.S.; Souza, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained

  11. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volanti, D.P. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br; Simoes, A.Z. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Joya, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Pizani, P.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Souza, A.G. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-14

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained.

  12. Optical excitations in CuO2-sheets doped and undoped with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, Y.; Arima, T.; Koshihara, S.; Takagi, H.; Ido, T.; Ishibashi, S.; Uchida, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports optical reflectance spectra measured on single crystals of parent families of high T c copper oxide compounds with single-layered CuO 2 -sheets, which clearly show the strong transitons across the charge-transfer (CT) gaps at 1.5-2.0 eV in various types of CuO 2 -sheets. The carrier-doping effects on the CT excitations have been investigated on the Sr-doped La 2 CuO 4 and Ce-doped Nd 2 O 4 crystals

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of tartrazine dye using CuO straw-sheaf-like nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Martha Purnachander; Wu, Jerry J; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2017-03-01

    Straw-sheaf-like CuO nanostructures were fruitfully synthesized using a chemical precipitation approach for the photocatalytic degradation assessment of tartrazine. Phase identification, composition, and morphological outlook of prepared CuO nanostructures were established by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the synthesized CuO nanostructures was appraised in the presence of visible light and the possible intermediates formed during the photocatalytic degradation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A suitable degradation pathway has also been proposed.

  14. Reaction F + C2H4: Rate Constant and Yields of the Reaction Products as a Function of Temperature over 298-950 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedjanian, Yuri

    2018-03-29

    The kinetics and products of the reaction of F + C 2 H 4 have been studied in a discharge flow reactor combined with an electron impact ionization mass spectrometer at nearly 2 Torr total pressure of helium in the temperature range 298-950 K. The total rate constant of the reaction, k 1 = (1.78 ± 0.30) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , determined under pseudo-first-order conditions, monitoring the kinetics of F atom consumption in excess of C 2 H 4 , was found to be temperature independent in the temperature range used. H, C 2 H 3 F, and HF were identified as the reaction products. Absolute measurements of the yields of these species allowed to determine the branching ratios, k 1b / k 1 = (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and k 1a / k 1 = 1 - (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and partial rate constants for addition-elimination (H + C 2 H 3 F) and H atom abstraction (HF + C 2 H 3 ) pathways of the title reaction: k 1a = (0.80 ± 0.07) × 10 -10 exp(189 ± 37/ T) and k 1b = (1.26 ± 0.13) × 10 -10 exp(-414 ± 45/ T) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , respectively, at T = 298-950 K and with 2σ quoted uncertainties. The overall reaction rate constant can be adequately described by both the temperature independent value and as a sum of k 1a and k 1b . The kinetic and mechanistic data from the present study are discussed in comparison with previous absolute and relative measurements and theoretical calculations.

  15. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2004 - February 2006 : report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2004 to February 2006 is presented. A total of 21 reports was received in the 2-year period, continuing the decline in the number of reports to a lower figure than in any previous year. This is surprising considering the legal obligation of the veterinary professionals to report all adverse drug reactions. Once again the majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were stock remedies. Veterinarians predominantly administered these products.

  16. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Porciúncula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick, and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  17. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O.; McLean, Joan E.; Latta, Drew E.; Manangón, Eliana; Britt, David W.; Johnson, William P.; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are reported to impact plant growth in hydroponic systems. This study describes the impact of commercial CuO (release did not account for the changes in plant growth. Bioaccumulation of Cu, mainly as CuO and Cu(I)-sulfur complexes, and Zn as Zn-phosphate was detected in the shoots of NP-challenged plants. Total Cu and Zn levels in shoot were similar whether NP or bulk materials were used. Oxidative stress in the NP-treated plants was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione in roots and decreased chlorophyll content in shoots; higher peroxidase and catalase activities were present in roots. These findings correlate with the NPs causing increased production of reactive oxygen species. The accumulation of Cu and Zn from NPs into edible plants has relevance to the food chain.

  18. Production of proton-rich nuclei around Z = 84-90 in fusion-evaporation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng-Hui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Feng, Zhao-Qing; Li, Jun-Qing; Jin, Gen-Ming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Niu, Fei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Henan Normal University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Xinxiang (China); Guo, Ya-Fei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Hong-Fei [Lanzhou University, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    Within the framework of the dinuclear system model, production cross sections of proton-rich nuclei with charged numbers of Z = 84-90 are investigated systematically. Possible combinations with the {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, {sup 40}Ar bombarding the target nuclides {sup 165}Ho, {sup 169}Tm, {sup 170-174}Yb, {sup 175,176}Lu, {sup 174,} {sup 176-180}Hf and {sup 181}Ta are analyzed thoroughly. The optimal excitation energies and evaporation channels are proposed to produce the proton-rich nuclei. The systems are feasible to be constructed in experiments. It is found that the neutron shell closure of N = 126 is of importance during the evaporation of neutrons. The experimental excitation functions in the {sup 40}Ar induced reactions can be nicely reproduced. The charged particle evaporation is comparable with neutrons in cooling the excited proton-rich nuclei, in particular for the channels with α and proton evaporation. The production cross section increases with the mass asymmetry of colliding systems because of the decrease of the inner fusion barrier. The channels with pure neutron evaporation depend on the isotopic targets. But it is different for the channels with charged particles and more sensitive to the odd-even effect. (orig.)

  19. IR laser induced reactions: temperature distributions and detection of primary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, F.

    1981-12-01

    The products of laser-driven pyrolysis in the gas phase often differ drastically from those of conventional pyrolysis. In this work some reasons for this behaviour are considered. First, temperature distributions in cylindrical cells, filled with SF 6 at low pressure and heated by cw CO 2 laser radiation, are calculated by a simple model. The influence of convection is not taken into account. Comparison of theoretical prediction and corresponding experiments included the temperature-dependent absorption cross section. In the second part we describe a molecular-beam sampling system for real time monitoring of primary products in laser-driven reactions. With this system initial tests were made in nonreacting SF 6 /rare-gas mixtures. The influence of thermal diffusion was indicated by changes in concentration when the laser was switched on and off. A theoretical treatment is given solving the time-dependent heat-conduction and diffusion equation numerically. As an example for reacting systems, the laser-driven pyrolysis of methanol with SF 6 as an absorber was studied. (orig./HT)

  20. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  1. Stable hydrogen production from ethanol through steam reforming reaction over nickel-containing smectite-derived catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Arai, Masahiko

    2014-12-25

    Hydrogen production through steam reforming of ethanol was investigated with conventional supported nickel catalysts and a Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst. The former is initially active, but significant catalyst deactivation occurs during the reaction due to carbon deposition. Side reactions of the decomposition of CO and CH4 are the main reason for the catalyst deactivation, and these reactions can relatively be suppressed by the use of the Ni-containing smectite. The Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst contains, after H2 reduction, stable and active Ni nanocrystallites, and as a result, it shows a stable and high catalytic performance for the steam reforming of ethanol, producing H2.

  2. Effect of the Ti/B4C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B4C powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Yu, Huashun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B 4 C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB 2 is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B 4 C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al 3 BC or Al 4 C 3 when the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B 4 C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively

  3. Amplification of nonspecific products in quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Ruiz-Villalba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative PCR allows the precise measurement of DNA concentrations and is generally considered to be straightforward and trouble free. However, a survey with 93 validated assays for genes in the Wnt-pathway showed that the amplification of nonspecific products occurs frequently and is unrelated to Cq or PCR efficiency values. Titration experiments showed that the occurrence of low and high melting temperature artifacts was shown to be determined by annealing temperature, primer concentration and cDNA input. To explore the range of input variations that occur in the normal use of the Cre assay these conditions were mimicked in a complete two-way design of template −plasmid DNA- and non-template −mouse cDNA- concentrations. These experiments showed that the frequency of the amplification of the correct product and the artifact, as well as the valid quantification of the correct product, depended on the concentration of the non-template cDNA. This finding questions the interpretation of dilution series in which template as well as non-template concentrations are simultaneously decreasing. Repetition of this cDNA concentration experiment with other templates revealed that exact reproduction qPCR experiments was affected by the time it takes to complete the pipetting of a qPCR plate. Long bench times were observed to lead to significantly more artifacts. However, the measurement of artifact-associated fluorescence can be avoided by inclusion of a small heating step after the elongation phase in the amplification protocol. Taken together, this trouble-shooting journey showed that reliability and reproducibility of qPCR experiments not only depends on standardization and reporting of the biochemistry and technical aspects but also on hitherto neglected factors as sample dilution and waiting times in the laboratory work flow. Keywords: RT-qPCR, Melting curve analysis, Reaction parameters, Artifacts

  4. Age-related slowing of response selection and production in a visual choice reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with delayed processing in choice reaction time (CRT tasks, but the processing stages most impacted by aging have not been clearly identified. Here, we analyzed CRT latencies in a computerized serial visual feature-conjunction task. Participants responded to a target letter (probability 40% by pressing one mouse button, and responded to distractor letters differing either in color, shape, or both features from the target (probabilities 20% each, by pressing the other mouse button. Stimuli were presented randomly to the left and right visual fields and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs were adaptively reduced following correct responses using a staircase procedure. In Experiment 1, we tested 1466 participants who ranged in age from 18 to 65 years. CRT latencies increased significantly with age (r = 0.47, 2.80 ms/year. Central processing time (CPT, isolated by subtracting simple reaction times (obtained in a companion experiment performed on the same day from CRT latencies, accounted for more than 80% of age-related CRT slowing, with most of the remaining increase in latency due to slowed motor responses. Participants were faster and more accurate when the stimulus location was spatially compatible with the mouse button used for responding, and this effect increased slightly with age. Participants took longer to respond to distractors with target color or shape than to distractors with no target features. However, the additional time needed to discriminate the more target-like distractors did not increase with age. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings of Experiment 1 in a second population of 178 participants (ages 18-82 years. CRT latencies did not differ significantly in the two experiments, and similar effects of age, distractor similarity, and stimulus-response spatial compatibility were found. The results suggest that the age-related slowing in visual CRT latencies is largely due to delays in response selection and

  5. Reduction and Analysis of Low Temperature Shift Heterogeneous Catalyst for Water Gas Reaction in Ammonia Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain additional quantities of hydrogen after the reforming reactions of natural gas and protect the ammonia synthesis catalyst, it is crucial to achieve and maintain maximum possible activity, selectivity and stability of the low temperature shift catalyst for conversion of water gas reaction during its lifetime. Whereas the heterogeneous catalyst comes in oxidized form, it is of the utmost importance to conduct the reduction procedure properly. The proper reduction procedure and continuous analysis of its performance would ensure the required activity, selectivity and stability throughout the catalyst’s service time. For the proper reduction procedure ofthe low temperature shift catalyst, in addition to process equipment, also necessary is a reliable and realistic system for temperature measurements, which will be effective for monitoring the exothermal temperature curves through all catalyst bed layers. For efficiency evaluation of low shift temperature catalyst reduction and its optimization, it is necessary to determine at regular time intervals the temperature approach to equilibrium and temperature profiles of individual layers by means of "S" and "die off" temperature exothermal curves. Based on the obtained data, the optimum inlet temperature could be determined, in order to maximally extend the service life of the heterogeneous catalyst as much as possible, and achieve the optimum equilibrium for conversion of the water gas. This paper presents the methodology for in situ reduction of the low temperature shift heterogeneous catalyst and the developed system for monitoring its individual layers to achieve the minimum possible content of carbon monoxide at the exit of the reactor. The developed system for temperature monitoring through heterogeneous catalyst layers provides the proper procedure for reduction and adjustment of optimum process working conditions for the catalyst by the continuous increase of reactor inlet

  6. Preparation, characterization and toxicology properties of α- and β-chitosan Maillard reaction products nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Zhang, Yiwen; Bao, Erjaing; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, β-chitosan (CS) Maillard reaction (MR) NPs was prepared to improve the water solubility of CS NPs. The α- and β-CS MR was firstly induced by high intensity ultrasound-assisted (UA) water-bath heating at 80°C for 8h. The α- and β-CS Maillard reaction products (MRPs NPs were then prepared by ionic gelation method between the positively charged primary amino groups of CS and the negatively charged groups of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The α- and β-CS MRPs NPs had particle size of 42.49 and 61.74nm, and Zeta-potential of 27.43 and 35.13mV, respectively. The prepared α- and β-CS MRPs NPs was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)-differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to verify whether α- and β-CS MRPs has been incorporated into the CS NPs. The α- and β-CS MRPs NPs exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in antioxidant activity compared with α- and β-CS MRPs at the same concentration based on reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ORAC values. The cytotoxicity test of α- and β-CS MRPs NPs showed good cell viability (70.86-99.16%) of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) at the concentration range from 0.12 to 1mg/mL, and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-α- and β-CS MRPs NPs maintained the morphological characteristics of living cells. These results showed that α- and β-CS MRPs NPs can be used as water-soluble antioxidant substances for applications in food and other fields. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Correlating enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haining; Zhang, Xiaoming; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin

    2017-09-01

    Up to now, only limited research on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) has been reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. In the present study, BIC and antioxidant capacity, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Fe 2+ reducing power activity, of the MRPs derived from 12 different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated. The MRPs of cysteine (Cys), cystine, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His) showed higher BIC compared to other amino acids. Lysine (Lys)-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A 420 ) but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC and the lowest A 420 . The A 420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids, except Cys and Lys. MRPs from tyrosine (Tyr) showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared to other amino acids. Partial least squares regression analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe 2+ reducing power of MRPs from 12 amino acids with glucose or fructose, except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, whereas neutral and alkaline pH were suitable for His and Arg, respectively. Increasing both heating temperature and time over a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, whereas any further increase deteriorates their browning inhibition efficiencies. The types of amino acid, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There is no clear relationship between BIC and the antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of the Maillard

  8. Spin dynamics in CuO and Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretta, P.; Corti, M.; Rigamonti, A. (Department of Physics Alessandro Volta,' ' University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    [sup 63]Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear antiferromagnetic resonance (AFNMR), and spin-lattice relaxation, as well as [sup 7]Li NMR and relaxation measurements in CuO and in Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

  9. Comparison of internal friction in high Tc superconductors and CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzowski, O.; Davoli, I.; Stizza, S.; Mancini, G.; Kusz, B.; Barczynski, R.; Gazda, M.; Sadowski, W.; Murawski, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the internal friction and shielding effect in CuO, superconducting yttrium and bismuth ceramics and yttrium monocrystal that have been measured. Several features, some of them common for all specimens, have been found

  10. CuO urchin-nanostructures synthesized from a domestic hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyson, D.; Volanti, D.P.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2008-01-01

    This letter reports the synthesis of CuO urchin-nanostructures by a simple and novel hydrothermal microwave method. The formation and growth of urchin-nanostructures is mainly affected by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The hierarchical malachite particles are uniform spheres with a diameter of 0.7-1.9 μm. CuO urchin-nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The specific surface area of the CuO nanostructured microspheres was about 170.5 m 2 /g. A possible mechanism for the formation of such CuO urchin-nanostructures is proposed

  11. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India and Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gupta, V. K. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R. [Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  12. On light cluster production in nucleon induced reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Blideanu, V.; Durand, D.

    2004-09-01

    A dynamical model dedicated to nucleon induced reaction between 30-150 MeV is presented. It considers different stages of the reaction: the approaching phase, the in-medium nucleon-nucleon collisions, the cluster formation and the secondary de-excitation process. The notions of influence area and phase-space exploration during the reaction are introduced. The importance of the geometry of the reaction and of the conservation laws are underlined. The model is able to globally reproduce the absolute cross sections for the emission of neutron and light charged particles for proton and neutron induced reactions on heavy and intermediate mass targets ( 56 Fe and 208 Pb). (authors)

  13. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2001 - February 2002 : report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre during the period March 2001 to February 2002 is given. A total of 77 reports were received. The majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most products implicated in the reports were Stock Remedies. The products were predominantly administered either by veterinarians or trained paraveterinary professionals. Although the majority of reports were received from veterinary pharmaceutical companies, the proportion of reports received directly from veterinarians increased compared with previous years.

  14. The functional properties of chitosan-glucose-asparagine Maillard reaction products and mitigation of acrylamide formation by chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chou, Yu-Hao; Hsiao, Hsin-I

    2018-03-15

    This research aims to clarify the interactions that occur in a food model system consisting of glucose, asparagine and chitosans. Low molecular weight chitosan exerted a potent inhibitory effect (46.8%) on acrylamide and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) (>52.6%), respectively. Compared to a previous study conducted using the fructose system, the novel findings of this research demonstrate that the formation of acrylamide and Maillard reaction products was lower with glucose than with fructose when they were used as reducing sugars in food model systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced antiproton production in Pb(160 A GeV)+Pb reactions evidence for quark gluon matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Bleicher, M; Bass, S A; Soff, S; Stöcker, H

    2000-01-01

    The centrality dependence of the antiproton per participant ratio is studied in Pb(160 AGeV)+Pb reactions. Antiproton production in collisions of heavy nuclei at the CERN/SPS seems considerably enhanced as compared to conventional hadronic physics, given by the antiproton production rates in $pp$ and antiproton annihilation in $\\bar{p}p$ reactions. This enhancement is consistent with the observation of strong in-medium effects in other hadronic observables and may be an indication of partial restoration of chiral symmetry.

  16. CuO nanoparticle sensor for the electrochemical determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sathish; Kumara Swamy, B.E.; Jayadevappa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MCPE prepared from flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibits good electrocatalytic activity for DA compared with MCPE prepared from rod-shaped CuO nanoparticles. ► The MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles strong electrocatalytic enhancement of redox peak currents for DA and large peak potential separation between E AA − E DA . ► Analysis of DA shows linearly increase in anodic peak current in presence of excess ascorbic acid. ► Ease of preparation and good analytical response supports its claim for use as a potential dopamine sensor. - Abstract: In the present work, different shaped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a co-precipitation method. The CuO nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis). The prepared CuO nanoparticles were used for the preparation of modified carbon-paste electrodes (MCPE) for the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA) at pH 6.0. The MCPE prepared from flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited an enhanced current response for DA. Electrochemical parameters, such as the surface area of the electrode, the heterogeneous rate constant (k s ) and the lower detection limit (5.5 × 10 −8 M), were calculated and compared with those of the MCPE prepared from rod-shaped CuO nanoparticles. The MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited a further improved current response for DA and a high selectivity (E AA − E DA = 0.28 V) for the simultaneous investigation of DA and ascorbic acid (AA) at pH 6.0. The modified carbon-paste electrochemical sensors were compared, and the MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited better performance than the MCPE prepared from CTAB

  17. [Development of boomerang-type intramolecular cascade reactions and application to natural product synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, K

    2001-12-01

    Intramolecular cascade reaction has received much attention as a powerful methodology to construct a polycyclic framework in organic synthesis. We have been developing "boomerang-type cascade reaction" to construct a variety of polycyclic skeletons efficiently. In the above reactions, a nucleophilic function of substrates changes the character into an electrophile after the initial reaction, and the electrophilic group acts as a nucleophile in the second reaction. That is, the reaction center stepwise moves from one functional group back to the same one via other functional groups. The stream of the electron concerning the cascade reaction is like a locus of boomerang. We show here three different boomerang-type reactions via ionic species or free radicals. 1) Diastereoselective Michael-aldol reaction based on the chiral auxiliary method and enantioselective Michael-aldol reaction by the use of external chiral sources. 2) Short and efficient total syntheses of longifolane sesquiterpenes utilizing intramolecular double Michael addition as a key step. 3) Development of boomerang-type radical cascade reaction of halopolyenes to construct terpenoid skeletons and its regioselectivity.

  18. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresa P S Prasad, Dattatray S Dhawale, Thiripuranthagan Sivakumar, Salem S Aldeyab, Javaid S M Zaidi, Katsuhiko Ariga and Ajayan Vinu

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD r...

  20. Preparation and photo Fenton-like activities of high crystalline CuO fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; He, Jing; Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    CuO fibers were successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning method, followed by calcination. Some experimental parameters such as the content of Cu(NO3)2•3H2O, the content of PVP, the stirring time, the applied voltage, as well the calcination temperature were investigated, respectively, and their influences on the morphologies of fibers and the spinnability of precursor solution were analyzed. The CuO fibers calcined at 550 °C consisted of numerous CuO grains exhibited a well-crystalline structure. Furthermore, the CuO fibers demonstrated effective photo-Fenton degradation to methyl orange with the assist of H2O2 and the adding volume of H2O2 affects the degradation activities greatly. The degradation rate of methyl orange by the CuO fibers in the presence of 238.8 mmol/L H2O2 is 3.8 times as much as one by P25 alone under the irradiation of Xe lamp. The degradation ratio of methyl orange could achieve 83% in 180 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of the CuO fibers were attributed to two aspects: one is the well-crystalline of CuO fibers; the other is that H2O2 accepted the photogenerated electrons and holes effectively, which not only prevented the recombination of charge carriers but also produced additional rad OH. In this work, the formation and photocatalysis mechanisms of CuO fibers were also investigated.

  1. Identifying genes involved in the interaction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with Maillard reaction products (MRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaha, Raniah Abdulmohsen

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycelemcomitcrns is a gram-negative bacterium that is a facultative anaerobe which can grow in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The bacteria cause localized aggressive periodontitis that can result in the loss of teeth and endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves. A rich medium is an essential requirement for its growth. There arc some difficulties associated with growing the bacteria as they easily switch from the rough to smooth phenotype under no specific conditions. The bacteria start to lose viability after about 19 hours of growth in broth or about three days on plates. Colonies in the dense part of the streak on plates die earlier. It was shown that acid secreted by the colonies is responsible for the loss of viability as the bacteria are extremely sensitive to low pH. Autoclaving the growth medium for A. actinomycetemcomitans causes the bacteria to grow slowly because of the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). A method has been developed to make the A. actinomycetemcomitans growth medium using the microwave instead of the autoclave. This method produces much less of the inhibitory product since the heating time is only six minutes, compared to more than an hour when using the autoclave. Two approaches were sought in this research. The first approach was the identification of genes responsible for the interaction between the MRP and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The gene responsible for this interaction was found to be a Lys M protein which is found in many genes responsible for the cell wall integrity. The second approach was to develop a new drug made of glucose and lysine with a minimum inhibitory concentration as 75mM.

  2. Pulmonary effects of inhaled limonene ozone reaction products in elderly rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Laumbach, Robert J; Patel, Kinal J; Turpin, Barbara J; Lim, Ho-Jin; Kipen, Howard M; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2007-07-15

    d-Limonene is an unsaturated volatile organic chemical found in cleaning products, air fresheners and soaps. It is oxidized by ozone to secondary organic aerosols consisting of aldehydes, acids, oxidants and fine and ultra fine particles. The lung irritant effects of these limonene ozone reaction products (LOP) were investigated. Female F344 rats (2- and 18-month-old) were exposed for 3 h to air or LOP formed by reacting 6 ppm d-limonene and 0.8 ppm ozone. BAL fluid, lung tissue and cells were analyzed 0 h and 20 h later. Inhalation of LOP increased TNF-alpha, cyclooxygenase-2, and superoxide dismutase in alveolar macrophages (AM) and Type II cells. Responses of older animals were attenuated when compared to younger animals. LOP also decreased p38 MAP kinase in AM from both younger and older animals. In contrast, while LOP increased p44/42 MAP kinase in AM from younger rats, expression decreased in AM and Type II cells from older animals. NF-kappaB and C/EBP activity also increased in AM from younger animals following LOP exposure but decreased or was unaffected in Type II cells. Whereas in younger animals LOP caused endothelial cell hypertrophy, perivascular and pleural edema and thickening of alveolar septal walls, in lungs from older animals, patchy accumulation of fluid within septal walls in alveolar sacs and subtle pleural edema were noted. LOP are pulmonary irritants inducing distinct inflammatory responses in younger and older animals. This may contribute to the differential sensitivity of these populations to pulmonary irritants.

  3. Pulmonary effects of inhaled limonene ozone reaction products in elderly rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Laumbach, Robert J.; Patel, Kinal J.; Turpin, Barbara J.; Lim, Ho-Jin; Kipen, Howard M.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2007-01-01

    d-Limonene is an unsaturated volatile organic chemical found in cleaning products, air fresheners and soaps. It is oxidized by ozone to secondary organic aerosols consisting of aldehydes, acids, oxidants and fine and ultra fine particles. The lung irritant effects of these limonene ozone reaction products (LOP) were investigated. Female F344 rats (2- and 18-month-old) were exposed for 3 h to air or LOP formed by reacting 6 ppm d-limonene and 0.8 ppm ozone. BAL fluid, lung tissue and cells were analyzed 0 h and 20 h later. Inhalation of LOP increased TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and superoxide dismutase in alveolar macrophages (AM) and Type II cells. Responses of older animals were attenuated when compared to younger animals. LOP also decreased p38 MAP kinase in AM from both younger and older animals. In contrast, while LOP increased p44/42 MAP kinase in AM from younger rats, expression decreased in AM and Type II cells from older animals. NF-κB and C/EBP activity also increased in AM from younger animals following LOP exposure but decreased or was unaffected in Type II cells. Whereas in younger animals LOP caused endothelial cell hypertrophy, perivascular and pleural edema and thickening of alveolar septal walls, in lungs from older animals, patchy accumulation of fluid within septal walls in alveolar sacs and subtle pleural edema were noted. LOP are pulmonary irritants inducing distinct inflammatory responses in younger and older animals. This may contribute to the differential sensitivity of these populations to pulmonary irritants

  4. Influence of bread crust-derived Maillard reaction products on phosphorus balance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alonso-Olalla, Rebeca; Navarro, María Pilar

    2012-10-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) improve food palatability and are linked to some positive biological actions. However, diverse negative consequences, some related to protein damage and mineral availability, have been established. We investigated the effects of MRP, from a bread crust diet, on phosphorus bioavailability and tissue distribution in rats to determine whether these effects are related to the molecular weight of browning products. During a study period of 88 days, rats were fed either a control diet or one of the following: with bread crust as a source of MRP, or one with its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fraction (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a phosphorus balance was performed, after which the animals were sacrificed and some organs removed to analyse phosphorus content. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate phosphorus retention. Phosphorus balance in the last week was unchanged. However, considering the whole experimental period, a trend towards improved bioavailability, significant in the HMW group, was observed. Higher phosphorus concentrations were measured in the small intestine and bone. The consumption of MRP derived from bread did not alter phosphorus retention, due to increased bioavailability, especially concerning HMW compounds. The overall phosphorus body content remained unchanged and there were no changes in the bone, its principal metabolic destination. However, MRP consumption markedly raised phosphorus levels at the digestive level, especially when consumed as isolate fractions. The slower rate of stomach emptying is assumed to be related to this effect.

  5. Magnesium stearine production via direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M.; Ylitervo, P.; Pettersson, A.; Prakoso, T.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    The fossil oil production could not compensate with the increase of its consumption, because of this reason the renewable alternative energy source is needed to meet this requirement of this fuel. One of the methods to produce hydrocarbon is by decarboxylation of fatty acids. Vegetable oil and fats are the greatest source of fatty acids, so these can be used as raw material for biohydrocarbon production. From other researchers on their past researchs, by heating base soap from divalent metal, those metal salts will decarboxylate and produce hydrocarbon. This study investigate the process and characterization of magnesium soaps from palm stearine by Blachford method. The metal soaps are synthesized by direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium stearine and magnesium stearine base soaps at 140-180°C and 6-10 bar for 3-6 hours. The operation process which succeed to gain metal soaps is 180°C, 10 bar, for 3-6 hours. These metal soaps are then compared with commercial magnesium stearate. Based on Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) results, the decomposition temperature of all the metal soaps were 250°C. Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis have shown the traces of sodium sulphate for magnesium stearate commercial and magnesium hydroxide for both type of magnesium stearine soaps. The analysis results from Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES) have shown that the magnesium content of magnesium stearine approximate with magnesium stearate commercial and lower compare with magnesium stearine base soaps. These experiments suggest that the presented saponification process method could produced metal soaps comparable with the commercial metal soaps.

  6. Direct Dynamics Simulation of the Thermal 3CH2 + 3O2 Reaction. Rate Constant and Product Branching Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Sandhiya; Pratihar, Subha; Machado, Francisco Bolivar Correto; Hase, William Louis

    2018-04-26

    The reaction of 3CH2 with 3O2 is of fundamental importance in combustion and the reaction is complex as a result of multiple extremely exothermic product channels. In the present study, direct dynamics simulations were performed to study the reaction on both the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs). The simulations were performed at the UM06/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Trajectories were calculated at a temperature of 300 K and all reactive trajectories proceeded through the carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, on both the singlet and triplet PESs. The triplet surface leads to only one product channel, H2CO + O(3P), while the singlet surface leads to 8 product channels with their relative importance as: CO + H2O > CO + OH + H ~ H2CO + O(1D) > HCO + OH ~ CO2 + H2 ~ CO + H2 + O(1D) > CO2 + H + H > HCO + O(1D) + H. Reaction on the singlet PES is barrierless, consistent with experiment and the total rate constant on the singlet surface is 0.93 ± 0.22 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1 in comparison to the recommended experimental rate constant of 3.3 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1. The simulation product yields for the singlet PES are compared with experiment and the most significant differences are for H, CO2, and H2O. Reaction on the triplet surface is also barrierless, inconsistent with experiment. A discussion is given of the need for future calculations to address the: (1) barrier on the triplet PES for 3CH2 + 3O2 → 3CH2OO; (2) temperature dependence of the 3CH2 + 3O2 reaction rate constant and product branching ratios; and (3) possible non-RRKM dynamics of the 1CH2OO Criegee intermediate.

  7. Synthesis of novel CuO nanosheets and their non-enzymatic glucose sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Beni, Valerio; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus

    2013-06-20

    In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 10² µA/mMcm² and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

  8. Synthesis of Novel CuO Nanosheets and Their Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 102 µA/mMcm2 and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

  9. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitz, Iris S., E-mail: irisweitz@braude.ac.il; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel [ORT Braude College, Department of Biotechnology Engineering (Israel); Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester [Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  10. Photocatalytic effect of green synthesised CuO nanoparticles on selected environmental pollutants and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuku, Xolile; Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Maaza, Malik

    2018-05-01

    Highly crystalline irregular green synthesised CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs) which are 10 nm in particle size were successfully characterised by HRSEM and AFM. EDS confirmed the main components of prepared sample which are Cu and O. Meanwhile, UV/Vis revealed the reflectance, transmittance, absorbance and the semiconducting nature of the synthesised nano-oxides. The optical band gap of CuO NPs was calculated to be 1.4 - 2.3 eV which indicates that CuO NPs can be used in metal oxide semiconductor-based devices. CuO NPs were found to be excellent photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange organic dye under the illumination of artificial light irradiation. The experiments demonstrated that MO in aqueous solution was more efficiently photo-degraded (65 %) using CuO NPs as photocatalysts. Further, the nanomaterials were also found to be good inhibitors of bacterial strains at both low and high concentrations of 5 - 10 mg mL-1.

  11. CuO nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, optical properties and interaction with amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Trass, A.; ElShamy, H.; El-Mehasseb, I. [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt); El-Kemary, M., E-mail: elkemary@yahoo.com [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm have been successfully prepared by an alcothermal method. The prepared CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. A strong sharp emission under UV excitation is reported from the prepared CuO nanoparticles. The results show that the CuO nanoparticles have high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The fluorescence emission spectra display an intense sharp emission at 365 nm and weak broad intensity emission at 470 nm. Picosecond fluorescence measurements of the nanoparticles suggest bi-exponential function giving time constants of {tau}{sub 1} (330 ps, 94.21%) and {tau}{sub 2} (4.69 ns, 5.79%). In neutral and alkaline solutions, Zeta potential values of CuO nanoparticles are negative, due to the adsorption of COO{sup -} group via the coordination of bidentate. At low pH the zeta potential value is positive due to the increased potential of H{sup +} ions in solution. Comparative UV-visible absorption experiments with the model amino acid compounds of positive and negative charges as arginine and aspartic acid, respectively confirmed the negative surface of CuO nanoparticles. The results should be extremely useful for understanding the mode of the interaction with biological systems. This binding process also affects the particle's behavior inside the body.

  12. Fabrication of CuO nanoplatelets for highly sensitive enzyme-free determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Adhered growth of CuO nanoplatelets on Cu foils. > Enzyme-free glucose sensor with very high sensitivity. > Excellent stability and good anti-interference ability. - Abstract: CuO nanoplatelets were grown on Cu foils by a one step, template free process. The structure and morphology of the CuO nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The CuO nanoplatelets grown on Cu foil were integrated to be an electrode for glucose sensing. The electrocatalytic activity of the CuO nanoplatelets electrode for glucose in alkaline media was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 3490.7 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to glucose which is much higher than that of most reported enzyme-free glucose sensors and the linear range was obtained over a concentration up to 0.80 mM with a detection limit of 0.50 {mu}M (signal/noise = 3). Exhilaratingly, the electrode based on the CuO nanoplatelets is resistant against poisoning by chloride ion, and the interference from the oxidation of common interfering species, such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and carbonhydrate compounds, can also be effectively avoided. Finally, the electrode was applied to analyze glucose concentration in human serum samples.

  13. Products and mechanisms of the reaction of gas phase ozone with organic colorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, D. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (USA)); Druzik, J.R. (Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, CA (USA)); Sensharma, D.K. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Whitmore, P.M.; DeMoor, C.P.; Cass, G.R. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Studies carried out in this laboratory have shown that many artists organic colorants fade substantially when exposed to ozone in the dark. These studies typically involved pigment exposure for 12 weeks to purified air containing 0.3-0.4 ppm of ozone at ambient temperature and humidity. These laboratory conditions are equivalent to about six years of exposure inside a typical air-conditioned building in Los Angeles, and the observed fading is therefore directly relevant to possible damage to works of arts in museum settings. Organic colorants that were most ozone-fugitive included natural colorants, such as curcumin and indigo, as well as modern synthetic colorants such as alizarin lakes and triphenylmethane dyes. Thus, these colorants were selected for further study with emphasis on the nature of the reaction products. Exposures were carried out on different substrates including watercolor paper, cellulose, silica gel, and Teflon. The experiments involved long-term exposure to low levels of ozone (e.g. {approximately} 0.3 ppm for 90 days) or shorter-term exposure to higher ozone concentrations (e.g. 10 ppm for 24 hours). Exposed and control samples, along with solvent and substrate blanks, were analyzed by mass spectrometry using a Kratos Scientific Instruments MS25 hexapole mass spectrometer operated in either methane chemical ionization (CI) or electron impact (EI) modes.

  14. Sintering uranium oxide in the reaction product of hydrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hollander, W.R.; Nivas, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide alone or containing one or more additives such as plutonium dioxide, gadolinium oxide, titanium dioxide, silica, and alumina are heated to 900 to 1599 0 C in the presence of a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, either alone or with an inert carrier gas and held at the desired temperature in this atmosphere to sinter the pellets. The sintered pellets are then cooled in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -4 to 10 -18 atm of oxygen such as dry hydrogen, wet hydrogen, dry carbon monoxide, wet carbon monoxide, inert gases such as nitrogen, argon, helium, and neon and mixtures of ayny of the foregoing including a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon dioxide in the gas mixture fed to the furnace is controlled to give a ratio of oxygen to uranium atoms in the sintered particles within the range of 1.98:1 to about 2.10:1. The water vapor present in the reaction products in the furnace atmosphere acts as a hydrolysis agent to aid removal of fluoride should such impurity be present in the uranium oxide. (U.S.)

  15. Evaporation Rate Study and NDMA Formation from UDMH/NO2 Reaction Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Dee, Louis A.; Baker, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory samples of uns-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) fuel/oxidizer (nitrogen dioxide) non-combustion reaction products (UFORP) were prepared using a unique permeation tube technology. Also, a synthetic UFORP was prepared from UDMH, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), dimethylammonium nitrate, sodium nitrite and purified water. The evaporation rate of UFORP and synthetic UFORP was determined under space vacuum (approx 10(exp -3) Torr) at -40 ?C and 0 ?C. The material remaining was analyzed and showed that the UFORP weight and NDMA concentration decreased over time; however, NDMA had not completely evaporated. Over 85% of the weight was removed by subjecting the UFORP to 10(-3) Torr for 7 hours at -40 ?C and 4 hours at 0 ?C. A mixture of dimethylammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite formed NDMA at a rapid rate in a moist air environment. A sample of UFORP residue was analyzed for formation of NDMA under various conditions. It was found that NDMA was not formed unless nitrite was added.

  16. Investigation of direct photon production in 200 A GeV S + Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Direct thermal photons in the p T range of 0--5 GeV/c are expected to provide a sensitive probe of the early conditions of the Quark Gluon Plasma which may be formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The production of single photons in 200 A GeV S + Au reactions has been investigated using the 3,800 element Pbglass calorimeter of CERN experiment WA80. Neutral π 0 and η cross sections have been measured via their two-photon decay branch yields. The measured π 0 and η cross sections have been used to calculate the expected inclusive yield of decay photons. Excess photon yield, beyond that attributed to radiative decays and background sources, may be associated with thermal photon emission. Excess, ''direct'' photon yields have been extracted from high-statistics S + Au photon data for different event centrality classes. A slight excess photon yield above that which may be accounted for by hadronic decays was observed for central events

  17. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  18. Some parameters of uranium hexafluoride plasma produced by products of nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Belyakova, Eh.A.

    1996-01-01

    The probe experimental results of investigation of uranium hexafluoride plasma produced in the centre of nuclear reactor core were demonstrated. Study of uranium hexafluoride plasma is continued by the following reasons: a possibility of U F 6 utilization as nuclear fuel, the utilization of U F 6 as volume source o ionization, search of active laser media compatible with U F 6 that is complicated by lack of constant rates data for most of plasma-chemical reactions with U F 6 and his dissociation products. Cylindrical probe volt-ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in U F 6 plasma at pressure 20 Torr and different thermal neutron fluxes and have following features: -firstly, it is possible to choose a linear part in the field of small positive potentials of probe (0-1) V; - secondary, ion branches of VAC have typical break which current of satiation corresponds to; -thirdly, probe VAC measured at small values of thermal neutron flux density are symmetrical. Diagnostics approaches were used for interpretation VAC of probe. The values of satiation current and linear part of electron branch were calculated, and such plasma parameters as conductivity, diffusion coefficient values of positive and negative ions were determined. The resonance recharge cross section was estimated on diffusion coefficient value

  19. Reaction product of pyrogallol with methyl linoleate and its antioxidant potential for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, H.; Ainny, L.; Lukman; Susanto, B. H.; Nasikin, M.

    2018-03-01

    The demand of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is increasing due to fossil fuel depletion. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel in the form of fatty acid methyl ester or FAME as a result of an esterification of plant oils in a presence of catalyst. Compared to the conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel is more biodegradable, has higher lubricity, and lower toxic emissions. However, the high content of unsaturated fatty acid leads to a problem that biodiesel is prone to oxidation during storage period. This oxidation instability causes degradation of fuel quality and will affect engine performance. Pyrogallol and other phenolic derivatives have been used as the antioxidant additives to prevent biodiesel oxidation. As reported in many researches, pyrogallol is one of the best phenolic antioxidant. However, its low solubility in biodiesel needs an attention. Several reports indicate the increasing solubility of pyrogallol using molecule modification with the addition of alkyl groups to its benzene ring via electrophilic substitution. This paper discusses the idea about modification of pyrogallol molecule and methyl linoleate using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in order to increase its solubility in biodiesel while keeping its antioxidant property. Three responses were analyzed to examine the antioxidant activity: iodine value, viscosity, and color intensity. The result shown that the addition of 0.1% reaction product exhibit antioxidant activity in biodiesel.

  20. Induction of the acrosome reaction test to in vitro estimate embryo production in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of induction of the acrosome reaction (AR test as a parameter to in vitro estimate embryo production (IVP in Nelore breed and the AR pattern by the Trypan Blue/Giemsa (TB stain were evaluated. Frozen semen samples from ten Nelore bulls were submitted to AR induction and were also evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst rates. The treatments utilized for AR induction were: control (TALP medium, TH (TALP medium + 10μg heparin, TL (TALP medium + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine and THL (TALP medium + 10μg heparin + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine. Sperm acrosomal status and viability were evaluated by TB staining at 0 and after 4h incubation at 38°C. The results obtained for AR presented a significant difference (P<0.05 in the percentage of acrosome reacted live sperm after 4h of incubation in the treatments that received heparin. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were 60% and 38% respectively and a significant difference was observed among bulls (P<0.05. It was founded a satisfactory model to estimate the cleavage and blastocyst rates by AR induction test. Therefore, it can be concluded that the induction of the AR test is a valuable tool to predict the IVP in Nelore breed.

  1. Humic-like Products Formation via the Reaction of Phenol with Nitrite in Ice Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, D. W.; Choi, W.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the chemical nature of humic substances is very important but the origin of humic substances in nature is not well known. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms leading to the generation of humic substances in nature is of great interests. It is believed that humic substances are produced from the transformation of natural organic matters, like lignin, by biological pathways. Recently, it has been reported that monomer molecules like quinones and sugars could be polymerized with amino compounds to form humic-like substances. This humification process is considered as a possible mechanism of humic substances production in the environment. In this work, we report the first observation on the formation of humic-like substances from the reaction between phenol and nitrite under a frozen state. In aqueous solution, nitrite slowly reacts with phenol, producing phenolic compounds like nitrophenol. Under frozen state, however, phenol reacted rapidly with nitrite and produced diverse organic compounds, like hydroquinone, dimerized phenolic substances, and much bigger molecules such as humic-like substances. The humic-like substances produced in ice are likely caused by the formation of phenolic radical and nitrosonium ion. This work may provide some insights into unknown pathways for the origin of humic substances especially in frozen environments.

  2. Evidence for the Active Phase of Heterogeneous Catalysts through In Situ Reaction Product Imaging and Multiscale Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matera, S.; Blomberg, S.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Zetterberg, J.; Gustafson, J.; Lundgren, E.; Reuter, K.

    2015-06-17

    We use multiscale modeling to analyze laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of the CO oxidation reaction over Pd(100) at near-ambient reaction conditions. Integrating density functional theory-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the active catalyst into fluid-dynamical simulations of the mass transport inside the reactor chamber, we calculate the reaction product concentration directly above the catalyst surface. Comparing corresponding data calculated for different surface models against the measured LIF signals, we can discriminate the one that predominantly actuates the experimentally measured catalytic activity. For the probed CO oxidation reaction conditions, the experimental activity is due to pristine Pd(100) possibly coexisting with other (oxidic) domains on the surface.

  3. Density functional computational studies on the glucose and glycine Maillard reaction: Formation of the Amadori rearrangement products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Roy, Amlan K.; Shipar, Abul Haider; Ahmed, M. Samsuddin

    Theoretical energy changes of various intermediates leading to the formation of the Amadori rearrangement products (ARPs) under different mechanistic assumptions have been calculated, by using open chain glucose (O-Glu)/closed chain glucose (A-Glu and B-Glu) and glycine (Gly) as a model for the Maillard reaction. Density functional theory (DFT) computations have been applied on the proposed mechanisms under different pH conditions. Thus, the possibility of the formation of different compounds and electronic energy changes for different steps in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated. B-Glu has been found to be more efficient than A-Glu, and A-Glu has been found more efficient than O-Glu in the reaction. The reaction under basic condition is the most favorable for the formation of ARPs. Other reaction pathways have been computed and discussed in this work.0

  4. The Ethical Judgment and Moral Reaction to the Product-Harm Crisis: Theoretical Model and Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dual-process theory of ethical judgment, a research model is proposed for examining consumers’ moral reactions to a product-harm crisis. A national-wide survey was conducted with 801 respondents in China. The results of this study indicate that consumers will react to a product-harm crisis through controlled cognitive processing and emotional intuition. The results of the study also show that consumers view a product-harm crisis as an ethical issue, and they will make an ethical judgment according to the perceived severity and perceived relevance of the crisis. The ethical judgment in the perceived crisis severity and perceived crisis relevance will affect consumers’ condemning emotions in terms of contempt and anger. Through controlled cognitive processing, a personal consumption-related reaction (purchasing intention is influenced by the perceived crisis severity. Furthermore, a social and interpersonal reaction (negative word of mouth is influenced by the perceived crisis relevance through the controlled cognitive processing. This social and interpersonal reaction is also influenced by the perceived crisis severity and perceived crisis relevance through the intuition of other-condemning emotion. Moreover, this study finds that the product knowledge negatively moderates the impact of the perceived crisis severity on the condemning emotions. Therefore, when a consumer has a high level of product knowledge, the effect of perceived crisis severity on the condemning emotions will be attenuated, and vice versa. This study provides scholars and managers with means of understanding and handling of consumers’ reactions to a product-harm crisis.

  5. The browning value changes and spectral analysis on the Maillard reaction product from glucose and methionine model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Widayat

    2018-01-01

    D-glucose has been understood to provide the various effect on the reactivity in Maillard reaction resulting in the changes in physical performance of food product. Therefore this research was done to analyse physical appearance of Maillard reaction product made of D-glucose and methionine as a model system. The changes in browning value and spectral analysis model system were determined. The glucose-methionine model system was produced through the heating treatment at 50°C and RH 70% for 24 hours. The data were collected for every three hour using spectrophotometer. As result, browning value was elevated with the increase of heating time and remarkably high if compare to the D-glucose only. Furthermore, the spectral analysis showed that methionine turned the pattern of peak appearance. As conclusion, methionine raised the browning value and changed the pattern of spectral analysis in Maillard reaction model system.

  6. Production of metastable 0sup(+*) in the reaction between He+ and 02 at 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.G.; Rakshit, A.B.; Tichy, M.; Birkinshaw, K.; Twiddy, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction between He + and 0 2 has been studied at 300 K using a selected-ion flow tube apparatus and has been found to produce a significant fraction (approximately 0.3) of metastable 0sup(+*). This has been demonstrated by observing the reaction of 0sup(+*) with CO (for which the ground state 0 + reaction is endoergic). Of the two possible states of 0sup(+*)( 2 D 0 and 20 ) whose formation is exoergic the reaction of 0sup(+*) with H 2 indicates that only 0sup(+*)( 2 D 0 ) is formed. (author)

  7. Characterization of hypersensitivity reactions reported among Andrographis paniculata users in Thailand using Health Product Vigilance Center (HPVC) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Saokaew, Surasak; Permsuwan, Unchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2014-12-24

    Andrographis paniculata (andrographis) is one of the herbal products that are widely used for various indications. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported among subjects receiving Andrographis paniculata in Thailand. Understanding of characteristics of patients, adverse events, and clinical outcomes is essential for ensuring population safety.This study aimed to describe the characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions reported in patients receiving andrographis containing products in Thailand using national pharmacovigilance database. Thai Vigibase data from February 2001 to December 2012 involving andrographis products were used. This database includes the reports submitted through the spontaneous reporting system and intensive monitoring programmes. The database contained patient characteristic, adverse events associated with andrographis products, and details on seriousness, causality, and clinical outcomes. Case reports were included for final analysis if they met the inclusion criteria; 1) reports with andrographis being the only suspected cause, 2) reports with terms consistent with the constellation of hypersensitivity reactions, and 3) reports with terms considered critical terms according to WHO criteria. Descriptive statistics were used. A total of 248 case reports of andrographis-associated adverse events were identified. Only 106 case reports specified andrographis herbal product as the only suspected drug and reported at least one term consistent with constellation of hypersensitivity reactions. Most case reports (89%) came from spontaneous reporting system with no previously documented history of drug allergy (88%). Of these, 18 case reports were classified as serious with 16 cases requiring hospitalization. For final assessment, the case reports with terms consistent with constellation of hypersensitivity reactions and critical terms were included. Thirteen case reports met such criteria including anaphylactic shock (n = 5), anaphylactic

  8. The production of $\\phi , \\omega$ and $\\rho$ mesons in $p$-, $d$-, S- and Pb- induced reactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Jouan, D; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Boraldo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2004-01-01

    From proton, deuteron, S- and Pb-induced reactions, experiments NA38 and NA50 have measured muon pair production with various targets. In particular, the production rates of the phi omega and rho mesons have been simultaneously extracted and compared. Preliminary partial results of the most recent Pb-Pb measurement done in year 2000 by NA50 are presented here. They are also included in the comparison with the results obtained with lighter interacting nuclei. (23 refs).

  9. Detection of Maillard reaction products by a coupled HPLC-Fraction collector technique and FTIR characterization of Cu(II)-complexation with the isolated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Aristos; Daskalakis, Vangelis; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of reaction products of asparagine with reducing sugars at alkaline pH and high temperature has been probed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector. The UV-vis and FTIR spectra of the isolated Maillard reaction products showed structure-sensitive changes as depicted by deamination events and formation of asparagine-saccharide conjugates. The initial reaction species of the Asn-Gluc reaction were also characterized by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. Evidence for Cu (II) metal ion complexation with the Maillard reaction products is supported by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy.

  10. The function of glycine decarboxylase complex is optimized to maintain high photorespiratory flux via buffering of its reaction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykova, Natalia V; Møller, Ian Max; Gardeström, Per

    2014-01-01

    oxidase. We discuss here possible mechanisms of high photorespiratory flux maintenance in mitochondria and suggest that it is fulfilled under conditions where the concentrations of glycine decarboxylase reaction products NADH and CO2 achieve an equilibrium provided by malate dehydrogenase and carbonic...

  11. Effects of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) preparations on the Maillard reaction products in milk and meat-protein model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackauskienea, I.; Pukalskas, A.; Rimantas Venskutonis, P.; Fiore, A.M.; Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of beetroots (Beta vulgaris) on the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products possessing health, nutritional and sensory implications were studied. The effect of dried beetroot juice on the formation of Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Ne-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) was

  12. Modifications in bacterial groups and short chain fatty acid production in the gut of healthy adult rats after long-term consumption of dietary Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Pastoriza de la Cueva, Silvia; Peinado, M Jesús; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Navarro, M Pilar; Rubio, Luis A

    2017-10-01

    Bread crust (BC) is one of the major sources of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the Western diet. This work was designed to analyze the impact of diets containing important levels of MRPs from BC on intestinal bacterial growth and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in adult rats. Additionally, the pools of compounds excreted in feces attending to their molecular weights were analyzed. Rats were fed for 88days a control diet or diets containing BC or its soluble high molecular weight (HMW), soluble low molecular weight (LMW) or insoluble fractions, respectively. Intestinal (cecum) microbiota composition was determined by qPCR analysis. Consumption of the BC diet lowered (PMaillard reaction products are in vivo fermented by the gut microbiota, thereby changing both the pattern of SCFAs production and the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biodiesel production from various oils under supercritical fluid conditions by Candida antartica lipase B using a stepwise reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kang, Jeong Won; Park, Chulhwan; Tae, Bumseok; Kim, Seung Wook

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effects of various reaction factors, including pressure, temperature, agitation speed, enzyme concentration, and water content to increase biodiesel production. In addition, biodiesel was produced from various oils to establish the optimal enzymatic process of biodiesel production. Optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure 130 bar, temperature 45 degrees C, agitation speed 200 rpm, enzyme concentration 20%, and water contents 10%. Among the various oils used for production, olive oil showed the highest yield (65.18%) upon transesterification. However, when biodiesel was produced using a batch system, biodiesel conversion yield was not increased over 65%; therefore, a stepwise reaction was conducted to increase biodiesel production. When a reaction medium with an initial concentration of methanol of 60 mmol was used and adjusted to maintain this concentration of methanol every 1.5 h during biodiesel production, the conversion yield of biodiesel was 98.92% at 6 h. Finally, reusability was evaluated using immobilized lipase to determine if this method was applicable for industrial biodiesel production. When biodiesel was produced repeatedly, the conversion rate was maintained at over 85% after eight reuses.

  14. Conventional proximity effect in bilayers of superconducting underdoped $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands coated with non superconducting overdoped $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, G.; Millo, O.

    2009-01-01

    Following a recent study by our group in which a large $T_c$ enhancement was reported in bilayers of the non-superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$ and superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ films [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{101}, 057005 (2008)], we checked if a similar effect occurs when superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands are coated with a continuous layer of the non superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$. We found that no such phenomenon is observed. The bare supercond...

  15. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Some Parameters on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suryanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of reaction time and NaOH catalyst in transesterification of coconut oil enhanced by microwave and to obtain a biodiesel. Reaction was conducted in batch reactor which equipped by microwave. Coconut oil contains saturated fatty acids about 70% with medium chain (C8-C14, especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The reaction was initiated by mixing oil and methanol with oil to methanol mole ratios of 1:3, 1:6, 1:9 and 1:12, catalyst concentration of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 wt.%, as well as setting electrical power at 100, 264 and 400 W. The reaction times were of  0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 min. The result showed that microwave could be employed as an energy source and was able to accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel using NaOH catalyst. The biodiesel yields increase with increasing microwave power. The highest yield of biodiesel obtained  was of  97.37%  with reaction conditions set at 0.2 wt.% catalyst, a reaction time of 2 min, molar ratio of methanol to oil 1:9 and microwave power of 400 watt. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 15th January 2015; Revised: 10th March 2015; Accepted: 15th March 2015How to Cite: Suryanto, A., Suprapto, S., Mahfud, M. (2015. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Reaction Time on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 162-168. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8080.162-168 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8080.162-168 

  16. Design and Integration for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil via Transesterification Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Abbaspour Aghdam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biodiesel is Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME which is used as a renewable fuel in diesel engines. Extraction of lipid from various flora sources, including Sunflower, Palm, Canola or animal oils, with a Trans-Esterification reaction between alcohol and Triglyceride (TG, leads to production of Biodiesel and Glycerin. The production cost of biodiesel is so important that is now considered as the greatest obstacle during scale-up process. In this research, a model-type of biodiesel production unit (using vegetable oil source, was designed by Aspen HYSYS V7.2 software, then a great deal of the attempt was employed to optimize the overall yield against the processing parameters including: mass and energy consumption load, as well as some technical discussion regarding associated apparatuses. Materials and Methods Process Design The simulation was carried out using Aspen HYSYS V7.2 employing Triolein (as TG, Oleic acid (as Free Fatty Acid (FFA, and Oleat as biodiesel. Avoiding side-stream reactions as well as trans-esterification, the FFA content was taken to a mere 0.05% (%mass. Feed stream was considered as product of NaOH-catalyzed bi-reactor system operating at 60˚C and 1 atm with the overall conversion of 70% using two series reactors. The ratio of TG to Alcohol is 1:3, however, owing to establish an appropriate reactor performance; this ratio was applied as 1:6 practically. The design was mainly intended to produce 480 m3d-1 biodiesel with mass concentration of 99.65%. Methanol was used in this investigation due to low cost, accessibility and handling considerations. NRTL was taken as the Equation of State (EOS for the process and should be used PRSV equation in the decanter. Thermal Integration Energy consumption was taken into account as basis of optimization in this study. Table 2 demonstrates the thermal characteristics of all streams consist of source and down-streams, while outlet stream like glycerol streams were neglected to

  17. Multi-reaction-channel fitting calculations in a coupled-channel model : Photoinduced strangeness production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Usov, A.

    To describe photo- and meson-induced reactions on the nucleon, one is faced with a rather extensive coupled-channel problem Ignoring the effects of channel coupling, as one would do in describing a certain reaction at the tree level; invariably creates a large inconsistency between the different

  18. A model for void-induced back reaction between radiolytic products in NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A.A.; Dubinko, V.I.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den

    A kinetic model is formulated for the chemical reaction between radiolytic sodium colloids and gas bubbles, which are brought into contact with each other during the exposure to ionising radiation by the growing voids. The reaction starts with the evaporation of Na atoms into the void due to the

  19. An Improved Decision Tree for Predicting a Major Product in Competing Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kate J.

    2014-01-01

    When organic chemistry students encounter competing reactions, they are often overwhelmed by the task of evaluating multiple factors that affect the outcome of a reaction. The use of a decision tree is a useful tool to teach students to evaluate a complex situation and propose a likely outcome. Specifically, a decision tree can help students…

  20. On light cluster production in nucleon induced reactions at intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Blideanu, V.; Durand, D

    2004-09-01

    A dynamical model dedicated to nucleon induced reaction between 30-150 MeV is presented. It considers different stages of the reaction: the approaching phase, the in-medium nucleon-nucleon collisions, the cluster formation and the secondary de-excitation process. The notions of influence area and phase-space exploration during the reaction are introduced. The importance of the geometry of the reaction and of the conservation laws are underlined. The model is able to globally reproduce the absolute cross sections for the emission of neutron and light charged particles for proton and neutron induced reactions on heavy and intermediate mass targets ({sup 56}Fe and {sup 208}Pb). (authors)